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Sample records for intracranial aneurysms evaluation

  1. Intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Puskar, G; Ruggieri, P M

    1995-08-01

    MR angiography provides a rapid, accurate, and extremely flexible noninvasive evaluation of intracranial aneurysms without the cost and risk of conventional angiography. TOF and phase contrast techniques each have specific advantages and disadvantages that can be selectively exploited to optimize aneurysm evaluation. Present indications for MR angiography in aneurysm evaluation include: (1) the presence of incidental findings on a CT or MR examination that suggest the possibility of aneurysm (Figs. 7 and 8), (2) when angiography is contraindicated or when the risk is too high, (3) non-invasive follow-up of patients with known aneurysms, (4) patient refusal of contrast angiography, and (5) evaluation of patients with specific clinical symptoms (i.e., third cranial nerve palsy) or patients with non-specific subacute symptoms in whom an aneurysm might explain the clinical presentation. Although MR angiography certainly can detect aneurysms with a high rate of sensitivity and specificity, detailed decision analyses generally have not supported the overall benefit of this type of screening. Future technical advances as well as advances in the overall understanding of aneurysms may one day prove unequivocally the benefit of MR angiography in screening high-risk patient groups. MR angiography has not yet been clinically evaluated as a tool in the evaluation of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Potential obstacles to such an evaluation include the clinical instability of SAH patients, limited spatial resolution of the MR angiography acquisitions, the potential for subarachnoid blood or focal intraparenchymal hematomas to obscure or mimic small aneurysms, and the unreliability of MR angiography in demonstrating vasospasm. Currently these factors continue to provide an integral role for contrast angiography in aneurysm evaluation.

  2. Intracranial vessel wall imaging for evaluation of steno-occlusive diseases and intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Mossa-Basha, Mahmud; Huston, John; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Lehman, Vance T

    2017-03-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases have traditionally been classified, diagnosed and managed based on their luminal characteristics. However, over the past several years, several advancements in MRI techniques have ushered in high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI), enabling evaluation of intracranial vessel wall pathology. These advancements now allow us to differentiate diseases which have a common angiographic appearance but vastly different natural histories (i.e. moyamoya versus atherosclerosis, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome versus vasculitis, stable versus unstable intracranial aneurysms). In this review, we detail the anatomical, histopathological and imaging characteristics of various intracranial steno-occlusive diseases and types of intracranial aneurysms and describe the role that HR-VWI can play in diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment.

  3. Highly accelerated intracranial 4D flow MRI: evaluation of healthy volunteers and patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Koskas, Louise; Faraji, Farshid; Kao, Evan; Wang, Yan; Haraldsson, Henrik; Kefayati, Sarah; Zhu, Chengcheng; Ahn, Sinyeob; Laub, Gerhard; Saloner, David

    2017-08-07

    To evaluate an accelerated 4D flow MRI method that provides high temporal resolution in a clinically feasible acquisition time for intracranial velocity imaging. Accelerated 4D flow MRI was developed by using a pseudo-random variable-density Cartesian undersampling strategy (CIRCUS) with the combination of k-t, parallel imaging and compressed sensing image reconstruction techniques (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Four-dimensional flow data were acquired on five healthy volunteers and eight patients with intracranial aneurysms using CIRCUS (acceleration factor of R = 4, termed CIRCUS4) and GRAPPA (R = 2, termed GRAPPA2) as the reference method. Images with three times higher temporal resolution (R = 12, CIRCUS12) were also reconstructed from the same acquisition as CIRCUS4. Qualitative and quantitative image assessment was performed on the images acquired with different methods, and complex flow patterns in the aneurysms were identified and compared. Four-dimensional flow MRI with CIRCUS was achieved in 5 min and allowed further improved temporal resolution of <30 ms. Volunteer studies showed similar qualitative and quantitative evaluation obtained with the proposed approach compared to the reference (overall image scores: GRAPPA2 3.2 ± 0.6; CIRCUS4 3.1 ± 0.7; CIRCUS12 3.3 ± 0.4; difference of the peak velocities: -3.83 ± 7.72 cm/s between CIRCUS4 and GRAPPA2, -1.72 ± 8.41 cm/s between CIRCUS12 and GRAPPA2). In patients with intracranial aneurysms, the higher temporal resolution improved capturing of the flow features in intracranial aneurysms (pathline visualization scores: GRAPPA2 2.2 ± 0.2; CIRCUS4 2.5 ± 0.5; CIRCUS12 2.7 ± 0.6). The proposed rapid 4D flow MRI with a high temporal resolution is a promising tool for evaluating intracranial aneurysms in a clinically feasible acquisition time.

  4. Mouse models of intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Emeto, Theophilus I; Lee, James; Marshman, Laurence; Moran, Corey; Seto, Sai-wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a highly lethal medical condition. Current management strategies for unruptured intracranial aneurysms involve radiological surveillance and neurosurgical or endovascular interventions. There is no pharmacological treatment available to decrease the risk of aneurysm rupture and subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage. There is growing interest in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm focused on the development of drug therapies to decrease the incidence of aneurysm rupture. The study of rodent models of intracranial aneurysms has the potential to improve our understanding of intracranial aneurysm development and progression. This review summarizes current mouse models of intact and ruptured intracranial aneurysms and discusses the relevance of these models to human intracranial aneurysms. The article also reviews the importance of these models in investigating the molecular mechanisms involved in the disease. Finally, potential pharmaceutical targets for intracranial aneurysm suggested by previous studies are discussed. Examples of potential drug targets include matrix metalloproteinases, stromal cell-derived factor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, the renin-angiotensin system and the β-estrogen receptor. An agreed clear, precise and reproducible definition of what constitutes an aneurysm in the models would assist in their use to better understand the pathology of intracranial aneurysm and applying findings to patients.

  5. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, L N; Singh, S N

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms in the paediatric age group is extremely rare. Interestingly, occurrence of vasospasm has been reported to be less in comparison to the adults. Both coiling and clipping have been advocated in selected cases. Because of the thinness of the wall of the arteries, utmost care should be taken while handling these arteries during surgery. The overall results of surgery in children have been reported to be better than their adult counterparts. We present four such cases from our own experience. All these children were operated upon, where the solitary aneurysm in each case was clipped and all of them made a good recovery.

  6. Comparative evaluation of genome-wide gene expression profiles in ruptured and unruptured human intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Enrico; Vignati, A; Albanese, A; Nucci, C G; Sabatino, G; Tirpakova, B; Lofrese, G; Zelano, G; Maira, G

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the over or the underexpression of genes directly in samples of aneurysmal wall and extracranial pericranial vascular tissue to investigate the genetic influence in formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. We present the results obtained using the DNA microarray technique analysis on sample tissues collected during surgery. We collected and analyzed 12 aneurismal and 9 peripheral arteries (superficial temporal (STA) and middle meningeal artery (MMA) specimens from ruptured aneurysm group patients (13 cases), 10 aneurismal and 12 STA and MMA samples from unruptured aneurysm group patients (14 cases) and 5 STA and MMA artery specimens from control group patients (4 cases). Total RNA was isolated from samples and subjected to cDNA microarray analysis with the use of the human genome U133A GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), which allows to analyze a total number of 14,500 genes in the same time. For genes of interest, real-time RT-PCR was performed to confirm their expression level. Total RNA was isolated from samples and subjected to DNA microarray analysis with the use of the human genome U133A GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray, which allows to analyze a total number of 14,500 genes at the same time. For genes of interest, real-time RT-PCR was performed to confirm their expression level. Regarding ruptured aneurysms, genes were identified showing differential expressions (overexpressed or downregulated) pertaining to specific pathways, particularly those for the structural proteins of the extracellular matrix, members of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (which resulted as being overexpressed) and genes involved in apoptotic phenomena. Particularly, real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed the upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and pro-apoptotic genes, such as Fas, Bax and Bid, and the downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2. In a compared analyses of ruptured vs unruptured

  7. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, J.; Guillemin, F.; Proust, F.; Molyneux, A.J.; Fox, A.J.; Claiborne, J.S.; Meder, J.-F.; Rouleau, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The preventive treatment of unruptured aneur­ysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blin­ding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem. PMID:20557790

  8. 3-T contrast-enhanced MR angiography in evaluation of suspected intracranial aneurysm: comparison with MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Nael, Kambiz; Villablanca, J Pablo; Mossaz, Léonard; Pope, Whitney; Juncosa, Alex; Laub, Gerhard; Finn, J Paul

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate a high-spatial-resolution contrast-enhanced 3-T MR angiography protocol for detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms and to compare the results with those of MDCT angiography. Forty-one patients with suspected intracranial aneurysm underwent high-spatial-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography and CT angiography (CTA). With a generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition algorithm with an acceleration factor of 4 at 3 T, contrast-enhanced MR angiographic images were acquired over 20 seconds with a spatial-resolution of 0.7 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm. CTA images were acquired with a spatial resolution of 0.35 x 0.35 x 0.8 mm on a 16-MDCT scanner in 17 seconds. The images from the two studies were evaluated independently by two neuroradiologists for image quality, presence of aneurysm, and characterization of aneurysm. The dimensions of the aneurysm were measured independently with both techniques. A total of 25 aneurysms were identified with both contrast-enhanced MR angiography and CTA. A comparative analysis of detection and depiction of aneurysms showed excellent interobserver agreement for both contrast-enhanced MR angiography (kappa = 0.81) and CTA (kappa = 0.91) images. There was significant correlation between the techniques for both qualitative assessment of aneurysm depiction (rho = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.95) and quantitative dimensional measurement of aneurysm size (r = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). Contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3 T is reliable for evaluation and characterization of intracranial aneurysms. The results are comparable with those of MDCTA.

  9. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xun; Xu, Tao; Ding, Xuan; Wang, Wenlei; Liu, Zhi; Qin, Huaihai

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated the results of endovascular embolization of multiple intracranial aneurysms. A retrospective hospital chart and radiograph review were made of all patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms seen between March 2010 and January 2011. Ten patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, four with mass effect, two with brain ischemia and twenty were incidental. These 36 patients harbored 84 aneurysms, 63 of which were treated with endovascular techniques, two by surgical clipping, and 19 were left untreated. Of the coil-treated lesions, a complete endovascular occlusion was achieved in 54 aneurysms (85.7%), and eight (12.7%) presented neck remnants with one (1.6%) stented only. Twenty-six patients (72.2%) underwent coil embolization of more than one aneurysm in the first session. Follow-up angiographic studies in 31 patients demonstrated an unchanged or improved result in 93.0% of the aneurysms (53 lesions) and coil compaction in 7.0% (four lesions). The overall clinical outcome was excellent in 33 patients (91.7%), good in one (2.8%) and fair in two (5.5%). Endovascular techniques may be a particularly suitable method for treating multiple intracranial aneurysms. PMID:25207907

  10. Evaluation of intracranial aneurysms with CT angiography: current status and future direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yutaka; Sickels, William; Quets, Jerome; Crosby, Daniel; Chang, Shereen; Cook-Granroth, Janice; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1997-05-01

    Purpose: To develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of intracranial aneurysm geometry using volumetric data obtained by CT angiography. Materials and methods: A simple model of lateral saccular aneurysm was created. Three models were prepared with different size of aneurysm sac and neck. Volumetric data was acquired using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical scanner. Geometry of an aneurysm model obtained by workstation linked to the scanner applying volume rendering display and dedicated UNIX based computer applying MPR based method. These results were compared with actual caliper measurements of the model. A clinical case of lateral aneurysm arising from the supraclinoid internal carotid artery was also studied. Results: Both the volume rendered image based method and MPR based method provided accurate geometric information of an aneurysm sac and its neck. Conclusions: Volume rendering technique requires editing by a well-informed operator and subjective, while the MPR based method is more objective and better suited for quantitative analysis. Using these mutually complimentary tools, critical geometric information of an aneurysm can be extracted from volumetric data provided by CTA.

  11. Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms. The Technology Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons. Background Intracranial Aneurysms Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks. Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility. Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds

  12. Intracranial, intradural aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Afnan, Jalil; Snuderl, Matija; Small, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, blood-filled, osteolytic lesions with internal septations that may be intraosseous or extraosseous. The cysts may cause local mass effect, and changes in the regional vascular supply necessitating intervention. A case of an intracranial, intradural ABC in a young male patient with progressively severe headaches is presented. This is only the third recorded intradural case, the majority of these rare lesions being extracranial and only a minute fraction intracranial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment Strategies for Intracranial Mirror Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xin; Xue, Zhe; Li, Lin; Wu, Chen; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Lou, Xin; Ma, Lin; Sun, Zheng-Hui

    2017-04-01

    Intracranial mirror aneurysms are clinically rare and uncommonly reported in the literature. Therefore, the present study evaluated a series of mirror aneurysm cases with respect to the clinical features of the patients and the treatment strategies that were used. This study retrospectively reviewed and systematically analyzed the clinical features, imaging data, treatment methods, and treatment outcomes of 68 cases of mirror aneurysms (a total of 70 pairs) in patients who were admitted to our department between November 2007 and May 2016. The patient population included 24 male and 44 female patients, with a mean age of 52 years. The mirror aneurysms were primarily located in posterior communicating artery and middle cerebral artery and 65 of the aneurysms were large or giant (≧10 mm). Of the 68 patients, 28 were treated by the clipping or embolization of all aneurysms in one stage, 16 were treated in 2 stages, 16 were treated by treating part of the aneurysms, and 8 were observed. The modified Rankin Scale scores of the 60 patients that were treated indicated that 52 had a good recovery (modified Rankin Scale score ≦2; 86.7%), and 1 patient died. Treatment strategies for mirror aneurysms should be determined individually according to the location, size, and morphology of the aneurysm, as well as the clinical manifestations of each patient. Furthermore, the responsible ruptured aneurysm should be given treatment priority, whereas the contralateral unruptured aneurysm should be observed or treated in either 1 or 2 stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-session Coil Embolization of Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Keun

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is no clear treatment strategy for the management of multiple intracranial aneurysms because of variable anatomical distribution, difficult identification of the aneurysm ruptured, and poor overall outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of single-session coil embolization for multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods Between September 2008 and December 2012, 209 aneurysms in 117 patients were treated at our institute. Twenty eight among the 117 patients had multiple aneurysms with a total of 71, and 60 of the 71 aneurysms underwent coil embolization in a single-session. Results A total of 60 aneurysms were treated with a single-session coil embolization, of which the most frequent locations were in the posterior communicating artery, followed by the middle cerebral artery. Immediate post-embolization angiographies showed total occlusion in 49 (81.7%) aneurysms, remnant neck in 6 (10%), and body-filling in 5 (8.3%). Procedure-related complications had developed in 2 (3.3%) of the 60 embolized aneurysms: an asymptomatic thromboembolic event, and a partial coil protrusion without a subsequent thromboembolic complication. Conclusion With careful evaluation of individual aneurysm characteristics and configuration, multiple intracranial aneurysms previously thought to require multimodality therapy can be safely treated in a single-session coil embolization. PMID:24167798

  15. Intra-aneurysmal microcatheter looping technique for stent-assisted embolization of complex intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C-C; Lv, N; Feng, Z-Z; Li, Z-F; Zhao, R; Li, Q; Liu, J-M

    2015-01-01

    The endovascular treatment of wide-necked, large and giant aneurysms remains challenging. This retrospective study investigated the feasibility and safety of an intra-aneurysmal microcatheter looping technique for stent-assisted embolization of complicated intracranial aneurysms. This technique was used for 31 patients with complicated cerebral aneurysms from January 2007 to November 2013. The clinical and angiographic results were retrospectively evaluated. The target aneurysms were successfully treated in all cases (100%). A flow diverter was used in seven procedures. There were no aneurysmal perforations or ischemic complications, except for a microguidewire perforation of the distal vessel in one case. Among the 24 cases with conventional stent-assisted embolization, complete embolization or neck residual was obtained in 21 cases. Partial occlusion occurred in three cases. In conclusion, the intra-aneurysmal microcatheter looping technique is a safe and feasible alternative treatment of complicated intracranial aneurysms. This approach is a reasonable choice for patients and leads to successful outcomes. PMID:26179063

  16. Subject-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebral, Juan R.; Hernandez, Monica; Frangi, Alejandro; Putman, Christopher; Pergolizzi, Richard; Burgess, James

    2004-04-01

    Characterization of the blood flow patterns in cerebral aneurysms is important to explore possible correlations between the hemodynamics conditions and the morphology, location, type and risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms. For this purpose, realistic patient-specific models are constructed from computed tomography angiography and 3D rotational angiography image data. Visualizations of the distribution of hemodynamics forces on the aneurysm walls as well as the intra-aneurysmal flow patterns are presented for a number of cerebral aneurysms of different sizes, types and locations. The numerical models indicate that there are different classes of intra-aneurysmal flow patterns, that may carry different risks of rupture.

  17. Spontaneous thrombosis in giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M

    1982-01-01

    Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images PMID:7175528

  18. Endoscope-Assisted Microneurosurgery for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato J.; Di Cola, Francesco; Raysi Dehcordi, Soheila; Ricci, Alessandro; De Paulis, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endovascular techniques has widely changed the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However surgery still represent the best therapeutic option in case of broad-based and complex lesions. The combined use of endoscopic and microsurgical techniques (EAM) may improve surgical results. Objective: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the advantages and limits of EAM for intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2012, 173 patients, harboring 206 aneurysms were surgically treated in our department with the EAM technique. One hundred and fifty-seven aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 49 were in the posterior circulation. Standard tailored approaches, based on skull base surgery principles, were chosen. The use of the endoscope included three steps: initial inspection, true operative time, and final inspection. For each procedure, an intraoperative video and an evaluation schedule were prepared, to report surgeons’ opinions about the technique itself. In the first cases, we always used the endoscope during surgical procedures in order to get an adequate surgical training. Afterwards we became aware in selecting cases in which to apply the endoscopy, as we started to become familiar with its advantages and limits. Results: After clipping, all patients were undergone postoperative cerebral angiography. No surgical mortality related to EAM were observed. Complications directly related to endoscopic procedures were rare. Conclusion: Our retrospective study suggests that endoscopic efficacy for aneurysms is only scarcely influenced by the preoperative clinical condition (Hunt–Hess grade), surgical timing, presence of blood in the cisterns (Fisher grade) and/or hydrocephalus. However the most important factors contributing to the efficacy of EAM are determined by the anatomical locations and sizes of the lesions. Furthermore, the advantages are especially evident using dedicated scopes and holders, after an

  19. Invasive intracranial arterial pressure monitoring during endovascular cerebral aneurysms embolization for cerebral perfusion evaluation.

    PubMed

    Netlyukh, Andriy M; Shevaga, Volodymyr M; Yakovenko, Leonid M; Payenok, Angelika V; Salo, Victor M; Kobyletskiy, Oleg Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define a method of estimation of cerebral blood flow by a determination of parameters of the hemodynamics during neuroendovascular procedures. Materials and Methods. Extracranial and intracranial mean arterial pressure (MAP) was invasively monitored with the help of a transducing system during an endovascular coiling procedure in 19 patients. The measurements were performed at the tip of the guiding catheter and microcatheter placed into internal carotid artery (ICA) C1 segments and of the microcatheter placed into C4 ICA segments, at different stages of the aneurysm repair. Results. As measured, the diameter of the ICA in the C1 and C4 segments did not differ substantially. MAP in the ICA was determined to be 91.2 ± 9.6 mmHg in the skull cavity, and 102.4 ± 6.3 mmHg outside of the skull cavity, with an average difference of 9.2 ± 3.0 mmHg. Conclusion. The difference in MAP, as measured in the ICA outside and inside the skull cavity, was ascribed to the influence of intracranial pressure. Further investigation is required to check the accuracy of invasive intra-arterial pressure recording for an objective and direct measurement of the cerebral perfusion in reference to the intracranial pressure level.

  20. Multislice computerized tomography angiography in the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms: a comparison with intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, Max; Uske, Antoine; Chalaron, Marc; Regli, Luca; Maeder, Philippe; Meuli, Reto; Schnyder, Pierre; Binaghi, Stefano

    2003-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of computerized tomography (CT) angiography performed with the aid of multislice technology (MSCT angiography) in the investigation of intracranial aneurysms, by comparing this method with intraarterial digital subtraction (IADS) angiography. Fifty consecutive adult patients, who successively underwent MSCT angiography (four rows) and IADS angiography of intracranial vessels, were prospectively identified. The MSCT angiography studies consisted of 1.25-mm slices, with 0.8-mm reconstruction intervals, a pitch of 0.75, and timing determined by a test bolus. Two neuroradiologists, who were blinded to the initial interpretation of the MSCT angiograms as well as to those of the IADS angiograms, independently reviewed the MSCT angiograms for the detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms. Forty-nine intracranial aneurysms were identified in 40 patients; 33 of these lesions were responsible for subarachnoid hemorrhage. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MSCT angiography in the detection of intracranial aneurysms were 94.8, 95.2, and 94.9%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis and 99, 95.2, and 98.3%, respectively, on a per-patient basis. Interobserver agreement was 98%. There was an excellent correlation between aneurysm size assessed using MSCT angiography and that determined by IADS angiography (slope = 0.916, r = 0.877, p < 0.001); however, 2 mm stood as the cutoff size below which the sensitivity of MSCT angiography was statistically lower. That method displayed great accuracy in characterizing the morphological characteristics of the aneurysm. Multislice CT angiography is an accurate and robust noninvasive screening test for intracranial aneurysms. It performs better than that reported for single-slice CT angiography. Introduction of eight- and especially 16-row MSCT angiography will provide further progression through thinner slices, a lower pitch, and a purely arterial phase.

  1. The combined approach to intracranial aneurysm treatment.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Brian L; Riina, Howard A

    2009-12-01

    A consecutive series of patients with intracranial aneurysms in the practice of one neurovascular surgeon was retrospectively reviewed to illustrate that one physician can become proficient in microneurosurgery as well as endovascular surgery and achieve favorable outcomes in both disciplines. This supports one model of training for cerebrovascular surgeons that includes the complimentary practice of open microneurovascular surgery with endovascular surgery. The senior author (HAR) treated 351 patients with 413 aneurysms between July 2001 and March 2007. Of these, 172 patients (216 aneurysms) were treated with open microneurosurgical techniques and 179 patients (197 aneurysms) were treated using endovascular techniques. Complete obliteration was attained in 94.3% of clipped aneurysms, and 61.9% and 65.9% of coiled aneurysms immediately and after at least 6 months of follow-up, respectively. At latest evaluation, 93% of endovascular patients and 90% of microneurosurgical patients had good clinical outcomes (GOS, 4 or 5; mean follow-up, 23 months; combines ruptured and unruptured cohorts). Procedure-related mortality included 1 surgical patient and 2 endovascular patients. Because the fields of microvascular and endovascular surgeries are both technically complex, there has been concern that hybrid cerebrovascular surgeons cannot perform each technique with the skill necessary to achieve good outcomes. When compared to clipping and coiling reviews in the neurosurgical literature, we illustrate that one hybrid neurovascular surgeon is capable of attaining great facility in both techniques and that this type of physician will represent one practice model of cerebrovascular specialist in the future. This has potential implications for the training of hybrid cerebrovascular surgeons. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Elastase-induced intracranial aneurysms in hypertensive mice

    PubMed Central

    Nuki, Yoshitsugu; Tsou, Tsung-Ling; Kurihara, Chie; Kanematsu, Miyuki; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Hashimoto, Tomoki

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of formation and growth of intracranial aneurysms are poorly understood. To investigate the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms, an animal model of intracranial aneurysm yielding high incidence of large aneurysm formation within a short incubation period is needed. We combined two well-known clinical factors associated with human intracranial aneurysms—hypertension and the degeneration of elastic lamina— to induce intracranial aneurysm formation in mice. Roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this model were investigated utilizing doxycycline, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, and MMP knockout mice. Hypertension was induced by continuous infusion of angiotensin-II for two weeks. The disruption of elastic lamina was achieved by a single stereotaxic injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid at the right basal cistern. 77% of the mice that received 35 milli-units of elastase and 1000 ng/kg/min angiotensin-II developed intracranial aneurysms in two weeks. There were dose-dependent effects of elastase and angiotensin-II on the incidence of aneurysms. Histologically, intracranial aneurysms observed in this model closely resembled human intracranial aneurysms. Doxycycline, a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor, reduced the incidence of aneurysm to 10%. MMP-9 knockout mice, but not MMP-2 knockout mice, had reduced the incidence of intracranial aneurysms. In summary, a stereotaxic injection of elastase into the basal cistern in hypertensive mice resulted in intracranial aneurysms that closely resembled human intracranial aneurysms. The intracranial aneurysm formation in this model appeared to be dependent on MMP activation. PMID:19884566

  3. A method for semi-automatic segmentation and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms in bone-subtraction computed tomography angiography (BSCTA) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Susanne; Ditt, Hendrik; Biermann, Christina; Lell, Michael; Keller, Jörg

    2009-02-01

    The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm has dramatic consequences for the patient. Hence early detection of unruptured aneurysms is of paramount importance. Bone-subtraction computed tomography angiography (BSCTA) has proven to be a powerful tool for detection of aneurysms in particular those located close to the skull base. Most aneurysms though are chance findings in BSCTA scans performed for other reasons. Therefore it is highly desirable to have techniques operating on standard BSCTA scans available which assist radiologists and surgeons in evaluation of intracranial aneurysms. In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for segmentation and assessment of intracranial aneurysms. The only user-interaction required is placement of a marker into the vascular malformation. Termination ensues automatically as soon as the segmentation reaches the vessels which feed the aneurysm. The algorithm is derived from an adaptive region-growing which employs a growth gradient as criterion for termination. Based on this segmentation values of high clinical and prognostic significance, such as volume, minimum and maximum diameter as well as surface of the aneurysm, are calculated automatically. the segmentation itself as well as the calculated diameters are visualised. Further segmentation of the adjoining vessels provides the means for visualisation of the topographical situation of vascular structures associated to the aneurysm. A stereolithographic mesh (STL) can be derived from the surface of the segmented volume. STL together with parameters like the resiliency of vascular wall tissue provide for an accurate wall model of the aneurysm and its associated vascular structures. Consequently the haemodynamic situation in the aneurysm itself and close to it can be assessed by flow modelling. Significant values of haemodynamics such as pressure onto the vascular wall, wall shear stress or pathlines of the blood flow can be computed. Additionally a dynamic flow model can be

  4. Treatment of Giant Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lv, X.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We report on report the clinical outcome obtained in treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms (GAs). Between 2005 and 2007, 51 patients with 51 GAs presented at our hospital. Twentynine were treated with primary parent vessel occlusion without distal bypass and ten underwent treatment preserving the parent artery. Twelve patients could not be treated endovascularly. Selective embolization (including two remodeling techniques and two stent-coil embolizations) resulted in only one cure. Two patients died as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage periprocedurely. Twenty-nine patients treated primarily with parent vessel occlusion and three patients treated with covered stent were considered cured after their treatments. Only one patient treated with parent vessel occlusion experienced ischemia during follow-up, which resulted in a mild neurological deficit. Of the twelve patients who could not be treated endovascularly, one succumbed to surgery, four died while being treated conservatively, and three were lost to follow-up. Parent artery occlusion, covered stent and coil occlusion provide effective protection against bleeding. In treatment of paraclinoid GAs of the internal carotid artery, the use of a stent, and stent-assisted coil embolization may be a pitfall. PMID:20465907

  5. [Genetic dissection of intracranial aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Onda, Hideaki; Yoneyama, Taku; Akagawa, Hiroyuki; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2008-11-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a devastating condition with high mortality and morbidity. Genetic as well as environment factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of SAH and IAs. We review the present knowledge on the genetic factors responsible for SAH or IAs. Linkage analysis and association study are used for genetic dissection. Genome-wide linkage analyses have specified several genetic loci for IAs and 6 loci (1p34-36, 7q11, 11q24-25, 14q22-31, 19q13, and Xp22) have been replicated in different populations. Numerous functional and/or positional candidate genes for IAs have been investigated by case-control association studies. The results of genetic association studies are modest because of small sample sizes. To date, no specific genes have been identified as responsible for IA development or rupture. Recent, large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have revealed consistent and replicable genetic markers of several complex diseases such as coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes. Although, thus far, no GWA studies have been performed for IAs, such a study may accomplish the breakthrough of genetic dissection of IAs. The identification of susceptible genes might lead to the understanding of the mechanism of IA formation or rupture and to novel therapeutic strategies.

  6. [Rupture of previously documented asymptomatic saccular intracranial aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Sakamoto, H; Kishi, H; Komiyama, M; Iwai, Y; Yamanaka, K; Nishikawa, M; Nakajima, H

    1997-08-01

    The authors report four cases of patients with documented asymptomatic intact aneurysms that subsequently ruptured. Case 1 involves a 64-year-old woman who had two unruptured aneurysms, i.e., an anterior communicating artery aneurysm and a posterior inferior cerebellar aneurysm, both were discovered during evaluation of cerebral ischemic symptoms. At that time, only the posterior inferior cerebellar aneurysm was clipped. Seven years later, the patient bled fatally from a 5-mm untreated anterior communicating artery aneurysm that had measured approximately 3 mm on an angiogram obtained 7 years earlier. Case 2 is that of a 50-year-old woman who bled from an anterior communicating artery aneurysm that had been discovered 6 years earlier when she suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. At that time, she had refused surgery for the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. She recovered well from the second SAH. Case 3 is that of a 74-year-old woman who bled from a left paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm that had been discovered incidentally 3 years earlier during evaluation of vertigo. She had not agreed to have a clipping at that time the aneurysm was first discovered because of her age and the difficult location of the aneurysm. She eventually made an uneventful recovery. In the fourth case, during evaluation of cerebral ischemic symptoms, a 59-year-old man was discovered to have a large basilar bifurcation aneurysm. He underwent a craniotomy for clipping of the aneurysm. The aneurysm, however, was unclippable and was instead coated with Bemsheet. Four months later, the patient bled from the aneurysm and entered a vegetative state. The indications for surgery on unruptured asymptomatic cerebral aneurysms are still unclear. The cases reported herein show that asymptomatic aneurysms, especially anterior communicating aneurysms and aneurysms once exposed surgically, do carry a certain risk for future hemorrhage and

  7. Epidemiology and genetics of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Caranci, F; Briganti, F; Cirillo, L; Leonardi, M; Muto, M

    2013-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are acquired lesions (5-10% of the population), a fraction of which rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage with devastating consequences. Until now, the exact etiology of intracranial aneurysms formation remains unclear. The low incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in comparison with the prevalence of unruptured IAs suggests that the vast majority of intracranial aneurysms do not rupture and that identifying those at highest risk is important in defining the optimal management. The most important factors predicting rupture are aneurysm size and site. In addition to ambiental factors (smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and hypertension), epidemiological studies have demonstrated a familiar influence contributing to the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms, with increased frequency in first- and second-degree relatives of people with subarachnoid hemorrhage. In comparison to sporadic aneurysms, familial aneurysms tend to be larger, more often located at the middle cerebral artery, and more likely to be multiple. Other than familiar occurrence, there are several heritable conditions associated with intracranial aneurysm formation, including autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, neurofibromatosis type I, Marfan syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II and IV. The familial occurrence and the association with heritable conditions indicate that genetic factors may play a role in the development of intracranial aneurysms. Genome-wide linkage studies in families and sib pairs with intracranial aneurysms have identified several loci on chromosomes showing suggestive evidence of linkage, particularly on chromosomes 1p34.3-p36.13, 7q11, 19q13.3, and Xp22. For the loci on 1p34.3-p36.13 and 7q11, a moderate positive association with positional candidate genes has been demonstrated (perlecan gene, elastin gene, collagen type 1 A2 gene

  8. Intracranial blister aneurysms: clip reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Daniel L; Pradilla, Gustavo; McCracken, D Jay

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial blister aneurysms are difficult to treat cerebrovascular lesions that typically affect the anterior circulation. These rare aneurysms can lead to acute rupture which usually cannot be treated via endovascular methods, but still require urgent surgical intervention. Surgical options are limited given their unique pathology and often require a combination of wrapping and clip reconstruction. In this video we present two patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured blister aneurysms. We demonstrate several surgical techniques for repairing the vascular defect with and without intraoperative rupture. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/nz-JM45uKQU.

  9. Clinical practice guideline for the management of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Woong; Seo, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sung Tae; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Suh, Sang-Il

    2014-09-01

    An intracranial aneurysm, with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is a relevant health problem. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a critical concern for individual health; even an unruptured intracranial aneurysm is an anxious condition for the individual. The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the management of intracranial aneurysms, with or without rupture. We performed an extensive literature search, using Medline. We met in person to discuss recommendations. This document is reviewed by the Task Force Team of the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology (KSIN). We divided the current guideline for ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). The guideline for RIAs focuses on diagnosis and treatment. And the guideline for UIAs focuses on the definition of a high-risk patient, screening, principle for treatment and selection of treatment method. This guideline provides practical, evidence-based advice for the management of patients with an intracranial aneurysm, with or without rupture.

  10. Evaluation of intracranial aneurysm coil embolization in phantoms and patients using a high resolution microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Jain, Amit; Loughran, Brendan; Swetadri Vasan, S. N.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Levy, Elad; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Hopkins, L. N.; Rudin, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) embolization using Gugliemi Detachable Coils (GDC) under x-ray fluoroscopic guidance is one of the most important neuro-vascular interventions. Coil deposition accuracy is key and could benefit substantially from higher resolution imagers such as the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF). The effect of MAF guidance improvement over the use of standard Flat Panels (FP) is challenging to assess for such a complex procedure. We propose and investigate a new metric, inter-frame cross-correlation sensitivity (CCS), to compare detector performance for such procedures. Pixel (P) and histogram (H) CCS's were calculated as one minus the cross-correlation coefficients between pixel values and histograms for the region of interest at successive procedure steps. IA treatment using GDC's was simulated using an anthropomorphic head phantom which includes an aneurysm. GDC's were deposited in steps of 3 cm and the procedure was imaged with a FP and the MAF. To measure sensitivity to detect progress of the procedure by change in images of successive steps, an ROI was selected over the aneurysm location and pixel-value and histogram changes were calculated after each step. For the FP, after 4 steps, the H and P CCSs between successive steps were practically zero, indicating that there were no significant changes in the observed images. For the MAF, H and P CCSs were greater than zero even after 10 steps (30 cm GDC), indicating observable changes. Further, the proposed quantification method was applied for evaluation of seven patients imaged using the MAF, yielding similar results (H and P CCSs greater than zero after the last GDC deposition). The proposed metric indicates that the MAF can offer better guidance during such procedures.

  11. Intracranial Aneurysms of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Relevance.

    PubMed

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Newman, Nancy J; Barrow, Daniel L; Biousse, Valérie

    2017-06-29

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms are acquired lesions that often present with neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques, endovascular treatments, and neurocritical care have improved the optimal management of symptomatic unruptured aneurysms, but whether the chosen treatment has an impact on neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes remains debated. A review of the literature focused on neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and treatment of intracranial aneurysms with specific relevance to neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Cavernous sinus aneurysms were not included in this review. Surgical clipping vs endovascular coiling for aneurysms causing third nerve palsies was compared in 13 retrospective studies representing 447 patients. Complete recovery was achieved in 78% of surgical patients compared with 44% of patients treated with endovascular coiling. However, the complication rate, hospital costs, and days spent in intensive care were reported as higher in surgically treated patients. Retrospective reviews of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for all ocular motor nerve palsies (third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves) revealed similar results of complete resolution in 76% and 49%, respectively. Improvement in visual deficits related to aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways was also better among patients treated with clipping than with coiling. The time to treatment from onset of visual symptoms was a predictive factor of visual recovery in several studies. Few reports have specifically assessed the improvement of visual deficits after treatment with flow diverters. Decisions regarding the choice of therapy for intracranial aneurysms causing neuro-ophthalmologic signs ideally should be made at high-volume centers with access to both surgical and endovascular treatments. The status of the patient, location of the aneurysm, and experience of the treating physicians

  12. Intracranial aneurysm formation after radiotherapy for medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kamide, Tomoya; Mohri, Masanao; Misaki, Kouichi; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of an intracranial aneurysm after radiotherapy is rare but secondary effect of cranial irradiation in a primary disease treatment. Case Description: The patient was a 17-year-old male adolescent who was diagnosed as having a posterior fossa medulloblastoma when he was 8 years old. He had undergone tumor resection with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm was identified by magnetic resonance imaging 8 years after radiotherapy and grew rapidly throughout the next 1 year. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping and was discharged without deficit. Conclusion: This experience demonstrates that physicians caring for patients who have undergone intracranial radiotherapy should carefully consider the possibility of an aneurysmal formation when conducting follow-up imaging. PMID:27999713

  13. Endoscope-assisted microsurgery for intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kalavakonda, Chandrasekar; Sekhar, Laligam N; Ramachandran, Pranatartiharan; Hechl, Peter

    2002-11-01

    We discuss the role of the endoscope in the microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, analyzing its benefits, risks, and disadvantages. This was a prospective study of 55 patients with 79 aneurysms, treated between July 1998 and June 2001, for whom the endoscope was used as an adjunct in the microsurgical treatment of their lesions. Seventy-one aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation, and eight were located in the posterior circulation. Thirty-seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eighteen patients had unruptured aneurysms, of whom 5 presented with mass effect, 2 presented with transient ischemic attacks, and 11 were without symptoms. In all cases, the endoscope was used in addition to microsurgical dissection and clipping (sometimes before clipping, sometimes during clipping, and always after clipping), for observation of the neck anatomic features and perforators and verification of the optimal clip position. Intraoperative angiography was performed for all patients after aneurysm clipping. In the majority of cases, the endoscope was very useful for the assessment of regional anatomic features. It allowed better observation of anatomic features, compared with the microscope, for 26 aneurysms; in 15 cases, pertinent anatomic information could be obtained only with the endoscope. The duration of temporary clipping of the parent artery was significantly reduced for two patients. The clip was repositioned because of a residual neck or inclusion of the parent vessel during aneurysm clipping in six cases, and the clip position was readjusted because of compression of the optic nerve in one case. One patient experienced a small aneurysm rupture that was directly related to use of the endoscope, but this was easily controlled, with no sequelae. For many patients, the combination of the neuro-endoscope and the micro-Doppler probe made intraoperative angiography redundant. "Endoscope-assisted microsurgery" is a major advance in the

  14. Wall enhancement on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging may predict an unsteady state of an intracranial saccular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Yang, Qi; Wang, Dan-Dan; Guan, Shao-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Qi

    2016-10-01

    The aneurysm wall has been reported to play a critical role in the formation, development, and even rupture of an aneurysm. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI) to investigate the aneurysm wall in an effort to identify evidence of inflammation invasion and define its relationship with aneurysm behavior. Patients with intracranial aneurysms who were prospectively evaluated using HRMRI between July 2013 and June 2014 were enrolled in this study. The aneurysm's wall enhancement and evidence of inflammation invasion were determined. In addition, the relationship between aneurysm wall enhancement and aneurysm size and symptoms, including ruptured aneurysms, giant unruputred intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) presenting as mass effect, progressively growing aneurysms, and aneurysms associated with neurological symptoms, was statistically analyzed. Twenty-five patients with 30 aneurysms were available for the current study. Fourteen aneurysms showed wall enhancement, including 6 ruptured and 8 unruptured aneurysms. Evidence of inflammation was identified directly through histological studies and indirectly through intraoperative investigations and clinical courses. The statistical analysis indicated no significant correlation between aneurysm wall enhancement and aneurysm size. However, there was a strong correlation between wall enhancement and aneurysm symptoms, with a kappa value of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.68-1). Aneurysm wall enhancement on HRMRI might be a sign of inflammatory change. Symptomatic aneurysms exhibited wall enhancement on HRMRI. Wall enhancement had a high consistent correlation of symptomatic aneurysms. Therefore, wall enhancement on HRMRI might predict an unsteady state of an intracranial saccular aneurysm.

  15. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: new and enlarging aneurysms after index aneurysm treatment or observation.

    PubMed

    Hetts, S W; English, J D; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Scanlon, J T; Halbach, V V

    2011-12-01

    Children with brain aneurysms may be at higher risk than adults to develop new or enlarging aneurysms in a relatively short time. We sought to identify comorbidities and angiographic features in children that predict new aneurysm formation or enlargement of untreated aneurysms. Retrospective analysis of the University of California-San Francisco Pediatric Aneurysm Cohort data base including medical records and imaging studies was performed. Of 83 patients harboring 114 intracranial aneurysms not associated with brain arteriovenous malformations or intracranial arteriovenous fistulas, 9 (8.4%) developed new or enlarging brain aneurysms an average of 4.2 years after initial presentation. Comorbidities that may be related to aneurysm formation were significantly higher in patients who developed new aneurysms (89%) as opposed to patients who did not develop new or enlarging aneurysms (41%; RR, 9.5; 95% CI, 1.9%-48%; P = .0099). Patients with multiple aneurysms at initial presentation were more likely than patients with a single aneurysm at presentation to develop a new or enlarging aneurysm (RR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.1%-185; P = .0058). Patients who initially presented with at least 1 fusiform aneurysm were more likely to develop a new or enlarging aneurysm than patients who did not present with a fusiform aneurysm (RR, 22; 95% CI, 3.6%-68%; P = .00050). Index aneurysm treatment with parent artery occlusion also was associated with higher risk of new aneurysm formation (RR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.3%-13%; P = .024). New aneurysms did not necessarily arise near index aneurysms. The only fatality in the series was due to subarachnoid hemorrhage from a new posterior circulation aneurysm arising 20 months after index anterior circulation aneurysm treatment in an immunosuppressed patient. Patients who presented with a fusiform aneurysm had a significantly greater incidence of developing a new aneurysm or enlargement of an index aneurysm than did those who presented with a saccular aneurysm

  16. A systematic review of pipeline embolization device for giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xianli; Ge, Huijian; He, Hongwei; Jiang, Chuhan; Li, Youxiang

    2017-01-01

    The experience with respect to the treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms with flow-diversion devices is limited. The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the effect of the pipeline embolization device (PED) on giant intracranial aneurysms. Eligible related articles were identified by searching the PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, ScienceDirect, and OVID databases using "giant aneurysm" and "pipeline" as the search items. The date of the last search was November 20, 2015. This systematic review adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. In a total of 9 eligible studies with 200 patients and 215 aneurysms, 40 (18.6%) giant (aneurysm diameter >25mm) intracranial aneurysms treated with PED were analyzed. During a 6 to 34 month follow-up, complete occlusion was achieved in 23 (57.5%) cases. Seven patients (17.5%) developed intracranial hemorrhage, 5 developed ischemic attack (12.5%), and 13 (32.5%) developed a mass effect after PED treatment. The complication rate was 77.8% in PED for giant vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms. The cumulative mortality rate for giant paraclinoid carotid artery and middle cerebral artery aneurysms was 13.3% and increased up to 50% for giant vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms. The complete obliteration rate of PED for giant intracranial aneurysms was approximately 60%. Mass effect is the most mechanism of complications. Complication and mortality rates associated with PED for giant vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms are still extremely high.

  17. Growth of giant intracranial aneurysms: An aneurysmal wall disorder?

    PubMed

    Ferracci, F-X; Gilard, V; Cebula, H; Magne, N; Lejeune, J-P; Langlois, O; Proust, F

    2017-03-01

    The enlargement of giant intracranial aneurysms (IA) can be observed in 30 % of cases resulting in a neurological deficit and epilepsy due to its mass effect. This growth process could be due to a morphological disorder of the IA wall. The authors report on 2 cases of giant IA growth responsible for intracranial hypertension. The treatment of these giant IA required a microsurgical excision combined with a series of cerebral revascularization procedures. The role of vasa vasorum on the inflammatory granuloma outside the vessel, which induced the enlargement, is discussed. These cases illustrate the abluminal vasculopathy as the main involvement of this unfavourable natural history.

  18. Progressive intracranial fusiform aneurysms and T-cell immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Piantino, Juan A; Goldenberg, Fernando D; Pytel, Peter; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Ansari, Sameer A

    2013-02-01

    In the pediatric population, intracranial fusiform aneurysms have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and rarely with opportunistic infections related to other immunodeficiencies. The HIV virus and other infectious organisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these aneurysms. We present a child with T-cell immunodeficiency but no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or opportunistic intracranial infections that developed progressive bilateral fusiform intracranial aneurysms. Our findings suggest a role of immunodeficiency or inflammation in the formation of some intracranial aneurysms.

  19. Rapid growth of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Koffie, Robert M; Stapleton, Christopher J; Torok, Collin M; Yoo, Albert J; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Codd, Patrick J

    2015-03-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms are rare vascular lesions that classically occur in patients with infective endocarditis. We present a 49-year-old man with altered mental status and headache with rapid growth and rupture of an infectious intracranial aneurysm with catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage, and review issues related to open neurosurgical and endovascular interventions.

  20. Molecular basis and genetic predisposition to intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Gerard; Weinsheimer, Shantel; Ronkainen, Antti; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are dilatations in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is fatal in about 50% of the cases. Intracranial aneurysms can be repaired surgically or endovascularly, or by combining these two treatment modalities. They are relatively common with an estimated prevalence of unruptured aneurysms of 2%-6% in the adult population, and are considered a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Known risk factors include smoking, hypertension, increasing age, and positive family history for intracranial aneurysms. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms is complex. Genome-wide approaches such as DNA linkage and genetic association studies, as well as microarray-based mRNA expression studies, provide unbiased approaches to identify genetic risk factors and dissecting the molecular pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms. The ultimate goal of these studies is to use the information in clinical practice to predict an individual's risk for developing an aneurysm or monitor its growth or rupture risk. Another important goal is to design new therapies based on the information on mechanisms of disease processes to prevent the development or halt the progression of intracranial aneurysms.

  1. Safety of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with saccular intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Manoj K; Seet, Raymond C S; Zhang, Yi; Brown, Robert D; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2013-07-01

    It is not known if the presence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms can increase the risk of hemorrhage after thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. The goal of our study was to evaluate the risk of hemorrhage after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in acute stroke patients with intracranial aneurysms. This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke who were treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator at Mayo Clinic between March 2002 and June 2011 and who were evaluated with invasive or noninvasive intracranial angiography. Univariate analyses were performed with the t, Chi-square, and Fisher exact tests where appropriate. Intracranial angiograms were performed in 105 patients (85 magnetic resonance angiography, 19 computed tomography angiography, and 1 catheter arteriography). The mean age of the patients was 69 ± 14 years. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission was 8 ± 5. A total of 12 incidental saccular aneurysms were found in 10 (9.5%) patients, and all 10 of these patients were white. There were no subarachnoid hemorrhages during the hospital stay in any patient with or without intracranial aneurysm. The rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and 3-month clinical outcomes were similar in patients with or without intracranial aneurysms. Intravenous thrombolysis was safe among our patients with acute ischemic stroke and incidental intracranial saccular aneurysm. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconfigurable Polymer Networks for Improved Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninh, Chi Suze Q.

    Endovascular embolization of intracranial aneurysms is a minimally invasive treatment in which an implanted material forms a clot to isolate the weakened vessel. Current strategy suffers from long-term potential failure modes. These potential failure modes include (1) enzymatic degradation of the fibrin clot that leads to compaction of the embolic agent, (2) incomplete filling of the aneurysm sac by embolic agent, and (3) challenging geometry of wide neck aneurysms. In the case of wide neck aneurysms, usually an assisting metal stent is used to help open the artery. However, metal stents with much higher modulus in comparison to the soft blood vessel can cause biocompatibilities issues in the long term such as infection and scarring. Motivated to solve these challenges associated with endovascular embolization, strategies to synthesize and engineer reconfigurable and biodegradable polymers as alternative therapies are evaluated in this thesis. (1) Reconfiguration of fibrin gel's modulus was achieved through crosslinking with genipin released from a biodegradable polymer matrix. (2) Reconfigurability can also be achieved by transforming triblock co-polymer hydrogel into photoresponsive material through incorporation of melanin nanoparticles as efficient photosensitizers. (3) Finally, reconfigurability can be conferred on biodegradable polyester networks via Diels-Alder coupling of furan pendant groups and dimaleimide crosslinking agent. Taken all together, this thesis describes strategies to transform a broad class of polymer networks into reconfigurable materials for improved treatment of intracranial aneurysms as well as for other biomedical applications.

  3. [Congenital anomalies of cerebral artery and intracranial aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Ito, Z; Hen, R; Uemura, K; Matsuoka, S

    1976-02-01

    It is well known that congenital anomalies such as polycystic kidney, aortic coarctation, Marfan syndrome, Ehler-Danlos syndrome are apt to be complicated by intracranial aneurysms. In this report we attempt to reveal the relation and incidence between cerebrovascular anomalies and intracranial aneurysms. The etiology of aneurysms has been discussed, too. 12 cases of persistent trigeminl artery, 2 cases of persistent hypoglossal artery and 11 cases of fenestration were obtained from 3841 patients who were angiographically examined in our clinic for 5 years. The incidence is 0.31%, 0.05% and 0.29%, respectively. Persistent trigeminal arteries were complicated by 2 cases of intracranial aneurysms and one case of arterivenous malformations (AVM), persistent hypoglossal arteries were complicated by one case of aneurysm, and fenestrations were complicated by 2 cases of aneurysms and one case of AVM. One case of congenital agenesis of right internal carotid artery was obtained which was complicated by aneurysm of anterior communicating artery. Totally, 8 cases of aneurysms and AVM were obtained from 26 cases of cerebrovascular anomalies (incidence 30.8%). On the other hand, thalamic or caudate hemorrhage revealed the highest incidence of complication of intracranial aneurysms among intracerebral hematomas (10.7%). Compared with the incidence of aneurysms between cerebro vascular anomalies (30.8%) and thalamic or caudate hemorrhage (10.7%), the difference is statistically signigicant (P less than 0.05). The cause of intracranial aneurysm has not yet been clarified. But it is well accepted that the defect of tunica media vasorum is most responsible factor as to the occurrence of intracranial aneurysms. We concluded that the genetic error of cerebral vessels including defect of media caused intracranial aneurysms, and this result was supported from the evidence that cerebrovascular anomalies showed statistically high incidence of complication of intracranial aneurysms.

  4. A nonlinear biomathematical model for the study of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Nieto, J J; Torres, A

    2000-08-01

    The formation and rupture of aneurysms is a significant medical problem, but is not clearly understood. Most intracranial aneurysm are located in the circle of Willis. We consider a nonlinear mathematical model that simulates the blood flow inside the aneurysm, one of the relevant factors in the evolution of an aneurysm. Different techniques from nonlinear analysis are used in order to obtain, from the model, several consequences that would help to understand some medical aspects of aneurysms of the circle of Willis.

  5. A Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Angiography Techniques for the Evaluation of Intracranial Aneurysms Treated With Stent-assisted Coil Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Cockroft, Kevin; Agarwal, Amit K; Sabat, Shyam; Kalapos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Aim To identify the effective magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique to monitor intracranial aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of various MRA techniques was performed in 42 patients. Three neuroradiologists independently compared non-contrast time of flight (ncTOF) MRA of the head, contrast-enhanced time of flight (cTOF) MRA of the head and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA (CEMRA) of the head and neck or of the head. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was available for comparison in 32 cases. Inter-rater agreement (kappa statistic) was assessed. Results Artifactual in-stent severe stenosis or flow gap was identified by ncTOF MRA in 23 of 42 cases (55%) and by cTOF MRA in 23 of 38 cases (60%). DSA excluded in-stent stenosis or occlusion in all 32 cases. No difference was noted between ncTOF and cTOF in the demonstration of neck remnants or residual aneurysms in three cases each. CEMRA of the head and neck or of the head was rated superior to ncTOF and cTOF MRA by all three investigators in seven out of eight cases. In one case, all three techniques demonstrated signifcant artifacts due to double stent placement during coiling. The kappa statistic revealed 0.8 agreement between investigators. Conclusions In the assessment of stent-assisted coiling of intracranial aneurysm, both ncTOF and cTOF MRA show similar results. CEMRA tends to show better flow signals in stent and residual aneurysm. PMID:28083453

  6. Endovascular occlusion of intracranial aneurysms with electrically detachable coils: Correlation of aneurysm neck size and treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Zubillaga, A.F.; Guglielmi, G.; Vinuela, F.; Duckwiler, G.R.

    1994-05-01

    To devise a method to measure aneurysm neck size on angiographic films, and to correlate the sizes obtained with the extent of endovascular aneurysm occlusion, performed with electrically detachable coils. The angiograms of 79 intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular occlusion using electrically detachable coils were retrospectively analyzed. A method using the average reported caliber of the major intracranial vessels was applied to determine the aneurysm neck sizes on the diagnostic angiograms. The cases were divided into two groups according to neck size, 4 mm being the discriminative value for small and wide necks. The posttreatment angiogram of each case was analyzed to evaluate the degree of occlusion achieved by the technique. Necks were successfully measured in 95% of the aneurysms. Complete aneurysm thrombosis was observed in 85% of the small-necked aneurysms and in 15% of the wide-necked aneurysms. Accurate angiographic measurements of neck diameter can be obtained in most aneurysms. The size of an aneurysm neck correlates well with the results of the endovascular treatment. Small-necked aneurysms can be satisfactorily occluded with this technique. In wide-necked aneurysms this technique should be reserved for lesions having a high surgical risk. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Aneurysm Characteristics Associated with the Rupture Risk of Intracranial Aneurysms: A Self-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Huibin; Ji, Wenjun; Qian, Zenghui; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Wen, Xiaolong; Xu, Wenjuan; Liu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) according to aneurysm characteristics by comparing the differences between two aneurysms in different locations within the same patient. We utilized this self-controlled model to exclude potential interference from all demographic factors to study the risk factors related to IA rupture. A total of 103 patients were diagnosed with IAs between January 2011 and April 2015 and were enrolled in this study. All enrolled patients had two IAs. One IA (the case) was ruptured, and the other (the control) was unruptured. Aneurysm characteristics, including the presence of a daughter sac, the aneurysm neck, the parent artery diameter, the maximum aneurysm height, the maximum aneurysm width, the location, the aspect ratio (AR, maximum perpendicular height/average neck diameter), the size ratio (SR, maximum aneurysm height/average parent diameter) and the width/height ratio (WH ratio, maximum aneurysm width/maximum aneurysm height), were collected and analyzed to evaluate the rupture risks of the two IAs within each patient and to identify the independent risk factors associated with IA rupture. Multivariate, conditional, backward, stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors associated with IA rupture. The multivariate analysis identified the presence of a daughter sac (odds ratio [OR], 13.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-115.87), a maximum aneurysm height ≥7 mm (OR, 4.80; 95% CI, 1.21-18.98), location on the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) or anterior communicating artery (ACOM; OR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.34-7.11) and SR (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.16-3.91) as factors that were significantly associated with IA rupture. The presence of a daughter sac, the maximum aneurysm height, PCOM or ACOM locations and SR (>1.5±0.7) of unruptured IAs were significantly associated with IA rupture.

  8. Evaluation of a newly designed flow diverter for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms in an elastase-induced aneurysm model, in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Simgen, Andreas; Ley, Desiree; Roth, Christian; Yilmaz, Umut; Körner, Heiko; Mühl-Benninghaus, Ruben; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Scheller, Bruno; Reith, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed angiographic and histologic aneurysm occlusion of a newly designed flow diverting device. Visibility and flexibility, as well as occlusions of side branches and neointimal proliferation were also evaluated. Aneurysms were induced in 18 New Zealand white rabbits and treated with a braided, “closed-loop-designed” device of nitinol. Additional devices were implanted in the abdominal aorta to cover the origin of branch arteries.Angiographic follow-ups were performed immediately after placement of the device, after 3 months (n=9) and 6 months(n =9). The status of aneurysm occlusion (using a five-point scale) and the patency of branch arteries were assessed. Aneurysm occlusion rates were noted as grade 0 in 2 (11 %), grade I in 1 (6 %), grade II in 1 (6 %), grade III in 9(50 %), and grade IV in 5 (28 %) of 18 aneurysms, respectively, indicating a complete or near-complete occlusion of 78 % under double antiplatelet therapy. Aneurysm occlusion was significantly higher at 6 months follow-up (P =0.025). Radiopaque markers provided excellent visibility. Limited device flexibility led to incomplete aneurysm neck coverage and grade 0 occlusion rates in two cases. Distal device occlusions were found in three cases, most likely due to an extremely undersized vessel diameter in the subclavian artery.No case of branch artery occlusion was seen. Intimal proliferation and diameter stenosis were moderate. The tested flow diverter achieved near-complete and complete aneurysm occlusion under double antiplatelet therapy of elastase-induced aneurysms in 78 %, while preserving branch arteries.

  9. Cervical artery tortuosity is associated with intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Labeyrie, Paul-Emile; Braud, Florent; Gakuba, Clément; Gaberel, Thomas; Orset, Cyrille; Goulay, Romain; Emery, Evelyne; Courthéoux, Patrick; Touzé, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Intracranial aneurysms may be associated with an underlying arteriopathy, leading to arterial wall fragility. Arterial tortuosity is a major characteristic of some connective tissue disease. Aim To determine whether intracranial aneurysm is associated with an underlying arteriopathy. Methods Using a case-control design, from May 2012 to May 2013, we selected intracranial aneurysm cases and controls from consecutive patients who had conventional cerebral angiography in our center. Cases were patients with newly diagnosed intracranial aneurysm. Controls were patients who had diagnostic cerebral angiography and free of aneurysm. The prevalence of tortuosity, retrospectively assessed according to standard definitions, was compared between cases and controls and, association between tortuosity and some aneurysm characteristics was examined, in cases only. Results About 659 arteries from 233 patients (112 cases and 121 controls) were examined. Tortuosity was found in 57 (51%) cases and 31 (26%) controls (adjusted OR = 2.71; 95%CI, 1.53-4.80). The same trend was found when looking at each tortuosity subtype (simple tortuosity, coil, kink) or at carotid or vertebral territory separately. In contrast, no association between tortuosity and rupture status, aneurysm number or neck size was found. Conclusions Cervical artery tortuosity is significantly associated with intracranial aneurysm, although not related to main aneurysm characteristics. Our results support the presence of an underlying diffuse arteriopathy in intracranial aneurysm patients.

  10. Critical roles of macrophages in the formation of intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kanematsu, Miyuki; Kurihara, Chie; Tada, Yoshiteru; Tsou, Tsung-Ling; van Rooijen, Nico; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Liang, Elena I.; Nuki, Yoshitsugu; Hashimoto, Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abnormal vascular remodeling triggered by hemodynamic stresses and inflammation is believed to be a key process in the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms. Numerous studies have shown infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, into intracranial aneurysmal walls in humans. Using a mouse model of intracranial aneurysms, we tested whether macrophages play critical roles in the formation of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Intracranial aneurysms were induced in adult male mice using a combination of a single injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid and angiotensin-II-induced hypertension. Aneurysm formation was assessed three weeks later. Roles of macrophages were assessed utilizing clodronate liposome-induced macrophage depletion. In addition, the incidence of aneurysms was assessed in mice lacking monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2), and mice lacking matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12, macrophage elastase). Results Intracranial aneurysms in this model showed leukocyte infiltration into the aneurysmal wall, the majority of leukocytes being macrophages. Mice with macrophage depletion had a significantly reduced incidence of aneurysms compared to control mice (1/10 vs. 6/10; P < 0.05). Similarly, there was a reduced incidence of aneurysms in mice lacking MCP-1, compared to incidence of aneurysms in wild-type mice (2/10 vs. 14/20, P < 0.05). There was no difference in the incidence of aneurysms between mice lacking MMP-12 and wild-type mice. Conclusions These data suggest critical roles of macrophages and proper macrophage functions in the formation of intracranial aneurysms in this model. PMID:21106959

  11. Incidence and risk factors of intracranial aneurysm: A national cohort study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Heeyoung; Ahn, Soyeon; Kwon, O-Ki; Bang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Cho, Won-Sang; Oh, Chang Wan

    2016-10-01

    Background Estimations of the intracranial aneurysm incidence require long-term follow-up of a relatively large at-risk population; as a result, the incidence remains largely unknown. Aims To investigate the national incidence of intracranial aneurysm in a Korean population. Methods After excluding 18,604 potential subjects with a previous history of stroke (I6x.x), 998,216 subjects were included in this observational cohort. The primary endpoint was the earliest date of diagnosis of either unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA; I67.1) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; I60.x). We collected anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, laboratory data, and smoking, drinking, and physical exercise habits of 132,355 subjects for whom healthcare screening data were available. Factors influencing intracranial aneurysm were evaluated via multivariate Cox regression. Results The overall observation size was 8,792,214 person-years. During follow-up, 4346 subjects were diagnosed with intracranial aneurysm (SAH, 1960; UIA, 2386). The crude incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 49.4/100,000 person-years. The hazard ratio for women was 1.56 ( p < 0.01), and older subjects had an increased hazard ratio. Subjects with hypertension had an approximately 1.5-fold higher risk of intracranial aneurysm. A history of heart disease and family history of stroke were associated with respective hazard ratios of 2.08 and 1.77. Conclusions In this Korean population study, the standardized incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 52.2/100,000 person-years. Older age, female sex, hypertension, history of heart disease, and family history of stroke were independent risk factors for intracranial aneurysm.

  12. Virtual stenting of intracranial aneurysms: application of hemodynamic modification analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunsun; Choe, Jooae; Liu, Hairi; Park, Kye Jin; Yu, HyungBin; Lim, Ok Kyun; Kim, Hyoweon; Park, Darlene; Ge, Jiajia; Suh, Dae Chul

    2016-08-01

    Practical application of hemodynamic modification analysis based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in intracranial aneurysms is still under study. To determine the clinical applicability of virtual stenting of aneurysms by comparing the simulated results with clinical outcome of real stenting. Three-dimensional (3D) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images were imported to a dedicated integrated prototypic CFD platform (Siemens Healthcare GmbH) which allows all necessary steps of 3D models for CFD analysis. The results of CFD simulation with virtual implantation of a stent can be visualized in the same platform for qualitative comparisons on a color-coded volume visualization window. Five small intracranial aneurysms with and without virtual stenting were analyzed and assessed on a qualitative level. Expert rating were performed for evaluating the simulated results, and comparing those to the long-term follow-up outcomes of real stenting. CFD simulation after virtual stenting was feasible in five differently located aneurysms and corresponded to the long-term changes of stented aneurysms by showing alteration in flow pattern. There was no significant difference (P = 0.5) between the simulated hemodynamic changes after virtual stenting and the angiographic changes after stenting in four aneurysms except one. There was good agreement regarding the assessment of the changes by two raters (kappa = 0.657). CFD analysis using patient-specific virtual stenting of the CFD platform may be used as a simple and less time-consuming test tool predicting the involution of aneurysms after stent placement by analyzing the vector visualization of the flow changes. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  13. Shared Genetic Risk Factors of Intracranial, Abdominal, and Thoracic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, Femke N G; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Lee, Cue Hyunkyu; Ripke, Stephan; Anderson, Graig; de Andrade, Mariza; Baas, Annette F; Blankensteijn, Jan D; Böttinger, Erwin P; Bown, Matthew J; Broderick, Joseph; Bijlenga, Philippe; Carrell, David S; Crawford, Dana C; Crosslin, David R; Ebeling, Christian; Eriksson, Johan G; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Friedrich, Christoph M; Gaál, Emília I; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Harrison, Seamus C; Hernesniemi, Juha; Hofman, Albert; Inoue, Ituro; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Jones, Gregory T; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivisaari, Riku; Ko, Nerissa; Koskinen, Seppo; Kubo, Michiaki; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kurki, Mitja I; Laakso, Aki; Lai, Dongbing; Leal, Suzanne M; Lehto, Hanna; LeMaire, Scott A; Low, Siew-Kee; Malinowski, Jennifer; McCarty, Catherine A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Mosley, Thomas H; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Niemelä, Mika; Pacheco, Jennifer; Peissig, Peggy L; Pera, Joanna; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rij, Andre M; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Saratzis, Athanasios; Slowik, Agnieszka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tromp, Gerard; Uitterlinden, André G; Verma, Shefali S; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wang, Gao T; Han, Buhm; Rinkel, Gabriël J E; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2016-07-14

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) all have a familial predisposition. Given that aneurysm types are known to co-occur, we hypothesized that there may be shared genetic risk factors for IAs, AAAs, and TAAs. We performed a mega-analysis of 1000 Genomes Project-imputed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data of 4 previously published aneurysm cohorts: 2 IA cohorts (in total 1516 cases, 4305 controls), 1 AAA cohort (818 cases, 3004 controls), and 1 TAA cohort (760 cases, 2212 controls), and observed associations of 4 known IA, AAA, and/or TAA risk loci (9p21, 18q11, 15q21, and 2q33) with consistent effect directions in all 4 cohorts. We calculated polygenic scores based on IA-, AAA-, and TAA-associated SNPs and tested these scores for association to case-control status in the other aneurysm cohorts; this revealed no shared polygenic effects. Similarly, linkage disequilibrium-score regression analyses did not show significant correlations between any pair of aneurysm subtypes. Last, we evaluated the evidence for 14 previously published aneurysm risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms through collaboration in extended aneurysm cohorts, with a total of 6548 cases and 16 843 controls (IA) and 4391 cases and 37 904 controls (AAA), and found nominally significant associations for IA risk locus 18q11 near RBBP8 to AAA (odds ratio [OR]=1.11; P=4.1×10(-5)) and for TAA risk locus 15q21 near FBN1 to AAA (OR=1.07; P=1.1×10(-3)). Although there was no evidence for polygenic overlap between IAs, AAAs, and TAAs, we found nominally significant effects of two established risk loci for IAs and TAAs in AAAs. These two loci will require further replication. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Modified murine intracranial aneurysm model: aneurysm formation and rupture by elastase and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hosaka, Koji; Downes, Daniel P; Nowicki, Kamil W; Hoh, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cerebral aneurysms occur in up to 5% of the population. There are several murine models of aneurysms; however, all have limitations and none reproducibly model aneurysm rupture. To fulfill this need, we modified two current rodent aneurysm models to create a murine model which reproducibly produces intracranial aneurysms and rupture. Methods The left common carotid arteries and the right renal arteries were ligated in C57BL/6 female mice with a hypertensive diet. One week later, small burr holes were created with a stereotactic frame using the following stereotactic measurements: 1.2 mm rostral and 0.7 mm lateral to the right of the bregma. A 26 G needle was gradually advanced via the burr hole until contact with the skull base, upon which the needle was pulled back 0.3 mm. Five, 10 and 20 μL of 10 U/mL elastase solution and 10 μL of 1 U/mL elastase solution were stereotactically injected into the basal cisterns. Angiotensin II was then continually infused at a dose of 1000 ng/kg/min via an osmotic pump placed subcutaneously. In the control mice, 20 μL bromophenol blue solution was injected. Three weeks later, or earlier if mice expired prior to 3 weeks, the circle of Willis was inspected by microscopy for aneurysm formation and/or signs of rupture. Histological analyses were then performed to evaluate elastic lamina destruction, inflammatory cell and macrophage infiltration, absence of intimal endothelial cells and thickening of the smooth muscle layer within the aneurysm wall. To compare with human aneurysms, human aneurysm specimens (n=35; 34 unruptured and 1 ruptured) and normal control superficial temporal arteries (STAs) (n=9) were examined. Results All mice given 5, 10 and 20 μL of 10 U/mL elastase solution developed intracranial aneurysms within the circle of Willis; 40%, 60% and 50% of mice had ruptured aneurysms, respectively. In mice given 10 μL of 1.0 U/mL elastase solution, 90% developed intracranial

  15. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: Clipping Versus Coiling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ann; Huang, Judy

    2015-09-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) have an estimated incidence of up to 10 % and can lead to serious morbidity and mortality. Because of this, the natural history of IAs has been studied extensively, with rupture rates ranging from 0.5 to 7 %, depending on aneurysm characteristics. The spectrum of presentation of IAs ranges from incidental detection to devastating subarachnoid hemorrhage. Although the gold standard imaging technique is intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography, other modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) are being increasingly used for screening and treatment planning. Management of these patients depends upon a number of factors including aneurysmal, patient, institutional, and operator factors. The ultimate goal of treating patients with IAs is complete and permanent occlusion of the aneurysm sac in order to eliminate future hemorrhagic risk, while preserving or restoring the patient's neurological function. The most common treatment approaches include microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling, and multiple studies have compared these two techniques. To date, three large prospective, randomized studies have been done: a study from Finland, International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), and the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT). Despite differences in methodology, the results were similar: in patients undergoing coiling, although rates of rebleeding and retreatment are higher, the overall rate of poor outcomes at 12 months was significantly lower. As minimally invasive procedures and devices continue to be refined, endovascular strategies are likely to increase in popularity. However, as long-term outcome studies become available, it is increasingly apparent that they are complementary treatment strategies, with patient selection of critical importance.

  16. Vorticity dynamics in an intracranial aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2008-11-01

    Direct Numerical Simulation is carried out to investigate the vortex dynamics of physiologic pulsatile flow in an intracranial aneurysm. The numerical solver is based on the CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed by Ge and Sotiropoulos, J. Comp. Physics, 225 (2007) and is applied to simulate the blood flow in a grid with 8 million grid nodes. The aneurysm geometry is extracted from MRI images from common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit (courtesy Dr.Kallmes, Mayo Clinic). The simulation reveals the formation of a strong vortex ring at the proximal end during accelerated flow phase. The vortical structure advances toward the aneurysm dome forming a distinct inclined circular ring that connects with the proximal wall via two long streamwise vortical structures. During the reverse flow phase, the back flow results to the formation of another ring at the distal end that advances in the opposite direction toward the proximal end and interacts with the vortical structures that were created during the accelerated phase. The basic vortex formation mechanism is similar to that observed by Webster and Longmire (1998) for pulsed flow through inclined nozzles. The similarities between the two flows will be discussed and the vorticity dynamics of an aneurysm and inclined nozzle flows will be analyzed.This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  17. Rapid Virtual Stenting for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Chen, Danyang; Chen, Zihe; Wang, Xiangyu; Paliwal, Nikhil; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Corso, Jason J.; Xu, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The rupture of Intracranial Aneurysms is the most severe form of stroke with high rates of mortality and disability. One of its primary treatments is to use stent or Flow Diverter to divert the blood flow away from the IA in a minimal invasive manner. To optimize such treatments, it is desirable to provide an automatic tool for virtual stenting before its actual implantation. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called ball-sweeping, for rapid virtual stenting. Our method sweeps a maximum inscribed sphere through the aneurysmal region of the vessel and directly generates a stent surface touching the vessel wall without needing to iteratively grow a deformable stent surface. Our resulting stent mesh has guaranteed smoothness and variable pore density to achieve an enhanced occlusion performance. Comparing to existing methods, our technique is computationally much more efficient. PMID:27346910

  18. Rapid virtual stenting for intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Chen, Danyang; Chen, Zihe; Wang, Xiangyu; Paliwal, Nikhil; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Corso, Jason J.; Xu, Jinhui

    2016-03-01

    The rupture of Intracranial Aneurysms is the most severe form of stroke with high rates of mortality and disability. One of its primary treatments is to use stent or Flow Diverter to divert the blood flow away from the IA in a minimal invasive manner. To optimize such treatments, it is desirable to provide an automatic tool for virtual stenting before its actual implantation. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called ball-sweeping, for rapid virtual stenting. Our method sweeps a maximum inscribed sphere through the aneurysmal region of the vessel and directly generates a stent surface touching the vessel wall without needing to iteratively grow a deformable stent surface. Our resulting stent mesh has guaranteed smoothness and variable pore density to achieve an enhanced occlusion performance. Comparing to existing methods, our technique is computationally much more efficient.

  19. Infectious intracranial aneurysms: triage and management.

    PubMed

    Gulek, Bernice G; Rapport, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms are a rare but serious potential complication of subacute endocarditis. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent devastating neurological deficits and mortality. Because nurse practitioners' roles expand into acute care as well as urgent care settings, they are frequently involved in the care of this population. Identifying the patients at risk, ordering appropriate studies, and initiating goal directed therapy are vital to outcomes. For nurse practitioners who are involved in care of neuroscience populations, it is important to be familiar with disease processes. This article provides a literature review of the topic, explores diagnostic methods, discusses management strategies, and presents an illustrative case.

  20. Peripheral intracranial aneurysms: management challenges in 60 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Eric S; Madison, Michael T; Goddard, James K; Lassig, Jeffrey P; Nussbaum, Leslie A

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the management and outcomes of 55 patients with 60 intracranial aneurysms arising distal to the major branch points of the circle of Willis and vertebrobasilar system. Between July 1997 and December 2006, the authors' neurovascular service treated 2021 intracranial aneurysms in 1850 patients. The database was reviewed retrospectively to identify peripherally located intracranial aneurysms. Aneurysms that were mycotic and aneurysms that were associated with either an arteriovenous malformation or an atrial myxoma were excluded from review. The authors encountered 60 peripheral intracranial aneurysms in 55 patients. There were 42 small, 7 large, and 11 giant lesions. Forty-one (68%) were unruptured, and 19 (32%) had bled. Fifty-three aneurysms were treated surgically by using direct clip reconstruction in 26, trapping or proximal occlusion with distal revascularization in 21, excision with end-to-end anastomosis in 3, and circumferential wrap/clip reconstruction in 3. Coils were used to treat 6 aneurysms, and 1 was treated by endovascular parent artery occlusion. Overall, 49 patients had good outcomes, 4 were left with new neurological deficits, and 2 died. Peripherally situated intracranial aneurysms are rare lesions that present unique management challenges. Despite the fact that in the authors' experience these lesions were rarely treatable with simple clipping of the aneurysm neck or endovascular coil occlusion, preservation of the parent artery was possible in most cases, and the majority of patients had a good outcome.

  1. The clinical features and treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiantao; Bao, Yuhai; Zhang, Hongqi; Wrede, Karsten Henning; Zhi, Xinglong; Li, Meng; Ling, Feng

    2009-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to highlight the clinical and radiological features and the therapeutic outcome and clarify the choice of therapeutic strategies for pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-four consecutive children (age intracranial aneurysms in our institute in the last 23 years were included in this study. There were nine (36%) patients with posterior circulation aneurysms and eight (32%) with giant aneurysms. Eleven (46%) patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment, and four received microsurgical therapy. Five patients were treated conservatively. Ninety-two percent (n=22) of the patients showed favorable outcomes. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms differ in many ways from those in adults: male predominance; high incidence of giant, dissecting, and fusiform aneurysms; high incidence of aneurysms in the posterior circulation; high incidence of spontaneous thrombosis; better Hunt-Hess grades at presentation; and better therapeutic outcome. For children with intracranial aneurysms, both microsurgical approaches and endovascular treatment were effective. For many complex aneurysms, endovascular therapy was the best choice.

  2. Intracranial Non-traumatic Aneurysms in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sorteberg, Angelika; Dahlberg, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An intracranial aneurysm in a child or adolescent is a rare, but potentially devastating condition. As little as approximately 1200 cases are reported between 1939 and 2011, with many of the reports presenting diverting results. There is consensus, though, in that pediatric aneurysms represent a pathophysiological entity different from their adult counterparts. In children, there is a male predominance. About two-thirds of pediatric intracranial aneurysms become symptomatic with hemorrhage and the rate of re-hemorrhage is higher than in adults. The rate of hemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm peaks in girls around menarche. The most common aneurysm site in children is the internal carotid artery, in particular at its terminal ending. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are more common in children than adults. Children more often develop giant aneurysms, and may become symptomatic from the mass effect of the aneurysm (tumorlike symptoms). The more complex nature of pediatric aneurysms poses a larger challenge to treatment alongside with higher demands to the durability of treatment. Outcome and mortality are similar in children and adults, but long-term outcome in the pediatric population is influenced by the high rate of aneurysm recurrences and de novo formation of intracranial aneurysms. This urges the need for life-long follow-up and screening protocols. PMID:24696670

  3. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms--our experience and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Garg, Kanwaljeet; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Chandra, Poodipedi Sarat; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohanjit; Kumar, Rajinder; Kale, Shashank Sarad; Mishra, Nalin Kumar; Gaikwad, Shailesh K; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in children are not as common as in adults and there are many differences in the etiology, demographic variables, aneurysm location, aneurysm morphological characteristics, clinical presentation, and outcome in pediatric and adult intracranial aneurysms. All children (≤18 years) suffering from intracranial aneurysm managed at our center from July 2001 through June 2013 were included in the study, and the details of these patients were retrieved from the computerized database of our hospital. A total of 62 pediatric patients were treated for 74 aneurysms during the study period and constituted 2.3% of all intracranial aneurysms treated during the same period. The mean age at presentation was 13.5 years. Headache (82%) was the commonest presenting feature; other symptoms included seizures (21%), ictal loss of consciousness (27%), and motor/cranial nerve deficits (22.6%). Computed tomogram revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in 58% of patients. Eighty-two percent of aneurysms were in anterior circulation. Sixty-seven percent of aneurysms were complex aneurysms. Fifty-eight percent of patients underwent surgical intervention while 30% underwent endovascular procedures. Twenty-one percent of the patients developed vasospasm. There was no postoperative mortality. Favorable outcome was seen in 72% of the patients. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are uncommon as compared to in adult patients. Seizures and cranial nerve involvement are seen more often as the presenting features in children. Posterior circulation aneurysms are more common in children, as are the internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms. There is high incidence of giant, posttraumatic, and mycotic aneurysms in children.

  4. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Evaluation of Intracranial Stents in Sidewall Aneurysm: Hemodynamic Transition Related to the Stent Design

    PubMed Central

    Bouillot, Pierre; Brina, Olivier; Ouared, Rafik; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Farhat, Mohamed; Pereira, Vitor Mendes

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the flow modifications induced by a large panel of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) intracranial stents in an idealized sidewall intracranial aneurysm (IA). Flow velocities in IA silicone model were assessed with and without stent implantation using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). The use of the recently developed multi-time-lag method has allowed for uniform and precise measurements of both high and low velocities at IA neck and dome, respectively. Flow modification analysis of both regular (RSs) and flow diverter stents (FDSs) was subsequently correlated with relevant geometrical stent parameters. Flow reduction was found to be highly sensitive to stent porosity variations for regular stents RSs and moderately sensitive for FDSs. Consequently, two distinct IA flow change trends, with velocity reductions up to 50% and 90%, were identified for high-porosity RS and low-porosity FDS, respectively. The intermediate porosity (88%) regular braided stent provided the limit at which the transition in flow change trend occurred with a flow reduction of 84%. This transition occurred with decreasing stent porosity, as the driving force in IA neck changed from shear stress to differential pressure. Therefore, these results suggest that stents with intermediate porosities could possibly provide similar flow change patterns to FDS, favourable to curative thrombogenesis in IAs. PMID:25470724

  5. Mycotic Intracranial Aneurysm Secondary to Left Ventricular Assist Device Infection

    PubMed Central

    Remirez, Juan M.; Sabet, Yasmin; Baca, Marshall; Maud, Alberto; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rodriguez, Gustavo J.; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycotic aneurysms are a complication of infective endocarditis. Infection of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may lead to bacteremia and fever causing complications similar to those seen in patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Intracranial mycotic aneurysms are rare, and their presence is signaled by the development of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the setting of bacteremia and aneurysms located distal to the circle of Willis. Case Presentation We present the case of a patient with a LVAD presenting with headache who is found to have an intracranial mycotic aneurysm through computed tomography angiography of the head. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular intervention. Conclusion In patients with LVADs, mycotic aneurysms have been reported, however not intracranially. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first intracranial mycotic aneurysm secondary to LVAD infection that was successfully treated with endovascular repair. Intracranial mycotic aneurysms associated with LVADs are a rare phenomenon. The diagnosis of mycotic aneurysms requires a high index of suspicion in patients who present with bacteremia with or without headache and other neurological symptoms. Disclosure None. PMID:28243347

  6. [A case of successful treatment of concomitant ruptured intracranial aneurysm and visceral aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Diogo, Cláudia; Baltazar, José; Fernandes, Mário

    2012-01-01

    The association between intracranial and visceral aneurysms is very rare, with a bad prognosis. The rupture usually appears in the Emergency Room, and it implies an immediate treatment. We describe the case of a woman with rupture of an anterior communicant artery aneurysm and rupture of a pancreatic duodenal artery aneurysm. The actuation of all specialties allowed the direct surgical treatment of the visceral aneurysm, without the aggravation of the cerebral hemorrhage that the eventual Aorta Artery clamping could provoke. The maintenance of the hemodynamic stability was essential for the posterior treatment of the intracranial aneurysm.

  7. Intraoperative rupture in the surgical treatment of patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chen, S F; Kato, Y; Kumar, A; Tan, G W; Oguri, D; Oda, J; Watabe, T; Imizu, S; Sano, H; Wang, Z X

    2016-12-01

    Intraoperative rerupture (IOR) during clipping of cerebral aneurysms is a difficult complication of microneurosurgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of IOR and analyze the strategies for controlling profound hemorrhage. A total of 165 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms and 46 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated surgically between April 2010 and March 2011, were reviewed. The data were collected with regard to age, sex, presence of symptoms, confounding factors and strategy for controlling intraoperative hemorrhage was analyzed in terms of location of aneurysms, timing of rupture and severity of IOR. 211 patients with 228 aneurysms were treated in this series. There were a total of six IORs which represented an IOR rate of 2.84% per patient and 2.63% per aneurysm. The highest ruptures rates occurred in patients with internal carotid artery aneurysms (25%). Surgeries in the group with ruptured aneurysms had a much higher rate of IOR compared with surgeries in the group with unruptured aneurysms. Of the six IOR aneurysms, one occurred during predissection, four during microdissection and one during clipping. One was major IOR, three were moderate and two were minor. Intraoperative rupture of an intracranial aneurysm can be potentially devastating in vascular neurosurgery. Aneurysm location, presence of SAH and surgical experience of the operating surgeon seem to be important factors affecting the incidence of IOR.

  8. Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by neurosurgeons in Colombia: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Cerra, Gabriel; Gutiérrez Paternina, Juan J.; Buendía de Ávila, María E.; Preciado Mesa, Edgar I.; Barrios, Rubén Sabogal; Niño-Hernández, Lucía M.; Jaramillo, Keith Suárez

    2011-01-01

    Background: Trends in management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms among neurosurgeons is very variable and had not been previously described in any Latin American country. This study was conducted to determine the preferences of Colombian neurosurgeons in pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods: A survey-based descriptive study was performed in a sample of members from the Colombian Association of Neurosurgery. Questions about pharmacologic, surgical, and endovascular management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured intracranial aneurysm were carried out. We calculated the mean and the standard deviation of the results obtained from the continuous variables. The results of the categorical variables are presented as percentages. Results: The preference of medication with poor clinical evidence, such as magnesium sulfate, aspirin, statins, and anti-fibrinolytics was lower than 10%. The use of intravenous nimodipine and systemic glucocorticoids was as high as 31%. The availability of endovascular therapy was 69%. The indication for treatment of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms that required intervention was less than 13.8%. In patients with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms, coiling was the preferred method for exclusion. Conclusions: Reported compliance of evidence-based clinical guidelines was similar to that described in developed countries, and even better. However, there is little agreement in treating patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. For other issues, the conducts reported by Colombian neurosurgeons are in accordance with the current guidelines. PMID:22059120

  9. Coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and multiple cerebral aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Pei-Sen; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Zheng, Shu-Fa; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Yu, Liang-Hong; Jiang, Chang-Zhen; Kang, De-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: There were a few case reports concerning epidermoid tumor coexisted with multiple cerebral aneurysms. Here, we present one case of coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and multiple cerebral aneurysms and performed a literature review. Patient concerns: A 42 years old male patient was admitted to our institution with complaints of headache and dizziness. Interventions: The radiological examinations showed a hypointense lesion in the right parasellar and petrous apex region and an ipsilateral saccular aneurysm originated from the M2–M3 junction of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and a saccular aneurysm of the clinoid segment of right internal carotid artery (ICA). Interventions: The patients underwent a right frontotemporal approach for removal of the epidermoid tumor and clipping of the MCA aneurysm in one stage. The aneurysm located at the clinoid segment of ICA was invisible and untreated during operation. Outcomes: No postoperative complications were found in the patient. The patient's follow up after 5 years of surgical treatment was uneventful, and the untreated aneurysm remains stable. Lessons: The coexistence of intracranial epidermoid tumor and cerebral aneurysm is a rare event. The secondly inflammation in cerebral arterial wall may be responsible for the aneurysm formation. Surgical treatment of the intracranial epidermoid tumor and cerebral aneurysm repair may be an optimal scheme in one stage. PMID:28151901

  10. Flow diversion for complex intracranial aneurysms in young children.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ramon; Brown, Benjamin L; Beier, Alexandra; Ranalli, Nathan; Aldana, Philipp; Hanel, Ricardo A

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare and account for less than 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Open surgery to treat such aneurysms has been shown to be more durable than endovascular techniques, and durability of treatment is particularly important in the pediatric population. Over the past 2 decades, however, a marked shift in aneurysm treatment from open surgery toward endovascular procedures has occurred for adults. The authors describe their early experience in treating 3 unruptured pediatric brain aneurysms using the Pipeline embolization device (PED). The first patient, a girl with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II who was harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms, underwent two flow diversion procedures for a vertebrobasilar aneurysm and a supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm. The second patient underwent PED placement on a previously coiled but enlarging posterior communicating artery aneurysm. All procedures were uneventful, with no postsurgical complications, and led to complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of flow diversion procedures in children reported in the medical literature. While flow diversion is a new and relatively untested technology in children, outcomes in adults have been promising. For challenging lesions in the pediatric population, flow diversion may have a valuable role as a well-tolerated, safe treatment with durable results. Many issues remain to be addressed, such as the durability of flow diverters over a very long follow-up and vessel response to growth in the presence of an endoluminal device.

  11. Intracranial infectious aneurysm: presentation, management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Kannoth, Sudheeran; Iyer, Rajesh; Thomas, Sanjeev V; Furtado, Sunil V; Rajesh, B J; Kesavadas, C; Radhakrishnan, V V; Sarma, P S

    2007-05-15

    Intracranial infectious aneurysms (IA) are infrequent, but can be fatal. To compare the clinical profile of IAs associated with intravascular/systemic infection like infective endocarditis with that associated with local infections like meningitis, orbital cellulitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis. We analysed all cases of IA, treated in this Institute from 1976 to 2003, in order to identify prognostic factors. There were 25 persons (mean age 24.8+/-17.3 years, males 17) with 29 IA (carotid circulation 19, vertebrobasilar circulation 10). Headache (83%) and fever (67%) were the most common presenting symptoms. In contrast to noninfectious aneurysms, intracerebral haemorrhage (60%) and focal signs were more common than subarachnoid haemorrhage (7%) with IA. Sources of infection were cardiac (10), meningitis (12), orbital cellulitis (2) or uncertain (1). Infective agents included bacteria (18), fungi (4), and tubercle bacilli (3). Fifteen IA were distal and 14 were proximal. IAs associated with meningitis were proximal (75%) while those associated with cardiac diseases preferentially involved carotid territory and were distal (p=0.013). The overall mortality was 32%. Survivors were younger than those who expired (p=0.015). Of the sixteen patients treated medically, seven recovered (44%), others (56%) had treatment failure (three died and six required surgery later). Another five patients underwent early surgery (one died). Mortality of IA was significantly higher with meningitis, fungal aetiology and vertebrobasilar location. IAs associated with local infections like meningitis had different clinical profile as compared to IAs associated with intravascular/systemic infections like infective endocarditis.

  12. Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization for the treatment of ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jifang; Wang, Donghai; Li, Xingang

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in neuroradiological techniques have increasingly improved the diagnosis rate for very small aneurysms, particularly with the widespread use of three-dimensional cerebral angiography. However, the treatment of very small aneurysms remains a considerable challenge for neurosurgeons. Endovascular coiling has emerged as a potential treatment option for intracranial aneurysms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization for the treatment of ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms. This retrospective study included nine consecutive patients with ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms (≤3 mm) that underwent Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling embolization. The aneurysms were located in the ophthalmic branch of the internal carotid artery (n=2), the posterior communicating branch of the internal carotid artery (n=4), the top of the basilar artery (n=1) and the middle cerebral artery (n=2). Solitaire AB stents were successfully implanted in all nine patients. Of the nice individuals, six patients exhibited complete occlusion at Raymond grade I and three patients exhibited occlusion at Raymond grade II. No aneurysm rupture was observed during the surgery. During the follow-up period of 8-13 months, no intracranial hemorrhage occurred. A total of seven patients underwent follow-up digital subtraction angiography at 5-10 months post-intervention. No recurrence of the aneurysms and no stenosis or occlusion of the parent arteries was observed. Therefore, Solitaire AB stent-assisted coil embolization was demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment for ruptured very small intracranial aneurysms. The long-term efficacy of this technique may be improved by increasing the packing density around the aneurysmal neck and improving the hemodynamics.

  13. Flow Instability and Wall Shear Stress Ocillation in Intracranial Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyoungsu; Jayamaran, Mahesh; Richardson, Peter; Karniadakis, George

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the flow dynamics and oscillatory behavior of wall shear stress (WSS) vectors in intracranial aneurysms using high-order spectral/hp simulations. We analyze four patient- specific internal carotid arteries laden with aneurysms of different characteristics : a wide-necked saccular aneurysm, a hemisphere-shaped aneurysm, a narrower-necked saccular aneurysm, and a case with two adjacent saccular aneurysms. Simulations show that the pulsatile flow in aneurysms may be subject to a hydrodynamic instability during the decelerating systolic phase resulting in a high-frequency oscillation in the range of 30-50 Hz. When the aneurysmal flow becomes unstable, both the magnitude and the directions of WSS vectors fluctuate. In particular, the WSS vectors around the flow impingement region exhibit significant spatial and temporal changes in direction as well as in magnitude.

  14. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms in a patient with Roberts/SC phocomelia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anthony C; Gemmete, Joseph J; Keegan, Catherine E; Witt, Cordelie E; Muraszko, Karin M; Than, Khoi D; Maher, Cormac O

    2011-11-01

    Roberts/SC phocomelia syndrome (RBS) is a rare but distinct genetic disorder with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. It has been associated with microcephaly, craniofacial malformation, cavernous hemangioma, encephalocele, and hydrocephalus. There are no previously reported cases of RBS with intracranial aneurysms. The authors report on a patient with a history of RBS who presented with a spontaneous posterior fossa hemorrhage. Multiple small intracranial aneurysms were noted on a preoperative CT angiogram. The patient underwent emergency craniotomy for evacuation of the hemorrhage. A postoperative angiogram confirmed the presence of multiple, distal small intracranial aneurysms.

  15. Is acute reperfusion therapy safe in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysm?

    PubMed

    Mowla, Ashkan; Singh, Karanbir; Mehla, Sandhya; Ahmed, Mohammad K; Shirani, Peyman; Kamal, Haris; Krishna, Chandan; Sawyer, Robert N; Ching, Marilou; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Snyder, Kenneth V; Crumlish, Annemarie; Hopkins, L N

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are currently considered as contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke, very likely due to a possible increase in the risk of bleeding from aneurysm rupture; however, there is limited data available on whether intravenous thrombolysis is safe for acute ischemic stroke patients with pre-existing intracranial aneurysms. To find out the safety of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and cerebrovascular images of all the patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center from the beginning of 2006 till the end of April 2014. Those with unruptured intracranial aneurysm present on cerebrovascular images prior to acute reperfusion therapy were identified. Post-thrombolysis brain imaging was reviewed to evaluate for any intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage related or unrelated to the aneurysm. A total of 637 patients received intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center during an 8·3-year period. Thirty-three (5·2%) were found to have at least one intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-three (70%) of those received only intravenous thrombolysis, and 10 patients received combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis. The size of the largest aneurysm was 10 mm in maximum diameter (range: 2-10 mm). The mean size of aneurysms was 4·8 mm. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred among the 23 patients receiving only intravenous thrombolysis. Out of those who received a combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis, one developed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the location of acute infarct, distant to the aneurysm location. Our findings suggest that neither intravenous thrombolysis nor combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis increases the risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke

  16. Patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysmal stenting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appanaboyina, Sunil; Mut, Fernando; Löhner, Rainald; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2007-03-01

    Simulating blood flow around stents in intracranial aneurysms is important for designing better stents and to personalize and optimize endovascular stenting procedures in the treatment of these aneurysms. However, the main difficulty lies in the generation of acceptable computational grids inside the blood vessels and around the stents. In this paper, a hybrid method that combines body-fitted grid for the vessel walls and adaptive embedded grids for the stent is presented. Also an algorithm to map a particular stent to the parent vessel is described. These approaches tremendously simplify the simulation of blood flow past these devices. The methodology is evaluated with an idealized stented aneurysm under steady flow conditions and demonstrated in various patient-specific cases under physiologic pulsatile flow conditions. These examples show that the methodology can be used with ease in modeling any patient-specific anatomy and using different stent designs. This paves the way for using these techniques during the planning phase of endovascular stenting interventions, particularly for aneurysms that are difficult to treat with coils or by surgical clipping.

  17. Intracranial aneurysms: links among inflammation, hemodynamics and vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Tomoki; Meng, Hui; Young, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormal vascular remodeling mediated by inflammatory cells has been identified as a key pathologic component of various vascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, brain arteriovenous malformations and atherosclerosis. Based on findings from observational studies that analysed human intracranial aneurysms and experimental studies that utilized animal models, an emerging concept suggests that a key component of the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms is sustained abnormal vascular remodeling coupled with inflammation. This concept may provide a new treatment strategy to utilize agents to inhibit inflammation or cytokines produced by inflammatory cells such as matrix metalloproteinases. Such an approach would aim to stabilize these vascular lesions and prevent future expansion or rupture. PMID:16759441

  18. Site of ruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms in patients in Izumo City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    A community-based study was conducted to estimate the site distribution of ruptured intracranial aneurysms and to evaluate clinical features related to aneurysm site. The author reviewed data from 358 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated between 1980 and 1998 in Izumo, Japan. In 291 of these patients, the sites of the ruptured aneurysms were confirmed. The aneurysm arose from the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) in 101 patients, the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) in 24, the internal carotid artery (ICA) in 70, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 77, and the vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) in 19. Regardless of age, ACoA aneurysms were more frequent in men, whereas ICA aneurysms were more common in women. Intracerebral hemorrhage was more frequent in patients with MCA aneurysms, whereas intraventricular hemorrhage was more common in those with VBA, ACoA and distal ACA aneurysms. While the incidence of symptomatic vasospasm was not related to aneurysm site, the patients who died due to vasospasm harbored an ACoA or ICA aneurysm. The incidence of hydrocephalus was relatively high in patients with ACoA, ICA and VBA aneurysms, and low in those with MCA aneurysms. The overall outcome was best in patients with MCA aneurysms, followed by those with aneurysms of the ACA, including ACoA and distal ACA, ICA and VBA; these results were in good agreement with the admission grades. The roughly estimated proportions of the sites of aneurysm rupture were 40% for the ACA, including ACoA and distal ACA, 25% for the ICA, 25% for the MCA, and 10% for the VBA. The clinical features showed significant differences according to aneurysm site. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Study and Therapeutic Progress on Intracranial Serpentine Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kan; Yu, Tiecheng; Guo, Yunbao; Yu, Jinlu

    2016-01-01

    An intracranial serpentine aneurysm (SA) is a clinically rare entity, and very few multi-case studies on SA have been published. The present study reviewed the relevant literature available on PubMed. The studied information included the formation mechanism and natural history of SA as well as its clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics, and current treatments. After reviewing the literature, we conclude that intracranial SA can be managed surgically and by endovascular embolization, but the degree of blood flow in normal brain tissue distal to the SA must be evaluated. A balloon occlusion test (BOT) or cross compression test is recommended for this evaluation. If the collateral circulation is sufficiently compensatory, direct excision or embolization can be performed. However, if the compensatory collateral circulation is poor, a bypass surgery is necessary. Satisfactory results can be achieved in the majority of SA patients after treatment. However, the size of the aneurysm may increase in some patients after endovascular treatment. Special attention should be paid to cases exhibiting a significant mass effect to avoid subsequent SA excision due to an intolerable mass effect. Satisfactory results can be achieved with careful treatment of SA. PMID:27279792

  20. History, Evolution, and Continuing Innovations of Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leon T; O'Neill, Anthea H

    2017-06-01

    Evolution in the surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms is driven by the need to refine and innovate. From an early application of the Hunterian carotid ligation to modern-day sophisticated aneurysm clip designs, progress has been made through dedication and technical maturation of cerebrovascular neurosurgeons to overcome challenges in their practices. The global expansion of endovascular services has challenged the existence of aneurysm surgery, changing the complexity of the aneurysm case mix and volume that are referred for surgical repair. Concepts of how to best treat intracranial aneurysms have evolved over generations and will continue to do so with further technological innovations. As with the evolution of any type of surgery, innovations frequently arise from the criticism of current techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recanalization and rupture after intracranial aneurysm treatment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Emmanuel; Vaz, Geraldo R; Finet, Patrice; Goffette, Pierre; Docquier, Marie A; Raftopoulos, Christian

    2016-11-25

    Treatment of intra cranial aneurysm (ICA) can sometimes required several procedures. The aim of this study is to analyze the risk of recanalization and rupture recurrence after ICA treatment by endovascular coiling (EVC) or surgical clipping (SC) on a very long follow-up. Clinical data of 373 consecutive patients treated in our group between January 1996 and December 2006 as well by EVC as by SC for ruptured (RIA) or unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), were reviewed. Patients were followed up at least to August 2009. First radiologic follow-up done six months after EVC and between three and five years after SC (median time: 5 years)). All patients underwent a clinical follow-up after treatment, at least by telephonic communication (median time: 6 years). Out of 197 patients with 198 RIAs, 82 (42 %) patients underwent an endovascular treatment and 115 (58%) were allocated to surgical treatment. From a total of 176 patients with 229 UIAs, 66 (37.5%) patients were treated by 74 EVC; and 110 (62.5%) patients were treated with 124 surgical procedures. Fifteen recanalizations of coiled RIAs were detected and only one in the surgical group (27% vs. 2%; p= 0.0008). Of the 15 recanalizations in the EVC group, 6 (40%) were initially completely occluded. We observed two rebleedings, one in each group (1.4% for EVC; 1% for SC; p=0.8). Our findings during the longest reported follow-up confirm a greater risk of recanalization for RIA treated by EVC without so far a significant difference in the rerupture risk.

  2. Thrombosis modeling in intracranial aneurysms: a lattice Boltzmann numerical algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouared, R.; Chopard, B.; Stahl, B.; Rüfenacht, D. A.; Yilmaz, H.; Courbebaisse, G.

    2008-07-01

    The lattice Boltzmann numerical method is applied to model blood flow (plasma and platelets) and clotting in intracranial aneurysms at a mesoscopic level. The dynamics of blood clotting (thrombosis) is governed by mechanical variations of shear stress near wall that influence platelets-wall interactions. Thrombosis starts and grows below a shear rate threshold, and stops above it. Within this assumption, it is possible to account qualitatively well for partial, full or no occlusion of the aneurysm, and to explain why spontaneous thrombosis is more likely to occur in giant aneurysms than in small or medium sized aneurysms.

  3. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-03-03

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes.

  4. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Intracranial aneurysms: Diagnostics accuracy of three-dimensional, fourier transform, time-of-flight MR angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Korogi, Yukunori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa; Miki, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Satoru; Horikawa, Yoshiharu; Nakagawa, Toshio; O`Uchi, Toshihiro; Watabe, Tsuneya; Shiga, Hayao

    1994-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of three-dimensional, Fourier transform, time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in the identification of intracranial aneurysms. MR angiograms of 126 patients (59 male and 67 female patients, aged 12-77 years) with various intracranial vascular lesions were evaluated. Seventy-eight aneurysms, including 60 less than 5 mm in diameter, in 61 patients were depicted at conventional angiography. Eight projection images, as well as one axial collapsed MR angiogram obtained with a maximum-intensity projection algorithm, were used for evaluation. Sensitivity for the five observers ranged from 58% to 68% (mean, 63%). Higher sensitivity was achieved for anterior communicating and middle cerebral artery aneurysms, while that for internal carotid artery aneurysms was poor. Sensitivities for small and medium aneurysms ranged from 50% to 60% (mean, 56%) and from 77% to 94% (mean, 85%), respectively. MR angiography can depict intracranial aneurysms 5 mm or larger with good accuracy but is less useful for the identification of smaller aneurysms. 12 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Clinical Application of Insertion Force Sensor System for Coil Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Noriaki; Miyachi, Shigeru; Izumi, Takashi; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Marui, Naoki; Ota, Keisuke; Tajima, Hayato; Shintai, Kazunori; Ito, Masashi; Imai, Tasuku; Nishihori, Masahiro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    In endovascular embolization for intracranial aneurysms, it is important to properly control the coil insertion force. However, the force can only be subjectively detected by the subtle feedback experienced by neurointerventionists at their fingertips. The authors envisioned a system that would objectively sense and quantify that force. In this article, coil insertion force was measured in cases of intracranial aneurysm using this sensor, and its actual clinical application was investigated. The sensor consists of a hemostatic valve (Y-connector). A little flexure was intentionally added in the device, and it creates a bend in the delivery wire. The sensor measures the change in the position of the bent wire depending on the insertion force and translates it into a force value. Using this, embolization was performed for 10 unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The sensor adequately recorded the force, and it reflected the operators' usual clinical experience. The presence of the sensor did not affect the procedures. The sensor enabled the operators to objectively note and evaluate the insertion force and better cooperative handling was possible. Additionally, other members of the intervention team shared the information. Force records demonstrated the characteristic patterns according to every stage of coiling (framing, filling, and finishing). The force sensor system adequately measured coil insertion force in intracranial aneurysm coil embolization procedures. The safety of this sensor was demonstrated in clinical application for the limited number of patients. This system is useful adjunct for assisting during coil embolization for an intracranial aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endovascular treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysms: a retrospective study of 35 aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Koichiro; Tateshima, Satoshi; Golshan, Ali; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jahan, Reza; Duckwiler, Gary; Vinuela, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare and not well characterized in comparison with those in adults. To analyze our institution's longitudinal experience of endovascular treatment for pediatric aneurysms to better understand this rare condition. A retrospective record review was performed of patients aged <20 years treated with endovascular methods for intracranial aneurysms between 1995 and 2012. There were 31 patients (average 14.4±4.2 years; 20 male, 11 female) with 35 intracranial aneurysms. The rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage as the initial presentation was 48% and the rates of multiple and giant aneurysms were 13% and 31%, respectively; 28.5% of the cases were posterior circulation aneurysms. Fifteen saccular aneurysms occurred in 14 patients and 17 fusiform aneurysms were noted in 14 patients. Two infectious aneurysms were diagnosed in two patients and one traumatic aneurysm occurred in another patient. Thirty-four aneurysms were treated endovascularly and one had thrombosed spontaneously on a follow-up angiogram. Of the 15 saccular aneurysms, 11 were treated with conventional coiling, one was treated with stent-assisted coiling, one was treated with a flow-diverting stent and two were treated with parent vessel occlusion (PVO). Of the 17 fusiform aneurysms, 15 were treated with PVO with or without prior bypass surgery and one was treated with a flow-diverting stent. The rate of permanent complications and a favorable outcome were 2.9% and 87%, respectively. Endovascular treatment of pediatric aneurysms is technically feasible with an acceptable complication rate despite the high incidence of fusiform aneurysms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. [Temporary occlusion in surgical management of intracranial aneurysm. Report of 54 cases].

    PubMed

    Samaha, E; Rizk, T; Nohra, G; Mohasseb, G; Okais, N

    1999-03-01

    Temporary arterial occlusion (TAO) is commonly used in the surgery of intracranial giant aneurysms. Its usefulness and safety in the surgical management of all cases of aneurysms remains to be proved. We report a series of 54 patients operated on for an intracranial aneurysm with the use of TAO. Among the 27 patients, admitted before the 4th day following post subarachnoid hemorrhage with I or II on WFNS score clinically, 24 had early aneurysm surgery. The size of the aneurysm was small in 16 cases, medium in 22, large in 13 and giant in 3 cases. The protocol proposed by Batjer in 1988 for large and giant aneurysms (etomidate, normotention and hypervolemia) was used without any electrophysiological monitoring. All patients underwent a post-operative cerebral CT scan to evaluate the incidence of a cerebral ischemia. Serial transcranial doppler was used to evaluate the severity of vasospasm. Clinical results were assessed using the GOS. TAO was elective in 51 patients and done after peroperative aneurysm rupture in 3 patients. The duration of TAO was less than 5 mn in 25 patients, between 5 and 10 min in 12, between 10 and 15 in 11, between 15 and 20 in 5 and more than 20 min in one patient. The last one developed a reversible neurological deficit secondary to ischemia attribuated to TAO. Intracranial aneurysm peroperative rupture was noted in 3 patients, clinical vasospam in 13 patients. These results allow us to recommend the routine use of TAO in the surgery of intracranial aneurysm. When application time is limited and cerebral protection used, TAO is safe. It decreases the risk of intraoperative rupture from a 18% rate in literature to 4.2% in our present experience and the risk of symptomatic vasospasm is not increased.

  9. [Intracranial aneurysms and their clinical and genetic behaviour].

    PubMed

    García-Ortiz, Liliana; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Guerrero-Muñiz, Salvador; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Sánchez-Hernández, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are abnormal dilations of the cerebral arteries of unknown origin. However, some genes have been linked to their formation, as in the case of NOS3 gene which encodes the endothelial nitric oxide synthase responsible for producing nitric oxide. Several polymorphisms in this gene, in association with a variable number tandem repeat located in intron 4 from eNOS4 gene, can influence the formation of aneurysms. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the genotype frequencies of eNOS3 and eNOS4 genes, and their relationship with intracranial aneurysms. A prospective case-control study was performed on 79 cases with ruptured intracranial aneurysm and 93 healthy controls. DNA was obtained from all subjects for the study of the eNOS3 and eNOS4 genes by molecular techniques. The GG genotype of eNOS3 gene showed the largest number of patients (n=29) with a large aneurysm. While the intracranial aneurysms of medium size were found in a higher percentage (50%) in patients with genotype GT. In terms of patient outcomes, it was observed that those with genotype GG had the highest percentage (43.13%) recovery, compared to genotype GT (27.27%). The present study shows that there is a tendency of an association between genotypes of eNOS3 gene with the mean size of the aneurysm, as well as clinical sequelae of the disease in patients with intracranial aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying the Large-Scale Hemodynamics of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, G.; Mut, F.; Cebral, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hemodynamics play an important role in the mechanisms that govern the initiation, growth, and possible rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to objectively characterize these dynamics, classify them, and connect them to aneurysm rupture. MATERIALS AND METHODS Image-based computational fluid dynamic simulations were used to re-create the hemodynamics of 210 patient-specific intracranial aneurysm geometries. The hemodynamics were then classified according to their spatial complexity and temporal stability by using quantities derived from vortex core lines and proper orthogonal decomposition. RESULTS The quantitative classification was compared with a previous qualitative classification performed by visual inspection. Receiver operating characteristic curves provided area-under-the-curve estimates for spatial complexity (0.905) and temporal stability (0.85) to show that the 2 classifications were in agreement. Statistically significant differences were observed in the quantities describing the hemodynamics of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Specifically, ruptured aneurysms had more complex and more unstable flow patterns than unruptured aneurysms. Spatial complexity was more strongly associated with rupture than temporal stability. CONCLUSIONS Complex-unstable blood flow dynamics characterized by longer core line length and higher entropy could induce biologic processes that predispose an aneurysm for rupture. PMID:23928142

  11. Ultra-small diameter coils for treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Timothy; Beaty, Narlin; Puri, Ajit; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    This study reports our initial clinical experience treating very small intracranial aneurysms using only Target® Nano™ coils. Retrospective angiographic and clinical analysis was performed on a non-randomized single arm registry of all intracranial aneurysms treated with only Target® Nano™ coils (1 mm and 1.5 mm diameter only) during a 12 month period at two academic hospitals. Fourteen patients with 14 intracranial aneurysms were treated. The maximum diameter of saccular aneurysms treated ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 mm; minimum aneurysm diameter was 1.1 to 2 mm. The immediate complete aneurysm occlusion rate was 86% (12/14), and a small residual within the aneurysm was seen in 14% (2/14) of cases. Packing density from coils ranged between 24% and 83% (mean 51%). The immediate complication rate was 0% (0/14). The angiographic/MR angiography follow-up period was 22 to 70 weeks (mean 37 weeks) with an overall complete occlusion rate of 9/11 (81%), recurrence in 18% (2/11), and lack of follow-up in three cases, two due to death during hospitalization and one procedure not yet due for imaging follow-up. Both patients who died presented with brain aneurysm ruptures prior to treatment. Both recurrences were retreated with repeat coiling procedures. Our initial results using only Target® Nano™ coils for the endovascular treatment of very small intracranial aneurysms have demonstrated initial good safety and efficacy profiles. PMID:25934775

  12. Treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms yesterday and now

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Alexander; Steiner, Anahi; Kerry, Ghassan; Ranaie, Gholamreza; Baer, Ingrid; Hammer, Christian M.; Kunze, Stefan; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Objective This prospective study is designed to detect changes in the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms over a period of 17 years. Methods We compared 361 treated cases of aneurysm occlusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage from 1997 to 2003 with 281 cases from 2006 to 2014. Specialists of neuroradiology and vascular neurosurgery decided over the modality assignment. We established a prospective data acquisition in both groups to detect significant differences within a follow-up time of one year. With this setting we evaluated the treatment methods over time and compared endovascular with microsurgical treatment. Results When compared to the earlier group, microsurgical treatment was less frequently chosen in the more recent collective because of neck-configuration. Endovascular treatment was chosen more frequently over time (31.9% versus 48.8%). Occurrence of initial symptomatic ischemic stroke was significantly lower in the clipping group compared to the endovascular group and remained stable over time. The number of reinterventions due to refilled treated aneurysms significantly decreased in the endovascular group at one-year follow-up, but the significantly better occlusion- and reintervention-rate of the microsurgical group persisted. The rebleeding rate in the endovascular group at one year follow-up decreased from 6.1% to 2.2% and showed no statistically significant difference to the microsurgical group, anymore (endovascular 2.2% versus microsurgical 0.0%, p = 0.11). Conclusion Microsurgical clipping still has some advantages, however endovascular treatment is improving rapidly. PMID:28257502

  13. Virtual coiling of intracranial aneurysms based on dynamic path planning.

    PubMed

    Morales, Hernán G; Larrabide, Ignacio; Kim, Minsuok; Villa-Uriol, Maria-Cruz; Macho, Juan M; Blasco, Jordi; San Roman, Luis; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-01-01

    Coiling is possibly the most widespread endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms. It consists in the placement of metal wires inside the aneurysm to promote blood coagulation. This work presents a virtual coiling technique for pre-interventional planning and post-operative assessment of coil embolization procedure of aneurysms. The technique uses a dynamic path planning algorithm to mimic coil insertion inside a 3D aneurysm model, which allows to obtain a plausible distribution of coils within a patient-specific anatomy. The technique was tested on two idealized geometries: an sphere and a hexahedron. Subsequently, the proposed technique was applied in 10 realistic aneurysm geometries to show its reliability in anatomical models. The results of the technique was compared to digital substraction angiography images of two aneurysms.

  14. Cyclophilin A in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: A Prognostic Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Liu, Chin-San; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-09-01

    Cyclophilin A (CyPA), an oxidative stress-induced factor, was found to play an important role in the aneurysm formation. Our working hypothesis was that the plasma level of CyPA in ruptured intracranial aneurysm could predict the neurological outcome. From 2011 to 2013, a total of 36 patients with ruptured saccular intracranial aneurysm were recruited in our study. Before coil embolization, we draw blood samples at the orifice of a culprit aneurysm and in the remote peripheral vein for measurements of the CyPA levels. We utilized the modified Rankin scale 30 days after aneurysm rupture as the outcome measure. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios of the poor neurological outcome given the presence of high plasma level of CyPA. The aneurysmal and venous CyPA levels were significantly associated with the initial clinical severity (P = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively) and 30-day outcome (P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The aneurysmal CyPA levels modestly correlated with age and high Fisher grade (ρ = 0.39 and 0.41; P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). The aneurysmal CyPA levels strongly correlated with the venous counterpart (ρ = 0.89; P < 0.001). Patients with high levels of aneurysmal CyPA were 15.66 times (95% CI, 1.48-166.24; P = 0.02) more likely to have worse neurological outcome than those with the low levels after adjustment of the age, gender, and the documented confounding factors. High plasma level of CyPA is a significant prognostic biomarker for poor neurological outcome in patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  15. Quantifying Intracranial Aneurysm Wall Permeability for Risk Assessment Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vakil, P; Ansari, S A; Cantrell, C G; Eddleman, C S; Dehkordi, F H; Vranic, J; Hurley, M C; Batjer, H H; Bendok, B R; Carroll, T J

    2015-05-01

    Pathological changes in the intracranial aneurysm wall may lead to increases in its permeability; however the clinical significance of such changes has not been explored. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify intracranial aneurysm wall permeability (K(trans), VL) to contrast agent as a measure of aneurysm rupture risk and compare these parameters against other established measures of rupture risk. We hypothesized K(trans) would be associated with intracranial aneurysm rupture risk as defined by various anatomic, imaging, and clinical risk factors. Twenty-seven unruptured intracranial aneurysms in 23 patients were imaged with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, and wall permeability parameters (K(trans), VL) were measured in regions adjacent to the aneurysm wall and along the paired control MCA by 2 blinded observers. K(trans) and VL were evaluated as markers of rupture risk by comparing them against established clinical (symptomatic lesions) and anatomic (size, location, morphology, multiplicity) risk metrics. Interobserver agreement was strong as shown in regression analysis (R(2) > 0.84) and intraclass correlation (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.92), indicating that the K(trans) can be reliably assessed clinically. All intracranial aneurysms had a pronounced increase in wall permeability compared with the paired healthy MCA (P < .001). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant trend toward an increased K(trans) with increasing aneurysm size (P < .001). Logistic regression showed that K(trans) also predicted risk in anatomic (P = .02) and combined anatomic/clinical (P = .03) groups independent of size. We report the first evidence of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging-modeled contrast permeability in intracranial aneurysms. We found that contrast agent permeability across the aneurysm wall correlated significantly with both aneurysm size and size-independent anatomic risk factors. In addition, K(trans) was a significant and size

  16. Particularly interesting Cys-His-rich protein is highly expressed in human intracranial aneurysms and resists aneurysmal rupture

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Tao; Shi, Xiang-En; Li, Zhi-Qiang; He, Xin; Sun, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Particularly interesting Cys-His-rich protein (PINCH) has several biological functions in cancer development, invasion and metastasis in malignant cells, and the expression of PINCH is upregulated in several cancer types, including breast cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma and rectal cancer. However, the contribution of PINCH to human cerebral aneurysms remains largely unknown. Therefore, the significance of PINCH expression in cerebral aneurysm growth and rupture was examined in the present study. The protein expression levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin, osteopontin (OPN), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and PINCH were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses. The results demonstrate that the protein expression levels of OPN, MMP9 and PINCH in the unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UA) and ruptured intracranial aneurysm (RA) groups were markedly higher than those of the control group, whereas OPN and PINCH expression levels were decreased in the RA group compared to those of the UA group. In addition, there was a strong correlation between PINCH and tumor size (r=0.650 and P=0.0026), as well as between PINCH and OPN (r=0.639 and P=0.0033) in the unruptured cerebral aneurysms. However, the correlation between PINCH and tumor size (r=0.450 and P=0.1393) and between PINCH and OPN (r=0.366 and P=0.2426) revealed no obvious difference in the ruptured cerebral aneurysms. In conclusion, PINCH was highly expressed in the UAs, which may be a critical factor for preventing aneurysmal rupture. Moreover, PINCH may facilitate intracranial aneurysm progression, at least partially, through the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and the suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling. PMID:28101173

  17. Morphologic and Hemodynamic Analysis in the Patients with Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: Ruptured versus Unruptured

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Linkai; Fan, Jixing; Wang, Yang; Li, Haiyun; Wang, Shengzhang; Yang, Xinjian; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The authors evaluated the impact of morphologic and hemodynamic factors on multiple intracranial aneurysms and aimed to identify which parameters can be reliable indexes as one aneurysm ruptured, and the others did not. Methods Between June 2011 and May 2014, 69 patients harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms (69 ruptured and 86 unruptured) were analyzed from 3D-digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Morphologic and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified area under the curve (AUC) and optimal thresholds separating ruptured from unruptured intracranial aneurysms for each parameter. Significant parameters were examined by binary logistic regression analysis to identify independent discriminators. Results Nine morphologic (size, neck width, surface area, volume, diameter of parent arteries, aspect ratio, size ratio, lateral/bifurcation type and regular/irregular type) and 6 hemodynamic (WSSmean, WSSmin, OSI, LSA, flow stability and flow complexity) parameters achieved statistical significance (p<0.05). Six morphologic (size, surface area, volume, aspect ratio, size ratio and regular/irregular type) and five hemodynamic (WSSmean, WSSmin, LSA, flow stability and flow complexity) parameters had high AUC values (AUC>0.7). By binary logistic regression analysis, large aspect ratio and low WSSmean were the independently significant rupture factors (AUC, 0.924; 95% CI, 0.883–0.965). Conclusions Large aspect ratio and low WSSmean were independently associated with the rupture status of multiple intracranial aneurysms. PMID:26147995

  18. Intracranial saccular aneurysm in a child with only persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Olcay; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Dilber, Cengiz; Çinar, Celal

    2015-06-01

    Headache is one of the common symptoms of intracranial aneursym. A 5-year-old child lately presented to our pediatric emergency department with persistent headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 7×8 mm rounded lesion with slowly heterogeneous low signal in T2 sequence consistent with a partial occluded aneurysm, in the right medial frontal lobe that close to anterior cerebral artery. Intracranial aneurysms are rare in children and they are noncommon without complications as our case. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The association between lunar phase and intracranial aneurysm rupture: Myth or reality? Own data and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Gendvilaite, Agne; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas

    2017-05-19

    It is a common belief in medical community that lunar phases have an impact on human health. A growing body of evidence indicates that lunar phases can predict the risk to develop acute neurological and vascular disorders. The goal of present report was to present our institution data and to perform systematic review of studies examining the association of intracranial aneurysm rupture with moon phases. We identified all patients admitted to our department for ruptured intracranial aneurysms in a period between November, 2011 and December, 2014. Patients with a known aneurysm rupture date were included. Lunar phases were determined by dividing lunar month (29.5 days) into eight equal parts, i.e., new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last quarter and waning crescent. A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify studies that evaluated the association of lunar phases with the incident of intracranial aneurysm rupture. One hundred and eighty-six patients (62 men and 124 women, median age 56 years) were admitted to our department for treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The rate of intracranial aneurysm rupture was equally distributed across all phases of the lunar cycle (X (2) [7; 185] = 12.280, p = 0.092). We identified three studies that evaluated the association between incident intracranial aneurysm rupture and lunar phases with a total of 1483 patients. One study from Lebanon found that the incidence rate of intracranial aneurysm rupture was statistically significantly greater during the new moon phase (25% cases), relative to the other seven lunar phases (p < 0.001). Two subsequent studies from Austria and Germany in larger patient samples (n = 717 and n = 655, respectively) did not find an association between lunar phases and intracranial aneurysm rupture (p-values of 0.84 and 0.97, respectively). When analyzing all four studies together, we did not find an association between

  20. Evaluation of an asymmetric stent patch design for a patient specific intracranial aneurysm using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations in the computed tomography (CT) derived lumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsuok; Ionita, Ciprian; Tranquebar, Rekha; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    Stenting may provide a new, less invasive therapeutic option for cerebral aneurysms. However, a conventional porous stent may be insufficient in modifying the blood flow for clinical aneurysms. We designed an asymmetric stent consisting of a low porosity patch welded onto a porous stent for an anterior cerebral artery aneurysm of a specific patient geometry to block the strong inflow jet. To evaluate the effect of the patch on aneurysmal flow dynamics, we "virtually" implanted it into the patient's aneurysm geometry and performed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The patch was computationally deformed to fit into the vessel lumen segmented from the patient CT reconstructions. After the flow calculations, a patch with the same design was fabricated using laser cutting techniques and welded onto a commercial porous stent, creating a patient-specific asymmetric stent. This stent was implanted into a phantom, which was imaged with X-ray angiography. The hemodynamics of untreated and stented aneurysms were compared both computationally and experimentally. It was found from CFD of the patient aneurysm that the asymmetric stent effectively blocked the strong inflow jet into the aneurysm and eliminated the flow impingement on the aneurysm wall at the dome. The impact zone with elevated wall shear stress was eliminated, the aneurysmal flow activity was substantially reduced, and the flow was considerably reduced. Experimental observations corresponded well qualitatively with the CFD results. The demonstrated asymmetric stent could lead to a new minimally invasive image guided intervention to reduce aneurysm growth and rupture.

  1. Intracranial aneurysms in klippel-trenaunay/weber syndromes: case report.

    PubMed

    Star, Ava; Fuller, Christine E; Landas, Steve K

    2010-05-01

    We present a comprehensive review of intracranial aneurysms in Klippel-Trenaunay and Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndromes (KTS/KTWS), and examine factors influencing the risks of surgery vs conservative management. A 58-year-old physician with KTS affecting the right extremities presented with left hemispheric cerebellar stroke and was discovered to harbor four intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation: fusiform mid and distal BA (2.6 x 2 x 2 cm), fusiform right proximal P1 (2 x 1.3 x 1.3 cm), fusiform right distal P1 (2.8 x 2.7 x 2 cm), and saccular left distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm). Ten years later he had an infarct in the paramedian distribution of the basilar artery and a right internal capsule stroke. Two months later, he developed hydrocephalus, ultimately presenting in status epilepticus 4 months later secondary to ongoing aneurysm expansion and mass effect. Systemic anticoagulation for acute thrombosis with possible distal arterioarterial embolization from giant P1 aneurysms. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting for hydrocephalus. The patient died within 9 days after admission and 10 years after the initial discovery of aneurysms. Strict control of modifiable risk factors compromising vascular integrity and periodic neuroimaging are warranted in KTS/KTWS patients. KTS/KTWS patients are hypercoagulable, and may be predisposed to aneurysm thrombosis with increased risk for distal arterial microembolization. Stroke-related morbidity secondary to distal arterioarterial aneurysm thrombus embolization and acute aneurysm thrombosis may be decreased with systemic anticoagulation in this patient population. KTS/KTWS patients have significantly higher rates of DVT and PE than the general population, and should be classified in the high-risk category for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Both endovascular and open cerebrovascular techniques have been used successfully in KTS/KTWS patients with intracranial aneurysms.

  2. Rupture of intracranial aneurysms during endovascular coiling: management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Levy, E; Koebbe, C J; Horowitz, M B; Jungreis, C A; Pride, G L; Dutton, K; Kassam, A; Purdy, P D

    2001-10-01

    In this study, the incidence, etiologies, and management with respect to clinical outcome of patients with iatrogenic aneurysmal rupture during attempted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms are reviewed. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 274 patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with Guglielmi detachable coils over a 6-year period from 1994 to 2000. Patient medical records were examined for demographic data, aneurysm location, the number of coils deployed preceding and after aneurysmal rupture, the etiology of the rupture, and the clinical status on admission and at the time of discharge. Of 274 patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with coil embolization, six (2%) had an intraprocedural rupture. Of these six, two were women and four were men. The mean age was 67 years (range, 52-85 yr). Mean follow-up time was 8 months (range, 0-25 mo). Aneurysmal rupture resulted from detachment of the last coil in three patients, detachment of the third coil (of four) in one patient, and insertion of the first coil in another patient. In one patient, the aneurysmal rupture was a result of catheter advancement before detachment of the last coil. The Glasgow Outcome Scale score at last follow-up examination was 1 in two patients, 2 in two patients, and 5 in two patients. The rate of rupture of aneurysms during coil embolization is approximately 2 to 4%. The clinical outcome may be related to the timing of the rupture and the number of coils placed before rupture. If extravasation of contrast agent is seen, which suggests intraprocedural rupture, further coil deposition should be attempted if safely possible.

  3. Spontaneous regression of intracranial aneurysm following remote ruptured aneurysm treatment with pipeline stent assisted coiling.

    PubMed

    Tsimpas, Asterios; Ashley, William W; Germanwala, Anand V

    2016-10-01

    Spontaneous aneurysm regression is a rare phenomenon. We present the interesting case of a 54-year-old woman who was admitted with a Hunt/Hess grade IV, Fisher grade III subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms. She was treated with coiling of the largest paraclinoid aneurysm and placement of a flow diverting pipeline embolization device that covered all internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. A follow-up angiogram at 6 months showed remodeling of the ICA with complete obliteration of all treated aneurysms. A distant, untreated, right frontal M2 aneurysm regressed spontaneously, after the flow was diverted away from it with the stent. The literature is reviewed, and potential pathophysiological mechanisms leading to aneurysm regression are discussed.

  4. Spontaneous regression of intracranial aneurysm following remote ruptured aneurysm treatment with pipeline stent assisted coiling.

    PubMed

    Tsimpas, Asterios; Ashley, William W; Germanwala, Anand V

    2015-08-13

    Spontaneous aneurysm regression is a rare phenomenon. We present the interesting case of a 54-year-old woman who was admitted with a Hunt/Hess grade IV, Fisher grade III subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple intracranial aneurysms. She was treated with coiling of the largest paraclinoid aneurysm and placement of a flow diverting pipeline embolization device that covered all internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. A follow-up angiogram at 6 months showed remodeling of the ICA with complete obliteration of all treated aneurysms. A distant, untreated, right frontal M2 aneurysm regressed spontaneously, after the flow was diverted away from it with the stent. The literature is reviewed, and potential pathophysiological mechanisms leading to aneurysm regression are discussed.

  5. Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with Barricade coils: Feasibility, procedural safety, and immediate postoperative anatomical results.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Mohamed; Gawlitza, Matthias; Metaxas, Georgios; Foussier, Cédric; Soize, Sébastien; Pierot, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    The safety of bare platinum coils has been widely described in the literature. This study aimed to report the first series of intracranial aneurysms treated with Barricade bare platinum coils with a comprehensive evaluation of their procedural safety and postprocedural anatomical results. Patients with intracranial aneurysms treated between October 2013 and December 2015 by simple coiling or balloon-assisted coiling with Barricade coils (Blockade Medical, Irvine, California, USA) were prospectively included in a database and retrospectively studied. For all included patients, the patient and aneurysm characteristics, procedural complications, technical issues, postoperative anatomical results, and one-month clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale) were evaluated by an independent interventional neuroradiologist. Eighty-eight patients harboring 97 aneurysms were included. Procedural complications and technical issues were encountered in 17 and 5 patients (19.3 and 5.7%, respectively), but clinical worsening in only 2 patients (2.2%). There was no treatment-related mortality. After one month, morbidity (mRS≥1) was observed in 19 patients (21.8%), 17 related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in patients with ruptured aneurysms (19.4%) and 2 related to thromboembolic events in patients with unruptured aneurysms (2.3%). Nine patients initially presenting with a ruptured aneurysm were deceased at 1 month as a consequence of SAH (10.2%). Adequate occlusion was observed postoperatively in 94.8% of the aneurysms (complete occlusion in 81.4% and residual neck in 13.4%). Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with Barricade coils is feasible and the demonstrated overall safety results are within the ranges found in the literature for other coils. Immediate anatomical results are satisfying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracranial pediatric aneurysms: endovascular treatment and its outcome.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Rashmi; Shrivastava, Manish; Siddhartha, Wuppalapati; Limaye, Uday

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the location, clinical presentation, and morphological characteristics of pediatric aneurysms and the safety, feasibility, and durability of endovascular treatment. The authors conducted a retrospective study of all cases involving patients 18 years old or younger who underwent endovascular treatment for pediatric aneurysms at their institution between July 1998 and July 2010. The clinical presentation, aneurysm location, endovascular management, and treatment outcome were studied. During the study period, 23 pediatric patients (mean age 13 years, range 2 months-18 years) were referred to the authors' department and underwent endovascular treatment for aneurysms. The aneurysms were saccular in 6 cases, dissecting in 4, infectious in 5, and giant partially thrombosed lesions in 8. Fourteen of the aneurysms were ruptured, and 9 were unruptured. Thirteen were in the anterior circulation and 10 in the posterior circulation. The most common location in the anterior circulation was the anterior communicating artery; in the posterior circulation, the most common location was the basilar artery. Saccular aneurysms were the most common type in the anterior circulation; and giant partially thrombosed and dissecting aneurysms were the most common types in the posterior circulation. Coil embolization was performed in 7 cases, parent vessel sacrifice in 10, flow reversal in 3, glue embolization in 2, and stent placement in 1. Immediate angiographic cure was seen in 21 (91%) of 23 patients. Complications occurred in 4 patients, 3 of whom eventually had a good outcome. No patient died. Overall, a favorable outcome was seen in 22 (96%) of 23 patients. Follow-up showed stable occlusion of aneurysms in 96% of the patients. Pediatric aneurysms are rare. Their clinical presentation varies from intracranial hemorrhage to mass effect. They may also be found incidentally. Among pediatric patients with aneurysms, giant aneurysms are relatively common

  7. WEB Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, W J; Peluso, J P; Bechan, R S; Sluzewski, M

    2016-09-01

    The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device was recently introduced for intrasaccular treatment of wide-neck aneurysms without the need for adjunctive support. We present our first experience in using the WEB for small ruptured aneurysms. During 11 months, 32 of 71 (45%) endovascularly treated acutely ruptured aneurysms were treated with the WEB. The patients were 12 men and 20 women, with a mean age of 61 years (range, 34-84 years). The mean aneurysm size was 4.9 mm, and 14 were ≤4 mm. Of 32 aneurysms, 24 (75%) had a wide neck. All 32 aneurysms were adequately occluded after WEB placement. There were no procedural ruptures and no complications related to the WEB device. No adjunctive stents or balloons were needed. In 3 patients, thromboembolic complications occurred. One patient developed an infarction, and 2 patients were asymptomatic. The procedural complication rate was 3%. Seven patients admitted in poor clinical grade conditions died during hospital admission due to the sequelae of SAH. In 18 patients with angiographic follow-up at 3 months, 16 aneurysms remained adequately occluded. Two aneurysms showed slight compression of the WEB without reopening. Clinical follow-up in the 25 patients who survived the hospital admission period revealed mRS 1-2 in 24 and mRS 4 in 1. There were no rebleeds from the ruptured aneurysms during follow-up. WEB treatment of small ruptured aneurysms was safe and effective without the need for anticoagulation, adjunctive stents, or balloons. Our preliminary experience indicates that the WEB may be a valuable alternative to coils in the treatment of acutely ruptured aneurysms. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Genetic risk factors for intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Alg, Varinder S.; Sofat, Reecha; Houlden, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: There is an urgent need to identify risk factors for sporadic intracranial aneurysm (IA) development and rupture. A genetic component has long been recognized, but firm conclusions have been elusive given the generally small sample sizes and lack of replication. Genome-wide association studies have overcome some limitations, but the number of robust genetic risk factors for IA remains uncertain. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of all genetic association studies (including genome-wide association studies) of sporadic IA, conducted according to Strengthening the Reporting of Genetic Association Studies and Human Genome Epidemiology Network guidelines. We tested the robustness of associations using random-effects and sensitivity analyses. Results: Sixty-one studies including 32,887 IA cases and 83,683 controls were included. We identified 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IA. The strongest associations, robust to sensitivity analyses for statistical heterogeneity and ethnicity, were found for the following single nucleotide polymorphisms: on chromosome 9 within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense inhibitor gene (rs10757278: odds ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21–1.38; and rs1333040: OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.20–1.29), on chromosome 8 near the SOX17 transcription regulator gene (rs9298506: OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.15–1.27; and rs10958409: OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.13–1.26), and on chromosome 4 near the endothelin receptor A gene (rs6841581: OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.14–1.31). Conclusions: Our comprehensive meta-analysis confirms a substantial genetic contribution to sporadic IA, implicating multiple pathophysiologic pathways, mainly relating to vascular endothelial maintenance. However, the limited data for IA compared with other complex diseases necessitates large-scale replication studies in a full spectrum of populations, with investigation of how genetic variants relate to phenotype (e

  9. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history and clinical management. Update on the international study of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Wiebers, David O

    2006-08-01

    In guiding treatment decisions for all patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, it is important to compare size-, site-, and group-specific natural history data with size-, site- and age-specific treatment morbidity and mortality data. Because patient age has a major effect on operative morbidity and mortality, but relatively little effect on natural history, surgical treatment of an UIA patient over age 50 and any treatment of UIA patients over age 70 should be considered with particular vigilance. Optimally, patients should be evaluated and treated at high-volume centers in a setting that emphasizes neurovascular teamwork and unbiased presentation and delivery of different therapeutic option, including the option of observation, which is often appropriate for patients with UIAs.

  10. Surgery of intracranial aneurysms previously treated endovascularly.

    PubMed

    Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2007-11-01

    To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.

  11. Pantopaque simulating thrombosed intracranial aneurysms on MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lidov, M.W.; Silvers, A.R.; Mosesson, R.E.; Stollman, A.L.; Som, P.M.

    1996-03-01

    A patient is presented in whom iophendylate (Pantopaque) within the basal cisterns closely resembled the appearance on MRI of thrombosed aneurysms of the middle cerebral arteries. The sometimes subtle differences between the appearances on MRI of Pantopaque and aneurysmal clot are discussed to permit accurate diagnosis without resorting to more invasive diagnostic tests, such as cerebral angiography. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Hospital volume and 1-year mortality after treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a study based on patient registries in Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Lindekleiv, Haakon; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Førde, Olav H; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2015-09-01

    The object of this study was to examine the relationship between hospital volume and long-term mortality after treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The authors identified patients treated for intracranial aneurysms between 2002 and 2010 from patient registries of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and linked to data on 1-year mortality from the population registry of each country. Cox regression models were used to relate hospital volume to the risk of death and adjusted for potential confounders (age, sex, year of treatment, Charlson comorbidity index, country, and surgical treatment). The authors identified 5773 patients with ruptured and 1756 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, treated at 15 hospitals. One-year mortality rates were 15.6% for patients with ruptured aneurysms and 2.7% for patients with unruptured aneurysms. No consistent relationship was found between hospital volume and 1-year mortality for ruptured aneurysms in the unadjusted analyses, but higher hospital volume was associated with increased mortality in the analyses adjusted for potential confounders (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-patient increase 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07). There was a trend toward a lower mortality rate in higher-volume hospitals after treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms, but this was not statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (HR per 10-patient increase 0.69, 95% CI 0.42-1.10). There were large variations in mortality after treatment for both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms across hospitals and between the Scandinavian countries (p < 0.01). The findings in this study did not confirm a relationship between higher hospital volume and reduced long-term mortality after treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Prospective registries for evaluating outcomes after aneurysm treatment are highly warranted.

  13. Intracranial aneurysm growth quantification in CTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzian, Azadeh; Manniesing, Rashindra; Metz, Coert T.; Klein, Stefan; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van der Lugt, Aad; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2012-02-01

    Next to aneurysm size, aneurysm growth over time is an important indicator for aneurysm rupture risk. Manual assessment of aneurysm growth is a cumbersome procedure, prone to inter-observer and intra-observer variability. In clinical practice, mainly qualitative assessment and/or diameter measurement are routinely performed. In this paper a semi-automated method for quantifying aneurysm volume growth over time in CTA data is presented. The method treats a series of longitudinal images as a 4D dataset. Using a 4D groupwise non-rigid registration method, deformations with respect to the baseline scan are determined. Combined with 3D aneurysm segmentation in the baseline scan, volume change is assessed using the deformation field at the aneurysm wall. For ten patients, the results of the method are compared with reports from expert clinicians, showing that the quantitative results of the method are in line with the assessment in the radiology reports. The method is also compared to an alternative method in which the volume is segmented in each 3D scan individually, showing that the 4D groupwise registration method agrees better with manual assessment.

  14. [Endovascular treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Bracard, S; Derelle, A L; Tonnelet, R; Barbier, C; Proust, F; Anxionnat, R

    2016-02-01

    Giant aneurysms are defined as having a maximal diameter higher than 25mm. The dynamic aspect of giant aneurysms, in particular, is its growth, which was responsible for parenchyma sequellae either due to haemorrhagic complications or a compression of cranial nerves. The treatment of these giant aneurysms was challenging because of its size, the mass effect and the neck diameter. These morphologic conditions required complex endovascular procedures such as remodelling, stenting, using flow diverters. Subsequently, the complex procedures increased the risk of morbidity because of ischemic complications. Despite these procedures, the risk of recurrence was high.

  15. Validation of Blood Flow Simulations in Intracranial Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yue; Anor, Tomer; Baek, Hyoungsu; Jayaraman, Mahesh; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George

    2010-11-01

    Catheter-based digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the most accurate diagnostic procedure for investigating vascular anomalies and cerebral blood flow. Here we describe utilization of DSA in a patient with an intracranial aneursysm to validate corresponding spectral element simulations. Subsequently, we examine via visualization the structure of flow in internal carotid arteries laden with three different types of aneurysms: (1) a wide-necked saccular aneurysm, (2) a narrower-necked saccular aneurysm, and (3) a case with two adjacent saccular aneurysms. We have found through high resolution simulations that in cases (1) and (3) in physiological conditions a hydrodynamic instability occurs during the decelerating systolic phase resulting in a high frequency oscillation (20-50 Hz). We use the in-silico dye visualization to discriminate among different physical mechanisms causing the instability and contrast their effect with case (2) for which an instability arises only at much higher flowrates.

  16. Occlusion assessment of intracranial aneurysms treated with the WEB device.

    PubMed

    Caroff, Jildaz; Mihalea, Cristian; Tuilier, Titien; Barreau, Xavier; Cognard, Christophe; Desal, Hubert; Pierot, Laurent; Arnoux, Armelle; Moret, Jacques; Spelle, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    The Woven EndoBridge (WEB) system is an innovative device under evaluation for its capacity to treat wide-neck bifurcation intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of the different occlusion scales available in clinical practice. Seven WEB-experienced neurointerventionalists were provided with 30 angiographic follow-up data sets and asked to grade each evaluation point according to the Bicêtre Occlusion Scale Score (BOSS), firstly based on DSA images only then using additional C-Arm VasoCT analysis. This BOSS evaluation was then converted into the WEB Occlusion Scale (WOS) and into a dichotomized scale (complete occlusion or not). To estimate the inter-rater agreement among the seven raters, an overall kappa coefficient [1] and its standard error (SE) were computed. Using the five-grade BOSS, raters showed "moderate" agreement (kappa = 0.56). Using the three-grade WOS, agreement appeared slightly better (kappa = 0.59). Strongest inter-rater agreement was observed with a dichotomized version of the scale (complete occlusion or not), which enabled an "almost perfect" agreement (kappa = 0.88). VasoCT consistently enhanced the agreement particularly with regards depicting intra-WEB residual filling. The WOS is a consistent means to angiographically evaluate the WEB device efficiency. But the five-grade BOSS scale allows to identify aneurysm subgroups with differing risks of recurrence and/or rehemorrhage, which needs to be separated especially at the initial phase of evaluation of this innovative device. The additional use of VasoCT allows better inter-rater agreement in evaluating occlusion and specially in depicting intra-WEB persistent filling.

  17. A discussion of the optimal treatment of intracranial aneurysm rupture in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, C

    2014-08-25

    This study aimed to find an optimal treatment for intracranial aneurysm rupture in elderly patients. We adopted endovascular embolization and combined it with mini-invasive aspiration, vascular stenosis stenting, and rehabilitation training to treat 13 elderly patients with intracranial aneurysm rupture. When the 13 patients were discharged and evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), 7 patients were grade 5, 4 patients were grade 4, and 2 patients were grade 2. We found that a combination of endovascular embolization with mini-invasive aspiration and vascular stenosis stenting allowed us to adapt this treatment to various types of aneurysms. Our approach is especially suitable for elderly patients, because it reduces the occurrence of complications, improves patient prognoses, shortens the duration of hospitalization, and improves the quality of life.

  18. Intracranial aneurysm risk factor genes: relationship with intracranial aneurysm risk in a Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L T; Wei, F J; Zhao, Y; Zhang, Z; Dong, W T; Jin, Z N; Gao, F; Gao, N N; Cai, X W; Li, N X; Wei, W; Xiao, F S; Yue, S Y; Zhang, J N; Yang, S Y; Li, W D; Yang, X Y

    2015-06-18

    Few studies have examined the genes related to risk fac-tors that may contribute to intracranial aneurysms (IAs). This study in Chinese patients aimed to explore the relationship between IA and 28 gene loci, proven to be associated with risk factors for IA. We recruited 119 patients with aneurysms and 257 controls. Single factor and logistic regression models were used to analyze the association of IA and IA rup-ture with risk factors. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 22 genes were genotyped for the patient and control groups. SNP genotypes and allele frequencies were analyzed by the chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis identified hypertension as a factor that increased IA risk (P = 1.0 x 10(-4); OR, 2.500; 95%CI, 1.573-3.972); IA was associated with two SNPs in the TSLC2A9 gene: rs7660895 (P = 0.007; OR, 1.541; 95%CI, 1.126-2.110); and in the TOX gene: rs11777927 (P = 0.013; OR, 1.511; 95%CI, 1.088-2.098). Subsequent removal of the influence of family relationship identified between 12 of 119 patients enhanced the significant association of these SNPs with IA (P = 0.001; OR, 1.691; 95%CI, 1.226-2.332; and P = 0.006; OR, 1.587; 95%CI, 1.137-2.213 for rs7660895 and rs11777927, respectively). Fur-thermore, the minor allele of rs7660895 (A) was also associated with IA rupture (P = 0.007; OR, 2.196; 95%CI, 1.230-3.921). Therefore, hypertension is an independent risk factor for IA. Importantly, the TSL-C2A9 (rs7660895) and TOX (rs11777927) gene polymorphisms may be associated with formation of IAs, and rs7660895 may be associated with IA rupture.

  19. Management of infectious intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Flores, Bruno C; Patel, Ankur R; Braga, Bruno P; Weprin, Bradley E; Batjer, H Hunt

    2016-07-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) account for approximately 15 % of all pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Histologically, they are pseudoaneurysms that develop in response to an inflammatory reaction within the adventitia and muscularis layers, ultimately resulting in disruption of both the internal elastic membrane and the intima. The majority of pediatric IIAs are located within the anterior circulation, and they can be multiple in 15-25 % of cases. The most common presentation for an IIA is intracerebral and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage. In children with a known diagnosis of infective endocarditis who develop new neurological manifestations, it is imperative to exclude the existence of an IIA. The natural history of untreated infectious aneurysms is ominous; they demonstrate a high incidence of spontaneous rupture. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and adequate treatment are of paramount importance to prevent devastating neurological consequences. The prompt initiation of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics represents the mainstay of treatment. Three questions should guide the management of pediatric patients with IIAs: (a) aneurysm rupture status, (b) the presence of intraparenchymal hemorrhage or elevated intracranial pressure, and (c) relationship of the parent vessel to eloquent brain tissue. Those three questions should orient the treating physician into either antibiotic therapy alone or in combination with microsurgical or endovascular interventions. This review discusses important aspects of the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the management of IIAs in the pediatric population.

  20. Relative cost comparison of embolic materials used for treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Simon, Scott D; Reig, Adam S; James, Robert F; Reddy, Prasad; Mericle, Robert A

    2010-06-01

    Embolization of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms can be associated with excessive expense, especially for large/giant aneurysms. Depending on the material used, endovascular treatment may be cost prohibitive. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relative cost of various embolic agents. Utilizing software available at http://www.angiocalc.com, theoretical aneurysm volumes were calculated using aneurysm diameters ranging from 3 to 25 mm increasing in 1 mm increments. For each volume, the software calculated the length of coil needed to fill each size of aneurysm to a consistent, standardized and desirable packing density (25% coil:aneurysm volume). Each theoretical aneurysm was embolized by filling volume in a consistent, standardized, step-wise fashion. The cost of liquid embolics was calculated by adding the cost of 1.5 ml vials of Onyx HD 500 required to fill each volume. The embolic agents were then grouped into seven categories depending on the coil type and the cost of each aneurysm size was averaged. The average embolization with small outer diameter (0.010 inches) helical coils ranged between $714 for a 3 mm aneurysm to $113,009 for a 25 mm aneurysm, and between $2855 and $157,245 for small diameter spherical coils. Large outer diameter (>0.010 inches) helical coils cost between $2195 and $34,034 and large diameter spherical coils cost between $2195 and $86,957. Bioactive coils ranged between $1984 and $172,179, liquid embolic $5950 and $35,700, and hydrocoils $1295 and $32,873. Larger outer diameter helical coils, hydrocoils and liquid embolics provide a relative cost savings compared with standard, spherical or bioactive coils when aneurysm size, shape, packing density and embolic agent were controlled and standardized. This cost differential increases as the size of the aneurysm increases.

  1. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  2. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jou, Liangder; Britz, Gavin

    2016-07-12

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group.

  3. Flow instability and wall shear stress variation in intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Baek, H.; Jayaraman, M. V.; Richardson, P. D.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the flow dynamics and oscillatory behaviour of wall shear stress (WSS) vectors in intracranial aneurysms using high resolution numerical simulations. We analyse three representative patient-specific internal carotid arteries laden with aneurysms of different characteristics: (i) a wide-necked saccular aneurysm, (ii) a narrower-necked saccular aneurysm, and (iii) a case with two adjacent saccular aneurysms. Our simulations show that the pulsatile flow in aneurysms can be subject to a hydrodynamic instability during the decelerating systolic phase resulting in a high-frequency oscillation in the range of 20–50 Hz, even when the blood flow rate in the parent vessel is as low as 150 and 250 ml min−1 for cases (iii) and (i), respectively. The flow returns to its original laminar pulsatile state near the end of diastole. When the aneurysmal flow becomes unstable, both the magnitude and the directions of WSS vectors fluctuate at the aforementioned high frequencies. In particular, the WSS vectors around the flow impingement region exhibit significant spatio-temporal changes in direction as well as in magnitude. PMID:20022896

  4. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel; Varble, Nicole; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are potentially devastating pathological dilations of arterial walls that affect 2-5% of the population. In our previous CFD study of 119 IAs, we found that ruptured aneurysms were correlated with complex flow pattern and statistically predictable by low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index. To understand flow mechanisms that drive the pathophysiology of aneurysm wall leading to either stabilization or growth and rupture, we aim at exploring vortex dynamics of aneurysmal flow and provide insight into the correlation between the previous predictive morphological parameters and wall hemodynamic metrics. We adopt the Q-criterion definition of coherent structures (CS) and analyze the CS dynamics in aneurysmal flows for both ruptured and unruptured IA cases. For the first time, we draw relevant biological conclusions concerning aneurysm flow mechanisms and pathophysiological outcome. In pulsatile simulations, the coherent structures are analyzed in these 119 patient-specific geometries obtained using 3D angiograms. The images were reconstructed and CFD were performed. Upon conclusion of this work, better understanding of flow patterns of unstable aneurysms may lead to improved clinical outcome.

  5. Image based numerical simulation of hemodynamics in a intracranial aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Trung; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Kallmes, David; Cloft, Harry; Lewis, Debra; Dai, Daying; Ding, Yonghong; Kadirvel, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Image-based numerical simulations of hemodynamics in a intracranial aneurysm are carried out. The numerical solver based on CURVIB (curvilinear grid/immersed boundary method) approach developed in Ge and Sotiropoulos, JCP 2007 is used to simulate the blood flow. A curvilinear grid system that gradually follows the curved geometry of artery wall and consists of approximately 5M grid nodes is constructed as the background grid system and the boundaries of the investigated artery and aneurysm are treated as immersed boundaries. The surface geometry of aneurysm wall is reconstructed from an angiography study of an aneurysm formed on the common carotid artery (CCA) of a rabbit and discretized with triangular meshes. At the inlet a physiological flow waveform is specified and direct numerical simulations are used to simulate the blood flow. Very rich vortical dynamics is observed within the aneurysm area, with a ring like vortex sheds from the proximal side of aneurysm, develops and impinge onto the distal side of the aneurysm as flow develops, and destructs into smaller vortices during later cardiac cycle. This work was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  6. Screening for intracranial aneurysms? Prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in Hong Kong Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, David Y C; Abrigo, Jill M; Cheung, Tom C Y; Siu, Deyond Y W; Poon, Wai S; Ahuja, Anil T; Wong, George K C

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT The objective of this study was to generate data on the local prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) in asymptomatic Hong Kong Chinese individuals. First-degree relatives of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) were recruited as surrogates of the general population and to explore the potential role of screening in this locality. METHODS The authors identified first-degree relatives of consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm who were admitted to a university hospital in Hong Kong from June 2008 to December 2010. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was the imaging modality used to screen the cerebral vasculature of these asymptomatic individuals. If MRA showed abnormal findings, CT angiography was performed to confirm the MRA findings. RESULTS In total, 7 UIAs were identified from the 305 MR angiograms obtained. The prevalence of UIAs in first-degree relatives of patients with aSAH in the Hong Kong Chinese population was 2.30% (95% CI1.02%-4.76%). This percentage was lower than the prevalence rate of 3.2% from a meta-analysis of the literature. The sizes of the UIAs detected ranged from 1.4 mm to 7.5 mm; 85.7% of the UIAs detected in this study were < 5 mm, in contrast to 66% noted in the literature. One of the UIAs identified underwent endovascular stent placement with a flow diverter. None of the UIAs identified ruptured or became symptomatic during a median follow-up period of 3.5 years. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of UIAs in first-degree relatives of patients with aSAH in the Hong Kong Chinese population was lower than that in Caucasians. At the same time, most of the UIAs detected in this study were small (85.7% were < 5 mm, vs 66% in a meta-analysis). With a similar incidence of aSAH in Hong Kong (7.5 per 100,000 person-years) as compared with data cited in the literature, the hypothesis that UIA rupture risk size threshold is different in Chinese patients should be further

  7. Single-center experience in the endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with a bridging intra-/extra-aneurysm implant (pCONus)

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, S; Weber, A; Titschert, A; Brenke, C; Kowoll, A; Weber, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of the endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms assisted by a novel intra-/extra-aneurysm stent-like implant (pCONus). Methods Initial and follow-up angiographic and clinical results are presented of 25 patients with 25 unruptured and ruptured wide-necked intracranial aneurysms treated by reconstruction of the aneurysm neck using the pCONus implant followed by coil occlusion of the fundus. Results Successful intra-/extra-aneurysm deployment of the pCONus with coil occlusion of the fundus was achieved in all but one case. Procedure-related ischemic complications were observed in three cases with permanent deterioration in one. Acceptable aneurysm occlusion was achieved in all cases. Follow-up angiography revealed sufficient occlusion in 81.0% of the aneurysms. Intimal hyperplasia in the stented segment of the parent artery or device migration has not been observed to date. Conclusions The pCONus device offers a promising treatment option for complex wide-necked bifurcation intracranial aneurysms. Acute or delayed dislocations of coils into the parent artery are successfully avoided. PMID:26658279

  8. CT angiography of intracranial aneurysms: a focus on postprocessing.

    PubMed

    Tomandl, Bernd F; Köstner, Niels C; Schempershofe, Miriam; Huk, Walter J; Strauss, Christian; Anker, Lars; Hastreiter, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) angiography is a well-known tool for detection of intracranial aneurysms and the planning of therapeutic intervention. Despite a wealth of existing studies and an increase in image quality due to use of multisection CT and increasingly sophisticated postprocessing tools such as direct volume rendering, CT angiography has still not replaced digital subtraction angiography as the standard of reference for detection of intracranial aneurysms. One reason may be that CT angiography is still not a uniformly standardized method, particularly with regard to image postprocessing. Several methods for two- and three-dimensional visualization can be used: multiplanar reformation, maximum intensity projection, shaded surface display, and direct volume rendering. Pitfalls of CT angiography include lack of visibility of small arteries, difficulty differentiating the infundibular dilatation at the origin of an artery from an aneurysm, the kissing vessel artifact, demonstration of venous structures that can simulate aneurysms, inability to identify thrombosis and calcification on three-dimensional images, and beam hardening artifacts produced by aneurysm clips. Finally, an algorithm for the safe and useful application of CT angiography in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage has been developed, which takes into account the varying quality of equipment and software at different imaging centers. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  9. Microguidewire Looping to Traverse Stented Parent Arteries of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Dae; Rhim, Jong Kook; Yoo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee

    2017-01-01

    Objective Stents are widely used in coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms, but on occasion, a microcatheter must traverse a stented segment of artery (so-called trans-cell technique) to select an aneurysm, or double stenting may necessary. In such situations, microguidewire passage and microcatheter delivery through a tortuous stented parent artery may pose a technical challenge. Described herein is a microguidewire looping technique to facilitate endovascular navigation in these circumstances. Methods To apply this technique, the microguidewire tip is looped before entering the stented parent artery and then advanced distally past the stented segment, with the loop intact. Rounding of the tip prevents interference from stent struts during passage. A microcatheter is subsequently passed into the stented artery for positioning near the neck of aneurysm, with microguidewire assistance. The aneurysm is then selected, steering the microcatheter tip (via inner microguidewire) into the dome. Results This technique proved successful during coil embolization of nine saccular intracranial aneurysms (internal carotid artery [ICA], 6; middle cerebral artery, 2; basilar tip, 1), performing eight trans-cell deliveries and one additional stenting. Selective endovascular embolization was enabled in all patients, resulting in excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes, with no morbidity or mortality directly attributable to microguidewire looping. Conclusion Microguidewire looping is a reasonable alternative if passage through a stented artery is not feasible by traditional means, especially at paraclinoid ICA sites. PMID:28264249

  10. Flow Conditions in the Intracranial Aneurysm Lumen Are Associated with Inflammation and Degenerative Changes of the Aneurysm Wall.

    PubMed

    Cebral, J; Ollikainen, E; Chung, B J; Mut, F; Sippola, V; Jahromi, B R; Tulamo, R; Hernesniemi, J; Niemelä, M; Robertson, A; Frösen, J

    2017-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm is a common disease that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage. Hemodynamics, wall remodeling, and wall inflammation have been associated with saccular intracranial aneurysm rupture. We investigated how saccular intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics is associated with wall remodeling and inflammation of the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Tissue samples resected during a saccular intracranial aneurysm operation (11 unruptured, 9 ruptured) were studied with histology and immunohistochemistry. Patient-specific computational models of hemodynamics were created from preoperative CT angiographies. More stable and less complex flows were associated with thick, hyperplastic saccular intracranial aneurysm walls, while slower flows with more diffuse inflow were associated with degenerated and decellularized saccular intracranial aneurysm walls. Wall degeneration (P = .041) and rupture were associated with increased inflammation (CD45+, P = .031). High wall shear stress (P = .018), higher vorticity (P = .046), higher viscous dissipation (P = .046), and high shear rate (P = .046) were associated with increased inflammation. Inflammation was also associated with lack of an intact endothelium (P = .034) and the presence of organized luminal thrombosis (P = .018), though overall organized thrombosis was associated with low minimum wall shear stress (P = .034) and not with the flow conditions associated with inflammation. Flow conditions in the saccular intracranial aneurysm are associated with wall remodeling. Inflammation, which is associated with degenerative wall remodeling and rupture, is related to high flow activity, including elevated wall shear stress. Endothelial injury may be a mechanism by which flow induces inflammation in the saccular intracranial aneurysm wall. Hemodynamic simulations might prove useful in identifying saccular intracranial aneurysms at risk of developing inflammation, a potential biomarker for rupture.

  11. Angiographic Results of Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysms Treated with Coil Embolization : A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joon Ho; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Kim, Ji Hee; Oh, Jae Keun; Cho, Byung Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms is a challenge and the durability and the safety of these treated aneurysms remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and long-term angiographic results of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms treated with coil embolization. Methods Between January 2002 and December 2012, 53 wide-necked aneurysms treated with coil embolization were selected. Forty were female, and 13 were male. Twenty eight (52.8%) were ruptured aneurysms, and 25 (47.2%) were unruptured aneurysms. The patents' medical and radiological records were reviewed retrospectively. Results Of the 53 aneurysms, coiling alone was employed in 45 (84.9%) and stent-assisted coiling was done in 8 (15.1%). The initial angiographic results revealed Raymond class 1 (complete occlusion) in 30 (56.6%) cases, Raymond class 2 (residual neck) in 18 (34.0%) cases, and Raymond class 3 (residual sac) in 5 (9.4%) cases. The mean angiographic follow-up period was 37.9 months (12-120 months). At the last angiographies, Raymond class 1 was seen in 26 (49.1%) cases, Raymond class 2 in 16 (30.2%), and Raymond class 3 in 11 (20.8%). Angiographic recurrence occurred in 22 (41.5%) patients, with minor recurrence in 7 (13.2%) cases and major recurrence in 15 (28.3%). Retreatment was performed in 8 cases (15.1%). A suboptimal result on the initial angiography was a significant predictor of recurrence in this study (p=0.03). Conclusion The predictor of recurrence in wide-necked aneurysms is a suboptimal result on the initial angiography. Long-term angiographic follow-up is recommended in wide-necked aneurysms. PMID:25932291

  12. [Role of anesthesiologist in endovascular management of intracranial aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Murselović, Tamara; Adanić Mikloska, Ines; Bajić Rifai, Miroslava; Majerić Kogler, Visnja

    2008-02-01

    The aim is to give a review of the anesthesiological approach to neuroradiological endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysm in Croatia since 2004, when the first procedure was done. It took place at University Department of Radiology, Zagreb University Hospital Center. The optimal conduct of anesthesia in the neuroradiology suite requires careful planning of each individual procedure. Essential components are detailed patient evaluation and due understanding of the underlying neuropathology. An open channel of communication between the radiologist and the anesthesiologist is important for routine care but is crucial in case of disasters that may occur during the procedure. In the patient management the basic principles of neuroanesthesia cannot be avoided. This includes optimization of CBF, perfusion pressure, control of intracranial pressure (ICP) and close monitoring of blood pressure (BP), fluid status and body temperature. The choice of anesthetic agents and techniques remains in the hands of the anesthesiologist. The needs of the neuroradiologist and the procedure have to be considered. Most institutions have their protocols and some favor conscious sedation whereas others prefer general anesthesia. There is little evidence in favor of either technique. The better image quality obtained from the motionless patient during digital subtraction angiography favors the use of general anesthesia over any other technique. Since the procedure is becoming very complex, the need for precise BP control and preparation for potential catastrophic complication are considerations for general anesthesia. Aneurysm rupture during endovascular procedures is not common but remains a potential risk. The incidence ranges from 2.3% to 3% and even higher in patients with already ruptured aneurysms. The mortality rate is up to 20% in case of rupture, especially if massive subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs. Anesthesiologic treatment depends on the severity of bleeding and includes

  13. Management of giant intracranial ICA aneurysms with combined extracranial-intracranial anastomosis and endovascular occlusion.

    PubMed

    Serbinenko, F A; Filatov, J M; Spallone, A; Tchurilov, M V; Lazarev, V A

    1990-07-01

    Nine patients with giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms (greater than 2.5 cm in diameter) were subjected to a combined extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass procedure and endovascular ICA occlusion during 1987 and 1988. The procedures were performed under one anesthetic. In all cases the collateral circulation had been judged insufficient on the basis of a strict preoperative testing protocol including: cerebral panangiography, electroencephalography, somatosensory potential recording, and cerebral blood flow monitoring during manual compression of the ICA in the neck. There were four intracavernous ICA aneurysms, four carotid-ophthalmic artery aneurysms, and one supraclinoid ICA aneurysm. All patients showed symptoms and signs of compression of the surrounding nervous structures. In the five cases of intradural lesions, the artery was occluded at the level of the aneurysm neck, so the ophthalmic artery had to be occluded. There was, nevertheless, no case of worsening of vision following surgery, and all nine patients showed significant improvement following the combined procedure. A combined EC-IC bypass procedure and endovascular ICA occlusion allows for immediate verification of the surgical results and appears to be a worthwhile method for treating giant intracranial aneurysms.

  14. Feasibility and methodology of optical coherence tomography imaging of human intracranial aneurysms: ex vivo pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, Barry; Sun, Cuiru; Khiel, Tim-Rasmus; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Standish, Beau A.; da Costa, Leodante; de Morais, Josaphat; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    Rupture of intracranial aneurysm is a common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. An aneurysm may undergo microscopic morphological changes or remodeling of the vessel wall prior to rupture, which could potentially be imaged. In this study we present methods of tissue sample preparation of intracranial aneurysms and correlation between optical coherence tomography imaging and routine histology. OCT has a potential future in the assessment of microscopic features of aneurysms, which may correlate to the risk of rupture.

  15. Intracranial aneurysms in twins: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Leung, H K; Lam, Y; Cheng, K M; Chan, C M; Cheung, Y L

    2011-04-01

    Intracranial aneurysm in twins is a rare clinical disease entity. Only 15 cases have been described in the literature. We report on a pair of identical twins with intracranial aneurysms. One presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage; digital subtraction angiography showed a left posterior communicating artery aneurysm, which was treated by coiling. The patient's twin sister was called for screening, whereupon digital subtraction angiography revealed a right ophthalmic internal carotid artery aneurysm that was treated conservatively.

  16. Endovascular management of intracranial blister aneurysms: spectrum and limitations of contemporary techniques.

    PubMed

    Ashour, Ramsey; Dodson, Stephen; Aziz-Sultan, M Ali

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial blister aneurysms are rare lesions that are notoriously more difficult to treat than typical saccular aneurysms. High complication rates associated with surgery have sparked considerable interest in endovascular techniques, though not well-studied, to treat blister aneurysms. To evaluate our experience using various endovascular approaches to treat blister aneurysms. All consecutive blister aneurysms treated using an endovascular approach by the study authors over a 3-year period were retrospectively analyzed. A literature review was also performed. Nine patients with blister aneurysms underwent 11 endovascular interventions. In various combinations, stents were used in 8/11, coils in 5/11, and Onyx in 3/11 procedures. At mean angiographic follow-up of 200 days, 8/9 aneurysms were completely occluded by endovascular means alone requiring no further treatment and 1/9 aneurysms required surgical bypass/trapping after one failed surgical and two failed endovascular treatments. At mean clinical follow-up of 416 days, modified Rankin Scale scores were improved in six patients, stable in two, and worsened in one patient. One complication occurred in 11 procedures (9%), resulting in a permanent neurologic deficit. No unintended endovascular parent vessel sacrifice, intraprocedural aneurysmal ruptures, antiplatelet-related complications, post-treatment aneurysmal re-ruptures, or deaths occurred. This series highlights both the spectrum and limitations of endovascular techniques currently used to treat blister aneurysms, including a novel application of stent-assisted Onyx embolization. Long-term follow-up and experience in larger studies are required to better define the role of endovascular therapy in the management of these difficult lesions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Unsteady velocity measurements in a realistic intracranial aneurysm model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugron, Ádám; Farinas, Marie-Isabelle; Kiss, László; Paál, György

    2012-01-01

    The initiation, growth and rupture of intracranial aneurysms are intensively studied by computational fluid dynamics. To gain confidence in the results of numerical simulations, validation of the results is necessary. To this end the unsteady flow was measured in a silicone phantom of a realistic intracranial aneurysm. A flow circuit was built with a novel unsteady flow rate generating method, used to model the idealised shape of the heartbeat. This allowed the measurement of the complex three-dimensional velocity distribution by means of laser-optical methods such as laser doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV measurements, available with high temporal and spatial distribution, were found to have good agreement with the control LDA measurements. Furthermore, excellent agreement was found with the numerical results.

  18. Trigger factors for rupture of intracranial aneurysms in relation to patient and aneurysm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vlak, Monique H M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Greebe, Paut; van der Bom, Johanna G; Algra, Ale

    2012-07-01

    Female gender, age above 60 years, and an aneurysm larger than 5 mm or location on the posterior circulation are associated with a higher rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms. We hypothesized that this association is explained by a higher susceptibility to (one of) the eight trigger factors that were recently identified. We included 250 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of aneurysmal rupture for trigger factors according to sex, age, site, and size of the aneurysms by means of the case-crossover design. None of the triggers except for physical exercise differed according to patient and aneurysm characteristics. In the hour after exposure to physical exercise: (1) patients over the age of 60 have a six-times-higher risk of rupture (RR 13; 95% CI 6.3-26) than those of 60 years of age and under (RR 2.3; 1.3-4.1); (2) aneurysms at the internal carotid artery have a higher risk than those at other locations (RR 17; 7.8-37), but this was only statistically significant when compared to anterior communicating artery aneurysms (RR 3.2; 1.6-6.1); (3) aneurysms 5 mm or smaller had a higher risk of rupture (RR 9.5; 4.6-19) than larger aneurysms (RR 2.4; 1.3-4.3); and (4) women and men had similar risks. A higher susceptibility to exercise might explain part of the higher risk of rupture in older patients. Why women and patients with aneurysms larger than 5 mm or posterior circulation aneurysms have a higher risk of rupture remains to be settled.

  19. Meta-Analysis of the Efficiency and Prognosis of Intracranial Aneurysm Treated with Flow Diverter Devices.

    PubMed

    Ye, Gengfan; Zhang, Meng; Deng, Lin; Chen, Xiaohui; Wang, Yunyan

    2016-05-01

    Flow diverter devices (FDDs) are increasingly used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysm. The safety and feasibility of FDD were assessed in published literature. In accordance with strict inclusion criteria, Medline, Embase, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Web of Science databases were searched for literature that covers a period until February 2015. The baseline characteristics of patients, aneurysms, aneurysm occlusion, morbidity, and mortality were also collected. A meta-analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0, and a chi-squared test was performed to evaluate whether statistically significant differences existed between complications and mortality of aneurysm patients. Finally, a total of 48 studies were selected, including 2508 patients with 2826 aneurysm cases. The mean follow-up interval is 6.3 months, and the aneurysm occlusion rate is 77.9 % (95 % CI 73.8-81.9, I (2) = 43.4 %). The total morbidity and mortality rates are 9.8 and 3.8 %, respectively. The rates of spontaneous rupture and intraparenchymal hemorrhage are 2.0 and 2.5 %, respectively. The rate of ischemic stroke is 5.5 %. The morbidity and mortality rates of giant aneurysms are significantly higher than those of small and large aneurysms (χ (2) = 56.96, p < 0.05; χ (2) = 14.88, p < 0.05). The morbidity rates of posterior aneurysms are significantly higher than those of anterior (χ (2) = 11.29, p < 0.05) and unruptured aneurysms (χ (2) = 10.36, p < 0.05), respectively. The publication bias of aneurysm occlusion was detected by Begg's rank, and the corrected result is less than 0.05. Our meta-analysis suggests that the treatment of intracranial aneurysm with FDD is feasible and effective with a high occlusion rate, acceptable morbidity, and mortality. However, the morbidity or mortality of giant aneurysms is still high.

  20. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  1. Intracranial Pseudoaneurysms, Fusiform Aneurysms and Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xianli; Jiang, Chuhan; Li, Youxiang; Lv, Ming; Zhang, Jingbo; Wu, Zhongxue

    2008-01-01

    Summary The study assessed the effectiveness and safety of endovascular covered stents in the management of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Fourteen endovascular covered stents were used to repair three pseudoaneurysms, six fu-siform aneurysms and six direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Aneurysms were in the carotid artery in seven cases, in the vertebral artery two cases. It was not possible to treat two additional cases transcutaneously for technical reasons
2/15. Percutaneous closure of the lesions with an endovascular covered stent was successful in 13 of 15 cases. Initial follow-up showed good stent patency. No complications were observed after stent implantation. During follow-up, stent thromboses were detected in two of nine patients with follow-up digital subtracted angiography. One carotid-cavernous fistula of Barrow Type A transformed into Barrow Type D at nine month follow-up study was cured with a procudure of Onyx-18 injection. Endovascular covered stents may be an option for percutaneous closure of intracranial pseudoaneurysms, fusiform aneurysms and direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Endoluminal vascular repair with covered stents offers an alternative therapeutic approach to conventional modalities. PMID:20557743

  2. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: benign curiosity or ticking bomb?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gholkar, Anil; Vindlacheruvu, Raghu R; Mendelow, A David

    2004-02-01

    15 years ago, the treatment of incidentally discovered intracranial aneurysms was straightforward with a good evidence base behind it. When intracranial aneurysms were identified, people were referred to neurosurgeons who would offer surgical repair if the patient was in reasonable health and had a good life expectancy. Since that time, several studies have given contradictory evidence for what should be done with these lesions, and a new technique for the repair of aneurysms, endovascular coil embolisation, has been developed. Here we review the research and make several recommendations. First, incidentally discovered aneurysms in the anterior circulation less than 7 mm in size in people with no personal or family history of subarachnoid haemorrhage should be left untreated. Second, people with remaining life expectancy of less than 20 years or so (ie, those over age 60 years) should be informed that from a statistical point of view the benefits of treatment do not outweigh the risks. Third, in all other cases treatment with surgical clipping or coil embolisation should be advised. And finally, if surgical treatment is not feasible then medical hypotensive treatment may be a viable alternative.

  3. Endovascular treatment of bifurcation intracranial aneurysms with the WEB SL/SLS: 6-month clinical and angiographic results.

    PubMed

    Bozzetto Ambrosi, Patricia; Gory, Benjamin; Sivan-Hoffmann, Rotem; Riva, Roberto; Signorelli, Francesco; Labeyrie, Paul-Emile; Eldesouky, Islam; Sadeh-Gonike, Udi; Armoiry, Xavier; Turjman, Francis

    2015-08-01

    The WEB device is a recent intrasaccular flow disruption technique developed for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. To date, a single report on the WEB Single-Layer (SL) treatment of intracranial aneurysms has been published with 1-months' safety results. The aim of this study is to report our experience and 6-month clinical and angiographic follow-up of endovascular treatment of wide-neck aneurysm with the WEB SL. Ten patients with 10 unruptured wide-necked aneurysms were prospectively enrolled in this study. Feasibility, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and outcomes were recorded. Immediate and 6-month clinical and angiographic results were evaluated. Failure of WEB SL placement occurred in two cases. Eight aneurysms were successfully treated using one WEB SL without additional treatment. Three middle cerebral artery, four anterior communicating artery, and one basilar artery aneurysms were treated. Average dome width was 7.5 mm (range 5.4-10.7 mm), and average neck size was 4.9 mm (range 2.6-6.5 mm). No periprocedural complication was observed, and morbi-mortality at discharge and 6 months was 0.0%. Angiographic follow-up at 6 months demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion in 2/8 aneurysms, neck remnant in 5/8 aneurysms, and aneurysm remnant in 1/8 aneurysm. From this preliminary study, treatment of bifurcation intracranial aneurysms using WEB SL is feasible. WEB SL treatment seems safe at 6 months; however, the rate of neck remnants is not negligible due to compression of the WEB SL. Further technical improvements may be needed in order to ameliorate the occlusion in the WEB SL treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Endovascular treatment of bifurcation intracranial aneurysms with the WEB SL/SLS: 6-month clinical and angiographic results

    PubMed Central

    Bozzetto Ambrosi, Patricia; Sivan-Hoffmann, Rotem; Riva, Roberto; Signorelli, Francesco; Labeyrie, Paul-Emile; Eldesouky, Islam; Sadeh-Gonike, Udi; Armoiry, Xavier; Turjman, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Background The WEB device is a recent intrasaccular flow disruption technique developed for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. To date, a single report on the WEB Single-Layer (SL) treatment of intracranial aneurysms has been published with 1-months' safety results. The aim of this study is to report our experience and 6-month clinical and angiographic follow-up of endovascular treatment of wide-neck aneurysm with the WEB SL. Methods Ten patients with 10 unruptured wide-necked aneurysms were prospectively enrolled in this study. Feasibility, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and outcomes were recorded. Immediate and 6-month clinical and angiographic results were evaluated. Results Failure of WEB SL placement occurred in two cases. Eight aneurysms were successfully treated using one WEB SL without additional treatment. Three middle cerebral artery, four anterior communicating artery, and one basilar artery aneurysms were treated. Average dome width was 7.5 mm (range 5.4–10.7 mm), and average neck size was 4.9 mm (range 2.6–6.5 mm). No periprocedural complication was observed, and morbi-mortality at discharge and 6 months was 0.0%. Angiographic follow-up at 6 months demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion in 2/8 aneurysms, neck remnant in 5/8 aneurysms, and aneurysm remnant in 1/8 aneurysm. Conclusions From this preliminary study, treatment of bifurcation intracranial aneurysms using WEB SL is feasible. WEB SL treatment seems safe at 6 months; however, the rate of neck remnants is not negligible due to compression of the WEB SL. Further technical improvements may be needed in order to ameliorate the occlusion in the WEB SL treatment. PMID:26111987

  5. From bench to bedside: utility of the rabbit elastase aneurysm model in preclinical studies of intracranial aneurysm treatment.

    PubMed

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Ding, Yong H; Kallmes, David F; Kadirvel, Ramanathan

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical studies are important in helping practitioners and device developers improve techniques and tools for endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Thus an understanding of the major animal models used in such studies is important. The New Zealand rabbit elastase induced arterial aneurysm of the common carotid artery is one of the most commonly used models in testing the safety and efficacy of new endovascular devices. In this review we discuss: (1) the various techniques used to create the aneurysm, (2) complications of aneurysm creation, (3) natural history of the arterial aneurysm, (4) histopathologic and hemodynamic features of the aneurysm, (5) devices tested using this model, and (6) weaknesses of the model. We demonstrate how preclinical studies using this model are applied in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms in humans. The model has similar hemodynamic, morphological, and histologic characteristics to human aneurysms, and demonstrates similar healing responses to coiling as human aneurysms. Despite these strengths, however, the model does have many weaknesses, including the fact that the model does not emulate the complex inflammatory processes affecting growing and ruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, the extracranial location of the model affects its ability to be used in preclinical safety assessments of new devices. We conclude that the rabbit elastase model has characteristics that make it a simple and effective model for preclinical studies on the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, but further work is needed to develop aneurysm models that simulate the histopathologic and morphologic characteristics of growing and ruptured aneurysms.

  6. Wall motion estimation in intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Oubel, E; Cebral, J R; De Craene, M; Blanc, R; Blasco, J; Macho, J; Putman, C M; Frangi, A F

    2010-09-01

    The quantification of wall motion in cerebral aneurysms is becoming important owing to its potential connection to rupture, and as a way to incorporate the effects of vascular compliance in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Most of papers report values obtained with experimental phantoms, simulated images or animal models, but the information for real patients is limited. In this paper, we have combined non-rigid registration with signal processing techniques to measure pulsation in real patients from high frame rate digital subtraction angiography. We have obtained physiological meaningful waveforms with amplitudes in the range 0 mm-0.3 mm for a population of 18 patients including ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Statistically significant differences in pulsation were found according to the rupture status, in agreement with differences in biomechanical properties reported in the literature.

  7. Endovascular coil embolization of aneurysm neck for the treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm with bleb formation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jun; Gu, Weijin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Geng, Daoying; Lu, Gang; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Ge, Liang; Ji, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Ruptured intracranial aneurysm (ICA) with bleb formation (RICABF) is a special type of ruptured ICA. However, the exact role and effectiveness of endovascular coil embolization (ECE) in RICABF is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of ECE of aneurysm neck for RICABF treatment. Material/Methods We retrospectively assessed consecutive patients who were hospitalized in our endovascular intervention center between October 2004 and May 2012. Overall, 86 patients underwent ECE of aneurysm neck for 86 RICABF. Treatments outcomes included secondary rupture/bleeding rate, aneurysm neck embolization rate, residual/recurrent aneurysm, intraoperative incidents, and post-embolization complications, as well as improvements in the Glasgow outcome scale (extended) (GOS-E). Results Complete occlusion was achieved in 72 aneurysms (72/86, 83.7%), while 12 aneurysms (12/86, 14.0%) had a residual neck, and 2 aneurysms (2/86, 2.3%) had a residual aneurysm. The postoperative GOS-E was 3 in 3 patients (3.5%), 4 in 10 patients (11.6%), and 5 in 73 patients (84.9%). Follow-up angiography was performed in all patients (mean 9.0 months, interquartile range of 9.0). Recurrence was found in 3 patients (3/86, 3.5%). No aneurysm rupture or bleeding was reported. Conclusions Our mid-term follow-up study showed that ECE of aneurysm neck was an effective and safe treatment modality for RICABF. The long-term effectiveness and safety of this interventional radiology technique need to be investigated in prospective and comparative studies. PMID:24986761

  8. Subtraction CT angiography for the detection of intracranial aneurysms: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    FENG, TIAN-YING; HAN, XUE-FENG; LANG, RUI; WANG, FEI; WU, QIONG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of subtraction computed tomography angiography (CTA) for diagnosing intracranial aneurysms. A systematic literature search up to January 1, 2013 was performed in PubMed. Two independent reviewers selected 8 studies that compared subtraction CTA with digital subtraction angiography. Data from the studies were used to construct a 2×2 contingency table on a per-patient basis in ≥5 diseased and 5 non-diseased patients, with additional data on a per-aneurysm basis. Overall, subtraction CTA had a pooled sensitivity of 99% [95% confidence interval (CI), 95–100%] and specificity of 94% (95% CI, 86–97%) for detecting and ruling out cerebral aneurysms, respectively, on a per-patient basis. On a per-aneurysm basis, the pooled sensitivity was 96% (95% CI, 90–99%), and the specificity was 91% (95% CI, 85–95%). In conclusion, subtraction CTA is a highly sensitive, specific and non-invasive method for the diagnosis and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:27168830

  9. Management of intracranial aneurysms: "state of the art".

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, F; Brunori, A; Bruni, P

    1998-03-01

    The authors provide an overview of the past, present and future of intracranial aneurysms management. Excellent results achieved today by neurovascular surgeons are to be ascribed not only to refinements in microsurgical technique but also to an always more aggressive and effective treatment of vasospasm, the most feared complication of aneurysmal SAH. "Triple H" therapy, calcium channel blockers, rTPA and balloon angioplasty represent the corner-stones of arterial spasm treatment. Hopefully new agents such as lazaroids, endothelins inhibitors and nitric oxyde modulators will become available for clinical use in the next future. Although clipping of aneurysmal neck is still considered the "gold standard", obliteration of the aneurysmal sac can now be safely achieved by coil embolization: the exact role and respective indications of each technique are yet to be defined. Further prognostic improvement will be possible through an early diagnosis, i.e. before the occurrence of SAH, as shown by negligible morbidity and mortality associated with the treatment of "incidental" and "unruptured" aneurysms.

  10. An automatic CFD-based flow diverter optimization principle for patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Janiga, Gábor; Daróczy, László; Berg, Philipp; Thévenin, Dominique; Skalej, Martin; Beuing, Oliver

    2015-11-05

    The optimal treatment of intracranial aneurysms using flow diverting devices is a fundamental issue for neuroradiologists as well as neurosurgeons. Due to highly irregular manifold aneurysm shapes and locations, the choice of the stent and the patient-specific deployment strategy can be a very difficult decision. To support the therapy planning, a new method is introduced that combines a three-dimensional CFD-based optimization with a realistic deployment of a virtual flow diverting stent for a given aneurysm. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, it was applied to a patient-specific intracranial giant aneurysm that was successfully treated using a commercial flow diverter. Eight treatment scenarios with different local compressions were considered in a fully automated simulation loop. The impact on the corresponding blood flow behavior was evaluated qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and the optimal configuration for this specific case was identified. The virtual deployment of an uncompressed flow diverter reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 24.4% compared to the untreated case. Depending on the positioning of the local stent compression below the ostium, blood flow reduction could vary between 27.3% and 33.4%. Therefore, a broad range of potential treatment outcomes was identified, illustrating the variability of a given flow diverter deployment in general. This method represents a proof of concept to automatically identify the optimal treatment for a patient in a virtual study under certain assumptions. Hence, it contributes to the improvement of virtual stenting for intracranial aneurysms and can support physicians during therapy planning in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CFD: computational fluid dynamics or confounding factor dissemination? The role of hemodynamics in intracranial aneurysm rupture risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Xiang, J; Tutino, V M; Snyder, K V; Meng, H

    2014-10-01

    Image-based computational fluid dynamics holds a prominent position in the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms, especially as a promising tool to stratify rupture risk. Current computational fluid dynamics findings correlating both high and low wall shear stress with intracranial aneurysm growth and rupture puzzle researchers and clinicians alike. These conflicting findings may stem from inconsistent parameter definitions, small datasets, and intrinsic complexities in intracranial aneurysm growth and rupture. In Part 1 of this 2-part review, we proposed a unifying hypothesis: both high and low wall shear stress drive intracranial aneurysm growth and rupture through mural cell-mediated and inflammatory cell-mediated destructive remodeling pathways, respectively. In the present report, Part 2, we delineate different wall shear stress parameter definitions and survey recent computational fluid dynamics studies, in light of this mechanistic heterogeneity. In the future, we expect that larger datasets, better analyses, and increased understanding of hemodynamic-biologic mechanisms will lead to more accurate predictive models for intracranial aneurysm risk assessment from computational fluid dynamics. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. The 100 most influential publications pertaining to intracranial aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhou, James; Agarwal, Nitin; Hamilton, D Kojo; Koltz, Michael T

    2017-03-25

    The study of intracranial aneurysms has grown at an astounding rate since Sir Charles Symond's association of hemorrhage within the subarachnoid space to intracranial aneurysms in 1923. These associations led to the first surgical treatment of an intracranial aneurysm with wrapping by Norman Dott in 1931, and shortly thereafter, clip ligation by Walter Dandy in 1938. Surgical outcomes were improved by the introduction of the operative microscope in the 1960s and perioperative care utilizing induced hypertension, hypovolemia, and hemodilution ("HHH therapy"). Recent monumental advancements, such as coil embolization in 1990 by Guglielmi, have continued to advance the field forward. The authors hope to highlight some of the most seminal and influential works. Herein, we utilize the technique of citation analysis to assemble a list of the 100 most influential works pertaining to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage published between the years 1900 and 2015 to honor these individuals and to provide guidance to current and future researchers in the field. We additionally calculate the effects of author, journal, topic, and study design on the overall influence of publications in this field.

  13. Single-stage endovascular treatment in patients with severe extracranial large vessel stenosis and concomitant ipsilateral unruptured intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kaçar, Emre; Nas, Ömer Fatih; Erdoğan, Cüneyt; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of single-stage endovascular treatment in patients with severe extracranial large vessel stenosis and concomitant ipsilateral unruptured intracranial aneurysm. METHODS Hospital database was screened for patients who underwent single-stage endovascular treatment between February 2008 and June 2013 and seven patients were identified. The procedures included unilateral carotid artery stenting (CAS) (n=4), bilateral CAS (n=2), and proximal left subclavian artery stenting (n=1) along with ipsilateral intracranial aneurysm treatment (n=7). The mean internal carotid artery stenosis was 81.6% (range, 70%–95%), and the subclavian artery stenosis was 90%. All aneurysms were unruptured. The mean aneurysm diameter was 7.7 mm (range, 5–13 mm). The aneurysms were ipsilateral to the internal carotid artery stenosis (internal carotid artery aneurysm) in five patients, and in the anterior communicating artery in one patient. The patient with subclavian artery stenosis had a fenestration aneurysm in the proximal basilar artery. Stenting of the extracranial large vessel stenosis was performed before aneurysm treatment in all patients. In two patients who underwent bilateral CAS, the contralateral carotid artery stenosis, which had no aneurysm distally, was treated initially. RESULTS There were no procedure-related complications or technical failure. The mean clinical follow-up period was 18 months (range, 9–34 months). One patient who underwent unilateral CAS experienced contralateral transient ischemic attack during the clinical follow-up. There was no restenosis on six-month follow-up angiograms, and all aneurysms were adequately occluded. CONCLUSION A single-stage procedure appears to be feasible for treatment of patients with severe extracranial large vessel stenosis and concomitant ipsilateral intracranial aneurysm. PMID:26359875

  14. Semi-Jailing Technique Using a Neuroform3 Stent for Coiling of Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jun Kyeung; Cho, Won Ho; Cha, Seung Heon; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Sang Weon; Lee, Tae Hong

    2017-01-01

    Objective The semi-jailing technique (SJT) provides stent-assisted remodeling of the aneurysm neck during coil embolization without grasping the coil delivery microcatheter. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of SJT using a Neuroform3 stent for coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Methods We collected the clinical and radiological data between January 2009 and June 2015 of the wide-necked aneurysms treated with SJT using a Neuroform3 stent. Results SJT using a Neuroform3 stent was attempted in 70 wide-necked aneurysms (68 patients). There were 56 unruptured and 14 ruptured aneurysms. The size of aneurysm ranged from 1.7 to 28.1 mm (mean 6.1 mm). The immediate angiographic results were complete occlusion in 55 aneurysms (78.6%), neck remnant in 7 (10.0%), and aneurysm remnant in 8 (11.4%). Overall, periprocedural complications occurred in 13 patients (19.1%), including asymptomatic thromboembolism in 7 (10.3%), symptomatic thromboembolism in 4 (5.9%), and symptomatic hemorrhagic complications in 2 (2.9%). Conventional angiography follow-up was obtained in 55 (78.6%) of 70 aneurysms (mean, 10.9 months). The result showed progressive occlusion in 7 aneurysms (12.7%) and recanalization in 1 aneurysm (1.8%). At the end of the observation period (mean, 17.5 months), all 54 patients without subarachnoid hemorrhage showed excellent clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0), except two (mRS 1 or 2) and seven of 14 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage remained symptom-free (mRS 0). Conclusion In this report of 70 aneurysms, SJT using a Neuroform3 stent for coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms showed good technical safety, as well as favorable clinical and angiographic outcomes. PMID:28264234

  15. Coexistence of intracranial aneurysm and hemangioblastoma: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lü, J; Quan, Y; Xu, G; Gong, S-P

    2016-08-01

    The association of intracranial aneurysm and hemangioblastoma is extremely rare. This report regards a patient affected by Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome with multiple hemangioblastoma and two intracranial aneurysms, of which one was on a hemangioblastoma feeder vessel and the other on an unrelated vessel. Review of the literature revealed 13 other previously reported cases. Possible mechanisms to explain the association are discussed.

  16. Role of Hemodynamic Forces in Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: An Overview of a Complex Scenario.

    PubMed

    Longo, Marcello; Granata, Francesca; Racchiusa, Sergio; Mormina, Enricomaria; Grasso, Giovanni; Longo, Giuseppe Maria; Garufi, Giada; Salpietro, Francesco M; Alafaci, Concetta

    2017-09-01

    An understanding of the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) has always played a critical role in presurgical or endovascular planning, to avoid possibly fatal events. Size, shape, morphology, and location are known risk factors for rupture of an aneurysm, but morphologic parameters alone may not be sufficient to perform proper rupture risk stratification. We performed a systematic PubMed search and focused on hemodynamics forces that may influence aneurysmal initiation, growth, and rupture. We included 223 studies describing several hemodynamic parameters related to aneurysm natural history. In these studies, different modalities of aneurysm model creation have been used to evaluate flow and to comprehensively analyze the evolution of IAs. Controversy exists about the correlation between these parameters and initiation, growth, rupture risk, or stabilization of the aneurysmal sac. Recent findings have also shown the importance of flow patterns in this process and the relationship between unruptured IA geometry and hemodynamic parameters. The role of hemodynamic forces in evaluation of the natural history of unruptured IAs presents is inherently complex and is still not completely understood. In this complex scenario, although several attempts have been described in the literature, a proper risk rupture stratification and treatment strategy selection based on hemodynamic forces has not yet been created. Further efforts should be made to accomplish this important goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AngioLab--a software tool for morphological analysis and endovascular treatment planning of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Larrabide, Ignacio; Villa-Uriol, Maria-Cruz; Cárdenes, Rubén; Barbarito, Valeria; Carotenuto, Luigi; Geers, Arjan J; Morales, Hernán G; Pozo, José M; Mazzeo, Marco D; Bogunović, Hrvoje; Omedas, Pedro; Riccobene, Chiara; Macho, Juan M; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2012-11-01

    Determining whether and how an intracranial aneurysm should be treated is a tough decision that clinicians face everyday. Emerging computational tools could help clinicians analyze clinical data and make these decisions. AngioLab is a single graphical user interface, developed on top of the open source framework GIMIAS, that integrates some of the latest image analysis and computational modeling tools for intracranial aneurysms. Two workflows are available: Advanced Morphological Analysis (AMA) and Endovascular Treatment Planning (ETP). AngioLab has been evaluated by a total of 62 clinicians, who considered the information provided by AngioLab relevant and meaningful. They acknowledged the emerging need of these type of tools and the potential impact they might have on the clinical decision-making process.

  18. Y-Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of Wide-Neck Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Akgul, E.; Aksungur, E.; Balli, T.; Onan, B.; Yilmaz, D.M.; Bicakci, S.; Erman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary This report evaluated the short and midterm results of the safety and effectiveness of the treatment technique with hybrid and non-hybrid Y-configured, dual stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-neck intracranial aneurysms, and reviewed the literature concerning this technique. Nine patients, eight with unruptured and one with ruptured aneurysms were included in the study. Of aneurysms embolized with a hybrid (with two different stents) and non-hybrid (with two identical stents) technique, three were located in the anterior communicating artery, three at the tip and one at the distal site of basilar artery, and two in the middle cerebral artery. All aneurysms included the orifices of bifurcation vessels. All aneurysms were stented and embolized during the same session. While Neuroform and Enterprise stents were used in the hybrid technique, two Enterprise stents were used in the non-hybrid technique. Dual Y-stent assisted coil embolization was performed successfully in eight of nine patients (88.9%), including five patients (55.6%) with hybrid and three patients (33.3%) with non-hybrid technique. No procedural complication, no mortality and no minor or major neurological complications were seen during the angiographic or clinical follow-up. When an attempt was made at passing the second stent through the first Enterprise stent, the stent protruded inside the aneurysm in one patient (11.1%). Hybrid or non-hybrid dual Y-stent-assisted coil embolization in the treatment of ruptured or unruptured wide-neck and complex intracranial aneurysms is a safe and effective method from the viewpoint of short and midterm results. PMID:21561557

  19. Headache improvement after intracranial endovascular procedures in Chinese patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linjing; Wang, Yunxia; Zhang, Qingkui; Ge, Wei; Wu, Xiancong; Di, Hai; Wang, Jun; Cao, Xiangyu; Li, Baomin; Liu, Ruozhuo; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a long-term improvement in headache of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) treated with intracranial endovascular procedures. Using a prospective design, consecutive patients with UIAs with neuroendovascular treatment from January 2014 to December 2014 were asked to participate. Headache outcomes were established before aneurysm treatment and for 6 months following treatment. Factors associated with different headache outcomes were investigated. Ultimately, 58 patients completed the 6-month follow-up. In total, 29 patients had preoperative headache. Six months after the intracranial endovascular procedure, 13 patients (44.8%) stated that their headaches were relieved after endovascular treatment; headache in 1 patient improved slightly, and 12 reported disappearance of headache and marked improvement. Overall, the mean headache scores of 29 patients improved on the self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) after endovascular treatment (6.00 vs. 2.30; P < 0.001). Patients with pretreatment tension-type headache, more severe headaches, stent-assisted coiling, and stent implantation of the aneurysm were the important disadvantage for patients in improvement of post-procedure headache. Treatment of UIAs resulted in relief of headaches in about half of patients who had headaches pre-operatively. PMID:28178166

  20. Endovascular isolation of intracranial blood blister-like aneurysms with Willis covered stent.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chun; Tan, Hua-Qiao; Han, Hong-Jie; Feng, Hao; Xu, Ji-Chong; Yan, Shuo; Nie, Zhi-Yu; Jin, Ling-Jing; Teng, Fei

    2017-10-01

    Intracranial blood blister-like aneurysm (BBA) is a rare type of aneurysm that lacks all layers of the arterial wall. These fragile aneurysms have the propensity to rupture with minimal manipulation, which makes them hazardous and difficult to treat. The present study evaluated the safety and feasibility of endovascular treatment of BBAs with the Willis covered stent. Thirteen patients (7 men and 6 women, age range 28-68 years) who presented with ruptured BBAs and were treated with the Willis covered stent were retrospectively reviewed. Results of the procedures and treatment-related complications were recorded. Angiographic and clinical follow-ups were performed 4-6 months after the procedure. Placement of the covered stent was successful in all patients. Immediate angiography showed complete aneurysm occlusion in 12 patients while one patient showed a mild endoleak. This high rate of aneurysm exclusion ensured the security of postoperative antiplatelet treatment. Occlusion of the ophthalmic artery occurred in two patients and occlusion of the anterior choroidal artery occurred in one patient; however, none of them showed acute or delayed clinical symptoms. Thrombosis, aneurysm rupture, and other complications did not develop in any case. Angiographic follow-up showed complete aneurysm exclusion without aneurysm recurrence in any patients. Only two patients showed asymptomatic mild to moderate in-stent stenosis. All patients had satisfactory clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤1). Willis covered stent implementation may be safe and feasible for BBAs. This strategy might be a promising option for this high-risk type of aneurysm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Echocardiographic Evidence of Innate Aortopathy in the Human Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong-Won; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Min; Cho, Young Dae; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho; Lee, Sang Kun; Han, Moon Hee; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is significantly more prevalent in patients with coarctation of the aorta or bicuspid aortic valve than in the general population, suggesting a common pathophysiology connecting IA and aortopathy. Here, we analyzed echocardiographic aortic root dimension (ARD) in patients with IA to confirm this possibility. Methods From January 2008 to December 2010, 260 consecutive patients with IA who were admitted to our institution for coil embolization or for acute stroke management and who also underwent echocardiography were enrolled. We hypothesized that patients with large, ruptured, or multiple IAs are more likely to harbor co-prevalent aortopathy as measured by ARD compared to patients with small, isolated, unruptured IAs. Eccentric group was defined as patients aged <55 years with at least one ruptured aneurysm, an aneurysm ≥7 mm in size, or multiple aneurysms; the remainder was classified into a non-eccentric group. Clinical, angiographic, and echocardiographic findings of the two groups were compared. Results ARD was significantly larger in the eccentric group than in the non-eccentric group (P = 0.049), and the difference was confirmed by multivariable analysis (P = 0.02). Subgroup analysis of patients aged <55 years showed similar result for ARD (P = 0.03), whereas hypertension was more associated with the non-eccentric group (P = 0.01). In addition, height was inversely related to aneurysm size after adjustment for age, sex, weight, ARD, smoking status, and number of aneurysms (P = 0.004). Conclusions A certain group of IA patients share a common intrinsic wall defect with aortopathy. Shared neural crest cell origin may give rise to this phenomenon. PMID:24964197

  2. Comparative study of novel endovascular treatment techniques for intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantón, Gádor; Lasheras, Juan C.; Levy, David I.; Sparks, Steven R.

    2002-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are life-threatening vascular lesions, which are potentially treatable to avoid the consequences of their rupture. Current treatments, either surgical or endovascular, are all guided to reduce the hemodynamic forces acting on the aneurysm wall in an effort to minimize the risk of rupture. Surgical clipping is still the most used technique to treat this type of aneurysm but there is a continued demand for less invasive approaches. This has led to the development of several endovascular techniques. We report here a comparative study of the reduction in the hemodynamic stresses and the modification of the flow in the parent vessel resulting from the use of three different techniques. The first one consists of endosaccular packing with platinum coils (GDC, Target Therapeutics), which is already widely used but its long-term efficacy has not yet been determined. The second one consists of the embolization of the aneurismal sac with Onyx, a polymer which hardens when in contact with the blood (being developed by Micro Therapeutics, Inc.). The third one involves the packing of the sac with hydrocoils, platinum wires coated with a gel which quickly hydrates when in contact with blood (developed by MicroVention). A Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) system is used to measure in vitro the velocity field inside a model of an ACOM aneurysm (an aneurysm forming in the anterior communicating artery). Physiological accurate pulsatile flow conditions are input to the arterial model through a programmable pump. The measurements show that although all treatment techniques lead to a reduction in both normal and tangential shear stresses on the aneurismal sac, each one of them also leads to different modifications of the flow in the parent vessel which may have consequences related to potential for clotting. Comparison of the untreated aneurysm with the above three treated cases also showed that the characteristics of the wall shear stresses on the parent

  3. Intraoperative Combined Use of Somatosensory Evoked Potential, Microvascular Doppler Sonography, and Indocyanine Green Angiography in Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhili; Zhang, Guanni; Huang, Guangfu; Wang, Zhengyu; Tan, Haibin; Liu, Jinping; Li, Aiguo

    2016-02-04

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining application of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), microvascular Doppler sonography (MDS), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in intracranial aneurysm clipping surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 158 patients undergoing an intracranial aneurysm clipping operation were recruited. All patients were evaluated with intraoperative SEP and MDS monitoring, and 28 of them were evaluated with intraoperative combined monitoring of SEP, MDS, and ICGA. RESULTS The SEP waves dropped during temporary occlusion of arteries in 19 cases (12.0%), and returned to normal after the clips were repositioned. After aneurysms were clipped, the vortex flow signals were detected by MDS in 6 cases. The aneurysm neck remnants were detected by ICGA in 2 cases of olfactory artery (OA) and in 1 case of middle cerebral artery (MCA), which disappeared after the clips were repositioned. Postoperative CTA or DSA showed that aneurysms were clipped completely and parent arteries and perforating vessels were patent. GOS at 1 month after the surgery was good in 111 cases (70.3%), mild disability in 22 cases (13.9%), severe disability in 14 cases (8.9%), vegetative state in 5 cases (3.2%), and death in 6 cases (3.8%). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative combining application of SEP, MDS, and ICGA can reduce brain tissue ischemia and damage and disability and mortality rate after effective clipping of intracranial aneurysms, thereby improving surgical outcomes.

  4. Intraoperative Combined Use of Somatosensory Evoked Potential, Microvascular Doppler Sonography, and Indocyanine Green Angiography in Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhili; Zhang, Guanni; Huang, Guangfu; Wang, Zhengyu; Tan, Haibin; Liu, Jinping; Li, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining application of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), microvascular Doppler sonography (MDS), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in intracranial aneurysm clipping surgery. Material/Methods A total of 158 patients undergoing an intracranial aneurysm clipping operation were recruited. All patients were evaluated with intraoperative SEP and MDS monitoring, and 28 of them were evaluated with intraoperative combined monitoring of SEP, MDS, and ICGA. Results The SEP waves dropped during temporary occlusion of arteries in 19 cases (12.0%), and returned to normal after the clips were repositioned. After aneurysms were clipped, the vortex flow signals were detected by MDS in 6 cases. The aneurysm neck remnants were detected by ICGA in 2 cases of olfactory artery (OA) and in 1 case of middle cerebral artery (MCA), which disappeared after the clips were repositioned. Postoperative CTA or DSA showed that aneurysms were clipped completely and parent arteries and perforating vessels were patent. GOS at 1 month after the surgery was good in 111 cases (70.3%), mild disability in 22 cases (13.9%), severe disability in 14 cases (8.9%), vegetative state in 5 cases (3.2%), and death in 6 cases (3.8%). Conclusions Intraoperative combining application of SEP, MDS, and ICGA can reduce brain tissue ischemia and damage and disability and mortality rate after effective clipping of intracranial aneurysms, thereby improving surgical outcomes. PMID:26845425

  5. [MORPHOMETRIC FACTORS OF PROGNOSIS FOR REMOTE RECANALIZATION OF INTRACRANIAL ARTERIAL ANEURYSMS AFTER THEIR ENDOVASCULAR SURGICAL TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Netlyukh, A M

    2015-10-01

    The factors of the embolization stability prognostication in remote period after surgical treatment for intracranial arterial aneurysm rupture, were determined. In 34 patients in 6 - 12 mo after embolization of intracranial arterial aneurysms the angiographic control was conducted. In 18 patients (the first group) the signs of a stable embolization were revealed, and in 16 (a second group) - the aneurysm recanalization. The author considers the aneurysms noncorrect (ellipse-like) form, a trustworthy dimensions of the body and volume as a risk factors for recanalization of aneurysms occurence.

  6. Anatomical considerations in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joao P; Reghin Neto, Matheus; Chaddad Neto, Feres; DE Oliveira, Evandro

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the vascular anatomy, including anatomic variations, anatomy of the perforators, and areas of irrigation for each specific vascular trunk is relevant for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Understanding the microanatomy of the cerebral vessels helps surgeons to select the most appropriate microsurgical approach for each case. Anterior circulation aneurysms may be originated from the internal carotid artery and its branches, anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery. Although presenting different surgical nuances, we favor the use of the pterional approach for most anterior circulation aneurysms. In some instances, extensions of the pterional approach improve the surgical exposure and may be selected. In its turn, posterior fossa aneurysms remain a challenge to the neurosurgeon. The exquisite eloquence and complexity of posterior fossa contents require a through knowledge of microsurgical anatomy of this region. Such anatomic background guides the surgeon to the most appropriate approach, which may vary dependind on the size, position of the aneuryms and its relatonship to the surrounding structures.

  7. The Effects of Vasospasm and Re-Bleeding on the Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Filipce, Venko; Caparoski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm and re-bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm are devastating complication that can severely affect the outcome of the patients. We are presenting a series of total number of 224 patients treated and operated at our Department due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, out of which certain number developed vasospasm and re-bleeding. We are evaluating the effect of these complications on the outcome of the patients according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at the day of discharge. In our experience both vasospasm and ReSAH can significantly influence the outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  8. [Neurologic complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to intracranial aneurysm rupture].

    PubMed

    Rama-Maceiras, P; Fàbregas Julià, N; Ingelmo Ingelmo, I; Hernández-Palazón, J

    2010-12-01

    The high rates of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of an intracranial aneurysm are mainly the result of neurologic complications. Sixty years after cerebral vasospasm was first described, this problem remains unsolved in spite of its highly adverse effect on prognosis after aneurysmatic rupture. Treatment is somewhat empirical, given that uncertainties remain in our understanding of the pathophysiology of this vascular complication, which involves structural and biochemical changes in the endothelium and smooth muscle of vessels. Vasospasm that is refractory to treatment leads to cerebral infarction. Prophylaxis, early diagnosis, and adequate treatment of neurologic complications are key elements in the management of vasospasm if neurologic damage, lengthy hospital stays, and increased use of health care resources are to be avoided. New approaches to early treatment of cerebral lesions and cortical ischemia in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture should lead to more effective, specific management.

  9. Microsurgical Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysms Following Unsuccessful Endovascular Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J.-L.; Xu, K.; Wang, H.-L.; Wang, B.; Luo, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the current study was to examine the reasons for failed endovascular aneurysm coiling and to determine the outcome of immediate microsurgical clipping. From July 2006 to July 2008, 198 patients underwent endovascular coiling at our institute; among them, ten cases were unsuccessful. All of the patients were diagnosed with intracranial aneurysms (ICAs) by cranial computed tomography angiography (CTA), and all underwent endovascular treatment without digital subtraction angiography (DSA). When endovascular coiling failed, the patients were immediately transferred to the operating room for microsurgical clipping under the same anesthetic. The ten patients were divided into three groups based on the cause of endovascular failure and associated clinical features. The clinical follow-up period was between 6-12 months, and all 10 patients had good outcomes following the surgery. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that immediate microsurgical clipping after failed endovascular coiling is efficient and may provide improved outcomes by preventing rebleeding. PMID:20377976

  10. Management of intracranial aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations.

    PubMed

    Flores, Bruno C; Klinger, Daniel R; Rickert, Kim L; Barnett, Samuel L; Welch, Babu G; White, Jonathan A; Batjer, H Hunt; Samson, Duke S

    2014-09-01

    Intracranial or brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are some of the most interesting and challenging lesions treated by the cerebrovascular neurosurgeon. It is generally believed that the combination of BAVMs and intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is associated with higher hemorrhage rates at presentation and higher rehemorrhage rates and thus with a more aggressive course and natural history. There is wide variation in the literature on the prevalence of BAVM-associated aneurysms (range 2.7%-58%), with 10%-20% being most often cited in the largest case series. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with unruptured BAVMs and coexisting IAs has been reported to be 7% annually, compared with 2%-4% annually for those with BAVM alone. Several different classification systems have been applied in an attempt to better understand the natural history of this combination of lesions and implications for treatment. Independent of the classification used, it is clear that a few subtypes of aneurysms have a direct hemodynamic correlation with the BAVM itself. This is exemplified by the fact that the presence of a distal flow-related or an intranidal aneurysm appears to be associated with an increased hemorrhage risk, when compared with an aneurysm located on a vessel with no direct supply to the BAVM nidus. Debate still exists regarding the etiology of the association between those two vascular lesions, the subsequent implications for patients' risk of hemorrhagic stroke, and finally the determination of which patients warrant treatment and when. The ultimate goals of the treatment of a BAVM associated with an IA are to prevent hemorrhage, avoid stepwise neurological deterioration, and eliminate the mortality risk associated with recurrent hemorrhagic events. The treatment is only justifiable if the risks associated with an intervention are lower than or equivalent to the long-term risks of disability or mortality caused by the lesion itself. When faced with this

  11. In-Stent Stenosis of Stent Assisted Endovascular Treatment on Intracranial Complex Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyeong-Wook

    2010-01-01

    Objective To introduce the frequency and segment analysis of in-stent stenosis for intracranial stent assisted endovascular treatment on complex aneurysms. Methods A retrospective study was performed in 158 patients who had intracranial complex aneurysms and were treated by endovascular stent application with or without coil embolization. Of these, 102 patients were evaluated with catheter based angiography after 6, 12, and 18 months. Aneurysm location, using stent, time to stenosis, stenosis rate and narrowing segment were analyzed. Results Among follow-up cerebral angiography done in 102 patients, 8 patients (7.8%) were shown an in-stent stenosis. Two patients have unruptured aneurysm and six patients have ruptured one. Number of Neuroform stents were 7 cases (7.5%) and Enterprise stent in 1 case (11.1%). Six patients demonstrated in-stent stenosis at 6 months after stent application and remaining two patients were shown at 12 months, 18 months, respectively. Conclusion In-stent stenosis can be confronted after intracranial stent deployment. In our study, no patient showed symptomatic stenosis and there were no patients who required to further treatment except continuing antiplatets medication. In-stent stenosis has been known to be very few when they are placed into the non-pathologic parent artery during the complex aneurysm treatment, but the authors found that it was apt to happen on follow up angiography. Although the related symptom was not seen in our cases, the luminal narrowing at the stented area may result the untoward hemodynamic event in the specific condition. PMID:21430973

  12. Interdisciplinary treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: impact of intraprocedural rupture and ischemia in 563 aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Mathias; Bakhshai, Yasmin; Zausinger, Stefan; Fesl, Gunther; Janssen, Hendrik; Brückmann, Hartmut; Tonn, Jörg Christian; Schichor, Christian

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the risk factors and the clinical impact of intraprocedural aneurysm rupture (IAR) and periprocedural ischemia in the treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). A single-center retrospective data analysis of 563 UIAs treated between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Treatment assignment was made on the basis of individual aneurysmal criteria in an interdisciplinary neurovascular conference with attending neurosurgeons, neuroradiologists and neurologists. In 363 microsurgical and 200 endovascular procedures, the permanent morbidity rate was 4.9 and 6 %. The overall mortality rate was 0.7 %-no procedure-related death occurred in microsurgery, and four patients had fatal outcomes after endovascular treatment. IAR occurred in 34 (9.4 %) microsurgical and 8 (4 %) endovascular procedures (p = 0.03). Risk factors for IAR were age, aneurysm diameter, symptomatic aneurysms, hypertension and smoking in microsurgery. IAR was associated with significantly worse outcome at discharge after microsurgical and at discharge and follow-up after endovascular procedures and was followed by fatal outcome in four endovascular cases. Periprocedural ischemia (12.1 vs. 9 %) resulted in significantly worse outcome in both groups. Risk factors for periprocedural ischemia were IAR during microsurgery, aneurysm diameter, symptomatic aneurysms and smoking in either group. Treatment of UIAs can be conducted with an equivalent low rate of permanent morbidity for clipping and coiling-treatment of symptomatic aneurysms elevates the procedural risk. IAR was less frequent during coiling, but was associated with relevant mortality. IAR and periprocedural ischemia represent significant treatment-associated risks, which should be taken into account in interdisciplinary treatment planning and patient counseling.

  13. An ellipsoid convex enhancement filter for detection of asymptomatic intracranial aneurysm candidates in CAD frameworks.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ze; Arimura, Hidetaka; Kakeda, Shingo; Yamashita, Fumio; Sasaki, Makoto; Korogi, Yukunori

    2016-02-01

    Various kinds of enhancement filters have been developed in computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) frameworks for asymptomatic intracranial aneurysms in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). However, many bending or branching portions on vessels are also enhanced by the conventional filters as false positives in 3.0 T MRA, which can visualize smaller vessels compared with 1.5 T MRA. To overcome this problem, this study focused on developing an ellipsoid convex enhancement (ECE) filter, which can selectively enhance aneurysms while reducing false positive contrasts on bending or branching portions on vessels, for detection of asymptomatic intracranial aneurysm candidates in CAD frameworks. The ECE filter was mathematically designed to enhance various convex regions in the intensity space such as convex aneurysms, in which the ratio of the shortest and longest diameters for aneurysms corresponds to the ratio of reciprocals of the square roots of the first and third eigenvalues of a Hessian matrix. The proposed ECE filter was evaluated by measuring an average contrast for false positive models and free-response receiver operating characteristic curves between two simple CAD frameworks using the ECE and conventional filters based on a leave-one-out-by-patient test. MRA images for thirty patients (male: 10, female: 20; age: 48-86 yr, mean: 69.2) with 31 unruptured aneurysms (longest diameter: 2.0-5.5 mm, mean: 3.7 mm) were selected for this study. The average contrast for false positive models was reduced by 51.4% using the ECE filter, compared with the conventional filter for the convex regions with ratios of the shortest and longest diameters less than 0.4. The number of false positives per case was decreased from 41.1 to 22.8 on average at a sensitivity of 87% by using the ECE filter. The ECE filter would be useful for boosting the performance of the CAD framework of asymptomatic intracranial aneurysms by providing higher contrast aneurysms and lower contrast false

  14. Role of MRA in the detection of intracranial aneurysm in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pierot, Laurent; Portefaix, Christophe; Rodriguez-Régent, Christine; Gallas, Sophie; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been evaluated for the detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms with favorable results at 3 Tesla (3T) and with similar diagnostic accuracy as both 3D time-of-flight (3D-TOF) and contrast-enhanced (CE-MRA) MRA. However, the diagnostic value and place of MRA in the detection of ruptured aneurysms has been little evaluated. Thus, the goal of this prospective single-center series was to assess the feasibility and diagnostic value of 3T 3D-TOF MRA and CE-MRA for aneurysm detection in acute non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). From March 2006 to December 2007, all consecutive patients admitted to our hospital with acute non-traumatic SAH (≤10 days) were prospectively included in this study evaluating MRA in the diagnostic workup of SAH. Feasibility of MRA and sensitivity/specificity of 3D-TOF and CE-MRA were assessed compared with gold standard DSA. In all, 84 consecutive patients (45 women, 39 men; age 23-86 years) were included. The feasibility of MRA was low (43/84, 51.2%). The reasons given for patients not undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination were clinical status (27 patients), potential delay in aneurysm treatment (11 patients) and contraindications to MRI (three patients). In patients explored by MRA, the sensitivity of CE-MRA (95%) was higher compared with 3D-TOF (86%) with similar specificity (80%). Also, 3D-TOF missed five aneurysms while CE-MRA missed two. The value of MRA in the diagnostic workup of ruptured aneurysms is limited due to its low feasibility during the acute phase of bleeding. Sensitivity for aneurysm detection was good for both MRA techniques, but tended to be better with CE-MRA. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Intracranial aneurysm rupture is predicted by measures of solar activity.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Martin N; Smoll, Nicolas R; Battaglia, Marina; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Woernle, Christoph M; Fung, Christian; Roethlisberger, Michel; Daniel, Roy Thomas; Fathi, Ali-Reza; Fandino, Javier; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Schaller, Karl; Bijlenga, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The cause precipitating intracranial aneurysm rupture remains unknown in many cases. It has been observed that aneurysm ruptures are clustered in time, but the trigger mechanism remains obscure. Because solar activity has been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, we decided to study its association to aneurysm rupture in the Swiss population. Patient data were extracted from the Swiss SOS database, at time of analysis covering 918 consecutive patients with angiography-proven aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated at 7 Swiss neurovascular centers between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. The daily rupture frequency (RF) was correlated to the absolute amount and the change in various parameters of interest representing continuous measurements of solar activity (radioflux [F10.7 index], solar proton flux, solar flare occurrence, planetary K-index/planetary A-index, Space Environment Services Center [SESC] sunspot number and sunspot area) using Poisson regression analysis. During the period of interest, there were 517 days without recorded aneurysm rupture. There were 398, 139, 27, 12, 1, and 1 days with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ruptures per day. Poisson regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation of F10.7 index and RF (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.006303; standard error (SE) 0.0013201; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.003719-1.008894; P < 0.001), according to which every 1-unit increase of the F10.7 index increased the count for an aneurysm to rupture by 0.63%. A likewise statistically significant relationship of both the SESC sunspot number (IRR 1.003413; SE 0.0007913; 95% CI 1.001864-1.004965; P < 0.001) and the sunspot area (IRR 1.000419; SE 0.0000866; 95% CI 1.000249-1.000589; P < 0.001) emerged. All other variables analyzed showed no significant correlation with RF. We found greater radioflux, SESC sunspot number, and sunspot area to be associated with an increased count of aneurysm rupture. The clinical meaningfulness of

  16. The impact of size and location on rupture of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Orz, Yasser; AlYamany, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    For effective management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, prognostic criteria for rupture, of which aneurysm size, location, and multiplicity are key factors. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between the aneurysm size, location, and multiplicity, and their effect on aneurysmal rupture. Eighty one patients with diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms were managed at our center from January 2008 through July 2011. The characteristics of aneurysms, such as size, location, multiplicity, and presentation were retrospectively reviewed from their charts and radiological findings. Eighty one patients harboring 104 aneurysms were diagnosed, of them 45 were males (55.5%) and 36 were females (44.5%). Seventy-six patients (94%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured aneurysm. Thirty-three patients who were presented with SAH (43%) had their ruptured aneurysm located at the anterior communicating artery with a mean size 5.8 mm. Most of the small (<7 mm) ruptured aneurysms were located at the anterior communicating artery, distal anterior cerebral arteries, posterior communicating arteries, and internal carotid artery bifurcation (51%, 13%, 11%, and 11%), respectively. There were 24 small unruptured aneurysms, 10 of them (42%) located at the middle cerebral arteries, while only 2 of them (8%) located at the anterior communicating artery. The aneurysm size and location play a substantial role in determining the risk of rupture. The most common location of rupture of small aneurysms was the anterior communicating artery, while the middle cerebral artery was the commonest site for small unrupured aneurysms.

  17. Flow modification in canine intracranial aneurysm model by an asymmetric stent: studies using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features.

  18. Autosomal Dominant Inheritance of a Predisposition to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections and Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen; Medrek, Sarah; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Golabbakhsh, Hossein; Smart, Suzanne; Chen, Julia H.; Shete, Sanjay; Kim, Dong H.; Stern, Ralph; Braverman, Alan C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    A genetic predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with decreased penetrance and variable expression. Four genes identified to date for familial TAAD account for approximately 20% of the heritable predisposition. In a cohort of 514 families with two or more members with presumed autosomal dominant TAAD, 48 (9.3%) families have one or more members who were at 50% risk to inherit the presumptive gene causing TAAD had an intracranial vascular event. In these families, gender is significantly associated with disease presentation (p <0.001), with intracranial events being more common in women (65.4%) while TAAD events occurred more in men (64.2%,). Twenty-nine of these families had intracranial aneurysms (ICA) that could not be designated as saccular or fusiform due to incomplete data. TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and ACTA2 mutations were found in 4 families with TAAD and predominantly fusiform ICAs. In 15 families, of which 14 tested negative for 3 known TAAD genes, 17 family members who were at risk for inheriting TAAD had saccular ICAs. In 2 families, women who harbored the genetic mutation causing TAAD had ICAs. In 2 additional families, intracranial, thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms were observed. This study documents the autosomal dominant inheritance of TAADs with saccular ICAs, a previously recognized association that has not been adequately characterized as heritable.I these families, routine cerebral and aortic imaging for at risk members could prove beneficial for timely medical and surgical management to prevent a cerebral hemorrhage or aortic dissection. PMID:21815248

  19. Biomechanical wall properties of human intracranial aneurysms resected following surgical clipping (IRRAs Project).

    PubMed

    Costalat, V; Sanchez, M; Ambard, D; Thines, L; Lonjon, N; Nicoud, F; Brunel, H; Lejeune, J P; Dufour, H; Bouillot, P; Lhaldky, J P; Kouri, K; Segnarbieux, F; Maurage, C A; Lobotesis, K; Villa-Uriol, M C; Zhang, C; Frangi, A F; Mercier, G; Bonafé, A; Sarry, L; Jourdan, F

    2011-10-13

    Individual rupture risk assessment of intracranial aneurysms is a major issue in the clinical management of asymptomatic aneurysms. Aneurysm rupture occurs when wall tension exceeds the strength limit of the wall tissue. At present, aneurysmal wall mechanics are poorly understood and thus, risk assessment involving mechanical properties is inexistent. Aneurysm computational hemodynamics studies make the assumption of rigid walls, an arguable simplification. We therefore aim to assess mechanical properties of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms in order to provide the foundation for future patient-specific aneurysmal risk assessment. This work also challenges some of the currently held hypotheses in computational flow hemodynamics research. A specific conservation protocol was applied to aneurysmal tissues following clipping and resection in order to preserve their mechanical properties. Sixteen intracranial aneurysms (11 female, 5 male) underwent mechanical uniaxial stress tests under physiological conditions, temperature, and saline isotonic solution. These represented 11 unruptured and 5 ruptured aneurysms. Stress/strain curves were then obtained for each sample, and a fitting algorithm was applied following a 3-parameter (C(10), C(01), C(11)) Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model. Each aneurysm was classified according to its biomechanical properties and (un)rupture status. Tissue testing demonstrated three main tissue classes: Soft, Rigid, and Intermediate. All unruptured aneurysms presented a more Rigid tissue than ruptured or pre-ruptured aneurysms within each gender subgroup. Wall thickness was not correlated to aneurysmal status (ruptured/unruptured). An Intermediate subgroup of unruptured aneurysms with softer tissue characteristic was identified and correlated with multiple documented risk factors of rupture. There is a significant modification in biomechanical properties between ruptured aneurysm, presenting a soft tissue and unruptured aneurysms

  20. Long-term follow-up of incidental intracranial aneurysms in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoon-Sang; Shon, Young-Min; Kim, Beum Saeng; Cho, A-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    The natural history of incidental intracranial aneurysms in patients with acute ischemic stroke is not well known. Therefore, we performed a 2-year follow-up of clinical outcomes and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) findings of incidentally found aneurysm in acute ischemic stroke patients. We included acute ischemic stroke patients who presented within 7 days of stroke onset. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and CTA. Demographics, clinical outcome, presence of aneurysm, aneurysm type, location, and diameter of aneurysm were identified. CTA was performed at least 2 years after the initial examination. The development of all cases of hemorrhage related to aneurysmal rupture and long-term clinical outcome were checked. Incidental intracranial aneurysms were found in 19 (6.1%) of the 314 patients. The sex (female) and old age were associated with the presence of incidental intracranial aneurysms. Favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale score 0-2) at 3 months showed no difference between the patients with aneurysm and those without (72.2% v 75.2%; P = .78). No aneurysm rupture or subarachnoid hemorrhage has occurred during the 2-year follow-up period. Follow-up CTA could be performed in 10 out of the 19 patients with aneurysm. Nine of them showed no change regarding to aneurysm shape and size, and the aneurysm disappeared in 1 patient. In our study, the prevalence of incidental aneurysm among acute ischemic stroke patients was 6.1%. After 2 years of follow-up, there was no aneurysm rupture or subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the diameter and shape of aneurysms did not change except for 1 patient in whom the aneurysm disappeared. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiple intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease associated with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II: surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Waldron, James S; Hetts, Steven W; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Dowd, Christopher F; Fullerton, Heather J; Gupta, Nalin; Lawton, Michael T

    2009-11-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by extremely small stature and microcephaly, and is associated in 25% of patients with intracranial aneurysms and moyamoya disease. Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and stroke are leading causes of morbidity and death in these patients, MOPD II is rarely examined in the neurosurgical literature. The authors report their experience with 3 patients who presented with MOPD II, which includes a patient with 8 aneurysms (the most aneurysms reported in the literature), and the first report of a patient with both moyamoya disease and multiple aneurysms. The poor natural history of these lesions indicates aggressive microsurgical and/or endovascular therapy. Microsurgery, whether for aneurysm clip placement or extracranial-intracranial bypass, is challenging due to tight surgical corridors and diminutive arteries in these patients, but is technically feasible and strongly indicated when multiple aneurysms must be treated or cerebral revascularization is needed.

  2. Mild intraoperative hypothermia during surgery for intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Todd, Michael M; Hindman, Bradley J; Clarke, William R; Torner, James C

    2005-01-13

    Surgery for intracranial aneurysm often results in postoperative neurologic deficits. We conducted a randomized trial at 30 centers to determine whether intraoperative cooling during open craniotomy would improve the outcome among patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 1001 patients with a preoperative World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score of I, II, or III ("good-grade patients"), who had had a subarachnoid hemorrhage no more than 14 days before planned surgical aneurysm clipping, were randomly assigned to intraoperative hypothermia (target temperature, 33 degrees C, with the use of surface cooling techniques) or normothermia (target temperature, 36.5 degrees C). Patients were followed closely postoperatively and examined approximately 90 days after surgery, at which time a Glasgow Outcome Score was assigned. There were no significant differences between the group assigned to intraoperative hypothermia and the group assigned to normothermia in the duration of stay in the intensive care unit, the total length of hospitalization, the rates of death at follow-up (6 percent in both groups), or the destination at discharge (home or another hospital, among surviving patients). At the final follow-up, 329 of 499 patients in the hypothermia group had a Glasgow Outcome Score of 1 (good outcome), as compared with 314 of 501 patients in the normothermia group (66 percent vs. 63 percent; odds ratio, 1.14; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.48; P=0.32). Postoperative bacteremia was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (5 percent vs. 3 percent, P=0.05). Intraoperative hypothermia did not improve the neurologic outcome after craniotomy among good-grade patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  3. Epidural Blood Patch Performed for Severe Intracranial Hypotension Following Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery. Retrospective Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tanweer, Omar; Kalhorn, Stephen P.; Snell, Jamaal T.; Lieber, Bryan A.; Agarwal, Nitin; Huang, Paul P.; Sutin, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial hypotension (IH) can occur following lumbar drainage for clipping of an intracranial aneurysm. We observed 3 cases of IH, which were all successfully treated by epidural blood patch (EBP). Herein, the authors report our cases. PMID:27065093

  4. Flow diversion in vasculitic intracranial aneurysms? Repair of giant complex cavernous carotid aneurysm in polyarteritis nodosa using Pipeline embolization devices: first reported case.

    PubMed

    Martinez Santos, Jaime; Kaderali, Zul; Spears, Julian; Rubin, Laurence A; Marotta, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) are exceedingly rare lesions with unpredictable behavior that pose real challenges to microsurgical and endovascular interventions owing to their inflammatory nature. We introduce a safe and effective alternative for treating these aneurysms using Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs). A 20-year-old man presented with diplopia, headaches, chronic abdominal pain, and weight loss. Diagnostic evaluations confirmed PAN, including bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms. Cyclophosphamide and steroids achieved significant and sustained clinical improvement, with a decision to follow the aneurysms serially. Seven years later the left unruptured aneurysm enlarged, causing a sudden severe headache and a cavernous sinus syndrome. Treatment of the symptomatic aneurysm was pursued using flow diversion (PED) and the internal carotid artery was successfully reconstructed with a total of four overlapping PEDs. At 6 months follow-up, complete exclusion of the aneurysm was demonstrated, with symptomatic recovery. This is the first description of using a flow-diverting technique in an inflammatory vasculitis. In this case, PEDs not only attained a definitive closure of the aneurysm but also reconstructed the damaged and fragile arterial segment affected with vasculitis.

  5. Flow diversion in vasculitic intracranial aneurysms? Repair of giant complex cavernous carotid aneurysm in polyarteritis nodosa using Pipeline embolization devices: first reported case.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jaime Martinez; Kaderali, Zul; Spears, Julian; Rubin, Laurence A; Marotta, Thomas R

    2015-05-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) are exceedingly rare lesions with unpredictable behavior that pose real challenges to microsurgical and endovascular interventions owing to their inflammatory nature. We introduce a safe and effective alternative for treating these aneurysms using Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs). A 20-year-old man presented with diplopia, headaches, chronic abdominal pain, and weight loss. Diagnostic evaluations confirmed PAN, including bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms. Cyclophosphamide and steroids achieved significant and sustained clinical improvement, with a decision to follow the aneurysms serially. Seven years later the left unruptured aneurysm enlarged, causing a sudden severe headache and a cavernous sinus syndrome. Treatment of the symptomatic aneurysm was pursued using flow diversion (PED) and the internal carotid artery was successfully reconstructed with a total of four overlapping PEDs. At 6 months follow-up, complete exclusion of the aneurysm was demonstrated, with symptomatic recovery. This is the first description of using a flow-diverting technique in an inflammatory vasculitis. In this case, PEDs not only attained a definitive closure of the aneurysm but also reconstructed the damaged and fragile arterial segment affected with vasculitis.

  6. Hemodynamic analysis of intracranial aneurysms using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuemei; Li, Rui; Chen, Yu; Sia, Sheau Fung; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Aihua

    2017-03-01

    Additional hemodynamic parameters are highly desirable in the clinical management of intracranial aneurysm rupture as static medical images cannot demonstrate the blood flow within aneurysms. There are two ways of obtaining the hemodynamic information—by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, we compared PCMRI and CFD in the analysis of a stable patient's specific aneurysm. The results showed that PCMRI and CFD are in good agreement with each other. An additional CFD study of two stable and two ruptured aneurysms revealed that ruptured aneurysms have a higher statistical average blood velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) within the aneurysm sac compared to those of stable aneurysms. Furthermore, for ruptured aneurysms, the OSI divides the positive and negative wall shear stress divergence at the aneurysm sac.

  7. Hemodynamic analysis of intracranial aneurysms using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuemei; Li, Rui; Chen, Yu; Sia, Sheau Fung; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Aihua

    2017-04-01

    Additional hemodynamic parameters are highly desirable in the clinical management of intracranial aneurysm rupture as static medical images cannot demonstrate the blood flow within aneurysms. There are two ways of obtaining the hemodynamic information—by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, we compared PCMRI and CFD in the analysis of a stable patient's specific aneurysm. The results showed that PCMRI and CFD are in good agreement with each other. An additional CFD study of two stable and two ruptured aneurysms revealed that ruptured aneurysms have a higher statistical average blood velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) within the aneurysm sac compared to those of stable aneurysms. Furthermore, for ruptured aneurysms, the OSI divides the positive and negative wall shear stress divergence at the aneurysm sac.

  8. Intracranial-to-intracranial bypass for posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: options, technical challenges, and results in 35 patients.

    PubMed

    Abla, Adib A; McDougall, Cameron M; Breshears, Jonathan D; Lawton, Michael T

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Intracranial-to-intracranial (IC-IC) bypasses are alternatives to traditional extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypasses to reanastomose parent arteries, reimplant efferent branches, revascularize branches with in situ donor arteries, and reconstruct bifurcations with interposition grafts that are entirely intracranial. These bypasses represent an evolution in bypass surgery from using scalp arteries and remote donor sites toward a more local and reconstructive approach. IC-IC bypass can be utilized preferentially when revascularization is needed in the management of complex aneurysms. Experiences using IC-IC bypass, as applied to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms in 35 patients, were reviewed. METHODS Patients with PICA aneurysms and vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms involving the PICA's origin were identified from a prospectively maintained database of the Vascular Neurosurgery Service, and patients who underwent bypass procedures for PICA revascularization were included. RESULTS During a 17-year period in which 129 PICA aneurysms in 125 patients were treated microsurgically, 35 IC-IC bypasses were performed as part of PICA aneurysm management, including in situ p3-p3 PICA-PICA bypass in 11 patients (31%), PICA reimplantation in 9 patients (26%), reanastomosis in 14 patients (40%), and 1 V3 VA-to-PICA bypass with an interposition graft (3%). All aneurysms were completely or nearly completely obliterated, 94% of bypasses were patent, 77% of patients were improved or unchanged after treatment, and good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≤ 2) were observed in 76% of patients. Two patients died expectantly. Ischemic complications were limited to 2 patients in whom the bypasses occluded, and permanent lower cranial nerve morbidity was limited to 3 patients and did not compromise independent function in any of the patients. CONCLUSIONS PICA aneurysms receive the application of IC-IC bypass better than any other aneurysm, with nearly one

  9. Outcomes of Stent-assisted Coil Embolization of Wide-necked Intracranial Aneurysms Using the Solitaire™ AB Neurovascular Remodeling Device.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Woong; Seung, Won-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study presents our experience with respect to the clinical and angiographic outcomes of patients treated with stent-assisted coil embolization using Solitaire™ AB stents. From March 2011 to December 2014, 50 patients with 55 wide-necked and/or complex intracranial aneurysms were evaluated. Four patients presented with an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stent deployment was performed with a standard coiling procedure in 49 aneurysms. Three patients underwent bailout stenting, 2 patients were treated by temporary stenting and one patient was treated only by stenting without coiling for dissecting aneurysm. Successful placement of the Solitaire AB stent was achieved in all the cases. Based on the postprocedural angiographic results, a Raymond 1 was obtained in 32 (59%) of 54 aneurysms, excluded by one case of dissecting aneurysm, and a Raymond 2 in 13 (24%), and a Raymond 3 in 9 (17%). There was one thromboembolic (2%) and three hemorrhagic complications (6%). However, procedure-related morbidity or mortality was not found. Annual follow-up angiographic results from the embolization were obtained in 40 (74.1%) of 54 cases. These results were represented as Raymond 1 in 27 (67.5%), class 2 in 9 (22.5%), and class 3 in 4 (10%) cases. Angiographic improvement associated with progressive thrombosis of the aneurysm was obtained in 10 aneurysms. Four aneurysms were recanalized without requiring additional treatment. In-stent stenosis was found in one aneurysm, but stent migration was not seen on follow-up angiography. Stent-assisted coil embolization using the Solitaire AB stent for treating wide-necked and/or complex intracranial aneurysms was found to be safe and effective immediately post-embolization and after follow-up. Long-term follow-up will be required to identify the effect of the Solitaire AB stent on recanalization rates.

  10. Vascular angular remodeling by kissing-Y stenting in wide necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Melber, Katharina; Meila, Dan; Draheim, Philipp; Grieb, Dominik; Greling, Björn; Schlunz-Hendann, Martin; Brassel, Friedhelm

    2016-12-05

    Single stent deployment leads to a change in vascular geometry in wide necked bifurcation aneurysms. In some complex cases, the use of the single stent technique might not be sufficient or may not be feasible. The kissing-Y stenting technique appears to be an alternative endovascular treatment option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the kissing-Y stenting technique on vascular angular remodeling. 21 patients with wide necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms at different sites (10 anterior communicating artery, 6 middle cerebral artery, 3 basilar artery, 1 vertebral artery/posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 1 internal carotid artery/posterior communicating artery) were treated with 44 closed cell stents (follow-up 2012-2016) using the kissing-Y stenting technique. We analyzed vascular angle geometry between the mother and both affected daughter vessels by digital subtraction angiography, before and after stent deployment, using standard working projections. Endovascular treatment of wide necked intracranial aneurysms using the kissing-Y stenting technique significantly decreased the angle between the bifurcation branches from 130.4±9.5° to 91.5±9.1° (p<0.0001). Kissing-Y stenting in wide necked bifurcation aneurysms leads to vascular angular remodeling of both affected branches. The resulting straightening of the bifurcation angle may prevent aneurysmal recurrence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Electronic database for documentation of microsurgical and endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms: technical note.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Killer, M; Bavinzski, G; Richling, B

    2001-06-01

    The authors present an electronic database for the documentation and inter-group comparison of patients subjected to microsurgical and/or endovascular therapy of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

  12. Headache caused by an intracranial aneurysm in a 32-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Larkin-Thier, Susan M; Livdans-Forret, Anna B; Harvey, Phyllis J

    2007-02-01

    We describe the case of a woman with a headache later found to be a result of an intracranial aneurysm. Through this article, we aim to raise awareness regarding the red flags that should lead doctors of chiropractic to suspect the presence of this condition to facilitate appropriate patient management that increases the likelihood of patients' recovery. A 32-year-old woman sought care for a constant headache of 4 days' duration. She described the headache as severe throughout her entire head, centralized at the base of the occiput, and unlike any headache she had experienced. She had concomitant neck pain. Her left eye deviated toward the midline and had excessive tearing 12 hours after the onset of the headache. No chiropractic adjustment was administered; immediate transfer for emergency treatment was arranged instead. The diagnosis of a bleeding intracranial aneurysm was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was transferred to a local university hospital for surgical intervention. Unfortunately, she died of vasospastic complications. The red flags to be considered in evaluating patients with such headache as that described for our case patient include a history of hypertension, cigarette smoking, oral contraceptive use, alcohol consumption, pregnancy, and cocaine use. Practitioners need to be aware of the signs and symptoms that indicate whether a headache may be a result of serious problems such as an aneurysm.

  13. Influence of Parent Artery Segmentation and Boundary Conditions on Hemodynamic Characteristics of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yufeng; Oh, Je Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of segmentation of the upstream and downstream parent artery and hemodynamic boundary conditions (BCs) on the evaluated hemodynamic factors for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of intracranial aneurysms. Materials and Methods Three dimensional patient-specific aneurysm models were analyzed by applying various combinations of inlet and outlet BCs. Hemodynamic factors such as velocity pattern, streamline, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index at the systolic time were visualized and compared among the different cases. Results Hemodynamic factors were significantly affected by the inlet BCs while there was little influence of the outlet BCs. When the inlet length was relatively short, different inlet BCs showed different hemodynamic factors and the calculated hemodynamic factors were also dependent on the inlet length. However, when the inlet length (L) was long enough (L>20D, where D is the diameter of inlet section), the hemodynamic factors became similar regardless of the inlet BCs and lengths. The error due to different inlet BCs was negligible. The effect of the outlet length on the hemodynamic factors was similar to that of the inlet length. Conclusion Simulated hemodynamic factors are highly sensitive to inlet BCs and upstream parent artery segmentation. The results of this work can provide an insight into how to build models and to apply BCs for more accurate estimation of hemodynamic factors from CFD simulations of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:26256976

  14. Clinical and angiographic outcome after endovascular management of giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Babak S; Mocco, J; Bang, Jee A; Gologorsky, Yakov; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Horowitz, Michael B; Hopkins, L Nelson; Levy, Elad I

    2008-10-01

    Giant (>or=25 mm) intracranial aneurysms (IA) have an extremely poor natural history and continue to confound modern techniques for management. Currently, there is a dearth of large series examining endovascular treatment of giant IAs only. We reviewed long-term clinical and radiological outcome from a series of 39 consecutive giant IAs treated with endovascular repair in 38 patients at 2 tertiary referral centers. Data were evaluated in 3 ways: on a per-treatment session basis for each aneurysm, at 30 days after each patient's final treatment, and at the last known follow-up examination. Ten (26%) aneurysms were ruptured. At the last angiographic follow-up examination (21.5 +/- 22.9 months), 95% or higher and 100% occlusion rates were documented in 64 and 36% of aneurysms, respectively, with parent vessel preservation maintained in 74%. Stents were required in 25 aneurysms. Twenty percent of treatment sessions resulted in permanent morbidity, and death within 30 days occurred after 8% of treatment sessions. On average, 1.9 +/- 1.1 sessions were required to treat each aneurysm, with a resulting cumulative per-patient mortality of 16% and morbidity of 32%. At the last known clinical follow-up examination (mean, 24.8 +/- 24.8 months), 24 (63%) patients had Glasgow Outcome Scale scores of 4 or 5 ("good" or "excellent"), 10 patients had worsened neurological function from baseline (26% morbidity), and 11 had died (29% mortality). We present what is to our knowledge the largest series to date evaluating outcome after consecutive giant IAs treated with endovascular repair. Giant IAs carry a high risk for surgical or endovascular intervention. We hope critical and honest evaluation of treatment results will ensure continued improvement in patient care.

  15. Biomarkers of connective tissue disease in patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Alaattin; Vardar, Enver; Selçuki, Mehmet; Ertürk, Ali Riza; Ozbek, Gülriz; Atçi, Burak

    2010-09-01

    Connective tissue defects may play a significant role in the development of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Multiorgan connective tissue disorders may, therefore, indicate a risk of IA development. We investigated biomarkers of connective tissue disease in patients with IAs. A series of 62 patients with IAs was studied by physical examination, echocardiography, ultrasound examination of the kidneys and abdomen, and microscopic examination of skin tissue (temporal area) and superficial temporal artery taken at operation. Patients with IAs had a higher incidence of biomarkers of systemic connective tissue disease than controls and identification of these markers may be important for screening for IAs. Microscopic investigation of biopsies of the skin and superficial temporal artery from patients and their relatives may become valuable for clinical diagnosis, identification of people at risk and basic studies of the pathogenesis of this vascular disease.

  16. The role of bone subtraction computed tomographic angiography in determining intracranial aneurysms in non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-05-01

    The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non

  17. Unruptured Giant Intracranial Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery: Late Ocular Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zorić Geber, Mia; Krolo, Iva; Zrinscak, Ognjen; Tedeschi Reiner, Eugenia; Zivkovic, Dario Josip

    2016-01-01

    An unruptured giant intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery may tend to present with late ocular symptoms. This is the case of a 58-year-old female patient with a giant unruptured aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery. The patient presented with exclusively progressive reduction of visual acuity and visual field defects due to the mass effect of the growing aneurysm. The rupture of the aneurysm occurred before planned treatment. Clinical suspicion and timely recognition as well as prompt treatment play an important role in the final outcome of the management of giant unruptured intracerebral aneurysms.

  18. MR spectroscopy in patients after surgical clipping and endovascular embolisation of intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kochanowicz, Jan; Brzozowska, Joanna; Mariak, Zenon; Walecki, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: In MR spectroscopy, we evaluated cerebral metabolic changes in patients 2–4 years after clipping or endovascular therapy of intracranial aneurysms. Material/Metodhs: A prospective study was conducted in 36 patients after SAH, treated surgically (n=23) or by endovascular embolisation (n=13). Control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. The clinical evaluation was based on the Glasgow Coma Scale, Hunt and Hess grade, and Glasgow Outcome Scale. MR spectroscopy was performed with 1.5T system with PRESS sequence, at echo time of 35 ms, in frontal lobes unchanged in MR examination. Ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI) and glutamine/glutamate complex (Glx) to creatine were assessed. Results: Only a slight, statistically insignificant reduction of NAA/Cr and an insignificant increase of mI/Cr were noted; other metabolite ratios were close to the ones in the control group. Similar results were obtained in patients after surgical clipping and after endovascular therapy. Only in patients with aneurysms of anterior communicating artery complex (AcoA), the NAA/Cr ratio showed a significant reduction as compared to that of non-AcoA patients and of the control group. No significant changes of metabolite ratios were found in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, with regard to aneurysm lateralisation. Conclusions: Surgical clipping and endovascular embolisation of ICA, MCA and posterior circulatory aneurysms do not induce changes in metabolite concentration in frontal lobes assessed in MR spectroscopy. In patients with AcoA aneurysms, 2–4 years after obliteration, there were found persistent metabolic changes in unchanged brain tissue of the frontal lobes, corresponding to neuronal damage (dysfunction). PMID:22802800

  19. Remission of migraine after clipping of saccular intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, E R; Busygina, A V; Kolotvinov, V S; Sakovich, V P; Olesen, J

    2015-02-01

    Unruptured saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA) is associated with an increased prevalence of migraine, but it is unclear whether this is altered by clipping of the aneurysm. The aim of our study was to determine whether remission rate of migraine and other recurrent headaches was greater in patients with SIA after clipping than in controls. We prospectively studied 87 SIA patients with migraine or other recurrent headaches. They were interviewed about headaches in the preceding year before and 1 year after clipping using a validated semi-structured neurologist conducted interview. The remission rates of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in these patients were compared to 92 patients from a headache center. Diagnoses were made according to the ICHD-2. During 1 year preceding rupture 51 patients with SIA had migraine. During the year after clipping, this was reduced by 74.5% (P < 0.0001). At first encounter, 47 control patients had migraine during the preceding year, and during 1 year of treatment, it was 41, a reduction 12.8% (P > 0.5). The decrease of migraine in SIA patients was significantly higher than in controls: 74.5% vs 12.8% (P < 0.001). A history of TTH was given by 33 patients with SIA during the year preceding rupture and by 44 during 1 year after clipping (P > 0.75). Forty-one control patients had TTH, 27 after 1 year of treatment, a reduction 34.1% (P < 0.05). No factors except clipping of the aneurysm could explain the remission of migraine. Migraine prevalence in patients with SIA decreases significantly after clipping. Further comparative studies of migraine after coiling vs clipping in SIA patients are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in a case of segmental arterial mediolysis with coexisting intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ryosuke; Hironaka, Yasuo; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Park, Young-Su; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2012-05-01

    The authors report the rare case of a 58-year-old man with segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) with associated intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms, who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. This disease primarily involves the intraabdominal arterial system, resulting in intraabdominal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage in most cases. The patient presented with severe headache and vomiting. The CT scans of the head revealed SAH. Cerebral angiography revealed 3 aneurysms: 1 in the right distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 1 in the distal portion of the A(1) segment of the right ACA, and 1 in the left vertebral artery. The patient had a history of multiple intraabdominal aneurysms involving the splenic, gastroepiploic, gastroduodenal, and bilateral renal arteries. He underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy and fibrin coating of the dissecting aneurysm in the distal portion of the A(1) segment of the right ACA, which was the cause of the hemorrhage. Follow-up revealed no significant changes in the residual intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms. An SAH due to SAM with associated multiple intraabdominal aneurysms is extremely rare. The authors describe their particular case and review the literature pertaining to SAM with associated intracranial and intraabdominal aneurysms.

  1. Open surgical management of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber (KTW) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smitherman, Adam Derik; Woodall, Michael Neil; Alleyne, Cargill H; Rahimi, Scott Y

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old man with a history of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome presented with severe headache and neck pain. Work-up revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage and evidence of multiple intracranial aneurysms. The patient was treated with open surgical clipping of his ruptured aneurysm and is currently doing well. PMID:23314873

  2. Microcatheter Shaping for Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling Using the 3-Dimensional Printing Rapid Prototyping Technology: Preliminary Result in the First 10 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Namba, Katsunari; Higaki, Ayuho; Kaneko, Naoki; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Nemoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-07-01

    An optimal microcatheter is necessary for successful coiling of an intracranial aneurysm. The optimal shape may be predetermined before the endovascular surgery via the use of a 3-dimensional (3D) printing rapid prototyping technology. We report a preliminary series of intracranial aneurysms treated with a microcatheter shape determined by the patient's anatomy and configuration of the aneurysm, which was fabricated with a 3D printer aneurysm model. A solid aneurysm model was fabricated with a 3D printer based on the data acquired from the 3D rotational angiogram. A hollow aneurysm model with an identical vessel and aneurysm lumen to the actual anatomy was constructed with use of the solid model as a mold. With use of the solid model, a microcatheter shaping mandrel was formed to identically line the 3D curvature of the parent vessel and the long axis of the aneurysm. With use of the mandrel, a test microcatheter was shaped and validated for the accuracy with the hollow model. All the planning processes were undertaken at least 1 day before treatment. The preshaped mandrel was then applied in the endovascular procedure. Ten consecutive intracranial aneurysms were coiled with the pre-planned shape of the microcatheter and evaluated for the clinical and anatomical outcomes and microcatheter accuracy and stability. All of pre-planned microcatheters matched the vessel and aneurysm anatomy. Seven required no microguidewire assistance in catheterizing the aneurysm whereas 3 required guiding of a microguidewire. All of the microcatheters accurately aligned the long axis of the aneurysm. The pre-planned microcatheter shapes demonstrated stability in all except in 1 large aneurysm case. When a 3D printing rapid type prototyping technology is used, a patient-specific and optimal microcatheter shape may be determined preoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a Polytetrafluoroethylene-Coated Vascular Plug for Focal Intracranial Parent Vessel Sacrifice for Fusiform Aneurysm Treatment.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Andrew P; Abbas, Mohammad; Hall, Patricia; Taylor, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Fusiform intracranial aneurysms are challenging due to the circumferential nature of the disease. Endovascular parent vessel sacrifice with coils may be a treatment option, but typically requires a long vessel segment to induce complete cessation of flow.   We evaluate early clinical experience with the intracranial use of the microvascular plug (MVP; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) device and to compare to previous coil-only techniques for vertebral artery sacrifice for fusiform vertebral aneurysm. We reviewed patients treated with the MVP for intracranial aneurysms at our institution. As a case-control study, we located 6 control patients who underwent coiling alone for vertebral artery sacrifice. The number of implants, fluoroscopy time, and procedural charges were compared using unpaired t -tests. Twelve patients underwent vessel sacrifices with MVP. Eight were for vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms. Comparing only vertebral aneurysms, the mean implants was 7 in the MVP group (n = 8) and 19.5 in the coiling group (n = 6; P = .0015). Mean fluoroscopy time was 17.62 min in the MVP group compared to 24.2 min in the coiling group ( P = .07). Procedural costs were less in the MVP group ($19 667.38) compared to coiling ($44 909.50, P = .05). There were no technical failures and no cases with persistent flow in the parent vessel at the end of the procedure. The MVP is a cost-effective device for focal intracranial vessel occlusion in select patients. This is an important tool for cerebrovascular surgeons, particularly in cases of ruptured dissecting vertebral aneurysms.

  4. Y-configuration Stent-assisted Coil Embolization for Wide-necked Intracranial Bifurcation Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangho; Park, Insung; Park, Sukh Que; Kwon, O-ki; Han, Jongwoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency and safety of Y configuration stent-assisted coiling with double-closed stents for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms located at arterial bifurcations thorough analysis of a multicenter case series. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review was done on 10 patients who underwent endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with Y-configuration stent-assisted coil embolization in three centers from August 2011 to March 2014. The degree of aneurysmal occlusion was assessed using the Raymond scale. Clinical outcomes were assessed before operation, at discharge, and at the last follow-up visit using the Glasgow outcome scale. Results The 10 patients included 6 females and 4 males with a mean age of 58.6 years. Indications for treatment included 6 unruptured intracranial aneurysms and 4 ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Five aneurysms were located at the basilar artery bifurcation, four aneurysms were located in an anterior communicating artery, and one aneurysm was in the pericallosal artery. The mean size of the 10 aneurysms was 9.7 mm. All aneurysms had a dome-to-neck ratio of < 1.5 (mean, 0.89). Immediate complications included one thromboembolic event out of the 10 cases. Immediate posttreatment angiograms showed complete occlusion in 1 aneurysm and residual necks in 9 aneurysms. Follow-up results showed 8 complete occlusions and 2 residual necks. No delayed complications were observed during the follow-up period (mean: 20 months). Conclusion Y configuration using double-closed cell stents is feasible and safe in selected patients. This method is an acceptable option for managing complex wide-necked bifurcations. PMID:28184345

  5. Association of wall shear stress with intracranial aneurysm rupture: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Geng; Zhu, Yueqi; Yin, Yanling; Su, Ming; Li, Minghua

    2017-07-13

    To evaluate the relationship between wall shear stress (WSS) magnitude and cerebral aneurysm rupture and provide new insight into the disparate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) findings concerning the role of WSS in intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. A systematic electronic database (PubMed, Medline, Springer, and EBSCO) search was conducted for all accessible published articles up to July 1, 2016, with no restriction on the publication year. Abstracts, full-text manuscripts, and the reference lists of retrieved articles were analyzed. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the complication rates across studies. Twenty-two studies containing CFD data on 1257 patients with aneurysms were included in the analysis. A significantly higher rate of low WSS (0-1.5 Pa) was found in ruptured aneurysms (odds ratio [OR] 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73-2.62). The pooled analyses across 14 studies with low WSS showed significantly lower mean WSS (0.64 vs. 1.4 Pa) (p = 0.037) in the ruptured group. This meta-analysis provides evidence that decreased local WSS may be an important predictive parameter of IA rupture.

  6. A Theoretical Consideration of the Surgical Treatment of Small Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chang, Han Soo

    2016-12-01

    Surgical treatment of small, unruptured intracranial aneurysms remains a controversial topic. Recently, some authors have doubted the validity of the low rupture rates of small aneurysms reported in the literature and advocate aggressive surgical treatment of small unruptured aneurysms; however, some theoretical elucidation is necessary to determine whether such aggressive treatment is appropriate. On certain theoretical assumptions, a simulation was performed to examine whether the low rupture rates for small aneurysms could produce a reasonable size distribution of ruptured aneurysms. Second, considering a hypothetical population in which all the unruptured aneurysms over a certain cut-off size are treated, the effect of this policy on reducing the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was mathematically analyzed. Then, the contribution of each individual operation to this reduction of SAH incidence was calculated. The low rupture rates reported in the literature produced a reasonable size distribution of ruptured aneurysms (median diameter of 10 mm) in the simulated population. The analysis of the treatment cut-off size showed that, as the cut-off size was progressively lowered to the range of 3-5 mm, further reduction of the incidence of SAH became almost negligible. The contribution of each individual surgery on unruptured aneurysms decreased rapidly as the aneurysm size decreased, and this reduction was proportional to the reduction of the rupture rate of the aneurysm. These results suggest that we should be prudent in providing surgical treatment to small unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Embolic stroke secondary to spontaneous thrombosis of unruptured intracranial aneurysm: Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Arauz, Antonio; Patiño-Rodríguez, Hernán M; Chavarría-Medina, Mónica; Becerril, Mayra; Merino, José G; Zenteno, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial aneurysms uncommonly present with ischemic stroke. Parent artery occlusion due to local extension of the luminal thrombus, aneurysms ejecting emboli to distal arteries, or increased mass effect have been described as possible pathogenic mechanisms. Guidelines for the management of these patients are absent. We present the clinical outcome and radiological characteristics of three patients with spontaneous thrombosis of intracranial aneurysms as a cause of ischemic stroke. This information is relevant given the possible benign history in terms of stroke recurrence and risk of bleeding.

  8. Embolic stroke secondary to spontaneous thrombosis of unruptured intracranial aneurysm: Report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Arauz, Antonio; Chavarría-Medina, Mónica; Becerril, Mayra; Merino, José G; Zenteno, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms uncommonly present with ischemic stroke. Parent artery occlusion due to local extension of the luminal thrombus, aneurysms ejecting emboli to distal arteries, or increased mass effect have been described as possible pathogenic mechanisms. Guidelines for the management of these patients are absent. We present the clinical outcome and radiological characteristics of three patients with spontaneous thrombosis of intracranial aneurysms as a cause of ischemic stroke. This information is relevant given the possible benign history in terms of stroke recurrence and risk of bleeding. PMID:26647229

  9. Development of Image Segmentation Methods for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yi; Morgan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Though providing vital means for the visualization, diagnosis, and quantification of decision-making processes for the treatment of vascular pathologies, vascular segmentation remains a process that continues to be marred by numerous challenges. In this study, we validate eight aneurysms via the use of two existing segmentation methods; the Region Growing Threshold and Chan-Vese model. These methods were evaluated by comparison of the results obtained with a manual segmentation performed. Based upon this validation study, we propose a new Threshold-Based Level Set (TLS) method in order to overcome the existing problems. With divergent methods of segmentation, we discovered that the volumes of the aneurysm models reached a maximum difference of 24%. The local artery anatomical shapes of the aneurysms were likewise found to significantly influence the results of these simulations. In contrast, however, the volume differences calculated via use of the TLS method remained at a relatively low figure, at only around 5%, thereby revealing the existence of inherent limitations in the application of cerebrovascular segmentation. The proposed TLS method holds the potential for utilisation in automatic aneurysm segmentation without the setting of a seed point or intensity threshold. This technique will further enable the segmentation of anatomically complex cerebrovascular shapes, thereby allowing for more accurate and efficient simulations of medical imagery. PMID:23606905

  10. Development of image segmentation methods for intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sen, Yuka; Qian, Yi; Avolio, Alberto; Morgan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Though providing vital means for the visualization, diagnosis, and quantification of decision-making processes for the treatment of vascular pathologies, vascular segmentation remains a process that continues to be marred by numerous challenges. In this study, we validate eight aneurysms via the use of two existing segmentation methods; the Region Growing Threshold and Chan-Vese model. These methods were evaluated by comparison of the results obtained with a manual segmentation performed. Based upon this validation study, we propose a new Threshold-Based Level Set (TLS) method in order to overcome the existing problems. With divergent methods of segmentation, we discovered that the volumes of the aneurysm models reached a maximum difference of 24%. The local artery anatomical shapes of the aneurysms were likewise found to significantly influence the results of these simulations. In contrast, however, the volume differences calculated via use of the TLS method remained at a relatively low figure, at only around 5%, thereby revealing the existence of inherent limitations in the application of cerebrovascular segmentation. The proposed TLS method holds the potential for utilisation in automatic aneurysm segmentation without the setting of a seed point or intensity threshold. This technique will further enable the segmentation of anatomically complex cerebrovascular shapes, thereby allowing for more accurate and efficient simulations of medical imagery.

  11. Distribution of ABO blood groups in the patients with intracranial aneurysm and association of different risk factors with particular blood type

    PubMed Central

    Bir, Shyamal Chandra; Bollam, Papireddy; Nanda, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The association between ABO blood groups and intracranial aneurysms is not well-known. Many co-morbid factors are associated with intracranial aneurysms. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of different blood group in patients with intracranial aneurysm and to look for associations between risk factors and these groups. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study includes 1,491 cases who underwent surgical operations for intracranial aneurysms from 1993-2014. We have evaluated the information related to clinical history, ABO blood groups and associated risk factors in the patients both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms by chart review of the cases. Results: In our study, out of 1,491 cases, the most common ABO blood groups were group O (668 cases, 44.80%) and Group A (603 cases, 40.44%), and Rh(+) in 1,319 (88.4%) and Rh(-) in 147 (11.6%). Blood Group A (43% vs. 36%) and Group B (16.2% vs. 8.6%) were significantly higher in Caucasian and African Americans respectively. However, in general population, there was no significant difference in blood groups between Caucasians and African Americans. Rh(-) factor was significantly higher in Caucasians compared to African Americans. Incidence of smoking was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with O group compared to others. In addition, incidence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly higher in aneurysm patients with A group compared to others. Conclusion: The racial disparity in the distribution of blood groups, and risk factor association with blood groups in the development of intracranial aneurysm needs to be considered. The findings from our study may be useful in identifying patients at increased risk. Further study may be required to establish the risks from multiple centers studies around the world. PMID:26396600

  12. Flow diverters for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: current status and ongoing clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Wong, George K C; Kwan, Marco C L; Ng, Rebecca Y T; Yu, Simon C H; Poon, W S

    2011-06-01

    The ultimate treatment goal for intracranial aneurysms is to reconstruct the vessel wall and correct the hemodynamic disturbance. A flow diverter is a stent placed in the parent artery to reduce blood flow in the aneurysm sac to the point of stagnation, gradual thrombosis, and neointimal remodeling to maintain outflow in the side branches and perforators. Here, we review the two commercially available flow diverters, the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) and the SILK flow diverter (SFD). The rates of severe hemorrhagic complications have been reported to be 2% for the PED and 0.8% for the SFD. The results of studies completed thus far show that endovascular reconstruction with flow diverters is an effective treatment of wide-necked, fusiform, large, and giant unruptured intracranial aneurysms, with 5% to 10% of patients experiencing permanent major morbidity and mortality. The results of ongoing studies may resolve whether flow diverters can replace coil embolization for the treatment of all, or selected, intracranial aneurysms.

  13. Treatment of pediatric patient with ruptured intracranial aneurysm--case report.

    PubMed

    Meljnikov, Igor; Vuleković, Petar; Cigić, Tomislav; Borisev, Vladimir; Milojević, Aleksandar; Iduski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the contemporary diagnostics of intracranial aneurysms their treatment is still a great challenge. The decision when and if to apply a surgical or endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms should be made by a team of medical specialists which consists of a cerebrovascular neurosurgeon, neuro-radiologist and neuro-anesthesiologist. We report a case of a patient aged 16 who was admitted because of a sudden intensive headache followed by sickness, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. On admission the patient was conscious but sleepy. Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14 and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale grade was I. The computed tomography scan showed a massive subarachnoid haemorrhage. The computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed a ruptured saccular aneurysm in the left vertebral artery. An early treatment with the coiling of the lumen of the aneurysm was performed under general anaesthesia. On the tenth day the boy was discharged in good condition and without any neurological deficits. Six months after the intervention the patient was without symptoms and the control digital subtraction angiography showed the complete occlusion of the aneurysm. Intracranial aneurysms in children are more common in males and are predominantly localized in the posterior circulation. In addition, they are frequently of greater size and more complex architecture and they are associated with a lower incidence of clinically manifest vasospasm. According to previous experience, endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms in paediatric patients has proven to be a safe and efficient method with a small number of complications.

  14. [The results of surgical treatment in 100 patients operated on for intracranial aneurysms of the anterior circulation].

    PubMed

    Alemán-Rivera, A; Camacho-Gómez, A

    Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes nearly 80% of all spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhages. To determine the variables with prognostic value in view of the results of patients operated on for intracranial aneurysms. Patients and methods. The sample was made up of 100 patients from whose clinical histories useful data was obtained. This data was then fed into a database using DBASE111 and discriminant analysis made to determine the variables of predictive value regarding mortality. The average age was 45 years, with a predominance of women. Arterial hypertension was observed in 52.9% of the patients. The patients with the best pre operative evaluation on the WFNS scale obtained the best results. Correct evaluation of 97% of the cases was done on discriminant analysis of certain variables studied. Excellent results were obtained by 75% of the patients, 10% had a slight degree of disability, four patients had severe disability and 11 patients died, five of them of non neurological conditions. The application of discriminant analysis made it possible to determine amongst over 50 variables studied, a group which by themselves lead to the definite classification of our patients regarding survival. These were: the state of the brain during operation, number of post operative complications, difficulty in dissecting the sac of the aneurysm, early rupture of the aneurysm, pre operative neurological state and action on the aneurysm.

  15. Canadian experience with the pipeline embolization device for repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, C J; Spears, J; Chow, M; Wong, J; Boulton, M; Weill, A; Willinsky, R A; Kelly, M; Marotta, T R

    2013-02-01

    Flow-diverting stents, such as the PED, have emerged as a novel means of treating complex intracranial aneurysms. This retrospective analysis of the initial Canadian experience provides insight into technical challenges, clinical and radiographic outcomes, and complication rates after the use of flow-diverting stents for unruptured aneurysms. Cases were compiled from 7 Canadian centers between July 2008 and December 2010. Each center prospectively tracked their initial experience; these data were retrospectively updated and pooled for analysis. During the defined study period, 97 cases of unruptured aneurysm were treated with the PED, with successful stent deployment in 94 cases. The overall complete or near-complete occlusion rate was 83%, with a median follow-up at 1.25 years (range 0.25-2.5 years). Progressive occlusion was witnessed over time, with complete or near-complete occlusion in 65% of aneurysms followed through 6 months, and 90% of aneurysms followed through 1 year. Multivariate analysis found previous aneurysm treatment and female sex predictive of persistent aneurysm filling. Most patients were stable or improved (88%), with the most favorable outcomes observed in patients with cavernous carotid aneurysms. The overall mortality rate was 6%. Postprocedural aneurysm hemorrhage occurred in 3 patients (3%), while ipsilateral distal territory hemorrhage was observed in 4 patients (3.4%). Flow-diverting stents represent an important tool in the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. The relative efficacy and morbidity of this treatment must be considered in the context of available alternate interventions.

  16. Risk–benefit analysis of the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Vindlacheruvu, R; Mendelow, A; Mitchell, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine under what circumstances repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be beneficial. Methods: A life expectancy analysis of patients with unruptured aneurysms with and without repair based on prospective data from the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA). Results: Life years are lost at all ages by repairing anterior circulation aneurysms under 7 mm in diameter in patients with no history of a subarachnoid haemorrhage from another aneurysm (incidental). For all other aneurysms the number of life years saved by repair is dependent on the patient's age at the time when repair is undertaken. Between 2 and 40 years are saved by repairing aneurysms in patients aged 20 years. These benefits fall to 0 when remaining life expectancy falls below 15–35 years, corresponding to the age range of 45–70 years. Conclusions: Repair of unruptured aneurysms benefits patients harbouring them by improving life expectancy except in certain circumstances. The exceptions are patients with remaining life expectancy less than 15–35 years or aged 45–70 (depending on aneurysm size and location) and patients with aneurysms of the anterior circulation under 7 mm in diameter with no history of a previous subarachnoid haemorrhage. These results are based on the findings of the ISUIA and are dependent on their accuracy. PMID:15654039

  17. Hemodynamic modeling of leukocyte and erythrocyte transport and interactions in intracranial aneurysms by a multiphase approach.

    PubMed

    Ou, Chubin; Huang, Wei; Yuen, Matthew Ming-Fai; Qian, Yi

    2016-10-03

    Hemodynamics has been recognized as an important factor in the development, growth, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms, and investigated by computational fluid dynamics techniques using a single phase approach. However, flow-dependent cell transport and interactions are usually ignored in single phase models, in which blood is usually treated as a single phase Newtonian fluid. For getting better insight into the underlying pathology of intracranial aneurysm, cell transport and interactions should be covered in hemodynamic studies. In the present study, a multiphase hemodynamic model incorporating cell transport and interactions was developed, in which blood was modeled as multiphase fluid having a continuous phase (plasma) and two particulate phases (erythrocytes and leukocytes). The model showed good agreement with experimental data and observations in the literature, and was applied to four patient-specific aneurysms in a pulsatile manner. Leukocyte accumulations were predicted at locations with flow disturbance and low wall shear stress. The concentrations of leukocyte at accumulation sites were found to exceed 200 to 500% of normal physiological level on three unstable aneurysms, including two ruptured aneurysms and a growing aneurysm where accumulation was observed near a daughter sac and a secondary aneurysm. This suggested that aneurysms with complex secondary flow patterns could be prone to leukocyte accumulation on the wall. As this is the first study to characterize cell transport and interactions in aneurysm hemodynamics, our model can serve as a foundation for future intracranial aneurysm models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extracranial to intracranial bypass for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ben A; Attenello, Frank; Russin, Jonathan J

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are rare in the pediatric population, making a definitive treatment algorithm difficult. Microsurgical clipping is the first choice for treatment but is not always feasible, while high recurrence rates and radiation exposure make endovascular options less favorable. Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass, though not commonly performed in the pediatric aneurysm population, has been reported in a small number of studies to be both safe and effective for the management of cerebral aneurysms. The authors present the case of a child with a distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm in eloquent territory, successfully treated with a superficial temporal artery (STA) to MCA bypass and trapping. A review of the current literature on pediatric EC-IC bypass in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CAD scheme for detection of intracranial aneurysms in MRA based on 3D analysis of vessel skeletons and enhanced aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Li, Qiang; Korogi, Yukunori; Hirai, Toshinori; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Ikeda, Ryuji; Doi, Kunio

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) based on findings of short branches in vessel skeletons, and a three-dimensional (3D) selective enhancement filter for dots (aneurysms). Fifty-three cases with 61 unruptured aneurysms and 62 non-aneurysm cases were tested in this study. The isotropic 3D MRA images with 400 x 400 x 128 voxels (a voxel size of 0.5 mm) were processed by use of the dot enhancement filter. The initial candidates were identified not only on the dot-enhanced images by use of a multiple gray-level thresholding technique, but also on the vessel skeletons by finding short branches on parent skeletons, which can indicate a high likelihood of small aneurysms. All candidates were classified into four categories of candidates according to effective diameter and local structure of the vessel skeleton. In each category, a number of false positives were removed by use of two rule-based schemes and by linear discriminant analysis on localized image features related to gray level and morphology. Our CAD scheme achieved a sensitivity of 97% with 5.0 false positives per patient by use of a leave-one-out-by-patient test method. This CAD system may be useful in assisting radiologists in the detection of small intracranial aneurysms as well as medium-size aneurysms in MRA.

  20. Stent-Assisted Clip Placement for Complex Internal Carotid Artery Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Khan, Asif A.; Suri, M. Fareed K.; Sherr, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We report two procedures using a stent-assisted microsurgical clip placement to treat complex intracranial aneurysms originating from supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery. CASE DESCRIPTIONS In both procedures, primary clip placement was considered technically difficult due to either complex morphology or inferior protrusion of aneurysm fundus within the interclinoid space. A nitinol self-expanding stent was placed across the neck of the aneurysm either preoperatively or intraoperatively. Obliteration of aneurysm and patency of the artery was confirmed by angiography after clip placement. CONCLUSION Description of an integrated open microsurgical and endovascular approach and review of literature pertaining to considerations for treatment approach are discussed. PMID:26958150

  1. Treatment of intracranial aneurysms using flow-diverting silk stents (BALT): a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M; Cirillo, L; Toni, F; Dall'olio, M; Princiotta, C; Stafa, A; Simonetti, L; Agati, R

    2011-09-01

    The Silk stent (Balt, Montmorency, France) is a retractable device designed to achieve curative reconstruction of the parent artery associated with an intracranial aneurysm. We present our initial experience with the Silk flow-diverting stent in the management and follow-up of 25 patients presenting with intracranial aneurysms.Twenty-five patients (age range, 34-81 years; 24 female) were treated with the Silk flow-diverting device. Aneurysms ranged in size from small (5), large (10) and giant (10) and included wide-necked aneurysms, multiple, nonsaccular, and recurrent intracranial aneurysms. Nine aneurysms were treated for headache, 14 for mass effect. None presented with haemorrhage. All patients were pretreated with dual antiplatelet medications for at least 72 hours before surgery and continued taking both agents for at least three months after treatment. A total of 25 Silk stents were used. Control MR angiography and/or CT angiography was typically performed prior to discharge and at one, three, six and 12 months post treatment. A follow-up digital subtraction angiogram was performed between six and 19 months post treatment.Complete angiographic occlusion or subtotal occlusion was achieved in 15 patients in a time frame from three days to 12 months. Three deaths and one major complication were encountered during the study period. Two patients, all with cavernous giant aneurysms, experienced transient exacerbations of preexisting cranial neuropathies and headache after the Silk treatment. Both were treated with corticosteroids, and symptoms resolved completely within a month.In our experience the Silk stent has proven to be a valuable tool in the endovascular treatment of intracranial giant partially thrombosed aneurysms and aneurysms of the internal carotid artery cavernous segment presenting with mass effect. The time of complete occlusion of the aneurysms and the risk of the bleeding is currently not predictable.

  2. Non-contrast 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography for visualization of intracranial aneurysms in patients with absolute contraindications to CT or MRI contrast.

    PubMed

    Yanamadala, Vijay; Sheth, Sameer A; Walcott, Brian P; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Buckley, Deidre; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2013-08-01

    The preoperative evaluation of patients with intracranial aneurysms typically includes a contrast-enhanced vascular study, such as computed tomography angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital subtraction angiography. However, there are numerous absolute and relative contraindications to the administration of imaging contrast agents, including pregnancy, severe contrast allergy, and renal insufficiency. Evaluation of patients with contrast contraindications thus presents a unique challenge. We identified three patients with absolute contrast contraindications who presented with intracranial aneurysms. One patient was pregnant, while the other two had previous severe anaphylactic reactions to iodinated contrast. Because of these contraindications to intravenous contrast, we performed non-contrast time-of-flight MRA with 3D reconstruction (TOF MRA with 3DR) with maximum intensity projections and volume renderings as part of the preoperative evaluation prior to successful open surgical clipping of the aneurysms. In the case of one paraclinoid aneurysm, a high-resolution non-contrast CT scan was also performed to assess the relationship of the aneurysm to the anterior clinoid process. TOF MRA with 3DR successfully identified the intracranial aneurysms and adequately depicted the surrounding microanatomy. Intraoperative findings were as predicted by the preoperative imaging studies. The aneurysms were successfully clip-obliterated, and the patients had uneventful post-operative courses. These cases demonstrate that non-contrast imaging is a viable modality to assess intracranial aneurysms as part of the surgical planning process in patients with contrast contraindications. TOF MRA with 3DR, in conjunction with high-resolution non-contrast CT when indicated, provides adequate visualization of the microanatomy of the aneurysm and surrounding structures.

  3. Results of Endovascular Coil Embolization Treatment for Small (≤ 5 mm) Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siwoo; Lee, Yong-Woo; Kim, Hyo-Joon; Kweon, Chang-young

    2016-01-01

    Objective Researchers and clinicians have been unable to fully elucidate the natural course of and proper treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) smaller than or equal to 5 mm, particularly with regard to whether close observation or surgery is more appropriate. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of endovascular coil embolization of small (≤ 5 mm) asymptomatic UIAs by analyzing outcomes and complications associated with the procedure. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from 150 patients with small asymptomatic UIAs (≤ 5 mm) treated with coil embolization between January 2011 and December 2015. Three-dimensional angiography was used to measure aneurysm size. We evaluated procedure-related morbidity and mortality, immediate post-operative angiographic results, brain computed thomography follow-up results on post-operative day one, and clinical progress. Results UIAs occurred primarily in the anterior circulation area (142 cases, 94.67%), though eight patients exhibited UIAs of the posterior circulation. Following coil embolization, aneurysms with complete occlusion were observed in 137 cases (91.3%). Partial occlusion occurred in five cases (3.33%), while the procedure had failed in eight cases (5.33%). Procedure-related morbidity and mortality were five cases (3.33%) and zero cases, respectively. Conclusion The endovascular treatment of small asymptomatic UIAs is associated with good short-term outcomes without permanent neurologic complications as well as low overall complication and morbidity rates. Thus, the procedure should be considered for patients with smaller asymptomatic UIAs. PMID:27847766

  4. Recommendations for accurate numerical blood flow simulations of stented intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Janiga, Gábor; Berg, Philipp; Beuing, Oliver; Neugebauer, Mathias; Gasteiger, Rocco; Preim, Bernhard; Rose, Georg; Skalej, Martin; Thévenin, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    The number of scientific publications dealing with stented intracranial aneurysms is rapidly increasing. Powerful computational facilities are now available; an accurate computational modeling of hemodynamics in patient-specific configurations is, however, still being sought. Furthermore, there is still no general agreement on the quantities that should be computed and on the most adequate analysis for intervention support. In this article, the accurate representation of patient geometry is first discussed, involving successive improvements. Concerning the second step, the mesh required for the numerical simulation is especially challenging when deploying a stent with very fine wire structures. Third, the description of the fluid properties is a major challenge. Finally, a founded quantitative analysis of the simulation results is obviously needed to support interventional decisions. In the present work, an attempt has been made to review the most important steps for a high-quality computational fluid dynamics computation of virtually stented intracranial aneurysms. In consequence, this leads to concrete recommendations, whereby the obtained results are not discussed for their medical relevance but for the evaluation of their quality. This investigation might hopefully be helpful for further studies considering stent deployment in patient-specific geometries, in particular regarding the generation of the most appropriate computational model.

  5. Computational hemodynamic study of intracranial aneurysms coexistent with proximal artery stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Peloc, Nora L.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2012-03-01

    Intracranial aneurysms and artery stenosis are vascular diseases with different pathophysiological characteristics. However, although unusual, aneurysms may coexist in up to 5% of patients with stenotic plaque, according to a previous study. Another study showed that incidental detection of cerebral aneurysm in the same cerebral circulation as the stenotic plaque was less than 2%. Patients with concomitant carotid artery stenosis and unruptured intracranial aneurysms pose a difficult management decision for the physician. Case reports showed patients who died due to aneurysm rupture months after endarterectomy but before aneurysm clipping, while others did not show any change in the aneurysm after plaque removal, having optimum outcome after aneurysm coiling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the intraaneurysmal hemodynamic changes before and after treatment of stenotic plaque. Idealized models were constructed with different stenotic grade, distance and relative position to the aneurysm. Digital removal of the stenotic plaque was performed in the reconstructed model of a patient with both pathologies. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed using a finite element method approach. Blood velocity field and hemodynamic forces were recorded and analyzed. Changes in the flow patterns and wall shear stress values and distributions were observed in both ideal and image-based models. Detailed investigation of wall shear stress distributions in patients with both pathologies is required to make the best management decision.

  6. Roles of estrogen in the formation of intracranial aneurysms in ovariectomized female mice

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Yoshiteru; Makino, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hajime; Shimada, Kenji; Wada, Kosuke; Liang, Elena I.; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Kung, David K.; Hasan, David M.; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji; Lawton, Michael T.; Hashimoto, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have indicated that post-menopausal women have a higher incidence of intracranial aneurysms than men in the same age group. Objective We sought to investigate whether estrogen or estrogen receptors (ERs) mediate protective effects against the formation of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Intracranial aneurysms were induced in mice by combining a single injection of elastase into the cerebrospinal fluid with deoxycorticosterone acetate salt hypertension. The mice were treated with estrogen (17β-estradiol), ERα agonist (propylpyrazole-triol), and ERβ agonist (diarylpropionitrile) with and without a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Results The ovariectomized female mice had a significantly higher incidence of aneurysms than the male mice, which was consistent with past epidemiological studies. In ovariectomized female mice, an ERβ agonist, but not an ERα agonist or 17β-estradiol, significantly reduced the incidence of aneurysms. The protective effect of the ERβ agonist was absent in the ovariectomized ERβ knockout mice. The protective effect of the ERβ agonist was negated by treatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Conclusions The effects of gender, menopause, and estrogen treatment observed in this animal study were consistent with previous epidemiological findings. Stimulation of estrogen receptor-β was protective against the formation of intracranial aneurysms in ovariectomized female mice. PMID:25181430

  7. Is aspect ratio a reliable predictor of intracranial aneurysm rupture?

    PubMed

    Nader-Sepahi, Ali; Casimiro, Miguel; Sen, Jon; Kitchen, Neil D

    2004-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the reliability of the aspect ratio (AR) (i.e., aneurysm depth to aneurysm neck) in predicting aneurysm rupture. It has been shown that the AR is a key factor in predicting intraaneurysmal blood flow and aneurysm rupture. Seventy-five patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple aneurysms were studied. The sizes of the aneurysms and their ARs were determined by examining the angiographic films. By comparing the difference between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms in the same individual, each patient in effect served as his or her own control. Each ruptured aneurysm was confirmed during surgery. There were 75 ruptured and 107 unruptured aneurysms. The mean AR was 2.70 for ruptured aneurysms, compared with 1.8 for unruptured aneurysms. This difference between the ARs was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The difference in aneurysm sizes in the two groups also was significant (P < 0.001). AR on its own is as reliable a variable as the size of the aneurysm for predicting aneurysm rupture.

  8. Leo Stent for Endovascular Treatment of Broad-Necked and Fusiform Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Juszkat, R.; Nowak, S.; Smól, S.; Kociemba, W.; Blok, T.; Zarzecka, A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The advent of intracranial stents has widened the indications for endovascular treatment of broad-necked and fusiform aneurysms. Leo stent is a self-expandable, nitinol, braided stent dedicated to intracranial vessels. The aim of this study is to present our experience in endovascular treatment of broad-necked and fusiform intracranial aneurysms using self-expanding, nitinol Leo stents. Between February 2004 and November 2006, 25 broad-necked and three fusiform aneurysms in 28 patients were treated using Leo stents in our centre. There were 18 patients who experienced acute subarachnoid haemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture, two patients who experienced SAH at least 12 months ago and in eight patients aneurysms were found incidentally. Aneurysms were located as follows: internal carotid artery15, basilar artery5, basilar tip3, posterior inferior cerebral artery2, M1/M2 segment1, A2 segment1 and vertebral artery1. There were no difficulties with stent deployment and delivery. All patients after acute SAH (n=18) underwent stent implantation and coil embolization in one procedure. The remaining patients underwent coil embolization in a staged procedure. Immediate aneurysm occlusion of more than 95% was achieved in all patients who underwent stent placement and coil embolization in one procedure. There were three thromboembolic complications encountered in patients in an acute setting of SAH, preloaded only on acetylsalicylic acid. Use of abciximab led to patency within the stent and parent vessel. However, one of these patients presented rebleeding from the aneurysm during administration of abciximab and died. Application of Leo stents in cases of broadnecked and fusiform intracranial aneurysms is safe and effective with a low complication rate. PMID:20566117

  9. Incidence and predictors of headache relief after endovascular treatment in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenjun; Liu, Aihua; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue

    2017-02-01

    Objective Patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms often present with headaches. We retrospectively determined the incidence of headache relief in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms after endovascular treatment, with the main goals of preventing aneurysmal haemorrhage and identifying factors associated with headache relief in a cohort study. Methods From a cohort of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms who were treated with endovascular coiling and admitted between January 2012 and December 2014, we included 123 patients who had headaches and underwent regular follow-up. The severity of headache was assessed by a quantitative 11-point headache scale for all patients before and after the endovascular treatment. Headache relief was defined as a decrease in the headache score. We determined the incidence and predictors of headache relief using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis. Results Of the 123 patients with a mean follow-up of 14.1 months (range 1-39 months), 69 had headache relief. The overall cumulative incidence of headache relief was 62.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 54.2%, 69.4%). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the side of headache ipsilateral to the aneurysm (adjusted hazard ratio 0.540; 95% CI 0.408, 0.715; P < 0.001) and aneurysm size (adjusted hazard ratio 1.753; 95% CI 1.074, 2.863; P = 0.025) were significant predictors of headache relief. Conclusions Endovascular treatment relieved preoperative headaches for most patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The side of headache ipsilateral to the aneurysm and aneurysm size >10 mm were significant predictors of headache relief.

  10. Vortex Imprints at the Wall, But Not in the Bulk, Distinguish Ruptured from Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varble, Nicole; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms affect 3% of the population. Risk stratification of aneurysms is important, as rupture often leads to death or permanent disability. Image-based CFD analyses of patient-specific aneurysms have identified low and oscillatory wall shear stress to predict rupture. These stresses are sensed biologically at the luminal wall, but the flow dynamics related to aneurysm rupture requires further understanding. We have conducted two studies: one examines vortex dynamics, and the other, high frequency flow fluctuations in patient-specific aneurysms. In the first study, based on Q-criterion vortex identification, we developed two measures to quantify regions within the aneurysm where rotational flow is dominate: the ratio of volume or surface area where Q >0 vs. the total aneurysmal volume or surface area, respectively termed volume vortex fraction (VVF) and surface vortex fraction (SVF). Statistical analysis of 204 aneurysms shows that SVF, but not VVF, distinguishes ruptured from unruptured aneurysms, suggesting that once again, the local flow patterns on the wall is directly relevant to rupture. In the second study, high-resolution CFD (high spatial and temporal resolutions and second-order discretization schemes) on 56 middle cerebral artery aneurysms shows the presence of temporal fluctuations in 8 aneurysms, but such flow instability bears no correlation with rupture. Support for this work was partially provided by NIH grant (R01 NS091075-01) and a grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  11. Reverse waffle cone technique in management of stent dislodgement into intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chao-Bao; Lai, Yen-Jun; Teng, Michael Mu-Huo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Lin, Chung-Jung; Guo, Wan-Yuo

    2013-09-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) is a common method to manage intracranial wide-neck aneurysm. Using this technique, a stent must be successfully deployed into the parent artery to cross the aneurysm neck. We describe the reverse waffle cone technique in management of intra-procedural stent dislodgement during SACE of internal carotid artery (ICA) wide-neck aneurysms. Two patients with unruptured wide-neck ICA aneurysms underwent SACE. Intra-procedural forward stent migration occurred during catheterization with proximal stent dislodgement and migration into the aneurysm sac. Navigation of a second stent to bridge the aneurysm neck failed in one patient because the second stent was impeded by the dislodged stent. Using the reverse waffle cone technique, a microcatheter was navigated into the aneurysm sacs. Coils were safely detached into each aneurysm sac without any device assistance. The two wide-neck aneurysms were successfully treated with preservation of flow to the internal carotid arteries. The complication of intra-procedural distal stent migration and dislodgement, with proximal stent prolapse into an aneurysm sac, may not result in a failure to coil the aneurysm. The reverse waffle cone technique provides an effective treatment in the management of this complication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of the lunar cycle on the incidence of intracranial aneurysm rupture: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Ali, Youssef; Rahme, Ralph; Matar, Nayla; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Menassa-Moussa, Lina; Maarrawi, Joseph; Rizk, Tony; Nohra, Georges; Okais, Nabil; Samaha, Elie; Moussa, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    To analyze the impact of the lunar cycle and season on the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The medical records of 111 patients who were admitted over a 5-year period to our department because of aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively reviewed. The date of aneurysm rupture was matched with the corresponding season and moon phase. An incidence peak for aneurysm rupture (28 patients) was seen during the phase of new moon, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In contrast, no seasonal variation in the incidence of SAH was observed. The lunar cycle seems to affect the incidence of intracranial aneurysm rupture, with the new moon being associated with an increased risk of aneurysmal SAH.

  13. CFD Modelling of Local Hemodynamics in Intracranial Aneurysms Harboring Arterial Branches.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Vladimir; Grigoryeva, Elena; Dolotova, Daria; Blagosklonova, Evgenia; Gavrilov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    The main cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage is an intracranial aneurysm's rupture. The choice of treatment approach is exceptionally difficult in cases of aneurysms with additional branches on the aneurysm's dome or neck. The impact of the arterial branches on local hemodynamics is still unclear and controversial question. At the same time, up-to-date methods of image processing and mathematical modeling provide a way to investigate the hemodynamic environment of aneurysms. The paper discusses hemodynamic aspects of aneurysms harboring arterial branch through the use of patient-specific 3D models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The analysis showed that the presence of the arterial branches has a great influence on flow streamlines and wall shear stress, particularly for side wall aneurysm.

  14. Endovascular treatment of distal intracranial aneurysms with Onyx 18/34.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Hasan, David; Alkhalili, Kenan; Dumont, Aaron S; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Surgical clipping and coil embolization of distally located intracranial aneurysms can be challenging. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of treatment of distal aneurysms with the liquid embolic agent Onyx 18/34. Sixteen patients were treated with Onyx 18/34 for distally located aneurysms in our institution between March 2009 and September 2012. The technique consists of occluding the aneurysm as well as the parent vessel at the level of aneurysm with Onyx 18 or 34. Candidates for this treatment were patients with distal aneurysms including mycotic aneurysms, dissecting aneurysms, and pseudoaneurysms in which coiling was considered impossible. Of the 16 patients, 12 presented with subarachnoid and/or intracerebral hemorrhage. Median aneurysm size was 4.6mm. Aneurysm locations were as follows: Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (n=5), distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (n=3), distal pericallosal (n=3), distal anterior cerebral artery (n=3), lenticulostriate artery (n=1), and anterior ethmoidal artery (n=1). There were 4 mycotic aneurysms. Complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in all 6 patients with available angiographic follow-up. There was only 1 (6.3%) symptomatic complication in the series. There were no instances of reflux or accidental migration of embolic material. Favorable outcomes were noted in 82% of patients at discharge. Two patients with mycotic aneurysms died from cardiac complications of endocarditis. No aneurysm recanalization or rehemorrhage were seen. Parent vessel trapping with Onyx 18/34 offers a simple, safe, and effective means of achieving obliteration of distal challenging aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemodynamic Alterations after Stent Implantation in 15 Cases of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Tian, Zhongbin; Liu, Jian; Jing, Linkai; Paliwal, Nikhil; Wang, Shengzhang; Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui; Yang, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Background Stent-assisted coiling technology has been widely used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. In current study, we investigated the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic alterations after stent implantation and its association with aneurysm location. Methods We first retrospectively studied 15 aneurysm cases (8 internal carotid artery-ophthalmic artery (ICA-OphA) aneurysms and 7 posterior communicating artery (PcoA) aneurysms) treated with Enterprise stents and coils. Then based on patient-specific geometries before and after stenting, we built virtual stenting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation models. Results Before and after stent deployment, the average Wall Shear Stress (WSS) on the aneurysmal sac at systolic peak changed from 7.04 Pa (4.14 Pa, 15.77 Pa) to 6.04 Pa (3.86 Pa, 11.13 Pa), P = 0.001; and the spatially averaged value of flow velocity in the perpendicular plane of aneurysm dropped from 0.5 m/s (0.28 m/s, 0.7 m/s) to 0.33 m/s (0.25 m/s, 0.49 m/s), P = 0.001, respectively. Post-stent implantation, WSS in ICA-OphA aneurysms and PcoA aneurysms decreased by 14.4% (P = 0.012) and 16.6% (P = 0.018) respectively, and flow velocity also reduced by 10.3% (P = 0.029) and 10.5% (P = 0.013), respectively. Changes in WSS, flow velocity, and pressure were not significantly different between ICA-OphA aneurysms and PcoA aneurysms (P > 0.05). Stent implantation did not significantly change the peak systolic pressure in both aneurysm types. Conclusion After stent implantation, intra-aneurysmal flow velocity and WSS decreased independent of aneurysm type (ICA-OphA and PcoA). Little change was observed on peak systolic pressure. PMID:26746828

  16. Realistic non-Newtonian viscosity modelling highlights hemodynamic differences between intracranial aneurysms with and without surface blebs.

    PubMed

    Hippelheuser, James E; Lauric, Alexandra; Cohen, Alex D; Malek, Adel M

    2014-11-28

    Most computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of aneurysm hemodynamics assume constant (Newtonian) viscosity, even though blood demonstrates shear-thinning (non-Newtonian) behavior. We sought to evaluate the effect of this simplifying assumption on hemodynamic forces within cerebral aneurysms, especially in regions of low wall shear stress, which are associated with rupture. CFD analysis was performed for both viscosity models using 3D rotational angiography volumes obtained for 26 sidewall aneurysms (12 with blebs, 12 ruptured), and parametric models incorporating blebs at different locations (inflow/outflow zone). Mean and lowest 5% values of time averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) computed over the dome were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Newtonian modeling not only resulted in higher aneurysmal TAWSS, specifically in areas of low flow and blebs, but also showed no difference between aneurysms with or without blebs. In contrast, for non-Newtonian analysis, bleb-bearing aneurysms showed significantly lower 5% TAWSS compared to those without (p=0.005), despite no significant difference in mean dome TAWSS (p=0.32). Non-Newtonian modeling also accentuated the differences in dome TAWSS between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms (p<0.001). Parametric models further confirmed that realistic non-Newtonian viscosity resulted in lower bleb TAWSS and higher focal viscosity, especially when located in the outflow zone. The results show that adopting shear-thinning non-Newtonian blood viscosity in CFD simulations of intracranial aneurysms uncovered hemodynamic differences induced by bleb presence on aneurysmal surfaces, and significantly improved discriminant statistics used in risk stratification. These findings underline the possible implications of using a realistic model of blood viscosity in predictive computational hemodynamics.

  17. Terson syndrome in conjunction with ruptured intracranial aneurysm and penetrating intracranial injury: a review of two cases.

    PubMed

    Rheinboldt, Matt; Francis, Kirenza; Parrish, David; Harper, Derrick; Blase, John

    2014-04-01

    Terson syndrome, the presence of intraocular hemorrhage in the setting of acutely elevated intracranial pressure, was historically described in conjunction with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, more recently, it has been associated with a gamut of intracranial pathophysiology ranging from blunt or penetrating injury to neurosurgical procedures. We describe two cases of profound intracranial injury, secondary to ballistic injury, and a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, in which posterior chamber ocular hemorrhage was noted on CT imaging. Though the outcome in such cases, as with ours, is often poor, the findings are germane to clinical care as the presence of Terson syndrome has been noted to be a negative prognostic factor in multiple clinical reviews. Additionally, clinical recovery can be impacted adversely by lasting visual deficits or retinal degradation in the absence of timely ophthalmologic intervention.

  18. Flow patterns and shear stress waveforms in intracranial aneurysms: The effect of pulsatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman

    2009-11-01

    The wall shear stress on the dome of intracranial aneurysms has been hypothesized to be an important factor in aneurysm pathology and depends strongly on the hemodynamics inside the dome. The importance of patient-specific geometry on the hemodynamics of aneurysms has long been established but the significance of patient-specific inflow waveform is largely unexplored. In this work we seek to systematically investigate and quantify the effects of inflow waveform on aneurysm hemodynamics. We carry out high resolution numerical simulations for an anatomic intracranial aneurysm obtained from 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) data for various inflow waveforms. We show that both the vortex formation process and wall-shear stress dynamics on the aneurysm dome depend strongly on the characteristics of the inflow waveform. We also present preliminary evidence suggesting that a simple non-dimensional number (named the Aneurysm number), incorporating both geometry and inflow waveform effects, could be a good qualitative predictor of the general hemodynamic patterns that will arise in a given aneurysm geometry for a particular waveform.

  19. [Behcet's disease with multiple intracranial arterial aneurysms. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    el Abbadi, N; el Mostarchid, B; Ababou, A; Mosadik, A; Semlali, A; Bellakhdar, F

    1999-06-01

    Behçet disease is a rare condition in central Europe but more common in Morocco. A case of multiple intracranial arterial aneurysms occurring in a 44 year-old Moroccan patient with 2-years history of Behçet's disease is reported. CT-scan showed an infarction in the right middle cerebral artery territory. Panangiography showed sacciform aneurysms of the bifurcation of the right and left middle cerebral arteries. The draining veins and sinuses were normal. The two aneurysms were successfully clipped by two microsurgical frontotemporal approach in one surgical time. There have been only eight reports of intracranial arterial aneurysms associated to Behçet disease in the literature.

  20. Coupling hemodynamics with vascular wall mechanics and mechanobiology to understand intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Arteries exhibit a remarkable ability to adapt in response to sustained alterations in hemodynamic loading, to heal in response to injuries, and to compensate in response to diverse disease conditions. Nevertheless, such compensatory adaptations are limited and many vascular disorders, if untreated, lead to significant morbidity or mortality. Parallel advances in vascular biology, medical imaging, biomechanics, and computational methods promise to provide increased insight into many arterial diseases, including intracranial aneurysms. In particular, although it may be possible to identify useful clinical correlations between either the blood flow patterns within or the shape of aneurysms and their rupture-potential, our ultimate goal should be to couple studies of hemodynamics with those of wall mechanics and the underlying mechanobiology so that we can understand better the mechanisms by which aneurysms arise, enlarge, and rupture and thereby identify better methods of treatment. This paper presents one such approach to fluid-solid-growth (FSG) modeling of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:20526461

  1. HiFiVS Modeling of Flow Diverter Deployment Enables Hemodynamic Characterization of Complex Intracranial Aneurysm Cases

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jianping; Damiano, Robert J.; Lin, Ning; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Object Flow diversion via Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) represents the most recent advancement in endovascular therapy of intracranial aneurysms. This exploratory study aims at a proof of concept for an advanced device-modeling tool in conjunction with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate flow modification effects by PED in real treatment cases. Methods We performed computational modeling of three PED-treated complex aneurysm cases. Case I had a fusiform vertebral aneurysm treated with a single PED. Case II had a giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm treated with 2 PEDs. Case III consisted of two tandem ICA aneurysms (a and b) treated by a single PED. Our recently developed high fidelity virtual stenting (HiFiVS) technique was used to recapitulate the clinical deployment process of PEDs in silico for these three cases. Pre- and post-treatment aneurysmal hemodynamics using CFD simulation was analyzed. Changes in aneurysmal flow velocity, inflow rate, and wall shear stress (WSS) (quantifying flow reduction) and turnover time (quantifying stasis) were calculated and compared with clinical outcome. Results In Case I (occluded within the first 3 months), the aneurysm experienced the most drastic aneurysmal flow reduction after PED placement, where the aneurysmal average velocity, inflow rate and average WSS was decreased by 76.3%, 82.5% and 74.0%, respectively, while the turnover time was increased to 572.1% of its pre-treatment value. In Case II (occluded at 6 months), aneurysmal average velocity, inflow rate and average WSS were decreased by 39.4%, 38.6%, and 59.1%, respectively, and turnover time increased to 163.0%. In Case III, Aneurysm III-a (occluded at 6 months) experienced decrease by 38.0%, 28.4%, and 50.9% in aneurysmal average velocity, inflow rate and average WSS, respectively and increase to 139.6% in turnover time, which was quite similar to Aneurysm II. Surprisingly, the adjacent Aneurysm III-b experienced more substantial flow

  2. Assessment of hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms using Doppler optical coherence tomography in patient specific phantoms: preliminary results (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramjist, Joel M.; Jivraj, Jamil; Barrows, Dexter; Vuong, Barry; Wong, Ronnie; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial aneurysms affect a large number of individuals every year. Changes to hemodynamics are thought to be a crucial factor in the initial formation and enlargement of intracranial aneurysms. Previously, surgical clipping - an open an invasive procedure, was the standard of care. More recently, minimally invasive, catheter based therapies, specifically stenting and coiling, has been employed for treatment as it is less invasive and poses fewer overall risks. However, these treatments can further alter hemodynamic patterns of patients, affecting efficacy and prognosis. Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) has shown to be useful for the evaluation of changes to hemodynamic patterns in various vascular pathologies, and intravascular DOCT may provide useful insight in the evaluation and changes to hemodynamic patterns before and during the treatment of aneurysms. In this study, we present preliminary results of DOCT imaging used in three patient-specific aneurysm phantoms located within the Circle of Willis both pre and post-treatment. These results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and high-speed camera imaging for further interpretation and validation of results.

  3. [Endovascular approach in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Part 1: basic concepts and devices].

    PubMed

    Santos Franco, Jorge Arturo; Zenteno, Marco; Lee, Angel; Viñuela, Fernando; Modenesi Freitas, José María; Vega Montesinos, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Neurological endovascular therapy is a discipline that has shown effectiveness and safety in the management of intracranial aneurysms, however recanalization persists as one of the most important obstacles to overcome. Precise knowledge of the anatomy and hemodynamics of the aneurysm and the parent artery as well as currently available endovascular devices, are decisive in the analysis and to design a specific treatment plan for each case. In this manner we ensure, as long as possible, success and durability of the treatment.

  4. Intraoperative monitoring by imaging and electrophysiological techniques during giant intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Durand, A; Penchet, G; Thines, L

    2016-02-01

    Difficulties in giant intracranial aneurysm surgery are the consequence of aneurysmal wall histology and the complex angioarchitecture of the vascular tree. In order to reduce complications and risks of those procedures, various imaging and electrophysiological techniques can be implemented perioperatively. The authors review the principles, goals and main results in this context of micro-Doppler and flowmeter techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, operative microscope-integrated indocyanine green video-angiography, neuro-endoscopy, selective intraoperative angiography and electrophysiological monitoring.

  5. The effect of inlet waveforms on computational hemodynamics of patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H

    2014-12-18

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms.

  6. Delayed hemorrhagic complications after flow diversion for intracranial aneurysms: a literature overview

    PubMed Central

    Rouchaud, Aymeric; Brinjikji, Waleed; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Cloft, Harry J.; Kadirvel, Ramanthan; Kallmes, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Delayed aneurysm rupture and delayed intraparenchymal hemorrhages (DIPH) are poorly understood and often fatal complications of flow diversion (FD) for intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for these complications. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review on post-FD delayed aneurysm rupture and DIPH. For each reported case we collected the following information: aneurysm location, size and rupture status, type of flow-diverter used, timing of the hemorrhage, and neurological outcome. We reported descriptive statistics of patients suffering DIPH and delayed aneurysm rupture to determine if there were any characteristics consistently present among patients with these complications. Results We identified 81 delayed aneurysms ruptures and 101 DIPH. 76.6% (45/58) of the delayed ruptures occurred within one month. The prognosis of delayed ruptures was poor, with 81.3% (61/75) experiencing death or poor neurological outcome. Giant aneurysms accounted for 46.3% of ruptures (31/67). 80.9% (55/68) of these aneurysms were initially unruptured. 17.8% (13/73) of the delayed ruptured aneurysms had prior or concomitant coiling. DIPHs were ipsilateral to the treated aneurysm in 82.2% (60/73) of cases. 86.0% (43/50) of the DIPH occurred within one month after FDS. Combined morbidity/mortality rate was 68.5% (50/73 following DIPH. 23.0% of DIPHs (14/61) occurred in patients with giant aneurysms. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that giant aneurysms represent almost 50% of delayed aneurysm ruptures in the flow-diverter literature. About 20% of delayed ruptures occurred despite associated coiling. A substantial proportion of DIPHs occur early following FDS treatment of giant aneurysms. PMID:26553302

  7. The Role of Fluid Dynamics and Inflammation in Intracranial Aneurysm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Turjman, Alexis S.; Turjman, Francis; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of inflammation as a key mediator of aneurysmogenesis provides new opportunities to understand the processes underlying development of intracranial aneurysms (IA). Inflammation unifies the triptych influences of alterations in local flow, mechanical properties of the wall and biochemical mediators and opens new avenues for building robust predictive tools. This review discusses the impact of the inflammatory cascade during the formation of intracranial aneurysms, and its associated morphological, structural and mechanical changes especially in the setting of flow-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:24446407

  8. Dysregulation of CD4(+) T Cell Subsets in Intracranial Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Ming-Guang; Liang, Guo-Biao; Yu, Chun-Yong; He, Wenxiu; Li, Zhi-Qing; Gao, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and potential IA rupture are one of the direct causes of permanent brain damage and mortality. Interestingly, the major risk factors of IA development, including hemodynamic stress, hypertension, smoking, and genetic predispositions, are closely associated with a proinflammatory immune status. Therefore, we examined the roles of CD4(+) T cells in IA pathogenesis. IA patients exhibited peripheral CD4(+) T-cell imbalance, with overrepresented T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 activities and underrepresented Th2 and regulatory T (Treg) activities, including increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17 production and decreased IL-10 production from total CD4(+) T cells. Chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6 were used to identify Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell subsets, and CD4(+)CD25(hi) was used to identify Treg cells. Based on these markers, the data then showed altered cytokine production by each cell type and shifted subpopulation frequency. Moreover, this shift in frequency was directly correlated with IA severity. To examine the underlying mechanism of CD4(+) T cell skewing, we cocultured CD4(+) T cells with autologous monocytes and found that coculture with monocytes could significantly increase IFN-γ and IL-17 production through contact-independent mechanisms, demonstrating that monocytes could potentially contribute to the altered CD4(+) T cell composition in IA. Analyzing mRNA transcripts revealed significantly upregulated IL-1β and TNF-α expression by monocytes from IA patients. We found a loss of CD4(+) T cell subset balance that was likely to promote a higher state of inflammation in IA, which may exacerbate the disease through a positive feedback loop.

  9. Anatomic Results and Complications of Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S.-R.; Vora, N.; Jovin, T.G.; Gupta, R.; Thomas, A.; Kassam, A.; Lee, K.; Gologorsky, Y.; Jankowitz, B.; Panapitiya, N.; Aleu, A.; Sandhu, E.; Crago, E.; Hricik, A.; Gallek, M.; Horowitz, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate and report our anatomic results and complications associated with stent-assisted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms using the Neuroform stent. From September 2003 to August 2007, 127 consecutive patients (ruptured 50, 39.4%; unruptured 77, 60.6%) underwent 129 stent-assisted coil embolization procedures to treat 136 aneurysms at our institution. Anatomic results at follow-up, procedure-related complications, and morbidity/mortality were retrospectively reviewed. Stent deployment was successful in 128 out of 129 procedures (99.2%). Forty-seven patients presented with 53 procedure-related complications (37.0%, 47/127). Thromboembolic events (n=17, 13.4%) were the most common complications, followed by intraoperative rupture (n=8, 6.3%), coil herniation (n=5, 3.9%), and postoperative rupture (n=4, 3.1%). For thromboembolic events, acute intra-procedural in-stent thromboses were observed in two patients and subacute or delayed in-stent thromboses in three patients. Overall mortality rate was 16.5% (21/127) and procedure-related morbidity and mortality rates were 5.5% (7/127) and 8.7% (11/127) retrospectively. Patients with poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt and Hess grade IV or V; 25/127, 19.7%) exhibited 56% (14/25) overall mortality rate and 24% (6/25) procedure-related mortality rate. Immediate angiographic results showed complete occlusion in 31.7% of aneurysms, near-complete occlusion in 45.5%, and partial occlusion in 22.8%. Sixty nine patients in 70 procedures with 77 aneurysms underwent angiographic follow-up at six months or later. Mean follow-up period was 13.7 months (6 to 45 months). Complete occlusion was observed in 57 aneurysms (74.0%) and significant in-stent stenosis was not found. Thromboembolism and intra/postoperative aneurysm ruptures were the most common complications and the main causes of procedure-related morbidity and mortality. Patients with poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage

  10. Anterior clinoidal meningioma coincidental with bilateral intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulos, D; Magras, I; Balogiannis, I; Polyzoidis, K

    2011-01-01

    Coexistence of aneurysms and brain tumors is a rare occurrence. Coincidence is highest in patients with meningiomas rather than other types of tumors. We report a case in which a meningioma of the left anterior clinoid process was coexisting with a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and a left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. While the right MCA aneurysm was detected preoperatively, the left ACA aneurysm was not detectable, being concealed by the major finding of the region. This report focuses on pitfalls of diagnosis and questions the surgical planning in aneurysms concealed by coincidental brain tumors. PMID:24391419

  11. Anterior clinoidal meningioma coincidental with bilateral intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, D; Magras, I; Balogiannis, I; Polyzoidis, K

    2011-10-01

    Coexistence of aneurysms and brain tumors is a rare occurrence. Coincidence is highest in patients with meningiomas rather than other types of tumors. We report a case in which a meningioma of the left anterior clinoid process was coexisting with a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and a left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. While the right MCA aneurysm was detected preoperatively, the left ACA aneurysm was not detectable, being concealed by the major finding of the region. This report focuses on pitfalls of diagnosis and questions the surgical planning in aneurysms concealed by coincidental brain tumors.

  12. Asymptomatic ischemic risks in microsurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysms in anterior circulation.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Matsushige, Toshinori; Okazaki, Takahito; Ishii, Daizo; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2017-09-12

    The ischemic risk in prophylactic treatments of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is a serious health concern. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence and characteristics of ischemic events in microsurgical clipping (MC) of anterior circulation UIAs. Ischemic events were prospectively evaluated before and after surgery between April 2011 and March 2017. The location, volume, minimum value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCMIN) in high-intensity spots (HIS) on 3T MR Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and radiographic outcomes were analyzed. The relationships between DWI positivity and patient demographics, surgical procedures, and intraoperative vessel features were assessed. Overall, 78 consecutive patients including 29 males and 49 females (median age: 62 years, range: 24 - 77 years) with 99 UIAs were analyzed. A total of 10 in 78 craniotomies (13%) detected HIS on DWI, which were all asymptomatic. Seventeen HIS were demonstrated with 5 located in the basal ganglia, 6 in the white matter, and 6 in the cortex. The volume and ADCMIN were 180.4 ± 31.2 mm(3) and 0.56 ± 0.03 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, respectively. Radiographic outcomes at follow-up showed 71% of HIS on DWI led to irreversible brain ischemia. The maximum diameter of aneurysms, atherosclerotic features of the aneurysm wall and procedure-related factors were associated with DWI positivity. The asymptomatic ischemic risk associated with microsurgical clipping was not low and most lesions were irreversible. Although the mechanism of it could be various, the use of clips for atherosclerotic the aneurysm and/or parental vessels would require much attention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Craniotomy and clipping of intracranial aneurysm in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Wong, George K C; Zhu, Canon X L; Ahuja, Anil T; Poon, Wai S

    2007-09-01

    The release of results of International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial in 2003 caused a shift in the paradigm of management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The cases selected for microsurgical clipping nowadays are usually those patients with aneurysms that are not suitable for embolization, and are often complex and difficult. We devised an innovative application of operative planning and training for craniotomy and microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment. Patient-specific Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data from computed tomographic angiography of the intracranial circulation and cranium were transferred to the workstation (Dextroscope; Volume Interactions Pte. Ltd., Singapore, Singapore). An aneurysm clip database was loaded into the patient data set. Three-dimensional volume rendering was followed by data coregistration and fusion. Virtual head positioning and craniotomy were carried out to simulate the microscopic visualization. Clip selection could be carried out with reference to the angle of application. This allows one to see the exposure and degree of obliteration of an aneurysm with the various angles of approach. The virtual craniotomy and microsurgical clipping application simulated the operative environment. Its role in neurosurgical training is encouraging and should be further developed.

  14. Changing paradigm in the management of elderly patients with intracranial aneurysms: An institutional review.

    PubMed

    Chernyshev, Oleg Y; Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Patra, Devi Prasad; Liendo, Cesar; Cuellar, Hugo; Minagar, Alireza; Nanda, Anil

    2017-09-01

    Optimal treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) in elderly patients has not yet been well established. We have investigated the clinical and radiological outcomes and predictors of unfavorable outcome of IAs in elderly patients. Radiological and clinical data of 85 elderly patients from 2010 through 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Significant differences between the groups were determined by a chi-square test. Regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of unfavorable outcome. Among the 85 patients with IAs, the number of patients with >7mm size aneurysm (p=0.01), diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0.02), smoking (0.009) and Hunt and Hess grade 4-5 (p=0.003) was significantly higher in the ruptured group compared to the unruptured group. Similarly, the number of patients who underwent clipping was higher in the ruptured aneurysm group (p=0.01). The overall clinical outcome was comparatively better in the unruptured group (p=0.03); however, microsurgical clipping of aneurysms provides a significantly higher rate of complete aneurysmal occlusion (p=0.008). Overall, there was no significant difference in outcome in respect to treatment approach. In regression analysis, hypertension (HTN), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), prior stroke, ruptured aneurysms and partial occlusion of aneurysms were identified as predictors of unfavorable outcome of IAs. Intracranial aneurysms in elderly patients reveals that endovascular treatment provides better clinical outcome; however, microsurgical clipping yields higher complete occlusion. Retreatment of residual aneurysms was comparatively more in the coiling group. Practice pattern has shifted from clipping to coiling for aneurysms in posterior circulation but not for aneurysms in anterior circulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mast cells, neovascularization, and microhemorrhages are associated with saccular intracranial artery aneurysm wall remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Eliisa; Tulamo, Riikka; Frösen, Juhana; Lehti, Satu; Honkanen, Petri; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Kovanen, Petri T

    2014-09-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to remodeling, degeneration, and rupture of saccular intracranial artery aneurysms. Mast cells are important proinflammatory and proangiogenic cells in chronic inflammatory vascular diseases. Here we studied mast cells and neovascularization in 36 intraoperatively resected aneurysms using histology and immunohistochemistry and analyzed the clinical characteristics of the aneurysms according to bleeding status (unruptured vs ruptured). Among the 36 aneurysms, 9 contained mast cells (tryptase-positive cells) and 15 contained neovessels (CD34- and CD31-positive capillarylike structures). The density of neovessels was significantly higher in aneurysm walls containing mast cells than in walls not containing them. In particular, wall areas with abundant mast cells and neovessels also contained iron deposits, indicating damage of newly formed endothelium with ensuing microhemorrhages. Walls with the highest neovessel density and the greatest iron deposition also showed evidence of degeneration. Finally, none of the mast cell-containing aneurysms showed an intact luminal endothelium. Thus, mast cells may adversely affect both neovascular and luminal endothelia. The novel association of mast cells with neovessels and injurious microhemorrhages, as well as with luminal endothelial erosion, suggests that mast cells contribute to remodeling and degeneration of saccular intracranial artery aneurysms.

  16. Uncommon presentation of pediatric ruptured intracranial aneurysm after radiotherapy for retinoblastoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel A; Valdivia, Juan Martin Valdivia

    2006-04-01

    Radiation-induced intracranial aneurysms are a rare entity with high mortality. Their pathogenesis is still in debate. Their unique anatomy and behavior should be considered when deciding the proper management. A background of radiation, uncommon anatomic aspects, age of presentation, and location guide us to suspect a radiation-induced etiology. We report the case of a pediatric patient with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, who previously received radiation therapy to the orbits. We aim to contribute to the literature of this uncommon condition and stress the importance of its prompt diagnosis and treatment. A 12-year-old boy, who received radiation therapy for recurrent bilateral retinoblastomas at age 4 months, suddenly developed severe headache associated with nausea and vomiting. A computed tomography scan revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 4-vessel cerebral angiogram revealed a 2-mm aneurysm in the right A1 segment. The aneurysm was clipped successfully with excellent outcome. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient remains neurologically intact and asymptomatic. A new computed tomography angiogram revealed no new aneurysms. Vascular abnormalities develop after radiation injury to the brain. Aneurysm formation after radiation therapy has been previously reported, probably secondary to endothelial injury. In this case, early presentation, unusual anatomy, location, and small size at rupture, in contrast with saccular aneurysms, suggest a radiation-induced etiology.

  17. The Use of Flow Diversion for the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: Expansion of Indications

    PubMed Central

    Brouillard, Adam M; Sun, Xingwen; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2016-01-01

    Flow diversion is a novel concept for treating anatomically challenging intracranial aneurysms and has gained increasing acceptance. Flow diverter stents, such as the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) (ev3-Covidien, Irvine, CA, USA), are approved for treating unruptured large and giant aneurysms from the internal carotid artery between the superior hypophyseal and cavernous segments. However, technological advances and recent clinical results suggest that flow diversion can be safely and effectively used in treating ruptured aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, and distal anterior circulation aneurysms. In this brief review, we aim to investigate the recent evidence on the utilization of PEDs in these controversial vascular territories and to discuss whether the indications for flow diversion can be expanded.   PMID:26973807

  18. Assessment of Cerebral Blood Flow with Micro-Doppler Vascular Reduces the Risk of Ischemic Stroke During the Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Benedito J A; Holanda, Vanessa M; Giudicissi-Filho, Miguel; Borba, Luiz Alencar B; de Holanda, Carlos Vanderlei M; de Oliveira, Jean G

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the introduction of Micro-Doppler vascular (MDV) as a method of cerebral blood flow analysis during microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms to check the partial occlusion of the aneurysm and the occurrence of stenosis by comparing these results with those provided by the postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) scan as well as the occurrence of ischemic infarction on the postoperative computed tomography (CT) images. We reviewed retrospectively the last 50 patients operated on before the introduction of the MDV (group 1) compared with the first 50 patients operated on using this technique (group 2). Nine (18%) of the 50 patients evaluated in the group 1 showed a new hypodensity in the postoperative CT images, whereas only 2 (4%) patients showed infarction in the group 2 (P = 0.02). In addition, in the group 1, 10 (20%) patients presented unexpected findings on DSA images (residual aneurysms, stenosis, and arterial occlusion), whereas in the group 2, those unexpected DSA findings were observed in only 3 (6%) patients (P = 0.023). MDV is an excellent method for cerebral blood flow assessment during the microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms, reducing the unexpected angiographic results (residual aneurysms, stenosis, and arterial occlusion), as well as reducing the incidence of ischemic infarction on postoperative CT images, evidence of the positive impact of this method in the microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Headache improvement after intracranial endovascular procedures in Chinese patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjing; Wang, Yunxia; Zhang, Qingkui; Ge, Wei; Wu, Xiancong; Di, Hai; Wang, Jun; Cao, Xiangyu; Li, Baomin; Liu, Ruozhuo; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a long-term improvement in headache of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) treated with intracranial endovascular procedures.Using a prospective design, consecutive patients with UIAs with neuroendovascular treatment from January 2014 to December 2014 were asked to participate. Headache outcomes were established before aneurysm treatment and for 6 months following treatment. Factors associated with different headache outcomes were investigated.Ultimately, 58 patients completed the 6-month follow-up. In total, 29 patients had preoperative headache. Six months after the intracranial endovascular procedure, 13 patients (44.8%) stated that their headaches were relieved after endovascular treatment; headache in 1 patient improved slightly, and 12 reported disappearance of headache and marked improvement. Overall, the mean headache scores of 29 patients improved on the self-reported Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) after endovascular treatment (6.00 vs. 2.30; P < 0.001). Patients with pretreatment tension-type headache, more severe headaches, stent-assisted coiling, and stent implantation of the aneurysm were the important disadvantage for patients in improvement of post-procedure headache.Treatment of UIAs resulted in relief of headaches in about half of patients who had headaches pre-operatively.

  20. Surgical treatment of bilateral multiple intracranial aneurysms. Review of a personal experience in 69 cases.

    PubMed

    Santana Pereira, R S; Casulari, L A

    2006-03-01

    There has been much controversy concerning the surgical treatment of bilateral multiple intracranial aneurysms. Some authors advocate the use of two-stage surgery by bilateral pterional craniotomies and others advocate the one stage complete repair of all lesions using the contralateral approach. We analyze the surgical experience of one neurosurgeon using both approaches. Sixty nine patients operated on for bilateral multiple intracranial aneurysms were divided in three groups: group A comprised 43 patients (62.3%) in whom all bilateral aneurysms were treated by one stage operation; group B comprised 9 patients (13.0%) in whom the clipping of the contralateral aneurysm it was not possible through the same approach, needing a second operation; group C comprised 17 patients (24.7%) in whom all bilateral multiple intracranial aneurysms were treated by two stage operations. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale 61 cases (88.4%) had excellent or good results (GOS V, IV), 2 cases (2.9%) had fair results (GOS III) and 6 patients have died (GOS I). The results of group A were significantly better than in-group B (p<0,05 Fisher test), but they were not different in relation to the group C (p=0,439 Fisher test). Among the six deaths, only one was related to the surgical procedure. Under favorable clinical situations, as patients in H&H I to III, good brain conditions during the surgical procedure and aneurysms smaller than 1,5 cm, the contralateral surgical approach for the treatment of patients with bilateral multiple intracranial aneurysms can be used with advantages over the two stage approach.

  1. Trends in Resident Operative Teaching Opportunities for Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Matthew; Nayak, Nikhil; Ali, Zarina; Heuer, Gregory; Sanborn, Matthew; Stein, Sherman; Schuster, James; Grady, M Sean; Malhotra, Neil R

    2017-07-01

    The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial heralded a paradigm shift in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. During this same time frame, neurosurgical training programs increased in size and scope. The present study examines the impact of trends in surgical clipping and the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, over one decade, and the neurosurgical resident complement on the resident teaching environment using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). The NIS was used to estimate the number of aneurysms treated with either surgical clipping and endovascular methods from 2002 through 2011 at teaching institutions. Teaching opportunities per year per resident or chief resident were calculated as the ratio of the number of specified cases to the average number of neurosurgical trainees by year. Annualized trends were assessed. Over the study period, the percent change in odds of occurrence of a clipped ruptured aneurysm was -15.6% per year (P < 0.001) and of ruptured aneurysms undergoing endovascular treatment was 18.7% per year (P < 0.001) within teaching institutions. This corresponded to a decline in teaching opportunities for clipped ruptured aneurysms for both residents and chief residents (P < 0.001). In contrast, teaching opportunities for endovascular treatment of both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms increased dramatically over the study period. There has been a significant decrease in opportunity for operative exposure to craniotomy for ruptured aneurysm clipping over the past decade, whereas the volume of endovascular procedures for aneurysms has dramatically increased, highlighting the need for a shift in training strategy for those neurosurgeons graduating from residency desiring to subspecialize in neurovascular neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Flow conditions in intracranial aneurysm lumen associate with inflammation and degenerative changes of the aneurysm wall

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, Juan; Ollikainen, Eliisa; Chung, Bong Jae; Mut, Fernando; Sippola, Visa; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Tulamo, Riikka; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Robertson, Anne; Frösen, Juhana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) is a common disease that may cause devastating intracranial hemorrhage. Hemodynamics, wall remodeling, and wall inflammation have been associated with sIA rupture. We investigated how sIA hemodynamics associates with wall remodeling and inflammation of the sIA wall. Methods Tissue samples resected during sIA surgery (11 unruptured, 9 ruptured sIAs) were studied with histology and immunohistochemistry. Patient-specific computational models of hemodynamics were created from preoperative CT-angiographies. Results More stable and less complex flows were associated with thick, hyperplastic sIA walls while slower flows with more diffuse inflow were associated with degenerated and decellularized sIA walls. Wall degeneration (p=0.041) and rupture was associated with increased inflammation (CD45+, p=0.031). High wall shear stress (WSS, p=0.018), higher vorticity (VO, p=0.046), higher viscous dissipation (VD, p=0.046), and high shear rate (SR, p=0.046) associated with increased inflammation. Inflammation was also associated with lack of intact endothelium (p=0.034), and presence of organized luminal thrombosis (p=0.018), although overall organized thrombosis was associated with low minimum WSS (p=0.034) and not with the flow conditions that associated with inflammation. Conclusions Flow conditions in the sIA associate with wall remodeling. Inflammation, which is associated with degenerative wall remodeling and rupture, is associated with high flow activity including elevated WSS. Endothelial injury may be a mechanism by which flow induces inflammation in the sIA wall. Hemodynamic simulations might prove to be useful in identifying sIAs at risk of developing inflammation, a potential biomarker for rupture. PMID:27686488

  3. Suggested connections between risk factors of intracranial aneurysms: a review.

    PubMed

    Cebral, Juan R; Raschi, Marcelo

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to review studies of aneurysm risk factors and the suggested hypotheses that connect the different risk factors and the underlying mechanisms governing the aneurysm natural history. The result of this work suggests that at the center of aneurysm evolution there is a cycle of wall degeneration and weakening in response to changing hemodynamic loading and biomechanic stress. This progressive wall degradation drives the geometrical evolution of the aneurysm until it stabilizes or ruptures. Risk factors such as location, genetics, smoking, co-morbidities, and hypertension seem to affect different components of this cycle. However, details of these interactions or their relative importance are still not clearly understood.

  4. Stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms using the Solitaire AB stent.

    PubMed

    Huded, Vikram; Nair, Rithesh R; Vyas, Devashish D; Chauhan, Bhumir N

    2014-07-01

    Stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked and complex intracranial aneurysms is an effective and feasible treatment option. The self-expanding, fully retrievable Solitaire AB (eV3, Irvine, CA, USA) stent is the latest neurovascular remodeling device available. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of Solitaire AB-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms from India. Solitaire AB-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. The study was conducted in a tertiary care center with a dedicated Interventional Neurology division from 2009 to 2013. Consecutive patients with wide-necked aneurysms who underwent coiling assisted by the Solitaire AB stent were enrolled in the study. Axium 3D and Helix (eV3, Irvine, CA, USA) platinum coils were used to densely pack the aneurysm sac after deploying the stent across the neck. All patients were pretreated with antiplatelets according to protocol. Subsequently, dual antiplatelets were given for 6 months followed by continued aspirin. Outcome was assessed at 3 months using the modified Rankin Scale. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS 17.0 software. A total of 16 patients underwent stent-assisted coiling. The most common site was the internal carotid artery (nine patients), median aneurysm size was 7 mm and median neck diameter was 5 mm. Thirteen patients presented with ruptured aneurysms. We achieved complete occlusion in all patients with no major complications. Thirteen patients were followed up, all have an mRS score of zero or one. We conclude that for wide-necked aneurysms, stent-assisted coiling using the Solitaire AB is a safe and effective treatment option.

  5. Growth and subsequent disappearance of a ruptured small saccular intracranial aneurysm: A morphometric and flow-dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Peruvumba, Jayakumar Narayan; Paul, Divyan; Verghese, Renjan

    2016-10-01

    The growth of a ruptured small saccular aneurysm has rarely been documented. Also rare are reports of spontaneous thrombosis of ruptured small intracranial saccular aneurysms. However, there are no reported instances of ruptured small saccular aneurysms that have demonstrated an increase in size after rupture, subsequently thrombosed and disappeared from circulation. We report one such aneurysm in a patient who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured small saccular aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. The possible reasons for the initial growth and subsequent thrombosis of the aneurysm from morphometric and flow dynamic points of view are discussed.

  6. Retreatment and Outcomes of Recurrent Intracranial Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms after Stent Assisted Coiling: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Wang, Yang; Li, Chuanhui; Wang, Yanmin; Mu, Shiqing; Yang, Xinjian

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The retreatment of recurrent intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) after stent assisted coiling (SAC) has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strategies and outcomes for retreatment of recurrent VADAs after SAC. Methods Between September 2009 and November 2013, six consecutive patients presenting with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were enrolled in this study. They were all male with age ranging from 29 to 54 years (mean age, 46.2 years). The procedures of treatments and angiographic and clinical follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. Retreatment modalities were selected individually according to the characteristics of recurrence. The outcomes of retreatment were evaluated by angiographic and clinical follow-up. Results Six patients with recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC were retreated, with second SAC in three patients, coil embolization, double overlapping stents placement and endovascular occlusion with aneurysm trapping in one patient, respectively. Immediate angiographic outcomes of retreatment were: complete occlusion in three patients, nearly complete occlusion in two patients, and contrast medium retention in dissecting aneurysm in one patient. All cases were technically successful. No complications related to endovascular procedures occurred. Angiographic follow-up was available in all five patients treated with second SAC or double overlapping stents, which was complete occlusion in four patients, obliteration of parent artery in one patient, showing no recurrence at 4–11 months (mean: 8.6 months). Clinical follow-up was performed in all six patients at 11–51 months after initial endovascular treatment and at 9–43 months after retreatment. The mRS of last clinical follow-up was excellent in five patients and mild disability in only one patient. Conclusions Endovascular retreatment is feasible and effective for recurrent intracranial VADAs after SAC

  7. Computational Hemodynamic Analysis for the Diagnosis of Atherosclerotic Changes in Intracranial Aneurysms: A Proof-of-Concept Study Using 3 Cases Harboring Atherosclerotic and Nonatherosclerotic Aneurysms Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Hidenori; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Endo, Toshiki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Ohta, Makoto; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    This was a proof-of-concept computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study designed to identify atherosclerotic changes in intracranial aneurysms. We selected 3 patients with multiple unruptured aneurysms including at least one with atherosclerotic changes and investigated whether an image-based CFD study could provide useful information for discriminating the atherosclerotic aneurysms. Patient-specific geometries were constructed from three-dimensional data obtained using rotational angiography. Transient simulations were conducted under patient-specific inlet flow rates measured by phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry. In the postanalyses, we calculated time-averaged wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index, and relative residence time (RRT). The volume of blood flow entering aneurysms through the neck and the mean velocity of blood flow inside aneurysms were examined. We applied the age-of-fluid method to quantitatively assess the residence of blood inside aneurysms. Atherosclerotic changes coincided with regions exposed to disturbed blood flow, as indicated by low WSS and long RRT. Blood entered aneurysms in phase with inlet flow rates. The mean velocities of blood inside atherosclerotic aneurysms were lower than those inside nonatherosclerotic aneurysms. Blood in atherosclerotic aneurysms was older than that in nonatherosclerotic aneurysms, especially near the wall. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that CFD analysis provided detailed information on the exchange and residence of blood that is useful for the diagnosis of atherosclerotic changes in intracranial aneurysms. PMID:27703491

  8. Finite element modeling of endovascular coiling and flow diversion enables hemodynamic prediction of complex treatment strategies for intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Robert J; Ma, Ding; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Snyder, Kenneth V; Meng, Hui

    2015-09-18

    Endovascular interventions using coil embolization and flow diversion are becoming the mainstream treatment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs). To help assess the effect of intervention strategies on aneurysm hemodynamics and treatment outcome, we have developed a finite-element-method (FEM)-based technique for coil deployment along with our HiFiVS technique for flow diverter (FD) deployment in patient-specific IAs. We tested four clinical intervention strategies: coiling (1-8 coils), single FD, FD with adjunctive coils (1-8 coils), and overlapping FDs. By evaluating post-treatment hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we compared the flow-modification performance of these strategies. Results show that a single FD provides more reduction in inflow rate than low packing density (PD) coiling, but less reduction in average velocity inside the aneurysm. Adjunctive coils add no additional reduction of inflow rate beyond a single FD until coil PD exceeds 11%. This suggests that the main role of FDs is to divert inflow, while that of coils is to create stasis in the aneurysm. Overlapping FDs decreases inflow rate, average velocity, and average wall shear stress (WSS) in the aneurysm sac, but adding a third FD produces minimal additional reduction. In conclusion, our FEM-based techniques for virtual coiling and flow diversion enable recapitulation of complex endovascular intervention strategies and detailed hemodynamics to identify hemodynamic factors that affect treatment outcome.

  9. The role of intraoperative micro-Doppler ultrasound in verifying proper clip placement in intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Siasios, Ioannis; Kapsalaki, Eftychia Z; Fountas, Kostas N

    2012-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage constitutes a clinical entity associated with high mortality and morbidity. It is widely accepted that improper clip placement may have as a result of incomplete aneurysm occlusion and/or partial or complete obstruction of an adjacent vessel. Various modalities, including intraoperative or postoperative digital subtracting angiography, near-infrared indocyanine green angiography, micro-Doppler ultrasonography (MDU), and neurophysiological studies, have been utilized for verifying proper clip placement. The aim of our study was to review the role of MDU during aneurysmal surgery. A literature search was performed using any possible combination of the following terms: "aneurysm," "brain," "cerebral," "clip," "clipping," "clip malpositioning," "clip repositioning," "clip suboptimal positioning," "Doppler," "intracranial," "microsurgery," "micro-Doppler," "residual neck," "ultrasonography," "ultrasound," and "vessel occlusion". Additionally, reference lists from the retrieved articles were reviewed for identifying any additional articles. Case reports and miniseries were excluded. A total of 19 series employing intraoperative MDU during aneurysmal microsurgery were retrieved. All studies demonstrated that MDU accuracy is extremely high. The highest reported false-positive rate of MDU was 2 %, while the false-negative rate was reported as high as 1.6 %. It has been demonstrated that the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, specific anatomic locations, and large size may predispose to improper clip placement. Intraoperative MDU's technical limitations and weaknesses are adequately identified, in order to minimize the possibility of any misinterpretations. Intraoperative MDU constitutes a safe, accurate, and low cost imaging modality for evaluating blood flow and for verifying proper clip placement during microsurgical clipping.

  10. A night with Venus, a lifetime with Mercury: a case of multiple intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Opina, Angeline D; Tafur, Alfonso

    2012-06-01

    A 62-year-old African American woman presented to her primary care physician with binocular photopsias increasing in frequency over 1 year. Magnetic resonance angiography of the brain revealed bilateral 3-mm internal carotid artery aneurysms. She was referred to vascular medicine for further work-up. Her physical examination was unremarkable except for a right-sided femoral bruit. Specific testing for causes of multiple intracranial aneurysms was unremarkable except for positive rapid plasma reagin titers and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption staining. She was referred to Infectious Diseases clinic where it was determined that the patient had a history of congenital syphilis that was not adequately treated until almost 20 years after birth. Few case reports illustrate the relationship between syphilis and intracranial aneurysms. The authors present this case to increase awareness of this uncommon presentation.

  11. Validation of the unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment score: comparison with real-world cerebrovascular practice.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; de Havenon, Adam; Gooldy, Timothy C; Scoville, Jonathan; Guan, Jian; Couldwell, William T; Taussky, Philipp; MacDonald, Joel D; Schmidt, Richard H; Park, Min S

    2017-10-06

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the unruptured intracranial aneurysm treatment score (UIATS) recommendations with the real-world experience in a quaternary academic medical center with a high volume of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). METHODS All patients with UIAs evaluated during a 3-year period were included. All factors included in the UIATS were abstracted, and patients were scored using the UIATS. Patients were categorized in a contingency table assessing UIATS recommendation versus real-world treatment decision. The authors calculated the percentage of misclassification, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS A total of 221 consecutive patients with UIAs met the inclusion criteria: 69 (31%) patients underwent treatment and 152 (69%) did not. Fifty-nine (27%) patients had a UIATS between -2 and 2, which does not offer a treatment recommendation, leaving 162 (73%) patients with a UIATS treatment recommendation. The UIATS was significantly associated with treatment (p < 0.001); however, the sensitivity, specificity, and percentage of misclassification were 49%, 80%, and 28%, respectively. Notably, 51% of patients for whom treatment would be recommended by the UIATS did not undergo treatment in the real-world cohort and 20% of patients for whom conservative management would be recommended by UIATS had intervention. The area under the ROC curve was 0.646. CONCLUSIONS Compared with the authors' experience, the UIATS recommended overtreatment of UIAs. Although the UIATS could be used as a screening tool, individualized treatment recommendations based on consultation with a cerebrovascular specialist are necessary. Further validation with longitudinal data on rupture rates of UIAs is needed before widespread use.

  12. Recurrence of endovascularly and microsurgically treated intracranial aneurysms-review of the putative role of aneurysm wall biology.

    PubMed

    Marbacher, Serge; Niemelä, Mika; Hernesniemi, Juha; Frösén, Juhana

    2017-08-17

    Although endovascular therapy has been proven safe and has become in many centers the primary method of treatment for intracranial aneurysms, the long-term durability of endovascular embolization remains a concern; at least for some aneurysms despite initial good result. While healing after clipping relies on mechanical occlusion, restoration after endovascular occlusion mainly requires the induction of a biological response. Healing after embolization depends on the growth of new tissue over the thrombus formed by the embolization material, or alternatively, on the organization of thrombus into fibrous tissue. This review highlights the fundamental importance of aneurysm wall biology on the healing process and long-term occlusion after intracranial aneurysm (IA) treatment. It seems likely that the effect of luminal thrombus on the IA wall, as well as the IA wall condition at the time of thrombosis, determine if thrombus organizes into scar tissue (neointima formation by infiltration of cells originating from the IA wall) or if the wall undergoes continuous remodeling, which is primarily destructive (loss of mural cells). In the latter, intraluminal thrombus organization fails and the impaired healing increases the chance of recurrence. Mechanisms underlying IA reopening, the influence of intraluminal thrombosis on the IA wall, and clinical implications of the IA wall condition are discussed in detail, along with how knowledge of IA wall biology can offer new solutions for IA treatment and affect the patient selection for and follow-up after endovascular treatment.

  13. The Clinical Importance of Perforator Preservation in Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery: An Overview with a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Sung-Pil

    2017-01-01

    Clipping for intracranial aneurysms is done to achieve complete occlusion of the aneurysm without a remnant sac. Despite modern advancements of neurosurgical techniques, morbidity related to the clipping of intracranial aneurysms still exists. Clip occlusion of a parent artery or small hidden perforators commonly leads to permanent neurological deficits, and is a serious and unwanted complication. Thus, preserving blood flow in the branches and perforators of a parent artery is very important for successful surgery without postoperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review article is to discuss the consequences of perforator injury and how to avoid this phenomenon in aneurysm surgeries using intraoperative monitoring devices. PMID:28184338

  14. The Clinical Importance of Perforator Preservation in Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery: An Overview with a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung-Pil; Kim, Tae-Sun

    2017-01-01

    Clipping for intracranial aneurysms is done to achieve complete occlusion of the aneurysm without a remnant sac. Despite modern advancements of neurosurgical techniques, morbidity related to the clipping of intracranial aneurysms still exists. Clip occlusion of a parent artery or small hidden perforators commonly leads to permanent neurological deficits, and is a serious and unwanted complication. Thus, preserving blood flow in the branches and perforators of a parent artery is very important for successful surgery without postoperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review article is to discuss the consequences of perforator injury and how to avoid this phenomenon in aneurysm surgeries using intraoperative monitoring devices.

  15. Use of indocyanine green videoangiography during intracranial aneurysm surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative ischaemic complications.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leon Tat; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2014-01-01

    Microscope-integrated near-infrared indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGVA) has been shown to be a useful adjunct for intracranial aneurysm surgery. That the routine application of this technique reduces the risk of postoperative ischaemic complication, however, has not been reported. We present a retrospective matched-pair comparison of ICGVA guided aneurysm surgery versus historic control surgical cohort treated by the same author. Index patients and controls were matched for aneurysm size, location, patient demographics, risk factors, comorbidities, and surgical treatments. Ninety-one eligible patients with 100 intracranial aneurysms were treated using ICGVA assistance. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of patient age, sex, risk factors, comorbidities and aneurysm characteristics. Of the 100 aneurysms in the ICGVA group, 107 investigations of ICGVA were performed. In 79 aneurysms (79.0%), ICGVA was considered useful but did not affect surgical management. In six patients (6.0%), ICGVA led to a crucial change of intraoperative strategies. In nine patients (9.0%), it was considered critical in assuring patency of small perforators. ICGVA was of no benefit in four patients (4.0%) and was misleading in two (2.0%). Postoperative ischaemic complications occurred in three patients (3.3%) in the ICGVA group compared with seven patients (7.7%) in the control group (p<0.001). Our study supports the use of ICGVA in aneurysm surgery as a safe and effective modality of intraoperative blood flow assessment. With all limitations of a retrospective matched-pair comparison, the use of ICGVA during routine aneurysm surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative ischaemic complications.

  16. Clinical and radiological profiles and outcomes in pediatric patients with intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Anant; Nair, Anup P; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Srivastava, Arun; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Kumar, Raj

    2012-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are extremely uncommon in the pediatric population, their characteristics are not well studied, and certain features make them unique. The authors analyzed pediatric patients with aneurysms to try to understand their clinical, radiological, and outcome profile. Sixty-three pediatric patients (≤ 18 years of age) with ages ranging from 4 to 18 years and features (clinical and radiological) suggestive of aneurysm presented to, and were treated at, the authors' center in the past 20 years (1991-2011). Included in the present study were only those patients who underwent surgical intervention, and thus data for 57 patients were analyzed. Seventy-three aneurysms in 57 patients were surgically treated. There was a slight female predominance (M/F 1:1.2), and the mean age among all patients was 12.69 ± 3.75 years. Fifty patients (87.72%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 4 (7.02%) with mass effect, and 3 (5.26%) with seizure. On presentation the majority of patients (45 [78.95%]) had a good clinical grade. Eleven patients had multiple aneurysms. The internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation was the most common aneurysm site (18 cases [24.66%]), followed by the middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation (11 cases [15.07%]). At a mean follow-up of 18.58 ± 10.71 months (range 1.5-44 months), 44 patients (77.19%) had a favorable outcome, and 5 patients had died. Pediatric patients with intracranial aneurysms most commonly presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and there was a slight female predominance. The ICA bifurcation followed by the MCA bifurcation was the most common aneurysm site. The incidence of posterior circulation and giant aneurysms is higher in pediatric patients than in the adult population. Children tend to present with better clinical grades and have better overall survival results and good functional outcomes.

  17. Ruptured intracranial tubercular infectious aneurysm secondary to a tuberculoma and its endovascular management.

    PubMed

    Saraf, R; Limaye, U

    2013-04-01

    Tuberculosis remains to be an endemic infectious disease in developing countries. With the increasing incidence of HIV and AIDS, there is further increase in the incidence of tuberculosis. Although CNS involvement by tuberculosis is seen in all age groups, there is a predilection for younger patients. Central nervous system tuberculosis may present as tuberculoma, cerebral abscess or tuberculous meningitis (TBM). Vasculitis secondary to TBM can cause infarcts and rarely aneurysm formation. In TBM there is a thick, gelatinous exudate around the sylvian fissures, basal cisterns. There is a border zone reaction occurring in the surrounding brain tissue. Inflammatory changes occur in the vessel wall of the arteries bathed in the exudate leading to narrowing of the lumen or occlusion by thrombus formation. The vessels at the base of the brain are most severely affected, including the internal carotid artery, proximal middle cerebral artery and perforating vessels of the basal ganglion. In these cases, the infection probably spreads from the adventitia towards the internal elastic lamina, weakening the vessel wall, with subsequent formation of an infectious aneurysm. Intracranial tuberculomas are space-occupying masses of granulomatous tissue that result from haematogenous spread from a distant focus of tuberculous infection. In endemic regions, tuberculomas account for as many as 50% of all intracranial space-occupying lesions. Inflammation in the vessels surrounding the tuberculoma may lead to formation of aneurysms. This case report illustrates an unusual case of intracranial tuberculomas complicated by intralesional haemorrhage due to an infective tubercular aneurysm in its vicinity. The endovascular treatment of these infectious aneurysms is safe, effective and durable. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a tuberculoma having intracranial haemorrhage on anti-tubercular treatment due to an infectious aneurysm developing in an artery in the

  18. PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian

    2012-11-01

    The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.

  19. Temporal Stability of Dysmorphic, Fusiform Aneurysms of the Intra-cranial Internal Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Boussel, Loic; Rayz, Vitaliy; Martin, Alastair; Lawton, Michael; Higashida, Randall; Smith, Wade S.; Young, William L.; Saloner, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Estimation of the stability of dysmorphic fusiform aneurysms of the intra-cranial internal carotid artery requires precise monitoring of their volumes. In this report we apply a method using MRI and 3D post-processing to study the evolution of these aneurysms on a prospective cohort of patients not immediately suitable for surgery or endovascular treatment. Materials and Methods Ten patients with fusiform aneurysms of the intra-cranial internal carotid artery underwent serial MRI studies. Five patients were studied at two time points and the remainder at multiple time points (mean delay between studies: 12.6 +/− 3.8 months). For each patient, studies from all time points were co-registered. Volumes of each vessel component were calculated. Results Mean aneurysm volume was 833 +/− 878 mm3. Mean annual rate of volume progression was 1.37 +/− 2.09 % per year. All the aneurysms were thrombus-free. Conclusion This study indicates that, given the relatively low rate of progression of these dysplastic fusiform aneurysms and the complexity of their shape, 3D quantitative volumetric methods can be helpful in monitoring whether any growth has occurred. PMID:21419648

  20. Modeling the interaction of coils with the local blood flow after coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kyung Se; Balaras, Elias; Lieber, Baruch B; Sadasivan, Chander; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2007-12-01

    Aneurysmal recanalization and coil compaction after coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms are seen in as many as 40% of cases. Higher packing density has been suggested to reduce both coil compaction and recanalization. Basilar bifurcation aneurysms remain a challenge due possibly to the hemodynamics of this specific aneurysm/parent vessel architecture, which subjects the coil mass at the aneurysm neck to elevated and repetitive impingement forces. In the present study, we propose a new modeling strategy that facilitates a better understanding of the complex interactions between detachable coils and the local blood flow. In particular, a semiheuristic porous media set of equations used to describe the intra-aneurysmal flow is coupled to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations governing the dynamics of the flow in the involved vessels. The resulting system of equations is solved in a strongly coupled manner using a finite element formulation. Our results suggest that there is a complex interaction between the local hemodynamics and intra-aneurysmal flow that induces significant forces on the coil mass. Although higher packing densities have previously been advocated to reduce coil compaction, our simulations suggest that lower permeability of the coil mass at a given packing density could also promote faster intra-aneurysmal thrombosis due to increased residence times.

  1. Bifurcation Location Is Significantly Associated with Rupture of Small Intracranial Aneurysms (<5 mm).

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Ji, Wenjun; Qian, Zenghui; Liu, Peng; Kang, Huibin; Wen, Xiaolong; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Liu, Aihua

    2017-02-01

    Patients with small (<5 mm) unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) are at risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage, but risk assessment of these patients remains controversial in daily clinical practice. We aimed to identify the risk factors of aneurysmal rupture in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with small UIAs who were admitted to our center between February 2009 and December 2014. The enrolled patients were divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. The risk factors for aneurysmal rupture were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 548 patients with 618 small intracranial aneurysms (267 ruptured and 351 unruptured) were included. Univariate analysis showed that rupture of small aneurysms was related to sex, age, smoking, hypertension, aspect ratio, size ratio, irregular shape, aneurysm width, height, and neck diameter, and location at bifurcation or posterior circulation. Multivariate logistic regression showed that rupture was associated with bifurcation location (odds ratio [OR], 5.409; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.656-8.001; P < 0.001), size ratio (OR, 3.092; 95% CI, 2.002-4.774; P < 0.001), location (OR, 2.624; 95% CI, 1.428-4.824; P = 0.002), hypertension (OR, 1.698; 95% CI, 1.1140-2.527; P = 0.009), and age at diagnosis of UIA (OR, 1.826; 95% CI, 1.225-2.723; P = 0.003). This study showed that 70.4% of small ruptured intracranial aneurysms (<5 mm) were located at parent artery bifurcations and that bifurcation location was a significant independent factor for the risk of rupture of small UIAs (<5 mm). Prophylactic treatment should be recommended for small UIAs in this location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of large and giant intracranial aneurysms: cost comparison of flow diversion and traditional embolization strategies.

    PubMed

    el-Chalouhi, Nohra; Jabbour, Pascal M; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I; Starke, Robert M; Dumont, Aaron S; Liu, Haisong; Rosenwasser, Robert; El Moursi, Sedeek; Gonzalez, L Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Flow diversion has emerged as a promising strategy for management of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment of large and giant aneurysms with the pipeline embolization device (PED) is more economical than traditional embolization strategies. We identified 30 consecutive aneurysms larger than 10 mm that were treated with PED at our institution. For each aneurysm treated with PED, theoretical coil embolization was performed by filling volume in a consistent, stepwise fashion until a packing density of 25% was reached. Prices of all equipment and implants were taken from price lists provided by each manufacturer. Median aneurysm volume was 0.90 cm(3). Overall procedure cost was lower with the PED (mean, $23,911) vs. coiling ($30,522, P = .06). Above the median aneurysm volume, PED treatment was significantly less expensive than coiling even if multiple PEDs were used (P = .006). However, below the median aneurysm volume, PED treatment was significantly more expensive than coiling (P = .009). Treatment with multiple PEDs was not cost-beneficial compared with coiling, even above the median aneurysm volume. Potential savings associated with the PED were highly dependent on the type of embolic agent used. The cost of initial treatment of large and giant aneurysms with PED is economically favorable compared to traditional embolization techniques. However, any potential cost benefit depends on aneurysm volume, coil type, and number of PEDs used. Accordingly, PED therapy is more expensive than coiling in aneurysms <0.9 cm(3) or when multiple devices are used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prostaglandin E2-EP2-NF-κB signaling in macrophages as a potential therapeutic target for intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tomohiro; Frȍsen, Juhana; Fukuda, Miyuki; Bando, Kana; Shioi, Go; Tsuji, Keiichi; Ollikainen, Eliisa; Nozaki, Kazuhiko; Laakkonen, Johanna; Narumiya, Shuh

    2017-02-07

    Intracranial aneurysms are common but are generally untreated, and their rupture can lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Because of the poor prognosis associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, preventing the progression of intracranial aneurysms is critically important. Intracranial aneurysms are caused by chronic inflammation of the arterial wall due to macrophage infiltration triggered by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage activation mediated by the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and inflammatory signaling involving prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin E receptor subtype 2 (EP2). We correlated EP2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with macrophage infiltration in human intracranial aneurysm lesions. Monitoring the spatiotemporal pattern of NF-κB activation during intracranial aneurysm development in mice showed that NF-κB was first activated in macrophages in the adventitia and in endothelial cells and, subsequently, in the entire arterial wall. Mice with a macrophage-specific deletion of Ptger2 (which encodes EP2) or macrophage-specific expression of an IκBα mutant that restricts NF-κB activation had fewer intracranial aneurysms with reduced macrophage infiltration and NF-κB activation. In cultured cells, EP2 signaling cooperated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) to activate NF-κB and synergistically induce the expression of proinflammatory genes, including Ptgs2 (encoding COX-2). EP2 signaling also stabilized Ccl2 (encoding MCP-1) by activating the RNA-stabilizing protein HuR. Rats administered an EP2 antagonist had reduced macrophage infiltration and intracranial aneurysm formation and progression. This signaling pathway in macrophages thus facilitates intracranial aneurysm development by amplifying inflammation in intracranial arteries. These results indicate that EP2 antagonists may therefore be a therapeutic alternative to surgery. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional biomodels as an adjuvant in the surgical planning for intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Olandoski, Marcia; Foggiatto, José Aguiomar; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernando; Dietz, Ulrich Andreas; Zini, Cassio; Marinho, Melissa Mitsue Makita Arantes; Leal, André Giacomelli; Ramina, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    To fabricate a three-dimensional biomodels of intracranial aneurysms, using rapid prototyping technology, to facilitate optimal anatomical visualization of aneurysms prior to and during surgery. Four intracranial aneurysms cases were selected for this study. Using CT angiography images, the rapid prototyping process was completed using a PolyJet technology machine. The size and morphology of the prototypes were compared to brain digital subtraction arteriography of the same patients. The biomodels reproduced the exact location and morphology of the intracranial aneurysms, particularly the necks, in life-size dimensions and exactly the same as measured by digital subtraction arteriography. The arterial segments adjacent to the aneurysm and arteries anatomically known by the surgeon were also shown, which could guide the surgeon to the aneurysmal segment. The models showed an average unit cost of US$ 130 and each one took an average of 20 hours to be fabricated. It is possible to fabricate 3D physical biomodels of intracranial aneurysms from CT angiography images. These prototypes may be useful in the surgical planning for intracranial aneurysms to clarify the anatomy, define surgical techniques and facilitate the choice of suitable materials, such as clips and clip appliers.

  5. Ruptured intracranial aneurysm in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: 2 familial cases and a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gaberel, T; Rochey, A; di Palma, C; Lucas, F; Touze, E; Emery, E

    2016-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited connective tissue disorder that causes bone fragility. Vascular complications have been described, but only few cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm have been reported. We first described 2 familial cases of ruptured intracranial aneurysm and then conducted a systematic review of the literature. A mother and her daughter with a typical history of osteogenesis imperfecta presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was related to a posterior communicating artery aneurysm in both cases. The mother had early rebleeding and died. The aneurysm was excluded by coiling in the daughter. Despite occurrence of hydrocephalus and delayed cerebral ischemia, she had an excellent functional outcome. A systematic review of the literature identified seven additional cases. None of the cases were in fact familial. All patients had a previous medical history of multiple fractures. Seven aneurysms were resolved, three by surgical clipping and four by endovascular procedure. No periprocedural complication was reported. One patient died prematurely and 6 experienced good functional outcome. We report the first familial cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in osteogenesis imperfecta patients. Intracranial aneurysms are probably linked to a collagen pathology, which is at the origin of osteogenesis imperfecta. In cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in an osteogenesis imperfecta family, intracranial aneurysm screenings in the relatives showing osteogenesis imperfecta should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Mathematical Model of Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms: Evidence of Hemodynamic Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvisi, Michael; Davis, Stephen; Miksis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms tend to form at the apex of arterial bifurcations and often assume a nominally spherical shape. In certain cases, the aneurysm growth can become unstable and lead to rupture. While the mechanisms of instability are not well understood, hemodynamics almost certainly play an important role. In this talk, a mathematical model of a saccular aneurysm is presented that describes the shape deformations of an initially spherical membrane interacting with a viscous fluid in the interior. The governing equations are derived from the equations of a thin shell supplemented with a constitutive model that is representative of aneurysmal tissue. Among the key findings are that two families of free vibration modes exist and, for certain values of the membrane properties, one family of nonspherical, axisymmetric modes is unstable to small perturbations. In addition, the presence of a vortical interior flow of sufficient strength can excite resonance of the membrane -- an unstable phenomenon that might cause eventual rupture.

  7. 3D rotational fluoroscopy for intraoperative clip control in patients with intracranial aneurysms--assessment of feasibility and image quality.

    PubMed

    Westermaier, Thomas; Linsenmann, Thomas; Homola, György A; Loehr, Mario; Stetter, Christian; Willner, Nadine; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Solymosi, Laszlo; Vince, Giles H

    2016-04-19

    Mobile 3D fluoroscopes have become increasingly available in neurosurgical operating rooms. In this series, the image quality and value of intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy with intravenous contrast agent for the evaluation of aneurysm occlusion and vessel patency after clip placement was assessed in patients who underwent surgery for intracranial aneurysms. Twelve patients were included in this retrospective analysis. Prior to surgery, a 360° rotational fluoroscopy scan was performed without contrast agent followed by another scan with 50 ml of intravenous iodine contrast agent. The image files of both scans were transferred to an Apple PowerMac® workstation, subtracted and reconstructed using OsiriX® free software. The procedure was repeated after clip placement. Both image sets were compared for assessment of aneurysm occlusion and vessel patency. Image acquisition and contrast administration caused no adverse effects. Image quality was sufficient to follow the patency of the vessels distal to the clip. Metal artifacts reduce the assessability of the immediate vicinity of the clip. Precise image subtraction and post-processing can reduce metal artifacts and make the clip-site assessable and depict larger neck-remnants. This technique quickly supplies images at adequate quality to evaluate distal vessel patency after aneurysm clipping. Significant aneurysm remnants may be depicted as well. As it does not require visual control of all vessels that are supposed to be evaluated intraoperatively, this technique may be complementary to other intraoperative tools like indocyanine green videoangiography and micro-Doppler, especially for the assessment of larger aneurysms. At the momentary state of this technology, it cannot replace postoperative conventional angiography. However, 3D fluoroscopy and image post-processing are young technologies. Further technical developments are likely to result in improved image quality.

  8. Comparison between Lateral Supraorbital Approach and Pterional Approach in the Surgical Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Chyul; Kim, Jong-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach is a modified method of the classic pterional approach and it has advantages of short skin incision and small craniotomy compared with the pterional approach. This study was designed to compare the two approaches in the surgical treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 122 patients with 137 unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated by clipping, from July 2009 to April 2011. Between August 2010 and April 2011, 61 patients were treated by clipping via the lateral supraorbital approach and the same number of patients treated by clipping via the pterional approach were retrospectively enrolled. We analyzed the two groups and compared demographic, radiologic and clinical variables. Results The mean age of patients in the two groups was 54.6 years (LSO group) and 55.7 years (Pterion group). The mean duration of hospitalization was shorter in the LSO group than in the Pterion group (7.9 days vs. 9.0 days, p=0.125) and the mean operation time was also significantly shorter in the LSO group (117.1 minutes vs. 164.3 minutes, p<0.001). Furthermore, the mean craniotomy area was much smaller in the LSO group (1275.4 mm2 vs. 2858.9 mm2, p<0.001). The two groups showed similar distributions of aneurysm location and postoperative complications. Conclusion The lateral supraorbital approach for the clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysm could be a good alternative to the classic pterional approach. PMID:22949961

  9. Comparison between Lateral Supraorbital Approach and Pterional Approach in the Surgical Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cha, Ki-Chul; Hong, Seung-Chyul; Kim, Jong-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach is a modified method of the classic pterional approach and it has advantages of short skin incision and small craniotomy compared with the pterional approach. This study was designed to compare the two approaches in the surgical treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed 122 patients with 137 unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated by clipping, from July 2009 to April 2011. Between August 2010 and April 2011, 61 patients were treated by clipping via the lateral supraorbital approach and the same number of patients treated by clipping via the pterional approach were retrospectively enrolled. We analyzed the two groups and compared demographic, radiologic and clinical variables. The mean age of patients in the two groups was 54.6 years (LSO group) and 55.7 years (Pterion group). The mean duration of hospitalization was shorter in the LSO group than in the Pterion group (7.9 days vs. 9.0 days, p=0.125) and the mean operation time was also significantly shorter in the LSO group (117.1 minutes vs. 164.3 minutes, p<0.001). Furthermore, the mean craniotomy area was much smaller in the LSO group (1275.4 mm(2) vs. 2858.9 mm(2), p<0.001). The two groups showed similar distributions of aneurysm location and postoperative complications. The lateral supraorbital approach for the clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysm could be a good alternative to the classic pterional approach.

  10. Intracranial aneurysms; in need of early diagnostic and treatment using bio- and nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Salmasi, Shima; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are present in 1-5% of population and can be described as "ticking time bombs" that can go off at any time and cause serious harms including permanent disability and death. There are two routinely practiced treatment options for this disease; endovascular coiling and surgical clipping. In recent years other promising methods, such as stent-assisted coiling, flow diverting devices and Onyx embolic agent, have also been developed and tested. The studies reviewed here suggest endovascular coiling to be the most commonly chosen treatment method and that there are reservations on using the newly developed techniques, despite studies suggesting their safety and effectiveness. Therefore, it is now becoming clear that a competent management system, in which treatment methods are chosen to best fit the characterisation of the patient and the aneurysm, should be developed in order to effectively diagnose and treat intracranial aneurysms. One way to develop such a system could be through the advancements of nanotechnology and smart materials. Neurosurgery, like many other areas of the medical field, is moving towards adopting the exciting and rapidly developing technologies based on nanomaterials as the nano-approach to detect and treat intracranial aneurysms could offer surgical opportunities that were more invasive or out of rich at the microneurosurgery level.

  11. Physical Theory of Narrow-Band Sounds Associated with Intracranial Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, T. Douglas

    Intracranial aneurysms in humans are sometimes associated with narrow-band sound. The sounds of interest have frequencies on the order of 500 Hz. Bandwidths observed correspond to quality factors on the order of 30. The present thesis offers a physical theory of the mechanism of excitation of these sounds. It is shown that an aneurysm can be modeled as a lumped-element resonator in which the kinetic energy is associated with the motion of blood in the neck of the aneurysm and the potential energy is stored in the flexible walls of the aneurysm sac. However, the quality factors of aneurysms as lumped-element resonators are seen to be much smaller than the observed quality factors of aneurysm sounds, so that aneurysm sounds cannot be explained as a simple resonance phenomenon associated with external forcing. It is shown that the best explanation for aneurysm sounds is a self-excited oscillation of the system comprised of the aneurysm and the unstable mean flow; this oscillation is explained quantitatively here for the first time. In the theory developed in this thesis, limit cycles of the aneurysm-flow system are found using describing -function analysis. Results of the theory agree quantitatively with experiments performed on flow-excited Helmholtz resonators and agree qualitatively with the observed characteristics of aneurysm sounds. The bandwidths of observed aneurysm sounds for a time-varying mean flow are predicted and compared with bandwidths of sounds due to periodic vortex shedding in the absence of any resonator. It is shown that the presence of a resonator causes a locking-in of the flow disturbances to the sounding frequency of the resonator, resulting in a narrow observed bandwidth, even for a time -varying mean flow. Bandwidth considerations make it possible to distinguish sounds associated with self-excited oscillations of aneurysms from sounds due to purely fluid-mechanical mechanisms. The theory presented here can be taken as a starting point for

  12. Quantitation of intracranial aneurysm neck size from diagnostic angiograms based on a biomathematical model.

    PubMed

    Hademenos, G J; Massoud, T F; Viñuela, F

    1995-10-01

    Accurate measurement of the aneurysm neck size from diagnostic angiograms is crucial in the consideration and implementation of interventional embolotherapeutic procedures. Due to inherent problems in angiography, aneurysm morphology and location, and obstruction by overlying structures, accurate measurement of the aneurysm neck size is difficult. We are proposing a method for the angiographic measurement of aneurysm neck size based on a biomathematical model of an aneurysm. A biomathematical model of an intracranial saccular aneurysm was developed based on Laplace's law for a spherical elastic object, given by: Stress = Pressure x Radius/2 x Wall thickness. In addition, another biomechanical parameter used to describe an elastic sphere is the strain: Strain = delta R/Ri = (R-Ri)/Ri where R is the current aneurysm radius and Ri is the initial radius prior to aneurysm development. The stress and strain of an elastic structure are used to describe the elastic modulus, E: E = stress/strain = [PR/2h]/[(R-Ri)/Ri] = [PRRi]/[2hR-2hri]. It is assumed at this point that no additional tissue growth occurs through the developmental course of the aneurysm. The expression for E is now solved for Ri which, in essence, represents the radius of the aneurysm neck: Ri = [2hER]/[PR + 2hE]. Thus, the diameter of the neck, Dn, is given by Dn = 2 + i = 2 ([2hER]/[PR + 2hE]). During diagnostic angiography, the radius, R, and pressure, P, are easily obtained during the examination procedure. However, it is not possible to angiographically determine the elastic modulus, E, and the wall thickness, h. In this case, the following average values are used: E = 1.0 MPa and h = 50 microns. From the diagnostic angiograms and hospital records of 23 patients, the aneurysm neck size was determined using the biomathematical model and compared to the results obtained from the correlative relationship between the measured and accepted ratios of neck size to diameter of parent artery. The neck diameter

  13. Could statin use be associated with reduced recurrence rates following coiling in ruptured intracranial aneurysms?

    PubMed Central

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Shahi, Varun; Cloft, Harry J.; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Kallmes, David F; Kadirvel, Ramanathan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose A number of studies have examined the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in aneurysm healing following endovascular coiling. Because ruptured aneurysms are known to express higher levels of MMPs, we hypothesized that subarachnoid hemorrhage patients who were on a statin at the time of coil embolization would have lower aneurysm recanalization and retreatment rates than non-statin patients. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who received intrasaccular coil embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms≤10mm with at least 6-months of imaging follow-up. Patients were separated into two groups: 1) patients who were on an oral statin medication at the time of coiling and 2) patients who were not on a statin. Outcomes studied were aneurysm recurrence and aneurysm retreatment after endovascular coiling. Student’s t-test and chi-squared tests were used to test statistical significance of differences between groups. Results 132 ruptured aneurysm patients with 132 ruptured aneurysms were included in our study. 16 were on statin (12.1%) and 116 were not (87.9%). Recurrence rate was 6.3% in the statin group (1/16) and 36.2% in the non-statin group (42/107) (P=0.017). Unplanned retreatment rates were 6.3% (1/16) for the statin group and 25.9% (30/116) for the non-statin group (P=0.08). Conclusions Statins were associated with a lower rate of aneurysm recurrence following endovascular coiling of small and medium sized ruptured aneurysms in this small retrospective study. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding to determine if statins can be used to reduce recurrence rates in these aneurysms. PMID:26272974

  14. Risk Score for Neurological Complications After Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wenjun; Liu, Aihua; Lv, Xianli; Kang, Huibin; Sun, Liqian; Li, Youxiang; Yang, Xinjian; Jiang, Chuhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Procedure-related neurological complications are common after endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We aimed to develop a score to quantify individual patient risk. Methods— We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients who underwent endovascular treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms between January 2012 and September 2015. After excluding those who lost to follow-up and those with fusiform unruptured intracranial aneurysms, included patients were randomly divided into a derivation group (60%) and a validation group (40%). A neurological complication was defined as any transient or permanent increase in the modified Rankin Scale score after aneurysm embolization. A risk score for neurological complications was derived from multivariable logistic regression analyses in the derivation group and validated in the validation group. Results— Overall, 1060 patients were included (636 in the derivation group and 424 in the validation group). The incidence of neurological complications was 5.5% (95% confidence interval, 3.8%–7.4%). A 3-point risk score (S-C-C) was derived to predict neurological complications (size [≥10 mm=1], core areas [yes=1], and cerebral ischemic comorbidity [yes=1]). The incidence of neurological complications varied from 2.2% in 0-point patients to 25.0% in 3-point patients. The score demonstrated significant discrimination (C-statistic, 0.714; 95% confidence interval, 0.624–0.804) and calibration (McFadden R2, 0.102) in the derivation group. Excellent prediction, discrimination, and calibration properties were reproduced in the validation group. Conclusions— One in 20 patients will develop neurological complications after endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The S-C-C score may be useful for predicting these adverse outcomes based on variables in daily practice. PMID:26869386

  15. Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Junior Device for the Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mihir; Cheung, Vincent J; Abraham, Peter; Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon C; Almansouri, Abdulrahman; Pannell, J. Scott; Khalessi, Alexander A

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Early case series suggest that the recently introduced Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Junior (LVIS Jr.) device (MicroVention-Terumo, Inc., Tustin, CA) may be used to treat wide-necked aneurysms that would otherwise require treatment with intrasaccular devices or open surgery. We report our single-center experience utilizing LVIS Jr. to treat intracranial aneurysms involving 1.8-2.5 mm parent arteries. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with the LVIS Jr. device for intracranial aneurysms at a single center. A total of 21 aneurysms were treated in 18 patients. Aneurysms were 2-25 mm in diameter; one was ruptured, while three had recurred after previous rupture and treatment. Lesions were distributed across the anterior (n=12) and posterior (n=9) circulations. Three were fusiform morphology. Results: Stent deployment was successful in 100% of cases with no immediate complications. Seventeen aneurysms were treated with stent-assisted coil embolization resulting in immediate complete occlusion in 94% of cases. Two fusiform aneurysms arising from the posterior circulation were further treated with elective clip ligation after delayed expansion and recurrence; no lesions required further endovascular treatment. Four aneurysms were treated by flow diversion with stand-alone LVIS Jr. stent, and complete occlusion was achieved in three cases. Small foci of delayed ischemic injury were noted in two patients in the setting of antiplatelet medication noncompliance. No in-stent stenosis, migration, hemorrhage, or permanent deficits were observed. Good functional outcome based on the modified Rankin Scale score (mRS ≤ 2) was achieved in 100% of cases. Conclusion: Our midterm results suggest that the LVIS Jr. stent may be used for a variety of intracranial aneurysms involving small parent arteries (1.8-2.5 mm) with complete angiographic occlusion, parent vessel preservation, and functional clinical outcomes. This off

  16. Endovascular treatment of recurrent intracranial aneurysms following previous microsurgical clipping with the Pipeline Embolization Device.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; Evans, Avery J; Jensen, Mary E; Liu, Kenneth C

    2014-07-01

    The treatment of intracranial aneurysms with microsurgical clipping is associated with a very low rate of recurrence. However, in cases of aneurysm recurrence after previous clipping, microsurgical dissection due to adhesions and fibrosis may be challenging, and it may be difficult to safely occlude the recurrent lesion without the risk of significant morbidity. Flow-diverting stents have drastically changed the landscape of endovascular neurosurgery. We present two patients with large, recurrent supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms which were previously clipped 17 and 23 years ago at outside institutions. Both recurrent lesions were treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3 Endovascular, Irvine, CA, USA) without radiographic or clinical complications. In the first patient, the 15 mm aneurysm significantly decreased in size at 6 month angiographic follow-up. The 21 mm aneurysm in the second patient was completely occluded 7 months following PED treatment. The moderate degree of in-stent stenosis present on initial follow-up imaging resolved on angiography 11 months post-treatment. The management of recurrent aneurysms after clipping is sparsely reported in the literature due to its infrequent occurrence. In carefully selected cases, flow-diverting stents may be used for complex aneurysms of the distal ICA, even for those which have recurred following microsurgical clipping.

  17. Early experience with flow diverting endoluminal stents for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Pisapia, Jared M; Nahed, Brian V; Kahle, Kristopher T; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to identify the initial preliminary experience with flow diverting stents (FDS) for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IA). A PubMed search was performed to identify studies reporting patients treated with FDS. Selection was made for studies that provided either immediate or short term follow-up data. For each study, the number of patients and IA were identified. Details regarding the aneurysm itself were recorded; such as aneurysm morphology (saccular or fusiform), location, and rupture status. The primary treatment modality and the number of stents used to treat each aneurysm was recorded along with the antiplatelet regimen used. Outcomes such as aneurysm occlusion and complications, including stroke, in-stent thrombosis and stenosis, and death were identified. The average length of follow-up was calculated in weeks. A total of 10 manuscripts reporting 206 IA in 190 patients were identified in the literature. Occlusion rates were variably reported, ranging from 58% to 94% in the larger series. Major complications of treatment included stroke (6.0%), in-stent thrombosis and stenosis (4.9%), and death (3.3%). A phenomenon of delayed aneurysm rupture was also identified. We concluded that flow diverting stents have proven effective in a variety of scenarios. The major complications with FDS have related to perforator artery stroke, aneurysm re-rupture, and in-stent stenosis and thrombosis. Long-term efficacy, optimal antithrombotic agent regimen, and perforator stroke risk are yet to be determined.

  18. Intracranial Aneurysms Associated with a Double Origin of the Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Padovani Trivelato, F.; Salles Rezende, M.T.; Brito Santos, R.; Hilton Vieira Madeira, T.; Cardoso Campos, R.; Cordeiro Ulhûa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) frequently has a variable course and target territory. However, double origin PICA is a rare finding. Its significance is uncertain, but it has been associated with intracranial aneurysms localized at the PICA proper or at a distant site. The presence of this variation imposes specific challenges. We describe two cases of double origin PICA, one of them associated with an ipsilateral PICA aneurysm. The role of this finding was critically reviewed. A literature search identified 23 cases of double origin PICA, including both cases reported in this paper. Intracranial aneurysms were strongly associated with double origin PICA (71% in 21 detailed cases of double origin PICA). The current patient harboring a PICA aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular trapping. In the setting of double origin PICA aneurysms, this variation beneficially affects the treatment choice once the two limbs enable the safe sacrifice of the channel involved, with preservation of blood flow through the other channel. PMID:22005699

  19. Non-Contrast-Enhanced Silent Scan MR Angiography of Intracranial Anterior Circulation Aneurysms Treated with a Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device.

    PubMed

    Takano, N; Suzuki, M; Irie, R; Yamamoto, M; Teranishi, K; Yatomi, K; Hamasaki, N; Kumamaru, K K; Hori, M; Oishi, H; Aoki, S

    2017-08-01

    The Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device comprises a small-cell nitinol structure and a single-wire braided stent that provides greater metal coverage than previously reported intracranial stents, as well as assumed strong susceptibility artifacts. This study aimed to assess the benefits of non-contrast-enhanced MRA by using a Silent Scan (Silent MRA) for intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents. Thirty-one aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents were assessed by using Silent MRA, 3D TOF-MRA, and x-ray DSA. The quality of MRA visualization of the reconstructed artery was graded on a 4-point scale from 1 (not visible) to 4 (excellent). Aneurysm occlusion status was evaluated by using a 2-grade scale (total occlusion/remnant [neck or aneurysm]). Weighted κ statistics were used to evaluate interobserver and intermodality agreement. The mean scores ± SDs for Silent MRA and 3D TOF-MRA were 3.16 ± 0.79 and 1.48 ± 0.67 (P < .05), respectively, with substantial interobserver agreement (κ = 0.66). The aneurysm occlusion rates of the 2-grade scale (total occlusion/remnant [neck or aneurysm]) were 69%/31% for DSA, 65%/35% for Silent MRA, and 92%/8% for 3D TOF-MRA, respectively. The intermodality agreements were 0.88 and 0.30 for DSA/Silent MRA and DSA/3D TOF-MRA, respectively. Silent MRA seems to be useful for visualizing intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms treated with Low-Profile Visualized Intraluminal Support Device stents. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  20. Effects of preventive surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms on attention, executive function, learning and memory: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joonho; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Kwon, Min A; Kim, Yong Bae; Joo, Jin-Yang; Hong, Chang-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the effects of preventive surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms on attention, executive function, learning and memory. Between March 2012 and June 2013, 56 patients were recruited for this study. Fifty-one patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) age ≤65 years and (2) planned microsurgery or endovascular surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Exclusion criteria were as follows: (1) preoperative intelligence quotient <80 (n = 3); (2) initial modified Rankin scale ≥1 (n = 1); (3) loss to follow-up (n = 1). An auditory controlled continuous performance test (ACCPT), word-color test (WCT) and verbal learning test (VLT) were performed before and after (6 months) preventive surgery. ACCPT (attention), WCT (executive function) and VLT (learning and memory) scores did not change significantly between the pre- and postoperative evaluations. The ACCPT, WCT, total VLT scores (verbal learning) and delayed VLT scores (memory) did not differ significantly between patients undergoing microsurgery and those undergoing endovascular surgery. However, ACCPT, WCT and delayed VLT scores decreased postoperatively in patients with leukoaraiosis on preoperative FLAIR images (OR 9.899, p = 0.041; OR 11.421, p = 0.006; OR 2.952, p = 0.024, respectively). Preventive surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms did not affect attention, executive function, learning or memory. However, patients with leukoaraiosis on FLAIR images might be prone to deficits in attention, executive function and memory postoperatively, whereas learning might not be affected.

  1. Three distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms in the same branch associated with five additional intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kozyrev, Danil A; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Thiarawat, Peeraphong; Choque-Velasquez, Joham; Ludtka, Christopher; Goehre, Felix; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2017-01-01

    Multiple distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms appear as rare findings. Simultaneous treatment of such lesions can be particularly challenging. A report of three aneurysms on the same parent artery has not been reported before. We report a case of three DACA aneurysms treated within one microsurgical operation in a patient with eight aneurysms. A 62-year-old woman incidentally presented with multiple various size saccular aneurysms, including tree on the left DACA. One of the DACA aneurysm was located on the A3 segment, and the other two were on the A4 and A5 segments. Ligation of all three of these aneurysms was planned in one operation. A standard anterior interhemispheric approach was utilized. Three aneurysms were successfully clipped using four clips. Intraoperative angiography confirmed aneurysm occlusion with parent artery patency preservation. The patient showed no new postoperative neurological deficit. Clipping multiple DACA aneurysms within a single microneurosurgical operation is a feasible treatment option. Meticulous analysis of preoperative imaging features is crucial for selecting the best, patient-specific treatment strategy.

  2. Perioperative Variables Contributing to the Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysm: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cappellani, Ronald B.; Sandu, Nora; Daya, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Perioperative aneurysm rupture (PAR) is one of the most dreaded complications of intracranial aneurysms, and approximately 80% of nontraumatic SAHs are related to such PAR aneurysms. The literature is currently scant and even controversial regarding the issues of various contributory factors on different phases of perioperative period. Thus this paper highlights the current understanding of various risk factors, variables, and outcomes in relation to PAR and try to summarize the current knowledge. Method. We have performed a PubMed search (1 January 1991–31 December 2012) using search terms including “cerebral aneurysm,” “intracranial aneurysm,” and “intraoperative/perioperative rupture.” Results. Various risk factors are summarized in relation to different phases of perioperative period and their relationship with outcome is also highlighted. There exist many well-known preoperative variables which are responsible for the highest percentage of PAR. The role of other variables in the intraoperative/postoperative period is not well known; however, these factors may have important contributory roles in aneurysm rupture. Preoperative variables mainly include natural course (age, gender, and familial history) as well as the pathophysiological factors (size, type, location, comorbidities, and procedure). Previously ruptured aneurysm is associated with rupture in all the phases of perioperative period. On the other hand intraoperative/postoperative variables usually depend upon anesthesia and surgery related factors. Intraoperative rupture during predissection phase is associated with poor outcome while intraoperative rupture at any step during embolization procedure imposes poor outcome. Conclusion. We have tried to create such an initial categorization but know that we cannot scale according to its clinical importance. Thorough understanding of various risk factors and other variables associated with PAR will assist in better clinical

  3. Treatment of Complex Intracranial Aneurysms Using Flow-Diverting Silk® Stents

    PubMed Central

    Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Kocaeli, Hasan; Yildirim, Nalan; Cebeci, Hakan; Erdogan, Cüneyt; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study describes the peri-procedural and late complications and angiographic follow-up results of 32 patients with 34 complex aneurysms treated with flow diverter Silk stents in a single centre. In this retrospective study, 40 Silk stents (SS) were implanted in 34 complex intracranial aneurysms in 32 patients. In our series, 20 (58.8%) carotid-ophthalmic internal carotid artery (ICA), six (17.6%) cavernous ICA, two (5.9%) supraclinoid ICA, two (5.9%) petrosal ICA (the same patient- bilateral) and four (11.8%) posterior circulation aneurysms were treated. One of the posterior circulation lesions was a fenestrated-type aneurysm. Twenty wide-necked, saccular; eight neck remnant; four fusiform and two blister-like aneurysms were included in our series. SS were successfully implanted in all patients (100%). Misdeployment occurred in 17.6% of patients. In two of these patients adequate stent openness was achieved via Hyperglide balloon dilatation. Coil embolization in addition to SS placement was utilized in four aneurysms. One patient (3%) experienced transient morbidity due to a thromboembolic event and there was one mortality (3%) due to remote intraparenchymal haemorrhage. Complete occlusion of 27/33 (81.8 %) and 29/33 (87.9 %) aneurysms was achieved six and 12 months after the procedure, respectively. In-stent intimal hyperplasia was detected in 6.1 % patients. Flow-diverter Silk stent implantation is an effective method of treating complex aneurysms with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Complete occlusion is achieved in most of the complex aneurysms. PMID:25496683

  4. Keyhole Approach for Clipping Intracranial Aneurysm: Comparison of Supraorbital and Pterional Keyhole Approach.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Zhang, Hengzhu; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Ailin; Chen, Yanming; Xu, Liang; Wang, Zhongyong; Yuan, Liqun; Liu, Shihai

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the functional outcome and safety between supraorbital keyhole approach (SKA) and pterional keyhole approach (PKA) for clipping intracranial aneurysms. This is a retrospective study involving 318 patients with a total of 365 aneurysms who underwent keyhole surgery, comprising 195 cases in SKA group and 123 cases in PKA group. The outcome measures include Glasgow Outcome Scale, complete clipping rate, adverse events incidence, operation view angle, working distance, and surgical incision condition. Of a total of 356 aneurysms that were clipped and 9 trapped, no significant difference was observed in Glasgow Outcome Scale score, adverse events incidence, or complete clipping rate between the SKA and PKA groups. The distance from skin incision to anterior clinoid process was 5.87 ± 0.24 cm in SKA and 5.12 ± 0.27 cm in PKA. The operation view angle (from midline to the operating channel in sagittal plane) was 30°-40° in the SKA group and 60°-68° in the PKA group. Our research demonstrates that both SKA and PKA are safe and effective for most anterior circulation aneurysms and parts of posterior circulation aneurysms. The SKA exposures aneurysm better on deep and sagittal directions and is more suitable for clipping aneurysms by the contralateral approach due to the short distance. The PKA has a good exposure on the neck of aneurysm with dorsal direction of parent artery and can be used to evacuate hematoma in the temporal lobe when clipping the aneurysm. Integrating multimodal 3-dimensional images could help neurosurgeon in selecting an appropriate and effective approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in the development of intracranial aneurysm rupture

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kenji; Furukawa, Hajime; Wada, Kosuke; Korai, Masaaki; Wei, Yuan; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Shikata, Fumiaki; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji; Lawton, Michael T.; Hashimoto, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Inflammation is emerging as a key component of the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor of which activation modulates various aspects of inflammation. Methods Using a mouse model of intracranial aneurysm, we examined the potential roles of PPARγ in the development of rupture of intracranial aneurysm. Results A PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone (PGZ), significantly reduced the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and the rupture rate without affecting the total incidence aneurysm (unruptured aneurysms and ruptured aneurysms). PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) abolished the protective effect of PGZ. The protective effect of PGZ was absent in mice lacking macrophage PPARγ. PGZ treatment reduced mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemoattractant factor-1, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6) that are primarily produced by macrophages in the cerebral arteries. PGZ treatment reduced the infiltration of M1 macrophage into the cerebral arteries and the macrophage M1/M2 ratio. Depletion of macrophages significantly reduced the rupture rate. Conclusion Our data showed that the activation of macrophage PPARγ protects against the development of aneurysmal rupture. PPARγ in inflammatory cells may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of aneurysmal rupture. PMID:25931465

  6. Identification of vortex structures in a cohort of 204 intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Varble, Nicole; Trylesinski, Gabriel; Xiang, Jianping; Snyder, Kenneth; Meng, Hui

    2017-05-01

    An intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a cerebrovascular pathology that can lead to death or disability if ruptured. Abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) has been associated with IA growth and rupture, but little is known about the underlying flow physics related to rupture-prone IAs. Previous studies, based on analysis of a few aneurysms or partial views of three-dimensional vortex structures, suggest that rupture is associated with complex vortical flow inside IAs. To further elucidate the relevance of vortical flow in aneurysm pathophysiology, we studied 204 patient IAs (56 ruptured and 148 unruptured). Using objective quantities to identify three-dimensional vortex structures, we investigated the characteristics associated with aneurysm rupture and if these features correlate with previously proposed WSS and morphological characteristics indicative of IA rupture. Based on the Q-criterion definition of a vortex, we quantified the degree of the aneurysmal region occupied by vortex structures using the volume vortex fraction (vVF) and the surface vortex fraction (sVF). Computational fluid dynamics simulations showed that the sVF, but not the vVF, discriminated ruptured from unruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, we found that the near-wall vortex structures co-localized with regions of inflow jet breakdown, and significantly correlated to previously proposed haemodynamic and morphologic characteristics of ruptured IAs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Computational Study of Intracranial Aneurysms with Flow Diverting Stent: Correlation with Surgical Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yik Sau; Chiu, Tin Lok; Tsang, Anderson Chun On; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Chow, Kwok Wing

    2016-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysm, abnormal swelling of the cerebral artery, can cause massive internal bleeding in the subarachnoid space upon aneurysm rupture, leading to a high mortality rate. Deployment of a flow diverting stent through endovascular technique can obstruct the blood flow into the aneurysm, thus reducing the risk of rupture. Patient-specific models with both bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms have been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics analysis with physiological boundary conditions has been performed. Several hemodynamic parameters including volume flow rate into the aneurysm and the energy (sum of the fluid kinetic and potential energy) loss between the inlet and outlets were analyzed and compared with the surgical outcome. Based on the simulation results, we conjecture that a clinically successful case might imply less blood flow into the aneurysm after stenting, and thus a smaller amount of energy loss in driving the fluid flow in that portion of artery. This study might provide physicians with quantitative information for surgical decision making. (Partial financial support by the Innovation and Technology Support Program (ITS/011/13 & ITS/150/15) of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government)

  8. A Modular Tool Chain for High Performance CFD Simulations in Intracranial Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mach, Georg; Heinzl, René; Schwaha, Philipp; Stimpfl, Franz; Weinbub, Josef; Selberherr, Siegfried; Sherif, Camillo

    2010-09-01

    We present a modular tool chain for high performance CFD simulations of pulsatile blood flow in intracranial aneurysms. We describe a path from in-situ imaging (ie. CT and MRI) to flow simulations and show different modules for obtaining anatomically accurate and allover smooth meshes suitable for computed fluid dynamics (CFD) as well as methods for computing the blood flow in a robust and high performing way.

  9. The risk of headache attributed to surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, João E; Azevedo-Filho, Hildo R C; Rocha-Filho, Pedro A S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of headache in patients undergoing surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The risk of the post-craniotomy headache has never been studied. Patients with intracranial aneurysm, who were consecutively admitted to the Hospital da Restauração, Brazil, from May 2009 to October 2010, were interviewed before they underwent surgical or non-surgical treatment of the aneurysms. The patients were followed for 4 months after intervention. The International Headache Society criteria for post-craniotomy headache were used after surgery and adapted for headache after embolization (maximum intensity of pain on the same side of the aneurysm). We also used the Headache Impact Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Of 101 patients enrolled, 53 patients underwent craniotomy and 48 patients embolization. The surgery group was younger and had fewer women. The incidence of headache was 28/51 cases (54.9%) after surgery and 12/47 cases (25.5%) after embolization (relative risk = 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-3.72). The incidence of persistent headache was not different between the 2 groups. The only risk factor for headache after the intervention was craniotomy (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.7) and for persistent headache was anxiety prior to treatment (odds ratio = 8.5; 95% CI 1.7-42.3). The headache after treatment was not associated with the risk of anxiety or depression after the intervention. Patients who underwent craniotomy had an increased risk of headache after treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The incidence of persistent headache after 3 months was higher among patients who had anxiety before the intervention. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  10. Ultra Low Density Shape Memory Polymer Foams With Tunable Physicochemical Properties for Treatment of intracranial Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Pooja

    2013-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a rapidly emerging class of smart materials that can be stored in a deformed temporary shape, and can actively return to their original shape upon application of an external stimulus such as heat, pH or light. This behavior is particularly advantageous for minimally invasive biomedical applications comprising embolic/regenerative scaffolds, as it enables a transcatheter delivery of the device to the target site. The focus of this work was to exploit this shape memory behavior of polyurethanes, and develop an efficient embolic SMP foam device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.In summary, this work reports a novel family of ultra low density polymer foams which can be delivered via a minimally invasive surgery to the aneurysm site, actuated in a controlled manner to efficiently embolize the aneurysm while promoting physiological fluid/blood flow through the reticulated/open porous structure, and eventually biodegrade leading to complete healing of the vasculature.

  11. Surgical treatment of brain tumor coexisted with intracranial aneurysm--case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhihong; Sun, Yuhao; Lin, Dong; Sun, Qingfang; Bian, Liuguan

    2013-10-01

    Coexistence of brain tumor and intracranial aneurysm was previously considered as an uncommon phenomenon. Actually it is not rare in neurosurgical procedures, and its incidence rate may be underestimated. Furthermore, there remains a lack of consensus regarding numerous aspects of its clinical management. We performed a retrospective study of 12 cases of coexistent brain tumor and intracranial aneurysm in our database. Then a systematic PubMed search of English-language literature published between 1970 and 2012 was carried out using the keywords: "brain tumor" and "intracranial aneurysm" in combination with "associate" or "coexist." A consensus panel of neurosurgeons, anesthetists, interventional neurologists, and intensivests reviewed this information and proposed a treatment strategy. In the majority of patients, clinical symptoms were caused by tumor growth, whereas aneurysm rupture was seen only in a few cases. Meningioma was the commonest tumor associated with aneurysm. In most patients, both lesions occurred within the adjacent area. Treatment of both pathologies in one session was performed in most patients. All of our patients were alive within the period of follow-up. Coexistence of brain tumor and intracranial aneurysm may be a coincidence. The treatment strategy should be designed according to the conditions of tumor and aneurysm, locations of both lesions, and pathologic nature of tumor.

  12. Onyx HD-500 embolization of intracranial aneurysms: modified technique using continuous balloon inflation under conscious sedation.

    PubMed

    Rahme, Ralph; Grande, Andrew; Jimenez, Lincoln; Abruzzo, Todd A; Ringer, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    The conventional technique of intracranial aneurysm embolization using Onyx HD-500 (ev3 Neurovascular, Irvine, CA, USA) involves repetitive balloon inflation-deflation cycles under general anesthesia. By limiting parent artery occlusion to 5 minutes, this cyclic technique is thought to minimize cerebral ischemia. However, intermittent balloon deflation may lengthen procedure time and allow balloon migration, resulting in intimal injury or Onyx leakage. We report our experience using a modified technique of uninterrupted Onyx injection with continuous balloon occlusion under conscious sedation. All Onyx embolization procedures for unruptured aneurysms performed by the senior author (A.J.R.) between September 2008 and April 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical, angiographic, and procedural data were recorded. Twenty-four embolization procedures were performed in 21 patients with 23 aneurysms, including four recurrences. Twenty aneurysms (87%) involved the paraclinoid or proximal supraclinoid internal carotid artery. Size ranged from 2.5 to 24mm and neck diameter from 2 to 8mm. The modified technique was employed in 19 cases. All but one patient (94.4%) tolerated continuous balloon inflation. Complete occlusion was achieved in 20 aneurysms (83.3%) and subtotal occlusion in three (12.5%). Stable angiographic results were seen in 85%, 94%, 94%, and 100% of patients at 6, 12, 24, and 36months, respectively. There were no deaths. Permanent non-disabling neurological morbidity occurred in one patient (4.2%). Minor, transient, and/or angiographic complications were seen in three patients (12.5%), none related to the technique itself. Onyx embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms can be safely and effectively performed using continuous balloon inflation under conscious sedation.

  13. Treatment of complex intracranial aneurysm: Case report of the simultaneous use of endovascular and microsurgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Sérgio T.; Alves, Raphael V.; Dória-Netto, Hugo L.; Puglia Júnior, Paulo; Rivau, Fabiano R.; Jory, Maurício

    2016-01-01

    Background: The surgical treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms (CIAs) represents a significant challenge to the skill and expertise of the neurosurgeon. The natural history of complex cerebrovascular lesions is especially unfavorable because of the pressure effect on adjacent areas, the risk of embolism in the presence of intraluminal thrombi, and the possibility of hemorrhage through leakage or rupture of the aneurysm. The surgical strategy must be customized for each case in order to maximize the treatment effectiveness and the safety of the patient. Case Description: A 68-year-old woman presented with a 10-month history of atypical headaches but no other neurological symptoms. Computed tomography scan and digital subtraction angiography revealed an unruptured saccular aneurysm on the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The lesion was 21 mm in length in its largest diameter and with an undefined neck (extensive involvement of the walls of the afferent vessel). Craniotomy was performed in order to expose the lesion and allow microsurgical dissection of the neck of the aneurysm and its adjacent structures. A balloon catheter was navigated via the internal carotid artery to a position alongside the aneurysm neck. With the balloon fully inflated, the aneurysm was punctured and drained, and a guide clip was located at the neck of the aneurysm. Additional clips were applied using a similar procedure to ensure the exclusion of the aneurysm. Conclusion: The patient recovered without complications and complete occlusion of the CIA was confirmed on follow-up angiography. A modified Rankin score of 0 was attributed to the patient 6 months after treatment. A multidisciplinary perspective is important in planning and executing the treatment of CIAs. PMID:28144484

  14. Enlarging vertebrobasilar nonsaccular intracranial aneurysms: frequency, predictors, and clinical outcome of growth.

    PubMed

    Mangrum, Wells I; Huston, John; Link, Michael J; Wiebers, David O; McClelland, Robyn L; Christianson, Teresa J H; Flemming, Kelly D

    2005-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar nonsaccular intracranial aneurysms (NIAs) are characterized by elongation, dilation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries. The goal of this study was to define the frequency, predictors, and clinical outcome of the enlargement of vertebrobasilar NIAs. Patients with vertebrobasilar fusiform or dolichoectatic aneurysms demonstrated on imaging studies between 1989 and 2001 were identified. In particular, patients who had undergone serial imaging were included in this study and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Prospective information was collected from medical records or death certificates when available. Both initial and serial imaging studies were reviewed. The authors defined NIA enlargement as a change in lesion diameter greater than 2 mm or noted on the neuroradiologist's report. A Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model time from diagnosis of the vertebrobasilar NIA to the first documented enlargement as a function of various predictors. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to study patient death as a function of aneurysm growth. Of the 159 patients with a diagnosis of vertebrobasilar NIA, 52 had undergone serial imaging studies including 25 patients with aneurysm enlargement. Lesion growth significantly correlated with symptomatic compression at the initial diagnosis (p = 0.0028), lesion type (p < 0.001), and the initial maximal lesion diameter (median 15 mm in patients whose aneurysm enlarged compared with median 8 mm in patients whose aneurysm did not enlarge; p < 0.001). The mortality rate was 5.7 times higher in patients with aneurysm growth than in those with no enlargement after adjustment for patient age (p = 0.002). Forty-eight percent of vertebrobasilar NIAs demonstrated on serial imaging enlarged, and this growth was associated with significant morbidity and death. Significant risk factors for aneurysm enlargement included symptomatic compression at the initial diagnosis, transitional or fusiform

  15. Treatment of complex intracranial aneurysm: Case report of the simultaneous use of endovascular and microsurgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sérgio T; Alves, Raphael V; Dória-Netto, Hugo L; Puglia Júnior, Paulo; Rivau, Fabiano R; Jory, Maurício

    2016-01-01

    The surgical treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms (CIAs) represents a significant challenge to the skill and expertise of the neurosurgeon. The natural history of complex cerebrovascular lesions is especially unfavorable because of the pressure effect on adjacent areas, the risk of embolism in the presence of intraluminal thrombi, and the possibility of hemorrhage through leakage or rupture of the aneurysm. The surgical strategy must be customized for each case in order to maximize the treatment effectiveness and the safety of the patient. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 10-month history of atypical headaches but no other neurological symptoms. Computed tomography scan and digital subtraction angiography revealed an unruptured saccular aneurysm on the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The lesion was 21 mm in length in its largest diameter and with an undefined neck (extensive involvement of the walls of the afferent vessel). Craniotomy was performed in order to expose the lesion and allow microsurgical dissection of the neck of the aneurysm and its adjacent structures. A balloon catheter was navigated via the internal carotid artery to a position alongside the aneurysm neck. With the balloon fully inflated, the aneurysm was punctured and drained, and a guide clip was located at the neck of the aneurysm. Additional clips were applied using a similar procedure to ensure the exclusion of the aneurysm. The patient recovered without complications and complete occlusion of the CIA was confirmed on follow-up angiography. A modified Rankin score of 0 was attributed to the patient 6 months after treatment. A multidisciplinary perspective is important in planning and executing the treatment of CIAs.

  16. Diffuse non-aneurysmal SAH in spontaneous intracranial hypotension: Sequela of ventral CSF leak?

    PubMed

    Schievink, Wouter I; Maya, M Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak has become a well-recognized cause of headaches. Recently, various unusual neurological syndromes have been described in such patients with chronic ventral CSF leaks, including superficial siderosis and an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-like syndrome. The authors now report two patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension due to a chronic ventral CSF leak who suffered a diffuse non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 62-year-old woman underwent uneventful microsurgical repair of a ventral thoracic CSF leak that had been present for 13 years. Seventeen months after surgery, she was found unresponsive and CT showed a diffuse intracranial SAH. Cerebral angiography and spine and brain MRI did not reveal a source of the SAH. A 73-year-old woman was found unresponsive and CT showed a diffuse intracranial SAH. Cerebral angiography and brain MRI did not reveal a source of the SAH, although superficial siderosis was detected. Spine MRI showed a ventral thoracic CSF leak that by history had been present for 41 years. She underwent uneventful microsurgical repair of the CSF leak. The authors suggest that patients with a ventral spinal CSF leak of long duration may be at risk of diffuse non-aneurysmal SAH. © International Headache Society 2015.

  17. [Intracranial Pressure Evaluation by Ophthalmologist].

    PubMed

    Čmelo, J; Illéš, R; Šteňo, J

    2017-01-01

    The value of ICT is important in diagnosis of the diseases of the eye and orbit Methods for direct measurement of intracranial pressure (ICT) are exact, but they are invasive and there is some risk of infection and damage of the tissue. Currently there are 2 valid indirect methods of mesurement of IKT. Digital Ophthalmodynamometry (D-ODM) and Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TDU). D-ODM is a non-invasive method for measuring of the Pulsating Venous Pressure (VPT). We can measure VPT by the pulse phenomena. Physiologically (to be maintained blood flow) VPT not be less than the ICT and intraorbital pressure (IorbitT). If we raise the VPT to compensate the current IKT (or IorbitT) - there is a pulsation VCR. We can calculate aproxymative IKT with the formula: IKT = 0.903 - (VPT) - 8.87, or IKT = 0.29 + 0.74 (VOT / PI (AO)). [VOT = intraocular pressure. PI - pulsatility index arteriae ophthalmic from Color Doppler ultrasonography.] IKT can be approximate calculate with mathematical formulas: IKT = 0:55 × BMI (kg / m2) + 0.16 × KTD (mmHg) - 0:18 x age (years) - 1.91. [KTD - diastolic blood pressure, BMI - Body master index] or: IKT = 16.95 x 0.39 x OSASW09 + BMI + 0.14 + TKS - 20.90. [OSASW095: width of the orbital arachnoid space at a distance of 9 mm behind the eyeball (nuclear magnetic resonance). BMI: Body Mass Index. TKS: mean arterial pressure]. Normal values of VPT are under 15 torr. The risk of increased intracranial pressure is above 20 torr. Under physiological conditions, there is intraocular pressure lower in about 5 torr than VPT. D-ODM is a useful screening method in the evaluation of IKT for hydrocephalus, brain tumors, cerebral hemorrhage after brain trauma and also in ocular diseases: Glaucoma, Ocular hypertension, orbitopathy (endocrine orbitopathy), ischemic / non-ischemic occlusion of blood vessels of the eye, indirect detection ICT carotid artery-cavernous fistula, amaurosis fugax, optic neuropathy. D-ODM is suitable for immediate evaluation

  18. The "focus on aneurysm" principle: Classification and surgical principles of management of concurrent arterial aneurysm with arteriovenous malformation causing intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vikas; Behari, Sanjay; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Shende, Yogesh P; Phadke, Rajendra V

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent arterial aneurysms (AAs) occurring in 2.7-16.7% patients harboring an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) aggravate the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. We evaluate the variations of aneurysms simultaneously coexisting with AVMs. A classification-based management strategy and an abbreviated nomenclature that describes their radiological features is also proposed. Tertiary care academic institute. Test of significance applied to determine the factors causing rebleeding in the groups of patients with concurrent AVM and aneurysm and those with only AVMs. Sixteen patients (5 with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 11 with intracerebral/intraventricular hemorrhage; 10 with low flow [LF] and 6 with high flow [HF] AVMs) underwent radiological assessment of Spetzler Martin (SM) grading and flow status of AA + AVM. Their modified Rankin's score (mRS) at admission was compared with their follow-up (F/U) score. Pre-operative mRS was 0 in 5, 2 in 6, 3 in 1, 4 in 3 and 5 in 1; and, SM grade I in 5, II in 3, III in 3, IV in 4 and V in 1 patients, respectively. AA associated AVMs were classified as: (I) Flow-related proximal (n = 2); (II) flow-related distal (n = 3); (III) intranidal (n = 5); (IV) extra-intranidal (n = 2); (V) remote major ipsilateral (n = 1); (VI) remote major contralateral (n = 1); (VII) deep perforator related (n = 1); (VIII) superficial (n = 1); and (IX) distal (n = 0). Their treatment strategy included: Flow related AA, SM I-III LF AVM: aneurysm clipping with AVM excision; nidal-extranidal AA, SM I-III LF AVM: Excision or embolization of both AA + AVM; nidal-extranidal and perforator-related AA, SM IV-V HF AVM: Only endovascular embolization or radiosurgery. Surgical decision-making for remote AA took into account their ipsilateral/contralateral filling status and vessel dominance; and, for AA associated with SM III HF AVM, it varied in each patient based on diffuseness of AVM nidus, flow across arteriovenous fistula and eloquence of cortex. Follow up (F

  19. Circulating microRNA: a novel potential biomarker for early diagnosis of Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate warning effect of serum miRNA for intracranial aneurysm rupture through microarray hybridization. Methods 24 were selected from 560 patients in our department and divided into group A, B, C and D. They are aneurysms with daughter aneurysms group, aneurysm without daughter aneurysms group, ruptured aneurysms group and angiography negative group. Then a microarray study was carried out using serum miRNA. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. Cluster analysis was performed in order to make the results looks more intuitive and potential gene targets were retrieved from miRNA target prediction databases. Results Microarray study identified 86 miRNAs with significantly different (p < 0.05) expression levels between three experimental groups and control group. Among them 69 are up-regulated and 17 are down-regulated. All miRNAs in group A are up-regulated, while there are up and down-regulated in group B and C. A total of 8291 predicted target genes are related to these miRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that several target genes are involved in apoptosis and activation of cells associated with function of vascular wall. Conclusion Our gene level approach reveals several different serum miRNAs between normal people and aneurysm patients, as well as among different phases of aneurysm, suggesting that miRNA may participate in the regulation of the occurrence and development of intracranial aneurysm, and also have warning effect for intracranial aneurysm rupture. All differently expressed miRNA in group A are up-regulated, which may suggesting protective function of miRNA for intracranial vascular wall. PMID:24279374

  20. 3D Printing of Intracranial Aneurysms Using Fused Deposition Modeling Offers Highly Accurate Replications.

    PubMed

    Frölich, A M J; Spallek, J; Brehmer, L; Buhk, J-H; Krause, D; Fiehler, J; Kemmling, A

    2016-01-01

    As part of a multicenter cooperation (Aneurysm-Like Synthetic bodies for Testing Endovascular devices in 3D Reality) with focus on implementation of additive manufacturing in neuroradiologic practice, we systematically assessed the technical feasibility and accuracy of several additive manufacturing techniques. We evaluated the method of fused deposition modeling for the production of aneurysm models replicating patient-specific anatomy. 3D rotational angiographic data from 10 aneurysms were processed to obtain volumetric models suitable for fused deposition modeling. A hollow aneurysm model with connectors for silicone tubes was fabricated by using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Support material was dissolved, and surfaces were finished by using NanoSeal. The resulting models were filled with iodinated contrast media. 3D rotational angiography of the models was acquired, and aneurysm geometry was compared with the original patient data. Reproduction of hollow aneurysm models was technically feasible in 8 of 10 cases, with aneurysm sizes ranging from 41 to 2928 mm(3) (aneurysm diameter, 3-19 mm). A high level of anatomic accuracy was observed, with a mean Dice index of 93.6% ± 2.4%. Obstructions were encountered in vessel segments of <1 mm. Fused deposition modeling is a promising technique, which allows rapid and precise replication of cerebral aneurysms. The porosity of the models can be overcome by surface finishing. Models produced with fused deposition modeling may serve as educational and research tools and could be used to individualize treatment planning. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. CFD and PIV Analysis of Hemodynamics in a Growing Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Raschi, Marcelo; Mut, Fernando; Byrne, Greg; Putman, Christopher M.; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Tanoue, Tetsuya; Tanishita, Kazuo; Cebral, Juan R.

    2011-01-01

    Hemodynamics is thought to be a fundamental factor in the formation, progression and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve their rupture risk assessment and treatment. In this study we analyze the blood flow field in a growing cerebral aneurysm using experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Patient-specific models were constructed from longitudinal 3D computed tomography angiography (CTA) images acquired at one-year intervals. Physical silicone models were constructed from the CTA images using rapid prototyping techniques and pulsatile flow fields were measured with PIV. Corresponding CFD models were created and run under matching flow conditions. Both flow fields were aligned, interpolated, and compared qualitatively by inspection and quantitatively by defining similarity measures between the PIV and CFD vector fields. Results showed that both flow fields were in good agreement. Specifically, both techniques provided consistent representations of the main intra-aneurysmal flow structures, and their change during the geometric evolution of the aneurysm. Despite differences observed mainly in the near wall region and the inherent limitations of each technique, the information derived is consistent and can be used to study the role of hemodynamics in the natural history of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:22548127

  2. AView: An Image-based Clinical Computational Tool for Intracranial Aneurysm Flow Visualization and Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianping; Antiga, Luca; Varble, Nicole; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) occur in around 3% of the entire population. IA rupture is responsible for the most devastating type of hemorrhagic strokes, with high fatality and disability rates as well as healthcare costs. With increasing detection of unruptured aneurysms, clinicians are routinely faced with the dilemma whether to treat IA patients and how to best treat them. Hemodynamic and morphological characteristics are increasingly considered in aneurysm rupture risk assessment and treatment planning, but currently no computational tools allow routine integration of flow visualization and quantitation of these parameters in clinical workflow. In this paper, we introduce AView, a prototype of a clinician-oriented, integrated computation tool for aneurysm hemodynamics, morphology, and risk and data management to aid in treatment decisions and treatment planning in or near the procedure room. Specifically, we describe how we have designed the AView structure from the end-user's point of view, performed a pilot study and gathered clinical feedback. The positive results demonstrate AView's potential clinical value on enhancing aneurysm treatment decision and treatment planning.

  3. Analysis of intracranial aneurysm wall motion and its effects on hemodynamic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oubel, Estanislao; De Craene, Mathieu; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2007-03-01

    Hemodynamics, and in particular Wall Shear Stress (WSS), is thought to play a critical role in the progression and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Wall motion is related to local biomechanical properties of the aneurysm, which in turn are associated with the amount of damage undergone by the tissue. The underlying hypothesis in this work is that injured regions show differential motion with respect to normal ones, allowing a connection between local wall biomechanics and a potential mechanism of wall injury such as elevated WSS. In a previous work, a novel method was presented combining wall motion estimation using image registration techniques with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations in order to provide realistic intra-aneurysmal flow patterns. It was shown that, when compared to compliant vessels, rigid models tend to overestimate WSS and produce smaller areas of elevated WSS and force concentration, being the observed differences related to the magnitude of the displacements. This work aims to further study the relationships between wall motion, flow patterns and risk of rupture in aneurysms. To this end, four studies containing both 3DRA and DSA studies were analyzed, and an improved version of the method developed previously was applied to cases showing wall motion. A quantification and analysis of the displacement fields and their relationships to flow patterns are presented. This relationship may play an important role in understanding interaction mechanisms between hemodynamics, wall biomechanics, and the effect on aneurysm evolution mechanisms.

  4. CFD and PIV analysis of hemodynamics in a growing intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Raschi, Marcelo; Mut, Fernando; Byrne, Greg; Putman, Christopher M; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Tanoue, Tetsuya; Tanishita, Kazuo; Cebral, Juan R

    2012-02-01

    Hemodynamics is thought to be a fundamental factor in the formation, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Understanding these mechanisms is important to improve their rupture risk assessment and treatment. In this study, we analyze the blood flow field in a growing cerebral aneurysm using experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Patient-specific models were constructed from longitudinal 3D computed tomography angiography images acquired at 1-y intervals. Physical silicone models were constructed from the computed tomography angiography images using rapid prototyping techniques, and pulsatile flow fields were measured with PIV. Corresponding CFD models were created and run under matching flow conditions. Both flow fields were aligned, interpolated, and compared qualitatively by inspection and quantitatively by defining similarity measures between the PIV and CFD vector fields. Results showed that both flow fields were in good agreement. Specifically, both techniques provided consistent representations of the main intra-aneurysmal flow structures and their change during the geometric evolution of the aneurysm. Despite differences observed mainly in the near wall region, and the inherent limitations of each technique, the information derived is consistent and can be used to study the role of hemodynamics in the natural history of intracranial aneurysms.

  5. Growth of Intracranial Aneurysms Arised from Curved Vessels under the Influence of Elevated Wall Shear Stress ─ A Computer Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yixiang; Wada, Shigeo; Tsubota, Ken-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Takami

    Recent studies have suggested that long standing elevated wall shear stress might degenerate the arterial wall and be involved in the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysm formation and development. The present study focuses on the interplay between the hemodynamic stresses, arterial wall degeneration and deformation. By constructing a computational model and examining the hypotheses that govern the rules to grow an intracranial aneurysm, we simulate the formation and development of intracranial aneurysms. The high wall shear stress is found to propagate towards the proximal and distal end of the formed aneurysm, which becomes the key factor for the expansion of wall degeneration and aneurysm progression. The development of aneurysm is influenced by the wall shear stress threshold, the Reynolds number and the rate of wall degeneration. Our preliminary results indicate that computer simulation can be used in the study of aneurysm mechanics and yields new insight into the mechanism of aneurysm pathophysiology.

  6. Size and location of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: consecutive series of 1993 hospital-admitted patients.

    PubMed

    Korja, Miikka; Kivisaari, Riku; Rezai Jahromi, Behnam; Lehto, Hanna

    2016-12-02

    OBJECTIVE Large consecutive series on the size and location of ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) are limited, and therefore it has been difficult to estimate population-wide effects of size-based treatment strategies of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The authors' aim was to define the size and location of RIAs in patients diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm rupture in a high-volume academic center. METHODS Consecutive patients admitted to a large nonprofit academic hospital with saccular RIAs between 1995 and 2009 were identified, and the size, location, and multiplicity of RIAs were defined and reported by patient sex. RESULTS In the study cohort of 1993 patients (61% women) with saccular RIAs, the 4 most common locations of RIAs were the middle cerebral (32%), anterior communicating (32%), posterior communicating (14%), and pericallosal arteries (5%). However, proportional distribution of RIAs varied considerably by sex; for example, RIAs of the anterior communicating artery were more frequently found in men than in women. Anterior circulation RIAs accounted for 90% of all RIAs, and 30% of the patients had multiple intracranial aneurysms. The median size (measured as maximum diameter) of all RIAs was 7 mm (range 1-43 mm), but the size varied considerably by location. For example, RIAs of the ophthalmic artery had a median size of 11 mm, whereas the median size of RIAs of the pericallosal artery was 6 mm. Of all RIAs, 68% were smaller than 10 mm in maximum diameter. CONCLUSIONS In this large consecutive series of RIAs, 83% of all RIAs were found in 4 anterior circulation locations. The majority of RIAs were small, but the size and location varied considerably by sex. The presented data may be of help in defining effective prevention strategies.

  7. Clipping Versus Coiling in Anterior Circulation Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fotakopoulos, George; Tsianaka, Eleni; Fountas, Kostas; Makris, Demosthenes; Spyrou, Michael; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate open surgical versus endovascular repair of anterior circulation ruptured intracranial aneurysms based on operative mortality, permanent neurologic deficit, late mortality, and need for reintervention. This meta-analysis included articles published since December 6, 2016, that compared outcomes of the 2 methods. Extracted data were organized in a standard table format, including first author, country, covered study period, publication year, number of patients and patients at follow-up, operative mortality rate (with 30 days from treatment), permanent neurologic deficit (appearing after surgery), late mortality (after 1 month), and reintervention (surgery or coiling) for both groups of patients. Follow-up was at least 1 year. There were 8 articles that matched our study criteria. The study population was 628 patients; 374 were treated with surgical clipping, and 254 were treated with endovascular coiling. Pooled results showed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of operative mortality, permanent neurologic deficit, late mortality, and need for reintervention. Selection of the appropriate procedure must be made on the basis of the special characteristics of each case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed aneurysm rupture due to residual blood flow at the inflow zone of the intracranial paraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm treated with the Pipeline embolization device: Histopathological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ando, Mitsushige; Chihara, Hideo; Arai, Daisuke; Hattori, Etsuko; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a serious complication that can occur after flow diverter (FD) placement, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We encountered a case in which direct stress on the aneurysm wall caused by residual blood flow at the inflow zone near the neck during the process of thrombosis after FD placement appeared associated with aneurysm rupture. The patient was a 67-year-old woman with progressive optic nerve compression symptoms caused by a large intracranial paraclinoid internal carotid aneurysm. The patient had undergone treatment with a Pipeline embolization device (PED) with satisfactory adherence between the PED and vessel wall. Surgery was completed without complications, and optic nerve compression symptoms improved immediately after treatment. Postoperative clinical course was satisfactory, but the patient suddenly died 34 days postoperatively. Autopsy confirmed the presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of the internal carotid aneurysm that had been treated with PED. Although the majority of the aneurysm lumen including the outflow zone was thrombosed, a non-thrombosed area was observed at the inflow zone. Perforation was evident in the aneurysm wall at the inflow zone near the neck, and this particular area of aneurysm wall was not covered in thrombus. Macrophage infiltration was not seen on immunohistochemical studies of the aneurysm wall near the perforation. A hemodynamically unstable period during the process of complete thrombosis of the aneurysm lumen after FD placement may be suggested, and blood pressure management and appropriate management with antiplatelet therapy may be important. PMID:26500232

  9. A Concealed Intracranial Aneurysm Detected after Recanalization of an Occluded Vessel: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Torikoshi, Sadaharu; Akiyama, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Background Based on the results of several randomized controlled trials, acute endovascular thrombectomy is strongly recommended for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large artery occlusion (LAO). The incidence of an intracranial aneurysm has been reported to be approximately 5% in the general population. Therefore, the possibility of the coincidence of LAO and an intracranial aneurysm at the distal part of an occluded vessel should be considered. Summary A 74-year-old female patient presented with the sudden onset of consciousness disturbance and left-sided weakness. Neuroimages demonstrated an acute infarction due to right middle cerebral artery occlusion. The occlusion was successfully treated, and an aneurysm was incidentally detected at the occluded artery. We reviewed the literature and identified 11 cases in 8 reports, which were similar to our case. Among the 11 cases, aneurysms ruptured during endovascular therapy in 2 cases. In the present report, we discussed the prediction of concealed aneurysms and avoidance of their rupture during endovascular intervention. Key Message The presence of an aneurysm concealed behind an embolus should be carefully assessed on preoperative and intraoperative neuroimages. The important findings for suspecting such an aneurysm are a hyperdense nodular sign on preoperative computed tomography and unusual motion of the microwire during the endovascular intervention. Even if there is no finding indicative of an aneurysm, the catheter and thrombectomy devices should be more carefully advanced than usual, especially at the common sites of aneurysms, and the devices should be appropriately chosen. PMID:27051404

  10. Reconstruction of intracranial vertebral artery with radial artery and occipital artery grafts for fusiform intracranial vertebral aneurysm not amenable to endovascular treatment: technical note.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hisashi; Tanikawa, Rokuya; Katsuno, Makoto; Noda, Kosumo; Ota, Nakao; Miyata, Shiro; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Izumi, Naoto; Bulsara, Ketan R; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2013-08-01

    Symptomatic fusiform intracranial vertebral artery aneurysms pose a formidable treatment challenge when not amenable to endovascular treatment. In this paper, we illustrate the microsurgical management of such an aneurysm. To prevent neurological deterioration, anatomical reconstruction preserving all vessels including posterior inferior cerebellar artery and perforators is essential. In this case illustration, the occipital artery was used as a donor to a perforator originating from the aneurysmal segment. This bypass was performed in an end-to-side fashion. Subsequently, the aneurysmal component of the vertebral artery was resected and an end-to-side (V4 to V3) bypass was performed using a radial artery graft. The patient achieved complete resection of the aneurysm preserving normal anatomy of the posterior circulation without any ischemic complications. Complex cerebral artery bypass techniques are essential in the armamentarium of cerebrovascular for the treatment of complex lesions not amenable to endovascular therapy.

  11. Endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms by the woven endobridge device (web): are there any aspects influencing aneurysm occlusion?

    PubMed

    Limbucci, Nicola

    2017-09-28

    The experience with Woven Endobridge Device (WEB) is still limited. The aim of this study is to discuss the efficacy of this new device focusing on any anatomical and procedural factors influencing aneurysm occlusion. Between October 2011 and November 2016, 24 patients (10 females,14 males) harbouring 24 cerebral aneurysms treated with WEB in a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. Patients underwent 6-months and 12-24 months (median 18 months) clinical and neuroradiological follow-up. We evaluated if any procedural or anatomical aspect could influence the occlusion rate. Adequate occlusion (AO) was achieved in 68% of cases at 6-months and in 87% at 18-months follow-up respectively. Technical difficulties occurred in three procedures (12.5%). No post-procedural morbidity was reported. One patient (4%) died after 1 months for reasons unrelated to the procedure. Neck size and dome-to- neck ratio were significantly associated to aneurysm occlusion (P<0.05). AO was not associated to post-operative dual antiplatelet therapy (P>0.99) or device compression at both first and second follow-up (P>0.99). Immediate contrast agent stagnation was more common in aneurysms that were occluded at first (P=0.37) and second follow-up (P=0.24) but statistical significance was not reached. Endovascular treatment with WEB is a safe treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, resulting in a good AO rate also in aneurysms that would otherwise require complex assisted coiling techniques. However, results are less favourable in case of very large aneurysmal neck. Nevertheless, further series with larger patient population and longer follow-up will define the WEB role in aneurysms treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms: short-term results from a prospective, consecutive, European multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Gory, Benjamin; Klisch, Joachim; Bonafé, Alain; Mounayer, Charbel; Beaujeux, Remy; Moret, Jacques; Lubicz, Boris; Riva, Roberto; Turjman, Francis

    2013-11-01

    Solitaire AB stent-assisted coiling facilitates the endovascular treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Solitaire Aneurysm Remodeling is the first prospective, consecutive, European multicentric study whose main objective was to evaluate the safety, short-, and long-term efficacy of the Solitaire AB stent. This first analysis is focused on the short-term results. After exclusion of one patient, 66 Solitaire AB stents were used to treat via endovascular approach 64 aneurysms (63 patients) in seven European centers. Technical and clinical complications were recorded. A core laboratory evaluated the angiographic efficacy by using the Raymond classification scale. The mean width of aneurysm sac was 7.5 mm, and the mean diameter of aneurysm neck was 4.7 mm. Complete occlusion was achieved in 27 aneurysms (42.2 %); neck remnant was seen in 25 aneurysms (39.1 %) and aneurysm remnant in 12 aneurysms (18.7 %). Technical and clinical complications related to the procedure were encountered in eight patients (12.7 %). Postprocedural modification of the clinical status was observed in one patient (1.6 %). No patients died (0 %); one had a permanent deficit (1.6 %), and one had a transient deficit (1.6 %). Treatment-related mortality was 0 %, and permanent morbidity was 1.6 %. The Solitaire AB stent has an excellent rate of technical success navigation with the absence of dislodgement. The safety and short-term efficacy are comparable to those previously reported with coiling alone. Mid- and long-term follow-up will be required to elucidate the impact of the Solitaire AB stent on recanalization rate.

  13. The role of intraoperative micro-Doppler ultrasound in verifying proper clip placement in intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapsalaki, E Z; Lee, G P; Robinson, J S; Grigorian, A A; Fountas, K N

    2008-02-01

    We present the results of a retrospective study employing intraoperative micro-Doppler ultrasonography (MDU) in verifying proper clip placement during cerebral aneurysmal surgery. One hundred and thirty-four patients surgically treated for 147 intracranial aneurysms were studied. Thirteen patients harboring 17 aneurysms were surgically treated on an elective basis, while 121 patients with 130 aneurysms, presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blood flow velocities of the parent and adjacent vessels as well as the aneurysmal sac were measured using a Conforma Micro-Doppler (Cook Vascular Inc., Leechburg, PA, USA). Pre- and post-operative cerebral angiography was obtained in all our patients. In 23 aneurysms (15.6%) there was decreased or absent flow in the parent vessel or in one of the adjacent vessels after clipping. In another 19 aneurysms (12.9%), MDU demonstrated flow through the aneurysmal dome even though the aneurysmal neck appeared to be totally obliterated. Presence of SAH, anatomic location and size of the aneurysm were associated with improper clip placement in a statistically significant fashion. The false positive rate for MDU was 2% while there were no false negative findings in our study. MDU appears to be a non-invasive, reliable alternative methodology to intra-operative angiography. This inexpensive method may lend itself to routine usage in aneurysm surgery.

  14. Intracranial and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Similarities, Differences, and Need for a New Class of Computational Models

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J.D.; Taylor, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    Intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms result from different underlying disease processes and exhibit different rupture potentials, yet they share many histopathological and biomechanical characteristics. Moreover, as in other vascular diseases, hemodynamics and wall mechanics play important roles in the natural history and possible treatment of these two types of lesions. The goals of this review are twofold: first, to contrast the biology and mechanics of intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms to emphasize that separate advances in our understanding of each disease can aid in our understanding of the other disease, and second, to suggest that research on the biomechanics of aneurysms must embrace a new paradigm for analysis. That is, past biomechanical studies have provided tremendous insight but have progressed along separate lines, focusing on either the hemodynamics or the wall mechanics. We submit that that there is a pressing need to couple in a new way the separate advances in vascular biology, medical imaging, and computational biofluid and biosolid mechanics to understand better the mechanobiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of these lesions, which continue to be responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. We shall refer to this needed new class of computational tools as Fluid-Solid-Growth (FSG) Models. PMID:18647115

  15. The Added Value of Volume-of-Interest C-Arm CT Imaging during Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chintalapani, G; Chinnadurai, P; Maier, A; Xia, Y; Bauer, S; Shaltoni, H; Morsi, H; Mawad, M E

    2016-04-01

    Successful endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms requires understanding the exact relationship of implanted devices to the aneurysm, parent artery, and other branch vessels during the treatment. Intraprocedural C-arm CT imaging has been shown to provide such information. However, its repeated use is limited due to increasing radiation exposure to the patient. The goal of this study was to evaluate a new volume-of-interest C-arm CT imaging technique, which would provide device-specific information through multiple 3D acquisitions of only the region of interest, thus reducing cumulative radiation exposure to the patient. VOI C-arm CT images were obtained in 28 patients undergoing endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. VOI images were acquired with the x-ray source collimated around the deployed device, both horizontally and vertically. The images were reconstructed by using a novel prototype robust reconstruction algorithm to minimize truncation artifacts from double collimation. The reconstruction accuracy of VOI C-arm CT images was assessed quantitatively by comparing them with the full-head noncollimated images. Quantitative analysis showed that the quality of VOI C-arm CT images is comparable with that of the standard Feldkamp, Davis, and Kress reconstruction of noncollimated C-arm CT images (correlation coefficient = 0.96 and structural similarity index = 0.92). Furthermore, 91.5% reduction in dose-area product was achieved with VOI imaging compared with the full-head acquisition. VOI imaging allows multiple 3D C-arm CT acquisitions and provides information related to device expansion, parent wall apposition, and neck coverage during the procedure, with very low additional radiation exposure to the patient. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysm identifies three new risk loci.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Katsuhito; Bilguvar, Kaya; Bijlenga, Philippe; Low, Siew-Kee; Krischek, Boris; Auburger, Georg; Simon, Matthias; Krex, Dietmar; Arlier, Zulfikar; Nayak, Nikhil; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Niemelä, Mika; Tajima, Atsushi; von und zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Dóczi, Tamás; Wirjatijasa, Florentina; Hata, Akira; Blasco, Jordi; Oszvald, Agi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Zilani, Gulam; Schoch, Beate; Singh, Pankaj; Stüer, Carsten; Risselada, Roelof; Beck, Jürgen; Sola, Teresa; Ricciardi, Filomena; Aromaa, Arpo; Illig, Thomas; Schreiber, Stefan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van den Berg, Leonard H; Perret, Claire; Proust, Carole; Roder, Constantin; Ozturk, Ali K; Gaál, Emília; Berg, Daniela; Geisen, Christof; Friedrich, Christoph M; Summers, Paul; Frangi, Alejandro F; State, Matthew W; Wichmann, H Erich; Breteler, Monique M B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Mane, Shrikant; Peltonen, Leena; Elio, Vivas; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; Lawford, Patricia; Byrne, James; Macho, Juan; Sandalcioglu, Erol I; Meyer, Bernhard; Raabe, Andreas; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Rüfenacht, Daniel; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Hernesniemi, Juha; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Inoue, Ituro; Palotie, Aarno; Cambien, François; Nakamura, Yusuke; Lifton, Richard P; Günel, Murat

    2010-05-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysms are balloon-like dilations of the intracranial arterial wall; their hemorrhage commonly results in severe neurologic impairment and death. We report a second genome-wide association study with discovery and replication cohorts from Europe and Japan comprising 5,891 cases and 14,181 controls with approximately 832,000 genotyped and imputed SNPs across discovery cohorts. We identified three new loci showing strong evidence for association with intracranial aneurysms in the combined dataset, including intervals near RBBP8 on 18q11.2 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.22, P = 1.1 x 10(-12)), STARD13-KL on 13q13.1 (OR = 1.20, P = 2.5 x 10(-9)) and a gene-rich region on 10q24.32 (OR = 1.29, P = 1.2 x 10(-9)). We also confirmed prior associations near SOX17 (8q11.23-q12.1; OR = 1.28, P = 1.3 x 10(-12)) and CDKN2A-CDKN2B (9p21.3; OR = 1.31, P = 1.5 x 10(-22)). It is noteworthy that several putative risk genes play a role in cell-cycle progression, potentially affecting the proliferation and senescence of progenitor-cell populations that are responsible for vascular formation and repair.

  17. Flow Diversion for Treatment of Growing A2 Aneurysm in a Child: Case Report and Review of Flow Diversion for Intracranial Aneurysms in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Vachhani, Jay Ashok; Nickele, Christopher Michael; Elijovich, Lucas; Klimo, Paul; Arthur, Adam Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Intracranial flow diversion has gained increasing popularity since the approval of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED). Although it is only approved for use in adult patients, the PED has been used to treat aneurysms in pediatric patients. We present the first reported case of the use of a PED in a pediatric patient to treat an unusual fusiform distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. A 12-year-old girl presented with new onset seizures and was found to have a distal left anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. Initially, this was managed conservatively, but follow-up imaging performed 4 months after presentation demonstrated enlargement of the aneurysm. The patient underwent endovascular embolization of her aneurysm with PED. This was successfully performed and the patient recovered from the procedure with no neurologic deficits. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography at 6 and 12 months, respectively, showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm. We also reviewed the literature on flow diversion for treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exome Sequencing Identifies SMAD3 Mutations as a Cause of Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection with Intracranial and Other Arterial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Regalado, Ellen S.; Guo, Dong-chuan; Villamizar, Carlos; Avidan, Nili; Gilchrist, Dawna; McGillivray, Barbara; Clarke, Lorne; Bernier, Francois; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Bertoli-Avella, Aida M.; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J.; Nickerson, Deborah A; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections (TAAD) can be inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. As part of the spectrum of clinical heterogeneity of familial TAAD, we recently described families with multiple members that had TAAD and intracranial aneurysms or TAAD and intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Objective To identify the causative mutation in a large family with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD with intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms by performing exome sequencing of two distantly related individuals with TAAD and identifying shared rare variants. Methods and Results A novel frame shift mutation, p. N218fs (c.652delA), was identified in the SMAD3 gene and segregated with the vascular diseases in this family with a LOD score of 2.52. Sequencing of 181 probands with familial TAAD identified three additional SMAD3 mutations in 4 families, p.R279K (c.836G>A), p.E239K (c.715G>A), and p.A112V (c.235C>T) resulting in a combined LOD score of 5.21. These four mutations were notably absent in 2300 control exomes. SMAD3 mutations were recently described in patients with Aneurysms Osteoarthritis Syndrome and some of the features of this syndrome were identified in individuals in our cohort, but these features were notably absent in many SMAD3 mutation carriers. Conclusions SMAD3 mutations are responsible for 2% of familial TAAD. Mutations are found in families with TAAD alone, along with families with TAAD, intracranial aneurysms, aortic and bilateral iliac aneurysms segregating in an autosomal dominant manner. PMID:21778426

  19. Intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics: evaluation of pCONus and pCANvas bifurcation aneurysm devices using DSA optical flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Marta Aguilar; Henkes, Hans; Bouillot, Pierre; Brina, Olivier; Slater, Lee-Anne; Pereira, Vitor Mendes

    2016-11-01

    Implantation of self-expanding stents from the parent artery into the sac of a bifurcation aneurysm is regularly used to facilitate endovascular coil occlusion with the so-called waffle cone technique (WCT). Self-expanding aneurysm bridging stents like Solitaire AB, can be used; however, bifurcation devices like pCONus and pCANvas are especially designed for WCT. These devices provide additional support for coil implantation owing to intraluminal nylon fibers (pCONus) or membranes (pCANvas) covering the intracranial aneurysm neck. Assessment of the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic impact of these three devices: a regular intracranial stent (Solitaire AB) and two bifurcation devices (pCONus and pCANvas). An in vitro experiment was set up using a silicone model of a basilar tip aneurysm filled with blood mimicking fluid under a pulsatile circulation. Solitaire AB, pCONus, and pCANvas were successively implanted in the model for hemodynamic evaluation. High frame rate DSA series were acquired under various conditions. Intra-aneurysmal flow changes, including mean aneurysm flow amplitude ratio (R), were subsequently assessed by the optical flow method, measuring the detector velocity field before and after device implantations. pCONus and Solitaire minimally reduced the intra-aneurysmal flow (R=0.96, p=0.17 and R=0.91, p=0.01, respectively), whereas pCANvas strongly diminished the intra-aneurysmal flow (R=0.41, p=5×10(-12)). Waffle cone deployment of stents and technique-specific devices had no undesirable effect on the intra-aneurysmal flow. In particular, no increased flow was redirected into the aneurysm sac. The intraluminal membrane of the pCANvas strongly reduced the intra-aneurysmal flow, potentially preventing recanalization problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. National treatment practices in the management of infectious intracranial aneurysms and infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Singla, Amit; Fargen, Kyle; Blackburn, Spiros; Neal, Dan; Martin, Tomas D; Hess, Phillip J; Beaver, Thomas M; Klodell, Charles T; Hoh, Brian

    2016-07-01

    There is an absence of widely accepted guidelines for the management of infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) owing to a dearth of high-quality evidence in the literature. To better define the incidence of IIAs, treatment practices, and patient outcomes by performing a Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database query. We queried the NIS database from 2002 to 2011 for all patients with the primary diagnosis of infectious endocarditis (IE), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), or unruptured cerebral aneurysm by ICD-9-CM codes. ICD-9 procedure codes were used to identify patients undergoing neurosurgical or cardiothoracic procedures. The query identified 393 patients with primary diagnosis of IE, SAH or unruptured cerebral aneurysm treated during 2002-2011. The mean age of the patients was 53.5 years; 244 (62%) were male. The majority of patients presented with SAH (361; 91.9%). Only 73 (18.6%) patients underwent neurosurgical coiling or clipping for IIA. Of patients undergoing a neurosurgical procedure, 65 had SAH (constituting only 18% of patients with SAH) and 8 had unruptured aneurysms (constituting only 25% patients with unruptured aneurysms). Cardiac procedures were performed in only 72/393 patients (18.3%) patients. Only 67 (18.6%) of the patients with SAH and 5 (15.6%) with unruptured aneurysms underwent a cardiac corrective surgical procedure. Mortality was significantly higher in those patients managed conservatively (26.7%) than in those who underwent clipping or embolization (15.1%; p<0.001). In this NIS database study, the majority of patients with IIAs were managed non-operatively, regardless of rupture status. Further investigation is warranted to standardize the management of these lesions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: current national trends in patient management and treatment.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Rohit; Patel, Jaymin; Sweeney, J M; Carpenter, Anne Marie; Downes, Katheryne; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2013-03-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms constitute a medical disease process with many unique features that present unique challenges in orchestrating their treatment. Conflicts exist in pediatric aneurysm literature as to whether endovascular therapy is equivalent to surgical therapy in assuring durable aneurysm obliteration in this population. The national Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kid's Inpatient Dataset was queried using the HCUPnet system. Overall trends in length of stay (LOS), associated charges, and in-hospital deaths were analyzed for both subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and nonruptured aneurysms from 2000 to 2009. Trends in the type of procedure, associated LOS, and charges were analyzed for SAH from 2003 to 2009. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean LOS for SAH patients was an additional 7-10 days compared to patients discharged with nonruptured aneurysms. Costs of surgery showed a slight increase, while endovascular procedures also rose 50 % from 2006 to 2009. Interestingly, mean length of stay increased for endovascular procedures from 16.5 to 17.2 days and decreased for surgical procedures from 20.4 to 14.7 days (p < 0.001). First, in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay for pediatric subarachnoid hemorrhage have not significantly declined since 1997. Second, in-hospital charges for the management of both ruptured and nonruptured aneurysms rose by over 200 % from 2000 to 2009. Surgical procedures saw a 6 % increase in price, while endovascular procedures sharply rose in costs by 50 %. Finally, endovascular therapy has increased in utilization, while the frequency of surgical therapy has not changed significantly since 2003.

  2. Association of intracranial aneurysm rupture with smoking duration, intensity, and cessation.

    PubMed

    Can, Anil; Castro, Victor M; Ozdemir, Yildirim H; Dagen, Sarajune; Yu, Sheng; Dligach, Dmitriy; Finan, Sean; Gainer, Vivian; Shadick, Nancy A; Murphy, Shawn; Cai, Tianxi; Savova, Guergana; Dammers, Ruben; Weiss, Scott T; Du, Rose

    2017-09-26

    Although smoking is a known risk factor for intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture, the exact relationship between IA rupture and smoking intensity and duration, as well as duration of smoking cessation, remains unknown. In this case-control study, we analyzed 4,701 patients with 6,411 IAs diagnosed at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 1990 and 2016. We divided individuals into patients with ruptured aneurysms and controls with unruptured aneurysms. We performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to determine the association between smoking status and ruptured IAs at presentation. In a subgroup analysis among former and current smokers, we assessed the association between ruptured aneurysms and number of packs per day, duration of smoking, and duration since smoking cessation. In multivariable analysis, current (odds ratio [OR] 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-2.59) and former smoking status (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.31-1.86) were associated with rupture status at presentation compared with never smokers. In a subgroup analysis among current and former smokers, years smoked (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03) and packs per day (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.25-1.70) were significantly associated with ruptured aneurysms at presentation, whereas duration since cessation among former smokers was not significant (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.02). Current cigarette smoking, smoking intensity, and smoking duration are significantly associated with ruptured IAs at presentation. However, the significantly increased risk persists after smoking cessation, and smoking cessation does not confer a reduced risk of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage beyond that of reducing the cumulative dose. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents. PMID:25754367

  4. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anderson Chun On; Lai, Simon Sui Man; Chung, Wai Choi; Tang, Abraham Yik Sau; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Poon, Alexander Kai Kei; Yu, Alfred Cheuk Hang; Chow, Kwok Wing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.

  5. Single Phase Dual-energy CT Angiography: One-stop-shop Tool for Evaluating Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qian Qian; Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhao, Yan E; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Chen, Guo Zhong; Lu, Guang Ming; Zhang, Long Jiang

    2016-05-25

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages have extremely high case fatality in clinic. Early and rapid identifications of ruptured intracranial aneurysms seem to be especially important. Here we evaluate clinical value of single phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT angiograph (DE-CTA) as a one-stop-shop tool in detecting aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. One hundred and five patients who underwent true non-enhanced CT (TNCT), contrast-enhanced DE-CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were included. Image quality and detectability of intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and compared between virtual non-enhanced CT (VNCT) images reconstructed from DE-CTA and TNCT. There was no statistical difference in image quality (P > 0.05) between VNCT and TNCT. The agreement of VNCT and TNCT in detecting intracranial hemorrhage reached 98.1% on a per-patient basis. With DSA as reference standard, sensitivity and specificity on a per-patient were 98.3% and 97.9% for DE-CTA in intracranial aneurysm detection. Effective dose of DE-CTA was reduced by 75.0% compared to conventional digital subtraction CTA. Thus, single phase contrast-enhanced DE-CTA is optimal reliable one-stop-shop tool for detecting intracranial hemorrhage with VNCT and intracranial aneurysms with DE-CTA with substantial radiation dose reduction compared with conventional digital subtraction CTA.

  6. Results of surgical treatment of intrasylvian hematomas due to ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Başkaya, M K; Menendez, J A; Yüceer, N; Polin, R S; Nanda, A

    2001-04-01

    In this retrospective study, the surgical outcome of patients with intrasylvian hematomas due to rupture of intracranial aneurysms was analyzed. The authors studied ten patients who underwent aneurysm surgery and evacuation of the hematoma within 12 h of the onset of bleeding. All patients had an intrasylvian hematoma classified with computerized tomography and all patients underwent pre-operative angiography. In all patients, the origin of bleeding was a middle cerebral artery aneurysm, with the exception of one patient whose bleeding originated from a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Three patients achieved good recovery without any significant neurological deficit and four achieved good recovery with moderate disabilities. One patient died due to pneumonia and two were in a vegetative state. Notably, three patients who were comatose (Hunt and Hess Grade V) at the time of presentation achieved good recovery following surgery. In this study, neurological status at presentation did not predict the outcome. The only significant prognostic factor in those patients who had intrasylvian hematoma was early surgery within 12 h of the bleeding. We suggest that early surgical treatment be performed in patients with intrasylvian hematoma, regardless of the neurological findings and grade on admission. Pre-operative angiography seems to be essential in identifying the source of bleeding.

  7. Fluid-Structure Simulations of a Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: Constant versus Patient-Specific Wall Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, T.; Beuing, O.; Jachau, K.; Thévenin, D.; Janiga, G.; Berg, P.

    2016-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is intensively used to deepen the understanding of aneurysm growth and rupture in order to support physicians during therapy planning. However, numerous studies considering only the hemodynamics within the vessel lumen found no satisfactory criteria for rupture risk assessment. To improve available simulation models, the rigid vessel wall assumption has been discarded in this work and patient-specific wall thickness is considered within the simulation. For this purpose, a ruptured intracranial aneurysm was prepared ex vivo, followed by the acquisition of local wall thickness using μCT. The segmented inner and outer vessel surfaces served as solid domain for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation. To compare wall stress distributions within the aneurysm wall and at the rupture site, FSI computations are repeated in a virtual model using a constant wall thickness approach. Although the wall stresses obtained by the two approaches—when averaged over the complete aneurysm sac—are in very good agreement, strong differences occur in their distribution. Accounting for the real wall thickness distribution, the rupture site exhibits much higher stress values compared to the configuration with constant wall thickness. The study reveals the importance of geometry reconstruction and accurate description of wall thickness in FSI simulations. PMID:27721898

  8. Numerical modeling of the flow in intracranial aneurysms: prediction of regions prone to thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Rayz, V L; Boussel, L; Lawton, M T; Acevedo-Bolton, G; Ge, L; Young, W L; Higashida, R T; Saloner, D

    2008-11-01

    The deposition of intralumenal thrombus in intracranial aneurysms adds a risk of thrombo-embolism over and above that posed by mass effect and rupture. In addition to biochemical factors, hemodynamic factors that are governed by lumenal geometry and blood flow rates likely play an important role in the thrombus formation and deposition process. In this study, patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of blood flow were constructed from MRA data for three patients who had fusiform basilar aneurysms that were thrombus free and then proceeded to develop intralumenal thrombus. In order to determine whether features of the flow fields could suggest which regions had an elevated potential for thrombus deposition, the flow was modeled in the baseline, thrombus-free geometries. Pulsatile flow simulations were carried out using patient-specific inlet flow conditions measured with MR velocimetry. Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood behavior was considered. A strong similarity was found between the intra-aneurysmal regions with CFD-predicted slow, recirculating flows and the regions of thrombus deposition observed in vivo in the follow-up MR studies. In two cases with larger aneurysms, the agreement between the low velocity zones and clotted-off regions improved when non-Newtonian blood behavior was taken into account. A similarity was also found between the calculated low shear stress regions and the regions that were later observed to clot.

  9. A hemodynamic-based dimensionless parameter for predicting rupture of intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Varble, Nicole; Meng, Hui; Borazjani, Iman

    2016-11-01

    Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a disease with high rates of mortality. Given the risk associated with the aneurysm surgery, quantifying the likelihood of aneurysm rupture is essential. There are many risk factors that could be implicated in the rupture of an aneurysm. However, the hemodynamic factors are believed to be the most influential ones. Here, we carry out three-dimensional high resolution simulations on human subjects IAs to test a dimensionless number, denoted as An number, to classify the flow mode. An number is defined as the ratio of the time takes the parent artery flow transports through the expansion region to the time required for vortex formation. Furthermore, we investigate the correlation of IA flow mode and WSS/OSI on the human subject IAs. Finally, we test if An number can distinguish ruptured from unruptured IAs on a database containing 204 human subjects IAs. This work was supported by National Institute Of Health (NIH) Grant R03EB014860 and the Center of Computational Research (CCR) of University at Buffalo.

  10. Fluid-Structure Simulations of a Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm: Constant versus Patient-Specific Wall Thickness.

    PubMed

    Voß, S; Glaßer, S; Hoffmann, T; Beuing, O; Weigand, S; Jachau, K; Preim, B; Thévenin, D; Janiga, G; Berg, P

    2016-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is intensively used to deepen the understanding of aneurysm growth and rupture in order to support physicians during therapy planning. However, numerous studies considering only the hemodynamics within the vessel lumen found no satisfactory criteria for rupture risk assessment. To improve available simulation models, the rigid vessel wall assumption has been discarded in this work and patient-specific wall thickness is considered within the simulation. For this purpose, a ruptured intracranial aneurysm was prepared ex vivo, followed by the acquisition of local wall thickness using μCT. The segmented inner and outer vessel surfaces served as solid domain for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation. To compare wall stress distributions within the aneurysm wall and at the rupture site, FSI computations are repeated in a virtual model using a constant wall thickness approach. Although the wall stresses obtained by the two approaches-when averaged over the complete aneurysm sac-are in very good agreement, strong differences occur in their distribution. Accounting for the real wall thickness distribution, the rupture site exhibits much higher stress values compared to the configuration with constant wall thickness. The study reveals the importance of geometry reconstruction and accurate description of wall thickness in FSI simulations.

  11. Measurement of flow diverter hydraulic resistance to model flow modification in and around intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ugron, Adám; Szikora, István; Paál, György

    2014-06-01

    Flow diverters (FDs) have been successfully applied in the recent decade to the treatment of intracranial aneurysms by impairing the communication between the flows in the parent artery and the aneurysm and, thus, the blood within the aneurysm sac. It would be desirable to have a simple and accurate computational method to follow the changes in the peri- and intraaneurysmal flow caused by the presence of FDs. The detailed flow simulation around the intricate wire structure of the FDs has three disadvantages: need for high amount of computational resources and highly skilled professionals to prepare the computational grid, and also the lack of validation that makes the invested effort questionable. In this paper, we propose a porous layer method to model the hydraulic resistance (HR) of one or several layers of the FDs. The basis of this proposal is twofold: first, from an application point of view, the only interesting parameter regarding the function of the FD is its HR; second, we have developed a method to measure the HR with a simple apparatus. We present the results of these measurements and demonstrate their utility in numerical simulations of patient-specific aneurysm simulations.

  12. Measurement of flow diverter hydraulic resistance to model flow modification in and around intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Szikora, István; Paál, György

    2014-01-01

    Flow diverters (FDs) have been successfully applied in the recent decade to the treatment of intracranial aneurysms by impairing the communication between the flows in the parent artery and the aneurysm and, thus, the blood within the aneurysm sac. It would be desirable to have a simple and accurate computational method to follow the changes in the peri- and intraaneurysmal flow caused by the presence of FDs. The detailed flow simulation around the intricate wire structure of the FDs has three disadvantages: need for high amount of computational resources and highly skilled professionals to prepare the computational grid, and also the lack of validation that makes the invested effort questionable. In this paper, we propose a porous layer method to model the hydraulic resistance (HR) of one or several layers of the FDs. The basis of this proposal is twofold: first, from an application point of view, the only interesting parameter regarding the function of the FD is its HR; second, we have developed a method to measure the HR with a simple apparatus. We present the results of these measurements and demonstrate their utility in numerical simulations of patient-specific aneurysm simulations. PMID:24936307

  13. Intrasaccular flow-diversion for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: the Woven EndoBridge.

    PubMed

    Mine, Benjamin; Pierot, Laurent; Lubicz, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Endovascular approach is now the first option for the treatment of most intracranial aneurysms (IA). However, remaining limitations are the suboptimal stability of aneurysm occlusion and the treatment of complex IA. The use of conventional and flow diverter stents has partially addressed these limitations. Nevertheless, as intraluminal devices, stents require aggressive antiplatelet therapy and are associated with higher thromboembolic (TE) complication rates. Intrasaccular flow disrupters (IFD) are newly developed braided-wire devices designed to achieve flow disruption at the neck without placing material in the parent vessel and without the need of antiplatelet therapy. First clinical series have shown promising anatomical and clinical results. Our purpose is to describe the available IFD and to review the literature about their efficacy, safety, limitations, and developments.

  14. Intraoperative mild hypothermia for postoperative neurological deficits in people with intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Li, Luying Ryan; You, Chao; Chaudhary, Bhuwan

    2016-03-22

    Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm causes aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, which is one of the most devastating clinical conditions. It can be classified into five Grades using the Hunt-Hess or World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) scale. Grades 4 and 5 predict poor prognosis and are known as 'poor grade', while grade 1, 2, and 3 are known as 'good grade'. Disturbances of intracranial homeostasis and brain metabolism are known to play certain roles in the sequelae. Hypothermia has a long history of being used to reduce metabolic rate, thereby protecting organs where metabolism is disturbed, and may potentially cause harm. To assess the effect of intraoperative mild hypothermia on postoperative death and neurological deficits in people with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We updated the search in the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 8), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; December 2015), MEDLINE (1950 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), Science Citation Index (1900 to September 2015), and 11 Chinese databases (September 2015). We also searched ongoing trials registers (September 2015) and scanned reference lists of retrieved records. We included only randomised controlled trials that compared intraoperative mild hypothermia (32°C to 35°C) with control (no hypothermia) in people with ruptured or unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Two review authors independently selected trials and assessed the risk of bias for each included study. We presented data as risk ratio (RR) and risk difference (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included three studies, enrolling 1158 participants. Each study reported an increased rate of recovery with intraoperative mild hypothermia, but the effect sizes were not sufficient for certainty. A total of 1086 of the 1158 participants (93.8%) had good grade aneurysmal

  15. Sequencing of TGF-β pathway genes in familial cases of intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Sim, Teresa; Mathew-Joseph, Sumy; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, J.G.; Kim, Dong H.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Familial aggregation of intracranial aneurysms (IA) strongly suggests a genetic contribution to pathogenesis. However, genetic risk factors have yet to be defined. For families affected by aortic aneurysms, specific gene variants have been identified, many affecting the receptors to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). In recent work, we found that aortic and intracranial aneurysms may share a common genetic basis in some families. We hypothesized, therefore, that mutations in TGF-β receptors might also play a role in IA pathogenesis. Methods To identify genetic variants in TGF-β and its receptors, TGFB1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACVR1, TGFBR3 and ENG were directly sequenced in 44 unrelated patients with familial IA. Novel variants were confirmed by restriction digestion analyses, and allele frequencies were analyzed in cases versus individuals without known intracranial disease. Similarly, allele frequencies of a subset of known SNPs in each gene were also analyzed for association with IA. Results No mutations were found in TGFB1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2 or ACVR1. Novel variants identified in ENG (p.A60E) and TGFBR3 (p.W112R) were not detected in at least 892 reference chromosomes. ENG p.A60E showed significant association with familial IA in case-control studies (P = 0.0080). No association with IA could be found for any of the known polymorphisms tested. Conclusions Mutations in TGF-β receptor genes are not a major cause of IA. However, we identified rare variants in ENG and TGFBR3 that may be important for IA pathogenesis in a subset of families. PMID:19299629

  16. Flow-related intracranial aneurysms associated with unfused arterial twigs relevant to different vascular anomalies: embryologic and hemodynamic considerations.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee Sup; Lee, Seung Hwan; Ryu, Chang-Woo; Koh, Jun Seok

    2014-09-01

    Cerebrovascular anomalies resulting from the persistence of unfused embryonic twig-like vessels are associated with intracranial aneurysms. All records of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms who were treated at our institution were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of aneurysm-associated, unfused, twig-like vessels in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Such vessels were recorded as twig-like MCA (T-MCA) or twig-like networks of an anomalous collateral artery (T-NACA). Additionally, we sought to characterize vulnerable intracranial aneurysms associated with those vascular anomalies. A total of 442 ruptured aneurysms were treated from June 2006 to November 2013; of these, 4 ruptured aneurysms exhibited the presence of ipsilateral, unfused, twig-like vessels. Computed tomography (CT) scans, three-dimensional CT angiography, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed immediately after the initial ictus. Data analysis included age, sex, Hunt and Hess grade (HHG), Fisher grade (FG), medical risk factors, angiographic architecture, operative methods and findings, radiologic outcomes, and Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). The average follow-up period was 26 months. Patient ages ranged from 26 to 49 years with a mean age of 41; there were two females and two males. All four patients showed FG IV, and three patients had unfavorable HHG (IV in 2 and V in one) at admission. An M1 segmental occlusion and an adjacent small aneurysmal pouch were detected with three-dimensional CT angiography in three patients. Hypertension was recorded in all patients. The initial DSA revealed T-MCA in one patient and T-NACA in three patients. Six aneurysms in all, including two unruptured aneurysms, were found; three ruptured aneurysms existed inside of the twigs. All but one patient required diverse treatment modalities, and four of the five aneurysms were completely occluded after treatment. The remaining aneurysm, treated only with gluing, disappeared during follow

  17. Late-onset Pompe disease with complicated intracranial aneurysm: a Chinese case report

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yuying; Liu, Junling; Li, Ling; Shan, Jingli; Zhao, Dandan; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2016-01-01

    Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease caused by genetic defects of acid maltase. This disease could be divided into two forms: infantile and late-onset, which mainly affect cardiac, respiratory, and skeletal muscle systems. Late-onset patients mainly show symptoms of skeletal muscle involvement, but recent reports have found that the central nervous system was also affected in some patients. Herein, we report a case of a female, adolescent-onset Pompe patient, who was diagnosed with complicated intracranial aneurysm in adulthood. PMID:27099502

  18. Mechanical design of an intracranial stent for treating cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Shobayashi, Yasuhiro; Tanoue, Tetsuya; Tateshima, Satoshi; Tanishita, Kazuo

    2010-11-01

    Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms using stents has advanced markedly in recent years. Mechanically, a cerebrovascular stent must be very flexible longitudinally and have low radial stiffness. However, no study has examined the stress distribution and deformation of cerebrovascular stents using the finite element method (FEM) and experiments. Stents can have open- and closed-cell structures, and open-cell stents are used clinically in the cerebrovasculature because of their high flexibility. However, the open-cell structure confers a risk of in-stent stenosis due to protrusion of stent struts into the normal parent artery. Therefore, a flexible stent with a closed-cell structure is required. To design a clinically useful, highly flexible, closed-cell stent, one must examine the mechanical properties of the closed-cell structure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between mesh patterns and the mechanical properties of closed-cell stents. Several mesh patterns were designed and their characteristics were studied using numerical simulation. The results showed that the bending stiffness of a closed-cell stent depends on the geometric configuration of the stent cell. It decreases when the stent cell is stretched in the circumferential direction. Mechanical flexibility equal to an open-cell structure was obtained in a closed-cell structure by varying the geometric configuration of the stent cell.

  19. Endovascular Embolization of Intracranial Infectious Aneurysms in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery Using n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Cheng-Ching, Esteban; John, Seby; Bain, Mark; Toth, Gabor; Masaryk, Thomas; Hui, Ferdinand; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mycotic aneurysms are a serious complication of infective endocarditis with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients undergoing open heart surgery for valve repair or replacement are exposed to anticoagulants, increasing the risk of aneurysm bleeding. These patients may require endovascular or surgical aneurysm treatment prior to heart surgery, but data on this approach are scarce. Methods Retrospective review of consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms treated endovascularly with Trufill n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) at the Cleveland Clinic between January 2013 and December 2015. Results Nine patients underwent endovascular treatment of mycotic aneurysms with n-BCA (mean age of 39 years). On imaging, 4 patients had intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 had multiple embolic infarcts, and the rest had no imaging findings. Twelve mycotic aneurysms were detected (3 patients with 2 aneurysms). Seven aneurysms were in the M4 middle cerebral artery segment, 4 in the posterior cerebral artery distribution, and 1 in the callosomarginal branch. n-BCA was diluted in ethiodized oil (1:1 to 1:2). Embolization was achieved in a single rapid injection with immediate microcatheter removal. Complete aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases without complications. All patients underwent open heart surgery and endovascular embolization within a short interval, 2 with both procedures on the same day. There were no new hemorrhages after aneurysm embolization. Conclusions Endovascular embolization of infectious intracranial aneurysms with liquid embolics can be performed successfully in critically ill patients requiring immediate open heart surgery and anticoagulation. Early embolization prior to and within a short interval from open heart surgery is feasible. PMID:28611838

  20. Can we evaluate cranial aneurysms on conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging?

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Emine; Pekcevik, Yeliz; Kaya, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the determination of intracranial aneurysms. Brain MRI and computed tomography angiography (CTA) of 45 patients (29 women and 16 men; age range, 32-80 years) with aneurysm were analyzed. A comparison was made between brain MRI and CTA based on size and presence of aneurysm. The comparisons between MRI and CTA were investigated through Bland-Altman graphics, receiver operating characteristic curve, and Kappa statistics. Fifty-seven aneurysms were evaluated. Forty-five percent of 57 aneurysms on CTA were detected on conventional brain MRI. A significant correlation was found between CTA and brain MRI in the diagnosis of aneurysm (P < 0.05). In an analysis of the size measurement, a significant correlation was observed between CTA and brain MRI. Seventy-seven percent of aneurysms <4 mm was not detected and the efficiency of MRI in the detection of aneurysms <4 mm was found to be low. Aneurysms can also be appreciated on conventional brain MRI, and vascular structures should be reviewed carefully while analyzing brain MRI.

  1. Whole-brain CT perfusion combined with CT angiography for ischemic complications following microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling of ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Qing; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Li, Jian Rui; Zhang, Zong Jun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Huang, Wei; Lu, Guang Ming

    2016-04-01

    Ischemic complications associated with microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling affects the outcome of patients with intracranial aneurysms. We prospectively evaluated 58 intracranial aneurysm patients who had neurological deterioration or presented with poor grade (Hunt-Hess grades III and IV), aneurysm size >13 mm and multiple aneurysms after clipping or coiling. Thirty patients had ischemic complications (52%) as demonstrated by whole-brain CT perfusion (WB-CTP) combined with CT angiography (CTA). Half of these 30 patients had treatment-associated reduction in the diameter of the parent vessels (n=6), ligation of the parent vessels or perforating arteries (n=2), and unexplained or indistinguishable vascular injury (n=7); seven of these 15 (73%) patients suffered infarction. The remaining 15 patients had disease-associated cerebral ischemia caused by generalized vasospasm (n=6) and focal vessel vasospasm (n=9); six of these 15 (40%) patients developed infarction. Three hemodynamic patterns of ischemic complications were found on WB-CTP, of which increased time to peak, time to delay and mean transit time associated with decreased cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume were the main predictors of irreversible ischemic lesions. In conclusion, WB-CTP combined with CTA can accurately determine the cause of neurological deterioration and classify ischemic complications. This combined approach may be helpful in assessing hemodynamic patterns and monitoring operative outcomes.

  2. Intracranial-to-intracranial vascular anastomosis created using a microanastomotic device for the treatment of distal middle cerebral artery aneurysms. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Newell, David W; Schuster, James M; Avellino, Anthony M

    2002-08-01

    The use of a microanastomotic device for direct connection of intracranial vessels can be helpful to facilitate removal of distally located middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. The authors report on two patients who presented for treatment with large aneurysms distally located on the MCA. The aneurysms were completely excised and the proximal and distal portions of the parent vessel were connected in an end-to-end fashion by using a microanastomotic device. The time required to crossclamp the vessel for excision of the aneurysm and primary anastomosis was 10 minutes in one case and 15 minutes in the other. The short crossclamp time and high-quality anastomosis afforded by this device may be useful in the treatment of these difficult lesions and the prevention of cerebral ischemia.

  3. Correlation between Hemodynamics and Treatment Outcome of Intracranial Aneurysms after Intervention with Flow Diverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Damiano, Robert; Davies, Jason; Siddiqui, Adnan; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Endovascular intervention by Flow Diverter (FD) - a densely woven stent - occludes an aneurysm by inducing thrombosis in the aneurysm sac and reconstructing the vessel. Hemodynamics plays a vital role in the thrombotic occlusion of aneurysms and eventual treatment outcome. CFD analysis of pre- and post-treatment aneurysms not only provides insight of flow modifications by FD, but also allows investigation of interventional strategies and prediction of their outcome. In this study 80 patient-specific aneurysms treated with FDs were retrospectively studied to evaluate the effect of intervention. Out of these cases, 16 required retreatment and thus are considered as having unfavorable outcome. Clinical FD deployment in these cases was simulated using an efficient virtual stenting workflow. CFD analysis was carried out on both pre- and post-treatment cases, and changes in hemodynamic parameters were calculated. Support vector machine algorithm was used to correlate the hemodynamic changes with outcome. Results show that cases having higher flow reduction into the aneurysmal sac have a better likelihood of occlusion. This suggests that changes in hemodynamics can be potentially used to predict the outcome of different clinical intervention strategies in aneurysms. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R01 NS091075).

  4. [Intracranial aneurysm revealed by panhypopituitarism. Considerations on therapeutic management based on a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Métellus, Ph; Dicostanzo, V; Manera, L; Fuentes, S; Dufour, H; Grisoli, F

    2003-12-01

    We report a case of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm in paraclinoidal location which was a unmasked by severe panhypopituitarism. An ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) clamp test was performed in the pretreatment stage. The test was well tolerated and the aneurysm could be embolized with GDC (Guglielmi detachable coils) without necessitating an occlusion of the ICA. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged after 48 hours. At one year, cerebral angiograms confirmed complete obliteration of the aneurysm. Therapeutic management of this rare entity is discussed along with a careful and exhaustive review of the literature.

  5. Traumatic dissecting aneurysm at the vertebrobasilar junction in a 3-month-old infant: evaluation and treatment strategies. Case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Orbach, Darren B

    2008-05-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in young infants are extremely rare, with few published reports on the etiology, evaluation, treatment strategies, and follow-up of this condition in this population. The authors report the case of a traumatic dissecting aneurysm at the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) in a 3-month-old infant caused by nonaccidental trauma. Therapeutic occlusion of the VBJ was contemplated, but coil embolization of the main aneurysm sac proved feasible, and anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents were initiated. The patient made a full neurological recovery, and follow-up studies demonstrated stable aneurysm occlusion. Management and follow-up strategies for this challenging condition are discussed.

  6. Utilization of Pipeline embolization device for treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: US multicenter experience.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ning; Brouillard, Adam M; Keigher, Kiffon M; Lopes, Demetrius K; Binning, Mandy J; Liebman, Kenneth M; Veznedaroglu, Erol; Magarik, Jordan A; Mocco, J; Duckworth, Edward A; Arthur, Adam S; Ringer, Andrew J; Snyder, Kenneth V; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2015-11-01

    Utilization of the Pipeline embolization device (PED) in complex ruptured aneurysms has not been well studied. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness data from five participating US centers. Records of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms who underwent PED treatment between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. 26 patients with ruptured aneurysms underwent PED treatment (mean age 51.4 ± 13.2 years;16 women). At presentation, 8 patients (30.8%) had a Hunt-Hess grade of IV or above; 11 required extraventricular drain placement. Aneurysm morphologies were: 8 dissecting, 8 blister-like, 6 fusiform, and 4 saccular. There were 22 anterior circulation and 4 posterior circulation aneurysms. PED deployment was successful in all patients, with adjunctive coiling utilized in 12. Periprocedural complications occurred in 5 (19.2%), including 3 inhospital deaths. 23 patients (88.5%) had postoperative angiography at a mean of 5.9 months: 18 aneurysms (78.3%) were completely occluded, 3 (13.0%) had residual neck filling, and 2 (8.7%) had residual dome filling. All blister-type aneurysms were completely occluded at follow-up. Clinical follow-up was available for an average of 10.1 months (range 2-21 months), with one asymptomatic in-stent stenosis and one asymptomatic thromboembolic stroke noted. Good outcome (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2) was achieved in 20 patients (76.9%), fair (mRS 3-4) in 3 (11.5%), and 3 died (11.5%). The PED can be utilized for ruptured aneurysms and is a good option for blister-type aneurysms. However, due to periprocedural complications, it should be reserved for lesions that are difficult to treat by conventional clipping or coiling. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Contrast-Enhanced and Time-of-Flight MR Angiographic Assessment of Endovascular Coiled Intracranial Aneurysms at 1.5 T

    PubMed Central

    Levent, Akin; Yuce, Ihsan; Eren, Suat; Ozyigit, Omer; Kantarci, Mecit

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study evaluated contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) through comparisons with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the follow-up of intracranial aneurysms treated with detachable coils. Sixty-seven patients with 79 aneurysms underwent 3D-TOF-MRA, CE-MRA, and catheter angiography one year after coiling. Two independent observers classified recanalization status on images as neck or body remnant or no recanalization. For 3D-TOF-MRA and CE-MRA, the intermodality agreement, interobserver agreement, and correlation with angiography were assessed. Sixty-seven patients with 79 coiled aneurysms agreed to participate in the study. Three aneurysms could not be detected on 3D-TOF-MRA, so they were excluded from this study. Interobserver agreement was very good for 3D-TOF-MRA and CE-MRA (kappa (κ): 0.87, 0.94, respectively). Correlation of TOF-MRA with angiography was good (κ: 0.76). Correlation of CE-MRA with angiography was excellent (κ: 0.91). The sensitivity and specificity of TOF-MRA were 92% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of CE-MRA were 96% and 98%, respectively. After selective embolization of intracranial aneurysms, CE-MRA is useful and comparable to DSA in the assessment of aneurysmal recanalization. Agreement with the gold standard is stronger with CE-MRA than with 3D-TOF-MRA. PMID:25496678

  8. Association of Versican (VCAN) gene polymorphisms rs251124 and rs2287926 (G428D), with intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda V.; Balan, Shabeesh; Easwer, H.V.; Premkumar, S.; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Alapatt, Jacob P.; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85% of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) and is mainly caused due to the weakening of arterial wall. The structural integrity of the intracranial arteries is mainly influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The Proteoglycan Versican plays an important role in extracellular matrix assembly and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of IA. The linkage studies also indicated VCAN as a putative candidate gene for IA in the 5q22–31 region. Using a case–control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in VCAN gene, nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of Glycosaminoglycan α (GAG-α) and GAG-β and two reported SNPs involved in splicing rs251124 and rs173686 can increase the risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 250 ethnically, age and sex matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. The present study reiterated the earlier association of rs251124 with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0002) and also found a novel association with rs2287926 (G428D) in exon 7 coding for GAG-α with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0015). Interestingly, both these SNPs contributed to higher risk for aneurysm in males. In-silico analysis predicted this SNP to have the highest functional relevance in the gene which might have a potentially altered regulatory role in transcription and splicing. Using meta-analysis with available literature rs251124 was found to be the strongest intracranial aneurysm marker for global ethnicities. This study with a novel functional SNP rs2287926 (G428D) further substantiates the potential role of VCAN in the pathogenesis of IA. PMID:25606449

  9. The effect of Neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms and clinical factors on progressive aneurysm occlusion on angiographic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gu, Da-Qun; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Bin; Long, Xiao-Ao; Duan, Chuan-Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Stent-assisted coil embolization is an endovascular treatment for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms, but the durability of this treatment is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the Neuroform stent (Boston Scientific/Target, Fremont, CA, USA) in progressive occlusion of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms, and to assess any correlation between clinical factors and angiographic follow-up results. The records of 52 patients treated with a Neuroform stent were retrieved for analysis of population characteristics, initial and follow-up angiographic results, and clinical outcomes. Initial angiographic results showed complete occlusion in 21 (40.4%), neck remnants in 22 (42.3%), and residual aneurysms in nine (17.3%). Angiographic follow-up was available in 45 of 52 (86.5%) patients: complete occlusion was achieved in 32 (71.1%), neck remnants were present in eight (17.8%) and residual aneurysms in five (11.1%). Of 31 patients with immediate incomplete obliteration, progressive complete occlusion was achieved in 16 of 28 (57.1%) patients. Clinical follow-up showed good outcomes according to the modified Rankin Scale score. A univariate analysis showed that there was no effect of the tested clinical variables of patient age (p=0.823), gender (p=0.419), aneurysm location (p=0.394), size (p=0.625) and rupture status (p=0.721) on aneurysm occlusion at follow-up. We conclude that the Neuroform stent-assisted neck remodelling technique improves progressive occlusion of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with good clinical outcomes.

  10. Association Between Three eNOS Polymorphisms and Intracranial Aneurysms Risk

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Qi, Zhen-yu; Shao, Chuan; Xing, Wei-kang; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the catalyst of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Polymorphisms in the eNOS gene may influence the risk of intracranial aneurysm (IA), but the results of existing researches are still inconsistent. Thus, we performed the present meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation between eNOS polymorphisms (T786C, G894T, 27-bp-variable number of tandem repeat [VNTR]) and IA risk. Case–control studies evaluating the association between the eNOS polymorphisms and IA risk were searched in PubMed, Ovid & Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese Wanfang datasets with the last search up to July 15, 2014. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between eNOS polymorphisms and IA and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the random or fixed-effects model. Finally, 10 studies for T786C polymorphism (1819 cases and 1893 controls), 9 studies for G894T polymorphism (1393 cases and 1508 controls), and 7 studies for 27-bp-VNTR polymorphism (1281 cases and 1406 controls) were included in the meta-analyses. In the overall analysis, no evidence of association between eNOS polymorphisms and susceptibility of IA was found. When subgrouped by race descent, significantly increased risk was detected among Asians for T786C polymorphism (heterozygous comparison of codominant model: OR = 1.294, 95% CI = 1.025–1.634; dominant model: OR = 1.277, 95% CI = 1.019–1.600), but not in Caucasians or the other 2 polymorphisms. Our meta-analysis suggested that T786C polymorphism was associated with increased risk of IA among Asians, whereas G894T and 27-bp-VNTR polymorphisms might have no influence on the susceptibility of IA. PMID:25634184

  11. Relationship between intracranial aneurysms and the severity of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Higashihara, Eiji; Maruyama, Keisuke; Nutahara, Kikuo; Nitatori, Toshiaki; Miyazaki, Isao; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2017-09-07

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a hereditary kidney disease characterized by the progressive enlargement of innumerable renal cysts. Although the association of intracranial aneurysms (ICANs) with ADPKD is well known, the relationship between the ICAN and the disease severity including total kidney volume (TKV) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is poorly understood. We screened 265 patients with ADPKD (mean age, 48.8 years; range, 14.9-88.3 years) with MR angiography. The patients with a past history related to ICANs were excluded from the study. The incidence and characteristics of ICAN in patients with ADPKD were evaluated. TKV was measured by volumetric analyses of MR imaging. We detected 65 ICANs in 49 patients (37 women and 12 men, mean age, 52.7 years; range, 20.4-86 years). The incidence of ICANs was 18.5% and female patients had was higher incidence (23.1%) than male patients (11.4%) (p = 0.02). An age of those with ICANs was significantly higher than those without (p = 0.006), and the cumulative risk of diagnosis of ICANs increased with age. TKV was significantly larger in those with ICANs than those without (p = 0.001), but eGFR was not different between two groups (p = 0.07). By multivariate analyses, only TKV was significantly related to the development of ICANs (p = 0.02). The incidence of ICANs increased with age, was higher in females, and correlated with kidney enlargement in patients with ADPKD. Necessity of screening ICANs would be particularly high in elderly women with large kidneys.

  12. Imaging of intracranial aneurysm by three-dimensional contrast enhanced duplex sonography-two case reports.

    PubMed

    Delcker; Turowski

    1997-12-01

    We report two cases of intracranial aneurysms to give an impression of the use of three-dimensional (3-D) transcranial duplex sonography in combination with the application of a transpulmonary stable contrast agent. Data acquisition was performed with a free-hand scanning of the transducer (2 MHz) and a prototype of a new magnetic sensor system to track the spatial orientation of the ultrasound probe while scanning the volume of interest. The 3-D data were stored and afterwards 3-D reconstructions performed. Three-dimensional transcranial color duplex system with power Doppler mode showed an exact spatial orientation of the intracranial arteries. The three-dimensional system lets the reader retrospectively choose the section plane through the 3-D data set, and the reconstructions through the data set allowed us to localize aneurysms in both cases. The increased freedom of movement of the transducer allows the sonographer to maintain transducer contact with the skin, while offering the freedom to move the transducer as needed to remain on the acoustic window. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  13. Safety and efficacy of the Pipeline embolization device for treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a pooled analysis of 3 large studies.

    PubMed

    Kallmes, David F; Brinjikji, Waleed; Cekirge, Saruhan; Fiorella, David; Hanel, Ricardo A; Jabbour, Pascal; Lopes, Demetrius; Lylyk, Pedro; McDougall, Cameron G; Siddiqui, Adnan

    2016-10-28

    OBJECTIVE The authors performed a pooled analysis of 3 studies-IntrePED (International Retrospective Study of the Pipeline Embolization Device), PUFS (Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms Study), and ASPIRe (Aneurysm Study of Pipeline in an Observational Registry)-in order to assess angiographic outcomes and clinical safety of the Pipeline embolization device (PED). METHODS IntrePED was a retrospective study, while PUFS and ASPIRe were prospective studies. For each patient included in these studies, the authors collected baseline demographic data, aneurysm characteristics, and procedural details. The primary outcomes for this combined analysis were clinical outcomes, including neurological morbidity and mortality and major ipsilateral intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. The secondary outcomes were angiographic occlusion rates, which were available for ASPIRe and PUFS only. RESULTS A total of 1092 patients with 1221 aneurysms were included across the 3 studies. The mean aneurysm size was 12.0 ± 7.8 mm and the mean neck size was 6.6 ± 4.8 mm. The major ipsilateral ischemic stroke rate was 3.7% (40/1091). The major ipsilateral intracranial hemorrhage rate was 2.0% (22/1091). The major neurological morbidity rate was 5.7% (62/1091). The neurological mortality rate was 3.3% (36/1091). The combined major morbidity and neurological mortality rate was 7.1% (78/1091). The complete occlusion rates were 75.0% at 180 days (111/148) and 85.5% at 1 year (94/110). The overall aneurysm retreatment rate was 3.0% (33/1091) at a mean follow-up time of 10.2 ± 10.8 months. CONCLUSIONS Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with the PED is safe and effective. Angiographic occlusion rates progressed with follow-up. Rates of stroke, hemorrhage, morbidity and mortality, and retreatment were low, especially given the fact that the aneurysms treated were generally large and wide necked.

  14. The Siesta Habit is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Huibin; Feng, Xin; Zhang, Baorui; Guo, Erkang; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Zenghui; Liu, Peng; Wen, Xiaolong; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Youxiang; Jiang, Chuhan; Wu, Zhongxue; Zhang, Hongbing; Liu, Aihua

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have examined an association between the siesta habit and hypertension, as well as coronary heart disease. However, the relationship between a siesta and the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) has not yet been established. We aimed to investigate the effects of a siesta on the risk of rupture of IAs. We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with IAs at our hospital between January 2016 and December 2016. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify independent risk factors associated with IA rupture. We studied 581 consecutive patients with 514 unruptured and 120 ruptured aneurysms. Univariate analysis demonstrated that hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, location, size, as well as shape and aspect ratio were associated with the risk of rupture of IAs. Multivariate analysis identified hypertension [odds ratio (OR) 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.73], hyperlipidemia (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.72), current cigarette smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day (d) (OR 3.48, 95% CI 1.63-7.47), siesta (siesta time <1 h, OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-0.98 and siesta time ≥1 h, OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19-0.57), location of largest aneurysm on the anterior communicating and internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (PCOM) (anterior communicating artery OR 16.27, 95% CI 7.40-35.79 and PCOM OR 11.21, 95% CI 5.15-24.43), and size of aneurysm ≥7 mm (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.21-3.97) as independent strong risk factors associated with risk of aneurysm rupture. In the present study, we found that a habitual siesta is a new predictive factor to assess the risk of rupture of an IA. We found the siesta habit may reduce the risk of aneurysm rupture. We also found that hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, location, and size of aneurysm were associated with the risk of rupture of IAs.

  15. Genome Screen to Detect Linkage to Common Susceptibility Genes for Intracranial and Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford B.; Foroud, Tatiana; Brown, Robert D.; Connolly, E. Sander; Hornung, Richard W.; Huston, John; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Koller, Daniel L.; Lai, Dongbing; Moomaw, Charles J.; Sauerbeck, Laura; Woo, Daniel; Broderick, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose Risk for both intracranial aneurysms (IAs) and aortic aneurysms (AAs) is thought to be heritable with mounting evidence for genetic predisposition. The concept of shared risk for these conditions is challenged by differences in age of diagnosis and demographic characteristics. We performed a genomewide linkage analysis in multiplex families with both IA and AA from the Familial Intracranial Aneurysm study. Methods Available medical records of subjects who reported IA or abdominal/thoracic AA were reviewed with adjudication as definite/probable, possible, or not a case. To identify genes contributing to the susceptibility for IA and AA, genomewide linkage analysis was performed in the 26 multiplex IA families who had members who also had thoracic or abdominal AA. Individuals (n=91) were defined as affected if they had an IA (definite/probable) or an aortic or thoracic AA (definite/probable). Results Maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were found on chromosomes 11 (144 cM; LOD=3.0) and 6 (33 cM; LOD=2.3). In both chromosomal regions, analyses of these same 26 families considering only IA as the disease phenotype produced LOD scores of 1.8 and 1.6, respectively. Conclusions Our linkage analysis in these 26 families using the broadest disease phenotype, including IA, abdominal AA, and thoracic AA, supports the concept of shared genetic risk. The chromosome 11 locus appears to confirm earlier independent associations in IA and AA. The chromosome 6 finding is novel. Both warrant further investigation. PMID:18948608

  16. In vitro investigation of contrast flow jet timing in patient-specific intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Virendra R.; Britz, Garvin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The direction and magnitude of intra-aneurysmal flow jet are significant risk factors of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the change of flow jet during an endovascular procedure has been used for prediction of aneurysm occlusion or whether an additional flow diverter (FD) is warranted. However, evaluation of flow jets is often unreliable due to a large variation of flow jet on the digital subtraction angiograms, and this flow pattern variation may result in incorrect clinical diagnosis Therefore, factors contributing to the variation in flow jet are examined at an in vitro setting, and the findings can help us to understand the nature of flow jet and devise a better plan to quantify the aneurysmal hemodynamics accurately. Methods Intra-aneurysmal flows in three patient-specific aneurysms between 11 and 25 mm were investigated in vitro, and a FD was deployed in each aneurysm model. X-ray imaging of these models were performed at injection rates between 0.2 and 2 mL/s. Pulsatile blood pump and aneurysm model were imaged together to determine the timing of flow jet. Results The contrast bolus arrives at the aneurysm early at high contrast injection rates. The flow patterns with slow injection rates exhibit strong inertia that is associated with the systole flow. Flow jets arrive at the aneurysms at the peak systole when the bolus is injected at 0.2 mL/s. The contrast-to-signal ratio is the highest at the injection rate of 0.5 mL/s. Effect of flow diversion can only be assessed at an injection rate greater than 0.5 mL/s. Conclusions Intra-aneurysmal flow jet is highly dependent on the injection rate of the contrast agent. For the internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, the systolic flows can be visualized at slow injection rates (<0.5 mL/s), while the diastolic flow jets are visible at higher injection rates (>1 mL/s). Dependence of flow jet on the contrast injection rate has serious clinical implications and needs to be considered during diagnostic procedures

  17. Endovascular treatment of intracranial infectious aneurysms in eloquent cortex with super-selective provocative testing: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Matthew R; Stapleton, Christopher J; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial infectious aneurysms (IIAs) are a rare subgroup of intracranial aneurysms. Often erroneously termed mycotic aneurysms, these lesions most often result from infectious endocarditis and involve the distal anterior cortical circulation. Diagnosis typically follows headaches or septic infarcts, although increasing numbers of lesions are found incidentally, during screening protocols for infectious endocarditis. Open surgical treatment was previously the mainstay of treatment; however, these IIAs are often fusiform and quite fragile, making open surgical obliteration difficult and typically requiring lesion trapping. Current treatment techniques more commonly involve endovascular coil embolization or parent vessel occlusion. Many of these lesions occur distally, in or around the eloquent cortex, making embolization potentially dangerous. We present cases that highlight the use of super-selective provocative testing with sodium amobarbital and lidocaine, to help clarify and predict the risk of parent vessel occlusion in IIAs located in the eloquent cortex.

  18. Prognosis of patients in coma after acute subdural hematoma due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Torné, Ramon; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Romero-Chala, Fabián; Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Acute subdural hematomas (aSDH) secondary to intracranial aneurysm rupture are rare. Most patients present with coma and their functional prognosis has been classically considered to be very poor. Previous studies mixed good-grade and poor-grade patients and reported variable outcomes. We reviewed our experience by focusing on patients in coma only and hypothesized that aSDH might worsen initial mortality but not long-term functional outcome. Between 2005 and 2013, 440 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients were admitted to our center. Nineteen (4.3%) were found to have an associated aSDH and 13 (2.9%) of these presented with coma. Their prospectively collected clinical and outcome data were reviewed and compared with that of 104 SAH patients without aSDH who presented with coma during the same period. Median aSDH thickness was 10mm. Four patients presented with an associated aneurysmal cortical laceration and only one had good recovery. Overall, we observed good long-term outcomes in both SAH patients in coma with aSDH and those without aSDH (38.5% versus 26.4%). Associated aSDH does not appear to indicate a poorer long-term functional prognosis in SAH patients presenting with coma. Anisocoria and brain herniation are observed in patients with aSDH thicknesses that are smaller than those observed in trauma patients. Despite a high initial mortality, early surgery to remove the aSDH results in a good outcome in over 60% of survivors. Aneurysmal cortical laceration appears to be an independent entity which shows a poorer prognosis than other types of aneurysmal aSDH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical attributes of microcatheters used in liquid embolization of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Simon, Scott D; Reig, Adam S; Archer, Kellie J; Mericle, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    A steel-reinforced and a nitanol-reinforced microcatheter are both approved for use with Onyx HD-500 embolization of intracranial aneurysms. The biomechanical behavior of these catheters when used with high viscosity embolic liquids is poorly understood. We performed biomechanical laboratory testing and examined our clinical experience to identify situations where one catheter might have an advantage over the other. The catheters were tested for detachment force from aneurysm cast, burst pressure, burst location, and pressure under dynamic delivery pressure. The results were compared using ANOVA. The average detachment forces for the Echelon 10, 14, and Rebar 14 catheters were 97.6, 76.825, and 62.6 g, respectively (p=0.023). The average burst pressures for the Echelon 10, 14, and Rebar 14 were 1108, 1213, and 1365 psi, respectively (p=0.003). The average burst location was 26.0, 20.0, and 4.5 mm, respectively, from the tip (p=0.035). There was no significant difference regarding burst location (p=0.39). The delivery pressures of the catheters were not significant (p=0.98). Two cases are presented that illustrate the importance of these findings and how they can be incorporated into practice. The lower detachment force of the Rebar 14 makes it ideal for liquid embolization, but its stiffness makes it less desirable for accessing smaller aneurysms or navigating tortuous anatomy. The Echelon 10 should be avoided unless it is the only catheter that can access an aneurysm because of small size or tortuous anatomy. In such cases, the higher detachment force suggests a stent should be in place to prevent the cast from being destabilized.

  20. The safety of vasopressor-induced hypertension in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with coexisting unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Buckley, Robert T; Indrakanti, Santoshi S; Turkmani, Ali H; Oh, Gerald; Crobeddu, Emanuela; Fargen, Kyle M; El Ahmadieh, Tarek Y; Naidech, Andrew M; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Hoh, Brian L; Bendok, Bernard R; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2015-10-01

    Vasopressor-induced hypertension (VIH) is an established treatment for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who develop vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). However, the safety of VIH in patients with coincident, unruptured, unprotected intracranial aneurysms is uncertain. This retrospective multiinstitutional study identified 1) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who required VIH therapy (VIH group), and 2) patients with aneurysmal SAH and 1 or more unruptured, unprotected aneurysms who did not require VIH therapy (non-VIH group). All patients had previously undergone surgical or endovascular treatment for the presumed ruptured aneurysm. Comparisons between the VIH and non-VIH patients were made in terms of the patient characteristics, clinical and radiographic severity of SAH, total number of aneurysms, number of ruptured/unruptured aneurysms, aneurysm location/size, number of unruptured and unprotected aneurysms during VIH, severity of vasospasm, degree of hypervolemia, and degree and duration of VIH therapy. For the VIH group (n = 176), 484 aneurysms were diagnosed, 231 aneurysms were treated, and 253 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected during 1293 total days of VIH therapy (5.12 total years of VIH therapy for unruptured, unprotected aneurysms). For the non-VIH group (n = 73), 207 aneurysms were diagnosed, 93 aneurysms were treated, and 114 unruptured aneurysms were left unprotected. For the VIH and non-VIH groups, the mean sizes of the ruptured (7.2 ± 0.3 vs 7.8 ± 0.6 mm, respectively; p = 0.27) and unruptured (3.4 ± 0.2 vs 3.2 ± 0.2 mm, respectively; p = 0.40) aneurysms did not differ. The authors observed 1 new SAH from a previously unruptured, unprotected aneurysm in each group (1 of 176 vs 1 of 73 patients; p = 0.50). Baseline patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between groups. While the degree of hypervolemia was similar between the VIH and non-VIH patients

  1. Failure of Flow Diverter Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms Related to the Fetal-type Posterior Communicating Artery

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Arthur Man Yuen; Tsang, Frederick Chun Pong; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Lee, Raymand; Lui, Wai Man

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The pipeline embolization device (PED) is a flow diverter that has shown promise in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Close to one-fifth of aneurysms, however, fail to occlude after PED placement. This study aims to identify anatomical features and clinicopathologic factors that may predispose failed aneurysm occlusion with the PED. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed all anterior circulation unruptured saccular aneurysms treated with the PED in a single-center. The primary outcome measure was angiographic occlusion. Anatomical features and potential predictors, including gender, aneurysm location, size, height, aspect ratio, neck width, prior treatment and the number of PED, were studied using binary logistic regression. Results 29 anterior circulation unruptured saccular aneurysms with a mean size of 6.99 mm treated with the PED in a single center were retrospectively studied. The overall occlusion rate was 79.3% after a mean follow-up of 9.2 months. Four aneurysms were related to the fetal-type posterior communicating artery (PComA), and all were refractory to flow diverter treatment. Female gender was significantly associated with a higher occlusion rate. We present the anatomical features and propose possible pathophysiological mechanisms of these PComA aneurysms that failed flow diverter treatment. Conclusion A PComA aneurysm with persistent fetal-type circulation appears to be particularly refractory to flow diverter treatment, especially when the aneurysm incorporates a significant portion of the PComA. Our experience suggested that flow diverting stents alone may not be the ideal treatment for this subgroup of aneurysms, and alternative modalities should be considered. Female patients were found to have a significantly higher rate of treatment success. PMID:26389008

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of saccular intracranial aneurysms with iTRAQ quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Yu, Lanbing; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Zhao, Jizong

    2016-01-01

    To screen differentially expressed proteins of saccular intracranial aneurysms and superficial temporal artery by the proteomics analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) combined with reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Collecting 17 samples from intracranial aneurysm patients undergoing aneurysmectomy as experiment group and 17 matched STA as control group. After quantification and enzymolysis of the protein, the iTRAQ were used to label the peptides of the 2 groups respectively. Then, the mixture of the peptides was fractioned by RP-HPLC and analyzed by LC-MS/MS to identify the differential expression proteins. A total of 1699 proteins were identified from the ProteinPilot 4.5 software (AB SCIEX) using the Paragon database search algorithm. Comparing with STA, 54 proteins were significantly up-regulated (115:114<0.5-fold) and 37 were significantly down-regulated in sIAs (115:114>2.0-fold). Furthermore, Integrin β3, Secreted frizzled-related protein 2 were significantly up-regulated (2.3 fold and 2.1 fold, respectively), whereas MyosinIIb, Alpha-actinin-1, Laminin β2, and Carboxypeptidase A3 were down-regulated (3.01 fold, 2.1 fold, 2.07 fold, and 2.01 fold, respectively) in sIAs. GO Ontology analysis showed that most differential proteins expressed in cytoskeletal; up-regulated proteins in sIAs play an important role in inflammatory reaction, enzymatic hydrolysis, cell adhesion and invasion, and cellular immune reaction; down-regulated proteins in sIAs involved in cytoskeletal protein, enzyme, and structural protein. ITGB3, ACTN1 and MYL2 play a role in aneurysm formation via focal adhesion pathway. The results of Western-blot assay were consistent with the proteomic changes of those 6 proteins. The differentially expressed proteins in sIAs that showed aneurysm formation are related to cytoskeleton abnormal and extracellular matrix changes. The iTRAQ technology provides scientific foundation for the further

  3. Preoperative Coiling of Coexisting Intracranial Aneurysm and Subsequent Brain Tumor Surgery.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun Young; Kim, Byung Moon; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have investigated treatment strategies for brain tumor with a coexisting unruptured intracranial aneurysm (cUIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative coiling for cUIA, and subsequent brain tumor surgery. A total of 19 patients (mean age, 55.2 years; M:F = 4:15) underwent preoperative coiling for 23 cUIAs and subsequent brain tumor surgery. Primary brain tumors were meningiomas (n = 7, 36.8%), pituitary adenomas (n = 7, 36.8%), gliomas (n = 3, 15.8%), vestibular schwannoma (n = 1, 5.3%), and Rathke's cleft cyst (n = 1, 5.3%). cUIAs were located at the distal internal carotid artery (n = 9, 39.1%), anterior cerebral artery (n = 8, 34.8%), middle cerebral artery (n = 4, 17.4%), basilar artery top (n = 1, 4.3%), and posterior cerebral artery, P1 segment (n = 1, 4.3%). The outcomes of preoperative coiling of cUIA and subsequent brain tumor surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Single-microcatheter technique was used in 13 cases (56.5%), balloon-assisted in 4 cases (17.4%), double-microcatheter in 4 cases (17.4%), and stent-assisted in 2 cases (8.7%). Complete cUIA occlusion was achieved in 18 cases (78.3%), while residual neck occurred in 5 cases (21.7%). The only coiling-related complication was 1 transient ischemic attack (5.3%). Neurological deterioration did not occur in any patient during the period between coiling and tumor surgery. At the latest clinical follow-up (mean, 29 months; range, 2-120 months), 15 patients (78.9%) had favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, 0-2), while 4 patients (21.1%) had unfavorable outcomes due to consequences of brain tumor surgery. Preoperative coiling and subsequent tumor surgery was safe and effective, making it a reasonable treatment option for patients with brain tumor and cUIA.

  4. Preoperative Coiling of Coexisting Intracranial Aneurysm and Subsequent Brain Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Keun Young; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few studies have investigated treatment strategies for brain tumor with a coexisting unruptured intracranial aneurysm (cUIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative coiling for cUIA, and subsequent brain tumor surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 19 patients (mean age, 55.2 years; M:F = 4:15) underwent preoperative coiling for 23 cUIAs and subsequent brain tumor surgery. Primary brain tumors were meningiomas (n = 7, 36.8%), pituitary adenomas (n = 7, 36.8%), gliomas (n = 3, 15.8%), vestibular schwannoma (n = 1, 5.3%), and Rathke's cleft cyst (n = 1, 5.3%). cUIAs were located at the distal internal carotid artery (n = 9, 39.1%), anterior cerebral artery (n = 8, 34.8%), middle cerebral artery (n = 4, 17.4%), basilar artery top (n = 1, 4.3%), and posterior cerebral artery, P1 segment (n = 1, 4.3%). The outcomes of preoperative coiling of cUIA and subsequent brain tumor surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Results Single-microcatheter technique was used in 13 cases (56.5%), balloon-assisted in 4 cases (17.4%), double-microcatheter in 4 cases (17.4%), and stent-assisted in 2 cases (8.7%). Complete cUIA occlusion was achieved in 18 cases (78.3%), while residual neck occurred in 5 cases (21.7%). The only coiling-related complication was 1 transient ischemic attack (5.3%). Neurological deterioration did not occur in any patient during the period between coiling and tumor surgery. At the latest clinical follow-up (mean, 29 months; range, 2–120 months), 15 patients (78.9%) had favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale, 0–2), while 4 patients (21.1%) had unfavorable outcomes due to consequences of brain tumor surgery. Conclusion Preoperative coiling and subsequent tumor surgery was safe and effective, making it a reasonable treatment option for patients with brain tumor and cUIA. PMID:27833409

  5. The @neurIST Ontology of Intracranial Aneurysms: Providing Terminological Services for an Integrated IT Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Boeker, Martin; Stenzhorn, Holger; Kumpf, Kai; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schulz, Stefan; Hanser, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    The @neurIST ontology is currently under development within the scope of the European project @neurIST intended to serve as a module in a complex architecture aiming at providing a better understanding and management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhages. Due to the integrative structure of the project the ontology needs to represent entities from various disciplines on a large spatial and temporal scale. Initial term acquisition was performed by exploiting a database scaffold, literature analysis and communications with domain experts. The ontology design is based on the DOLCE upper ontology and other existing domain ontologies were linked or partly included whenever appropriate (e.g., the FMA for anatomical entities and the UMLS for definitions and lexical information). About 2300 predominantly medical entities were represented but also a multitude of biomolecular, epidemiological, and hemodynamic entities. The usage of the ontology in the project comprises terminological control, text mining, annotation, and data mediation. PMID:18693797

  6. [Traumatic intracranial aneurysm secondary to a bullet wound. Clinical case and a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    de la Rosa Morilla, Silvestre Emilio; Melot, Anthony; Boissonneau, Sebastien; Farah, Kaissar; Brunel, Herve; Roche, Pierre-Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (AICT) are rare and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. AICT are the result of head injuries caused by accidents, explosions, and gunfire. The case is reported here of a 28 year old man who was admitted to our hospital after suffering a penetrating head injury caused by a bullet. Radiographic studies showed interhemispheric subarachnoid haemorrhage and a likely AICT image that initially went unnoticed. One week later he underwent a cerebral angiography which showed a bilateral vasospasm of the terminal portion of the internal carotid and the appearance of a 2mm fusiform AICT at the orbit-frontal branch of the anterior cerebral artery. This was surgically treated after an aneurismal growth of 3.4mm and failure of the endovascular treatment. The patient showed a favourable outcome after surgery.

  7. A new flow diverter stent for direct treatment of intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiayao; You, Zhong; Peach, Thomas; Byrne, James; Rizkallah, Rafik R

    2015-12-16

    The use of a stand-alone flow diverter (FD) stent has demonstrated itself as an efficacious endovascular approach to intracranial aneurysm treatment. FD stents that are currently available adopt an interwoven braided design. The relatively low radial stiffness intrinsic to this design could cause difficulty in deployment and poor stent-wall apposition, leading to high complication rates. A new FD stent is proposed to overcome the problems of the interwoven FD stents. The new device is manufactured from a Nitinol tube through a laser-cutting technique, and its unique structure allows for both low porosity and high packaging efficiency. Computational simulation using Abaqus has been conducted to investigate the radial stiffness and longitudinal flexibility of the new device. The new device exhibits high radial stiffness when compared to interwoven FD stents and superior longitudinal flexibility. Results from on-going in-vivo experiments and CFD simulations have also demonstrated the efficacy of the new device as a FD stent.

  8. Intracranial aneurysm segmentation in 3D CT angiography: method and quantitative validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzian, Azadeh; Manniesing, R.; Flach, Z. H.; Risselada, R.; van Kooten, F.; Sturkenboom, M. C. J. M.; van der Lugt, A.; Niessen, W. J.

    2010-03-01

    Accurately quantifying aneurysm shape parameters is of clinical importance, as it is an important factor in choosing the right treatment modality (i.e. coiling or clipping), in predicting rupture risk and operative risk and for pre-surgical planning. The first step in aneurysm quantification is to segment it from other structures that are present in the image. As manual segmentation is a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a need for an automated method which is accurate and reproducible. In this paper a novel semi-automated method for segmenting aneurysms in Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) data based on Geodesic Active Contours is presented and quantitatively evaluated. Three different image features are used to steer the level set to the boundary of the aneurysm, namely intensity, gradient magnitude and variance in intensity. The method requires minimum user interaction, i.e. clicking a single seed point inside the aneurysm which is used to estimate the vessel intensity distribution and to initialize the level set. The results show that the developed method is reproducible, and performs in the range of interobserver variability in terms of accuracy.

  9. Natural history of intracranial aneurysms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Niemczyk, Mariusz; Gradzik, Monika; Fliszkiewicz, Magda; Kulesza, Andrzej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pączek, Leszek

    2017-08-18

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relatively frequent genetic disorder that is associated with increased prevalence of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). However, evidence on the natural history of IAs in ADPKD is suboptimal. That leads to difficulties in development of recommendations on surveillance on patients with IAs in their medical history, or the need for repeat imaging for IAs in those with a negative result of the initial screening. The aim of the article is to present our experience on the natural history of IAs in ADPKD patients. Thirty-four ADPKD patients, managed at our outpatient department, with imaging for intracranial aneurysms performed at least twice, were included into present retrospective analysis. Among 8 patients with an IA in their medical history, no new IA was observed during 93 patient-years of follow-up. In 6 patients with untreated, unruptured IAs, IA growth was observed in 2 cases during 32 patient-years of follow-up. Finally, among 20 patients with a negative result of initial screening, 2 new IAs were noticed during 115 patient-years of follow-up, including 1 patient with a positive family history for an IA, and 1 patient without a family history. Our observations support repeat imaging for IAs in patients with ADPKD, positive family history of IA, and negative result of initial screening. Additionally, efforts should be made to develop clinical and/or laboratory risk factors for IAs development in ADPKD patients without family history of IA, which enable to identify patients who should undergo repeat imaging for IAs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  10. Sudden-onset monocular blindness following orbito-zygomatic craniotomy for a ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumya; Thakur, Bhaskar; Tolias, Christos

    2016-10-19

    We report the first case of sudden-onset ipsilateral blindness following orbito-zygomatic craniotomy and clipping of a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. CT showed no new intracranial or intraorbital pathology. Visual evoked potentials testing, electroretinography and diffuse flash stimulation all indicated loss of right optic nerve function. Although the patient made an excellent neurological recovery, complete right-sided monocular blindness persisted at 6-month follow-up. We postulate that external pressure on the eyeball, resulting in posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, was the primary cause of our patient's blindness. This has been hypothesised in the 3 previously published cases of blindness following pterional or frontal craniotomy for aneurysm repair. Intraoperatively, the surgeon must avoid unnecessary pressure on the eyeballs and handle the optic nerves with the utmost care. Incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of sudden visual loss postcraniotomy may result in under-reporting of this adverse event. Nevertheless, its seriousness warrants discussion during consent. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Opacification of Shape Memory Polymer Foam Designed for Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Yu, Ya-Jen; Miller, Matthew W.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Hartman, Jonathan; Clubb, Fred J.; Gentry, Brandon; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2012-01-01

    Shape memory polymer (SMP) foam possesses structural and mechanical characteristics that make them very promising as an alternative treatment for intracranial aneurysms. Our SMP foams have low densities, with porosities as high as 98.8%; favorable for catheter delivery and aneurysm filling, but unfavorable for attenuating X-rays. This lack of contrast impedes the progression of this material becoming a viable medical device. This paper reports on increasing radioopacity by incorporating a high-Z element, tungsten particulate filler to attenuate X-rays, while conserving similar physical properties of the original non-opacified SMP foams. The minimal amount of tungsten for visibility was determined and subsequently incorporated into SMP foams, which were then fabricated into samples of increasing thicknesses. These samples were imaged through a pig’s skull to demonstrate radio-opacity in situ. Quantification of the increase in image contrast was performed via image processing methods and standard curves were made for varying concentrations of tungsten doped solid and foam SMP. 4% by volume loading of tungsten incorporated into our SMP foams has proven to be an effective method for improving radio-opacity of this material while maintaining the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the original formulation. PMID:22101759

  12. Granulomatous encephalitis, intracranial arteritis, and mycotic aneurysm due to a free-living ameba.

    PubMed

    Martínez, A J; Sotelo-Avila, C; Alcalá, H; Willaert, E

    1980-01-01

    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis are well recognized clinicopathological entities caused by free-living amebas. Associated arteritis and "mycotic aneurysms" with infiltration of intracranial arteries by lymphocytes, amebic trophozoites and cysts have not been previously reported. A 26-month-old girl had a 3-week history of encephalitis, characterized, initially, by vomiting and low-grade fever. Subsequently, she developed ataxia, generalized weakness, lethargy, and esotropia. The first CSF showed 490 RBC/microliters, 705 WBC/microliters with 90% mononuclears. Her pupils reacted briskly to light. Moderate nuchal rigidity, nystagmus, fixed downward gaze, anisocoria, bilateral 6th nerve palsy, left arm monoparesis and left Babinski were present. CAT scan revealed slight symmetrical dilatation of anterior horns of lateral ventricles and an area of abnormal enhancement above the 3rd ventricle. She died 14 days after admission, 5 weeks after onset of symptoms. The brain showed focal necrotizing encephalopathy, involving thalami, cerebellum, brain stem, and cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord. Numerous free-living amebic trophozoites and cysts were present within a chronic granulomatous encephalitis. There were trombosis of basilar, posterior cerebral, and vertebral arteries with profuse chronic panarteritis, fibrinoid necrosis, and mycotic aneurysms.

  13. Patient-specific blood flow simulation to improve intracranial aneurysm diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenz, Wolfgang; Dirnberger, Johannes

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel simulation system of blood flow through intracranial aneurysms including the interaction between blood lumen and vessel tissue. It provides the means to estimate rupture risks by calculating the distribution of pressure and shear stresses in the aneurysm, in order to support the planning of clinical interventions. So far, this has only been possible with commercial simulation packages originally targeted at industrial applications, whereas our implementation focuses on the intuitive integration into clinical workflow. Due to the time-critical nature of the application, we exploit most efficient state-of-the-art numerical methods and technologies together with high performance computing infrastructures (Austrian Grid). Our system builds a three-dimensional virtual replica of the patient's cerebrovascular system from X-ray angiography, CT or MR images. The physician can then select a region of interest which is automatically transformed into a tetrahedral mesh. The differential equations for the blood flow and the wall elasticity are discretized via the finite element method (FEM), and the resulting linear equation systems are handled by an algebraic multigrid (AMG) solver. The wall displacement caused by the blood pressure is calculated using an iterative fluid-structure interaction (FSI) algorithm, and the fluid mesh is deformed accordingly. First simulation results on measured patient geometries show good medical relevance for diagnostic decision support.

  14. Association between hemodynamic modifications and clinical outcome of intracranial aneurysms treated using flow diverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Damiano, Robert J.; Davies, Jason M.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Meng, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) has been revolutionized by the advent of endovascular Flow Diverters (FDs), which disrupt blood flow within the aneurysm to induce pro-thrombotic conditions, and serves as a scaffold for endothelial ingrowth and arterial remodeling. Despite good clinical success of FDs, complications like incomplete occlusion and post-treatment rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage have been reported. In silico computational fluid dynamic analysis of the pre- and post-treated geometries of IA patients can shed light on the contrasting blood hemodynamics associated with different clinical outcomes. In this study, we analyzed hemodynamic modifications in 15 IA patients treated using a single FD; 10 IAs were completely occluded (successful) and 5 were partially occluded (unsuccessful) at 12-month follow-up. An in-house virtual stenting workflow was used to recapitulate the clinical intervention on these cases, followed by CFD to obtain pre- and post-treatment hemodynamics. Bulk hemodynamic parameters showed comparable reductions in both groups with average inflow rate and aneurysmal velocity reduction of 40.3% and 52.4% in successful cases, and 34.4% and 49.2% in unsuccessful cases. There was a substantial reduction in localized parameter like vortex coreline length and Energy Loss for successful cases, 38.2% and 42.9% compared to 10.1% and 10.5% for unsuccessful cases. This suggest that for successfully treated IAs, the localized complex blood flow is disrupted more prominently by the FD as compared to unsuccessful cases. These localized hemodynamic parameters can be potentially used in prediction of treatment outcome, thus aiding the clinicians in a priori assessment of different treatment strategies.

  15. Endovascular therapy for asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms: JR-NET and JR-NET2 findings.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Tomoyoshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Ishii, Akira; Sakai, Chiaki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2013-10-01

    National registration studies (the Japanese Registry of Neuroendovascular Therapy [JR-NET] and JR-NET2) have determined the current status and outcomes of neuroendovascular therapy (neuro-EVT). We analyzed short-term outcomes of EVT for asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). We extracted periprocedural information about EVT for 4767 asymptomatic UIAs from 31,968 registered procedural records of all EVT in the JR-NET and JR-NET2 databases. We assessed the features of the aneurysms and procedures, immediate radiographic findings, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes at 30 days after the procedures. We located 80.0% of UIAs in the anterior circulation, and the most frequent were paraclinoid. The diameter of 2.5%, 32.9%, 51.9%, 12.0%, and 0.7% of the UIAs was <3, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, 10 to 19, and >20 mm, respectively. EVT failed in only 2.1%. Adjunctive techniques were applied in 54.8% of procedures. Pre- and postprocedural antiplatelet agents were prescribed in 85.6% and 84.0%, respectively, of the procedures. The immediate radiographic outcomes of 57.7%, 31.9%, and 10.0% of the UIAs comprised complete occlusion, residual necks, and residual aneurysms, respectively. Complications that were associated with 9.1% of procedures comprised 2.0% hemorrhagic and 4.6% ischemic, and the 30-day morbidity and mortality rates were 2.12% and 0.31%, respectively. The radiographic results of EVT for asymptomatic UIAs in Japan were acceptable, with low mortality and morbidity rates.

  16. Association between hemodynamic modifications and clinical outcome of intracranial aneurysms treated using flow diverters.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Damiano, Robert J; Davies, Jason M; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Meng, Hui

    2017-02-11

    Treatment of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) has been revolutionized by the advent of endovascular Flow Diverters (FDs), which disrupt blood flow within the aneurysm to induce pro-thrombotic conditions, and serves as a scaffold for endothelial ingrowth and arterial remodeling. Despite good clinical success of FDs, complications like incomplete occlusion and post-treatment rupture leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage have been reported. In silico computational fluid dynamic analysis of the pre- and post-treated geometries of IA patients can shed light on the contrasting blood hemodynamics associated with different clinical outcomes. In this study, we analyzed hemodynamic modifications in 15 IA patients treated using a single FD; 10 IAs were completely occluded (successful) and 5 were partially occluded (unsuccessful) at 12-month follow-up. An in-house virtual stenting workflow was used to recapitulate the clinical intervention on these cases, followed by CFD to obtain pre- and post-treatment hemodynamics. Bulk hemodynamic parameters showed comparable reductions in both groups with average inflow rate and aneurysmal velocity reduction of 40.3% and 52.4% in successful cases, and 34.4% and 49.2% in unsuccessful cases. There was a substantial reduction in localized parameter like vortex coreline length and Energy Loss for successful cases, 38.2% and 42.9% compared to 10.1% and 10.5% for unsuccessful cases. This suggest that for successfully treated IAs, the localized complex blood flow is disrupted more prominently by the FD as compared to unsuccessful cases. These localized hemodynamic parameters can be potentially used in prediction of treatment outcome, thus aiding the clinicians in a priori assessment of different treatment strategies.

  17. Detection and characterization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms: Comparison of 3T MRA and DSA.

    PubMed

    Mine, Benjamin; Pezzullo, Martina; Roque, Gonçalo; David, Philippe; Metens, Thierry; Lubicz, Boris

    2015-06-01

    To compare magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 3 Tesla (3T) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the detection and characterization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). This study has been approved by our local ethical committee. From February to August 2010, 40 consecutive patients with UIA contemporarily underwent MRA at 3T including time-of-flight (TOF-MRA) and contrast enhanced (CE-MRA) techniques and DSA. MR images were independently reviewed by 3 radiologists and DSA images were reviewed by 2 radiologists together. Interobserver and intertechnique agreements were assessed for aneurysm detection and characterization including maximal diameter, neck width and the presence of a bleb or a branch arising from the sac. DS angiography revealed 56 aneurysms. Mean sensitivity and positive predictive value of MRA were 91.4% and 93.4% respectively. For UIA < 3 mm and those ≥ 3 mm, MRA had a mean sensitivity of 74.1% and 100% respectively. Intertechnique and interobserver agreements were substantial for the measurement of UIA maximal diameter (mean κ, 0.607 and 0.601 respectively) and were moderate and fair for neck width measurement respectively (mean κ, 0.456 and 0.285 respectively). For bleb detection, intertechnique and interobserver agreements were fair and slight respectively (mean κ, 0.312 and 0.116 respectively) whereas both were slight for detection of branches arising from the sac (mean κ, 0.151 and 0.070 respectively). MR angiography at 3T has a high sensitivity for the detection of UIA. However, it remains significantly inferior to DSA for morphological characterization of UIA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment in the pre-operative management of subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, A A; Illingworth, R

    1981-01-01

    One hundred consecutive patients treated with epsilon aminocaproic acid 24 grams daily prior to surgery for ruptured intracranial aneurysms have been compared with the previous 100 patients managed similarly but without anti-fibrinolytic drugs. No other alterations in management were made and the two series are closely comparable in all other respects. Fewer episodes of recurrent haemorrhage and deaths from this cause occurred in the treated patients, but more cases of cerebral ischaemia occurred. Neither difference is statistically significant and overall more deaths occurred in the patients treated with antifibrinolytic drugs. The value of this method of treatment in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage is questioned. PMID:7229645

  19. Ion-implantation and characterization of 32P-radioactive platinum coils for endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Philippe; Raymond, Jean; Roorda, Sjoerd

    2006-01-01

    We produced and measured over 800 32P-ion-implanted coils for pre-clinical and clinical studies. Platinum coils are intravascular implants most frequently used in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. This less invasive endovascular approach is safer than conventional surgery, but a frequent drawback is the recurrence of the aneurysm, associated with recanalization, a phenomenon that can be inhibited by the local application of beta radiation. Total coil activities, uniformity, reproducibility and 32P binding to platinum were determined and found to be adequate for this application.

  20. Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysm identifies three new risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Yasuno, Katsuhito; Bilguvar, Kaya; Bijlenga, Philippe; Low, Siew Kee; Krischek, Boris; Auburger, Georg; Simon, Matthias; Krex, Dietmar; Arlier, Zulfikar; Nayak, Nikhil; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Niemela, Mika; Tajima, Atsushi; von und zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Doczi, Tamas; Wirjatijasa, Florentina; Hata, Akira; Blasco, Jordi; Oszvald, Agi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Zilani, Gulam; Schoch, Beate; Singh, Pankaj; Stüer, Carsten; Risselada, Roelof; Beck, Jürgen; Sola, Teresa; Ricciardi, Filomena; Aromaa, Arpo; Illig, Thomas; Schreiber, Stefan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van den Berg, Leonard H; Perret, Claire; Proust, Carole; Roder, Constantin; Ozturk, Ali K; Gaál, Emília; Berg, Daniela; Geisen, Christof; Friedrich, Christoph M; Summers, Paul; Frangi, Alejandro F; State, Matthew W; Wichmann, HErich; Breteler, Monique M B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Mane, Shrikant; Peltonen, Leena; Elio, Vivas; Sturkenboom, Miriam CJM; Lawford, Patricia; Byrne, James; Macho, Juan; Sandalcioglu, Erol I; Meyer, Bernhard; Raabe, Andreas; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Rüfenacht, Daniel; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Hernesniemi, Juha; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Inoue, Ituro; Palotie, Aarno; Cambien, François; Nakamura, Yusuke; Lifton, Richard P; Günel, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are balloon-like dilations of the intracranial arterial wall; their hemorrhage commonly results in severe neurologic impairment and death. We report a second genome-wide association study with discovery and replication cohorts from Europe and Japan comprising 5,891 cases and 14,181 controls with ∼832,000 genotyped and imputed SNPs across discovery cohorts. We identified three new loci showing strong evidence for association with IA in the combined data set, including intervals near RBBP8 on 18q11.2 (OR=1.22, P=1.1×10-12), STARD13/KL on 13q13.1 (OR=1.20, P=2.5×10-9) and a gene-rich region on 10q24.32 (OR=1.29, P=1.2×10-9). We also confirmed prior associations near SOX17 (8q11.23-q12.1; OR=1.28, P=1.3×10-12) and CDKN2A/B (9p21.3; OR=1.31, P=1.5×10-22). It is noteworthy that several putative risk genes play a role in cell-cycle progression, potentially affecting proliferation and senescence of progenitor cell populations that are responsible for vascular formation and repair. PMID:20364137

  1. Treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms using flow-diverting silk® stents. An analysis of 32 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Kocaeli, Hasan; Yildirim, Nalan; Cebeci, Hakan; Erdogan, Cüneyt; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2014-12-01

    This study describes the peri-procedural and late complications and angiographic follow-up results of 32 patients with 34 complex aneurysms treated with flow diverter Silk stents in a single centre. In this retrospective study, 40 Silk stents (SS) were implanted in 34 complex intracranial aneurysms in 32 patients. In our series, 20 (58.8%) carotid-ophthalmic internal carotid artery (ICA), six (17.6%) cavernous ICA, two (5.9%) supraclinoid ICA, two (5.9%) petrosal ICA (the same patient- bilateral) and four (11.8%) posterior circulation aneurysms were treated. One of the posterior circulation lesions was a fenestrated-type aneurysm. Twenty wide-necked, saccular; eight neck remnant; four fusiform and two blister-like aneurysms were included in our series. SS were successfully implanted in all patients (100%). Misdeployment occurred in 17.6% of patients. In two of these patients adequate stent openness was achieved via Hyperglide balloon dilatation. Coil embolization in addition to SS placement was utilized in four aneurysms. One patient (3%) experienced transient morbidity due to a thromboembolic event and there was one mortality (3%) due to remote intraparenchymal haemorrhage. Complete occlusion of 27/33 (81.8 %) and 29/33 (87.9 %) aneurysms was achieved six and 12 months after the procedure, respectively. In-stent intimal hyperplasia was detected in 6.1 % patients. Flow-diverter Silk stent implantation is an effective method of treating complex aneurysms with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Complete occlusion is achieved in most of the complex aneurysms.

  2. Ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the outcome of surgical treatment in experienced hands in the period prior to the advent of endovascular coiling

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, J; Maurice-Williams, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the results of treatment of patients with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm treated by a single experienced vascular neurosurgeon in the period prior to the introduction of endovascular coiling. Methods: Over a mean (SD) period of 9 (2) years, between January 1990 and June 1999, 245 consecutive patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated. Patients' details were obtained from a database that had been constructed prospectively. The patients consisted of all those patients treated by the senior author (Mr Maurice-Williams) over this period—that is, every third day on call at his unit. During this period, all patients under the age of 75 years with a diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage were admitted to the neurosurgical unit as soon as was practicable regardless of clinical grade. Results: Of 245 patients, 190 (77.6%) underwent treatment by open surgery using standard microsurgical techniques. At 1 year, the mortality of the operated patients was 2.6%, while 89.5% of the patients had a Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) of 4 and 5. The overall management outcome (all patients treated, including operated and non-operated cases) at 1 year was: 17.1 % dead while 74.3% had GOS 4 and 5. Of the 190 patients who underwent surgery, 38 (20%) required additional operations, totalling 72 operations in all. Of these, 32 were for hydrocephalus and 17 for the evacuation of intracranial haematomas/collections. Complications of surgery occurred in 56 patients (29.5%). Conclusion: Open surgery, despite good eventual results, is associated with a significant rate of re-operations and complications that would probably be largely avoided with endovascular treatment. Nevertheless, although endovascular coiling has these immediate advantages over surgery it is still not certain that the long term results will be superior to surgery which leads to permanent obliteration of the aneurysm. There may still be a need for open surgery in the future. PMID:14638889

  3. Coexistence of obstructive sleep apnea worsens the overall outcome of intracranial aneurysm: a pioneer study.

    PubMed

    Bir, Shyamal C; Nanda, Anil; Cuellar, Hugo; Sun, Hai; Guthikonda, Bharat; Liendo, Cesar; Minagar, Alireza; Chernyshev, Oleg Y

    2017-03-24

    OBJECTIVE Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the progression of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms. However, the role of OSA in the overall outcome of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) has not yet been established. Authors of this report investigated the role of OSA in the overall outcome of IAs. METHODS Radiological and clinical data on patients (from 2010 through 2015) with confirmed IA were retrospectively reviewed. Significant differences between the OSA and non-OSA groups were determined using a chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of an unfavorable IA outcome. RESULTS Among the 283 patients with confirmed IAs, 45 patients (16%) were positively screened for OSA, a proportion that was significantly higher than the prevalence of OSA in nonaneurysmal neurosurgical patients (4%, p = 0.008). The percentage of patients with hypertension (p = 0.018), a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (p < 0.0001), hyperlipidemia (p = 0.034), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.005), chronic heart disease (CHD; p = 0.024), or prior stroke (p = 0.03) was significantly higher in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group. Similarly, the percentage of wide-necked aneurysms (p = 0.00001) and patients with a poor Hunt and Hess Grade IV-V (p = 0.01) was significantly higher in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group. In addition, the percentage of ruptured aneurysms (p = 0.03) and vasospasms (p = 0.03) was significantly higher in the OSA group. The percentage of patients with poor modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores (3-6) was significantly higher in the OSA group (p = 0.03). A separate cohort of patients with ruptured IAs showed similar results. In both univariate (p = 0.01) and multivariate (p = 0.04) regression analyses, OSA was identified as an individual predictor of an unfavorable outcome. In addition, hypertension and prior stroke were revealed as predictors of a poor IA outcome. CONCLUSIONS Complications of IA such as rupture and

  4. Transient pupillary dilation following local papaverine application in intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Vasudeva, Viren; Lai, Pui Man Rosalind; Kim, Albert H; Wang, Huan; Du, Rose

    2015-04-01

    Isolated cases of transient pupillary changes after local intracisternal papaverine administration during aneurysm surgery have been reported. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with this phenomenon. We assessed a total of 103 consecutive patients who underwent craniotomy for cerebral aneurysm clipping for the presence of postoperative pupillary dilation (mydriasis) after intracisternal papaverine administration. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to evaluate the association of mydriasis with patient age, sex, duration of surgery, and aneurysm location. We observed either ipsilateral or bilateral pupillary dilation in the immediate postoperative period in nine out of 103 patients (8.7%). This phenomenon was not associated with patient age or sex. There was a trend towards positive correlation with aneurysms located at the anterior communicating artery (odds ratio 3.76, p=0.10), and a negative correlation with the duration of surgery (odds ratio 0.57, p=0.08). All pupillary dilation resolved within several hours, and the onset and resolution were consistent with the half-life of papaverine. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of posteropative pupillary changes due to papaverine. The current findings are consistent with the small number of prior case reports of transient pupillary changes after papaverine administration and appear to reflect the local anesthetic action of papaverine on the oculomotor nerve.

  5. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms with Flow Re-direction Endoluminal Device - A Single Centre Experience with Short-term Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Wing Ho; Lam, Samuel Siu Kei; Siu, Jimmy Chi Wai; Tan, Chong Boon; Wong, Yiu Chung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A flow diverter (FD) is an effective treatment option for intracranial aneurysms. The Flow Re-direction Endoluminal Device (FRED) is a relatively new flow diverter with a unique dual-layer design. We report our experience and short-term results with the FRED. Materials and Methods We did a retrospective review of all consecutive cases in which the FRED was used to treat intracranial aneurysms at a single institution from March 2014 till December 2015. Clinical parameters, aneurysm characteristics, technical results and short-term outcomes were reviewed. Results Eleven intracranial aneurysms were treated with the FRED in 11 patients. The technical device deployment success rate was 100%. Immediate reduction in intra-aneurysmal flow after deployment was noted in 10 cases. The aneurysm occlusion rate at 6 months was 75%. There was 1 complication of in-stent thrombosis immediately after deployment. There was no side branch occlusion, delayed aneurysm rupture, stroke, or intraparenchymal haemorrhage. There was no neurological deficit, morbidity, or mortality. Conclusion The FRED is a new FD. It has shown to be safe and effective in our series. The unique dual-layer design of the device renders it to have technical advantages over other FDs. The 6-month aneurysm occlusion rate and complication profile of FRED are similar to other FDs. PMID:28316865

  6. A Novel Association between Lysyl Oxidase Gene Polymorphism and Intracranial Aneurysm in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun Pyo; Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Kim, Sung Eun; Yang, Jin Seo; Choi, Hyuk Jai; Kang, Suk Hyung; Cho, Yong Jun

    2017-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) controls the cross-linking and maturation of elastin and collagen fibers. In this study, we investigated the association between LOX gene polymorphisms and intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation in a homogeneous Korean population. This cross-sectional study involved 80 age-sex matched patients with IA and controls. Fisher's exact test was performed to analyze allelic associations between ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and IA, including 41 ruptured and 39 unruptured cases. Haplotype-specific associations were analyzed using the omnibus test estimating asymptotic chi-square statistics. Of ten SNPs, three SNPs (rs2303656, rs3900446, and rs763497) were significantly associated with IA (p<0.01). The C allele of rs3900446 was significantly related to increased IA risk with a significant threshold [odds ratio (OR)=20.15, p=4.8×10⁻⁵]. Meanwhile, the A allele of rs2303656 showed a preventive effect against IA formation (p=8.2×10⁻⁴). Seventeen of 247 haplotype structures showed a suggestive association with IA (asymptotic p<0.001). Of ten SNP haplotype combinations, the CG combination of rs3900446 and rs763497 reached Bonferroni-adjusted significant threshold in IA patients (minor haplotype frequency=0.113, asymptotic p=1.3×10⁻⁵). However, there was no association between aneurysm rupture and the LOX gene. This preliminary study indicated that LOX gene polymorphisms, such as rs2303656, rs3900446, and rs763497, may play crucial roles in IA formation in the Korean population. Our novel findings need to be validated in a large-scale independent population.

  7. Effects of Meteorological Variables on the Incidence of Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysms in Central New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Marissa; Petrov, Dimitriy; Agarwal, Nitin; Patel, Nitesh V; Hansberry, David Richard; Agarwal, Prateek; Brimacombe, Michael; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles

    2016-11-30

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested relationships between the rupture of intracranial aneurysms and meteorological variables such as season, barometric pressure, and temperature. Our objective was to examine the relationship between the incidence of hospital admissions secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and meteorological variables in central New Jersey. Methods The study population consisted of 312 patients who presented to University Hospital in Newark, New Jersey, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, with aSAH. Days in the 6-year period were classified as nonbleed days (no aSAH), bleed days (one or more aSAHs within 1 calendar day), cluster days (two or more aSAHs within 2 calendar days), and multiple-bleed days (two or more aSAHs within 1 calendar day). Results The only significant meteorological risk factor for the occurrence of multiple-bleed days was high barometric pressure (1018.5 versus 1016.5 millibars [mbars]; p < 0.04), but an increase in barometric pressure (+ 2.8 mbars) over the 2 days prior to the multiple-bleed day, although not statistically significant, may be a risk factor (p < 0.09). Barometric pressure was also noted to be increased on bleed days (1017.2 versus 1016.5 mbars) and cluster days (1017.7 versus 1016.5 mbars), but this relationship was not significant (p < 0.1 and p < 0.1, respectively). Although aSAH days demonstrated consistently lower temperatures than non-aSAH days and dropping temperatures were consistently found in the days preceding the aSAH, these relationships were not significant. Conclusion Among meteorological factors, high barometric pressure and low temperature may be risk factors for the onset of aSAH.

  8. Spanish Registry for Embolization of Small Intracranial Aneurysms with Cerecyte Coils (SPAREC) Study*

    PubMed Central

    Castro, E.; Villoria, F.; Castaño, C.; Romance, A.; Mendez, J.C.; Barrena, R.; Fortea, F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary This study aimed to report the results obtained in treating small ruptured and unruptu-red intracranial aneurysms using Cerecyte coils. A prospective, non-randomized multicenter registry operating in Spain with a reporting period between May 2005 and September 2007. We present clinical and angiographic results for 48 small aneurysms (26 ruptured, five with III cranial nerve paresis, and 17 incidental) that had undergone six months’ follow-up. The volumetric percentage occlusion (VPO) achieved and percentage bioactive coils (PBC) used were assessed. No episodes of bleeding occurred during the follow-up period. The technical complication rate was 10.4% (five cases): four thromboembolic complications resolved with medication (8.3%) and one asymptomatic protrusion of a coil into the parent vessel. The clinical complication rate for the procedure was 2.1% (occlusion of the anterior choroidal artery in a ruptured anterior choroidal anaeurysm). Mean VPO was 25.2%. Balloon-assisted technique (BAT) was used in 60.4% of cases. The VPO was higher in the BAT-treated cases (P<0.05). The overall six-month recanalization rate was 16.7% (12.5% minor and 4.2% major recanalizations). Neck size and VPO were unrelated to the recanalization rate. The PBC was higher in cases with progressive Deployment of the device is safe from the standpoint of periprocedural technical and clinical complications. No episodes of hemorrhage were recorded during follow-up. The six-month recanalization and retreatment rates compared favorably with most endovascular platinum and bioactive coil series. PMID:20557737

  9. Patient Radiation Dose in Diagnostic and Interventional Procedures for Intracranial Aneurysms: Experience at a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Chang Woo; Lee, Cheol Hyoun; Ihn, Yon Kwon; Shin, Yong-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms in a large sample size from a single center. Materials and Methods We studied a sample of 439 diagnostic and 149 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms in 480 patients (331 females, 149 males; median age, 57 years; range, 21-88 years), which were performed in 2012 with a biplane unit. Parameters including fluoroscopic time, dose-area product (DAP), and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed. Results Mean fluoroscopic time, total mean DAP, and total image frames were 12.6 minutes, 136.6 ± 44.8 Gy-cm2, and 251 ± 49 frames for diagnostic procedures, 52.9 minutes, 226.0 ± 129.2 Gy-cm2, and 241 frames for therapeutic procedures, and 52.2 minutes, 334.5 ± 184.6 Gy-cm2, and 408 frames for when both procedures were performed during the same session. The third quartiles for diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were 14.0, 61.1, and 66.1 minutes for fluoroscopy time, 154.2, 272.8, and 393.8 Gy-cm2 for DAP, and 272, 276, and 535 for numbers of image frames in diagnostic, therapeutic, and both procedures in the same session, respectively. The proportions of fluoroscopy in DAP for the procedures were 11.4%, 50.5%, and 36.1%, respectively, for the three groups. The mean DAP for each 3-dimensional rotational angiographic acquisition was 19.2 ± 3.2 Gy-cm2. On average, rotational angiography was used 1.4 ± 0.6 times/session (range, 1-4; n = 580). Conclusion Radiation dose in our study as measured by DAP, fluoroscopy time and image frames did not differ significantly from other reported DRL studies for cerebral angiography, and DAP was lower with fewer angiographic image frames for embolization. A national registry of radiation-dose data is a necessary next step to refine the dose reference level. PMID:25469098

  10. Patient Radiation Exposure During Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures for Intracranial Aneurysms: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Ihn, Yon Kwon; Byun, Jun Soo; Suh, Sang Hyun; Won, Yoo Dong; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Byung Moon; Kim, Young Soo; Jeon, Pyong; Ryu, Chang-Woo; Suh, Sang-il; Choi, Dae Seob; Choi, See Sung; Choi, Jin Wook; Chang, Hyuk Won; Lee, Jae-Wook; Kim, Sang Heum; Lee, Young Jun; Shin, Shang Hun; Lim, Soo Mee; Yoon, Woong; Jeong, Hae Woong; Han, Moon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms across multi-centers and propose a diagnostic reference level (DRL). Materials and Methods We studied a sample of 490 diagnostic and 371 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms, which were performed at 23 hospitals in Korea in 2015. Parameters including dose-area product (DAP), cumulative air kerma (CAK), fluoroscopic time and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed. Results Total mean DAP, CAK, fluoroscopy time, and total angiographic image frames were 106.2 ± 66.4 Gy-cm2, 697.1 ± 473.7 mGy, 9.7 ± 6.5 minutes, 241.5 ± 116.6 frames for diagnostic procedures, 218.8 ± 164.3 Gy-cm2, 3365.7 ± 2205.8 mGy, 51.5 ± 31.1 minutes, 443.5 ± 270.7 frames for therapeutic procedures, respectively. For diagnostic procedure, the third quartiles for DRLs were 144.2 Gy-cm2 for DAP, 921.1 mGy for CAK, 12.2 minutes for fluoroscopy times and 286.5 for number of image frames, respectively. For therapeutic procedures, the third quartiles for DRLs were 271.0 Gy-cm2 for DAP, 4471.3 mGy for CAK, 64.7 minutes for fluoroscopy times and 567.3 for number of image frames, respectively. On average, rotational angiography was used 1.5 ± 0.7 times/session (range, 0-4; n=490) for diagnostic procedures and 1.6 ± 1.2 times/session (range, 0-4; n=368) for therapeutic procedures, respectively. Conclusion Radiation dose as measured by DAP, fluoroscopy time and image frames were lower in our patients compared to another study regarding cerebral angiography, and DAP was lower with fewer angiographic image frames for therapeutic procedures. Proposed DRLs can be used for quality assurance and patient safety in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. PMID:27621943

  11. Variability of hemodynamic parameters using the common viscosity assumption in a computational fluid dynamics analysis of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Takao, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takamasa; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Masuda, Shunsuke; Dahmani, Chihebeddine; Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Mamori, Hiroya; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Hideki; Yamamoto, Makoto; Murayama, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In most simulations of intracranial aneurysm hemodynamics, blood is assumed to be a Newtonian fluid. However, it is a non-Newtonian fluid, and its viscosity profile differs among individuals. Therefore, the common viscosity assumption may not be valid for all patients. This study aims to test the suitability of the common viscosity assumption. Blood viscosity datasets were obtained from two healthy volunteers. Three simulations were performed for three different-sized aneurysms, two using measured value-based non-Newtonian models and one using a Newtonian model. The parameters proposed to predict an aneurysmal rupture obtained using the non-Newtonian models were compared with those obtained using the Newtonian model. The largest difference (25%) in the normalized wall shear stress (NWSS) was observed in the smallest aneurysm. Comparing the difference ratio to the NWSS with the Newtonian model between the two Non-Newtonian models, the difference of the ratio was 17.3%. Irrespective of the aneurysmal size, computational fluid dynamics simulations with either the common Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity assumption could lead to values different from those of the patient-specific viscosity model for hemodynamic parameters such as NWSS.

  12. In Vivo Quantification of Flow Dynamics in Intracranial Aneurysms Using Intra-Operative Contrast-Specific Ultrasound and PIV Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CantÓN, G.Á.}Dor

    2005-11-01

    The goal of this study is to assess in vivo the hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms using ultrasound and Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) techniques. An ultrasound machine, equipped with an intra-operative transducer, was used to visualize the flow features inside an aneurysm with the aid of microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agent. The ultrasound studies were done using a Phase Inversion technique. Operating in the Doppler mode, the flow velocities in the afferent and the downstream vascular segments as well as inside the aneurysm were recorded and assessed. We analyzed the ultrasound data sets with a DPIV technique using backscattered signals from the microbubbles. The spatial and temporal distribution of velocity, vorticity, and stress fields was measured. These quantities were also measured in an in vitro aneurysmal model using the DPIV system. Our study shows that an advanced contrast-specific ultrasound technique in combination with a DPIV technique can be used to quantify in real time the flow-mechanical patterns inside the aneurysm.

  13. Educational and interactive informed consent process for treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaechan; Son, Wonsoo; Park, Ki-Su; Kang, Dong-Hun; Lee, Joomi; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Kim, Taesun; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE For patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs), the information transfer that precedes informed consent needs to be in-depth and detailed, as most patients with a UIA have no symptoms, yet the