Science.gov

Sample records for intramolecular nucleophilic addition

  1. Nucleophilic Additions to Coordinated 1,10-Phenanthroline: Intramolecular, Intermolecular, Reversible, and Irreversible.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Rebeca; Menéndez, M Isabel; López, Ramón; Merino, Isabel; Riera, Lucía; Pérez, Julio

    2016-12-12

    KN(SiMe3 )2 reacts with [Re(CO)3 (phen)(PMe3 )]OTf via reversible addition to the phen ligand and irreversible deprotonation of the PMe3 ligand followed by intramolecular attack to phen by the deprotonated phosphane, whereas MeLi irreversibly adds to phen. The addition of MeLi has been shown to be intermolecular, unlike previously known nucleophilic additions to pyridines. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The role of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in nucleophilic addition reactions of ketenaminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Quantum-chemical calculations of the geometries and electronic structures of molecules of ketenaminals 3-(diaminomethylene)-2,4-pentanedione and dimethyl-2-(diaminomethylene)-malonate and calculations of the structures of intermediates in the reaction of the nucleophilic addition of the ketenaminals to the acetonitrile molecule are performed by B3LYP/6-31+G** method. Two possible scenarios of the process are shown, depending on the mutual orientation of reacting molecules. The nucleophilic addition proceeds in two stages. It is found that the rate-limiting stage of the process is the transfer of the proton of the intramolecular hydrogen bond in a ketenaminal molecule. The experimentally observed faster reaction of pyrimidine formation for the 3-(diaminomethylene)-2,4-pentanedione molecule relative to that for dimethyl-2-(diaminomethylene)-malonate is explained by the hydrogen bond being stronger and the barrier of proton transfer from the aminogroup to the ketogroup oxygen falling upon nucleophilic attack in the former molecule.

  3. Nucleophilic addition of benzimidazoles to alkynyl bromides/palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H vinylation: synthesis of benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1-a]isoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinsong; Shang, Guoning; Chen, Chunxia; Miao, Zhongshuo; Li, Bin

    2013-02-01

    An efficient "one-pot" route for the synthesis of benzo[4,5]imidazo[2,1-a] isoquinolines has been developed via nucleophilic addition of 2-aryl benzimidazoles to alkynyl bromides and subsequent palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H vinylation.

  4. The syn/anti-Dichotomy in the Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Nucleophiles to Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Kočovský, Pavel; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-01-01

    In this review the stereochemistry of palladium-catalyzed addition of nucleophiles to alkenes is discussed, and examples of these reactions in organic synthesis are given. Most of the reactions discussed involve oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles; the Wacker oxidation of ethylene has been reviewed in detail. An anti-hydroxypalladation in the Wacker oxidation has strong support from both experimental and computational studies. From the reviewed material it is clear that anti-addition of oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles is strongly favored in intermolecular addition to olefin–palladium complexes even if the nucleophile is coordinated to the metal. On the other hand, syn-addition is common in the case of intramolecular oxy- and amidopalladation as a result of the initial coordination of the internal nucleophile to the metal. PMID:25378278

  5. Intramolecular long-distance nucleophilic reactions as a rapid fluorogenic switch applicable to the detection of enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Baba, Reisuke; Hori, Yuichiro; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2015-03-16

    Long-distance intramolecular nucleophilic reactions are promising strategies for the design of fluorogenic probes to detect enzymatic activity involved in lysine modifications. However, such reactions have been challenging and hence have not been established. In this study, we have prepared fluorogenic peptides that induce intramolecular reactions between lysine nucleophiles and electrophiles in distal positions. These peptides contain a lysine and fluorescence-quenched fluorophore with a carbonate ester, which triggers nucleophilic transesterification resulting in fluorogenic response. Transesterification occurred under mild aqueous conditions despite the presence of a long nine-amino-acid spacer between the lysine and fluorophore. In addition, one of the peptides showed the fastest reaction kinetics with a half-life time of 3.7 min. Furthermore, the incorporation of this fluorogenic switch into the probes allowed rapid fluorogenic detection of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. These results indicate that the transesterification reaction has great potential for use as a general fluorogenic switch to monitor the activity of lysine-targeting enzymes.

  6. Gold(I)-catalyzed asymmetric induction of planar chirality by intramolecular nucleophilic addition to chromium-complexed alkynylarenes: asymmetric synthesis of planar chiral (1H-isochromene and 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline)chromium complexes.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masato; Sota, Yumi; Onohara, Yuki; Uenishi, Jun'ichi; Uemura, Motokazu

    2013-11-01

    Gold(I)-catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular cyclization of prochiral 1,3-dihydroxymethyl-2-alkynylbenzene or 1,3-bis(carbamate)-2-alkynylbenzene tricarbonylchromium complexes with axially chiral diphosphine ligand gave planar chiral tricarbonylchromium complexes of 1H-isochromene or 1,2-dihydroisoquinoline with high enantioselectivity. An enantiomeric excess of the planar chiral arene chromium complexes was largely affected by a combination of axially chiral diphosphine(AuCl)2 precatalysts and silver salts. In the case of 1,3-dihydroxymethyl-2-alkynylbenzene chromium complexes, a system of segphos(AuCl)2 with AgBF4 resulted in the formation of the corresponding antipode.

  7. A new approach to cyclic hydroxamic acids: Intramolecular cyclization of N-benzyloxy carbamates with carbon nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Jacobs, Hollie K.

    2011-01-01

    N-Alkyl-N-benzyloxy carbamates, 2, undergo facile intramolecular cyclization with a variety of carbon nucleophiles to give functionalized 5- and 6-membered protected cyclic hydroxamic acids, 3, in good to excellent yields. This method can be extended to prepare seven-membered cyclic hydroxamic acids in moderate yields. The sulfone intermediates 3 from this study can be alkylated while the corresponding phosphonates have been shown to undergo HWE reaction. The α,β-unsaturated synthon, 8, prepared by thermal elimination of sulfoxide 3m, undergoes Michael addition with secondary amines. The usefulness of this approach to prepare polydentate chelators has been demonstrated by the synthesis of bis cyclic hydroxamic acids 12, 14, and 15. PMID:21499514

  8. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; El-Zawahry, Manal M.; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  9. Nucleophilic Addition vs. Substituion: A Puzzle for the Organic Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1998-02-01

    An experiment has been devised that allows a student to prove that nucleophilic addition to a keto group predominates over nucleophilic substitution at an ester group in a case in which both are theoretically possible. The student reacts ethyl 2-acetyl-3-oxobutanoate with hydrazine and with phenylhydrazine and shows, by 1H NMR spectroscopy, that the products are 4-carbethoxypyrazoles and not 4-acetylpyrazolones. Students may also use 1H NMR to show that ethyl 2-acetyl-3-oxobutanoate is 100% enolized in carbon tetrachloride solution. The experiment asks the student to solve a puzzle, which adds to the student's interest and sense of excitement. It can also be used to teach students how to conduct a literature search. The products obtained are described in the literature, so students can be asked to compare their melting points with those of other workers.

  10. Nucleophilic addition/double cyclization cascade processes between enynyl Fischer carbene complexes and alkynyl malonates.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Suárez-Rodríguez, Tatiana; Suárez-Sobrino, Ángel L

    2014-07-18

    Two new selective cascade processes for enynyl Fischer carbene complexes 1 are described in their reaction with alkynyl malonates. When carbene complexes 1 react with the sodium enolate of homopropargyl malonates 3 a consecutive Michael-type addition/cyclopentannulation/6-exo cyclization takes place leading, in a regio- and stereoselective way, to n/5/6 angular tricyclic compounds 5. Furthermore, when propargylic malonates are used, a delayed protonation of the reaction mixture allows intermediate 1,4-addition adduct Ia to evolve through a 5-exo cyclization, consisting of an intramolecular nucleophilic attack from the central carbon of the allenylmetallate over the triple C-C bond. Further spontaneous cyclopentannulation of the resulting metallatriene gives rise to bicyclic and linear polycyclic compounds 6 and 7, some of them bearing a polyquinane framework.

  11. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  12. Nucleophilic Addition of Nitrogen to Aryl Cations: Mimicking Titan Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anyin; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2013-11-01

    The reactivity of aryl cations toward molecular nitrogen is studied systematically in an ion trap mass spectrometer at 102 Pascal of nitrogen, the pressure of the Titan main haze layer. Nucleophilic addition of dinitrogen occurs and the nature of aryl group has a significant influence on the reactivity, through inductive effects and by changing the ground state spin multiplicity. The products of nitrogen activation, aryldiazonium ions, react with typical nitriles, aromatic amines, and alkynes (compounds that are relevant as possible Titan atmosphere constituents) to form covalently bonded heterocyclic products. Theoretical calculations at the level [DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p)] indicate that the N2 addition reaction is exothermic for the singlet aryl cations but endothermic for their triplet spin isomers. The -OH and -NH2 substituted aryl ions are calculated to have triplet ground states, which is consistent with their decreased nitrogen addition reactivity. The energy needed for the generation of the aryl cations from their protonated precursors (ca. 340 kJ/mol starting with protonated aniline) is far less than that required to directly activate the nitrogen triple bond (the lowest energy excited state of N2 lies ca. 600 kJ/mol above the ground state). The formation of aza-aromatics via arene ionization and subsequent reactions provide a conceivable route to the genesis of nitrogen-containing organic molecules in the interstellar medium and Titan haze layers.

  13. Nucleophilic addition of nitrogen to aryl cations: mimicking Titan chemistry.

    PubMed

    Li, Anyin; Jjunju, Fred P M; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-11-01

    The reactivity of aryl cations toward molecular nitrogen is studied systematically in an ion trap mass spectrometer at 10(2) Pascal of nitrogen, the pressure of the Titan main haze layer. Nucleophilic addition of dinitrogen occurs and the nature of aryl group has a significant influence on the reactivity, through inductive effects and by changing the ground state spin multiplicity. The products of nitrogen activation, aryldiazonium ions, react with typical nitriles, aromatic amines, and alkynes (compounds that are relevant as possible Titan atmosphere constituents) to form covalently bonded heterocyclic products. Theoretical calculations at the level [DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p)] indicate that the N2 addition reaction is exothermic for the singlet aryl cations but endothermic for their triplet spin isomers. The -OH and -NH2 substituted aryl ions are calculated to have triplet ground states, which is consistent with their decreased nitrogen addition reactivity. The energy needed for the generation of the aryl cations from their protonated precursors (ca. 340 kJ/mol starting with protonated aniline) is far less than that required to directly activate the nitrogen triple bond (the lowest energy excited state of N2 lies ca. 600 kJ/mol above the ground state). The formation of aza-aromatics via arene ionization and subsequent reactions provide a conceivable route to the genesis of nitrogen-containing organic molecules in the interstellar medium and Titan haze layers.

  14. Nucleophilic 1,4-additions for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Cox, Courtney L; Tietz, Jonathan I; Sokolowski, Karol; Melby, Joel O; Doroghazi, James R; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2014-09-19

    Natural products remain an important source of drug candidates, but the difficulties inherent to traditional isolation, coupled with unacceptably high rates of compound rediscovery, limit the pace of natural product detection. Here we describe a reactivity-based screening method to rapidly identify exported bacterial metabolites that contain dehydrated amino acids (i.e., carbonyl- or imine-activated alkenes), a common motif in several classes of natural products. Our strategy entails the use of a commercially available thiol, dithiothreitol, for the covalent labeling of activated alkenes by nucleophilic 1,4-addition. Modification is easily discerned by comparing mass spectra of reacted and unreacted cell surface extracts. When combined with bioinformatic analysis of putative natural product gene clusters, targeted screening and isolation can be performed on a prioritized list of strains. Moreover, known compounds are easily dereplicated, effectively eliminating superfluous isolation and characterization. As a proof of principle, this labeling method was used to identify known natural products belonging to the thiopeptide, lanthipeptide, and linaridin classes. Further, upon screening a panel of only 23 actinomycetes, we discovered and characterized a novel thiopeptide antibiotic, cyclothiazomycin C.

  15. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  16. Gold as a catalyst. Part I. Nucleophilic addition to the triple bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyabyev, S. B.; Beletskaya, I. P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper is the first in a series of reviews of the state of-the-art in gold catalysis in organic synthesis and covers the literature over the past decade. The first review addresses the problem of the nucleophilic addition to the triple bond. Gold catalysts used in the hydroamination of alkynes and the addition of oxygen-containing nucleophiles and thiols are considered. The data concerning intra- and intermolecular types of transformations are given separately. The α,α-nucleophilic addition and Au carbene intermediates are discussed. The bibliography includes 568 references.

  17. Nucleophilic addition to 2,3-pyridyne and synthesis of benzonaphthyridinones.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuesi; Larock, Richard C

    2012-04-01

    A study of the nucleophilic addition of amines to 2,3-pyridyne has been carried out. 2-Aminopyridines have been generated exclusively. A series of benzonaphthyridinones have been synthesized by reacting 2,3-pyridyne and o-aminobenzoates.

  18. Nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed intramolecular Michael reactions of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles: construction of functionalized pyrrolidine rings via 5-endo-trig cyclizations.

    PubMed

    En, Da; Zou, Gong-Feng; Guo, Yuan; Liao, Wei-Wei

    2014-05-16

    Pyrrolidine rings are common moieties for pharmaceutical candidates and natural compounds, and the construction of these skeletons has received much attention. α-Amino nitriles are versatile intermediates in synthetic chemistry and have been widely used in the generation of multiple polyfunctional structures. Herein, a novel nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed intramolecular Michael reaction of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles has been developed for the efficient construction of functionalized 2,4-disubstituted pyrrolidines (N-heterocyclic α-amino nitriles) via 5-endo-trig cyclization. Furthermore, the one-pot sequence of the synthesis of pyrrolidine and the subsequent transformations of the functionalized products have also been demonstrated.

  19. Nucleophilic Addition of Organozinc Reagents to 2-Sulfonyl Cyclic Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoungsu; Kasper, Amanda C.; Moon, Eui Jung; Park, Yongho; Wooten, Ceshea M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Hong, Jiyong

    2009-01-01

    A convergent route to the synthesis of manassantins A and B, potent inhibitors of HIF-1, is described. Central to the synthesis is a stereoselective addition of an organozinc reagent to a 2-benzenesulfonyl cyclic ether to achieve the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-4,5-cis-tetrahydrofuran of the natural products. Preliminary structure—activity relationships suggested that the (R)-configuration at C-7 and C-7″′ is not critical for HIF-1 inhibition. In addition, the hydroxyl group at C-7 and C-7″′ can be replaced with carbonyl group without loss of activity. PMID:19111058

  20. Efficient synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted (pyrrol-2-yl)acetic acid esters via dual nucleophilic reactions of sulfonamides or carbamate with 4-trimethyl-siloxy-(5E)-hexen-2-ynoates: Lewis acid catalyzed SN1 and intramolecular Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Teruhiko; Aikawa, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shinichiro; Saito, Seiki

    2006-08-17

    [reaction: see text] Carbamates or sulfonamides have proven to regioselectively attack 2-propynyl-allyl hybrid cations, generated by the action of TMSOTf on 4-(trimethylsioxy)hex-5-en-2-ynoates, to afford conjugated 6-aminohex-4-en-2-ynoates in which an intramolecular amino-Michael reaction took place, leading to pyrrole frameworks. In particular, the sulfonamides gave 1-sulfonylpyrroles in one pot.

  1. Nucleophilic addition to 2,3-pyridyne and synthesis of benzonaphthyridinones

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuesi; Larock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    A study of the nucleophilic addition of amines to 2,3-pyridyne has been carried out. 2-Aminopyridines have been generated exclusively. A series of benzonaphthyridinones have been synthesized by reacting 2,3-pyridyne and o-aminobenzoates. PMID:23519554

  2. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…

  3. Highly diastereoselective nucleophilic addition to myrtenal. Straightforward synthesis of an enantiopure scorpionate ligand.

    PubMed

    Otero, Antonio; Fernandez-Baeza, Juan; Antiñolo, Antonio; Tejeda, Juan; Lara-Sanchez, Agustín; Sanchez-Barba, Luis F; Sanchez-Molina, Margarita; Franco, Sonia; López-Solera, Maria I; Rodríguez, Ana M

    2007-10-15

    The work described here represents the first example in which an efficient and highly diastereoselective nucleophilic 1,2-addition of an organolithium reagent has been performed on a carbonylic prostereogenic center to give an enantiopure scorpionate ligand in only one step.

  4. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…

  5. Lewis Acid Mediated Vinylogous Additions of Enol Nucleophiles into an α,β-Unsaturated Platinum Carbene

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Paul A.; Huynh, Khoi; Ozumerzifon, Tarik J.; Ferreira, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of substituted indoles and benzofurans are accessed via a platinum catalyzed annulation and vinylogous addition of enol nucleophiles. Several β-dicarbonyl compounds participate in the reaction, as do α-nitro and α-cyano carbonyl species. Subjecting the indole products to acidic conditions results in the formation of fused heterocycles. PMID:26652926

  6. Phosphine-catalyzed intramolecular γ-umpolung addition of α-aminoalkylallenic esters: facile synthesis of 3-carbethoxy-2-alkyl-3-pyrrolines†‡

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ian P.; Blank, Brian R.; Kwon, Ohyun

    2014-01-01

    An array of N-tosylated α-aminoalkylallenic esters was prepared and their cyclization under the influence of nucleophilic phosphine catalysts was explored. The α-aminoalkylallenic esters were prepared through aza-Baylis–Hillman reactions or novel DABCO-mediated decarboxylative rearrangements of allenylic carbamates. Conversion of these substrates to 3-carbethoxy-2-alkyl-3-pyrrolines was facilitated through Ph3P-catalyzed intramolecular γ-umpolung addition. PMID:22526463

  7. Nucleophilic addition to silyl-protected five-membered ring oxocarbenium ions governed by stereoelectronic effects

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Vi Tuong

    2013-01-01

    A series of fused-bicyclic acetals containing a disiloxane ring was investigated to evaluate the source of selectivity in silyl-protected 2-deoxyribose systems. The disiloxane ring unexpectedly enables the diaxial conformer of the cation to be stabilized by an electronegative atom at C-3. This low energy conformer subsequently undergoes stereoelectronically controlled nucleophilic addition to give substituted tetrahydrofurans with high diastereoselectivity. PMID:23738497

  8. Asymmetric catalysis for the construction of quaternary carbon centres: nucleophilic addition on ketones and ketimines.

    PubMed

    Riant, Olivier; Hannedouche, Jérôme

    2007-03-21

    There is a growing need in organic synthesis for efficient methodologies for the asymmetric synthesis of quaternary carbon centres. One of the most attractive and straightforward methods focuses on the use of asymmetric catalysis for the addition of various types of nucleophiles on prochiral ketones and ketimines. A view of the literature from this growing area of research will be presented in this review, with an emphasis on the pioneer works and milestones brought by the main players in this field.

  9. Lewis acid activation of pyridines for nucleophilic aromatic substitution and conjugate addition.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shehada, Sarah; Teasdale, Matthew C; Bull, Steven D; Wade, Charles E; Williams, Jonathan M J

    2015-03-01

    A clean, mild and sustainable method for the functionalization of pyridines and their analogues is reported. A zinc-based Lewis acid is used to activate pyridine and its analogues towards nucleophilic aromatic substitution, conjugate addition, and cyclization reactions by binding to the nitrogen on the pyridine ring and activating the pyridine ring core towards further functionalization. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 4-Trifluoromethyl-p-quinols as dielectrophiles: three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reactions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinhuan; Shi, Lou; Pan, Ling; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, numerous methods have emerged for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the late-stage introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an aryl ring. In sharp comparison, the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an "aromatic to be" carbon has rarely been addressed. It has been found that 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers, the readily available and relatively stable compounds, can act as dielectrophiles to be applied to multi-component reactions for the synthesis of various trifluoromethylated arenes. Catalyzed by In(OTf)3, 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers react with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles, respectively, in a regiospecific 1,2-addition manner to generate the corresponding highly reactive electrophilic intermediates. Further reaction of the in-situ generated electrophiles with a C-nucleophile followed by spontaneous aromatization enables the construction of functionalized trifluoromethyl arenes. This three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reaction based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an "aromatic to be" carbon provides a divergent strategy for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes under mild reaction conditions in a single operation.

  11. 4-Trifluoromethyl-p-quinols as dielectrophiles: three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reactions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jinhuan; Shi, Lou; Pan, Ling; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, numerous methods have emerged for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the late-stage introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an aryl ring. In sharp comparison, the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an “aromatic to be” carbon has rarely been addressed. It has been found that 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers, the readily available and relatively stable compounds, can act as dielectrophiles to be applied to multi-component reactions for the synthesis of various trifluoromethylated arenes. Catalyzed by In(OTf)3, 4-trifluoromethyl-p-quinol silyl ethers react with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles, respectively, in a regiospecific 1,2-addition manner to generate the corresponding highly reactive electrophilic intermediates. Further reaction of the in-situ generated electrophiles with a C-nucleophile followed by spontaneous aromatization enables the construction of functionalized trifluoromethyl arenes. This three-component, double nucleophilic addition/aromatization reaction based on the pre-introduction of a trifluoromethyl group onto an “aromatic to be” carbon provides a divergent strategy for the synthesis of trifluoromethylated arenes under mild reaction conditions in a single operation. PMID:27246540

  12. Theoretical exploration of the mechanism of riboflavin formation from 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine: nucleophilic catalysis, hydride transfer, hydrogen atom transfer, or nucleophilic addition?

    PubMed

    Breugst, Martin; Eschenmoser, Albert; Houk, K N

    2013-05-01

    The cofactor riboflavin is biochemically synthesized by a constitutionally intricate process in which two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine react with each other to form one molecule of the cofactor and one molecule of 5-amino-6-(ribitylamino)uracil. Remarkably, this complex molecular transformation also proceeds non-enzymatically in boiling aqueous solution at pH 7.3. Four different mechanistic pathways for this transformation (nucleophilic catalysis, hydride transfer, hydrogen atom transfer, and a nucleophilic addition mechanism) have now been analyzed by density functional theory [M06-2X/def2-TZVPP/CPCM//M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p)/IEFPCM]. On the basis of these computational results, a so far unpublished nucleophilic addition mechanism is the lowest energy pathway yielding riboflavin. The previously proposed mechanism involving nucleophilic catalysis is higher in energy but is still a viable alternative for an enzyme-catalyzed process assisted by suitably positioned catalytic groups. Pathways involving the transfer of a hydride ion or of a hydrogen atom are predicted to proceed through higher energy transition states and intermediates.

  13. Recent Developments in Metal-Catalyzed Additions of Oxygen Nucleophiles to Alkenes and Alkynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintermann, Lukas

    Progress in the field of metal-catalyzed redox-neutral additions of oxygen nucleophiles (water, alcohols, carboxylic acids, and others) to alkenes, alkynes, and allenes between 2001 and 2009 is critically reviewed. Major advances in reaction chemistry include development of chiral Lewis acid catalyzed asymmetric oxa-Michael additions and Lewis-acid catalyzed hydro-alkoxylations of nonactivated olefins, as well as further development of Markovnikov-selective cationic gold complex-catalyzed additions of alcohols or water to alkynes and allenes.

  14. FeCl3-Mediated Synthesis of β-Alkynyl Ketones via Domino Nucleophilic-Substitution/Intramolecular-Cyclization/Reverse Claisen Condensation of N-Cyclohexyl Propargylamines and 1,3-Diketones.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yongjia; Hu, Xiaoqian; He, Xinwei; Tao, Jiajia; Han, Guang; Wu, Fuli; Wang, Jie

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis of β-alkynyl ketones was achieved in good to excellent yields by an iron-catalyzed domino reaction of N-cyclohexyl propargylamines and 1,3-diketones. A plausible mechanism involving nucleophilic substitution, intramolecular cyclization, and reverse Claisen condensation for this process is proposed.

  15. Improved Synthesis of and Nucleophilic Addition to 2-Formyl-2-Cyclohexenone.

    PubMed

    Adary, Elan M; Chang, Chih-Wei; Auria, Damian T D'; Nguyen, Phuc M; Polewacz, Klaudyna; Reinicke, Justin A; Seo, Hannah; Berger, Gideon O

    2015-01-08

    A preparation of 2-formyl-2-cyclohexenone in nearly quantitative yield and purity of approximately 95% is described. It is scalable and has been extended to the synthesis of the 5- and 7-membered ring homologs with comparable yields. Conditions have also been developed for the successful conjugate addition of dimethylmalonate to 2-formyl-2-cyclohexenone, in good and scalable yield (60%). This result has been extended to 5 other nucleophile classes, and the dimethylmalonate conjugate addition has been demonstrated with 2-formyl-2-cyclopentenone and 2-formyl-2-cycloheptenone.

  16. Bicyclo[3.2.1]octane synthons from cyclopropenes: functionalization of cycloadducts by nucleophilic additions.

    PubMed

    Orugunty, Ravi S; Wright, Dennis L; Battiste, Merle A; Helmich, Richard J; Abboud, Khalil

    2004-01-23

    It has been known for several decades that a highly functionalized family of tetrahalobicyclo[3.2.1]octadienes are readily available through the cycloaddition of furan or cyclopentadiene with either tetrachloro- or tetrabromocyclopropene. However, the application of these highly functionalized building blocks in synthesis has remained relatively unexplored in relation to their better-known counterparts derived through oxyallyl cation additions. As a first step toward utilizing these highly versatile intermediates in synthesis, a study of the addition of various nucleophiles to the halogenated nucleus has been conducted. It has been found that these halogenated systems are amenable to a wide range of functionalizations in high yields and with good selectivities.

  17. Metal-catalyzed reductive coupling of olefin-derived nucleophiles: Reinventing carbonyl addition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khoa D; Park, Boyoung Y; Luong, Tom; Sato, Hiroki; Garza, Victoria J; Krische, Michael J

    2016-10-21

    α-Olefins are the most abundant petrochemical feedstock beyond alkanes, yet their use in commodity chemical manufacture is largely focused on polymerization and hydroformylation. The development of byproduct-free catalytic C-C bond-forming reactions that convert olefins to value-added products remains an important objective. Here, we review catalytic intermolecular reductive couplings of unactivated and activated olefin-derived nucleophiles with carbonyl partners. These processes represent an alternative to the longstanding use of stoichiometric organometallic reagents in carbonyl addition. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R

    2015-07-14

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the acridone product of the synthesis are analyzed by common techniques available in most undergraduate chemistry laboratories, such as melting point, TLC, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Yields for each transformation in the synthesis are generally moderately low to good (20-90%) and nearly all of the students (>90%) who attempted the synthesis were able to produce the final acridone product.

  19. Extremely strong organic-metal oxide electronic coupling caused by nucleophilic addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2015-07-07

    Electronic interactions between organic materials and inorganic semiconductors play important roles in various electronic and optoelectronic functions and also provide new functions such as optical interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions having the following features. ICT transitions enable the capture of lower-energy photons than HOMO-LUMO gaps or band gaps and allow one-step charge separation without loss of energy. The hybrid material generated by the nucleophilic addition reaction between TiO2 and TCNQ exclusively exhibits strong ICT transitions. In this study, we report that strong organic-metal oxide electronic coupling is caused by the nucleophilic addition reaction, which enhances the ICT transitions. The electronic coupling between TiO2 and TCNQ occurs according to a two-step mechanism. First, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO (π*)) of TCNQ is elevated by the nucleophilic attack of a deprotonated hydroxy group on TiO2 to TCNQ and the electron distribution is moved toward TiO2. By this elevation and redistribution, the LUMO (π*) strongly interacts with the d(t2g) orbitals of a surface Ti atom. From avoided-crossing behavior with a large splitting energy of ca. 0.95 eV, the coupling energy was estimated to be as much as 0.5 eV in the mono-Ti model complex. This strong d-π* electronic coupling leads to strong coupling between complete ICT excited states and partial ICT excited states with a large splitting energy of ca. 0.92 eV, which considerably increases the probabilities of ICT transition. This study clarified the mechanisms of the strong organic-inorganic electronic coupling and the enhancement of ICT absorption in the TiO2-TCNQ hybrid material.

  20. Nucleophilic addition to olefins. 19. Abnormally high intrinsic barrier in the reaction of piperidine and morpholine with benzylideneacetylacetone

    SciTech Connect

    Bernasconi, C.F.; Kanavarioti, A.

    1986-11-26

    The title reaction leads to the formation of the zwitterionic Michael adduct T/sup +/-/ (PhCH(R/sub 2/NH/sup +/)C(COCH/sub 3/)/sub 2//sup -/) which is in rapid acid-base equilibrium with its anionic form T/sup -/ (PhCH(R/sub 2/N)C(COCH/sub 3/)/sub 2//sup -/). Rate (K/sub 1/, k/sub -1/) and equilibrium constants (K/sub 1/) for nucleophilic addition and the pK/sub a/ of the T/sup +/-/-adducts were determined in 50% Me/sub 2/SO-50% water at 20/sup 0/C. From an interpolation of the rate constants to K/sub 1/ = 1 an intrinsic rate constant, log k/sub 0/ = 0.3, was determined. This value deviates negatively by approximately 2.5 log units from a correlation of log k/sub 0/ for amine addition to five olefins of the type PhCH=CXY, with log k/sub 0/ for the deprotonation of the corresponding carbon acids CH/sub 2/XY. Two major factors are believed to contribute to this depressed intrinsic rate constant or enhanced intrinsic barrier: (1) steric inhibition of resonance in T/sup +/-/ with the steric effect developing ahead of C-N bond formation (this conclusion is supported by an X-ray crystallographic study of p-methoxybenzylideneacetylacetone which shows that steric hindrance to optimal ..pi..-overlap in the adduct T/sup+/-/ is already present in the substrate); (2) intramolecular hydrogen bonding in T/sup +/-/, which is inferred from abnormally high pK/sub a/ values and whose development lags behind C-N bond formation. These effects are shown to be manifestations of the Principle of Nonperfect Synchronization.

  1. The development of catalytic nucleophilic additions of terminal alkynes in water.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Jun

    2010-04-20

    One of the major research endeavors in synthetic chemistry over the past two decades is the exploration of synthetic methods that work under ambient atmosphere with benign solvents, that maximize atom utilization, and that directly transform natural resources, such as renewable biomass, from their native states into useful chemical products, thus avoiding the need for protecting groups. The nucleophilic addition of terminal alkynes to various unsaturated electrophiles is a classical (textbook) reaction in organic chemistry, allowing the formation of a C-C bond while simultaneously introducing the alkyne functionality. A prerequisite of this classical reaction is the stoichiometric generation of highly reactive metal acetylides. Over the past decade, our laboratory and others have been exploring an alternative, the catalytic and direct nucleophilic addition of terminal alkynes to unsaturated electrophiles in water. We found that various terminal alkynes can react efficiently with a wide range of such electrophiles in water (or organic solvent) in the presence of simple and readily available catalysts, such as copper, silver, gold, iron, palladium, and others. In this Account, we describe the development of these synthetic methods, focusing primarily on results from our laboratory. Our studies include the following: (i) catalytic reaction of terminal alkynes with acid chloride, (ii) catalytic addition of terminal alkynes to aldehydes and ketones, (iii) catalytic addition of alkynes to C=N bonds, and (iv) catalytic conjugate additions. Most importantly, these reactions can tolerate various functional groups and, in many cases, perform better in water than in organic solvents, clearly defying classical reactivities predicated on the relative acidities of water, alcohols, and terminal alkynes. We further discuss multicomponent and enantioselective reactions that were developed. These methods provide an alternative to the traditional requirement of separate steps in

  2. Solid-State Reversible Nucleophilic Addition in a Highly Flexible MOF.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Arianna; Germann, Luzia S; Fisch, Martin; Casati, Nicola; Macchi, Piero

    2015-10-14

    A flexible and porous metal-organic framework, based on Co(II) connectors and benzotriazolide-5-carboxylato linkers, is shown to selectively react with guest molecules trapped in the channels during the sample preparation or after an exchange process. Stimulated by a small crystal shrinking, upon compression or cooling, the system undergoes a reversible, nonoxidative nucleophilic addition of the guest molecules to the metal ion. With dimethylformamide, only part of the penta-coordinated Co atoms transform into hexa-coordinated, whereas with the smaller methanol all of them stepwise increase their coordination, preserving the crystallinity of the solid at all stages. This extraordinary example of chemisorption has enormous implications for catalysis, storage, or selective sieving.

  3. Fluorescent "turn-on" detecting CN- by nucleophilic addition induced Schiff-base hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qi; Cai, Yi; Li, Qiao; Shi, Bing-Bing; Yao, Hong; Zhang, You-Ming; Wei, Tai-Bao

    2015-04-01

    A new chemosensor Sz based on Schiff-base group as recognition site and naphthalene as the fluorescence signal group was designed and synthesised. It could fluorescent "turn-on" detect cyanide (CN-) via a novel mechanism of nucleophilic addition induced Schiff-base hydrolysis. Adding the CN- into the solution of Sz could induce Sz to emit blue fluorescence at 435 nm instantly. Moreover, Sz could also colorimetric detect CN-. Upon the addition of CN-, the Sz showed dramatic color change from yellow to colorless. These sensing procedures could not be interfered by other coexistent competitive anions such as F-, AcO-, H2PO4- and SCN-. In addition, Sz showed high sensitivity for CN-, the detection limits is 3.42 × 10-8 M of CN-, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of CN- in drinking water (less than 1.9 × 10-6 M). The CN- test strips based on Sz could act as a convenient CN- test kits.

  4. The Wacker process: inner- or outer-sphere nucleophilic addition? New insights from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Comas-Vives, Aleix; Stirling, András; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori

    2010-08-02

    The Wacker process consists of the oxidation of ethylene catalyzed by a Pd(II) complex. The reaction mechanism has been largely debated in the literature; two modes for the nucleophilic addition of water to a Pd-coordinated alkene have been proposed: syn-inner- and anti-outer-sphere mechanisms. These reaction steps have been theoretically evaluated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics combined with metadynamics by placing the [Pd(C(2)H(4))Cl(2)(H(2)O)] complex in a box of water molecules, thereby resembling experimental conditions at low [Cl(-)]. The nucleophilic addition has also been evaluated for the [Pd(C(2)H(4))Cl(3)](-) complex, thus revealing that the water by chloride ligand substitution trans to ethene is kinetically favored over the generally assumed cis species in water. Hence, the resulting trans species can only directly undertake the outer-sphere nucleophilic addition, whereas the inner-sphere mechanism is hindered since the attacking water is located trans to ethene. In addition, all the simulations from the [Pd(C(2)H(4))Cl(2)(H(2)O)] species (either cis or trans) support an outer-sphere mechanism with a free-energy barrier compatible with that obtained experimentally, whereas that for the inner-sphere mechanism is significantly higher. Moreover, additional processes for a global understanding of the Wacker process in solution have also been identified, such as ligand substitutions, proton transfers that involve the aquo ligand, and the importance of the trans effect of the ethylene in the nucleophilic addition attack.

  5. Trimethylsilyl chloride promoted synthesis of α-branched amines by nucleophilic addition of organozinc halides to nitrones.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Yaojuan; Hügel, Helmut M; Wang, Minzhu; Huang, Danfeng; Hu, Yulai

    2012-10-14

    A general procedure for the nucleophilic addition of organozinc halides with nitrones in the presence of trimethylsilyl chloride has been developed. Trimethylsilyl chloride was found to be both an indispensable reaction promoter and a ready hydroxylamine protective agent in these reactions. The produced O-(trimethylsilyl)hydroxylamines can be easily reduced into corresponding amines just by a zinc-copper couple in saturated aqueous NH(4)Cl solution.

  6. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Inter- and Intramolecular Additions of Carbonyl Compounds to Allenenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The gold(I)-catalyzed intramolecular reaction of allenes with oxoalkenes leads to bicyclo[6.3.0]undecane ring systems, although in the case of terminally disubstituted allenes, seven-membered rings are formed. The related intermolecular addition of aldehydes to allenenes also gives seven-membered rings. PMID:26918852

  7. Samarium(II)-mediated spirocyclization by intramolecular aryl radical addition onto an aromatic ring.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hiroki; Eguchi, Toru; Tsutsui, Nozomi; Ohno, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tetsuaki

    2008-09-19

    Samarium(II)-mediated spirocyclization by intramolecular addition of aryl radicals onto an aromatic ring was achieved by the reaction of N-(2-iodophenyl)-N-alkylbenzamides with SmI2 in the presence of HMPA, yielding spirocyclic indolin-2-one derivatives. The ether congeners afford spirocyclic benzofuran derivatives in moderate yields by aryl radical addition onto a benzene ring without having an electron-withdrawing group. The reaction with other aryl groups such as naphthalene and indole rings is also described.

  8. Highly efficient "on water" catalyst-free nucleophilic addition reactions using difluoroenoxysilanes: dramatic fluorine effects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Sheng; Liu, Yun-Lin; Tang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Jian

    2014-09-01

    A remarkable fluorine effect on "on water" reactions is reported. The CF⋅⋅⋅HO interactions between suitably fluorinated nucleophiles and the hydrogen-bond network at the phase boundary of oil droplets enable the formation of a unique microstructure to facilitate on water catalyst-free reactions, which are difficult to realize using nonfluorinated substrates. Accordingly, a highly efficient on water, catalyst-free reaction of difluoroenoxysilanes with aldehydes, activated ketones, and isatylidene malononitriles was developed, thus leading to the highly efficient synthesis of a variety of α,α-difluoro-β-hydroxy ketones and quaternary oxindoles.

  9. Modifications of substituted seryl and threonyl residues in phosphopeptides and a polysialoglycoprotein by beta-elimination and nucleophile additions.

    PubMed

    Mega, T; Nakamura, N; Ikenaka, T

    1990-01-01

    The beta-elimination and nucleophile addition reactions of the substituted serine and threonine residues were studied using several synthesized fluorescence-labeled phosphopeptides and a salmon egg polysialoglycoprotein (PSGP). The reagents used were 1 M CH3SH-0.43 M NaOH, 1 M NaBH4-0.1 M NaOH, 1 M CH3NH2-0.1 M NaOH, and 1 M Na2SO3-0.1 M NaOH. The beta-elimination reaction of a phosphoserine peptide, Gly-Ser(PO4)-Glu-AEAP, was about 20 times faster than that of the corresponding phosphothreonine peptide. The carboxyl-side amino acid of the phosphoamino acids in peptides greatly affected the beta-elimination rate. The beta-elimination reaction rates of O-glycosyl serine and threonine in the polysialoglycoprotein were similar and were about a half of that of the phosphoserine peptide. The rates of addition of the three nucleophiles and hydrogen to alpha-aminoacrylic acid (beta-elimination product of substituted serine) in the peptide decreased in the order of CH3SH, Na2SO3, CH3NH2, and H2(NaBH4), and the addition to alpha-aminocrotonic acid (beta-elimination product of substituted threonine) in the order of Na2SO3, CH3NH2, CH3SH, and H2. These results indicated that sulfite is the most recommended nucleophile because of its high addition rate. If sulfite addition is carried out in the presence of NaBH4, sugar chains can be released as alditols, converting the sugar-attaching amino acids to beta-sulfoamino acids.

  10. Addition of boranes to N-aryl-salicylaldimines: intramolecular hydrogenation of imines.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Stephanie S; Vogels, Christopher M; Decken, Andreas; Westcott, Stephen A

    2011-05-07

    Addition of boranes to N-aryl-salicylaldimines takes place initially at the reactive phenolic O-H bond to give an activated boron-containing imine and dihydrogen. In some cases a subsequent intramolecular hydrogenation step is observed and the C=N imine bond is reduced to the corresponding amine. Reactions with dimesitylborane in THF are unique in that the reduced amine product is the major product observed in solution.

  11. Iron-promoted nucleophilic additions to diimine-type ligands: a synthetic and structural study.

    PubMed

    Vallina, Ana Tesouro; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Neels, Antonia; Ensling, Jürgen; Decurtins, Silvio

    2003-05-19

    We report here three examples of the reactivity of protic nucleophiles with diimine-type ligands in the presence of Fe(II) salts. In the first case, the iron-promoted alcoholysis reaction of one nitrile group of the ligand 2,3-dicyano-5,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-pyrazine (L1) permitted the isolation of an stable E-imido-ester, [Fe(L1')(2)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) (1), which has been characterized by spectroscopic studies (IR, ES-MS, Mössbauer), elemental analysis, and crystallographically. Compound 1 consists of mononuclear octahedrally coordinated Fe(II) complexes where the Fe(II) ion is in its low-spin state. The iron-mediated nucleophilic attack of water to the asymmetric ligand 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrido[3,4-b]pyrazine (L2) has also been studied. In this context, the crystal structures of two hydration-oxidation Fe(III) products, [Fe(L2')(2)](ClO(4))(3).3CH(3)CN (2) and trans-[FeL2"Cl(2)] (3), are described. Compounds 2 and 3 are both mononuclear Fe(III) complexes where the metals occupy octahedral positions. In principle, L2 is expected to coordinate to metal ions through its bipyridine-type units to form a five-membered ring; however, this is not the case in compounds 2 and 3. In 2, the ligand coordinates through its pyridines and through the hydroxyl group attached to the pyrazine imino carbon after hydration, that is, in an N,O,N tridentate manner. In compound 3, the ligand has suffered further transformations leading to a very stable diamido complex. In this case, the metal ion achieves its octahedral geometry by means of two pyridines, two amido N atoms, and two axial chlorine atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirmed the spin state of these two Fe(III) species: compounds 2 and 3 are low-spin and high-spin, respectively.

  12. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-07

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods.

  13. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Construction of Spiroindane Derivatives by Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-Type 1,4-Addition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Itatsu, Yukihiro; Fujino, Yuta; Inoue, Hiroki; Takao, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The highly enantioselective organocatalytic construction of spiroindanes containing an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter by intramolecular Friedel-Crafts-type 1,4-addition is described. The reaction was catalyzed by a cinchonidine-based primary amine and accelerated by water and p-bromophenol. A variety of spiro compounds containing quaternary stereocenters were obtained with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 95 % ee). The reaction was applied to the asymmetric formal synthesis of the spirocyclic natural products (-)-cannabispirenones A and B.

  14. Stereoselective synthesis of cyclohexanones via phase transfer catalyzed double addition of nucleophiles to divinyl ketones.

    PubMed

    Silvanus, Andrew C; Groombridge, Benjamin J; Andrews, Benjamin I; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele; Carbery, David R

    2010-11-05

    Functionalized cyclohexanones are formed in excellent yield and diastereoselectivity from a phase transfer catalyzed double addition of active methylene pronucleophiles to nonsymmetrical divinyl ketones.

  15. Competition between planar and central chiral control elements in nucleophilic addition to ferrocenyl imine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kévin M; Wilson, Claire; Blake, Alexander J; Tucker, James H R; Moody, Christopher J

    2008-11-07

    Planar chirality associated with the ferrocene in ferrocenyl oximes and hydrazones bearing chiral auxiliaries effectively competes with or overrides the normally excellent stereocontrol afforded by the auxiliary in determining the diastereoselectivity of addition to the C=N bond.

  16. Sodium tetramethoxyborate: an efficient catalyst for Michael additions of stabilized carbon nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Campaña, Araceli G; Fuentes, Noelia; Gómez-Bengoa, Enrique; Mateo, Cristina; Oltra, J Enrique; Echavarren, Antonio M; Cuerva, Juan M

    2007-10-12

    Sodium tetramethoxyborate, easily prepared by reaction of inexpensive sodium borohydride with methanol, possesses a suitable combination of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid to catalyze Michael reactions at room temperature under practically neutral conditions. This reaction provides good to excellent yields of Michael addition products from a broad scope of Michael donor and Michael acceptor reagents.

  17. Solvent isotope effects on the kinetics of nucleophilic addition of water to a. beta. -nitrostyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, T.I.

    1983-09-23

    The hydrolysis rate of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)-..beta..-nitrostyrene (S) has been measured in H/sub 2/O and in 99% D/sub 2/O buffer solutions from pH -0.9 to 10.6. The kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE), k(H/sub 2/O)/k(D/sub 2/O), is 6.2 at pH 2.5, where k is independent of pH in both solvents and attains a higher value, approximately 22, at about pH 6.2. The isotope effects k/sub i/(H/sub 2/O)/k/sub i/(D/sub 2/O) on the rate constants for the individual steps of the mechanism have been determined and their contributions to the overall KSIE evaluated. Accordingly, the KSIE on the pH-rate plateau at pH 1-4 can be separated into two factors: 5.0 for K/sub 12/, the ionization constant of S as a pseudo-base in water; and 1.4 for k/sub 3//sup H/, the rate constant for rate-controlling protonation of the resulting anion by H/sub 3/O/sup +/. At pH 6.2, the higher KSIE (7.6) on k/sub 3//sup H/sub 2/O/ becomes important while the uncatalyzed addition of water to the double bond is partly rate controlling. The rate at the midpoint of a proton-inventory plot (49.5% D/sub 2/O) shows a negative deviation from linearity of 18%. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Nucleophilic additions of primary and secondary amines to pentacyclo[5.4.0.0{sup 2,6}.0{sup 3,10}.0{sup 5,9}]undecane-8,11-dione

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, S.G.; Marchand, A.P.; Kumar, K.A.

    1995-10-01

    The crystal structures of three compounds formed via nucleophilic attack of a heterocyclic secondary amine on PCU-8,11-dione, with the concomitant intramolecular attack of one keto oxygen on the carbon of the other ketone, are presented. In all three compounds, the bridging oxygen contains substantial p-character, and the bonds to the {open_quotes}attacking{close_quotes} nitrogen are significantly shorter than would be expected.

  19. Citrus Peel Additives for One-Pot Triazole Formation by Decarboxylation, Nucleophilic Substitution, and Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Desiree E.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory experiment consists of three different reactions occurring in the same flask: a cycloaddition reaction, preceded by decarboxylation and nucleophilic substitution reactions. The decarboxylation and cycloaddition reactions occur using identical Cu(I) catalyst and conditions. Orange, lemon, and other citrus fruit…

  20. Citrus Peel Additives for One-Pot Triazole Formation by Decarboxylation, Nucleophilic Substitution, and Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Desiree E.; Schoffstall, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory experiment consists of three different reactions occurring in the same flask: a cycloaddition reaction, preceded by decarboxylation and nucleophilic substitution reactions. The decarboxylation and cycloaddition reactions occur using identical Cu(I) catalyst and conditions. Orange, lemon, and other citrus fruit…

  1. Definition of a nucleophilicity scale.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paula; Pérez, Patricia; Contreras, Renato; Tiznado, William; Fuentealba, Patricio

    2006-07-06

    This work deals with exploring some empirical scales of nucleophilicity. We have started evaluating the experimental indices of nucleophilicity proposed by Legon and Millen on the basis of the measure of the force constants derived from vibrational frequencies using a probe dipole H-X (X = F,CN). The correlation among some theoretical parameters with this experimental scale has been evaluated. The theoretical parameters have been chosen as the minimum of the electrostatic potential V(min), the binding energy (BE) between the nucleophile and the H-X dipole, and the electrostatic potential measured at the position of the hydrogen atom V(H) when the complex nucleophile and dipole H-X is in the equilibrium geometry. All of them present good correlations with the experimental nucleophilicity scale. In addition, the BEs of the nucleophiles with two other Lewis acids (one hard, BF(3), and the other soft, BH(3)) have been evaluated. The results suggest that the Legon and Millen nucleophilicity scale and the electrostatic potential derived scales can describe in good approximation the reactivity order of the nucleophiles only when the interactions with a probe electrophile is of the hard-hard type. For a covalent interaction that is orbital controlled, a new nucleophilicity index using information of the frontier orbitals of both, the nucleophile and the electrophile has been proposed.

  2. FORMATION OF 4-HYDROXYNONENAL FROM CARDIOLIPIN OXIDATION: INTRAMOLECULAR PEROXYL RADICAL ADDITION AND DECOMPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Porter, Ned A.; Schneider, Claus; Brash, Alan R.; Yin, Huiyong

    2010-01-01

    We report herein that oxidation of a mitochondria-specific phospholipid tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin (L4CL) by cytochrome c and H2O2 leads to the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) via a novel chemical mechanism which involves cross-chain peroxyl radical addition and decomposition. As one of the most bioactive lipid electrophiles, 4-HNE possesses diverse biological activities ranging from modulation of multiple signal transduction pathways to the induction of intrinsic apoptosis. However, where and how 4-HNE is formed in vivo is much less understood. Recently a novel chemical mechanism has been proposed that involves inter-molecular dimerization of fatty acids by peroxyl bond formation; but the biological relevance of this mechanism is unknown because a majority of the fatty acids are esterified in phospholipids in the cellular membrane. We hypothesize that oxidation of cardiolipins, especially L4CL, may lead to the formation of 4-HNE via this novel mechanism. We employed L4CL and di-linoleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) as model compounds to test this hypothesis. Indeed, in experiments designed to assess the intramolecular mechanism, more 4-HNE is formed from L4CL and DLPC oxidation than 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-phosphatydylcholine (PLPC). The key products and intermediates that are consistent with this proposed mechanism of 4-HNE formation have been identified using liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods. Identical products from cardiolipin oxidation were identified in vivo in rat liver tissue after carbon tetrachloride treatment. Our studies provide the first evidence in vitro and in vivo for the formation 4-HNE from cardiolipin oxidation via cross-chain peroxyl radical addition and decomposition, which may have implications in apoptosis and other biological activities of 4-HNE. PMID:21047551

  3. Distance dependence in photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer. Additional remarks and calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Sven; Volosov, Andrey

    1987-12-01

    Rate constants for photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer are calculated for four of the molecules studied by Hush et al. The electronic factor is obtained in quantum chemical calculations using the CNDO/S method. The results agree reasonably well with experiments for the forward reaction. Possible reasons for the disagreement for the charge recombination process are offered.

  4. Additional Nucleophile-Free FeCl3-Catalyzed Green Deprotection of 2,4-Dimethoxyphenylmethyl-Protected Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Sawama, Yoshinari; Masuda, Masahiro; Honda, Akie; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Park, Kwihwan; Yasukawa, Naoki; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao

    2016-01-01

    The deprotection of the methoxyphenylmethyl (MPM) ether and ester derivatives can be generally achieved by the combinatorial use of a catalytic Lewis acid and stoichiometric nucleophile. The deprotections of 2,4-dimethoxyphenylmethyl (DMPM)-protected alcohols and carboxylic acids were found to be effectively catalyzed by iron(III) chloride without any additional nucleophile to form the deprotected mother alcohols and carboxylic acids in excellent yields. Since the present deprotection proceeds via the self-assembling mechanism of the 2,4-DMPM protective group itself to give the hardly-soluble resorcinarene derivative as a precipitate, the rigorous purification process by silica-gel column chromatography was unnecessary and the sufficiently-pure alcohols and carboxylic acids were easily obtained in satisfactory yields after simple filtration.

  5. Intramolecular 1,1-carboboration versus intermolecular FLP addition in reactions of boranes and bis(phenylethynyl)telluroether.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Fu An; Lough, Alan J; Stephan, Douglas W

    2015-03-11

    Reactions of boranes with Te(CCPh)2 proceed via initial intermolecular 1,1-carboboration followed by either an intramolecular carboboration or an FLP addition to a second molecule of the intermediate, yielding 1-bora-4-tellurocyclohexa-2,5-diene heterocycles or tricylic derivatives of 1,4-ditellurocyclohexa-2,5-diene, respectively. The latter species is also shown to convert to the former upon heating.

  6. Enantioselective synthesis of benzoindolizidine derivatives using chiral phase-transfer catalytic intramolecular domino aza-Michael addition/alkylation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajia; Yu, Shouyun

    2015-01-28

    An efficient and enantioselective strategy to synthesize benzoindolizidines from α,β-unsaturated amino ketones via domino intramolecular aza-Michael addition/alkylation was developed. These reactions were enabled by cinchona alkaloid-derived quaternary ammonium salts as the phase-transfer catalyst. A variety of benzoindolizidines were prepared in good yields (up to 93%) and enantioselectivities (up to 92.8:7.2 er).

  7. Cascade intermolecular Michael addition-intramolecular azide/internal alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction in one pot.

    PubMed

    Arigela, Rajesh K; Mandadapu, Anil K; Sharma, Sudhir K; Kumar, Brijesh; Kundu, Bijoy

    2012-04-06

    A rapid one-pot protocol for the synthesis of indole-based polyheterocycles via a sequential Lewis acid catalyzed intermolecular Michael addition and an intramolecular azide/internal alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction has been described. The generality of the method has been demonstrated by treating a series of aromatic/aliphatic 2-alkynyl indoles with substituted (E)-1-azido-2-(2-nitrovinyl)benzenes to furnish annulated tetracyclic indolo[2,3-c][1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a][1]benzazepines in good yields.

  8. FeCl3-Catalyzed Intramolecular Michael Reaction of Styrenes for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Indenes.

    PubMed

    Dethe, Dattatraya H; Murhade, Ganesh M; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-08-21

    An intramolecular FeCl3-catalyzed Michael addition reaction of styrene, a poor nucleophile, onto α,β-unsaturated ketones was developed for the synthesis of highly substituted indene derivatives. The method was further applied to the total synthesis of the sesquiterpene natural products (±)-jungianol and 1-epi-jungianol.

  9. Highly activated Michael acceptor by an intramolecular hydrogen bond as a fluorescence turn-on probe for cyanide.

    PubMed

    Park, Seokan; Kim, Hae-Jo

    2010-12-28

    An activated Michael acceptor type of probe by an intramolecular hydrogen bond has shown a selective fluorescence turn-on response to cyanide through a conjugated addition of the nucleophilic anion to the enone probe with a 1300-fold increase in its fluorescence intensity.

  10. Analysis of Reaction Processes On the Basis of the Evolution of Dynamic Orbital Forces: Examples of Cycloadditions, SN 2 Substitution, Nucleophilic Addition, and Hydrogen Transposition.

    PubMed

    Chaquin, Patrick; Fuster, Franck

    2017-07-26

    The derivative of the energy of a canonical molecular orbital (MO) [or dynamical orbital forces (DOFs)] with respect to a bond length provides a reliable index of the bonding/antibonding character of this MO on this bond. The DOFs of selected MOs as a function of the reaction coordinate were computed for a panel of model reaction mechanisms: [2+4] (Diels-Alder) cycloaddition, [2+2] cycloaddition, second-order nucleophilic substitution (SN 2), nucleophilic addition to a carbonyl group, and [1,2] hydrogen transposition. The results highlight the nature of the reorganization of the main MOs and the stage of the reaction coordinate (RC) at which it occurs. For instance, in the Diels-Alder reaction, one can identify a part of the reaction that is dominated by repulsive four-electron interactions and another part dominated by attractive two-electron interactions. Also, the shape of the DOF as a function of the reaction coordinate reveals the existence of avoided MO crossings and their location on the RC. Even for spontaneous reactions with monotonic variation in the potential energy, extrema of the MO energy and sudden electron rearrangements can be put into evidence. This study provides quantitative support to classical MO analyses of reactivity such as correlation diagrams and frontier approximation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  12. Gallium(III)- and calcium(II)-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangements followed by intramolecular aldol condensation or endo-Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Presset, M; Michelet, B; Guillot, R; Bour, C; Bezzenine-Lafollée, S; Gandon, V

    2015-03-28

    The first gallium- and calcium-catalyzed Meyer-Schuster rearrangements are described. Under substrate control, the incipient conjugated ketones can be trapped intramolecularly by β-keto esters or amides to yield cyclic products after aldol condensation or endo-Michael addition. An interesting additive effect that promotes the latter tandem process with calcium has been found.

  13. Nucleophilic Dearomatization of Pyridines under Enamine Catalysis: Regio-, Diastereo-, and Enantioselective Addition of Aldehydes to Activated N-Alkylpyridinium Salts.

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Giulio; Sinisi, Alessandro; Pecorari, Daniel; Caruana, Lorenzo; Mazzanti, Andrea; Bernardi, Luca; Fochi, Mariafrancesca

    2017-02-17

    Catalytic addition of chiral enamines to azinium salts is a powerful tool for the synthesis of enantioenriched heterocycles. An unprecedented asymmetric dearomative addition of aldehydes to activated N-alkylpyridinium salts is presented. The process exhibits complete C-4 regioselectivity along with high levels of diastereo- and enantiocontrol, achieving a high-yielding synthesis of a broad range of optically active 1,4-dihydropyridines. Moreover, the presented methodology enables the synthesis of functionalized octahydropyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridines, the core structure of anticancer peptidomimetics.

  14. Nucleophilic addition of organozinc reagents to 2-sulfonyl cyclic ethers: stereoselective synthesis of manassantins A and B.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoungsu; Kasper, Amanda C; Moon, Eui Jung; Park, Yongho; Wooten, Ceshea M; Dewhirst, Mark W; Hong, Jiyong

    2009-01-01

    A convergent route to the synthesis of manassantins A and B, potent inhibitors of HIF-1, is described. Central to the synthesis is a stereoselective addition of an organozinc reagent to a 2-benzenesulfonyl cyclic ether to achieve the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-4,5-cis-tetrahydrofuran of the natural products. Preliminary structure-activity relationships suggested that the (R)-configuration at C-7 and C-7''' is not critical for HIF-1 inhibition. In addition, the hydroxyl group at C-7 and C-7''' can be replaced with a carbonyl group without loss of activity.

  15. Intramolecular C-H oxidative addition to iridium(I) triggered by trimethyl phosphite in N,N'-diphosphanesilanediamine complexes.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, Vincenzo; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-11-14

    The reaction of [Ir(SiNP)(cod)][PF6] ([1][PF6]) and of IrCl(SiNP)(cod) (5) (SiNP = SiMe2{N(4-C6H4CH3)PPh2}2) with trimethyl phosphite affords the iridium(iii) derivatives of the formula [IrHClx(SiNP-H){P(OMe)3}2-x]((1-x)+) (x = 0, 3(+); x = 1, 6) containing the κ(3)C,P,P'-coordinated SiNP-H ligand (SiNP-H = Si(CH2)(CH3){N(4-C6H4CH3)PPh2}2). The thermally unstable pentacoordinated cation [Ir(SiNP){P(OMe)3}(cod)](+) (2(+)) has been detected as an intermediate of the reaction and has been fully characterised in solution. Also, the mechanism of the C-H oxidative addition has been elucidated by DFT calculations showing that the square planar iridium(i) complexes of the formula [IrClx(SiNP){P(OMe)3}2-x]((1-x)+) (x = 0, 4(+); x = 1, 7) should be firstly obtained from 2(+) and finally should undergo the C-H oxidative addition to iridium(i) via a concerted intramolecular mechanism. The influence of the counterion of 2(+) on the outcome of the C-H oxidative addition reaction has also been investigated.

  16. Stereodivergent organocatalytic intramolecular Michael addition/lactonization for the asymmetric synthesis of substituted dihydrobenzofurans and tetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Belmessieri, Dorine; de la Houpliere, Alix; Calder, Ewen D D; Taylor, James E; Smith, Andrew D

    2014-07-28

    A stereodivergent asymmetric Lewis base catalyzed Michael addition/lactonization of enone acids into substituted dihydrobenzofuran and tetrahydrofuran derivatives is reported. Commercially available (S)-(-)-tetramisole hydrochloride gives products with high syn diastereoselectivity in excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99:1 d.r.syn/anti , 99 % eesyn ), whereas using a cinchona alkaloid derived catalyst gives the corresponding anti-diastereoisomers as the major product (up to 10:90 d.r.syn/anti , 99 % eeanti ).

  17. Chiral phosphines in nucleophilic organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yumei; Sun, Zhanhu

    2014-01-01

    Summary This review discusses the tertiary phosphines possessing various chiral skeletons that have been used in asymmetric nucleophilic organocatalytic reactions, including annulations of allenes, alkynes, and Morita–Baylis–Hillman (MBH) acetates, carbonates, and ketenes with activated alkenes and imines, allylic substitutions of MBH acetates and carbonates, Michael additions, γ-umpolung additions, and acylations of alcohols. PMID:25246969

  18. Oxidative addition/decarbonylation of. alpha. ,. omega. -alkanedioyl dichlorides. Metallacycle formation via intramolecular reductive cyclization of a pendant acid chloride with samarium(II) iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Zizelman, P.M.; Stryker, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Controlled oxidative addition and decarbonylation at one end of {alpha},{omega}-alkanedioyl dichlorides is reported with (Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Ir(N{sub 2})Cl, giving Ir(III) alkyl complexes bearing a pendant acid chloride functionality. The use of the dinitrogen complex enables suppression of competitive intramolecular lactonization processes. Use of 2 equiv of samarium(II) diiodide uniquely promotes intramolecular reductive cyclometalation of one of these complexes, forming a cyclic acyl complex. This cyclization is highly sensitive to both electronic factors in the substrate and the nature and stoichiometry of the reducing agent.

  19. A Tin(IV) Chloride Promoted Tandem C-O Bond Cleavage/Nazarov Cyclization/Nucleophilic Addition Reaction of 1,1-Disubstituted Allylic Ethers toward the Synthesis of Multisubstituted Indenes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Xu, Zheng-Liang; Shao, Hui; Mou, Xue-Qing; Wang, Jie; Wang, Shao-Hua

    2015-11-06

    A novel SnCl4-promoted tandem reaction toward multisubstituted indenes via a sequential C-O bond cleavage/Nazarov cyclization/nucleophilic addition reaction has been developed to afford a series of multisubstituted indenes with an all-carbon quaternary center in moderate to good yields.

  20. Secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects in irreversible additions of hydride and carbon nucleophiles to aldehydes: A spectrum of transition states from complete bond formation to single electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, J.J.; Bocian, W.; Harris, N.J.; Olson, L.P.; Gajewski, J.P.

    1999-01-20

    The competitive kinetics of hydride and organometallic additions to benzaldehyde-H and -D were determined at {minus}78 C using LiAlH{sub 4}, LiBEt{sub 3}H, NaBH{sub 4}, LiBH{sub 4}, LiAl(O-tert-butoxy){sub 3}H, NaB(OMe){sub 3}H, NaB-(Ac){sub 3}H (at 20 C) methyl, phenyl, and allyl Grignard, and methyl-, phenyl-, n-butyl-, tert-butyl-, and allyllithium. The additions of hydride were found to have an inverse secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects in all cases, but the magnitude of the effect varied inversely with the apparent reactivity of the hydride. In the additions of methyl Grignard reagent and of methyllithium and phenyllithium, inverse secondary deuterium isotope effects were observed; little if any isotope effect was observed with phenyl Grignard or n-butyl- and tert-butyllithium. With allyl Grignard and allyllithium, a normal secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effect was observed. The results indicate that rate-determining single-electron transfer occurs with allyl reagents, but direct nucleophilic reaction occurs with all of the other reagents, with the extent of bond formation dependent on the reactivity of the reagent. In the addition of methyllithium to cyclohexanecarboxyaldehyde, a less inverse secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effect was observed than that observed in the addition of methyllithium to benzaldehyde, and allyllithium addition to cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde had a kinetic isotope effect near unity. The data with organometallic additions, which are not incompatible with observations of carbonyl carbon isotope effects, suggest that electrochemically determined redox potentials which indicate endoergonic electron transfer with energies less than ca. 13 kcal/mol allow electron-transfer mechanisms to compete well with direct polar additions to aldehydes, provided that the reagent is highly stabilized, like allyl species. Methyllithium and phenyllithium and methyl and phenyl Grignard reagents are estimated to undergo electron transfer with

  1. Lack of nucleophilic addition in the isoxazole and pyrazole diketone modified analogs of curcumin; implications for their antitumor and chemosensitizing activities.

    PubMed

    Labbozzetta, Manuela; Baruchello, Riccardo; Marchetti, Paolo; Gueli, Maria C; Poma, Paola; Notarbartolo, Monica; Simoni, Daniele; D'Alessandro, Natale

    2009-09-14

    Curcumin (CUR) can be considered as a good lead compound for the design of new anticancer drugs. Further, structure-activity relationship studies may clarify the importance of the redox activities in the antitumor effects of the drug. We have elaborated the alpha,beta-unsaturated 1,3-diketone moiety of CUR into the isoxazole (ISO) and pyrazole (PYR) derivatives. These derivatives should be much less prone to nucleophilic addition than CUR and benzyl mercaptan addition analyses showed that indeed they do not form isolable conjugated products. When compared with CUR, ISO and PYR exhibited increased cell growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects in liver cancer HA22T/VGH cells as well as in other tumor cell types; in contrast to CUR, the antitumor effects of ISO or PYR were not influenced by concomitant administration of N-acetylcysteine, as a source of -SH groups, or buthionine sulfoximine, as an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Further, treatment with CUR, but not with ISO or PYR, significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione in the HA22T/VGH cells. Finally, ISO and PYR lacked the ability of the parent compound to sensitize the HA22T/VGH cells to cisplatin (CIS), an effect which appeared to occur through an interaction of CUR and CIS at the level of the -SH groups. Thus, the ability of interacting with cell thiols might not be requested for the more potent antitumor activities of new diketone modified CUR derivatives, which might rely on other mechanisms, though possibly devoid of chemosensitization capabilities.

  2. Rh(III)-catalyzed addition of alkenyl C-H bond to isocyanates and intramolecular cyclization: direct synthesis 5-ylidenepyrrol-2(5H)-ones.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei; Zhou, Bing; Yang, Yaxi; Feng, Huijin; Li, Yuanchao

    2013-04-19

    The rhodium-catalyzed addition of an alkenyl C-H bond to isocyanates via sp(2) C-H bond activation followed by an intramolecular cyclization is described. This atom-economic and catalytic reaction affords a simple and straightforward access to biologically relevant 5-ylidene pyrrol-2(5H)-ones and can be carried out under mild and neutral conditions in the absence of any additives and environmentally hazardous waste production.

  3. Acidic-functionalized ionic liquid as an efficient, green and reusable catalyst for hetero-Michael addition of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen nucleophiles to α,β-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Han, Feng; Yang, Lei; Li, Zhen; Xia, Chungu

    2012-01-14

    A series of acidic-functionalized ionic liquids were synthesized and applied to the hetero-Michael addition of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen nucleophiles to α,β-unsaturated ketones under solvent-free conditions. Notably, 1-methylimidazolium p-toluenesulfonic ([Hmim]OTs) was found to be the most efficient catalyst and could realize "homogeneous catalysis, two-phase separation". Additionally, the catalytic system has wide substrate scope and good to excellent yields (up to 99%) could be obtained at room temperature.

  4. Asymmetric Michael addition/intramolecular cyclization catalyzed by bifunctional tertiary amine-squaramides: construction of chiral 2-amino-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Du, Da-Ming

    2014-10-01

    The efficient asymmetric Michael addition/intramolecular cyclization of malononitrile with dienones catalyzed by a chiral bifunctional tertiary amine-squaramide catalyst for the synthesis of chiral 2-amino-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives was developed. The corresponding products were obtained in good to excellent yields (up to 99%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee) for most of the bisarylidenecyclopentanones. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nucleophilic addition to olefins. 7. Kinetic deuterium isotope effects as criterion for an enforced preassociation mechanism in the hydrolysis of substituted benzylidene Meldrum's acids

    SciTech Connect

    Bernasconi, C.F.; Leonarduzzi, G.D.

    1982-09-22

    The hydrolysis of the title compounds occurs in four steps: (1) nucleophilic attack by water or hydroxide ion to form the addition complex T/sub OH//sup -/; (2) carbon protonation of T/sub OH//sup -/ to form T/sub OH//sup 0/; (3) oxygen deprotonation of T/sub OH//sup 0/ to form T/sub OH//sup 0 -/; (4) collapse of the tetrahedral intermediate T/sub OH//sup -/ into the respective benzaldehyde and Meldrum's acid anion. There is also a water-catalyzed collapse of T/sub OH//sup 0/ which becomes dominant in strongly acidic solution. In basic solution carbon protonation of T/sub OH//sup -/ (step 2) is rate limiting; in strongly acidic media the water-catalyzed collapse of T/sub OH//sup 0/ is rate limiting for all substrates. In moderatly acidic solution two types of behavior were observed. With the p-nitro derivative step 4 is rate limiting at high, step 3 at low buffer concentrations. The latter situation is equivalent to a diffusion-controlled trapping mechanism in the reverse direction. With the parent and the p-methoxy derivative, collapse of T/sub OH//sup 0 -/ occurs before the protonated base catalyst generated in step 3 can diffuse away; this is equivalent to an enforced preassociation mechanism in the reverse direction and is analogous to the reaction of thiol anions with acetaldehyde studied by Gilbert and Jencks. Our interpretation is strongly supported by (1) ..cap alpha.. secondary kinetic deuterium isotope effects which are large for the preassociation mechanism but essentially nil for the trapping mechanism and (2) by Bronsted ..beta.. values around 0.8 in the case of the preassociation mechanism and 1.0 for the trapping mechanism. The mechanism for the water-catalyzed collapse of T/sub OH//sup 0 -/ is probably concerted, a conclusion which is supported by a large positive deviation from the Bronsted plot for base catalysis and by a large ..cap alpha.. secondary kinetic deuterium isotope effect.

  6. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  7. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  8. A Lewis acid-promoted cyclization of ethenetricarboxylate derivative aromatic compounds. Novel syntheses of oxindoles and benzofuranones via Friedel-Crafts intramolecular Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shoko; Morikawa, Satoshi; Iwata, Yuko; Yamamoto, Machiko; Kuramoto, Kaori

    2004-11-07

    A novel cyclization reaction of ethenetricarboxylate derivative aromatic compounds in the presence of various Lewis acids gave benzo-annulated cyclic compounds such as oxindole and benzofuran derivatives via Friedel-Crafts intramolecular Michael addition in high yields. For example, the reaction of diethyl 2-[(N-methyl-N-phenylcarbamoyl)methylene]malonate (1a) in the presence of ZnCl2 at room temperature gave diethyl 2-(1-methyl-2-oxoindolin-3-yl)malonate (2a) in 98% yield. The reactions also proceeded with a catalytic amount of a Lewis acid such as AlCl3, ZnCl2, ZnBr2, Sc(OTf)3, or InBr3.

  9. Double nucleophilic 1,2-addition of silylated dialkyl phosphites to 4-phosphono-1-aza-1,3-dienes: synthesis of gamma-phosphono-alpha-aminobisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Masschelein, Kurt G R; Stevens, Christian V

    2007-11-23

    gamma-Phosphono-alpha-aminobisphosphonates were synthesized from a new class of 4-phosphono-1-aza-1,3-dienes by the addition of dialkyl trimethylsilyl phosphites to these azadienes in the presence of acid. Depending on the steric demand of the group on nitrogen, double 1,2-addition or tandem 1,4-1,2-addition occurred.

  10. Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of Oxygenated Steroids via Sequential Copper(II)-Catalyzed Michael Addition/Intramolecular Aldol Cyclization Reactions.

    PubMed

    Cichowicz, Nathan R; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel

    2015-11-18

    A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive β,β'-enones and substituted β,β'-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ(5)-unsaturation are key controlling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones.

  11. Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of Oxygenated Steroids via Sequential Copper(II)-Catalyzed Michael Addition/Intramolecular Aldol Cyclization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Cichowicz, Nathan R.; Kaplan, Will; Khomutnyk, Yaroslav; Bhattarai, Bijay; Sun, Zhankui; Nagorny, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A new scalable enantioselective approach to functionalized oxygenated steroids is described. This strategy is based on chiral bis(oxazoline) copper(II) complex-catalyzed enantioselective and diastereoselective Michael reactions of cyclic ketoesters and enones to install vicinal quaternary and tertiary stereocenters. In addition, the utility of copper(II) salts as highly active catalysts for the Michael reactions of traditionally unreactive ββ′-enones and substituted ββ′-ketoesters that results in unprecedented Michael adducts containing vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers is also demonstrated. The Michael adducts subsequently undergo base-promoted diastereoselective aldol cascade reactions resulting in the natural or unnatural steroid skeletons. The experimental and computational studies suggest that the torsional strain effects arising from the presence of the Δ5-unsaturation are key controling elements for the formation of the natural cardenolide scaffold. The described method enables expedient generation of polycyclic molecules including modified steroidal scaffolds as well as challenging-to-synthesize Hajos-Parrish and Wieland-Miescher ketones. PMID:26491886

  12. Controlling the ambiphilic nature of σ-arylpalladium intermediates in intramolecular cyclization reactions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Daniel; Fernández, Israel

    2014-01-21

    the metal center with the carbonyl group. Second, the additive phenol exchanges the iodide ligand to give an arylpalladium(II) phenoxide complex, which has a beneficial effect on the arylation. The formation of this transient intermediate not only stabilizes the arylpalladium moiety, thus preventing the nucleophilic attack at the carbonyl group, but also assists the enolization reaction, which takes place in a more favorable intramolecular manner. The azapalladacycle intermediate is, in the words of J. R. R. Tolkien, "the one ring to bring them all and in the darkness to bind them." With this intermediate, we can easily achieve the synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic systems by selectively promoting electrophilic α-arylation or nucleophilic addition reactions from the same precursors.

  13. Transition states and energetics of nucleophilic additions of thiols to substituted α,β-unsaturated ketones: substituent effects involve enone stabilization, product branching, and solvation.

    PubMed

    Krenske, Elizabeth H; Petter, Russell C; Zhu, Zhendong; Houk, K N

    2011-06-17

    CBS-QB3 enthalpies of reaction have been computed for the conjugate additions of MeSH to six α,β-unsaturated ketones. Compared with addition to methyl vinyl ketone, the reaction becomes 1-3 kcal mol(-1) less exothermic when an α-Me, β-Me, or β-Ph substituent is present on the C=C bond. The lower exothermicity for the substituted enones occurs because the substituted reactant is stabilized more by hyperconjugation or conjugation than the product is stabilized by branching. Substituent effects on the activation energies for the rate-determining step of the thiol addition (reaction of the enone with MeS(-)) were also computed. Loss of reactant stabilization, and not steric hindrance, is the main factor responsible for controlling the relative activation energies in the gas phase. The substituent effects are further magnified in solution; in water (simulated by CPCM calculations), the addition of MeS(-) to an enone is disfavored by 2-6 kcal mol(-1) when one or two methyl groups are present on the C=C bond (ΔΔG(‡)). The use of CBS-QB3 gas-phase energies in conjunction with CPCM solvation corrections provides kinetic data in good agreement with experimental substituent effects. When the energetics of the thiol additions were calculated with several popular density functional theory and ab initio methods (B3LYP, MPW1PW91, B1B95, PBE0, B2PLYP, and MP2), some substantial inaccuracies were noted. However, M06-2X (with a large basis set), B2PLYP-D, and SCS-MP2 gave results within 1 kcal mol(-1) of the CBS-QB3 benchmark values.

  14. Preferred functionalization of metallic and small-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes by nucleophilic addition of organolithium and -magnesium compounds followed by reoxidation.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, David; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Covalent sidewall addition to single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) of a series of organolithium and organomagnesium compounds (nBuLi, tBuLi, EtLi, nHexLi, nBuMgCl, tBuMgCl) followed by reoxidation is reported. The functionalized R(n)-SWNTs were characterized by Raman and NIR emission spectroscopy. The reaction of SWNTs with organolithium and magnesium compounds exhibits pronounced selectivity: in general, metallic tubes are more reactive than semiconducting ones. The reactivity of SWNTs toward the addition of organometallic compounds is inversely proportional to the diameter of the tubes. This was determined simultaneously and independently for both metallic and semiconducting SWNTs. The reactivity also depends on the steric demands of the addend. Binding of the bulky t-butyl addend is less favorable than addition of primary alkyl groups. Significantly, although tBuLi is less reactive than, for example, nBuLi, it is less selective toward the preferred reaction with metallic tubes. This unexpected behavior is explained by fast electron transfer to the metallic SWNTs having low-lying electronic states close to the Fermi level, a competitive initial process. The NIR emission of weakly functionalized semiconducting SWNTs, also reported for the first time, implies interesting applications of functionalized tubes as novel fluorescent reporter molecules.

  15. Stereogenic phosphorus-induced diastereoselective formation of chiral carbon during nucleophilic addition of chiral H-P species to aldehydes or ketones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Sun, Yong-Ming; Yao, Lan; Ji, Si-Yu; Zhao, Chang-Qiu; Han, Li-Biao

    2014-05-01

    P,C-stereogenic α-hydroxyl phosphinates or phosphine oxides were prepared from the additions of (RP)-phosphinate to ketones or (RP)-phosphine oxide to aldehydes, respectively, catalyzed by bases at room temperature in up to >99:1 diasteromeric ratio (d.r.P/d.r.C) and 99 % yields. The diastereoselectivity was induced by reversible equilibrium and different stabilities between two diastereomers of adduct, which was caused by the spatial interaction between menthoxyl or menthyl to alkyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Lithium-stabilized nucleophilic addition of thiamin to a ketone provides an efficient route to mandelylthiamin, a critical pre-decarboxylation intermediate.

    PubMed

    Bielecki, Michael; Howe, Graeme W; Kluger, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    Mandelylthiamin (MTh) is an accurate model of the covalent intermediate derived from the condensation of thiamin diphosphate and benzoylformate in benzoylformate decarboxylase. The properties and catalytic susceptibilities of mandelylthiamin are the subjects of considerable interest. However, the existing synthesis gives only trace amounts of the precursor to MTh as it is conducted under reversible conditions. An improved approach derives from the unique ability of lithium ions to drive to completion the otherwise unfavorable condensation of the conjugate base of thiamin and methyl benzoylformate. The unique efficiency of the condensation reaction in the presence of lithium ions is established in contrast to the effects of other Lewis acids. Interpretation of the pattern of the results indicates that the condensation of the ketone and thiamin is thermodynamically controlled. It is proposed that the addition of lithium ions displaces the equilibrium toward the product through formation of a stable lithium-alkoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleophilic Aromatic Addition in Ionizing Environments: Observation and Analysis of New C-N Valence Bonds in Complexes between Naphthalene Radical Cation and Pyridine.

    PubMed

    Peverati, Roberto; Platt, Sean P; Attah, Isaac K; Aziz, Saaudallah G; El-Shall, M Samy; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2017-08-30

    Radical organic ions can be stabilized by complexation with neutral organics via interactions that can resemble chemical bonds, but with much diminished bond energies. Those interactions are a key factor in cluster growth and polymerization reactions in ionizing environments such as regions of the interstellar medium and solar nebulae. Such radical cation complexes between naphthalene (Naph) and pyridine (Pyr) are characterized using mass-selected ion mobility experiments. The measured enthalpy of binding of the Naph(+•)(Pyr) heterodimer (20.9 kcal/mol) exceeds that of the Naph(+•)(Naph) homodimer (17.8 kcal/mol). The addition of 1-3 more pyridine molecules to the Naph(+•)(Pyr) heterodimer gives 10-11 kcal/mol increments in binding enthalpy. A rich array of Naph(+•)(Pyr) isomers are characterized by electronic structure calculations. The calculated Boltzmann distribution at 400 K yields an enthalpy of binding in reasonable agreement with experiment. The global minimum is a distonic cation formed by Pyr attack on Naph(+•) at the α-carbon, changing its hybridization from sp(2) to distorted sp(3). The measured collision cross section in helium for the Naph(+•)(Pyr) heterodimer of 84.9 ± 2.5 Å(2) at 302 K agrees well with calculated angle-averaged cross sections (83.9-85.1 Å(2) at 302 K) of the lowest energy distonic structures. A remarkable 16 kcal/mol increase in the binding energy between Naph(+•)(Pyr) and Bz(+•)(Pyr) (Bz is benzene) is understood by energy decomposition analysis. A similar increase in binding from Naph(+•)(NH3) to Naph(+•)(Pyr) (as well as between Bz(+•)(NH3) and Bz(+•)(Pyr)) is likewise rationalized.

  18. Regioselective nucleophilic addition of triphenylphosphine to the nitrosylruthenium alkynyl complexes having a hydrotris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate: formation of phosphonio-alkenyl, alkynyl, and allenyl species.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoshimasa; Arikawa, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takanori; Onishi, Masayoshi

    2005-03-07

    A nitrosylruthenium alkynyl complex of TpRuCl(C[triple bond]CPh)(NO)(1a) was reacted with PPh3 in the presence of HBF4.Et2O at room temperature to give a beta-phosphonio-alkenyl complex (E)-[TpRuCl{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF4(2.BF4). On the other hand, for gamma-hydroxyalkynyl complexes TpRuCl{C[triple bond]CC(R)2OH}(NO)(R = Me (1b), Ph (1c), H (1d)), similar treatments with PPh3 were found to give gamma-phosphonio-alkynyl [TpRuCl{C[triple bond]CC(Me)2PPh3}(NO)]BF4(3.BF4),alpha-phosphonio-allenyl [TpRuCl{C(PPh3)=C=CPh2}(NO)]BF4(4.BF4), and a novel product of gamma-hydroxy-beta-phosphonio-alkenyl (E)-[TpRuCl{CH=C(PPh3)CH2OH}(NO)]BF4(5.BF4), respectively. Dominant factors for the selectivity in affording 3-5 were associated with the steric congestion and electronic properties at the gamma-carbons, along with those around the metal fragment. From the bis(alkynyl) complex TpRu(C[triple bond]CPh)2(NO)6, a bis(beta-phosphonio-alkenyl)(E,E)-[TpRu{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}2(NO)](BF4)2{7.(BF4)2} was produced at room temperature. However, similar reactions at 0 degrees C gave an alkynyl beta-phosphonio-alkenyl complex (E)-[TpRu(C[triple bondCPh){CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF4(8.BF4) as a sole product, of which additional hydration in the presence of HBF4.Et2O afforded a [small beta]-phosphonio-alkenyl ketonyl (E)-[TpRu{CH2C(O)Ph}{CH=C(PPh3)Ph}(NO)]BF(.9BF4). Five complexes, 2-5 and 7 were crystallographically characterized.

  19. Nucleophilic arylation with tetraarylphosphonium salts

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zuyong; Lin, Jin-Hong; Xiao, Ji-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Organic phosphonium salts have served as important intermediates in synthetic chemistry. But the use of a substituent on the positive phosphorus as a nucleophile to construct C–C bond remains a significant challenge. Here we report an efficient transition-metal-free protocol for the direct nucleophilic arylation of carbonyls and imines with tetraarylphosphonium salts in the presence of caesium carbonate. The aryl nucleophile generated from phosphonium salt shows low basicity and good nucleophilicity, as evidenced by the successful conversion of enolizable aldehydes and ketones. The reaction is not particularly sensitive to water, shows wide substrate scope, and is compatible with a variety of functional groups including cyano and ester groups. Compared with the arylmetallic reagents that are usually moisture sensitive, the phosphonium salts are shelf-stable and can be easily handled. PMID:26822205

  20. Nucleophilic Substitution by Benzodithioate Anions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnans-Plaisance, Chantal; Gressier, Jean-Claude

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-session experiment designed to provide a good illustration of, and to improve student knowledge of, the Grignard reaction and nucleophilic substitution. Discusses the procedure, experimental considerations, and conclusion of this experiment. (CW)

  1. Study of quinones reactions with wine nucleophiles by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla M; Barros, António S; Ferreira, António C S; Silva, Artur M S

    2016-11-15

    Quinones are electrophilic species which can react with various nucleophiles, like wine antioxidants, such as sulfur dioxide or ascorbic acid, thiols, amino acids, and numerous polyphenols. These reactions are very important in wine aging because they mediate oxygen reactions during both production and bottle aging phases. In this work, the major challenge was to determine the interaction between ortho-quinones and wine nucleophiles (amino acids, thiols, and the antioxidants SO2 and ascorbic acid), by cyclic voltammetry. Wine-model solutions with gallic acid, caffeic acid, or (+)-catechin and nucleophilic compounds were used. To understand the effect of nucleophilic addition in wine, a white wine with the same added nucleophiles was also analysed. Cyclic voltammograms were taken with glassy carbon electrode or screen-printed carbon electrodes, respectively, for wine-model and white wines solutions, in the absence and in the presence of nucleophiles. A nucleophilic order profile related to the cathodic current intensity decrease was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleophile-Assisted Alkene Activation: Olefins Alone Are Often Incompetent.

    PubMed

    Ashtekar, Kumar Dilip; Vetticatt, Mathew; Yousefi, Roozbeh; Jackson, James E; Borhan, Babak

    2016-07-06

    Emerging work on organocatalytic enantioselective halocyclizations naturally draws on conditions where both new bonds must be formed under delicate control, the reaction regime where the concerted nature of the AdE3 mechanism is of greatest importance. Without assistance, many simple alkene substrates react slowly or not at all with conventional halenium donors under synthetically relevant reaction conditions. As demonstrated earlier by Shilov, Cambie, Williams, Fahey, and others, alkenes can undergo a concerted AdE3-type reaction via nucleophile participation, which sets the configuration of the newly created stereocenters at both ends in one step. Herein, we explore the modulation of alkene reactivity and halocyclization rates by nucleophile proximity and basicity, through detailed analyses of starting material spectroscopy, addition stereopreferences, isotope effects, and nucleophile-alkene interactions, all obtained in a context directly relevant to synthesis reaction conditions. The findings build on the prior work by highlighting the reactivity spectrum of halocyclizations from stepwise to concerted, and suggest strategies for design of new reactions. Alkene reactivity is seen to span the range from the often overgeneralized "sophomore textbook" image of stepwise electrophilic attack on the alkene and subsequent nucleophilic bond formation, to the nucleophile-assisted alkene activation (NAAA) cases where electron donation from the nucleophilic addition partner activates the alkene for electrophilic attack. By highlighting the factors that control reactivity across this range, this study suggests opportunities to explain and control stereo-, regio-, and organocatalytic chemistry in this important class of alkene additions.

  3. Intramolecular donor-acceptor cyclopropane ring-opening cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Cavitt, Marchello A; Phun, Lien H; France, Stefan

    2014-02-07

    Cyclization reactions of donor-acceptor (D-A) cyclopropanes are recognized as versatile methods for construction of carbocyclic and heterocyclic scaffolds. In the literature, many examples of these polarized cyclopropanes' reactivity with nucleophiles, electrophiles, and radicals are prevalent. Although intermolecular reactivity of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes is widely reported, reviews that center on their intramolecular chemistry are rare. Thereupon, this tutorial review focalizes on new intramolecular transformations of donor-acceptor cyclopropanes for cycloisomerizations, formal cycloadditions, umpolung reactions, rearrangements and ring-opening lactonizations/lactamizations from 2009 to 2013. Furthermore, the role of D-A acceptor cyclopropanes as reactive subunits in natural product synthesis is underscored.

  4. Ion-molecule reactions of O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate: evidence for intramolecular sulfur oxidation during VX perhydrolysis.

    PubMed

    McAnoy, Andrew M; Williams, Jilliarne; Paine, Martin R L; Rogers, Michael L; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2009-12-18

    The alkaline perhydrolysis of the nerve agent O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) was investigated by studying the ion-molecule reactions of HOO(-) with O,S-dimethyl methylphosphonothioate in a modified linear ion-trap mass spectrometer. In addition to simple proton transfer, two other abundant product ions are observed at m/z 125 and 109 corresponding to the S-methyl methylphosphonothioate and methyl methylphosphonate anions, respectively. The structure of these product ions is demonstrated by a combination of collision-induced dissociation and isotope-labeling experiments that also provide evidence for their formation by nucleophilic reaction pathways, namely, (i) S(N)2 at carbon to yield the S-methyl methylphosphonothioate anion and (ii) nucleophilic addition at phosphorus affording a reactive pentavalent intermediate that readily undergoes internal sulfur oxidation and concomitant elimination of CH(3)SOH to yield the methyl methylphosphonate anion. Consistent with previous solution phase observations of VX perhydrolysis, the toxic P-O cleavage product is not observed in this VX model system and theoretical calculations identify P-O cleavage to be energetically uncompetitive. Conversely, intramolecular sulfur oxidation is calculated to be extremely exothermic and kinetically accessible explaining its competitiveness with the facile gas phase proton transfer process. Elimination of a sulfur moiety deactivates the nerve agent VX and thus the intramolecular sulfur oxidation process reported here is also able to explain the selective perhydrolysis of the nerve agent to relatively nontoxic products.

  5. Bond formations by intermolecular and intramolecular trappings of acylketenes and their applications in natural product synthesis†

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Keith P.; Tilley, S. David

    2011-01-01

    The reactive intermediates known as acylketenes exhibit a rich chemistry and have been extensively utilized for many types of inter- and intramolecular bond-forming reactions within the field of organic synthesis. Characteristic reactions of acylketenes include cycloadditions, carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions, and nucleophilic capture with alcohols or amines to give β-keto acid derivatives. In particular, the intramolecular capture of acylketene intermediates with pendant nucleophiles represents a powerful method for forming both medium-sized rings and macrocycles, often in high yield. This tutorial review examines the history, generation, and reactivity of acylketenes with a special focus on their applications in the synthesis of natural products. PMID:19847338

  6. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  7. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble polybenzimidazoles (PBI's) synthesized by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)-benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic difluoride compounds in presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. These polymers exhibit good thermal, thermo-oxidative, and chemical stability, and high mechanical properties. Using benzimidazole monomers, more economical, and new PBI's processed more easily than commercial PBI, without loss of desirable physical properties.

  8. Highly nucleophilic acetylide, vinyl, and vinylidene complexes. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-15

    The research was divided into the following: studies of nucleophilic and chiral acetylide complex [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}CR]{sup {minus}}; nucleophilic addition of carbene anions to organic ligands on electrophilic complexes; halide-promoted carbonylation of imido ligands; binuclear Fe{sub 2} complexes with bridging organonitrogen ligands; addition and cycloaddition reactions of carbyne complex [Cp(CO){sub 2}Re{triple_bond}CTol]{sup +}; addition and cycloaddition reactions of methylcarbyne complexes [Cp(CO){sub 2}M{triple_bond}CCH{sub 3}]{sup +} and vinylidene complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}M{double_bond}C{double_bond}CH{sub 2} (M=Mn, Re); studies of generation and reactivity of vinylcarbene complexes formed from reaction of manganese carbene anions and aldehydes; and addition of oxo ligands of nucleophilic oxo complexes to organic ligands on electrophilic metal centers.

  9. Nucleophilic fluorination of aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Barrio, Jorge R

    2014-03-18

    Iodylbenzene derivatives substituted with electron donating as well as electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring are used as precursors in aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The iodyl group (IO.sub.2) is regiospecifically substituted by nucleophilic fluoride to provide the corresponding fluoroaryl derivatives. No-carrier-added [F-18]fluoride ion derived from anhydrous [F-18](F/Kryptofix, [F-18]CsF or a quaternary ammonium fluoride (e.g., Me.sub.4NF, Et.sub.4NF, n-Bu.sub.4NF, (PhCH.sub.2).sub.4NF) exclusively substitutes the iodyl moiety in these derivatives and provides high specific activity F-18 labeled fluoroaryl analogs. Iodyl derivatives of a benzothiazole analog and 6-iodyl-L-dopa derivatives have been synthesized as precursors and have been used in the preparation of no-carrier-added [F-18]fluorobenzothiazole as well as 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa.

  10. Polyphenylquinoxalines via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents using alkali metal bases at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers are prepared either by reacting stoichiometric quantities of aromatic bis(o-diamines) with a hydroxybenzil or by reacting o-phenylenediamine with a dihydroxybenzil or bis(hydroxyphenylglyoxylyl)benzene.

  11. Polybenzimidazole via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  12. Polyphenylquinoxalines via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents during alkali metal bases at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)quinoxaline monomers are prepared either by reacting stoichiometric quantities of aromatic bis(o-diamines) with a hydroxybenzil or by reacting o-phenylenediamine with a dihydroxybenzil or bis(hydroxyphenylglyoxylyl)benzene.

  13. A general overview of the organocatalytic intramolecular aza-Michael reaction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Roselló, María; Aceña, José Luis; Simón-Fuentes, Antonio; del Pozo, Carlos

    2014-11-07

    The organocatalytic intramolecular aza-Michael reaction gives access to enantiomerically enriched nitrogen-containing heterocycles in a very simple manner. Enals, enones, conjugated esters and nitro olefins have been employed as Michael acceptors, while moderate nitrogen nucleophiles such as sulphonamides, carbamates and amides have been shown to be appropriate Michael donors in this type of reaction. Additionally, the process has been performed under both covalent and non-covalent catalysis, with diaryl prolinols, imidazolidinones, thioureas and chiral binol phosphoric acids being the most frequently used catalysts. The level of efficiency reached with this protocol is demonstrated by the implementation of numerous tandem processes, as well as the total synthesis of several natural products.

  14. Analysis of the Nucleophilic Solvation Effects in Isopropyl Chlorothioformate Solvolysis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Malcolm J.; Mahon, Brian P.; Kevill, Dennis N.

    2010-01-01

    Correlation of the solvent effects through application of the extended Grunwald-Winstein equation to the solvolysis of isopropyl chlorothioformate results in a sensitivity value of 0.38 towards changes in solvent nucleophilicity (l) and a sensitivity value of 0.72 towards changes in solvent ionizing power (m). This tangible l value coupled with the negative entropies of activation observed indicates a favorable predisposition towards a modest rear-side nucleophilic solvation of a developing carbocation. Only in 100% ethanol was the bimolecular pathway dominant. These observations are very different from those obtained for the solvolysis of isopropyl chloroformate, where dual reaction channels were proposed, with the addition-elimination reaction favored in the more nucleophilic solvents and a unimolecular fragmentation-ionization mechanism favored in the highly ionizing solvents. PMID:20717524

  15. Polyphenylquinoxalines via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Connell, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Polyphenylquinoxalines are produced by an aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction involving an activated aromatic dihalide with an appropriate quinoxaline monomer. Polyphenylquinoxalines are high temperature thermoplastics used as adhesives, coatings, films and composite matrices. The novelty of this invention is threefold: (1) some of the quinoxaline monomers are new compositions of matter; (2) the phenylquinoxaline polymers which are the end products of the invention are new compositions of matter; and (3) the method of forming the polymers is novel, replacing a more costly prior art process, which is also limited in the kinds of products prepared therefrom.

  16. Nucleophilic substitution reaction for post-functionalization of polyoxometalates

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Panchao; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Longsheng; Hao, Jian; Wei, Yongge

    2015-07-06

    In this study, a hexamolybdate-based organic inorganic hybrid molecule containing a chloralkane fragment is synthesized and its Cl atom can be substituted by iodine and nitrate through nucleophilic substitution reactions in high yields, which provide a post-functionalization protocol to bring in various additional functional groups into polyoxometalate-based hybrid materials under mild conditions.

  17. Nucleophilic substitution reaction for post-functionalization of polyoxometalates

    DOE PAGES

    Yin, Panchao; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jin; ...

    2015-07-06

    In this study, a hexamolybdate-based organic inorganic hybrid molecule containing a chloralkane fragment is synthesized and its Cl atom can be substituted by iodine and nitrate through nucleophilic substitution reactions in high yields, which provide a post-functionalization protocol to bring in various additional functional groups into polyoxometalate-based hybrid materials under mild conditions.

  18. Synthesis of triazafluoranthenones via silver(I)-mediated nonoxidative and oxidative intramolecular palladium-catalyzed cyclizations.

    PubMed

    Koutentis, Panayiotis A; Loizou, Georgia; Lo Re, Daniele

    2011-07-15

    Silver(I) fluoride (AgF)-mediated intramolecular nonoxidative and oxidative palladium-catalyzed cyclizations of 1,3-diphenyl- and 8-iodo-1,3-diphenylbenzo[e][1,2,4]triazin-7(1H)-ones 6a (R = H) and 7a (R = I) afford a new 'alkaloid like' ring system 2-phenyl-6H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6,1-jk]carbazol-6-one 8a (triazafluoranthenone) in 86 and 100% yields, respectively. Furthermore, these cyclization protocols were used to prepare triazafluoranthenone analogues 8b-e bearing dialkylamino, methoxy, and phenylsulfanyl substituents at C-5, which were also independently synthesized from triazafluoranthenone 8a by regioselective nucleophilic addition. Similar AgF-mediated intramolecular nonoxidative and oxidative palladium-catalyzed cyclizations of 8,10-dihydro-1-iodo-10-phenylphenazin-2(7H)-ones 13 gave the new 'alkaloid like' ring system 8H-indolo[1,2,3-mn]phenazin-8-one 14 in 80 and 18% yields, respectively.

  19. Amino acids as novel nucleophiles for silver nanoparticle-luminol chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Ni, Shubiao

    2014-12-01

    The use of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) as reductants in chemiluminescence (CL) has been reported only rarely owing to their high oxidation potentials. Interestingly, nucleophiles could dramatically lower the oxidation potential of Ag NPs, such that in the presence of nucleophiles Ag NPS could be used as reductants to induce the CL emission of luminol, an important CL reagent widely used in forensic analysis for the detection of trace amounts of blood. Although nucleophiles are indispensible in Ag NP-luminol CL, only inorganic nucleophiles such as Cl(-), Br(-), I(-) and S2O3 (2-) have been shown to be efficient. The effects of organic nucleophiles on CL remain unexplored. In this study, 20 standard amino acids were evaluated as novel organic nucleophiles in Ag NP-luminol CL. Histidine, lysine and arginine could initiate CL emission; the others could not. It is proposed that the different behaviors of 20 standard amino acids in the CL reactions derive from the interface chemistry between Ag NPs and these amino acids. UV/vis absorption spectra were studied to validate the interface chemistry. In addition, imidazole and histidine were chosen as a model pair to compare the behavior of the monodentate nucleophile with that of the corresponding multidentate nucleophile in Ag NP-luminol CL. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Detection of Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Chemical Agents

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2008-11-11

    A "real time" method for detecting electrophilic and nucleophilic species generally by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species.

  1. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (Pl) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrroldinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperature under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl)imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxyphenyl)imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight Pl of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  2. Polyimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimidazoles (PI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N,N-dimethyl acetamide, sulfolane, N-methylpyrrolidinone, dimethylsulfoxide, or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) imidazole monomers are prepared by reacting an aromatic aldehyde with a dimethoxybenzil or by reacting an aromatic dialdehyde with a methoxybenzil in the presence of ammonium acetate. The di(methoxyphenyl) imidazole is subsequently treated with aqueous hydrobromic acid to give the di(hydroxphenyl) imidazole monomer. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PI of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides and dinitro compounds.

  3. Polybenzimidazoles via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazoles are synthesizedby reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  4. Polybenzimidazoles Via Aromatic Nucleophilic Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergerrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Novel molecular weight controlled and endcapped polybenzimidazoles (PBI) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The PBI are endcapped with mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. Mono(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazoles are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with aromatic (o-diamine)s in diphenylsulfone. Molecular weight controlled and endcapped PBI of new chemical structures are prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties.

  5. Nucleophilicity index from perturbed electrostatic potentials.

    PubMed

    Cedillo, A; Contreras, R; Galván, M; Aizman, A; Andrés, J; Safont, V S

    2007-03-29

    We introduce and test a nucleophilicity index as a new descriptor of chemical reactivity. The index is derived from a perturbation model for the interaction between the nucleophile and a positive test charge. The computational implementation of the model uses an isoelectronic process involving the minimum values of the electronic part of the perturbed molecular electrostatic potential. The working expression defining the nucleophilicity index encompasses both the electrostatic contributions and the second-order polarization effects in a form which is consistent with the empirical scales previously proposed. The index is validated for a series of neutral nucleophiles in the gas phase for which the nucleophilicity pattern has been experimentally established within a spectroscopic scale.

  6. Sulfur isotope fractionation during incorporation of sulfur nucleophiles into organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Alon; Ma, Qisheng; Ahmad, Ward Said; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Tang, Yongchun

    2008-03-21

    (34)S enrichment is shown to occur during sulfurization reactions and for the first time conclusively attributed to an isotope equilibrium effect rather than selective addition of (34)S enriched nucleophiles.

  7. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed tandem addition/cyclization in aqueous medium: synthesis of 2-arylindoles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Hu, Kun; Gong, Julin; Qi, Linjun; Zhu, Jianghe; Zhang, Yetong; Cheng, Tianxing; Chen, Jiuxi

    2017-05-23

    An efficient protocol to construct 2-arylindoles was developed through palladium-catalyzed tandem addition/cyclization of potassium aryltrifluoroborates with aliphatic nitriles in aqueous medium. The use of water as the reaction medium makes the synthesis process environmentally benign. A plausible mechanism for the formation of 2-arylindoles involving sequential nucleophilic addition followed by an intramolecular cyclization is proposed. Moreover, the utility of this catalytic tandem transformation was also demonstrated in an efficient gram-scale synthesis. This method provides an alternative synthetic tool for accessing a more diverse array of 2-arylindoles.

  9. Frustrated Lewis pair modification by 1,1-carboboration: disclosure of a phosphine oxide triggered nitrogen monoxide addition to an intramolecular P/B frustrated Lewis pair.

    PubMed

    Liedtke, René; Scheidt, Felix; Ren, Jinjun; Schirmer, Birgitta; Cardenas, Allan Jay P; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Eckert, Hellmut; Warren, Timothy H; Grimme, Stefan; Kehr, Gerald; Erker, Gerhard

    2014-06-25

    The vicinal frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) mes2P-CH2CH2-B(C6F5)2 (3) reacts with phenyl(trimethylsilyl)acetylene by 1,1-carboboration to give the extended C3-bridged FLP 6 featuring a substituted vinylborane subunit. The FLP 6 actively cleaves dihydrogen. The FLP 3 also undergoes a 1,1-carboboration reaction with diphenylphosphino(trimethylsilyl)acetylene to give the P/B/P FLP 11 that features a central unsaturated four-membered heterocyclic P/B FLP and a pendant CH2CH2-Pmes2 functional group. Compound 11 reacts with nitric oxide (NO) by oxidation of the pendant Pmes2 unit to the P(O)mes2 phosphine oxide and N,N-addition of the P/B FLP unit to NO to yield the persistent P/B/PO FLPNO aminoxyl radical 14. This reaction is initiated by P(O)mes2 formation and opening of the central Ph2P···B(C6F5)2 linkage triggered by the pendant CH2CH2-P(O)mes2 group.

  10. Predicting regioselectivity in nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Liljenberg, Magnus; Brinck, Tore; Herschend, Björn; Rein, Tobias; Tomasi, Simone; Svensson, Mats

    2012-04-06

    We have investigated practical and computationally efficient methods for the quantitative prediction of regioisomer distribution in kinetically controlled nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. One of the methods is based on calculating the relative stabilities of the isomeric σ-complex intermediates using DFT. We show that predictions from this method can be used quantitatively both for anionic nucleophiles with F(-) as leaving group, as well as for neutral nucleophiles with HF as leaving group. The σ-complex approach failed when the leaving group was Cl/HCl or Br/HBr, both for anionic and neutral nucleophiles, because of difficulties in finding relevant σ-complex structures. An approach where we assumed a concerted substitution step and used such transition state structures gave quantitatively useful results. Our results are consistent with other theoretical works, where a stable σ-complex has been identified in some cases, whereas others have been indicated to proceed via a concerted substitution step.

  11. Oxidative nucleophilic aromatic amination of nitrobenzenes.

    PubMed

    Khutorianskyi, V V; Sonawane, M; Pošta, M; Klepetářová, B; Beier, P

    2016-06-07

    Nitrobenzenes substituted with electron-acceptor groups such as halogen, nitro, trifluoromethyl, pentafluorosulfanyl, or cyano underwent oxidative nucleophilic substitution with lithium salts of arylamines to afford N-aryl-2-nitroanilines.

  12. Intra- versus intermolecular electron transfer in radical nucleophilic aromatic substitution of dihalo(hetero)arenes – a tool for estimating π-conjugation in aromatic systems† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and procedures, 1H and 13C NMR data, GC traces and mass spectra. CCDC 1526301 and 1526302. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c7sc00100b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Janhsen, B.; Daniliuc, C. G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the application of the double radical nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SRN1) in various dihalogenated, mostly diiodinated, π-conjugated systems as a tool for qualitatively estimating their π-conjugation is described. This approach uses electron delocalisation as a measure of π-conjugation. Electron injection into the π-system is achieved via reaction of an intermediate aryl radical, itself generated from a dihalogenated π-system via SET-reduction of the C–I bond and subsequent reaction with a thiolate anion. The generated arene radical anion can then further react with the second aryl-halogen moiety within the π-system via an intramolecular electron transfer process. The efficiency of this intramolecular electron transfer is related to the π-conjugation of the radical anion. If the π-conjugation within the aromatic unit is weak, the arene radical anion reacts via an intermolecular ET with the starting dihalide. The intramolecular ET process delivers a product of a double SRN1 substitution whereas the intermolecular ET pathway provides a product of a mono- SRN1 substitution. By simple product analysis of mono- versus double substitution, π-conjugation can be qualitatively evaluated. This mechanistic tool is applied to various dihalogenated π-conjugated systems and the results are discussed within the context of π-conjugation. The conjugation mode within the π-system and the length of the aromatic system are varied, and the effect of relative positioning of the two halides within small π-systems is also addressed. PMID:28580099

  13. The Development of a Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Addition/Cyclization for Direct Construction of Indole Skeletons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Qi, Linjun; Hu, Kun; Gong, Julin; Cheng, Tianxing; Wang, Qingzong; Chen, Jiuxi; Wu, Huayue

    2017-03-13

    A palladium-catalyzed tandem addition/cyclization of 2-(2-aminoaryl)acetonitriles with arylboronic acids has been developed for the first time, achieving a new strategy for direct construction of indole skeletons. This system shows good functional group tolerance and remarkable chemoselectivity. Especially, the halogen (e.g. bromo and iodo) substituents are amenable for further synthetic elaborations thereby broadening the diversity of the products. Preliminary mechanistic experiments indicate that this transformation involves sequential nucleophilic addition followed by an intramolecular cyclization.

  14. Gold-catalyzed intramolecular allylic amination of 2-tosylaminophenylprop-1-en-3-ols. A concise synthesis of (+/-)-angustureine.

    PubMed

    Kothandaraman, Prasath; Foo, Shi Jia; Chan, Philip Wai Hong

    2009-08-21

    An efficient synthetic route to 1,2-dihydroquinolines that relies on AuCl(3)/AgSbF(6)-catalyzed intramolecular allylic amination of 2-tosylaminophenylprop-1-en-3-ols is described herein. Uniquely, the reactions were found to only proceed rapidly at room temperature in the presence of the gold and silver catalyst combination and produce the 1,2-dihydroquinoline products in yields of 40-91%. The method was shown to be applicable to a broad range of 2-tosylaminophenylprop-1-en-3-ols containing electron-withdrawing, electron-donating, and sterically demanding substrate combinations. The mechanism is suggested to involve activation of the alcohol substrate by the AuCl(3)/AgSbF(6) catalyst. This is followed by ionization of the starting material, which causes intramolecular nucleophilic addition of the sulfonamide unit to the allylic cation moiety and construction of the 1,2-dihydroquinoline. The utility of this N-heterocyclic ring forming strategy as a synthetic tool that makes use of alcohols as pro-electrophiles was exemplified by its application to the synthesis of the bioactive tetrahydroquinoline alkaloid (+/-)-angustureine.

  15. Arylsulfonate-Based Nucleophile Assisting Leaving Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Salvatore D.; Bhunia, Anjan K.; Cohn, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and unique reactivity of a series of arylsulfonate-based nucleophile assisting leaving groups (NALG) containing oligomeric ether units (including crown ethers) attached to the arylsulfonyl ring in the ortho orientation are described. The reactions of a variety of these ether-containing alkyl sulfonates with metal halides proceeded at substantially greater rates than electronically similar sulfonates. These ether-containing leaving groups also displayed marked selectivity for lithium halides relative to the corresponding sodium and potassium salts in nucleophilic displacement reactions. PMID:16277337

  16. Detection of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical agents

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2014-08-12

    A "real time" method for detecting chemical agents generally and particularly electrophilic and nucleophilic species by employing tunable, precursor sensor materials that mimic the physiological interaction of these agents to form highly florescent berberine-type alkaloids that can be easily and rapidly detected. These novel precursor sensor materials can be tuned for reaction with both electrophilic (chemical species, toxins) and nucleophilic (proteins and other biological molecules) species. By bonding or otherwise attaching these precursor molecules to a surface or substrate they can be used in numerous applications.

  17. Nucleotides as nucleophiles: reactions of nucleotides with phosphoimidazolide activated guanosine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Hurley, T. B.

    1991-01-01

    An earlier study of the reaction of phosphoimidazolide activated nucleosides (ImpN) in aqueous phosphate buffers indicated two modes of reaction of the phosphate monoanion and dianion. The first mode is catalysis of the hydrolysis of the P-N bond in ImpN's which leads to imidazole and nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. The second represents a nucleophilic substitution of the imidazole to yield the nucleoside 5'-diphosphate. This earlier study thus served as a model for the reaction of ImpN with nucleoside monophosphates (pN) because the latter can be regarded as phosphate derivatives. In the present study we investigated the reaction of guanosine 5'-phosphate-2-methylimidazolide, 2-MeImpG, in the presence of pN (N = guanosine, adenosine and uridine) in the range 6.9 less than or equal to pH less than or equal to 7.7. We observed that pN's do act as nucleophiles to form NppG, and as general base to enhance the hydrolysis of the P-N bond in 2-MeImpG, i.e. pN show the same behavior as inorganic phosphate. The kinetic analysis yields the following rate constants for the dianion pN2-: knpN = 0.17 +/- 0.02 M-1 h-1 for nucleophilic attack and khpN = 0.11 +/- 0.07 M-1 h-1 for general base catalysis of the hydrolysis. These rate constants which are independent of the nucleobase compare with kp.2 = 0.415 M-1 h-1 and khp2. = 0.217 M-1 h-1 for the reactions of HPO4(2-). In addition, this study shows that under conditions where pN presumably form stacks, the reaction mechanism remains unchanged although in quantitative terms stacked pN are somewhat less reactive. Attack by the 2'-OH and 3'-OH groups of the ribose moiety in amounts greater than or equal to 1% is not observed; this is attributed to the large difference in nucleophilicity in the neutral pH range between the phosphate group and the ribose hydroxyls. This nucleophilicity rank is not altered by stacking.

  18. Synthesis and reactivity of highly nucleophilic pyridines.

    PubMed

    De Rycke, Nicolas; Berionni, Guillaume; Couty, François; Mayr, Herbert; Goumont, Regis; David, Olivier R P

    2011-02-04

    3,4,5-Triamino-substituted pyridines are avid for electrophiles but are still willing to give them back. In these compounds three amino groups conjoin their forces into the heterocyclic nitrogen, making it a powerful Lewis base. A short and efficient synthesis is described, and the origin of its unique activity in nucleophilic organocatalysis is rationalized by kinetics and thermodynamic quantifications.

  19. A tandem reaction initiated by 1,4-addition of bis(iodozincio)methane for 1,3-diketone formation.

    PubMed

    Sada, Mutsumi; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2010-01-20

    Treatment of an gamma-acyloxy-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone with bis(iodozincio)methane leads to a novel tandem reaction consisting of three steps: (1) 1,4-addition of the dizinc reagent to the enone, which affords the corresponding zinc enolate of the beta-zinciomethylated ketone; (2) intramolecular nucleophilic attack by the enolate on the ester group; and (3) Grob-type fragmentation of the adduct, accompanied by elimination of the zinc alkoxide of allyl alcohol. The overall reaction gives 1,3-diketones efficiently.

  20. Intramolecular carbonickelation of alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Lhermet, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    Summary The efficiency of the intramolecular carbonickelation of substituted allylic ethers and amines has been studied to evaluate the influence of the groups borne by the double bond on this cyclization. The results show that when this reaction takes place, it affords only the 5-exo-trig cyclization products, viz. dihydrobenzofurans or indoles. Depending on the tethered heteroatom (O or N), the outcome of the cyclization differs. While allylic ethers are relatively poor substrates that undergo a side elimination and need an intracyclic double bond to proceed, allylic amines react well and afford indoline and indole derivatives. Finally, the synthesis of the trinuclear ACE core of a morphine-like skeleton was achieved by using NiBr2bipy catalysis. PMID:23766783

  1. The Remarkable Reactivity of Aryl Halides with Nucleophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnett, Joseph F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the reactivity of aryl halides with nucleophilic or basic reagents, including nucleophilic attacks on carbon, hydrogen, halogen, and arynes. Suggestions are made concerning revisions of the sections on aryl halide chemistry courses and the corresponding chapters in textbooks. (CC)

  2. The Remarkable Reactivity of Aryl Halides with Nucleophiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnett, Joseph F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the reactivity of aryl halides with nucleophilic or basic reagents, including nucleophilic attacks on carbon, hydrogen, halogen, and arynes. Suggestions are made concerning revisions of the sections on aryl halide chemistry courses and the corresponding chapters in textbooks. (CC)

  3. Transition metal catalysis and nucleophilic fluorination.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Charlotte; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2012-03-21

    Transition metal catalyzed transformations using fluorinating reagents have been developed extensively for the preparation of synthetically valuable fluorinated targets. This is a topic of critical importance to facilitate laboratory and industrial chemical synthesis of fluorine containing pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Translation to (18)F-radiochemistry is also emerging as a vibrant research field because functional imaging based on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is increasingly used for both diagnosis and pharmaceutical development. This review summarizes how fluoride sources have been used for the catalytic nucleophilic fluorination of various substrates inclusive of aryl triflates, alkynes, allylic halides, allylic esters, allylic trichloroacetimidates, benzylic halides, tertiary alkyl halides and epoxides. Until recently, progress in this field of research has been slow in part because of the challenges associated with the dual reactivity profile of fluoride (nucleophile or base). Despite these difficulties, some remarkable breakthroughs have emerged. This includes the demonstration that Pd(0)/Pd(II)-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination to access fluoroarenes from aryl triflates is feasible, and the first examples of Tsuji-Trost allylic alkylation with fluoride using either allyl chlorides or allyl precursors bearing O-leaving groups. More recently, allylic fluorides were also made accessible under iridium catalysis. Another reaction, which has been greatly improved based on careful mechanistic work, is the catalytic asymmetric hydrofluorination of meso epoxides. Notably, each individual transition metal catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination reported to date employs a different F-reagent, an observation indicating that this area of research will benefit from a larger pool of nucleophilic fluoride sources. In this context, a striking recent development is the successful design, synthesis and applications of a fluoride-derived electrophilic late stage

  4. Addition of nucleophiles on cyanoacetylene N≡CCH=CH-X (X = NH2, OH, SH, …). Synthesis and Physico-chemical Properties of Potential Prebiotic Compounds or Interstellar Molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    Among the molecules detected to date in the interstellar medium (ISM), cyanopolyynes constitute a rich and important subset. These robust compounds exhibit special properties with respect to their reactivity and kinetic stability, and some have been found in other astrochemical environments, such as comets or in lab simulations of planetary atmospheres.[1] These systems are supposed to be good starting materials for the formation of new, more complex, astrochemical species, or amino acids on primitive Earth. The formal addition of water, hydrogen sulfur or ammonia on cyanoacetylene (H-C≡C-C≡N) gives the corresponding heterosubstitued acrylonitriles. We have extensively investigated the study of such adducts. With water, the formed cyanovinylalcohol (NC-CH=CH-OH) is in a tautomeric equilibrium with the kinetically more stable cyanoacetaldehyde (NC-CH2 CH(=O)). Isolation of these compounds in pure form is challenging but the gas phase infrared spectrum has been recorded. Reaction of ammonia with cyanoacetylene gives aminoacrylonitrile (H2 N-CH=CH-CN), a stable enamine; microwave and infrared spectra were obtained.[2] Similarly the MW spectrum of 3-mercapto-2-propenenitrile (HS-CH=CH-CN) has been recorded.[3] Attempts to detect both species in the ISM have been performed. A combined experimental and theoretical study on the gas-phase basicity and acidity of a series of cyanovinyl derivatives is also presented.[4] We will demonstrate that many particular physicochemical properties are associated to these simple adducts of cyanoacetylene, compounds often proposed as prebiotic molecules or components of the ISM. 1] S. W. Fow, K. Dose, Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, Marcel Dekker, Stateplace- New York, metricconverterProductID1977. A1977. A. Coustenis, T. Encrenaz, B. BJzard, B. Bjoraker, G. Graner, G. Dang-Nhu, E. AriJ, Icarus 1993, 102, 240 - 269. [2] Benidar, A. ; Guillemin, J.-C. ; M—, O. ; Y‡-ez, M. J. Phys. Chem. A. 2005, 109, 4705-4712. E

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Surface-active ionic liquids in micellar catalysis: impact of anion selection on reaction rates in nucleophilic substitutions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Formulae for calculating aggregation parameters and fitting of kinetic constants and copies of NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp00493h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cognigni, Alice; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Peterlik, Herwig; Prochazka, Katharina; Schröder, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A series of surface-active ionic liquids based on the 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and different anions such as halides and alkylsulfates was synthesized. The aggregation behavior of these ionic liquids in water was characterized by surface tension, conductivity measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy in order to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and to provide aggregation parameters. The determination of surface activity and aggregation properties of amphiphilic ionic liquids was accompanied by SAXS studies on selected surface-active ionic liquids. The application of these surface-active ionic liquids with different anions was tested in nucleophilic substitution reactions for the degradation of organophosphorus compounds. Kinetic studies via UV-Vis spectrophotometry showed a strong acceleration of the reaction in the micellar system compared to pure water. In addition, an influence of the anion was observed, resulting in a correlation between the anion binding to the micelle and the reaction rate constants, indicating that the careful choice of the surface-active ionic liquid can considerably affect the outcome of reactions. PMID:27121134

  8. Acid-base bifunctional catalytic surfaces for nucleophilic addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2008-09-01

    This article illustrates the modification of oxide surfaces with organic amine functional groups to create acid-base bifunctional catalysts, summarizing our previous reports and also presenting new data. Immobilization of organic amines as bases on inorganic solid-acid surfaces afforded highly active acid-base bifunctional catalysts, which enabled various organic transformations including C--C coupling reactions, though these reactions did not proceed with either the homogeneous amine precursors or the acidic supports alone. Spectroscopic characterization, such as by solid-state MAS NMR and FTIR, revealed not only the interactions between acidic and basic sites but also bifunctional catalytic reaction mechanisms.

  9. Kinetic isotope effects for RNA cleavage by 2'-O- transphosphorylation: Nucleophilic activation by specific base

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Michael E; Dai, Qing; Gu, Hong; Kellerman, Dan; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Anderson, Vernon E

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the interactions between catalysts and transition states during RNA strand cleavage, primary 18O kinetic isotope effects and solvent D2O isotope effects were measured to probe the mechanism of base-catalyzed 2'-O-transphosphorylation of the RNA dinucleotide 5'-UpG-3'. The observed 18O KIEs for the nucleophilic 2'-O and in the 5'-O leaving group at pH 14 are both large relative to reactions of phosphodiesters with good leaving groups, indicating that the reaction catalyzed by hydroxide has a transition state (TS) with advanced phosphorus-oxygen bond fission to the leaving group (18kLG = 1.034 ± 0.004) and phosphorous-nucleophile bond formation (18kNUC = 0.984 ± 0.004). A breakpoint in the pH dependence of the 2'-O-transphosphorylation rate to a pH independent phase above pH 13 has been attributed to the pKa of the 2'-OH nucleophile. A smaller nucleophile KIE is observed at pH 12 (18kNUC = 0.995 ± 0.004) that is interpreted as the combined effect of the equilibrium isotope effect (~1.02) on deprotonation of the 2′-hydroxyl nucleophile and the intrinsic KIE on the nucleophilic addition step (ca. 0.981). An alternative mechanism in which the hydroxide ion acts as a general base is considered unlikely given the lack of a solvent deuterium isotope effect above the breakpoint in the pH versus rate profile. These results represent the first direct analysis of the transition state for RNA strand cleavage. The primary 18O KIE results and the lack of a kinetic solvent deuterium isotope effect together provide strong evidence for a late transition state and 2'-O nucleophile activation by specific base catalysis. PMID:20669950

  10. The Limit of Intramolecular H-Bonding.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Thomas A; Brown, Alisdair J; Bell, Ian A W; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-11-23

    Hydrogen bonds are ubiquitous interactions in molecular recognition. The energetics of such processes are governed by the competing influences of pre-organization and flexibility that are often hard to predict. Here we have measured the strength of intramolecular interactions between H-bond donor and acceptor sites separated by a variable linker. A striking distance-dependent threshold was observed in the intramolecular interaction energies. H-bonds were worth less than -1 kJ mol(-1) when the interacting groups were separated by ≥6 rotating bonds, but ranged between -5 and -9 kJ mol(-1) for ≤5 rotors. Thus, only very strong external H-bond acceptors were able to compete with the stronger internal H-bonds. In addition, a constant energetic penalty per rotor of ∼5-6 kJ mol(-1) was observed in less strained situations where the molecule contained ≥4 rotatable bonds.

  11. Nucleophilic degradation of fenitrothion insecticide and performance of nucleophiles: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Debasish; Mondal, Bhaskar; Das, Abhijit K

    2012-03-15

    Ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to understand the destruction chemistry of an important organophosphorus insecticide O,O-dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate, fenitrothion (FN), toward nucleophilic attack. Breaking of the P-OAr linkages through nucleophilic attack is considered to be the major degradation pathway for FN. One simple nucleophile, hydroxide (OH(-)), and two different α-nucleophiles, hydroperoxide (OOH(-)) and hydroxylamine anion (NH(2)O(-)), have been considered for this study. Nucleophilic attack at the two different centers, S(N)2@P and S(N)2@C, has been monitored, and the computed reaction energetics confirms that the S(N)2@P reactions are favorable over the S(N)2@C reactions for all the nucleophiles. All electronic structure calculations for the reaction are performed at DFT-B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory followed by a refinement of energy at ab initio MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level. The effect of aqueous polarization on both the S(N)2 reactions is taken into account employing the conductor-like screening model (COSMO) as well as polarization continuum model (PCM) at B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory. Relative performance of the two α-nucleophiles, OOH(-) and NH(2)O(-), at the P center has further been clarified using natural bond orbital (NBO), conceptual DFT, and atoms in molecules (AIM) approaches. The strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the transition states and topological properties of the electron density distribution for -X-H···S (X = O, N) intermolecular hydrogen bonds are the subject of NBO and AIM analysis, respectively. Our calculated reaction energetics and electronic properties suggest that the relative order of nucleophilicity for the nucleophiles is OOH(-) > NH(2)O(-) > OH(-) for the S(N)2@P, whereas for the S(N)2@C the order, which gets little altered, is NH(2)O(-) > OOH(-) > OH(-).

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Tandem Carbene Migratory Insertion and Intramolecular Cyclization: Synthesis of Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xue Song; Li, Nian Tai; Siyang, Hai Xiao; Liu, Pei Nian

    2015-05-01

    Chromeno[4,3-b]chromene is a ubiquitous structural motif found in various pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. A concise palladium-catalyzed reaction of vinyl iodides and salicyl N-tosylhydrazones has been achieved to afford a series of compounds containing the chromeno[4,3-b]chromene scaffold in moderate to high yield. This tandem reaction involves palladium(II) carbene migratory insertion and intramolecular cyclization assisted by an O nucleophile and tolerates various functional groups.

  13. Catalytic, Enantioselective, Intramolecular Carbosulfenylation of Olefins. Preparative and Stereochemical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Jaunet, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The first catalytic, enantioselective, intramolecular carbosulfenylation of isolated alkenes with aromatic nucleophiles is described. The combination of N-phenylsulfenylphthalimide, a chiral selenophosphoramide derived from BINAM, and ethanesulfonic acid as a co-catalytic Brønsted acid induced an efficient and selective cyclofunctionalization of various alkenes (aliphatic and aromatic) tethered to a 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ring. Under these conditions, 6-phenylthio-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalenes are formed diastereospecifically in good yields (50–92%) and high enantioselectivities (71:29 – 97:3 er). E-Alkenes reacted much more rapidly and with much higher selectivity than Z-alkenes, whereas electron rich alkenes reacted more rapidly but with comparable selectivity to electron-neutral alkenes and electron deficient alkenes. The Brønsted acid played a critical role in effecting reproducible enantioselectivity. A model for the origin of enantioselectivity and the dependence of rate and selectivity on alkene structure is proposed along with a rationale for the site selectivity in reactions with mono-activated arene nucleophiles. PMID:24328051

  14. Advances in Nucleophilic Phosphine Catalysis of Alkenes, Allenes, Alkynes, and MBHADs

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi Chiao

    2014-01-01

    In nucleophilic phosphine catalysis, tertiary phosphines undergo conjugate additions to activated carbon–carbon multiple bonds to form β-phosphonium enolates, β-phosphonium dienolates, β-phosphonium enoates, and vinyl phosphonium ylides as intermediates. When these reactive zwitterionic species react with nucleophiles and electrophiles, they may generate carbo- and heterocycles with multifarious molecular architectures. This Article describes the reactivities of these phosphonium zwitterions, the applications of phosphine catalysis in the syntheses of biologically active compounds and natural products, and recent developments in the enantioselective phosphine catalysis. PMID:24196409

  15. Intramolecular cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions with metal carbenoids generated from cyclopropenes.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Alexis; Miege, Frédéric; Meyer, Christophe; Cossy, Janine

    2015-04-21

    Activation of unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds by means of transition metal catalysts is an exceptionally active research field in organic synthesis. In this context, due to their high ring strain, cyclopropenes constitute an interesting class of substrates that displays a versatile reactivity in the presence of transition metal catalysts. Metal complexes of vinyl carbenes are involved as key intermediates in a wide variety of transition metal-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of cyclopropenes. Most of the reported transformations rely on intermolecular or intramolecular addition of nucleophiles to these latter reactive species. This Account focuses specifically on the reactivity of carbenoids resulting from the ring-opening of cyclopropenes in cyclopropanation and C-H insertion reactions, which are arguably two of the most representative transformations of metal complexes of carbenes. Compared with the more conventional α-diazo carbonyl compounds, the use of cyclopropenes as precursors of metal carbenoids in intramolecular cyclopropanation or C-H insertion reactions has been largely underexploited. One of the challenges is to devise appropriately substituted and readily available cyclopropenes that would not only undergo regioselective ring-opening under mild conditions but also trigger the subsequent desired transformations with a high level of chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity. These goals were met by considering several substrates derived from the readily available 3,3-dimethylcyclopropenylcarbinols or 3,3-dimethylcyclopropenylcarbinyl amines. In the case of 1,6-cyclopropene-enes, highly efficient and diastereoselective gold(I)-catalyzed ring-opening/intramolecular cyclopropanations were developed as a route to diversely substituted heterocycles and carbocycles possessing a bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane framework. The use of rhodium(II) catalysts enabled us to widen the scope of this transformation for the synthesis of medium-sized heterocyclic scaffolds

  16. Dual and Simultaneous Roles of Nucleophillic Delivery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reactions with DNA studied. Such information is particularly important to those interested in the catalysis of hydrolysis of DNA and RNA. 14. SUBJECT...34. Catalysis of the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters by various functional groups were studied as intramolecular reactions with single turnovers. One and...displacement reaction at the phosphate linkage. The same La3+ which ligates the HO" also interacts with one of the two -(P02)- oxygens. The second

  17. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Using Phosphine Nucleophiles: An Introduction to Phosphorus-31 NMR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbald, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is commonly used in modern synthetic chemistry to monitor the conversion of reactants to products. Since instruction in the use of NMR spectroscopy typically does not occur until after the introduction of nucleophilic substitution reactions, organic chemistry students are not able to take advantage of…

  18. Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Using Phosphine Nucleophiles: An Introduction to Phosphorus-31 NMR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbald, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is commonly used in modern synthetic chemistry to monitor the conversion of reactants to products. Since instruction in the use of NMR spectroscopy typically does not occur until after the introduction of nucleophilic substitution reactions, organic chemistry students are not able to take advantage of…

  19. Profiling the Reactivity of Cyclic C-Nucleophiles towards Electrophilic Sulfur in Cysteine Sulfenic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinayak; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of a protein cysteine thiol to sulfenic acid, termed S-sulfenylation, is a reversible post-translational modification that plays a crucial role in regulating protein function and is correlated with disease states. The majority of reaction-based small molecule and immunochemical probes used for detecting sulfenic acids are based on the 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone) scaffold, which is selective, but suffers from low reactivity. In addition, mechanistic details and features that diminish or enhance nucleophile reactivity remain largely unknown. A significant hurdle to resolving the aforementioned issues has been the chemically unstable nature of small-molecule sulfenic acid models. Herein, we report a facile mass spectrometry-based assay and repurposed dipeptide-based model to screen a library of cyclic C-nucleophiles for reactivity with sulfenic acid under aqueous conditions. Observed rate constants for ~100 cyclic C-nucleophiles were obtained and, from this collection, we have identified novel compounds with more than 200-fold enhanced reactivity, as compared to dimedone. The increase in reactivity and retention of selectivity of these C-nucleophiles were validated in secondary assays, including a protein model for sulfenic acid. Together, this work represents a significant step toward developing new chemical reporters for detecting protein S-sulfenylation with superior kinetic resolution. The enhanced rates and varied composition of the C-nucleophiles should enable more comprehensive analyses of the sulfenome and serve as the foundation for reversible or irreversible nucleophilic covalent inhibitors that target oxidized cysteine residues in therapeutically important proteins. PMID:26819701

  20. Femtosecond laser studies of ultrafast intramolecular processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this research is to better understand the detailed mechanisms of chemical reactions by observing, directly in time, the dynamics of fundamental chemical processes. In this work femtosecond laser pulses are used to initiate chemical processes and follow the progress of these processes in time. The authors are currently studying ultrafast internal conversion and subsequent intramolecular relaxation in unsaturated hydrocarbons. In addition, the authors are developing nonlinear optical techniques to prepare and monitor the time evolution of specific vibrational motions in ground electronic state molecules.

  1. The stereochemical course of intramolecular Michael reactions.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Eugene E; Scheerer, Jonathan R; Evans, David A

    2013-01-04

    We present a general model for understanding the stereochemical course of intramolecular Michael reactions. We show that the addition of β-ketoester enolates to α,β-unsaturated esters and imides bearing adjacent stereocenters (X, Y = H, Me, OR) leads to high levels of asymmetric induction. Reinforcing and nonreinforcing stereochemical relationships are evaluated from the syn and anti reactant diastereomers. On the basis of synthetic, spectroscopic, and computational studies, we propose that the outcomes of these reactions can be rationalized by a dipole-minimized chair transition-state model.

  2. Electrochemical intramolecular aminooxygenation of unactivated alkenes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Zhu, Lin; Zhu, Shaobin; Yan, Xiaomei; Xu, Hai-Chao

    2014-09-26

    An electrochemical approach to the intramolecular aminooxygenation of unactivated alkenes has been developed. This process is based on the addition of nitrogen-centered radicals, generated through electrochemical oxidation, to alkenes followed by trapping of the cyclized radical intermediate with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl radical (TEMPO). Difunctionalization of a variety of alkenes with easily available carbamates/amides and TEMPO affords aminooxygenation products in high yields and with excellent trans selectivity for cyclic systems (d.r. up to>20:1). The approach provides a much-needed complementary route to existing cis-selective methods.

  3. Synthesis of anionic phosphorus-containing heterocycles by intramolecular cyclizations involving N-functionalized phosphinecarboxamides.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Thomas P; Goicoechea, Jose M

    2015-04-07

    We report that the 2-phosphaethynolate anion (PCO(-)) reacts with propargylamines in the presence of a proton source to afford novel N-derivatized phosphinecarboxamides bearing alkyne functionalities. Deprotonation of these species gives rise to novel five- and six-membered anionic heterocycles resulting from intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the resulting phosphide at the alkyne functionality (via 5-exo-dig or 6-endo-dig cyclizations, respectively). The nature of the substituents on the phosphinecarboxamide can be used to influence the outcome of these reactions. This strategy represents a unique approach to phosphorus-containing heterocylic systems that are closely related to known organic molecules with interesting bio-active properties.

  4. Activation of the glmS Ribozyme Nucleophile via Overdetermined Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Bingaman, Jamie L; Gonzalez, Inanllely Y; Wang, Bo; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2017-08-22

    RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, catalyze internal phosphodiester bond cleavage using diverse catalytic strategies. These include the four classic strategies: in-line nucleophilic attack, deprotonation of the 2'-OH nucleophile, protonation of the 5'-O leaving group, and stabilization of developing charge on the nonbridging oxygen atoms of the scissile phosphate. In addition, we recently identified two additional ribozyme strategies: acidification of the 2'-OH and release of the 2'-OH from inhibitory interactions. Herein, we report inverse thio effects in the presence of glmS ribozyme variants and a 1-deoxyglucosamine 6-phosphate cofactor analogue and demonstrate that activation of the 2'-OH nucleophile is promoted by competitive hydrogen bonding among diverse ribozyme moieties for the pro-RP nonbridging oxygen. We conclude that the glmS ribozyme uses an overdetermined set of competing hydrogen bond donors in its active site to ensure potent activation and regulation by the cofactor. Nucleophile activation through competitive, overdetermined hydrogen bonding could be a general strategy for ribozyme activation and may be applicable for controlling the function of ribozymes and riboswitches in the laboratory.

  5. A Safer, Discovery-Based Nucleophilic Substitution Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Gail

    2009-01-01

    A discovery-based nucleophilic substitution experiment is described in which students compare the reactivity of chloride and iodide ions in an S[subscript N]2 reaction. This experiment improves upon the well-known "Competing Nucleophiles" experiment in that it does not involve the generation of hydrogen halide gas. The experiment also introduces…

  6. Stereoselective halocyclization of alkenes with N-acyl hemiaminal nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Wang, Hao-Yuan; Zhang, Wei; Jia, Zhi-Hong; Guzei, Ilia A; Xu, Hua-Dong; Tang, Weiping

    2013-11-01

    Halocyclization of alkenes was realized using N-acylhemiaminal nucleophiles. High diastereoselectivity could be achieved for the formation of three stereogenic centers in this halogen-mediated cyclization reaction. We also demonstrated that enantioselective bromocyclization of alkenes using N-acylhemiaminal nucleophiles was possible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Safer, Discovery-Based Nucleophilic Substitution Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Gail

    2009-01-01

    A discovery-based nucleophilic substitution experiment is described in which students compare the reactivity of chloride and iodide ions in an S[subscript N]2 reaction. This experiment improves upon the well-known "Competing Nucleophiles" experiment in that it does not involve the generation of hydrogen halide gas. The experiment also introduces…

  8. The effects of sulfur substitution for the nucleophile and bridging oxygen atoms in reactions of hydroxyalkyl phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Subashree; Hengge, Alvan C

    2008-07-04

    The effects of sulfur substitution on the reactions of hydroxyalkyl phosphate esters are examined. These compounds are models for the intramolecular phosphoryl transfer reaction involved in the cleavage of the internucleotide bond in RNA. The models studied here lack the ribose ring and their conformational flexibility results in greater stability and the availability of different reaction pathways. Sulfur in the nucleophilic position shows no nucleophilic reaction at phosphorus, instead rapidly attacking at the beta carbon atom, forming thiirane with departure of a phosphomonoester. Sulfur substitution at either of the two bridging positions leads to cleavage of the diester via formation of a cyclic intermediate, but with significant rate acceleration when compared to the oxygen analogues. The bridge-substituted models react substantially slower than the analogous ribose compounds with sulfur substitution at comparable positions. Kinetic isotope effects reveal significant differences in the transition state depending on which bridging position sulfur occupies. When sulfur is in the scissile bridging position, a highly associative transition state is indicated, with a largely formed bond to the nucleophile and the scissile P-S bond is little changed. When sulfur occupies the other bridging position, the isotope effects imply a very early transition state in a concerted reaction.

  9. The Effects of Sulfur Substitution for the Nucleophile and Bridging Oxygen Atoms in Reactions of Hydroxyalkyl Phosphate Esters

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Subashree; Hengge, Alvan C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of sulfur substitution on the reactions of hydroxyalkyl phosphate esters are examined. These compounds are models for the intramolecular phosphoryl transfer reaction involved in the cleavage of the internucleotide bond in RNA. The models studied here lack the ribose ring and their conformational flexibility results in greater stability and the availability of different reaction pathways. Sulfur in the nucleophilic position shows no nucleophilic reaction at phosphorus, instead rapidly attacking at the beta carbon atom, forming thiirane with departure of a phosphomonoester. Sulfur substitution at either of the two bridging positions leads to cleavage of the diester via formation of a cyclic intermediate, but with significant rate acceleration when compared to the oxygen analogs. The bridge-substituted models react substantially slower than the analogous ribose compounds with sulfur substitution at comparable positions. Kinetic isotope effects reveal significant differences in the transition state depending on which bridging position sulfur occupies. When sulfur is in the scissile bridging position, a highly associative transition state is indicated, with a largely formed bond to the nucleophile and the scissile P-S bond is little changed. When sulfur occupies the other bridging position, the isotope effects imply a very early transition state in a concerted reaction. PMID:18533704

  10. Intramolecular Isotopic Studies: Chemical Enhancements and Alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    As mass spectroscopic and NMR-based methods now appropriately flourish, chemical techniques should not be forgotten. First, the methods developed by pioneering intramolecular analysts can be reapplied to new samples. Second, they can be extended. The synthesis of intramolecular isotopic standards is particularly important and straightforward. It requires only that a chemical reaction has no secondary products. An example is provided by the addition of carbon dioxide to a Grignard reagent. The reaction proceeds with an isotope effect. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group in the acid which is produced is thus not equal to that of the starting carbon dioxide but the unconsumed CO2 can be recovered and analyzed. A simple titration can show that all the rest of the CO2 is in the product acid. The isotopic composition of the carboxyl group can then be calculated by difference. The product is an intramolecular isotopic standard, an organic molecule in which the isotopic composition of a specific carbon position is known accurately. Both analysts and reviewers can thus gain invaluable confidence in the accuracy of instrumental results. A second example: the haloform reaction quantitatively degrades methyl ketones, producing a carboxylic acid which can be decarboxylated to determine the isotopic composition of the parent carbonyl and a haloform (CHI3, for example) that can be combusted to determine the isotopic composition of the methyl group. Ketones thus analyzed can be combined with Grignard reagents to yield carbon skeletons in which the isotopic compositions of internal and terminal -CH2- and -CH3 groups are known accurately. In general, analysts accustomed to demanding quantitative reactions should remember the power of mass balances and recognize that many organic-chemical reactions, while not quantitative, lack side products and can be driven to the total consumption of at least one reactant.

  11. The Element Effect Revisited: Factors Determining Leaving Group Ability in Activated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Senger, Nicholas A.; Bo, Bo; Cheng, Qian; Keeffe, James R.; Gronert, Scott; Wu, Weiming

    2012-01-01

    The “element effect” in nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions (SNAr) is characterized by the leaving group order, F > NO2 > Cl ≈ Br > I, in activated aryl halides. Multiple causes for this result have been proposed. Experimental evidence shows that the element effect order in the reaction of piperidine with 2,4-dinitrophenyl halides in methanol is governed by the differences in enthalpies of activation. Computational studies of the reaction of piperidine and dimethylamine with the same aryl halides using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for solvation indicate that polar, polarizability, solvation, and negative hyperconjugative effects are all of some importance in producing the element effect in methanol. In addition, a reversal of polarity of the C–X bond from reactant to transition state in the case of ArCl and ArBr compared to ArF also contributes to their difference in reactivity. The polarity reversal, and hyperconjugative influences have received little or no attention in the past. Nor has differential solvation of the different transition states been strongly emphasized. An anionic nucleophile, thiolate, gives very early transition states and negative activation enthalpies with activated aryl halides. The element effect is not established for these reactions. We suggest that the leaving group order in the gas phase will be dependent on the exact combination of nucleophile, leaving group, and substrate framework. The geometry of the SNAr transition state permits useful, qualitative conceptual distinctions to be made between this reaction and other modes of nucleophilic attack. PMID:23057717

  12. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions Described by the Local Electron Attachment Energy.

    PubMed

    Stenlid, Joakim H; Brinck, Tore

    2017-03-17

    A local multiorbital electrophilicity descriptor, the local electron attachment energy [E(r)], is used to study the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions of SNAr and VNS (vicarious nucleophilic substitution). E(r) considers all virtual orbitals below the free electron limit and is determined on the molecular isodensity contour of 0.004 atomic units. Good (R(2) = 0.83) to excellent (R(2) = 0.98) correlations are found between descriptor values and experimental reactivity data for six series of electron deficient arenes. These include homo- and heteroarenes, rings of five to six atoms, and a variety of fluorine, bromine, and hydride leaving groups. The solvent, temperature, and nucleophile are in addition varied across the series. The surface E(r) [ES(r)] is shown to provide reactivity predictions better than those of transition-state calculations for a concerted SNAr reaction with a bromine nucleofug, gives correlations substantially stronger than those of LUMO energies, and is overall more reliable than the molecular electrostatic potential. With the use of ES(r), one can identify the various electrophilic sites within a molecule and correctly predict isomeric distributions. Since the calculations of ES(r) are computationally inexpensive, the descriptor offers fast but accurate reactivity predictions for the important nucleophilic aromatic substitution class of reactions. Applications in, e.g., drug discovery, synthesis, and toxicology studies are envisaged.

  13. Nucleophilic addition to olefins. 5. Reaction of 1,1-dinitro-2,2-diphenylethylene with water and hydroxide ion in 50% Me/sub 2/SO-50% water. Complete kinetic analysis of hydrolytic cleavage of the C=C double bond in acidic and basic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bernasconi, C.F.; Carre, D.J.; Kanavarioti, A.

    1981-08-12

    Hydrolysis of 1,1-dinitro-2,2-diphenylethylene (2) to form benzophenone and dinitromethane (or its anion) was studied in 50% Me/sub 2/SO-50% H/sub 2/O and also in 50% Me/sub 2/SO-50% D/sub 2/O at pHs of 1 to 16. Solvent isotope effects general acid and general base catalysis, and structure-reactivity relationships were used to study the kinetics. The conclusions are the following: (1) the equilibrium constants for OH/sup -/ and water addition to 2 to form T/sub OH//sup -/ are comparable to those for the corresponding reactions of benzylidene Meldrum's acid (1), but the rate constants are much lower for 2 than for 1; (2) carbon protonation of T/sub OH//sup -/ follows an Eigen curve similar to that for 1,1-dinitroethane anion but which is displaced upward by nearly 1 log unit. This indicates a higher intrinsic protonation rate because of a smaller charge delocalization in T/sub OH//sup -/ owing to an enhanced steric hindrance to coplanarity of the nitro groups in T/sub OH//sup -/; (3) intramolecular proton transfer from the OH group to the carbanionic site in T/sub OH//sup -/ is insignificant, which is in contrast to the behavior of the addition complex between 2 and morpholine; (4) the base-catalyzed breakdown of T/sub OH//sup 0/ into benzophenone and dinitromethane anion occurs by rate-limiting oxygen deprotonation, which implies that k/sub 4/ for CH(NO/sub 2/)/sub 2//sup -/ departure from T/sub OH//sup 0 -/ is much greater than 2 x 10/sup 9/ s/sup -1/, a remarkably high rate for a carbanionic leaving group. The water-catalyzed breakdown of T/sub OH//sup 0/ proceeds by a different mechanism, which is most likely concerted, with a transition state; (5) the acid-catalyzed breakdown of T/sub OH//sup 2 -/ occurs by rate-limiting carbon protonation (k/sub 6//sup BH/), but the water-catalyzed breakdown follows a different mechanism. Various possibilities are discussed, and a slight preference is given to a preassociation mechanism.

  14. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Between Halogenated Benzene Dopants and Nucleophiles in Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Haack, Alexander; Kroll, Kai; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten

    2016-03-01

    In a preceding work with dopant assisted-atmospheric pressure photoionization (DA-APPI), an abundant ion at [M + 77](+) was observed in the spectra of pyridine and quinoline with chlorobenzene dopant. This contribution aims to reveal the identity and route of formation of this species, and to systematically investigate structurally related analytes and dopants. Compounds containing N-, O-, and S-lone pairs were investigated with APPI in the presence of fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, and iodobenzene dopants. Computational calculations on a density functional theory (DFT) level were carried out to study the reaction mechanism for pyridine and the different halobenzenes. The experimental and computational results indicated that the [M + 77](+) ion was formed by nucleophilic aromatic ipso-substitution between the halobenzene radical cation and nucleophilic analytes. The reaction was most efficient for N-heteroaromatic compounds, and it was weakened by sterical effects and enhanced by resonance stabilization. The reaction was most efficient with chloro-, bromo-, and iodobenzenes, whereas with fluorobenzene the reaction was scarcely observed. The calculated Gibbs free energies for the reaction between pyridine and the halobenzenes were shown to increase in the order I < Br < Cl < F. The reaction was found endergonic for fluorobenzene due to the strong C-F bonding, and exergonic for the other halobenzenes. For fluoro- and chlorobenzenes the reaction was shown to proceed through an intermediate state corresponding to [M + dopant](+), which was highly stable for fluorobenzene. For the bulkier bromine and iodine, this intermediate did not exist, but the halogens were shown to detach already during the approach by the nucleophile.

  15. Terminating Catalytic Asymmetric Heck Cyclizations by Stereoselective Intramolecular Capture of η3-Allylpalladium Intermediates: Total Synthesis of (−)-Spirotryprostatin B and Three Stereoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Larry E.; Rosen, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic intramolecular Heck reaction, followed by capture of the resulting η3-allylpalladium intermediate by a tethered diketopiperazine, is the central step in a concise synthetic route to (−)-spirotryprostatin B and three stereoisomers. This study demonstrates that an acyclic, chiral η3-allylpalladium fragment generated in a catalytic asymmetric Heck cyclization can be trapped by even a weakly nucleophilic diketopiperazine more rapidly than it undergoes diastereomeric equilibration. PMID:20725641

  16. ortho-Lithium/magnesium carboxylate-driven aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions on unprotected naphthoic acids.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Regadia; Nourry, Arnaud; Coquel, Ariane; Dao, Thi Thanh Hà; Derdour, Aicha; Helesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Duval, Olivier; Castanet, Anne-Sophie; Mortier, Jacques

    2012-01-06

    Substitution of an ortho-fluoro or methoxy group in 1- and 2-naphthoic acids furnishing substituted naphthoic acids occurs in good to excellent yields upon reaction with alkyl/vinyl/aryl organolithium and Grignard reagents, in the absence of a metal catalyst without the need to protect the carboxyl (CO(2)H) group. This novel nucleophilic aromatic substitution is presumed to proceed via a precoordination of the organometallic with the substrate, followed by an addition/elimination.

  17. Intramolecular interactions in the polar headgroup of sphingosine: serinol† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Ab initio parameters for serinol conformers within 1000 cm–1, measured transition frequencies, typical a-type transition for conformer aa1, interconversion barriers and possible tunnelling pathways. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc09423b Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Loru, Donatella; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular interactions in the lipid sphingosine have been elucidated through the investigation of the amino alcohol serinol which mimics its polar headgroup. Intricate networks of intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups and the amino group contribute to the stabilisation of five different conformations observed in the broadband rotational spectrum. PMID:26727395

  18. Nucleophilic Hydroxylation in Water Media Promoted by a Hexa-Ethylene Glycol-Bridged Dicationic Ionic Liquid.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vinod H; Kim, Jin Gwan; Jeong, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-07-17

    Hexaethylene glycol bis(3-hexaethylene glycol imidazolium) dimesylate ionic liquid (hexaEG-DHIM) was designed and prepared as a highly efficient promoter for the nucleophilic hydroxylation of alkyl halides to the corresponding alcohol products in neat water media. It was observed that hexaEG-DHIM promoter enhanced the nucleophilicity of water significantly in the reaction. In addition, the hexaEG-DHIM could be reused several times without loss of activity. Moreover, the hydroxylation reactions of base-sensitive and/or polar alkyl halide substrates proceeded highly chemoselectively in excellent yields.

  19. Biological matching of chemical reactivity: pairing indole nucleophilicity with electrophilic isoprenoids.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Christopher T

    2014-12-19

    The indole side chain of tryptophan has latent nucleophilic reactivity at both N1 and all six (nonbridgehead) carbons, which is not generally manifested in post-translational reactions of proteins. On the other hand, all seven positions can be prenylated by the primary metabolite Δ(2)-isopentenyl diphosphate by dimethyallyl transferase (DMATs) family members as initial steps in biosynthetic pathways to bioactive fungal alkaloids including ergots and tremorgens. These are formulated as regioselective capture of isopentenyl allylic cationic transition states by the indole side chain as a nucleophile. The balance of regiospecificity and promiscuity among these indole prenyltransferases continues to raise questions about possible Cope and azaCope rearrangements of nascent products. In addition to these two electron reaction manifolds, there is evidence for one electron reaction manifolds in indole ring biosynthetic functionalization.

  20. Annelated pyridines as highly nucleophilic and Lewis basic catalysts for acylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Raman; Unzner, Teresa; Nigst, Tobias A; De Rycke, Nicolas; Mayer, Peter; Wendt, Bernd; David, Olivier R P; Zipse, Hendrik

    2013-05-10

    New heterocyclic derivatives of 9-azajulolidine have been synthesized and characterized with respect to their nucleophilicity and Lewis basicity. The Lewis basicity of these bases as quantified through their theoretically calculated methyl-cation affinities correlate well with the experimentally measured reaction rates for addition to benzhydryl cations. All newly synthesized pyridines show exceptional catalytic activities in benchmark acylation reactions, which correlate only poorly with Lewis basicity or nucleophilicity parameters. A combination of Lewis basicity with charge and geometric parameters in the framework of a three-component quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is, however, highly predictive. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A General Ligand Design for Gold Catalysis allowing Ligand-Directed Anti Nucleophilic Attack of Alkynes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanzhao; Wang, Zhixun; Li, Yuxue; Wu, Gongde; Cao, Zheng; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    Most homogenous gold catalyses demand ≥0.5 mol % catalyst loading. Due to the high cost of gold, these reactions are unlikely to be applicable in medium or large scale applications. Here we disclose a novel ligand design based on the privileged biphenyl-2-phosphine framework that offers a potentially general approach to dramatically lowering catalyst loading. In this design, an amide group at the 3’ position of the ligand framework directs and promotes nucleophilic attack at the ligand gold complex-activated alkyne, which is unprecedented in homogeneous gold catalysis considering the spatial challenge of using ligand to reach antiapproaching nucleophile in a linear P-Au-alkyne centroid structure. With such a ligand, the gold(I) complex becomes highly efficient in catalyzing acid addition to alkynes, with a turnover number up to 99,000. Density functional theory calculations support the role of the amide moiety in directing the attack of carboxylic acid via hydrogen bonding. PMID:24704803

  2. Local Electron Attachment Energy and Its Use for Predicting Nucleophilic Reactions and Halogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Tore; Carlqvist, Peter; Stenlid, Joakim H

    2016-12-22

    A new local property, the local electron attachment energy [E(r)], is introduced and is demonstrated to be a useful guide to predict intermolecular interactions and chemical reactivity. The E(r) is analogous to the average local ionization energy but indicates susceptibility toward interactions with nucleophiles rather than electrophiles. The functional form E(r) is motivated based on Janak's theorem and the piecewise linear energy dependence of electron addition to atomic and molecular systems. Within the generalized Kohn-Sham method (GKS-DFT), only the virtual orbitals with negative eigenvalues contribute to E(r). In the present study, E(r) has been computed from orbitals obtained from GKS-DFT computations with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional. It is shown that E(r) computed on a molecular isodensity surface, ES(r), reflects the regioselectivity and relative reactivity for nucleophilic aromatic substitution, nucleophilic addition to activated double bonds, and formation of halogen bonds. Good to excellent correlations between experimental or theoretical measures of interaction strengths and minima in ES(r) (ES,min) are demonstrated.

  3. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution on aryl-amido ligands promoted by oxidizing osmium(IV) centers.

    PubMed

    Soper, Jake D; Saganic, Erik; Weinberg, David; Hrovat, David A; Benedict, Jason B; Kaminsky, Werner; Mayer, James M

    2004-09-20

    Addition of amine nucleophiles to acetonitrile solutions of the OsIV anilido complex TpOs(NHPh)Cl2 (1) [Tp = hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate] gives products with derivatized anilido ligands, i.e., TpOs[NH-p-C6H4(N(CH2)5)]Cl2 (2) from piperidine and TpOs[NH-p-C6H4N(CH2)4]Cl2 (3) from pyrrolidine. These materials are formed in approximately 30% yield under anaerobic conditions, together with approximately 60% yields of the OsIII aniline complex TpOs(NH2Ph)Cl2 (5). Formation of the para-substituted materials 2 or 3 from 1 involves oxidative removal of two hydrogen atoms (two H+ and two e-). The oxidation can be accomplished by 1, forming 5, or by O2. Related reactions have been observed with other amines and with the 2-naphthylamido derivative, which gives an ortho-substituted product. Kinetic studies indicate an addition-elimination mechanism involving initial attack of the amine nucleophile on the anilido ligand. These are unusual examples of nucleophilic aromatic substitution of hydrogen. Ab initio calculations on 1 show that the LUMO has significant density at the ortho and para positions of the anilido ligand, resembling the LUMO of nitrobenzene. By analogy with nucleophilic aromatic substitution, 2 is quantitatively formed from piperidine and the p-chloroanilide TpOs(NH-p-C6H4Cl)Cl2 (7). Binding the anilide ligands to an oxidizing OsIV center thus causes a remarkable umpolung or inversion of chemical character from a typically electron-rich anilido to an electron-deficient aromatic functionality. This occurs because of the coupling of redox changes at the TpOsIV center with bond formation at the coordinated ligand.

  4. Intramolecular Rovibrational Dynamics of Hydrocarbons and Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy, Andrew

    This dissertation describes investigations of the intramolecular dynamics of two types of systems: isolated hydrocarbon molecules, and clusters of Ar atoms with an HF molecule. Both are studied via high resolution (0.001 cm^{-1}) infrared (IR) laser spectroscopy in a slit supersonic expansion. The slit expansion provides a cold (T = 3-15 K) source of isolated gas phase molecules or complexes with sufficient pathlength to carry out IR laser absorption experiments. Furthermore, probing the expansion parallel to the slit produces Doppler broadening up to a factor of ten below that found at room temperature facilitating high resolution, state specific experiments. In the hydrocarbon v = 1 >=ts 0 CH stretch spectra, the vibrational mixing ultimately responsible for intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) is elucidated from the observation of splitting of the individual rovibrational transitions; this is due to coupling of the CH stretch to the bath of combination and overtone states. The repetition of qualitative patterns in these data suggest that in some cases individual functional groups within a molecule may control IVR rates largely independent of the specific details of the molecule. For example, vibrational coupling of acetylenic CH stretches is shown to produce similar relaxation rates in molecules whose vibrational state densities vary by almost three orders of magnitude. The studies of Ar_{rm n}HF complexes, n = 1-4, focus on the transition from a free, gas phase HF molecule to a "solvated" HF in an Ar matrix. Models describing the observed red shifting of the HF vibration with the sequential addition of Ar atoms are investigated. Furthermore, these multibody clusters provide the opportunity to test the approximation of the potential energy surfaces (PES) of weakly bound (< 1000 cm^{-1}) systems with sums of two-body potentials. Initial calculations and experiments suggest that significant discrepancies exist between the true PES and the

  5. Activation of dinitrogen-derived hafnium nitrides for nucleophilic N-C bond formation with a terminal isocyanate.

    PubMed

    Semproni, Scott P; Chirik, Paul J

    2013-12-02

    Better by Hf: Anion coordination to a bridging hafnocene nitride complex, prepared from CO-induced N2 cleavage, increases the nucleophilicity of the nitrogen atom, thus promoting additional NC bond formation with a typically inert terminal isocyanate ligand. This cascade sequence allows synthesis of otherwise challenging mono-substituted ureas using N2 , CO, and an appropriate electrophile.

  6. Nucleophilic substitution reactions of N-chloramines: evidence for a change in mechanism with increasing nucleophile reactivity.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paula; Crugeiras, Juan; Ríos, Ana; Ríos, Miguel A

    2007-04-27

    Third-order rate constants (kNu)H (M-2 s-1) for the hydronium ion catalyzed reactions of a range of nucleophiles with N-chlorotaurine (1) in water at 25 degrees C and I=0.5 (NaClO4) are reported. The solvent deuterium isotope effects on hydronium ion catalysis of the reaction with 1 of bromide and iodide ion are (kBr)H/(kBr)D=0.30 and (kI)H/(kI)D=0.54, respectively. The inverse nature of these isotope effects and the absence of general acid catalysis are consistent with a stepwise mechanism involving protonation of 1 in a fast preequilibrium step. The appearance of strong catalysis by general acids for the reaction of the more nucleophilic SO(3)2- and HOCH2CH2S- with the chloramine indicates a change to a concerted mechanism, with protonation of the chloramine at nitrogen and chlorine transfer to the nucleophile occurring in a single step. A rough estimate of the lifetime of the protonated chloramine in the presence of the thiolate anion suggests that the concerted mechanism is enforced by the absence of a significant lifetime of the protonated substrate in contact with the nucleophile. Theoretical calculations provide evidence against an electron-transfer mechanism for chlorination of the nucleophiles by protonated 1.

  7. Intramolecular nucleophilic activation promoting efficient hydrolytic cleavage of DNA by (aqua)bis(dipyridoquinoxaline)copper(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Shanta; Reddy, Pattubala A N; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2004-03-07

    The axial aqua bound copper(II) complex [Cu(dpq)2(H2O)](ClO4)2, having a planar NN-donor heterocyclic base dipyridoquinoxaline (dpq) as the DNA minor groove binder, shows efficient hydrolytic cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the dark and in the absence of any external reagents, as evidenced from T4 ligase experiments, with a rate of 5.58 +/- 0.4 h(-1) and a rate enhancement of 1.55 x 10(8).

  8. Nucleophilic Tetrafluoroethylation Employing in Situ Formed Organomagnesium Reagents.

    PubMed

    Budinská, Alena; Václavík, Jiří; Matoušek, Václav; Beier, Petr

    2016-11-18

    Tetrafluoroalkyl bromides are metalated with equimolar iPrMgCl·LiCl (Turbo Grignard) to form organomagnesium compounds which are stable at low temperatures and react with various electrophiles (aldehydes, ketones, CO2, cyclic sulfate and sulfamidate, N-sulfonylimines, nitrone, chlorophosphate, nonaflyl azide) to afford novel functionalized tetrafluoroethylene-containing products. Ease of operation, excellent selectivity, high nucleophilicity, and enhanced stability of the reactive species together with a broad substrate scope comprise a highly attractive nucleophilic tetrafluoroethylation protocol affording unique synthetic building blocks.

  9. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution for heteroatoms: an oxidative electrochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Iluminada; Guirado, Gonzalo; Marquet, Jordi

    2002-04-19

    The nucleophilic aromatic substitution for heteroatom through electrochemical oxidation of the intermediate sigma-complexes (Meisenheimer complexes) in simple nitroaromatic compounds is reported for the first time (NASX process). The studies have been carried out with hydride, cyanide, fluoride, methoxy, and ethanethiolate anions and n-butylamine as a nucleophile, at the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and preparative electrolysis level. The cyclic voltammetry experiments allow for detection and characterization of the sigma-complexes and they have led us to a proposal for the mechanism of the oxidation step. Furthermore, the power of the CV technique in the analysis of the reaction mixture throughout the whole chemical and electrochemical process is described.

  10. Enantioselective Stereodivergent Nucleophile-Dependent Isothiourea-Catalysed Domino Reactions.

    PubMed

    Matviitsuk, Anastassia; Taylor, James E; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-12-05

    α,β-Unsaturated acyl ammoniums generated from the reaction of α,β-unsaturated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) esters bearing a pendent enone with an isothiourea organocatalyst are versatile intermediates in a range of enantioselective nucleophile-dependent domino processes to form complex products of diverse topology with excellent stereoselectivity. Use of either 1,3-dicarbonyls, acyl benzothiazoles, or acyl benzimidazoles as nucleophiles allows three distinct, diastereodivergent domino reaction pathways to be accessed to form various fused polycyclic cores containing multiple contiguous stereocentres. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Understanding thio-effects in simple phosphoryl systems: role of solvent effects and nucleophile charge† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A breakdown of calculated activation free energies shown in Table 1, as well as absolute energies and Cartesian coordinates of all key species in this work are presented as ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00309a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; O'Donoghue, AnnMarie C.; Hodgson, David R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental work (J. Org. Chem., 2012, 77, 5829) demonstrated pronounced differences in measured thio-effects for the hydrolysis of (thio)phosphodichloridates by water and hydroxide nucleophiles. In the present work, we have performed detailed quantum chemical calculations of these reactions, with the aim of rationalizing the molecular bases for this discrimination. The calculations highlight the interplay between nucleophile charge and transition state solvation in SN2(P) mechanisms as the basis of these differences, rather than a change in mechanism. PMID:25797408

  12. Quantification and analysis of intramolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Gonthier, Jérôme F; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    Non-covalent interactions play a prominent role in chemistry and biology. While a myriad of theoretical methods have been devised to quantify and analyze intermolecular interactions, the theoretical toolbox for the intramolecular analogues is much scarcer. Yet interactions within molecules govern fundamental phenomena as illustrated by the energetic differences between structural isomers. Their accurate quantification is of utmost importance. This paper gives an overview of the most common approaches able to probe intramolecular interactions and stresses both their characteristics and limitations. We finally introduce our recent theoretical approach, which represents the first step towards the development of an intramolecular version of Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT).

  13. The preparation and intra- and intermolecular addition reactions of acyclic N-acylimines: application to the synthesis of (+/-)-sertraline.

    PubMed

    DeNinno, M P; Eller, C; Etienne, J B

    2001-10-19

    Intramolecular endo-cyclization reactions of N-acyliminium ions have seen wide application for the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. The corresponding exocyclic variant, which would provide 1-aminotetralin derivatives, for example, has little precedent. We have discovered that acyclic N-acylcarbamates can be readily reduced to the corresponding N-acylhemiaminal derivatives in high yield using DIBAL as the reducing agent. These intermediates are remarkably stable and, if desired, can be purified and stored. The acyclic N-acylhemiaminals undergo both intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic addition reactions mediated by strong Lewis acids, such as TiCl(4). Diastereoselectivity, induced either by a substituent on the newly formed ring, or by utilizing a chiral ester on the carbamic acid, was disappointingly low. This methodology was successfully applied to the synthesis of the racemic form of the marketed antidepressant sertraline.

  14. Nucleophilic Polymers and Gels in Hydrolytic Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Lev; Creasy, William R; McGarvey, David J; Wilusz, Eugene; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-10-07

    Water- and solvent-soluble polymeric materials based on polyalkylamines modified with nucleophilic groups are introduced as catalysts of chemical warfare agent (CWA) hydrolysis. A comparative study conducted at constant pH and based on the criteria of the synthetic route simplicity, aqueous solubility, and rate of hydrolysis of CWA mimic, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), indicated that 4-aminopyridine-substituted polyallylamine (PAAm-APy) and polyvinylamine substituted with 4-aminopyridine (PVAm-APy) were advantageous over 4-pyridinealdoxime-modified PVAm and PAAm, poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine), and PAAm modified with bipyridine and its complex with Cu(II). The synthesis of PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy involved generation of a betaine derivative of acrylamide and its covalent attachment onto the polyalkylamine chain followed by basic hydrolysis. Hydrogel particles of PAAm-APy and PVAm-APy cross-linked by epichlorohydrin exhibited pH-dependent swelling and ionization patterns that affected the rate constants of DFP nucleophilic hydrolysis. Deprotonation of the aminopyridine and amine groups increased the rates of the nucleophilic hydrolysis. The second-order rate of nucleophilic hydrolysis was 5.5- to 10-fold higher with the nucleophile-modified gels compared to those obtained by cross-linking of unmodified PAAm, throughout the pH range. Testing of VX and soman (GD) was conducted in 2.5-3.7 wt % PVAm-APy suspensions or gels swollen in water or DMSO/water mixtures. The half-lives of GD in aqueous PVAm-APy were 12 and 770 min at pH 8.5 and 5, respectively. Addition of VX into 3.5-3.7 wt % suspensions of PVAm-APy in DMSO-d6 and D2O at initial VX concentration of 0.2 vol % resulted in 100% VX degradation in less than 20 min. The unmodified PVAm and PAAm were 2 orders of magnitude less active than PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy, with VX half-lives in the range of 24 h. Furthermore, the PVAm-APy and PAAm-APy gels facilitated the dehydrochlorination reaction of sulfur mustard

  15. Intramolecular Aminocyanation of Alkenes via N–CN Bond Cleavage**

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M.; Rondla, Naveen R.; Douglas, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    A metal-free, Lewis acid-promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, leading an formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with 13C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. PMID:24719371

  16. Intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes by N-CN bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhongda; Pound, Sarah M; Rondla, Naveen R; Douglas, Christopher J

    2014-05-12

    A metal-free, Lewis acid promoted intramolecular aminocyanation of alkenes was developed. B(C6F5)3 activates N-sulfonyl cyanamides, thus leading to a formal cleavage of the N-CN bonds in conjunction with vicinal addition of sulfonamide and nitrile groups across an alkene. This method enables atom-economical access to indolines and tetrahydroquinolines in excellent yields, and provides a complementary strategy for regioselective alkene difunctionalizations with sulfonamide and nitrile groups. Labeling experiments with (13)C suggest a fully intramolecular cyclization pattern due to the lack of label scrambling in double crossover experiments. Catalysis with Lewis acid is realized and the reaction can be conducted under air. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Dynamic Origin of the Stereoselectivity of a Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bogle, Xavier S.; Singleton, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A nucleophilic substitution on a dichlorovinyl ketone was studied experimentally and computationally. A mixture of products is observed experimentally, but a conventional computational analysis does not account for the formation of the minor stereoisomer. Instead, the product mixture is predicted accurately from a dynamic trajectory study on a bifurcating energy surface. The dynamic origin of the stereoselectivity of the reaction is discussed. PMID:22540965

  18. Nucleophilicity-periodic trends and connection to basicity.

    PubMed

    Uggerud, Einar

    2006-01-23

    The potential energy profiles of 18 identity S(N)2 reactions have been estimated by using G2-type quantum-chemical calculations. The reactions are: X- + CH3-X --> X-CH3 + X- and XH + CH3-XH+ --> +HX-CH3 + XH (X = NH2, OH, F, PH2, SH, Cl, AsH2, SeH, Br). Despite the charge difference, the barrier heights and the geometrical requirements upon going from the reactant to the transition structure are surprisingly similar for X- and XH. The barrier heights decrease on going from left to right in the periodic table, and increasing ionization energy (of X- and XH) is correlated with decreasing barrier. The observed trends are explained in terms of substrates with stronger electrostatic character giving rise to lower energetic barriers due to decreased electron repulsion in the transition structure. On the basis of this study, the relationship between the kinetic concept of nucleophilicity and the thermodynamic concept of basicity has been analyzed and clarified. Since the trends in intrinsic nucleophilicity (only defined for identity reactions) and basicity are opposite, overall nucleophilicity (defined for any reaction) will be determined by the relative contribution of the two factors. Only for strongly exothermic reactions will basicity and nucleophilicity be matching.

  19. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 19F- and 18F-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain 18F for use in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging. A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales. During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a ‘leaving group’ leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s). Here we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favoured over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional-group-tolerant 18F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize 18F-PET probes. Selective 18F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of 18F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to 18F-labelled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry.

  20. Reactivity of the insecticide fenitrothion toward O and N nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Natalia M; Vico, Raquel V; de Rossi, Rita H; Buján, Elba I

    2010-05-21

    The reactivity of Fenitrothion (1) toward several O- and N-based nucleophiles, including ambident and alpha-nucleophiles, was investigated in basic media at 25 degrees C in water containing 2% 1,4-dioxane. In the reactions with HO(-) and HOO(-) quantitative formation of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenoxide (2) was observed indicating a S(N)2(P) pathway. In the reactions with NH(2)OH, NH(2)O(-), and BuNH(2), demethylfenitrothion (4) was formed along with 2, indicating competition between the S(N)2(P) and S(N)2(C) pathways; no evidence of a S(N)Ar pathway was observed in any case. The observed rate constants were dissected into the values corresponding to the S(N)2(P) and S(N)2(C) pathways. The yield of 4 depends on the nucleophile and on the pH of the reaction, being the main product in the case of BuNH(2). With HOO(-), NH(2)OH, and NH(2)O(-) a significant alpha-effect was observed, confirming the participation of the nucleophile in the rate-limiting step of the reaction.

  1. Concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution with 19F− and 18F−

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Constanze N.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) is widely used by organic chemists to functionalize aromatic molecules, and it is the most commonly used method to generate arenes that contain a 18F for use in PET imaging.1 A wide range of nucleophiles exhibit SNAr reactivity, and the operational simplicity of the reaction means that the transformation can be conducted reliably and on large scales.2 During SNAr, attack of a nucleophile at a carbon atom bearing a ‘leaving group’ leads to a negatively charged intermediate called a Meisenheimer complex. Only arenes with electron-withdrawing substituents can sufficiently stabilize the resulting build-up of negative charge during Meisenheimer complex formation, limiting the scope of SNAr reactions: the most common SNAr substrates contain strong π-acceptors in the ortho and/or para position(s).3 In this manuscript, we present an unusual concerted nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction (CSNAr) that is not limited to electron-poor arenes, because it does not proceed via a Meisenheimer intermediate. We show a phenol deoxyfluorination reaction for which CSNAr is favored over a stepwise displacement. Mechanistic insights enabled us to develop a functional group–tolerant 18F-deoxyfluorination reaction of phenols, which can be used to synthesize 18F-PET probes. Selective 18F introduction, without the need for the common, but cumbersome, azeotropic drying of 18F, can now be accomplished from phenols as starting materials, and provides access to 18F-labeled compounds not accessible through conventional chemistry. PMID:27281221

  2. Pd-catalyzed C-H fluorination with nucleophilic fluoride.

    PubMed

    McMurtrey, Kate B; Racowski, Joy M; Sanford, Melanie S

    2012-08-17

    The palladium-catalyzed C-H fluorination of 8-methylquinoline derivatives with nucleophilic fluoride is reported. This transformation involves the use of AgF as the fluoride source in combination with a hypervalent iodine oxidant. Both the scope and mechanism of the reaction are discussed.

  3. Mechanism of intramolecular photostabilization in self-healing cyanine fluorophores.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Jasper H M; Ploetz, Evelyn; Hiermaier, Matthias; Oelerich, Jens; de Vries, Jan Willem; Roelfes, Gerard; Cordes, Thorben

    2013-12-16

    Organic fluorophores, which are popular labels for microscopy applications, intrinsically suffer from transient and irreversible excursions to dark-states. An alternative to adding photostabilizers at high concentrations to the imaging buffer relies on the direct linkage to the fluorophore. However, the working principles of this approach are not yet fully understood. In this contribution, we investigate the mechanism of intramolecular photostabilization in self-healing cyanines, in which photodamage is automatically repaired. Experimental evidence is provided to demonstrate that a single photostabilizer, that is, the vitamin E derivative Trolox, efficiently heals the cyanine fluorophore Cy5 in the absence of any photostabilizers in solution. A plausible mechanism is that Trolox interacts with the fluorophore through intramolecular quenching of triplet-related dark-states, which is a mechanism that appears to be common for both triplet-state quenchers (cyclooctatetraene) and redox-active compounds (Trolox, ascorbic acid, methylviologen). Additionally, the influence of solution-additives, such as cysteamine and procatechuic acid, on the self-healing process are studied. The results suggest the potential applicability of self-healing fluorophores in stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) with optical super-resolution. The presented data contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanism involved in intramolecular photostabilization and has high relevance for the future development of self-healing fluorophores, including their applications in various research fields.

  4. Intramolecular bridges formed by photoswitchable click amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christian; Kühne, Ronald; Beyermann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Photoswitchable click amino acids (PSCaa) are amino acids bearing a side chain consisting of a photoswitchable unit elongated with a functional group that allows for a specific click reaction, such as an alkene that can react with the thiol group of a cysteine residue. An intramolecular click reaction results in the formation of a photoswitchable bridge, which can be used for controlling conformational domains in peptides and proteins. The ability to control conformations as well as the efficiency of the intramolecular bridging depends on the length of the PSCaa side chain and the distance to the cysteine residue to be clicked with. On comparing i,i+4 and i,i+7 spacings of PSCaa and cysteine in a model peptide without a preferred conformation, it was seen that the thiol-ene click reaction takes place efficiently in both cases. Upon induction of an α-helical structure by the addition of trifluoroethanol, the thiol click reaction occurs preferentially with the i,i+4 spacing. Even in the presence of glutathione as an additional thiol the click reaction of the PSCaa occurs intramolecularly with the cysteine rather than with the glutathione, indicating that the click reaction may be used even under reducing conditions occurring in living cells.

  5. Recent insights into intramolecular 13C isotope composition of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Yamada, K.; Julien, M.; Yoshida, N.; Remaud, G.; Robins, R.

    2016-12-01

    In 1961 Abelson & Hoering shown that the intramolecular 13C distribution in amino acids was not homogeneous, namely the carboxylic acid positions were 13C-enriched compared with the mean of the remaining C-atoms in the molecule [1]. Nearly 20 years later, Monson & Hayes were able to demonstrate that even and odd positions in acetogenic fatty acids also showed non-statistical 13C isotope distributions, and that the pattern varied depending on the organism [2]. It took a further decade for the intramolecular 13C distribution in the key metabolite, glucose, to be defined [3]. Although informative, much of this work was incomplete, a number of positions having to be deduced by difference. This limitation arose mainly due to the lack of techniques enabling the separation and quantification of 13C isotopomers of the target molecule. In the past decade, quantitative 13C NMR has been developed for the determination of the intramolecular isotope composition of a given molecule with a precision of 1‰ or better [4]. This breakthrough has made possible a comprehensive view of the determinants governing intramolecular isotope composition of biological molecules. In particular, it can be shown that intramolecular pattern in sugars is influenced by the C-assimilation pathway and by post-photosynthetic fractionation associated with carbohydrate metabolism [5]. In addition, analysis by NMR of the alkyl chain of acetogenic lipids (fatty acids, n-alkanes) shows an alternation between odd and even C-atom positions, as observed by Monson& Hayes [2], throughout the molecule [6]. Overall, it is becoming apparent that this pattern is influenced by two principal metabolic factors: (i) the 13C pattern extant in the starting compounds; (ii) isotope fractionation associated with the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway. On the whole, the determination of intramolecular isotope patterns in biomolecules allows better insights into the conditions and pathways by which they are formed

  6. A general phosphoric acid-catalyzed desymmetrization of meso-aziridines with silylated selenium nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Senatore, Matilde; Lattanzi, Alessandra; Santoro, Stefano; Santi, Claudio; Della Sala, Giorgio

    2011-09-21

    The first example of meso-aziridine desymmetrization with selenium nucleophiles is reported. The reaction, promoted by VAPOL-hydrogen phosphate using (phenylseleno)trimethylsilane as the nucleophile, proves to be very general and highly enantioselective (84-99% ee).

  7. All intermediates of the arsenate reductase mechanism, including an intramolecular dynamic disulfide cascade

    PubMed Central

    Messens, Joris; Martins, José C.; Van Belle, Karolien; Brosens, Elke; Desmyter, Aline; De Gieter, Marjan; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Willem, Rudolph; Wyns, Lode; Zegers, Ingrid

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of pI258 arsenate reductase (ArsC) catalyzed arsenate reduction, involving its P-loop structural motif and three redox active cysteines, has been unraveled. All essential intermediates are visualized with x-ray crystallography, and NMR is used to map dynamic regions in a key disulfide intermediate. Steady-state kinetics of ArsC mutants gives a view of the crucial residues for catalysis. ArsC combines a phosphatase-like nucleophilic displacement reaction with a unique intramolecular disulfide bond cascade. Within this cascade, the formation of a disulfide bond triggers a reversible “conformational switch” that transfers the oxidative equivalents to the surface of the protein, while releasing the reduced substrate. PMID:12072565

  8. Conjugate addition-enantioselective protonation reactions.

    PubMed

    Phelan, James P; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    The addition of nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes represents one of the more general and commonly used strategies for the convergent assembly of more complex structures from simple precursors. In this review the addition of diverse protic and organometallic nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes followed by enantioselective protonation is summarized. Reactions are first categorized by the type of electron-deficient alkene and then are further classified according to whether catalysis is achieved with chiral Lewis acids, organocatalysts, or transition metals.

  9. Competing Intramolecular vs. Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Peter I.

    2014-01-01

    A hydrogen bond for a local-minimum-energy structure can be identified according to the definition of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC recommendation 2011) or by finding a special bond critical point on the density map of the structure in the framework of the atoms-in-molecules theory. Nonetheless, a given structural conformation may be simply favored by electrostatic interactions. The present review surveys the in-solution competition of the conformations with intramolecular vs. intermolecular hydrogen bonds for different types of small organic molecules. In their most stable gas-phase structure, an intramolecular hydrogen bond is possible. In a protic solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond may disrupt in favor of two solute-solvent intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The balance of the increased internal energy and the stabilizing effect of the solute-solvent interactions regulates the new conformer composition in the liquid phase. The review additionally considers the solvent effects on the stability of simple dimeric systems as revealed from molecular dynamics simulations or on the basis of the calculated potential of mean force curves. Finally, studies of the solvent effects on the type of the intermolecular hydrogen bond (neutral or ionic) in acid-base complexes have been surveyed. PMID:25353178

  10. The Covalent Functionalization of Layered Black Phosphorus by Nucleophilic Reagents.

    PubMed

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Luxa, Jan; Bouša, Daniel; Sedmidubský, David; Lazar, Petr; Hartman, Tomáš; Hardtdegen, Hilde; Pumera, Martin

    2017-08-07

    Layered black phosphorus has been attracting great attention due to its interesting material properties which lead to a plethora of proposed applications. Several approaches are demonstrated here for covalent chemical modifications of layered black phosphorus in order to form P-C and P-O-C bonds. Nucleophilic reagents are highly effective for chemical modification of black phosphorus. Further derivatization approaches investigated were based on radical reactions. These reagents are not as effective as nucleophilic reagents for the surface covalent modification of black phosphorus. The influence of covalent modification on the electronic structure of black phosphorus was investigated using ab initio calculations. Covalent modification exerts a strong effect on the electronic structure including the change of band-gap width and spin polarization. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Pd-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination of aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Geun; Milner, Phillip J; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2014-03-12

    On the basis of mechanism-driven reaction design, a Pd-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination of aryl bromides and iodides has been developed. The method exhibits a broad substrate scope, especially with respect to nitrogen-containing heteroaryl bromides, and proceeds with minimal formation of the corresponding reduction products. A facilitated ligand modification process was shown to be critical to the success of the reaction.

  12. Pd-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Fluorination of Aryl Bromides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of mechanism-driven reaction design, a Pd-catalyzed nucleophilic fluorination of aryl bromides and iodides has been developed. The method exhibits a broad substrate scope, especially with respect to nitrogen-containing heteroaryl bromides, and proceeds with minimal formation of the corresponding reduction products. A facilitated ligand modification process was shown to be critical to the success of the reaction. PMID:24559304

  13. Highly Diastereoselective Michael Reactions Using β-Nitrocarbonyl Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Gietter-Burch, Amber A S; Mitrut, Roxana E; Watson, Donald A

    2015-11-06

    We have discovered a highly diastereoselective Michael reaction of α-substituted, β-nitrocarbonyl compounds to deliver highly functionalized stereodiads containing fully substituted nitrogen-bearing centers. Good to excellent yields and diastereoselectivities are observed. This transformation is tolerant of various types of carbonyl groups on the nucleophilic partner, as well as a range of unsaturated electrophiles. Mechanistic investigations are consistent with internal hydrogen bonding in the nitroalkane tautomer as the major factor in the control of diastereoselectivity in these transformations.

  14. HBF4-Catalysed Nucleophilic Substitutions of Propargylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Elena; Sanz-Vidal, Alvaro; Tan, Eric; Lau, Shing-Hing; Sheppard, Tom D; Díez-González, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The activity of HBF4 (aqueous solution) as a catalyst in propargylation reactions is presented. Diverse types of nucleophiles were employed in order to form new C–O, C–N and C–C bonds in technical acetone and in air. Good to excellent yields and good chemoselectivities were obtained using low acid loading (typically 1 mol-%) under simple reaction conditions. PMID:26693210

  15. Reactions of Pyrylium Salts with Nitrogen-containing Nucleophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdina, E. A.; Zhdanova, M. P.; Dorofeenko, G. N.

    1982-05-01

    New data on reactions of pyrylium salts with nitrogen-containing nucleophiles, occurring both with retention of the pyrylium ring and with recyclisation, are considered. The extensive possibilities for the employment of pyrylium salts in the synthesis of many functional compounds of the aliphatic and aromatic series and of different nitrogen- and oxygen-containing three-, five-, six-, and seven-membered heterocycles, including condensed heterocycles, are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  16. General allylic C-H alkylation with tertiary nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jennifer M; Liu, Wei; Young, Andrew J; White, M Christina

    2014-04-16

    A general method for intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation of terminal olefins with tertiary nucleophiles has been accomplished employing palladium(II)/bis(sulfoxide) catalysis. Allylic C-H alkylation furnishes products in good yields (avg. 64%) with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity (>20:1 linear:branched, >20:1 E:Z). For the first time, the olefin scope encompasses unactivated aliphatic olefins as well as activated aromatic/heteroaromatic olefins and 1,4-dienes. The ease of appending allyl moieties onto complex scaffolds is leveraged to enable this mild and selective allylic C-H alkylation to rapidly diversify phenolic natural products. The tertiary nucleophile scope is broad and includes latent functionality for further elaboration (e.g., aliphatic alcohols, α,β-unsaturated esters). The opportunities to effect synthetic streamlining with such general C-H reactivity are illustrated in an allylic C-H alkylation/Diels-Alder reaction cascade: a reactive diene is generated via intermolecular allylic C-H alkylation and approximated to a dienophile contained within the tertiary nucleophile to furnish a common tricyclic core found in the class I galbulimima alkaloids.

  17. Revisiting the Dielectric Constant Effect on the Nucleophile and Leaving Group of Prototypical Backside Sn2 Reactions: a Reaction Force and Atomic Contribution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-González, Laura Milena; Galindo, Johan Fabian; Gonzalez, Ronald; Reyes, Andrés

    2016-10-09

    The solvent effect on the nucleophile and leaving group atoms of the prototypical F(-) + CH3Cl → CH3F + Cl(-) backside bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN2) is analyzed employing the reaction force and the atomic contributions methods on the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC). Solvent effects were accounted for using the polarizable continuum solvent model. Calculations were performed employing eleven dielectric constants, ε, ranging from 1.0 to 78.5, to cover a wide spectrum of solvents. The reaction force data reveals that the solvent mainly influences the region of the IRC preceding the energy barrier, where the structural rearrangement to reach the transition state occurs. A detailed analysis of the atomic role in the reaction as a function of ε reveals that the nucleophile and the carbon atom are the ones that contribute the most to the energy barrier. In addition, we investigated the effect of the choice of nucleophile and leaving group on the ΔE0 and ΔE(↕) of Y(-) + CH3X → YCH3 + X(-) (X,Y= F, Cl, Br, I) in aqueous solution. Our analysis allowed us to find relationships between the atomic contributions to the activation energy and leaving group ability and nucleophilicity.

  18. Intramolecular association within the SAFT framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avlund, Ane S.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Chapman, Walter G.

    2011-07-01

    A general theory for modelling intramolecular association within the SAFT framework is proposed. Sear and Jackson [Phys. Rev. E. 50 (1), 386 (1994)] and Ghonasgi and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 102 (6), 2585 (1995)] have previously extended SAFT to include intramolecular association for chains with two sites. We show that the resulting equations from the two approaches are equivalent, and use their work as a basis for developing a new general theory. The approach used by Ghonasgi and Chapman is based on mass balances and an infinite dilution result and provides the equations needed to determine the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association (inter- as well as intramolecularly) at equilibrium. Sear and Jackson rederived the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association from the theory by Wertheim [J. Stat. Phys. 42 (3-4), 459 (1986)] with inclusion of intramolecular association, and using this approach we obtain an expression for the Helmholtz free energy that is valid also at non-equilibrium states (with respect to hydrogen bonds), which is very useful when calculating derivatives.

  19. Organocatalyzed Intramolecular Carbonyl-Ene Reactions.

    PubMed

    Dahlmann, Heidi A; McKinney, Amanda J; Santos, Maria P; Davis, Lindsey O

    2016-05-31

    An organocatalyzed intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction was developed to produce carbocyclic and heterocyclic 5- and 6-membered rings from a citronellal-derived trifluoroketone and a variety of aldehydes. A phosphoramide derivative was found to promote the cyclization of the trifluoroketone, whereas a less acidic phosphoric acid proved to be a superior catalyst for the aldehyde substrates.

  20. Mechanism of SN2 disulfide bond cleavage by phosphorus nucleophiles. Implications for biochemical disulfide reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Dmitrenko, Olga; Thorpe, Colin; Bach, Robert D

    2007-10-26

    The B3LYP variant of DFT has been used to study the mechanism of S-S bond scission in dimethyl disulfide by a phosphorus nucleophile, trimethylphospine (TMP). The reaction is highly endothermic in the gas phase and requires significant external stabilization of the charged products. DFT calculations (B3LYP) were performed with explicit (water molecules added) and implicit solvent corrections (COSMO model). The transition structures for this SN2 displacement reaction in a number of model systems have been located and fully characterized. The reaction barriers calculated with different approaches for different systems are quite close (around 11 kcal/mol). Remarkably, the calculations suggest that the reaction is almost barrierless with respect to the preorganized reaction complex and that most of the activation energy is required to rearrange the disulfide and TMP to its most effective orientation for the SMe group transfer way. Different reactivities of different phosphorus nucleophiles were suggested to be the result of steric effects, as manifested largely by varying amounts of hindrance to solvation of the initial product phosphonium ion. These data indicate that the gas-phase addition of a phosphine to the disulfide moiety will most likely form a phosphonium cation-thiolate anion salt, in the presence of four or more water molecules, that provide sufficient H-bonding stabilization to allow displacement of the thiolate anion, a normal uncomplicated SN2 transition state is to be expected.

  1. Surprising unreactivity of cholesterol-5,6-epoxides towards nucleophiles[S

    PubMed Central

    Paillasse, Michael R.; Saffon, Nathalie; Gornitzka, Heinz; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc; de Medina, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We recently established that drugs used for the treatment and the prophylaxis of breast cancers, such as tamoxifen, were potent inhibitors of cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase (ChEH), which led to the accumulation of 5,6α-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6α-EC) and 5,6β-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6β-EC). This could be considered a paradox because epoxides are known as alkylating agents with putative carcinogenic properties. We report here that, as opposed to the carcinogen styrene-oxide, neither of the ECs reacted spontaneously with nucleophiles. Under catalytic conditions, 5,6β-EC remains unreactive whereas 5,6α-EC gives cholestan-3β,5α-diol-6β-substituted compounds. These data showed that 5,6-ECs are stable epoxides and unreactive toward nucleophiles in the absence of a catalyst, which contrasts with the well-known reactivity of aromatic and aliphatic epoxides. These data rule out 5,6-EC acting as spontaneous alkylating agents. In addition, these data support the existence of a stereoselective metabolism of 5,6α-EC. PMID:22285872

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of cis-2,5-Disubstituted Pyrrolidines via Wacker-Type Aerobic Oxidative Cyclization of Alkenes with tBu-Sulfinamide Nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Redford, Joanne E.; McDonald, Richard I.; Rigsby, Matthew L.; Wiensch, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Palladium(II)-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cyclization of alkenes with tethered tert-butanesulfinamides furnishes enantiopure 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, originating from readily available and easily diversified starting materials. These reactions are the first reported examples of metal-catalyzed addition of sulfinamide nucleophiles to alkenes. PMID:22352383

  3. The efficiency of the metal catalysts in the nucleophilic substitution of alcohols is dependent on the nucleophile and not on the electrophile.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Srijit; Samec, Joseph S M

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of the electrophiles and the nucleophiles for eight catalysts in the catalytic SN 1 type substitution of alcohols with different degree of activation by sulfur-, carbon-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-centered nucleophiles. The catalysts do not show any general variance in efficiency or selectivity with respect to the alcohols and follow the trend of alcohol reactivity. However, when it comes to the nucleophile, the eight catalysts show general and specific variances in the efficiency and selectivity to perform the desired substitution. Interestingly, the selectivity of the alcohols to produce the desired substitution products was found to be independent of the electrophilicity of the generated carbocations but highly dependent on the ease of formation of the cation. Catalysts based on iron(III), bismuth(III), and gold(III) show higher conversions for S-, C-, and N-centered nucleophiles, and Bi(III) was the most efficient catalyst in all combinations. Catalysts based on rhenium(I) or rhenium(VII), palladium(II), and lanthanum(III) were the most efficient in performing the nucleophilic substitution on the various alcohols with the O-centered nucleophiles. These catalysts generate the symmetrical ether as a by-product from the reactions of S-, C-, and N-centered nucleophiles as well, resulting in lower chemoselectivity.

  4. Conductance and activation energy for electron transport in series and parallel intramolecular circuits.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Liang-Yan; Wu, Ning; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-11-30

    We investigate electron transport through series and parallel intramolecular circuits in the framework of the multi-level Redfield theory. Based on the assumption of weak monomer-bath couplings, the simulations depict the length and temperature dependence in six types of intramolecular circuits. In the tunneling regime, we find that the intramolecular circuit rule is only valid in the weak monomer coupling limit. In the thermally activated hopping regime, for circuits based on two different molecular units Ma and Mb with distinct activation energies Eact,a > Eact,b, the activation energies of Ma and Mb in series are nearly the same as Eact,a while those in parallel are nearly the same as Eact,b. This study gives a comprehensive description of electron transport through intramolecular circuits from tunneling to thermally activated hopping. We hope that this work can motivate additional studies to design intramolecular circuits based on different types of building blocks, and to explore the corresponding circuit laws and the length and temperature dependence of conductance.

  5. Density Functional Theory analysis of Dimethylphosphate hydrolysis: effect of solvation and nucleophile variation

    SciTech Connect

    Imhof, Petra; Fischer, S.; Kraemer, R; Smith, Jeremy C

    2005-01-01

    We model the hydrolytic cleavage of dimethylphosphate by hydroxide ion and water in the gas phase and in implicit water using density functional theory. In all cases the rate-determining step is the nucleophilic attack. The barrier for this nucleophilic attack in vacuum is much larger for the hydroxide than for the neutral nucleophile. However, in water the barriers are similar. The rate-determining step in the attack by the neutral nucleophile involves the concerted transfer of a proton from the water molecule to the phosphate ion and the formation of the P-O bond.

  6. Synthesis and nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 3-fluoro-5-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene

    PubMed Central

    Ajenjo, Javier; Greenhall, Martin; Zarantonello, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    Summary 3-Fluoro-5-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene was prepared by three different ways: as a byproduct of direct fluorination of 1,2-bis(3-nitrophenyl)disulfane, by direct fluorination of 4-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene, and by fluorodenitration of 3,5-dinitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene. The title compound was subjected to a nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the fluorine atom with oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen nucleophiles affording novel (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes with 3,5-disubstitution pattern. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution of the title compound with carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen nucleophiles provided 3-fluoro-5-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes substituted in position four. PMID:26977178

  7. Nucleophilic selectivity of alkylating agents and their hypermutability in Drosophila as predictors of carcinogenic potency in rodents.

    PubMed

    Vogel, E W; Barbin, A; Nivard, M J; Bartsch, H

    1990-12-01

    The nucleophilic selectivity (Swain-Scott s constant or initial 7-alkylguanine/O6-alkylguanine ratio in DNA) of 60 alkylating agents, mostly monofunctional or cross-linking was compared to their carcinogenic potency in rodents (median TD50 estimates) and to two genotoxicity indices in Drosophila: (i) hypermutability, measured by the increased frequency of induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutations (SLRL) in a strain defective in DNA excision repair (exr-), as compared to the wild-type (exr+); (ii) relative clastogenic efficiency, expressed by the ratio of chromosomal aberrations (ring-X loss) to SLRL determined in the exr+ strain. For a subset of direct-acting, monofunctional alkylating agents, nucleophilic selectivity and TD50 values or hypermutability indices were linearly correlated. In addition, the hypermutability indices in Drosophila by methylating or ethylating procarcinogens were similar to the corresponding values of their ultimate metabolites. In contrast, cross-linking agents, including antitumour drugs, did not show these positive correlations. The relative clastogenic efficiencies in Drosophila of 26 direct-acting, alkylating carcinogens increased with both their cross-linking activity and nucleophilic selectivity. By analyzing mutational spectra in Drosophila induced in the vermilion gene by four monofunctional alkylating agents with contrasting s values, critical DNA lesions, i.e. type of base pair substitution mutations, deletions, insertions, involved in genotoxicity were pinpointed. Thus, these multi-endpoint analyses should, as a new approach, assist in the quantitative risk evaluation of genotoxic agents.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed Allylic Substitution with (η6-arene–CH2Z)Cr(CO)3-based Nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiadi; Stanciu, Corneliu; Wang, Beibei; Hussain, Mahmud M.; Da, Chao-Shan; Carroll, Patrick J.; Dreher, Spencer D.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the palladium-catalyzed Tsuji-Trost allylic substitution reaction has been intensively studied, there is a lack of general methods to employ simple benzylic nucleophiles. Such a method would facilitate access to “α-2-propenyl benzyl” motifs, which are common structural motifs in bioactive compounds and natural products. We report herein the palladium-catalyzed allylation reaction of toluene-derived pronucleophiles activated by tricarbonylchromium. A variety of cyclic and acyclic allylic electrophiles can be employed with in situ generated (η6-C6H5–CHLiR)Cr(CO)3 nucleophiles. Catalyst identification was performed by high throughput experimentation (HTE) and led to the Xantphos/palladium hit, which proved to be a general catalyst for this class of reactions. In addition to η6-toluene complexes, benzyl amine and ether derivatives (η6-C6H5–CH2Z)Cr(CO)3 (Z=NR2, OR) are also viable pronucleophiles, allowing C–C bond-formation alpha to heteroatoms with excellent yields. Finally, a tandem allylic substitution/demetallation procedure is described that affords the corresponding metal-free allylic substitution products. This method will be a valuable complement to the existing arsenal of nucleophiles with applications in allylic substitution reactions. PMID:22047504

  9. Nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols with use of montmorillonite catalysts as solid Brønsted acids.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Nakagiri, Nobuaki; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Ebitani, Kohki; Kaneda, Kiyotomi

    2007-08-03

    We have developed an environmentally benign synthetic approach to nucleophilic substitution reactions of alcohols that minimizes or eliminates the formation of byproducts, resulting in a highly atom-efficient chemical process. Proton- and metal-exchanged montmorillonites (H- and Mn+-mont) were prepared easily by treating Na+-mont with an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride or metal salt, respectively. The H-mont possessed outstanding catalytic activity for nucleophilic substitution reactions of a variety of alcohols with anilines, because the unique acidity of the H-mont catalyst effectively prevents the neutralization by the basic anilines. In addition, amides, indoles, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and allylsilane act as nucleophiles for the H-mont-catalyzed substitutions of alcohols, which allowed efficient formation of various C-N and C-C bonds. The solid H-mont was reusable without any appreciable loss in its catalytic activity and selectivity. Especially, an Al3+-mont showed high catalytic activity for the alpha-benzylation of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with primary alcohols due to cooperative catalysis between a protonic acid site and a Lewis acidic Al3+ species in its interlayer spaces.

  10. Catalysis of hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution at the P-N bond of phosphoimidazolide-activated nucleotides in phosphate buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Rosenbach, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide-activated derivatives of guanosine and cytidine 5'-monophosphates, henceforth called ImpN's, exhibit enhanced rates of degradation in the presence of aqueous inorganic phosphate in the range 4.0 < or = pH < or = 8.6. This degradation is been attributed to (i) nucleophilic substitution of the imidazolide and (ii) catalysis of the P-N bond hydrolysis by phosphate. The first reaction results in the formation of nucleoside 5'-diphosphate and the second in nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Analysis of the observed rates as well as the product ratios as a function of pH and phosphate concentration allow distinction between various mechanistic possibilities. The results show that both H2PO4- and HPO4(2-) participate in both hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution. Statistically corrected biomolecular rate constants indicate that the dianion is 4 times more effective as a general base than the monoanion, and 8 times more effective as nucleophile. The low Bronsted value beta = 0.15 calculated for these phosphate species, presumed to act as general bases in facilitating water attack, is consistent with the fact that catalysis of the hydrolysis of the P-N bond in ImpN's has not been detected before. The beta nuc = 0.35 calculated for water, H2PO4-, HPO4(2-), and hydroxide acting as nucleophiles indicates a more associative transition state for nucleotidyl (O2POR- with R = nucleoside) transfers than that observed for phosphoryl (PO3(2-)) transfers (beta nuc = 0.25). With respect to the stability/reactivity of ImpN's under prebiotic conditions, our study shows that these materials would not suffer additional degradation due to inorganic phosphate, assuming the concentrations of phosphate, Pi, on prebiotic Earth were similar to those in the present oceans ([Pi] approximately 2.25 micromoles).

  11. Catalysis of hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution at the P-N bond of phosphoimidazolide-activated nucleotides in phosphate buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Rosenbach, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide-activated derivatives of guanosine and cytidine 5'-monophosphates, henceforth called ImpN's, exhibit enhanced rates of degradation in the presence of aqueous inorganic phosphate in the range 4.0 < or = pH < or = 8.6. This degradation is been attributed to (i) nucleophilic substitution of the imidazolide and (ii) catalysis of the P-N bond hydrolysis by phosphate. The first reaction results in the formation of nucleoside 5'-diphosphate and the second in nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Analysis of the observed rates as well as the product ratios as a function of pH and phosphate concentration allow distinction between various mechanistic possibilities. The results show that both H2PO4- and HPO4(2-) participate in both hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution. Statistically corrected biomolecular rate constants indicate that the dianion is 4 times more effective as a general base than the monoanion, and 8 times more effective as nucleophile. The low Bronsted value beta = 0.15 calculated for these phosphate species, presumed to act as general bases in facilitating water attack, is consistent with the fact that catalysis of the hydrolysis of the P-N bond in ImpN's has not been detected before. The beta nuc = 0.35 calculated for water, H2PO4-, HPO4(2-), and hydroxide acting as nucleophiles indicates a more associative transition state for nucleotidyl (O2POR- with R = nucleoside) transfers than that observed for phosphoryl (PO3(2-)) transfers (beta nuc = 0.25). With respect to the stability/reactivity of ImpN's under prebiotic conditions, our study shows that these materials would not suffer additional degradation due to inorganic phosphate, assuming the concentrations of phosphate, Pi, on prebiotic Earth were similar to those in the present oceans ([Pi] approximately 2.25 micromoles).

  12. Reactivity of a cytostatic active N,N-donor-containing dinuclear Pt(II) complex with biological relevant nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Hochreuther, Stephanie; van Eldik, Rudi

    2012-03-05

    A dinuclear platinum(II) complex that was recently investigated in our group was tested for its cytostatic activity and found to be active against HeLa S3 cells. The complex consists of a bidentate N,N-donor chelating ligand system in which the two platinum centers are connected by an aliphatic chain of 10 methylene groups. The complex [Pt(2)(N(1),N(10)-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,10-decanediamine)(OH(2))(4)](4+) (10NNpy) is of further special interest, since only little is known about the substitution behavior of such dinuclear platinum complexes that contain a bidentate coordination sphere. The complex was investigated using different biologically relevant nucleophiles, such as thiourea (tu), L-methionine (L-Met), glutathione (GSH), and guanine-5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP), at two different pH values (2 and 7.4). The substitution of coordinated water by these nucleophiles was studied under pseudo-first-order conditions as a function of nucleophile concentration, temperature, and pressure, using stopped-flow techniques and UV-vis spectroscopy. The reactivity of 10NNpy with the selected nucleophiles was found to be tu ≫ 5'-GMP > L-Met > GSH at pH 2 and GSH > tu > L-Met at pH 7.4. The results for the dinuclear 10NNpy complex were compared to those for the corresponding mononuclear reference complex [Pt(aminomethylpyridine)(OH(2))(2)](2+), Pt(amp), studied before in our group, by which the effect of the addition of an aliphatic chain, an increase in the overall charge, and a shift in the pK(a) values of the coordinated water ligands could be investigated. The reactivity order for Pt(amp) was found to be tu > GSH > L-Met at pH 7.4.

  13. Reactions of (chloroethynyl)phosphonates with neutral nucleophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Garibina, V.A.; Leonov, A.A.; Dogadina, A.V.; Ionin, B.I.; Petrov, A.A.

    1987-12-20

    The authors studied reactions of (chloroethynyl)phosphonates with a number of neutral nucleophiles containing a primary amino group together with a second nucleophilic center. The phosphorylated benzimidazoles are crystalline substances. The chemical shift of phosphorus in these compounds, delta/sub p/ +22.0 ppm, is characteristic for compounds containing an sp/sup 3/-hybridized carbon atom attached to phosphorus. The PMR spectra of the compounds contain a characteristic signal of the protons of a methylene group attached to phosphorus, delta 2.8, /sup 2/J/sub HP/ 22.0 Hz. The /sup 13/C NMR spectrum of the compounds contain the signals of a methoxy group on phosphorus delta/sub C/(CH/sub 3/O) 49.50 ppm, J/sub CP/ 6.9 Hz; and a doublet signal of the carbon atom of the methylene group delta/sub C/ 23.16 ppm, J/sub CP/ 138.8 Hz; and a doublet of carbon of the benzimidazole ring delta/sub C/ 141.6 ppm, J/sub CP/ 8.7 Hz; the carbon atoms of the benzene ring resonate in the weak field.

  14. A quantum chemical study of molecular properties and QSPR modeling of oximes, amidoximes and hydroxamic acids with nucleophilic activity against toxic organophosphorus agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alencar Filho, Edilson B.; Santos, Aline A.; Oliveira, Boaz G.

    2017-04-01

    The proposal of this work includes the use of quantum chemical methods and cheminformatics strategies in order to understand the structural profile and reactivity of α-nucleophiles compounds such as oximes, amidoximes and hydroxamic acids, related to hydrolysis rate of organophosphates. Theoretical conformational study of 41 compounds were carried out through the PM3 semiempirical Hamiltonian, followed by the geometry optimization at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, complemented by Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) to simulate the aqueous environment. In line with the experimental hypothesis about hydrolytic power, the strength of the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds (IHBs) at light of the Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) is related to the preferential conformations of α-nucleophiles. A set of E-Dragon descriptors (1,666) were submitted to a variable selection through Ordered Predictor Selection (OPS) algorithm. Five descriptors, including atomic charges obtained from the Natural Bond Orbitals (NBO) protocol jointly with a fragment index associated to the presence/absence of IHBs, provided a Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) model via Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). This model showed good validation parameters (R2 = 0.80, Qloo2 = 0.67 and Qext2 = 0.81) and allowed the identification of significant physicochemical features on the molecular scaffold in order to design compounds potentially more active against organophosphorus poisoning.

  15. Photoinduced Intramolecular Cyclopentanation vs Photoprotolytic Oxametathesis in Polycyclic Alkenes Outfitted with Conformationally Constrained Aroylmethyl Chromophores‡

    PubMed Central

    Valiulin, Roman A.; Arisco, Teresa M.; Kutateladze, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Intramolecular photoinduced cyclizations are investigated in photoprecursors assembled in a modular fashion via a Diels-Alder reaction of acetylenic dienophiles with subsequent Michael additions of aromatic ketones to install a chromophore capable of initiating Paternò-Büchi cycloadditions or radical cyclization cascades. The protolytic oxametathesis in these systems allows for rapid access to novel polycyclic scaffolds decorated by formyl groups and carboxylates suitable for subsequent modifications. In conformationally constrained photoprecursors a radical rearrangement takes place resulting in intramolecular 1,3-diradical cyclopentanation of the double bond. PMID:23106813

  16. Functionalization of metallabenzenes through nucleophilic aromatic substitution of hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Clark, George R; Ferguson, Lauren A; McIntosh, Amy E; Söhnel, Tilo; Wright, L James

    2010-09-29

    The cationic metallabenzenes [Ir(C(5)H(4){SMe-1})(κ(2)-S(2)CNEt(2))(PPh(3))(2)]PF(6) (1) and [Os(C(5)H(4){SMe-1})(CO)(2)(PPh(3))(2)][CF(3)SO(3)] (2) undergo regioselective nucleophilic aromatic substitution of hydrogen at the metallabenzene ring position γ to the metal in a two-step process that first involves treatment with appropriate nucleophiles and then oxidation. Thus, reaction between compound 1 and NaBH(4), MeLi, or NaOEt gives the corresponding neutral iridacyclohexa-1,4-diene complexes Ir(C(5)H(3){SMe-1}{H-3}{Nu-3})(κ(2)-S(2)CNEt(2))(PPh(3))(2) (Nu = H (3), Me (4), OEt (5)). Similarly, reaction between 2 and NaBH(4) or MeLi gives the corresponding osmacyclohexa-1,4-diene complexes Os(C(5)H(3){SMe-1}{H-3}{Nu-3})(CO)(2)(PPh(3))(2) (Nu = H (8), Me (9)). The metallacyclohexa-1,4-diene rings in all these compounds are rearomatized on treatment with the oxidizing agent O(2), CuCl(2), or 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). Accordingly, the cationic metallabenzene 1 or 2 is returned after reaction between 3 and DDQ/NEt(4)PF(6) or between 8 and DDQ/NaO(3)SCF(3), respectively. The substituted cationic iridabenzene [Ir(C(5)H(3){SMe-1}{Me-3})(κ(2)-S(2)CNEt(2))(PPh(3))(2)]PF(6) (6) or [Ir(C(5)H(4){SMe-1}{OEt-3})(κ(2)-S(2)CNEt(2))(PPh(3))(2)]PF(6) (7) is produced in a similar manner through reaction between 4 or 5, respectively, and DDQ/NEt(4)PF(6), and the substituted cationic osmabenzene [Os(C(5)H(3){SMe-1}{Me-3})(CO)(2)(PPh(3))(2)]Cl (10) is formed in good yield on treatment of 9 with CuCl(2). The starting cationic iridabenzene 1 is conveniently prepared by treatment of the neutral iridabenzene Ir(C(5)H(4){SMe-1})Cl(2)(PPh(3))(2) with NaS(2)CNEt(2) and NEt(4)PF(6), and the related starting cationic osmabenzene 2 is obtained by treatment of Os(C(5)H(4){S-1})(CO)(PPh(3))(2) with CF(3)SO(3)CH(3) and CO. The stepwise transformations of 1 into 6 or 7 as well as 2 into 10 provide the first examples in metallabenzene chemistry of regioselective

  17. An unusual intramolecular trans-amidation.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Heriberto; Dhar, Sachin; La Clair, James J; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-06-23

    Polyketide biosynthesis engages a series of well-timed biosynthetic operations to generate elaborate natural products from simple building blocks. Mimicry of these processes has offered practical means for total synthesis and provided a foundation for reaction discovery. We now report an unusual intramolecular trans-amidation reaction discovered while preparing stabilized probes for the study of actinorhodin biosynthesis. This rapid cyclization event offers insight into the natural cyclization process inherent to the biosynthesis of type II polyketide antibiotics.

  18. Quantification of intramolecular nonbonding interactions in organochalcogens.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dipankar; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2006-05-04

    Intramolecular nonbonding interactions between chalcogen atoms in a series of ortho substituted arylselenides (S/O...Se-Y, with Y = -Me, -CN, -Cl, and -F) are quantified using the coupled cluster CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ level of theory. A homodesmic reaction method as well as an ortho-para approach are employed in evaluating the strength of intramolecular interactions. Comparison of the results obtained using the ab initio MP2 method and pure and hybrid density functional theories are performed with that of the coupled cluster values to assess the quality of different density functionals in evaluating the strength of nonbonding interactions. The interaction energies are found to be higher when the thioformyl group acts as the donor and the Se-F bond acts as the acceptor. In a given series with the same donor atom, the strength of the interaction follows the order Me < CN < Cl < F, exhibiting fairly high sensitivity to the group attached to selenium (Se-Y). Analysis of electron density at the S/O...Se bond critical point within the Atoms in Molecule framework shows a very good correlation with the computed intramolecular interaction energies.

  19. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Bernd; Mohr, Peter; Stahl, Martin

    2010-03-25

    The formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds has a very pronounced effect on molecular structure and properties. We study both aspects in detail with the aim of enabling a more rational use of this class of interactions in medicinal chemistry. On the basis of exhaustive searches in crystal structure databases, we derive propensities for intramolecular hydrogen bond formation of five- to eight-membered ring systems of relevance in drug discovery. A number of motifs, several of which are clearly underutilized in drug discovery, are analyzed in more detail by comparing small molecule and protein-ligand X-ray structures. To investigate effects on physicochemical properties, sets of closely related structures with and without the ability to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds were designed, synthesized, and characterized with respect to membrane permeability, water solubility, and lipophilicity. We find that changes in these properties depend on a subtle balance between the strength of the hydrogen bond interaction, geometry of the newly formed ring system, and the relative energies of the open and closed conformations in polar and unpolar environments. A number of general guidelines for medicinal chemists emerge from this study.

  20. Chemoselective intramolecular Wittig reactions for the synthesis of oxazoles and benzofurans.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Shiou; Das, Utpal; Hsiao, Ming-Yu; Liu, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Wenwei

    2014-12-05

    A chemoselective approach was developed for the synthesis of highly functionalized oxazoles and benzofurans using an intramolecular Wittig reaction as the key step. By choosing proper trapping reagent or method of addition of reagents, chemoselectivity can be controlled toward either oxazole or benzofuran derivatives.

  1. A Study of Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in Levoglucosan Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Quiquempoix, Lucas; Bogdan, Elena; Wells, Neil J; Le Questel, Jean-Yves; Graton, Jérôme; Linclau, Bruno

    2017-03-24

    Organofluorine is a weak hydrogen-bond (HB) acceptor. Bernet et al. have demonstrated its capability to perturb OH···O intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IMHBs), using conformationally rigid carbohydrate scaffolds including levoglucosan derivatives. These investigations are supplemented here by experimental and theoretical studies involving six new levoglucosan derivatives, and complement the findings of Bernet et al. However, it is shown that conformational analysis is instrumental in interpreting the experimental data, due to the occurrence of non-intramolecular hydrogen-bonded populations which, although minor, cannot be neglected and appears surprisingly significant. The DFT conformational analysis, together with the computation of NMR parameters (coupling constants and chemical shifts) and wavefunction analyses (AIM, NBO), provides a full picture. Thus, for all compounds, the most stabilized structures show the OH groups in a conformation allowing IMHB with O5 and O6, when possible. Furthermore, the combined approach points out the occurrence of various IMHBs and the effect of the chemical modulations on their features. Thus, two-center or three-center IMHB interactions are observed in these compounds, depending on the presence or absence of additional HB acceptors, such as methoxy or fluorine.

  2. A Study about Regioisomeric Hydroquinones with Multiple Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cifuentes, Maximiliano; Cardona, Wilson; Saitz, Claudio; Weiss-López, Boris; Araya-Maturana, Ramiro

    2017-04-07

    A theoretical exploration about hydrogen bonding in a series of synthetic regioisomeric antitumor tricyclic hydroquinones is presented. The stabilization energy for the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB) formation in four structurally different situations were evaluated: (a) IHB between the proton of a phenolic hydroxyl group and an ortho-carbonyl group (forming a six-membered ring); (b) between the oxygen atom of a phenolic hydroxyl group and the proton of an hydroxyalkyl group (seven membered ring); (c) between the proton of a phenolic hydroxyl group with the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group of a hydroxyalkyl moiety (seven-membered ring); and (d) between the proton of a phenolic hydroxyl group and an oxygen atom directly bonded to the aromatic ring in ortho position (five-membered ring). A conformational analysis for the rotation around the hydroxyalkyl substituent is also performed. It is observed that there is a correspondence between the conformational energies and the IHB. The strongest intramolecular hydrogen bonds are those involving a phenolic proton and a carbonyl oxygen atom, forming a six-membered ring, and the weakest are those involving a phenolic proton with the oxygen atom of the chromenone, forming five-membered rings. Additionally, the synthesis and structural assignment of two pairs of regioisomeric hydroquinones, by 2D-NMR experiments, are reported. These results can be useful in the design of biologically-active molecules.

  3. A DFT study of the ambiphilic nature of arylpalladium species in intramolecular cyclization reactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Israel; Solé, Daniel; Sierra, Miguel A

    2011-03-18

    The remarkable structure-dependent reactivity observed in the cyclization of (2-haloanilino)-ketones with Pd-catalysts has been studied computationally within the density functional theory framework. The experimental reaction products ratio may be explained through the formation of a common palladaaminocyclobutane intermediate which can undergo a nucleophilic addition reaction and/or an enolate α-arilation process. The evolution of this metallacycle to the final products depends on two factors, the length of the tether joining the amino and the carbonyl groups, and the electronic nature of the substituent directly attached to the nitrogen atom. Thus, shorter chains (2 CH(2)) facilitate the nucleophic addition reaction by approximating the reactive aryl and Pd-coordinated carbonyl groups whereas longer chains (3 CH(2)) favor the enolate α-arylation proccess. For electron-withdrawing groups attached to the aniline nitrogen atom, the nucleophilic addition pathway becomes slightly disfavored, mainly due to the electron-withdrawing effect of the CO(2)Me group which avoids the delocation of the LP in the π-system, thus decreasing the nucleophilicity of the reactive arylic carbon atom. In contrast, the enolate α-arylation reaction is facilitated by the CO(2)Me group. This is translated into a small computed barrier energy difference of these competitive reaction pathways which should lead to a mixture of reaction products as experimentally found.

  4. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  5. Classification of the Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Olefins and Acetylenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael A.

    1975-01-01

    Divides addition reactions into molecular, stepwise, or termolecular, depending on whether the reaction is synchronous or multistep; and further into nucleophilic, electrophilic, or concerted, depending on how the electrons are transferred in the initiation step. (MLH)

  6. Classification of the Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Olefins and Acetylenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael A.

    1975-01-01

    Divides addition reactions into molecular, stepwise, or termolecular, depending on whether the reaction is synchronous or multistep; and further into nucleophilic, electrophilic, or concerted, depending on how the electrons are transferred in the initiation step. (MLH)

  7. Oligoethylene glycols as highly efficient mutifunctional promoters for nucleophilic-substitution reactions.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Vinod H; Jang, Seung Ho; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Sungyul; Lee, Ji Woong; Song, Choong Eui; Kim, Dong Wook

    2012-03-26

    Herein, we report the promising use of n-oligoethylene glycols (oligoEGs) as mutifunctional promoters for nucleophilic-substitution reactions employing alkali metal salts. Among the various oligoEGs tested, pentaethylene glycol (pentaEG) had the most efficient catalytic activity. In particular, when compared with other nucleophiles examined, a fluorine nucleophile generated from CsF was significantly activated by the pentaEG promoter. We also performed various facile nucleophilic-displacement reactions, such as the halogenation, acetoxylation, thioacetoxylation, nitrilation, and azidation of various substrates with potassium halides, acetate, thioacetate, cyanide, and sodium azide, respectively, in the presence of the pentaEG promoter. All of these reactions provided their desired products in excellent yields. Furthermore, the combination of pentaEG and a tert-alcohol medium showed tremendous efficiency in the nucleophilic-displacement reactions (fluorination and methoxylation) of base-sensitive substrates with basic nucleophiles (cesium fluoride and potassium methoxide, respectively). The catalytic role of oligoEGs was examined by quantum-chemical methods. The oxygen atoms in oligoEGs were found to act as Lewis bases on the metal cations to produce the "flexible" nucleophile, whereas the two terminal hydroxy (OH) groups acted as "anchors" to orientate the nucleophile and the substrate into an ideal configuration for the reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazoles) (POX) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl) 1,3,4-oxadiazole monomers are synthesized by reacting 4-hydroxybenzoic hydrazide with phenyl 4-hydrobenzoate in the melt and also by reacting aromatic dihydrazides with two moles of phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in the melt. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight POX of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the large variety of activated aromatic dihalides which are available.

  9. Electrophilic and nucleophilic enzymatic cascade reactions in biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ueberbacher, Barbara T; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

    2012-03-01

    The biosynthesis of cyclic terpenoids and polyethers involves enzyme-initiated cascade reactions for ring formation. While the former are obtained by electrophilic cascades through carbenium ions as intermediates, cyclic polyethers are formed by nucleophilic cascade reactions of (poly)epoxide precursors. These mechanistically complementary pathways follow common principles via (i) triggering of the cascade by forming a reactive intermediate ('initiation'), (ii) sequential 'proliferation' of the cyclization and finally (iii) 'termination' of the cascade. As analyzed in this concept paper, the multiplicity of precursors, combined with various initiation and termination routes and kinetically favored or disfavored cyclization modes accounts for the enormous diversity in cyclic terpenoid and polyether scaffolds. Although the essential role of enzymes in the triggering of these cascades is reasonably well understood, remarkably little is known about their influence in proliferation reactions, especially those implying kinetically disfavored (anti-Markovnikov and anti-Baldwin) routes. Mechanistic analysis of enzymatic cascade reactions provides biomimetic strategies for natural product synthesis.

  10. Amination of electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Schmidt, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process to aminate electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen using quaternary hydrazinium salts. The use of trialkylhydrazinium halide, e.g., trimethylhydrazinium iodide, as well as hydroxylamine, alkoxylamines, and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole to produce aminated aromatic structures, such as 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT), is described. DATB and TATB are useful insensitive high explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  11. Poly(N-arylenebenzimidazole)s via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Novel poly(N-arylenebenzimidazole)s (PNABls) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of novel di(hydroxyphenyl-N-arylene benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl-N-arylenebenzimidazole) monomers are synthesized by reacting phenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with bis(2-aminoanilino)arylenes in diphenylsulfone. Moderate molecular weight PNABIs of new chemical structures were prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties. The use of the novel di(hydroxyphenyI-N-arylenebenzimidazole)s permits a more economical and easier way to prepare PNABIs than previous routes.

  12. Transetherification on Polyols by Intra- and Intermolecular Nucleophilic Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, Takahiro; Adachi, Kota; Chowdhury, Rainy; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Transetherification on polyols involving intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions is reported. Di- or trialkoxide formation of propane-1,3-diol or 2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol derivatives by NaH triggers the reaction via oxetanes formation, where the order to add NaH and a polyol significantly influences the yields of products. It was demonstrated that the protective group on the pentaerythritol skeleton is apparently transferred to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain molecules bearing a leaving group in one-step, and a protective group conversion from tosyl to benzyl was successful using a benzyl-appending triol to afford a desired product in 67% yield. PMID:24663293

  13. Amination of electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    2000-05-30

    The present invention relates to a process to aminate electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen using quaternary hydrazinium salts. The use of trialkylhydrazinium halide, e.g., trimethylhydrazinium iodide, as well as hydroxylamine, alkoxylamines, and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole to produce aminated aromatic structures, such as 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT), is described. DATB and TATB are useful insensitive high explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  14. Poly(N-arylenbenzimidazoles) via aromatic nucleophilic displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Novel poly(N-arylenebenzimidazole)s (PNABIs) are prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of novel di(hydroxyphenyl-N-arylene benzimidazole) monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. The di(hydroxyphenyl N-arylenebenzimidazole) monomers are synthesized by reacting phenyl 4-hydroxybenzoate with bis(2-aminoanilino) arylenes in diphenylsulfone. Moderate molecular weight PNABIs of new chemical structures were prepared that exhibit a favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties. The use of the novel di(hydroxyphenyl N-arylenebenzimidazole)s permits a more economical and easier way to prepare PNABIs than previous routes.

  15. Nucleophilic activation by positioning in phosphoryl transfer catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Admiraal, S J; Schneider, B; Meyer, P; Janin, J; Véron, M; Deville-Bonne, D; Herschlag, D

    1999-04-13

    The nonenzymatic reaction of ATP with a nucleophile to generate ADP and a phosphorylated product proceeds via a dissociative transition state with little bond formation to the nucleophile. Consideration of the dissociative nature of the nonenzymatic transition state leads to the following question: To what extent can the nucleophile be activated in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer? We have addressed this question for the NDP kinase reaction. A mutant form of the enzyme lacking the nucleophilic histidine (H122G) can be chemically rescued for ATP attack by imidazole or other exogenous small nucleophiles. The ATP reaction is 50-fold faster with the wild-type enzyme, which has an imidazole nucleophile positioned for reaction by a covalent bond, than with H122G, which employs a noncovalently bound imidazole nucleophile [(kcat/KM)ATP]. Further, a 4-fold advantage for imidazole positioned in the nucleophile binding pocket created by the mutation is suggested from comparison of the reaction of H122G and ATP with an imidazole versus a water nucleophile, after correction for the intrinsic reactivities of imidazole and water toward ATP in solution. X-ray structural analysis shows no detectable rearrangement of the residues surrounding His 122 upon mutation to Gly 122. The overall rate effect of approximately 10(2)-fold for the covalent imidazole nucleophile relative to water is therefore attributed to positioning of the nucleophile with respect to the reactive phosphoryl group. This is underscored by the more deleterious effect of replacing ATP with AlphaTauPgammaS in the wild-type reaction than in the imidazole-rescued mutant reaction, as follows. For the wild-type, AlphaTauPgammaS presumably disrupts positioning between nucleophile and substrate, resulting in a large thio effect of 300-fold, whereas precise alignment is already disrupted in the mutant because there is no covalent bond to the nucleophile, resulting in a smaller thio effect of 10-fold. In summary, the results

  16. Synthesis of pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones: Rearrangement of pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,3,4]oxadiazines and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kkonnip

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-ones 12 have been easily prepared via nucleophile-induced rearrangement of pyrrolooxadiazines 11 and regioselective intramolecular cyclization of 1,2-biscarbamoyl-substituted 1H-pyrroles 10. In this work, we demonstrated that the described synthetic approaches can be considered to be more facile and practical than previously reported procedures. PMID:27829885

  17. Regioselectivity in ligand substitution reactions on diiron complexes governed by nucleophilic and electrophilic ligand properties.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Ryan D; Crouthers, Danielle J; Hsieh, Chung-Hung; Denny, Jason A; Hall, Michael B; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y

    2015-04-06

    The discovery of a diiron organometallic site in nature within the diiron hydrogenase, [FeFe]-H2ase, active site has prompted revisits of the classic organometallic chemistry involving the Fe-Fe bond and bridging ligands, particularly of the (μ-SCH2XCH2S)[Fe(CO)3]2 and (μ-SCH2XCH2S)[Fe(CO)2L]2 (X = CH2, NH; L = PMe3, CN(-), and NHC's (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene)), derived from CO/L exchange reactions. Through the synergy of synthetic chemistry and density functional theory computations, the regioselectivity of nucleophilic (PMe3 or CN(-)) and electrophilic (nitrosonium, NO(+)) ligand substitution on the diiron dithiolate framework of the (μ-pdt)[Fe(CO)2NHC][Fe(CO)3] complex (pdt = propanedithiolate) reveals the electron density shifts in the diiron core of such complexes that mimic the [FeFe]-H2ase active site. While CO substitution by PMe3, followed by reaction with NO(+), produces (μ-pdt)(μ-CO)[Fe(NHC)(NO)][Fe(CO)2PMe3](+), the alternate order of reagent addition produces the structural isomer (μ-pdt)[Fe(NHC)(NO)PMe3][Fe(CO)3](+), illustrating how the nucleophile and electrophile choose the electron-poor metal and the electron-rich metal, respectively. Theoretical explorations of simpler analogues, (μ-pdt)[Fe(CO)2CN][Fe(CO)3](-), (μ-pdt)[Fe(CO)3]2, and (μ-pdt)[Fe(CO)2NO][Fe(CO)3](+), provide an explanation for the role that the electron-rich iron moiety plays in inducing the rotation of the electron-poor iron moiety to produce a bridging CO ligand, a key factor in stabilizing the electron-rich iron moiety and for support of the rotated structure as found in the enzyme active site.

  18. Replacing conventional carbon nucleophiles with electrophiles: nickel-catalyzed reductive alkylation of aryl bromides and chlorides.

    PubMed

    Everson, Daniel A; Jones, Brittany A; Weix, Daniel J

    2012-04-11

    A general method is presented for the synthesis of alkylated arenes by the chemoselective combination of two electrophilic carbons. Under the optimized conditions, a variety of aryl and vinyl bromides are reductively coupled with alkyl bromides in high yields. Under similar conditions, activated aryl chlorides can also be coupled with bromoalkanes. The protocols are highly functional-group tolerant (-OH, -NHTs, -OAc, -OTs, -OTf, -COMe, -NHBoc, -NHCbz, -CN, -SO(2)Me), and the reactions are assembled on the benchtop with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. The reaction displays different chemoselectivity than conventional cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille, and Hiyama-Denmark reactions. Substrates bearing both an electrophilic and nucleophilic carbon result in selective coupling at the electrophilic carbon (R-X) and no reaction at the nucleophilic carbon (R-[M]) for organoboron (-Bpin), organotin (-SnMe(3)), and organosilicon (-SiMe(2)OH) containing organic halides (X-R-[M]). A Hammett study showed a linear correlation of σ and σ(-) parameters with the relative rate of reaction of substituted aryl bromides with bromoalkanes. The small ρ values for these correlations (1.2-1.7) indicate that oxidative addition of the bromoarene is not the turnover-frequency determining step. The rate of reaction has a positive dependence on the concentration of alkyl bromide and catalyst, no dependence upon the amount of zinc (reducing agent), and an inverse dependence upon aryl halide concentration. These results and studies with an organic reductant (TDAE) argue against the intermediacy of organozinc reagents. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  19. Replacing Conventional Carbon Nucleophiles with Electrophiles: Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Alkylation of Aryl Bromides and Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A general method is presented for the synthesis of alkylated arenes by the chemoselective combination of two electrophilic carbons. Under the optimized conditions, a variety of aryl and vinyl bromides are reductively coupled with alkyl bromides in high yields. Under similar conditions, activated aryl chlorides can also be coupled with bromoalkanes. The protocols are highly functional-group tolerant (−OH, −NHTs, −OAc, −OTs, −OTf, −COMe, −NHBoc, −NHCbz, −CN, −SO2Me), and the reactions are assembled on the benchtop with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. The reaction displays different chemoselectivity than conventional cross-coupling reactions, such as the Suzuki–Miyaura, Stille, and Hiyama–Denmark reactions. Substrates bearing both an electrophilic and nucleophilic carbon result in selective coupling at the electrophilic carbon (R–X) and no reaction at the nucleophilic carbon (R–[M]) for organoboron (−Bpin), organotin (−SnMe3), and organosilicon (−SiMe2OH) containing organic halides (X–R–[M]). A Hammett study showed a linear correlation of σ and σ(−) parameters with the relative rate of reaction of substituted aryl bromides with bromoalkanes. The small ρ values for these correlations (1.2–1.7) indicate that oxidative addition of the bromoarene is not the turnover-frequency determining step. The rate of reaction has a positive dependence on the concentration of alkyl bromide and catalyst, no dependence upon the amount of zinc (reducing agent), and an inverse dependence upon aryl halide concentration. These results and studies with an organic reductant (TDAE) argue against the intermediacy of organozinc reagents. PMID:22463689

  20. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Disulfide and Sulfenic Acid to Form the Strongly Nucleophilic Persulfide.

    PubMed

    Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Lange, Mike; Bonanata, Jenner; Coitiño, E Laura; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Filipovic, Milos R; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized to modulate physiological processes in mammals through mechanisms that are currently under scrutiny. H2S is not able to react with reduced thiols (RSH). However, H2S, more precisely HS(-), is able to react with oxidized thiol derivatives. We performed a systematic study of the reactivity of HS(-) toward symmetric low molecular weight disulfides (RSSR) and mixed albumin (HSA) disulfides. Correlations with thiol acidity and computational modeling showed that the reaction occurs through a concerted mechanism. Comparison with analogous reactions of thiolates indicated that the intrinsic reactivity of HS(-) is 1 order of magnitude lower than that of thiolates. In addition, H2S is able to react with sulfenic acids (RSOH). The rate constant of the reaction of H2S with the sulfenic acid formed in HSA was determined. Both reactions of H2S with disulfides and sulfenic acids yield persulfides (RSSH), recently identified post-translational modifications. The formation of this derivative in HSA was determined, and the rate constants of its reactions with a reporter disulfide and with peroxynitrite revealed that persulfides are better nucleophiles than thiols, which is consistent with the α effect. Experiments with cells in culture showed that treatment with hydrogen peroxide enhanced the formation of persulfides. Biological implications are discussed. Our results give light on the mechanisms of persulfide formation and provide quantitative evidence for the high nucleophilicity of these novel derivatives, setting the stage for understanding the contribution of the reactions of H2S with oxidized thiol derivatives to H2S effector processes.

  1. Intramolecular energy transfer reactions in polymetallic

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, J.

    1990-11-01

    This report is concerned with intramolecular, energy-transfer reactions. The concept of preparing synthetically a complex molecular species, capable of absorbing a photon at one metal center (antenna fragment), transferring that energy to a second metal center (reactive fragment) via a bridging ligand was first reported by our group in 1979. It is now apparent that a major emphasis in inorganic chemistry in the future will involve these types of molecular ensembles. Complexes discussed include Rh, Ru, and Cu complexes. 23 refs., 14 tabs.

  2. How do nucleophiles accelerate the reactions of dialkylstannylene acetals? The effects of adding fluoride to dialkoxydi-n-butylstannanes.

    PubMed

    Whittleton, Sarah R; Boyd, Russell J; Grindley, T Bruce

    2013-11-27

    Dialkylstannylene acetals are organotin intermediates widely used to facilitate regioselective monofunctionalization of diols or polyols by electrophiles. Alkylation is both the slowest and the most useful reaction of these intermediates, and this reaction is markedly accelerated by the addition of nucleophiles to the reaction media, usually cesium fluoride in dimethylformamide (DMF) or tetrabutylammonium iodide or bromide in toluene. The regioselectivity may be influenced by aggregation of the dialkylstannylene acetals into dimers and higher oligomers, and by the addition of these nucleophiles. The stabilities and the geometries of the species potentially involved in these processes were examined by using theoretical chemistry methods with di-n-butyldialkoxytin derivatives as examples and fluoride as the nucleophile. Geometry optimizations were performed at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level, and single point energies obtained at the MP2/6-311G(2d,p) level with diffuse functions added for fluorine. The LANL2DZdp basis set with diffuse and polarization functions and its effective core potential were used to describe tin. The addition of fluoride to monomeric di-n-butyldialkoxytin derivatives to give fluoridated monomers is predicted to be strongly exothermic, by 187 to 209 kJ/mol, depending on the alkoxyl group. The fluoridated monomers are calculated to react with monomers exothermically to give monofluoridated dimers, except for the di-t-butoxy derivative. Dimer formation on average is about 20 kJ mol(-1) more exothermic than for the nonfluoridated monomers alone. Monofluoridated monomers strongly prefer to exist as monomers because the difluoridated dimers are estimated to be 209 to 278 kJ mol(-1) less stable at 298 K.

  3. Anharmonic dynamics of intramolecular hydrogen bonds driven by DNA breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, B. S.; Stanev, V. G.; Bishop, A. R.; Rasmussen, K. Ø.

    2012-12-01

    We study the effects of the anharmonic strand-separation dynamics of double-stranded DNA on the infrared spectra of the intramolecular base-pairing hydrogen bonds. Using the extended Peyrard-Bishop-Dauxois model for the DNA breathing dynamics coupled with the Lippincott-Schroeder potential for N-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding, we identify a high-frequency (˜96 THz) feature in the infrared spectra. We show that this sharp peak arises as a result of the anharmonic base-pair breathing dynamics of DNA. In addition, we study the effects of friction on the infrared spectra. For higher temperatures (˜300 K), where the anharmonicity of DNA dynamics is pronounced, the high-frequency peak is always present irrespective of the friction strength.

  4. Solvent gating of intramolecular electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.M. ); Spears, K.G.; Gong, J.H.; Wach, M. )

    1994-02-03

    The rates for ionic photodissociation of malachite green leucocyanide to form cyanide ion and a malachite green carbonium ion were measured as a function of solvent and temperature. The observed rates in mixtures of polar and nonpolar solvents all had an activation energy of about 1 kcal/mol for a wide range of dielectric constants. This dissociative intramolecular electron transfer (DIET) is unusual because it is the first example where solvent configurational entropy changes are required to enable a large amplitude molecular distortion leading to a nonadiabatic electron transfer and ionic dissociation. This solvent gated intramolecular electron-transfer mechanism is supported by analysis of the preexponential and activation energy trends in dipolar aprotic solven mixtures and alcohol solvents. The large amplitude motion is not separately measurable due to the slow gating rates, but viscosity effects on both the preexponential and the activation energy are analyzed to demonstrate consistency with a barrierless diffusion model having a structural dependence on electron-transfer rate. The rate has an inverse dependence on viscosity raised to the 0.53 power. 36 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Novel syn intramolecular pathway in base-catalyzed 1,2-elimination reactions of beta-acetoxy esters.

    PubMed

    Mohrig, Jerry R; Carlson, Hans K; Coughlin, Jane M; Hofmeister, Gretchen E; McMartin, Lea A; Rowley, Elizabeth G; Trimmer, Elizabeth E; Wild, Andrew J; Schultz, Steve C

    2007-02-02

    As part of a comprehensive investigation of electronic effects on the stereochemistry of base-catalyzed 1,2-elimination reactions, we observed a new syn intramolecular pathway in the elimination of acetic acid from beta-acetoxy esters and thioesters. 1H and 2H NMR investigation of reactions using stereospecifically labeled tert-butyl (2R*,3R*)-3-acetoxy-2,3-2H2-butanoate (1) and its (2R*,3S*) diastereomer (2) shows that 23 +/- 2% syn elimination occurs. The elimination reactions were catalyzed with KOH or (CH3)4NOH in ethanol/water under rigorously non-ion-pairing conditions. By contrast, the more sterically hindered beta-trimethylacetoxy ester produces only 6 +/- 1% syn elimination. These data strongly support an intramolecular (Ei) syn path for elimination of acetic acid, most likely through the oxyanion produced by nucleophilic attack at the carbonyl carbon of the beta-acetoxy group. The analogous thioesters, S-tert-butyl (2R*,3R*)-3-acetoxy-2,3-2H2-butanethioate (3) and its (2R*,3S*) diastereomer (4), showed 18 +/- 2% syn elimination, whereas the beta-trimethylacetoxy substrate gave 5 +/- 1% syn elimination. The more acidic thioester substrates do not produce an increased amount of syn stereoselectivity even though their elimination reactions are at the E1cb interface.

  6. Mechanistic Studies of Wacker-Type Intramolecular Aerobic Oxidative Amination of Alkenes Catalyzed by Pd(OAc)2/Pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuan; Liu, Guosheng; Popp, Brian V.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2011-01-01

    Wacker-type oxidative cyclization reactions have been the subject of extensive research for several decades, but few systematic mechanistic studies of these reactions have been reported. The present study features experimental and DFT computational studies of Pd(OAc)2/pyridine-catalyzed intramolecular aerobic oxidative amination of alkenes. The data support a stepwise catalytic mechanism that consists of (1) steady-state formation of a PdII-amidate-alkene chelate with release of one equivalent of pyridine and AcOH from the catalyst center, (2) alkene insertion into a Pd–N bond, (3) reversible β-hydride elimination, (4) irreversible reductive elimination of AcOH, and (5) aerobic oxidation of palladium(0) to regenerate the active trans-Pd(OAc)2(py)2 catalyst. Evidence is obtained for two energetically viable pathways for the key C–N bond-forming step, featuring a pyridine-ligated and a pyridine-dissociated PdII species. Analysis of natural charges and bond lengths of the alkene-insertion transition state suggest that this reaction is best described as an intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the amidate ligand on the coordinated alkene. PMID:21250706

  7. Evidence for a Morin Type Intramolecular Cyclization of an Alkene with a Phenylsulfenic Acid Group in Neutral Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Keerthi, Kripa; Sivaramakrishnan, Santhosh; Gates, Kent S.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfenic acids (RSOH) are among the most common sulfur-centered reactive intermediates generated in biological systems. Given the biological occurrence of sulfenic acids, it is important to explore the reactivity of these intermediates under physiological conditions. The Morin rearrangement is a synthetic process developed for the conversion of penicillin derivatives into cephalosporins that proceeds via nucleophilic attack of an alkene on a sulfenic acid intermediate. In its classic form, the Morin reaction involves initial elimination of a sulfenic acid from a cyclic sulfoxide, followed by intramolecular cyclization of the resulting alkene and sulfenic acid groups to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate that undergoes further reaction to yield ring-expanded products. On the basis of the existing literature, it is difficult to assess whether the reaction between an alkene and a sulfenic group can occur under mild conditions because the conditions required to generate the sulfenic acid from the sulfoxide precursor in the Morin reaction typically involve high temperatures and strong acid. In the work described here, β-sulfinylketone precursors were used to generate a “Morin type” sulfenic acid intermediate under mild conditions. This approach made it possible to demonstrate that the intramolecular cyclization of an alkene with a phenylsulfenic acid to generate an episulfonium ion intermediate can occur in neutral aqueous solution at room temperature. PMID:18500784

  8. Hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of model and ultimate carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Helmick, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrolysis reaction of the Model Carcinogen O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0-10.0) proceeds by was of a nitrenium ion intermediate. The products formed from this process are predominately 2,4-dichloroaniline, and 2-hydroxy-4-chloro-pivalanilide. At pH 10-13 the rate becomes dependent upon hydroxide. The product that is formed is 4-chlorophenylhydroxylamine. 4-Chlorophenyl-hydroxylamine is formed by basic ester hydrolysis determined by an [sup 18]O GC-MS experiment. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in an aqueous diethylamine (pH 11.3) buffer gave 4-chlorophenyl-N,N-diethylhydrazine as the substitution product in a 16% yield. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydroxylamine with diethylamine gave a 1% yield of the hydrazine product. The reaction of N,N-dimethylanline and aniline with ring-substituted O-pivaloyl-N-arylhydroxylamines in MeOH generates products of nucleophilic attack on the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine derivative. The hydrolysis of the ultimate carcinogen N-(sulfonatooxy)-N-4-aminobiphenyl proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes and generates predominately a product of nucleophilic attack by chloride ion at the ortho position of the aromatic ring. A labile intermediate identified as N-acetypl-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine has been detected by NMR. This intermediate rearranges to form 4-hydroxy-3-phenylacetanilide. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine proceeds by way of two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-methoxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine also proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. Spectroscopic evidence of two diastereomeric intermediates formed from the hydrolysis of the N-benzoyl imines were tentatively identified as N-benzoyl-N-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine.

  9. Regio- and stereoselective 1,2-dihydropyridine alkylation/addition sequence for the synthesis of piperidines with quaternary centers.

    PubMed

    Duttwyler, Simon; Chen, Shuming; Lu, Colin; Mercado, Brandon Q; Bergman, Robert G; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2014-04-07

    The first example of C alkylation of 1,2-dihydropyridines with alkyl triflates and Michael acceptors was developed to introduce quaternary carbon centers with high regio- and diastereoselectivity. Hydride or carbon nucleophile addition to the resultant iminium ion also proceeded with high diastereoselectivity. Carbon nucleophile addition results in an unprecedented level of substitution to provide piperidine rings with adjacent tetrasubstituted carbon atoms.

  10. Intramolecular interactions in the polar headgroup of sphingosine: serinol.

    PubMed

    Loru, Donatella; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L; Sanz, M Eugenia

    2016-03-04

    The intramolecular interactions in the lipid sphingosine have been elucidated through the investigation of the amino alcohol serinol which mimics its polar headgroup. Intricate networks of intramolecular hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl groups and the amino group contribute to the stabilisation of five different conformations observed in the broadband rotational spectrum.

  11. Helical polymers based on intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded aromatic polyamides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Xuan; Shi, Zhu-Ming; Li, Zhan-Ting; Guan, Zhibin

    2010-12-21

    Inspired by arylamide-based oligomeric foldermers that are stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding, a series of polyamides with intramolecular hydrogen-bonding motifs were synthesized via polycondensation reactions. These polymers can fold into helical conformation different from their linear control. The chirality of helical conformation can further be tuned via acid-base complexation using chiral residues.

  12. Copper-catalyzed intramolecular alkene carboetherification: synthesis of fused-ring and bridged-ring tetrahydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Yan; Miao, Lei; Hosseini, Azade S; Chemler, Sherry R

    2012-07-25

    Fused-ring and bridged-ring tetrahydrofuran scaffolds are found in a number of natural products and biologically active compounds. A new copper-catalyzed intramolecular carboetherification of alkenes for the synthesis of bicyclic tetrahydrofurans is reported herein. The reaction involves Cu-catalyzed intramolecular addition of alcohols to unactivated alkenes and subsequent aryl C-H functionalization provides the C-C bond. Mechanistic studies indicate a primary carbon radical intermediate is involved and radical addition to the aryl ring is the likely C-C bond-forming mechanism. Preliminary catalytic enantioselective reactions are promising (up to 75% ee) and provide evidence that copper is involved in the alkene addition step, likely through a cis-oxycupration mechanism. Catalytic enantioselective alkene carboetherification reactions are rare and future development of this new method into a highly enantioselective process is promising. During the course of the mechanistic studies a protocol for alkene hydroetherification was also developed.

  13. The intramolecular click reaction using 'carbocontiguous' precursors.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravin C; Luzzio, Frederick A

    2017-07-20

    The synthesis and utilization of all carbon-chain 'carbocontiguous' azidoalkynyl precursors for an intramolecular click reaction is described. The substrates contain both azidoalkyl and ethynylmethyl groups which are conjoined by a 2-(phenylsulfonylmethyl)-4,5-diphenyloxazole lynchpin and are suitably disposed for ring closure. On promotion by copper salts, a number of cyclic click products having the 1,4-disubstituted endo-fused triazole component and the 4,5-diphenyloxazole component are obtained. In one case, removal of the phenylsulfonylmethyl group from the substrate prior to cyclization gave the 1,5-disubstituted exo-fused triazole. The utilization of CuSO4/sodium ascorbate system appears to be the optimal conditions for closure/cyclization and afforded the cyclized products in yields of 84-95%.

  14. Influence of Intramolecular Charge Transfer and Nuclear Quantum Effects on Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Azopyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Kateřina; Čechová, Lucie; Procházková, Eliška; Socha, Ondřej; Janeba, Zlatko; Dračínský, Martin

    2017-10-06

    Intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IMHBs) in 5-azopyrimidines are investigated by NMR spectroscopy and DFT computations that involve nuclear quantum effects. A series of substituted 5-phenylazopyrimidines with one or two hydrogen bond donors able to form IMHBs with the azo group is prepared by azo coupling. The barrier of interconversion between two rotamers of the compounds with two possible IMHBs is determined by variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and it is demonstrated that the barrier is significantly affected by intramolecular charge transfer. Through-hydrogen-bond scalar coupling is investigated in (15)N labeled compounds and the stability of the IMHBs is correlated with experimental NMR parameters and rationalized by path integral molecular dynamics simulations that involve nuclear quantum effects. Detailed information on the hydrogen bond geometry upon hydrogen-to-deuterium isotope exchange is obtained from a comparison of experimental and calculated NMR data.

  15. Eco-friendly polyethylene glycol promoted Michael addition reactions of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract- Intra- and inter-nucleophilic addition reactions of different unsaturated compounds were found to be highly effective without any additives in PEG-400 as a recyclable reaction medium under neutral conditions.

  16. Eco-friendly polyethylene glycol promoted Michael addition reactions of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract- Intra- and inter-nucleophilic addition reactions of different unsaturated compounds were found to be highly effective without any additives in PEG-400 as a recyclable reaction medium under neutral conditions.

  17. Analysis of solvent nucleophile isotope effects: evidence for concerted mechanisms and nucleophilic activation by metal coordination in nonenzymatic and ribozyme-catalyzed phosphodiester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Adam G; Anderson, Vernon E; Harris, Michael E

    2004-08-17

    Heavy atom isotope effects are a valuable tool for probing chemical and enzymatic reaction mechanisms; yet, they are not widely applied to examine mechanisms of nucleophilic activation. We developed approaches for analyzing solvent (18)O nucleophile isotope effects ((18)k(nuc)) that allow, for the first time, their application to hydrolysis reactions of nucleotides and nucleic acids. Here, we report (18)k(nuc) for phosphodiester hydrolysis catalyzed by Mg(2+) and by the Mg(2+)-dependent RNase P ribozyme and deamination by the Zn(2+)-dependent protein enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA). Because ADA incorporates a single solvent molecule into the product inosine, this reaction can be used to monitor solvent (18)O/(16)O ratios in complex reaction mixtures. This approach, combined with new methods for analysis of isotope ratios of nucleotide phosphates by whole molecule mass spectrometry, permitted determination of (18)k(nuc) for hydrolysis of thymidine 5'-p-nitrophenyl phosphate and RNA cleavage by the RNase P ribozyme. For ADA, an inverse (18)k(nuc) of 0.986 +/- 0.001 is observed, reflecting coordination of the nucleophile by an active site Zn(2+) ion and a stepwise mechanism. In contrast, the observed (18)k(nuc) for phosphodiester reactions were normal: 1.027 +/- 0.013 and 1.030 +/- 0.012 for the Mg(2+)- and ribozyme-catalyzed reactions, respectively. Such normal effects indicate that nucleophilic attack occurs in the rate-limiting step for these reactions, consistent with concerted mechanisms. However, these magnitudes are significantly less than the (18)k(nuc) observed for nucleophilic attack by hydroxide (1.068 +/- 0.007), indicating a "stiffer" bonding environment for the nucleophile in the transition state. Kinetic analysis of the Mg(2+)-catalyzed reaction indicates that a Mg(2+)-hydroxide complex is the catalytic species; thus, the lower (18)k(nuc), in large part, reflects direct metal ion coordination of the nucleophilic oxygen. A similar value for the RNase P

  18. Continuous flow nucleophilic aromatic substitution with dimethylamine generated in situ by decomposition of DMF.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Trine P; Larsen, Anders Foller; Ritzén, Andreas; Ulven, Trond

    2013-04-19

    A safe, practical, and scalable continuous flow protocol for the in situ generation of dimethylamine from DMF followed by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of a broad range of aromatic and heteroaromatic halides is reported.

  19. Effects of electron acceptors and radical scavengers on nonchain radical nucleophilic substitution reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Xianman Zhang; Dilun Yang; Youcheng Liu )

    1993-01-01

    The yields of reaction products from thermal nucleophilic substitution reactions in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) of six o- and p-nitrohalobenzenes with the sodium salt of ethyl [alpha]-cyanoacetate carbanion [Na[sup +][sup [minus

  20. Dehalogenation of arenes via SN2 reactions at bromine: competition with nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    PubMed

    Gronert, Scott; Garver, John M; Nichols, Charles M; Worker, Benjamin B; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2014-11-21

    The gas-phase reactions of carbon- and nitrogen-centered nucleophiles with polyfluorobromobenzenes were examined in a selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) and modeled computationally at the MP2/6-31+G(d,p)//MP2/6-31+G(d) level. In the gas-phase experiments, rate constants and branching ratios were determined. The carbon nucleophiles produce expected nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) and proton transfer products along with unexpected products that result from SN2 reactions at the bromine center (polyfluorophenide leaving group). With nitrogen nucleophiles, the SN2 at bromine channel is suppressed. In the SNAr channels, the "element effect" is observed, and fluoride loss competes with bromide loss. The computational modeling indicates that all the substitution barriers are well below the entrance channel and that entropy and dynamics effects control the product distributions.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross Coupling of Secondary and Tertiary Alkyl Bromides with a Nitrogen Nucleophile

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a new class of catalytic reaction: the thermal substitution of a secondary and or tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile. The alkylation of a nitrogen nucleophile with an alkyl halide is a classical method for the construction of C–N bonds, but traditional substitution reactions are challenging to achieve with a secondary and or tertiary alkyl electrophile due to competing elimination reactions. A catalytic process could address this limitation, but thermal, catalytic coupling of alkyl halides with a nitrogen nucleophile and any type of catalytic coupling of an unactivated tertiary alkyl halide with a nitrogen nucleophile are unknown. We report the coupling of unactivated secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides with benzophenone imines to produce protected primary amines in the presence of palladium ligated by the hindered trialkylphosphine Cy2t-BuP. Mechanistic studies indicate that this amination of alkyl halides occurs by a reversible reaction to form a free alkyl radical. PMID:27725963

  2. REVISITING NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF AZIDES, THIOCYANATES AND SULFONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A practical, rapid and efficient microwave (MW) promoted synthesis of various azides, thiocyanates and sulfones, is described in aqueous medium. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced nucleophilic substitution approach uses easily accessible starting materials such as halides o...

  3. REVISITING NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF AZIDES, THIOCYANATES AND SULFONES IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A practical, rapid and efficient microwave (MW) promoted synthesis of various azides, thiocyanates and sulfones, is described in aqueous medium. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced nucleophilic substitution approach uses easily accessible starting materials such as halides o...

  4. Nucleophilic substitution at centers other than carbon: reaction at the chlorine of N-chloroacetanilides with triethylamine as the nucleophile

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, G.R.; Dietze, P.E.

    1984-12-28

    The reaction between triethylamine (TEA) and a series of para-substituted N-chloroacetanilides has been studied in aqueous solution buffered to pHs between 1 and 5. The exclusive product derived from the aromatic moiety is the corresponding acetanilide. The reaction occurs via two parallel pseudo-second-order paths, one acid catalyzed (the Orton-like mechanism), the other uncatalyzed. The uncatalyzed reaction is accelerated by the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents on the aromatic ring and can best be represented as nucleophilic displacement at chlorine. It therefore appears to be the prototype of a convenient class of reactions for the study of displacement reactions at chlorine. The rho value for this reaction is 3.87, indicating substantial negative charge buildup in the aromatic ring during of the transition state. The acid-catalyzed reaction is more complex, presumable involving a protonation equilibrium for the N-chloroacetanilide prior to the rate-determining step similar to that in the Orton reaction. 15 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates with C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Kalicharan; Fenster, Erik; Grenning, Alexander J

    2012-01-01

    Summary The palladium-catalyzed nucleophilic substitution of (coumarinyl)methyl acetates is described. The reaction proceeds though a palladium π-benzyl-like complex and allows for many different types of C-, N-, and S-nucleophiles to be regioselectively added to the biologically active coumarin motif. This new method was utilized to prepare a 128-membered library of aminated coumarins for biological screening. PMID:23019448

  6. REACTIONS OF ELECTROPHILES WITH NUCLEOPHILIC THIOLATE SITES: RELEVANCE TO PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS AND REMEDIATION

    PubMed Central

    LoPachin, Richard M.; Gavin, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    Electrophiles are electron deficient species that form covalent bonds with electron rich nucleophiles. In biological systems, reversible electrophile-nucleophile interactions mediate basal cytophysiological functions (e.g., enzyme regulation through S-nitrosylation), whereas irreversible electrophilic adduction of cellular macromolecules is involved in pathogenic processes that underlie many disease and injury states. The nucleophiles most often targeted by electrophiles are side chains on protein amino acids (e.g., Cys, His and Lys) and aromatic nitrogen sites on DNA bases (e.g., guanine N7). The sulfhydryl thiol (RSH) side-chain of cysteine residues is a weak nucleophile that can be ionized in specific conditions to a more reactive nucleophilic thiolate (RS−). This review will focus on electrophile interactions with cysteine thiolates and the pathophysiological consequences that result from irreversible electrophile modification of this anionic sulfur. According to the Hard and Soft, Acids and Bases (HSAB) theory of Pearson, electrophiles and nucleophiles can be classified as either soft or hard depending on their relative polarizability. HSAB theory suggests that electrophiles will preferentially and more rapidly form covalent adducts with nucleophiles of comparable softness or hardness. Application of HSAB principles, in conjunction with in vitro and proteomic studies, have indicated that soft electrophiles of broad chemical classes selectively form covalent Michael-type adducts with soft, highly reactive cysteine thiolate nucleophiles. Therefore, these electrophiles exhibit a common mechanism of cytotoxicity. As we will discuss, this level of detailed mechanistic understanding is a necessary prerequisite for the rational development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for electrophile-based pathogenic states. PMID:26559119

  7. Reactions of electrophiles with nucleophilic thiolate sites: relevance to pathophysiological mechanisms and remediation.

    PubMed

    LoPachin, Richard M; Gavin, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    Electrophiles are electron-deficient species that form covalent bonds with electron-rich nucleophiles. In biological systems, reversible electrophile-nucleophile interactions mediate basal cytophysiological functions (e.g. enzyme regulation through S-nitrosylation), whereas irreversible electrophilic adduction of cellular macromolecules is involved in pathogenic processes that underlie many disease and injury states. The nucleophiles most often targeted by electrophiles are side chains on protein amino acids (e.g. Cys, His, and Lys) and aromatic nitrogen sites on DNA bases (e.g. guanine N7). The sulfhydryl thiol (RSH) side chain of cysteine residues is a weak nucleophile that can be ionized in specific conditions to a more reactive nucleophilic thiolate (RS(-)). This review will focus on electrophile interactions with cysteine thiolates and the pathophysiological consequences that result from irreversible electrophile modification of this anionic sulfur. According to the Hard and Soft, Acids and Bases (HSAB) theory of Pearson, electrophiles and nucleophiles can be classified as either soft or hard depending on their relative polarizability. HSAB theory suggests that electrophiles will preferentially and more rapidly form covalent adducts with nucleophiles of comparable softness or hardness. Application of HSAB principles, in conjunction with in vitro and proteomic studies, have indicated that soft electrophiles of broad chemical classes selectively form covalent Michael-type adducts with soft, highly reactive cysteine thiolate nucleophiles. Therefore, these electrophiles exhibit a common mechanism of cytotoxicity. As we will discuss, this level of detailed mechanistic understanding is a necessary prerequisite for the rational development of effective prevention and treatment strategies for electrophile-based pathogenic states.

  8. Empirical corrections to density functional theory highlight the importance of nonbonded intramolecular interactions in alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wodrich, Matthew D; Jana, Daniel F; Schleyer, Paul von Ragué; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2008-11-13

    Energies of alkanes computed with many popular and even newer density functionals are flawed by systematic errors, which become considerable with larger molecules. The same energies, however, are well described by post-Hartree-Fock methods. Similar DFT shortcomings are well documented for cases involving descriptions of intermolecular van der Waals complexes. One solution to the density functional problem is the addition of an empirical correction term, which more accurately models the known R (-6) dependence of van der Waals energies. Here, we present the first empirical correction to DFT parametrized to reproduce experimental energies associated with intramolecular interactions in alkanes. Our training set used only three reactions involving simple linear and branched alkanes and provides a remarkable improvement over conventional DFT methods and empirical corrections optimized for intermolecular interactions. In contrast to many standard density functionals, the intramolecular empirical correction correctly predicts the lowest energy alkane isomer in addition to performing satisfactorily for describing the interaction energies of intermolecular complexes.

  9. Cobalt-catalyzed intramolecular C-H amination with arylsulfonyl azides.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Joshua V; Kamble, Rajesh M; Zhang, X Peter

    2007-11-08

    Cobalt complexes of porphyrins are effective catalysts for intramolecular C-H amination with arylsulfonyl azides. The cobalt-catalyzed process can proceed efficiently under mild and neutral conditions in low catalyst loading without the need of other reagents or additives, generating nitrogen gas as the only byproduct. The catalytic system can be applied to primary, secondary, and tertiary C-H bonds and is suitable for a broad range of arylsulfonyl azides, leading to high-yielding syntheses of various benzosultams.

  10. Ultrastructural evidence for intramolecular double stranding in iota-carrageenan.

    PubMed

    Abeysekera, R M; Bergström, E T; Goodall, D M; Norton, I T; Robards, A W

    1993-10-04

    Kinetic studies of primary processes of conformational ordering in gel-forming biopolymers have suggested that a change in mechanism from intermolecular to intramolecular multistrand formation occurs on lowering the concentration of biopolymer. We report here ultrastructural observations consistent with intramolecular double stranding in a carbohydrate polymer, iota-carrageenan, by arresting this process of primary conformational ordering by an ultra-rapid freeze fixation technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed isolated iota-carrageenan chains showing a range of morphologies (linear, circular, and hairpin) consistent with intramolecular stranding. Control experiments in which iota-carrageenan was frozen in the disordered form revealed longer and thinner strands.

  11. Conformations, energies, and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in dicarboxylic acids: implications for the design of synthetic dicarboxylic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Ha; Hibbs, David E; Howard, Siân T

    2005-09-01

    The various conformers of the dicarboxylic acids HO2C--(CH2)n--CO2H, n = 1-4, were obtained using density functional methods (DFT), both in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase using a polarized continuum model (PCM). Several new conformers were identified, particularly for the two larger molecules glutaric (n = 3) and adipic acid (n =4). The PCM results show that the stability of most conformers were affected, many becoming unstable in the aqueous phase; and the energy ordering of conformers is also different. The results suggest that conformational preferences could be important in determining the design and stability of appropriate synthetic receptors for glutaric and adipic acid. Geometry changes between gas and aqueous phases were most marked in those conformers containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Additional calculations have probed the strength of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in these dicarboxylic acids. In the cases of glutaric and adipic acid, the strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bond were estimated to be around 28-29 kJ/mol, without any vibrational energy correction. The intramolecular hydrogen bond energies in malonic and succinic acid were also estimated from the calculated H-bond distances using an empirical relationship. Intramolecular H-bond redshifts of 170-250 cm(-1) have been estimated from the results of the harmonic frequency analyses.

  12. High 1,3-trans stereoselectivity in nucleophilic substitution at the anomeric position and β-fragmentation of the primary alkoxyl radical in 3-amino-3-deoxy-ribofuranose derivatives: application to the synthesis of 2-epi-(-)-jaspine B.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Eleuterio, Alma; Quintero, Leticia; Sartillo-Piscil, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The high inverse stereoselectivity in the nucleophilic substitution at the anomeric position of 3-amino-3-deoxy-ribofuranose derivatives is reported. This unprecedented stereoselectivity is explained in terms of preferential nucleophilic attack on the "inside face" of the respective five-membered ring oxocarbenium ion that orients pseudoequatorially to the benzylamine group placed at the C-3 position. In addition, an unusual β-fragmentation of a primary alkoxyl radical generated from its corresponding N-phthalimide derivative was achieved, and thus taking advantages of both reactions, the total synthesis of 2-epi-(-)-jaspine B was completed.

  13. Fused Catechol Ethers from Gold(I)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Reaction of Propargyl Ethers with Acetals.

    PubMed

    Pati, Kamalkishore; Gomes, Gabriel dos Passos; Harris, Trevor; Alabugin, Igor V

    2016-03-04

    Selective gold(I)-catalyzed rearrangement of aromatic methoxypropynyl acetals leads to fused catechol ethers (1,2-dialkoxynapthalenes) in excellent yields. Furthermore, this process extends to the analogous heterocyclic and aliphatic substrates. Alkyne activation triggers nucleophilic addition of the acetal oxygen that leads to an equilibrating mixture of oxonium ions of similar stability. This mixture is "kinetically self-sorted" via a highly exothermic cyclization. Selective formation of 1,2-dialkoxy naphthalenes originates from chemoselective aromatization of the cyclic intermediate via 1,4-elimination of methanol.

  14. Direct Observation and Control of Ultrafast Photoinduced Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) in Triphenyl-Methane Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guifeng; Magana, Donny; Dyer, R. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved infrared spectroscopy was employed to study intramolecular charge transfer in triphenylmethane dyes, including malachite green (MG), malachite green carbinol base (MGCB), and leucomalachite green (LMG). A local excited state (LE) and a twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) state have been observed directly in MG. Furthermore, solvent-controlled TICT measurements in a series of linear alcohols indicate that the transition time (4–11 ps) from LE to TICT is strongly dependent on alcohol viscosity, which is due to rotational hindrance of dimethylaniline in high-viscosity solvents. For LMG, no TICT is observed due to steric hindrance caused by the sp3-hybridized central carbon atom. However, for MGCB, TICT is rescued by the addition of the electron-donating hydroxyl group to the bridge. These results for MG and its analogues provide new insight regarding the dynamics and mechanism of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) in triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:23009668

  15. Intramolecular epitope spreading in Heymann nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pallavi; Tramontano, Alfonso; Makker, Sudesh P

    2007-12-01

    Immunization with megalin induces active Heymann nephritis, which reproduces features of human idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis. Megalin is a complex immunological target with four discrete ligand-binding domains (LBDs) that may contain epitopes to which pathogenic autoantibodies are directed. Recently, a 236-residue N-terminal fragment, termed "L6," that spans the first LBD was shown to induce autoantibodies and severe disease. We used this model to examine epitope-specific contributions to pathogenesis. Sera obtained from rats 4 weeks after immunization with L6 demonstrated reactivity only with the L6 fragment on Western blot, whereas sera obtained after 8 weeks demonstrated reactivity with all four recombinant fragments of interest (L6 and LBDs II, III, and IV). We demonstrated that the L6 immunogen does not contain the epitopes responsible for the reactivity to the LBD fragments. Therefore, the appearance of antibodies directed at LBD fragments several weeks after the primary immune response suggests intramolecular epitope spreading. In vivo, we observed a temporal association between increased proteinuria and the appearance of antibodies to LBD fragments. These data implicate B cell epitope spreading in antibody-mediated pathogenesis of active Heymann nephritis, a model that should prove valuable for further study of autoimmune dysregulation.

  16. Intramolecular photoelectron diffraction in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, K.; Miron, C.; Plésiat, E.; Argenti, L.; Patanen, M.; Kooser, K.; Ayuso, D.; Mondal, S.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, K.; Travnikova, O.; Palacios, A.; Decleva, P.; Kukk, E.; Martín, F.

    2013-09-01

    We report unambiguous experimental and theoretical evidence of intramolecular photoelectron diffraction in the collective vibrational excitation that accompanies high-energy photoionization of gas-phase CF4, BF3, and CH4 from the 1s orbital of the central atom. We show that the ratios between vibrationally resolved photoionization cross sections (v-ratios) exhibit pronounced oscillations as a function of photon energy, which is the fingerprint of electron diffraction by the surrounding atomic centers. This interpretation is supported by the excellent agreement between first-principles static-exchange and time-dependent density functional theory calculations and high resolution measurements, as well as by qualitative agreement at high energies with a model in which atomic displacements are treated to first order of perturbation theory. The latter model allows us to rationalize the results for all the v-ratios in terms of a generalized v-ratio, which contains information on the structure of the above three molecules and the corresponding molecular cations. A fit of the measured v-ratios to a simple formula based on this model suggests that the method could be used to obtain structural information of both neutral and ionic molecular species.

  17. Intramolecular photoelectron diffraction in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Miron, C; Plésiat, E; Argenti, L; Patanen, M; Kooser, K; Ayuso, D; Mondal, S; Kimura, M; Sakai, K; Travnikova, O; Palacios, A; Decleva, P; Kukk, E; Martín, F

    2013-09-28

    We report unambiguous experimental and theoretical evidence of intramolecular photoelectron diffraction in the collective vibrational excitation that accompanies high-energy photoionization of gas-phase CF4, BF3, and CH4 from the 1s orbital of the central atom. We show that the ratios between vibrationally resolved photoionization cross sections (v-ratios) exhibit pronounced oscillations as a function of photon energy, which is the fingerprint of electron diffraction by the surrounding atomic centers. This interpretation is supported by the excellent agreement between first-principles static-exchange and time-dependent density functional theory calculations and high resolution measurements, as well as by qualitative agreement at high energies with a model in which atomic displacements are treated to first order of perturbation theory. The latter model allows us to rationalize the results for all the v-ratios in terms of a generalized v-ratio, which contains information on the structure of the above three molecules and the corresponding molecular cations. A fit of the measured v-ratios to a simple formula based on this model suggests that the method could be used to obtain structural information of both neutral and ionic molecular species.

  18. Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2016-05-16

    We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased, slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases.

  19. Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; ...

    2016-05-16

    We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased,more » slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases.« less

  20. Exciton Correlations in Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B.; Appavoo, Kannatassen; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2016-05-16

    We have synthesized a series of asymmetric pentacene-tetracene heterodimers with a variable-length conjugated bridge that undergo fast and efficient intramolecular singlet fission (iSF). These compounds have distinct singlet and triplet energies, which allow us to study the spatial dynamics of excitons during the iSF process, including the significant role of exciton correlations in promoting triplet pair generation and recombination. We demonstrate that the primary photoexcitations in conjugated dimers are delocalized singlets that enable fast and efficient iSF. However, in these asymmetric dimers, the singlet becomes more localized on the lower energy unit as the length of the bridge is increased, slowing down iSF relative to analogous symmetric dimers. We resolve the recombination kinetics of the inequivalent triplets produced via iSF, and find that they primarily decay via concerted processes. By identifying different decay channels, including delayed fluorescence via triplet-triplet annihilation, we can separate transient species corresponding to both correlated triplet pairs and uncorrelated triplets. Recombination of the triplet pair proceeds rapidly despite our experimental and theoretical demonstration that individual triplets are highly localized and unable to be transported across the conjugated linker. In this class of compounds, the rate of formation and yield of uncorrelated triplets increases with bridge length. Overall, these constrained, asymmetric systems provide a unique platform to isolate and study transient species essential for singlet fission, which are otherwise difficult to observe in symmetric dimers or condensed phases.

  1. Molecular structures and intramolecular dynamics of pentahalides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ischenko, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews advances of modern gas electron diffraction (GED) method combined with high-resolution spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations in studies of the impact of intramolecular dynamics in free molecules of pentahalides. Some recently developed approaches to the electron diffraction data interpretation, based on direct incorporation of the adiabatic potential energy surface parameters to the diffraction intensity are described. In this way, complementary data of different experimental and computational methods can be directly combined for solving problems of the molecular structure and its dynamics. The possibility to evaluate some important parameters of the adiabatic potential energy surface - barriers to pseudorotation and saddle point of intermediate configuration from diffraction intensities in solving the inverse GED problem is demonstrated on several examples. With increasing accuracy of the electron diffraction intensities and the development of the theoretical background of electron scattering and data interpretation, it has become possible to investigate complex nuclear dynamics in fluxional systems by the GED method. Results of other research groups are also included in the discussion.

  2. Nucleophilicity and P-C Bond Formation Reactions of a Terminal Phosphanido Iridium Complex.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ángel L; Casado, Miguel A; Ciriano, Miguel A; de Bruin, Bas; López, José A; Tejel, Cristina

    2016-01-19

    The diiridium complex [{Ir(ABPN2)(CO)}2(μ-CO)] (1; [ABPN2](-) = [(allyl)B(Pz)2(CH2PPh2)](-)) reacts with diphenylphosphane affording [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(H) (PPh2)] (2), the product of the oxidative addition of the P-H bond to the metal. DFT studies revealed a large contribution of the terminal phosphanido lone pair to the HOMO of 2, indicating nucleophilic character of this ligand, which is evidenced by reactions of 2 with typical electrophiles such as H(+), Me(+), and O2. Products from the reaction of 2 with methyl chloroacetate were found to be either [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(H)(PPh2CH2CO2Me)][PF6] ([6]PF6) or [Ir(ABPN2)(CO)(Cl)(H)] (7) and the free phosphane (PPh2CH2CO2Me), both involving P-C bond formation, depending on the reaction conditions. New complexes having iridacyclophosphapentenone and iridacyclophosphapentanone moieties result from reactions of 2 with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate and dimethyl maleate, respectively, as a consequence of a further incorporation of the carbonyl ligand. In this line, the terminal alkyne methyl propiolate gave a mixture of a similar iridacyclophosphapentanone complex and [Ir(ABPN2){CH═C(CO2Me)-CO}{PPh2-CH═CH(CO2Me)}] (10), which bears the functionalized phosphane PPh2-CH═CH(CO2Me) and an iridacyclobutenone fragment. Related model reactions aimed to confirm mechanistic proposals are also studied.

  3. An immunochemical approach to detect oxidized protein tyrosine phosphatases using a selective C-nucleophile tag.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Francisco J; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-05-24

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases are crucial regulators of signal transduction and function as antagonists towards protein tyrosine kinases to control reversible tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby regulating fundamental physiological processes. Growing evidence has supported the notion that reversible oxidative inactivation of the catalytic cysteine residue in protein tyrosine phosphatases serves as an oxidative post-translational modification that regulates its activity to influence downstream signaling by promoting phosphorylation and induction of the signaling cascade. The oxidation of cysteine to the sulfenic acid is often transient and difficult to detect, thus making it problematic in understanding the role that this oxidative post-translational modification plays in redox-biology and pathogenesis. Several methods to detect cysteine oxidation in biological systems have been developed, though targeted approaches to directly detect oxidized phosphatases are still lacking. Herein we describe the development of a novel immunochemical approach to directly profile oxidized phosphatases. This immunochemical approach consists of an antibody designed to recognize the conserved sequence of the PTP active site (VHCDMDSAG) harboring the catalytic cysteine modified with dimedone (CDMD), a nucleophile that chemoselectively reacts with cysteine sulfenic acids to form a stable thioether adduct. Additionally, we provide biochemical and mass spectrometry workflows to be used in conjugation with this newly developed immunochemical approach to assist in the identification and quantification of basal and oxidized phosphatases.

  4. Amino acid salt catalyzed intramolecular Robinson annulation†‡

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pingfan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2009-01-01

    The silica gel absorbed amino acid salt catalyzed asymmetric intramolecular Robinson annulation reaction has been developed; up to 97% ee was obtained with this readily recoverable organocatalyst. PMID:19724802

  5. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds in crystals of thiophosphorylbenzopyrane derivatives X-ray and FT-IR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybarczyk-Pirek, Agnieszka J.; Dubis, Alina T.; Grabowski, Sławomir J.; Nawrot-Modranka, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of two new benzopyrane derivatives are analyzed and compared with previous X-ray investigations on related compounds. A particular attention is focused on intramolecular interactions. For the chromone derivatives ( 1 and 3) only one kind of interaction is possible, i.e., N-H⋯O, whereas for the coumarine derivatives ( 2 and 4) two types of intramolecular hydrogen bonding are observed - N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N. Two types of H-bond for coumarine derivatives are the result of the existence of two tautomeric forms - enamine and iminoenol. Combined spectroscopic, NMR and IR measurements confirm such tautomeric equilibrium in solution. The influence of the additional intermolecular hydrogen bonds on the stabilization of tautomeric forms in crystals is also discussed here.

  6. Internal Stark effect mediates intramolecular excited-state proton transfer in 3-hydroxyflavone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchenko, Andriy S.; Demchenko, Alexander P.

    2002-12-01

    Internal Stark effect in electronic spectra is the effect that is observed when the electronic bands shift udner the influence of promixal charges. In order to study the possible involvement of this effect in modulating the intramolecular proton transfer reactions in the excited state, we designed and studied several derivatives of 3-hydroxyflavone. They include the species containing neutral and positively charged substituents in 6 position of chromone ring. These compounds were studied in solvents of different polarities. In these experiments the shifts of both normal and tautomer flurosence bands are clearly observed in a manner predicted by Stark effect theory. In addition, a dramatic effect of suppression by introduced charge of intramolecular excited-state proton transfer was observed.

  7. Femtochemistry of Intramolecular Charge and Proton Transfer Reactions in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Douhal, Abderrazzak; Sanz, Mikel; Carranza, Maria Angeles; Organero, Juan Angel; Tormo, Laura

    2005-03-17

    We report on the first observation of ultrafast intramolecular charge- and proton-transfer reactions in 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol (DAMF) in solution. Upon femtosecond excitation of a non-planar structure of DMAF in apolar medium, the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) does not occur, and a slow (2 ps) proton motion takes place. However, in polar solvents, the ICT is very fast (100-200 fs) and the produced structure is stabilized that proton motion takes place in few or tens of ps.

  8. [Polyfunctional molecules and their components in the processes of aromatic nucleophilic substitution. II. Nucleophilic modification of 3',5'-bis-O-(alpha,beta,alpha',beta'-tetrafluoropyridyl-gamma)thymidine].

    PubMed

    Litvak, V V; Maĭnagashev, I Ia; Bukhanets, O G

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of 3',5'-bis-O-(alpha,beta,alpha',beta'-tetrafluoropyrid-gamma-yl)thymidine with various nucleophilic reagents was studied to evaluate the possibility of molecular design of new types of nucleic acid analogues using SNAr reactions. The reactions with morpholine and sodium azide led to the introduction of one and two nucleophilic residues into each of the polyfluorinated pyridine rings. The nucleophilic polycondensation with bifunctional reagents ethylenediamine and hexamethylenediamine depended on the nature of nucleophile and reaction conditions and resulted in the formation of supramolecules containing about five or more than 20 pyrimidine bases.

  9. Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts Acylation Reaction Promoted by 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Motiwala, Hashim F; Vekariya, Rakesh H; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2015-11-06

    Simple dissolution of an arylalkyl acid chloride in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol promotes an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation without additional catalysts or reagents. This reaction is operationally trivial in both execution and product isolation (only requiring concentration followed by purification) and accommodates a broad range of substrates. Preliminary studies that bear upon potential reaction mechanisms are reported.

  10. Enantiospecific bromonium ion generation and intramolecular capture: a model system for asymmetric bromonium ion-induced polyene cyclisations.

    PubMed

    Braddock, D Christopher; Marklew, Jared S; Thomas, Alexander J F

    2011-08-28

    Scalemic bromonium ions generated enantiospecifically by the action of catalytic triflic acid on scalemic regioisomeric bromohydrin derivatives are trapped intramolecularly, enantiospecifically and regioselectively to give bicyclic brominated carbocycles in excellent yield and high enantiomeric excess. This enantiospecific pathway is not significantly perturbed by the addition of a trisubstituted alkene.

  11. Asymmetric Synthesis of (-)-Incarvillateine Employing an Intramolecular Alkylation via Rh-Catalyzed Olefinic C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Andy; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-02-18

    An asymmetric total synthesis of (-)-incarvillateine, a natural product having potent analgesic properties, has been achieved in 11 steps and 15.4% overall yield. The key step is a rhodium-catalyzed intramolecular alkylation of an olefinic C-H bond to set two stereocenters. Additionally, this transformation produces an exocyclic, tetrasubstituted alkene through which the bicyclic piperidine moiety can readily be accessed.

  12. Non-stabilized nucleophiles in Cu-catalysed dynamic kinetic asymmetric allylic alkylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Hengzhi; Rideau, Emeline; Sidera, Mireia; Fletcher, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new reactions forming asymmetric carbon-carbon bonds has enabled chemists to synthesize a broad range of important carbon-containing molecules, including pharmaceutical agents, fragrances and polymers. Most strategies to obtain enantiomerically enriched molecules rely on either generating new stereogenic centres from prochiral substrates or resolving racemic mixtures of enantiomers. An alternative strategy--dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation--involves the transformation of a racemic starting material into a single enantiomer product, with greater than 50 per cent maximum yield. The use of stabilized nucleophiles (pKa < 25, where Ka is the acid dissociation constant) in palladium-catalysed asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions has proved to be extremely versatile in these processes. Conversely, the use of non-stabilized nucleophiles in such reactions is difficult and remains a key challenge. Here we report a copper-catalysed dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation using racemic substrates and alkyl nucleophiles. These nucleophiles have a pKa of >=50, more than 25 orders of magnitude more basic than the nucleophiles that are typically used in such transformations. Organometallic reagents are generated in situ from alkenes by hydrometallation and give highly enantioenriched products under mild reaction conditions. The method is used to synthesize natural products that possess activity against tuberculosis and leprosy, and an inhibitor of para-aminobenzoate biosynthesis. Mechanistic studies indicate that the reaction proceeds through a rapidly isomerizing intermediate. We anticipate that this approach will be a valuable complement to existing asymmetric catalytic methods.

  13. Nucleophile sensitivity of Drosophila TRPA1 underlies light-induced feeding deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Du, Eun Jo; Ahn, Tae Jung; Wen, Xianlan; Seo, Dae-Won; Na, Duk L; Kwon, Jae Young; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Cho, Hana; Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-01-01

    Solar irradiation including ultraviolet (UV) light causes tissue damage by generating reactive free radicals that can be electrophilic or nucleophilic due to unpaired electrons. Little is known about how free radicals induced by natural sunlight are rapidly detected and avoided by animals. We discover that Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), previously known only as an electrophile receptor, sensitively detects photochemically active sunlight through nucleophile sensitivity. Rapid light-dependent feeding deterrence in Drosophila was mediated only by the TRPA1(A) isoform, despite the TRPA1(A) and TRPA1(B) isoforms having similar electrophile sensitivities. Such isoform dependence re-emerges in the detection of structurally varied nucleophilic compounds and nucleophilicity-accompanying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Furthermore, these isoform-dependent mechanisms require a common set of TRPA1(A)-specific residues dispensable for electrophile detection. Collectively, TRPA1(A) rapidly responds to natural sunlight intensities through its nucleophile sensitivity as a receptor of photochemically generated radicals, leading to an acute light-induced behavioral shift in Drosophila. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18425.001 PMID:27656903

  14. Nucleophile sensitivity of Drosophila TRPA1 underlies light-induced feeding deterrence.

    PubMed

    Du, Eun Jo; Ahn, Tae Jung; Wen, Xianlan; Seo, Dae-Won; Na, Duk L; Kwon, Jae Young; Choi, Myunghwan; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Cho, Hana; Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-09-22

    Solar irradiation including ultraviolet (UV) light causes tissue damage by generating reactive free radicals that can be electrophilic or nucleophilic due to unpaired electrons. Little is known about how free radicals induced by natural sunlight are rapidly detected and avoided by animals. We discover that Drosophila Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), previously known only as an electrophile receptor, sensitively detects photochemically active sunlight through nucleophile sensitivity. Rapid light-dependent feeding deterrence in Drosophila was mediated only by the TRPA1(A) isoform, despite the TRPA1(A) and TRPA1(B) isoforms having similar electrophile sensitivities. Such isoform dependence re-emerges in the detection of structurally varied nucleophilic compounds and nucleophilicity-accompanying hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Furthermore, these isoform-dependent mechanisms require a common set of TRPA1(A)-specific residues dispensable for electrophile detection. Collectively, TRPA1(A) rapidly responds to natural sunlight intensities through its nucleophile sensitivity as a receptor of photochemically generated radicals, leading to an acute light-induced behavioral shift in Drosophila.

  15. Carbonylmetallates--A Special Family of Nucleophiles in Aromatic and Vinylic Substitution Reactions.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Petr K; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2016-03-07

    Carbonylmetallates, [M(CO)(n)L](-), anionic transition-metal carbonyl complexes, represent a large family of metal-centered nucleophiles, and studying carbonylmetallates allows us to understand the differences in the behavior of the metal-centered complexes versus heteroatom-based nucleophiles. The mechanisms of carbonylmetallate reactions with aryl- and alkenyl halides have been examined by employing radical and, especially, carbanion trapping techniques. Carbonylmetallates show a marked preference for halogenophilic attack, and nucleophilic substitution with carbonylmetallates is often not a direct process, but proceeds through the initial attack at halogen with subsequent coupling of carbanion and HalM(CO)(n)L intermediates. Factors governing the competition between the halogenophilic and more common "carbophilic" reaction pathways, as well as the means of predicting the actual course of reaction are discussed. The review also considers other aspects of carbonylmetallate reactivity, including ion-pairing effects, radical-mediated nucleophilic substitution pathways, and the carbonylmetallate nucleophilicity scale in the reactions with π-electrophiles.

  16. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Highly Substituted Tetrahydrofurans by Pd-Catalyzed Tandem Oxidative Cyclization-Redox Relay Reactions Controlled by Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Joshua L; Xu, Liping; Wiest, Olaf; Tan, Derek S

    2017-01-06

    Palladium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of alkenols provides a convenient entry into cyclic ethers but typically proceeds with little or no diastereoselectivity for cyclization of trisubstituted olefins to form tetrahydrofurans due to the similar energies of competing 5-membered transition-state conformations. Herein, a new variant of this reaction has been developed in which a PdCl2/1,4-benzoquinone catalyst system coupled with introduction of a hydrogen-bond acceptor in the substrate enhances both diastereoselectivity and reactivity. Cyclization occurs with 5-exo Markovnikov regioselectivity. Mechanistic and computational studies support an anti-oxypalladation pathway in which intramolecular hydrogen bonding increases the nucleophilicity of the alcohol and enforces conformational constraints that enhance diastereoselectivity. The cyclization is followed by a tandem redox-relay process that provides versatile side-chain functionalities for further derivatization.

  17. Interaction of molybdocene dichloride with cysteine-containing peptides: coordination, regioselective hydrolysis, and intramolecular aminolysis.

    PubMed

    Erxleben, Andrea

    2005-02-21

    Reactions of the organometallic compound molybdocene dichloride (Cp2MoCl2, Cp = eta5-cyclopentadienyl) with the cysteine-containing peptides L-cysteinylglycine (Cys-Gly), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (AcCys), glycyl-L-cysteine (Gly-Cys), glycyl-L-cysteinylglycine (Gly-Cys-Gly), and gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (glutathione, GSH) have been studied in aqueous solution in the pH range 2-9. The dipeptides Cys-Gly and Gly-Cys and the acetylated amino acid AcCys form 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of composition [Cp2Mo(peptide-S)(OH(2))]n+/- and [Cp2Mo(peptide-S)2]n+/- as well as the chelates [Cp2Mo(AcCys-S,O)], [Cp2Mo(Gly-Cys-S,O)]+, and [Cp2Mo(Cys-Gly-S,N)] with the Cp2Mo2+ unit binding to the deprotonated thiolate group and the free amino or carboxylate group of the cysteine residue. Upon treatment of Gly-Cys-Gly and the naturally occurring tripeptide GSH with Cp2MoCl2 at elevated temperature, release of free glycine was observed. The Cp2Mo2+ entity coordinates to the thiolate group of GSH and mediates regioselective hydrolysis of the Cys-Gly peptide bond by intramolecular metal hydroxide activation. Cp2Mo2+-promoted hydrolysis of GSH was followed at pD 7.4 and 5.2 and 40 and 60 degrees C. By contrast, the Cys-Gly bond in [Cp2Mo(Gly-Cys-Gly-S,N)] is cleaved by intramolecular aminolysis at pD > or = 7.4 and 60 degrees C leading to glycine and the Cp2Mo2+ complex of the 2,5-diketopiperazine derivative cyclo-(Gly-Cys). Chelating coordination of the Cp2Mo2+ moiety to the thiolate group and to the deprotonated amide nitrogen of the tripeptide changes the configuration of the peptide bond from (preferred) trans to cis, thus enabling nucleophilic attack of the primary amino group at the Cys-Gly bond. The reaction product [Cp2Mo{cyclo-(Gly-Cys)}] x 2H2O has been characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  18. In Vivo Measurement of Intramolecular Distances Using Genetically Encoded Reporters

    PubMed Central

    Sandtner, Walter; Bezanilla, Francisco; Correa, Ana M.

    2007-01-01

    The function of membrane proteins occurs in the context of the cell membrane in living cells acting in concert with various cell components such as other proteins, cofactors, etc. The understanding of the function at the molecular level requires structural techniques, but high resolution structural studies are normally obtained in vitro and in artificial membranes or detergent. Ideally the correlation of structure and function should be carried out in the native environment but most of the techniques applicable in vivo lack the high resolution necessary to track conformational changes on a molecular level. Here we report on the successful application of an improved variant of lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer a fluorescent based technique, to Shaker potassium channels expressed in live Xenopus oocytes. Lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer is particularly suitable to measure intramolecular distances with high resolution. The improvements reported in this work are mainly based on the use of two different small genetically encoded tags (the Lanthanide Binding Tag and the hexa-histidine tag), which due to their small size can be encoded at will in many positions of interest without distorting the protein's function. The technique reported here has the additional improvement that the two tags can be placed independently in contrast to previously described techniques that rely on chemical labeling procedures of thiols. PMID:17766346

  19. Alternative nucleophilic substrates for the endonuclease activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase

    SciTech Connect

    Ealy, Julie B.; Sudol, Malgorzata; Krzeminski, Jacek; Amin, Shantu; Katzman, Michael

    2012-11-10

    Retroviral integrase can use water or some small alcohols as the attacking nucleophile to nick DNA. To characterize the range of compounds that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase can accommodate for its endonuclease activities, we tested 45 potential electron donors (having varied size and number or spacing of nucleophilic groups) as substrates during site-specific nicking at viral DNA ends and during nonspecific nicking reactions. We found that integrase used 22 of the 45 compounds to nick DNA, but not all active compounds were used for both activities. In particular, 13 compounds were used for site-specific and nonspecific nicking, 5 only for site-specific nicking, and 4 only for nonspecific nicking; 23 other compounds were not used for either activity. Thus, integrase can accommodate a large number of nucleophilic substrates but has selective requirements for its different activities, underscoring its dynamic properties and providing new information for modeling and understanding integrase.

  20. Identification of the nucleophile catalytic residue of GH51 α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus

    DOE PAGES

    Amore, Antonella; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Vincent, Florence; ...

    2015-12-21

    In this paper, the recombinant α-l-arabinofuranosidase from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (rPoAbf) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in order to identify the catalytic nucleophile residue. Based on bioinformatics and homology modelling analyses, E449 was revealed to be the potential nucleophilic residue. Thus, the mutant E449G of PoAbf was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris and its recombinant expression level and reactivity were investigated in comparison to the wild-type. The design of a suitable set of hydrolysis experiments in the presence or absence of alcoholic arabinosyl acceptors and/or formate salts allowed to unambiguously identify the residue E449 as the nucleophile residue involvedmore » in the retaining mechanism of this GH51 arabinofuranosidase. 1H NMR analysis was applied for the identification of the products and the assignement of their anomeric configuration.« less

  1. EXAFS structural study of platinum-based anticancer drugs degradation in presence of sulfur nucleophilic species.

    PubMed

    Provost, Karine; Bouvet-Muller, Diane; Crauste-Manciet, Sylvie; Moscovici, Jacques; Olivi, Luca; Vlaic, Gilberto; Michalowicz, Alain

    2009-10-01

    Three platinum complexes, cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are currently used worldwide. Investigation of their main structural modifications in presence of sulfur nucleophiles is of particular interest because of the implication of thiol and thioether groups in biochemical mechanism of action, resistance mechanism and in vivo or in vitro detoxification. We present the main structural results we have obtained concerning the reaction of these drugs with diverse sulfur nucleophiles (cysteine, glutathione, methionine, thiosulfate and thiocyanate), monitored in solution or as precipitates by EXAFS spectroscopy. The reactivities of the carboxylate and amine ligands of both carboplatin and oxaliplatin are compared, on the basis of first-coordination sphere modeling. Among the new results of this EXAFS study, we present the first observation of oxaliplatin diaminocyclohexane ligand displacement by sulfur nucleophiles.

  2. Nucleophilic phosphine organocatalysis: a practical synthetic strategy for the drug-like nitrogen heterocyclic framework construction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yurong; Pan, Jingjing; Chen, Zhidong; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Zhiming

    2013-05-01

    Nucleophilic phosphine catalysis has proven to be a practical and powerful synthetic strategy in organic chemistry, which can provide easy access to five-, six-, seven-, and eight-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. The reaction topologies can be controlled by a proper choice of the phosphine catalysts, as well as the functionalization of the reaction substrates. In many cases, the reactions take place smoothly at room temperature, with high efficiency and atom economy. This mini-review presents the recent advances in nucleophilic phosphine catalysis for the synthesis of drug-like nitrogen heterocylic compounds. The nitrogen heterocyclic compounds with significant biological activities derived from the library based on nucleophilic phosphine-catalyzed annulation reactions are also highlighted.

  3. Intramolecular disulfide bonds between conserved cysteines in wheat gliadins control their deposition into protein bodies.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Y; Galili, G

    1996-08-02

    Following synthesis, wheat gliadin storage proteins are deposited into protein bodies inside the endomembrane system in a way that enables not only their efficient accumulation and dehydration during seed maturation, but also their rapid rehydration and degradation during germination. In the present report, we studied the mechanism of gliadin deposition and whether it was controlled by the conformation of these proteins. Although gliadins are generally known to be insoluble in aqueous solutions, sucrose gradient analysis showed that a considerable amount of these proteins appeared as relatively soluble monomers in developing grains. In vitro reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bonds that are present in natural monomeric gliadins caused their precipitation into insoluble aggregates. In addition, pulse-chase experiments in the absence or presence of reducing agents showed that formation of intramolecular disulfide bonds also played a major role in folding and deposition of the gliadins in vivo. Our results imply that following sequestration into the endoplasmic reticulum, the gliadins fold into relatively soluble monomers, which are incompetent for rapid aggregation and gradually assemble into protein bodies. This pattern of deposition apparently depends on the conformation of the gliadins, which is stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds formed between the conserved cysteines. The contribution of this study to the understanding of the evolution and function of gliadins is discussed.

  4. Influence of "remote" intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the stabilities of phenoxyl radicals and benzyl cations.

    PubMed

    Foti, Mario C; Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Daquino, Carmelo; Pratt, Derek A; Ingold, K U

    2010-07-02

    Remote intramolecular hydrogen bonds (HBs) in phenols and benzylammonium cations influence the dissociation enthalpies of their O-H and C-N bonds, respectively. The direction of these intramolecular HBs, para --> meta or meta --> para, determines the sign of the variation with respect to molecules lacking remote intramolecular HBs. For example, the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenol, 4, is about 2.5 kcal/mol lower than that of its isomer 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenol, 5, although group additivity rules would predict nearly identical values. In the case of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylammonium and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylammonium ions, the CBS-QB3 level calculated C-N eterolytic dissociation enthalpy is about 3.7 kcal/mol lower in the former ion. These effects are caused by the strong electron-withdrawing character of the -O(*) and -CH(2)(+) groups in the phenoxyl radical and benzyl cation, respectively, which modulates the strength of the HB. An O-H group in the para position of ArO(*) or ArCH(2)(+) becomes more acidic than in the parent molecules and hence forms stronger HBs with hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs) in the meta position. Conversely, HBAs, such as OCH(3), in the para position become weaker HBAs in phenoxyl radicals and benzyl cations than in the parent molecules. These product thermochemistries are reflected in the transition states for, and hence in the kinetics of, hydrogen atom abstraction from phenols by free radicals (dpph(*) and ROO(*)). For example, the 298 K rate constant for the 4 + dpph(*) reaction is 22 times greater than that for the 5 + dpph(*) reaction. Fragmentation of ring-substituted benzylammonium ions, generated by ESI-MS, to form the benzyl cations reflects similar remote intramolecular HB effects.

  5. Tyrosine-lipid peroxide adducts from radical termination: para coupling and intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization.

    PubMed

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N; Kim, Hye-young H; Hatch, Duane M; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael; Porter, Ned A

    2010-12-15

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogues of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry (MS). The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic (13)C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl (13)C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All of the NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignments of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision-induced dissociation data. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined, and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion to give a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found in either the primary or cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts, which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein cross-links via interprotein Michael adducts.

  6. Stereospecific Nucleophilic Substitution of Enantioenriched Tertiary Benzylic Amines via in Situ Activation with Benzyne.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yang; Tian, Shi-Kai

    2017-04-07

    A one-pot protocol has been developed for sequential benzyne activation and nucleophilic substitution of enantioenriched tertiary benzylic amines. In the presence of 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflate and CsF, a range of enantioenriched tertiary benzylic amines were substituted by various nucleophiles, delivering structurally diverse benzylic compounds in moderate to excellent yields with excellent retention of enantiopurity. Importantly, this operationally simple protocol permitted formation of various chiral C-S, C-Se, C-C, and C-N bonds with excellent enantiopurity under metal-free conditions.

  7. Pd-catalyzed domino synthesis of internal alkynes using triarylbismuths as multicoupling organometallic nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Rao, Maddali L N; Jadhav, Deepak N; Dasgupta, Priyabrata

    2010-05-07

    The domino coupling reaction of 1,1-dibromo-1-alkenes with triarylbismuth nucleophiles has been demonstrated to furnish disubstituted alkynes directly under catalytic palladium conditions. The couplings of triarylbismuths as multicoupling nucleophiles with 3 equiv of 1,1-dibromo-1-alkenes are very fast, affording high yields of alkynes in a short reaction time. Thus, an efficient domino process has been accomplished using 1,1-dibromo-1-alkenes as surrogates for internal alkyne synthesis in couplings with triarylbismuths in a one-pot operation.

  8. Intramolecular energy transfer in fullerene pyrazine dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Guldi, D.M.; Torres-Garcia, G.; Mattay, J.

    1998-11-26

    Excited-state properties of three different pyrazine derivatives 4--6 were probed by emission and transient absorption spectroscopy. They display emission maxima at 464 (4), 417 (5), and 515 nm (6) that are red-shifted with respect to their strong UV ground-state absorption and formed with overall quantum yields ({Phi}) of 0.156, 0.22, and 0.13, respectively. Once photoexcited, these triplet excited pyrazines undergo rapid intermolecular energy transfer to a monofunctionalized fullerene derivative (7) with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 3.64 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (6) to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} (4). The product of these bimolecular energy-transfer reactions is in all cases the fullerene triplet excited state. Functionalization of pristine C{sub 60} with the investigated pyrazine derivatives promotes the UV-vis absorption characteristics and, in turn, improves the light-harvesting efficiency of the resulting dyads 1--3 relative to pristine C{sub 60}. Photoexcitation of the pyrazine moieties in dyads 1--3 leads to the formation of their singlet excited states. In contrast to the pyrazine models, photoexcitation of dyad 1--3 is followed by rapid intramolecular deactivation processes of the latter via energy transfer to the fullerene ground state with half-lives between 37 and 100 ps. In turn, energy transfer transforms the short-lived and moderately redox-active singlet excited states of pyrazine into the highly reactive fullerene triplet excited state. The latter is found to produce effectively singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) with quenching rate constants for 1--3 of (1--1.5) {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. Similarly, reductive quenching of the triplet excited states in dyads 1--3 via electron transfer with diazabicyclooctane (DABCO) occurs with rate constants of 5.2--9.4 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}.

  9. Photochemical Dynamics of Intramolecular Singlet Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhou; Iwasaki, Hikari; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2017-06-01

    Singlet fission (SF) converts a singlet exciton (S_1) into a pair of triplet ones (T_1) via a ``multi-exciton'' (ME) intermediate: S_1 \\longleftrightarrow ^1ME \\longleftrightarrow ^1(T_1T_1) \\longrightarrow 2T_1. In exothermic cases, e.g., crystalline pentacene or its derivatives, the quantum yield of SF can reach 200%. With SF doubling the electric current generated by an incident high-energy photon, the solar conversion efficiency in pentacene-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit of 33.7%. The ME state is popularly considered to be a dimeric state with significant charge transfer (CT) character that is strongly coupled to both S_1 and ^1(T_1T_1), while this local model lacks strong support from full quantum dynamics studies. Intramolecular SF (ISF) occurring to covalently-bound dimers in the solution phase is an excellent model for a straightforward dynamics simulation of local excitons. In the present study, we investigate the ISF mechanisms for three covalently-bound dimers of pentacene derivatives, including ortho-, meta-, and para-bis(6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene)benzene, in non-protic solvents. Specifically, we propagate the real-time, non-adiabatic quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) dynamics on the potential energy surfaces associated with the states of S_1, ^1(T_1T_1) and CT. We explore how the energies of these ISF-relevant states and the non-adiabatic couplings between each other fluctuate with time and the instantaneous molecular configuration (e.g., intermonomer distance and orientation). We also quantitatively compare Condon and non-Condon ISF dynamics with solution-phase spectroscopic data. Our results allow us to understand the roles of CT energy levels in the ISF mechanism and propose a design strategy to maximize ISF efficiency. M. B. Smith and J. Michl, Chem. Rev. 110, 6891 (2010). W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510 (1961). T. C. Berkelbach, M. S. Hybertsen

  10. The Identity of the Nucleophile Substitution may Influence Metal Interactions with the Cleavage Site of the Minimal Hammerhead Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Edith M.; Ward, W. Luke; Ruehle, Max Z.; DeRose, Victoria J.

    2010-01-01

    Potential metal interactions with the cleavage site of a minimal hammerhead ribozyme (mHHRz) were probed using 31P NMR-detected Cd2+ titration studies of HHRz constructs containing a phosphorothioate (PS) modification at the cleavage site. The mHHRz nucleophile position was replaced by either a 2′-F or a 2′-NH2 in order to block cleavage activity during the study. The 2′-F/PS cleavage site mHHRz construct, in which the 2′-F should closely imitate the atom size and electronegativity of a 2′OH, demonstrates low levels of metal ion association (<1 ppm 31P chemical shift changes). This observation indicates that having an atom size and electrostatic properties that are similar to the 2′-OH are not the governing factors in allowing metal interactions with the scissile phosphate of the mHHRz. With a 2′-NH2 substitution, a large upfield change in 31P NMR chemical shift of the phosphorothioate peak (Δ~3 ppm with 6 equivalents added Cd2+) indicates observable Cd2+ interactions with the substituted site. Since a 2′-NH2, but not a 2′-F, can serve as a metal ligand, these data suggest that a metal ion interaction with the HHRz cleavage site may include both the scissile phosphate and the 2′ nucleophile. Control samples in which the 2′-NH2/PS unit is placed either next to the mHHRz cleavage site (at U16.1), in a duplex, or in a amUPSU dinucleotide, show much weaker interactions with Cd2+. Results with these control samples indicate that simply the presence of a 2′-NH2/PS unit does not create a strong metal binding site, reinforcing the possibility that the 2′-NH2-moderated Cd-PS interaction is specific to the mHHRz cleavage site. Upfield chemical shifts of both 31P and H2′ 1H resonances in amUPSU are observed with addition of Cd2+, consistent with the predicted metal coordination to both 2′-NH2 and phosphorothioate ligands. These data suggest that metal ion association with the HHRz cleavage site may include an interaction with the 2

  11. Extremely slow intramolecular diffusion in unfolded protein L.

    PubMed

    Waldauer, Steven A; Bakajin, Olgica; Lapidus, Lisa J

    2010-08-03

    A crucial parameter in many theories of protein folding is the rate of diffusion over the energy landscape. Using a microfluidic mixer we have observed the rate of intramolecular diffusion within the unfolded B1 domain of protein L before it folds. The diffusion-limited rate of intramolecular contact is about 20 times slower than the rate in 6 M GdnHCl, and because in these conditions the protein is also more compact, the intramolecular diffusion coefficient decreases 100-500 times. The dramatic slowdown in diffusion occurs within the 250 micros mixing time of the mixer, and there appears to be no further evolution of this rate before reaching the transition state of folding. We show that observed folding rates are well predicted by a Kramers model with a denaturant-dependent diffusion coefficient and speculate that this diffusion coefficient is a significant contribution to the observed rate of folding.

  12. Utilizing the σ-complex stability for quantifying reactivity in nucleophilic substitution of aromatic fluorides

    PubMed Central

    Rein, Tobias; Svensson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Summary A computational approach using density functional theory to compute the energies of the possible σ-complex reaction intermediates, the “σ-complex approach”, has been shown to be very useful in predicting regioselectivity, in electrophilic as well as nucleophilic aromatic substitution. In this article we give a short overview of the background for these investigations and the general requirements for predictive reactivity models for the pharmaceutical industry. We also present new results regarding the reaction rates and regioselectivities in nucleophilic substitution of fluorinated aromatics. They were rationalized by investigating linear correlations between experimental rate constants (k) from the literature with a theoretical quantity, which we call the sigma stability (SS). The SS is the energy change associated with formation of the intermediate σ-complex by attachment of the nucleophile to the aromatic ring. The correlations, which include both neutral (NH3) and anionic (MeO−) nucleophiles are quite satisfactory (r = 0.93 to r = 0.99), and SS is thus useful for quantifying both global (substrate) and local (positional) reactivity in SNAr reactions of fluorinated aromatic substrates. A mechanistic analysis shows that the geometric structure of the σ-complex resembles the rate-limiting transition state and that this provides a rationale for the observed correlations between the SS and the reaction rate. PMID:23766792

  13. Utilizing the σ-complex stability for quantifying reactivity in nucleophilic substitution of aromatic fluorides.

    PubMed

    Liljenberg, Magnus; Brinck, Tore; Rein, Tobias; Svensson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    A computational approach using density functional theory to compute the energies of the possible σ-complex reaction intermediates, the "σ-complex approach", has been shown to be very useful in predicting regioselectivity, in electrophilic as well as nucleophilic aromatic substitution. In this article we give a short overview of the background for these investigations and the general requirements for predictive reactivity models for the pharmaceutical industry. We also present new results regarding the reaction rates and regioselectivities in nucleophilic substitution of fluorinated aromatics. They were rationalized by investigating linear correlations between experimental rate constants (k) from the literature with a theoretical quantity, which we call the sigma stability (SS). The SS is the energy change associated with formation of the intermediate σ-complex by attachment of the nucleophile to the aromatic ring. The correlations, which include both neutral (NH3) and anionic (MeO(-)) nucleophiles are quite satisfactory (r = 0.93 to r = 0.99), and SS is thus useful for quantifying both global (substrate) and local (positional) reactivity in SNAr reactions of fluorinated aromatic substrates. A mechanistic analysis shows that the geometric structure of the σ-complex resembles the rate-limiting transition state and that this provides a rationale for the observed correlations between the SS and the reaction rate.

  14. Nucleophilic substitutions of 1-alkenylcyclopropyl esters and 1-alkynylcyclopropyl chlorides catalyzed by palladium (0)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolle, A. |; Ollivier, J.; Salauen, J.

    1992-05-20

    The 1-ethenylcyclopropylsulfonates 2e,f and 2-cyclopropylideneethyl esters 10b,c, readily available from cyclopropanone hemiacetal 1, undergo regioselective Pd(0) catalyzed nucleophilic substitution via the unsymmetric 1,1-dimethylene-{pi}-allyl complex 23. With stabilized anions (enolates of malonic ester, {beta}-dicarbonyl compounds, {beta}-sulfonyl ester, and Schiff bases as well as acetate anion, sulfonamide anion, etc.) the nucleophilic substitution occurs at the terminal vinylic position exclusively, providing cyclopropylideneethyl derivatives as building blocks of high synthetic potential. Competition experiments have disclosed that 1-ethenylcyclopropyl tosylate (2e) and cyclopropylideneethyl acetate (10b) are more reactive than dimethylallyl acetates 19 and 22, respectively. Use of chiral phosphines as ligands in the palladium catalyst can provide optically active methylenecyclopropane derivatives. With phenyl-, methyl-, and even n-butylzinc chloride as nucleophiles, the reaction apparently proceeds with initial transfer of the organic residue to palladium, followed by reductive elimination entailing tertiary substitution on the cyclopropane ring exclusively; the same type of product is obtained with azide and bis(trimethylsilyl)amide. But the site of hydride attack to yield reduction products depends on the hydride source. 1-Alkynylcyclopropyl chlorides 12, 13, and 14 react only with organozinc chlorides (nonstabilized nucleophiles) to provide mixtures of ethenylidenecyclopropanes 65 and alkynylcyclopropanes 66, via the {sigma}-palladium complexes 69 and 70, while chloride 15 undergoes mainly reduction. Other transition metal catalysts (Ni, Mo) also induce substitutions, but with poorer regioselectivity. 81 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Organic Chemistry Students' Ideas about Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: The Role of Charges and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry students struggle with reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) used by practicing organic chemists. Faculty have identified an understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles as one conceptual prerequisite to mastery of the EPF, but little is known about organic chemistry students' knowledge of nucleophiles…

  16. Palladium-catalyzed allylation of acidic and less nucleophilic anilines using allylic alcohols directly.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Chun; Gan, Kim-Hong; Yang, Shyh-Chyun

    2005-10-01

    The direct activation of C-O bonds in allylic alcohols by palladium complexes has been accelerated by carrying out the reactions in the presence of titanium(IV) isoproxide and 4 A molecular sieves. The acidic and less nucleophilic anilines such as diphenylamine, phenothiazine, 4-cyanoaniline, and nitroanilines are efficiently allylated under palladium catalysis using allylic alcohols as allylating reagents.

  17. Copper-Catalyzed Electrophilic Amination of Organoaluminum Nucleophiles with O-Benzoyl Hydroxylamines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Yang, Zhiyong; Chen, Xu; Li, Yimei; Zhang, Lijun; Fang, Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Xiancui; Wang, Shaowu

    2015-06-19

    A copper-catalyzed electrophilic amination of aryl and heteroaryl aluminums with N,N-dialkyl-O-benzoyl hydroxylamines that affords the corresponding anilines in good yields has been developed. The catalytic reaction proceeds very smoothly under mild conditions and exhibits good substrate scope. Moreover, the developed catalytic system is also well suited for heteroaryl aluminum nucleophiles, providing facile access to heteroaryl amines.

  18. Organic Chemistry Students' Ideas about Nucleophiles and Electrophiles: The Role of Charges and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Organic chemistry students struggle with reaction mechanisms and the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) used by practicing organic chemists. Faculty have identified an understanding of nucleophiles and electrophiles as one conceptual prerequisite to mastery of the EPF, but little is known about organic chemistry students' knowledge of nucleophiles…

  19. REVISITING CLASSICAL NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTIONS IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF ALKYL AZIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and clean synthesis of alkyl azides using microwave (MW) radiation is described in aqueous medium by reacting alkyl halides or tosylates with alkali azides. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced approach to nucleophilic substitution reactions is applicable to the ...

  20. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships for the Nucleophilicity of Trivalent Boron Compounds.

    PubMed

    García-López, Diego; Cid, Jessica; Marqués, Ruben; Fernández, Elena; Carbó, Jorge J

    2017-04-11

    We describe herein the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for the nucleophilicity of trivalent boron compounds covering boryl fragments bonded to alkali and alkaline-earth metals, to transition metals, and to sp(3) boron units in diboron reagents. We used the charge of the boryl fragment (q[B]) and the boron p/s population ratio (p/s) to describe the electronic structures of boryl moieties, whereas the distance-weighted volume (Vw ) descriptor was used to evaluate the steric effects. The three-term easy-to-interpret QSAR model showed statistical significance and predictive ability (r(2) =0.88, q(2) =0.83). The use of chemically meaningful descriptors has allowed identification of the factors governing the boron nucleophilicity and indicates that the most efficient nucleophiles are those with enhanced the polarization of the B-X bond towards the boron atom and reduced steric bulk. A detailed analysis of the potential energy surfaces of different types of boron substituents has provided insight into the mechanism and established an order of nucleophilicity for boron in B-X: X=Li>Cu>B(sp(3) )>Pd. Finally, we used the QSAR model to make a priori predictions of experimentally untested compounds.

  1. Gold(I)-catalyzed amination of allylic alcohols with cyclic ureas and related nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Paramita; Widenhoefer, Ross A

    2010-03-19

    A 1:1 mixture of [P(t-Bu)(2)-o-biphenyl]AuCl and AgSbF(6) catalyzes the intermolecular amination of allylic alcohols with 1-methylimidazolidin-2-one and related nucleophiles that, in the case of gamma-unsubstituted or gamma-methyl-substituted allylic alcohols, occurs with high gamma-regioselectivity and syn-stereoselectivity.

  2. REVISITING CLASSICAL NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTIONS IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF ALKYL AZIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and clean synthesis of alkyl azides using microwave (MW) radiation is described in aqueous medium by reacting alkyl halides or tosylates with alkali azides. This general and expeditious MW-enhanced approach to nucleophilic substitution reactions is applicable to the ...

  3. Preparation of 6-substituted quinoxaline JSP-1 inhibitors by microwave accelerated nucleophilic substitution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Qiu, Beiying; Li, Xin; Wang, Xin; Li, Jingya; Zhang, Yongliang; Liu, Jian; Li, Jia; Shen, Jingkang

    2006-12-21

    A small library of 6-aminoquinoxalines has been prepared by nucleophilic substitution of 6-fluoroquinoxaline with amines and nitrogen-containing heterocycles under computer-controlled microwave irradiation. Some compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of JNK Stimulatory Phosphatase-1 (JSP-1) in an in vitro biological assay.

  4. The electrostatic driving force for nucleophilic catalysis in L-arginine deiminase: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Li, Zhimin; Wang, Canhui; Xu, Dingguo; Mariano, Patrick S; Guo, Hua; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra

    2008-04-22

    L-arginine deiminase (ADI) catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to form L-citrulline and ammonia via two partial reactions. A working model of the ADI catalytic mechanism assumes nucleophilic catalysis by a stringently conserved active site Cys and general acid-general base catalysis by a stringently conserved active site His. Accordingly, in the first partial reaction, the Cys attacks the substrate guanidino C zeta atom to form a tetrahedral covalent adduct, which is protonated by the His at the departing ammonia group to facilitate the formation of the Cys- S-alkylthiouronium intermediate. In the second partial reaction, the His activates a water molecule for nucleophilic addition at the thiouronium C zeta atom to form the second tetrahedral intermediate, which eliminates the Cys in formation of the L-citrulline product. The absence of a basic residue near the Cys thiol suggested that the electrostatic environment of the Cys thiol, in the enzyme-substrate complex, stabilizes the Cys thiolate anion. The studies described in this paper explore the mechanism of stabilization of the Cys thiolate. First, the log(k(cat)/K(m)) and log k(cat) pH rate profiles were measured for several structurally divergent ADIs to establish the pH range for ADI catalysis. All ADIs were optimally active at pH 5, which suggested that the Cys pKa is strongly perturbed by the prevailing electrostatics of the ADI active site. The p K a of the Bacillus cereus ADI (BcADI) was determined by UV-pH titration to be 9.6. In contrast, the pKa determined by iodoacetamide Cys alkylation is 6.9. These results suggest that the negative electrostatic field from the two opposing Asp carboxylates perturbs the Cys pKa upward in the apoenzyme and that the binding of the iodoacetamide (a truncated analogue of the citrulline product) between the Cys thiol and the two Asp carboxylates shields the Cys thiol, thereby reducing its pKa. It is hypothesized that the bound positively charged guanidinium group of the

  5. Remarkable stereospecific conjugate additions to the Hsp90 inhibitor celastrol

    PubMed Central

    Klaic, Lada; Trippier, Paul C.; Mishra, Rama K.; Morimoto, Richard I.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Celastrol, an important natural product and Hsp90 inhibitor with a wide range of biological and medical activities and broad use as a biological probe, acts by an as yet undetermined mode of action. It is known to undergo Michael additions with biological sulfur nucleophiles. Here it is demonstrated that nucleophiles add to the pharmacophore of celastrol in a remarkable stereospecific manner. Extensive characterization of the addition products have been obtained using NMR spectrometry, nuclear Overhauser effects, and density functional theory to determine facial selectivity and gain insight into the orbital interactions of the reactive centers. This stereospecificity of celastrol may be important to its protein target selectivity. PMID:22087583

  6. The role of intramolecular scattering in K-shell photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuso, D.; Ueda, K.; Miron, C.; Plésiat, E.; Argenti, L.; Patanen, M.; Kooser, K.; Mondal, S.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, K.; Travnikova, O.; Palacios, A.; Decleva, P.; Kukk, E.; Martín, F.

    2014-04-01

    We report evidence of intramolecular scattering occurring in inner shell photoionization of small molecules. Pronounced oscillations of the ratios between vibrationally resolved cross sections (v-ratios) as a function of photon energy have been observed theoretically and experimentally. Qualitative agreement with a 1st Born model confirms that they are due to intramolecular scattering: when an electron is ejected from a very localized region in the center of a polyatomic molecule, such as the C(1s) orbital in a CF4 molecule, it is diffracted by the surrounding atomic centers, encoding the geometry of the molecule [1, 2].

  7. Intramolecular nonbonded S...N interaction in rabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Shiho; Sano, Shigeki; Shiro, Motoo; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Sei, Yoshihisa; Nagao, Yoshimitsu

    2008-06-01

    Intramolecular nonbonded S...N interactions in the crystal structures of the derivatives (7a-d) of sodium rabeprazole (1) and an intermolecular nonbonded S...N interaction between ethylmethylsulfoxide and pyridine in a solution were recognized. These results made us estimate that the intramolecular nonbonded S...N interaction existed in 1 and its derivatives in a solution, and formed the 4-membered quasi-ring in 2 (Fig. 1) followed by the increase of the reactivity of 2 to give the putative spiro sulfoxide 3, which is the key intermediate in the reaction cascade of 1 (Chart 1).

  8. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Disulfide and Sulfenic Acid to Form the Strongly Nucleophilic Persulfide*♦

    PubMed Central

    Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Lange, Mike; Bonanata, Jenner; Coitiño, E. Laura; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Filipovic, Milos R.; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized to modulate physiological processes in mammals through mechanisms that are currently under scrutiny. H2S is not able to react with reduced thiols (RSH). However, H2S, more precisely HS−, is able to react with oxidized thiol derivatives. We performed a systematic study of the reactivity of HS− toward symmetric low molecular weight disulfides (RSSR) and mixed albumin (HSA) disulfides. Correlations with thiol acidity and computational modeling showed that the reaction occurs through a concerted mechanism. Comparison with analogous reactions of thiolates indicated that the intrinsic reactivity of HS− is 1 order of magnitude lower than that of thiolates. In addition, H2S is able to react with sulfenic acids (RSOH). The rate constant of the reaction of H2S with the sulfenic acid formed in HSA was determined. Both reactions of H2S with disulfides and sulfenic acids yield persulfides (RSSH), recently identified post-translational modifications. The formation of this derivative in HSA was determined, and the rate constants of its reactions with a reporter disulfide and with peroxynitrite revealed that persulfides are better nucleophiles than thiols, which is consistent with the α effect. Experiments with cells in culture showed that treatment with hydrogen peroxide enhanced the formation of persulfides. Biological implications are discussed. Our results give light on the mechanisms of persulfide formation and provide quantitative evidence for the high nucleophilicity of these novel derivatives, setting the stage for understanding the contribution of the reactions of H2S with oxidized thiol derivatives to H2S effector processes. PMID:26269587

  9. Synthesis of 2-phenyl-4,5-substituted oxazoles by copper-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of functionalized enamides.

    PubMed

    Vijay Kumar, S; Saraiah, B; Misra, N C; Ila, H

    2012-12-07

    An efficient two-step synthesis of 2-phenyl-4,5-substituted oxazoles involving intramolecular copper-catalyzed cyclization of highly functionalized novel β-(methylthio)enamides as the key step has been reported. These enamides are obtained by nucleophilic ring-opening of newly synthesized 4-[(methylthio)hetero(aryl)methylene]-2-phenyl-5-oxazolone precursors by alkoxides, amines, amino acid esters and aryl/alkyl Grignard reagents, thus leading to the introduction of an ester, N-substituted carboxamide or acyl functionalities at 4-position of the product oxazoles. Synthesis of two naturally occurring 2,5-diaryloxazoles, i.e., texamine and uguenenazole, via two-step hydrolysis-decarboxylation of the corresponding 2,5-diaryloxazole-4-carboxylates has also been described. Similarly, three of the serine-derived oxazole-4-carboxamides were elaborated to novel trisubstituted 4,2'-bisoxazoles through DAST/DBU-mediated cyclodehydration-dehydrohalogenation sequence. The present protocol is complementary and an improvement to our previously reported silver carbonate-induced cyclization of β-bis(methylthio)enamides to 2-phenyl-5-(methylthio)-4-substituted oxazoles.

  10. Intramolecular interactions between chalcogen atoms: organoseleniums derived from 1-bromo-4-tert-butyl-2,6-di(formyl)benzene.

    PubMed

    Zade, Sanjio S; Panda, Snigdha; Singh, Harkesh B; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Butcher, Ray J

    2005-04-29

    [structure: see text] The synthesis and characterization of a series of low-valent organoselenium compounds derived from 1-bromo-4-tert-butyl-2,6-di(formyl)benzene (22) is described. The synthesis of diselenide 25 was achieved by the lithiation route whereas bis(4-tert-butyl-2,6-di(formyl)phenyl) diselenide (26) was synthesized by treating 22 with disodium diselenide. A series of monoselenides (27, 28, and 29) was obtained by facile nucleophilic substitution of bromine in 22, using the corresponding selenolates as nucleophiles. The halogenation reactions of bis(4-tert-butyl-2,6-di(formyl)phenyl) diselenide (26) did not afford the corresponding selenenyl halides but resulted in the isolation of an unexpected cyclic selenenate ester 34 as a product. The selenide 32 was synthesized by the treatment of dimethoxymethyl diselenide with trilithiated 2-bromo-5-tert-butyl-N,N'-di(phenyl)isophthalamide. The existence of potential Se...O intramolecular nonbonding interactions was examined by IR, (1)H, and (77)Se NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and computational studies. The X-ray crystal structures of 26 and 27, having two ortho formyl groups, reveal the absence of any Se...O interactions. However, the Se...O interactions were observed in the selenenate ester 34 where one of the formyl groups has been utilized for the selenenate ring formation. The crystal structures of 26 and 27 exhibited intermolecular short-range C-H...Se interactions (hydrogen bonding). Although there are four heteroatoms in carbamoyl moieties ortho to selenium capable of forming a five-membered ring on intramolecular coordination, no such intramolecular Se...X (X = N, O) interaction was observed in the crystal structure of 32. The density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G* level predicted that for all the diformyl systems (47a-c, 48a-c), the anti,anti conformer (when both formyl oxygen atoms point away from the selenium) is more stable. This preference was found to be reversed in

  11. Reaction Profiles of the Interaction between Sarin and Acetylcholinesterase and the S203C Mutant: Model Nucleophiles and QM/MM Potential Energy Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jeremy M.; Hadad, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphonylation mechanism of AChE and the S203C mutation by sarin (GB) is evaluated using two reaction schemes: a small model nucleophile (ethoxide, CH3CH2O−) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations. Calculations utilizing small model nucleophiles indicate that the reaction barrier for addition to GB is the rate-limiting step for both ethoxide and ethyl thiolate (CH3CH2S−); moreover, the activation barrier for addition to the phosphorus center of GB by ethyl thiolate is significantly larger (13.2 kcal/mol) than for ethoxide (8.3 kcal/mol). The decomposition transition state for both nucleophiles was determined to be ~1 kcal/mol. QM/MM simulations for AChE suggest a similar reaction mechanism for phosphonylation of the catalytic S203; however, the relative energetics are altered significantly compared to the isolated system. QM/MM results indicate that formation of the penta-coordinate intermediate is the rate–limiting step in the enzymatic system, with an activation barrier of 3.6 kcal/mol. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between the fluoride leaving group of GB with Y124 in AChE are observed throughout the reaction profile. The S203C mutation alters the relative energetics of the reaction, increasing the energy barrier for formation of the penta-coordinate intermediate to a value of 4.7 kcal/mol; moreover, the penta-coordinate intermediate (as product) is stabilized by an additional 6 kcal/mol when compared to wild-type AChE. PMID:20156428

  12. Reaction profiles of the interaction between sarin and acetylcholinesterase and the S203C mutant: model nucleophiles and QM/MM potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jeremy M; Hadad, Christopher M

    2010-09-06

    The phosphonylation mechanism of AChE and the S203C mutation by sarin (GB) is evaluated using two reaction schemes: a small model nucleophile (ethoxide, CH(3)CH(2)O(-)) and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations. Calculations utilizing small model nucleophiles indicate that the reaction barrier for addition to GB is the rate-limiting step for both ethoxide and ethyl thiolate (CH(3)CH(2)S(-)); moreover, the activation barrier for addition to the phosphorus center of GB by ethyl thiolate is significantly larger (13.2 kcal/mol) than for ethoxide (8.3 kcal/mol). The decomposition transition state for both nucleophiles was determined to be approximately 1 kcal/mol. QM/MM simulations for AChE suggest a similar reaction mechanism for phosphonylation of the catalytic S203; however, the relative energetics are altered significantly compared to the isolated system. QM/MM results indicate that formation of the penta-coordinate intermediate is the rate-limiting step in the enzymatic system, with an activation barrier of 3.6 kcal/mol. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between the fluoride leaving group of GB with Y124 in AChE are observed throughout the reaction profile. The S203C mutation alters the relative energetics of the reaction, increasing the energy barrier for formation of the penta-coordinate intermediate to a value of 4.5 kcal/mol; moreover, the penta-coordinate intermediate (as product) is stabilized by an additional 6 kcal/mol when compared to wild-type AChE.

  13. Preparation of various C-2 branched carbohydrates using intramolecular radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Choe, S W; Jung, M E

    2000-12-01

    A new and efficient method for the facile synthesis of C-2 branched carbohydrates has been developed using an intramolecular radical cyclization fragmentation reaction. The desired C-2 branched glucopyranosides were isolated in 40-84% yield. Additionally, an unexpected furanoside was obtained from a tributyltin iodide-promoted rearrangement of the radical intermediate. The C-2 formyl glycal was also isolated in good yield using tris(trimethylsilyl)silane (TTMSS) as the reducing agent. This method was extended to synthesize a beta C-2 branched glucopyranoside, a C-2 branched galactoside and a C-2 cyano glucopyranoside.

  14. Concise total synthesis of albaflavenone utilizing sequential intramolecular aldol condensation: determination of absolute configuration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Kon, Yutaro; Abe, Hideki; Ito, Hisanaka

    2014-12-19

    The first total synthesis of albaflavenone, a novel antibiotic sesquiterpene, has been accomplished via the concise construction of its zizaene skeleton utilizing sequential intramolecular aldol condensation followed by chemo- and diastereoselective reduction of the conjugated carbon-carbon double bond. This synthetic work was completed in nine steps from 2-cyclopenten-1-one as a starting material without the use of protecting groups and with high stereocontrol. In addition, the absolute configuration of naturally occurring albaflavenone was determined to be 1R,2S and 8S.

  15. Gold(I)-catalyzed intramolecular amination of allylic alcohols with alkylamines.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Paramita; Widenhoefer, Ross A

    2011-03-18

    A 1:1 mixture of (1)AuCl [1 = P(t-Bu)(2)o-biphenyl] and AgSbF(6) catalyzes the intramolecular amination of allylic alcohols with alkylamines to form substituted pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives. Gold(I)-catalyzed cyclization of (R,Z)-8-(N-benzylamino)-3-octen-2-ol (96% ee, 95% de) led to isolation of (R,E)-1-benzyl-2-(1-propenyl)piperidine in 99% yield with 96% ee, consistent with the net syn addition of the amine relative to the departing hydroxyl group.

  16. Cyclization of carbonyl groups onto alkynes upon reaction with IPy2BF4 and their trapping with nucleophiles: a versatile trigger for assembling oxygen heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, José; Vázquez-Villa, Henar; Ballesteros, Alfredo; González, José M

    2003-07-30

    Iodonium ions liberated from bis(pyridine)iodonium(I) tetrafluoroborate react with ortho-alkynyl-substituted carbonyl compounds and different nucleophiles to give valuable iodinated heterocycles at room temperature, through a new and metal-free reaction sequence. Interestingly, the nature of the nucleophile can be widely modified, and not only alcohols but also several carbon-based nucleophiles can be nicely used.

  17. Oxacycle synthesis via intramolecular reaction of carbanions and peroxides.

    PubMed

    Willand-Charnley, Rachel; Puffer, Benjamin W; Dussault, Patrick H

    2014-04-23

    The intramolecular reaction of dialkyl peroxides with carbanions, generated via chemoselective metal-heteroatom exchange or deprotonation, provides a new approach to cyclic ethers. Applied in tandem with C-C bond formation, the strategy enables a one-step annelation to form oxaospirocycles.

  18. Oxacycle Synthesis via Intramolecular Reaction of Carbanions and Peroxides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The intramolecular reaction of dialkyl peroxides with carbanions, generated via chemoselective metal-heteroatom exchange or deprotonation, provides a new approach to cyclic ethers. Applied in tandem with C–C bond formation, the strategy enables a one-step annelation to form oxaospirocycles. PMID:24702123

  19. Synthesis of Antitumor Lycorines by Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Dolores; Burés, Gema; Guitián, Enrique; Castedo, Luis

    1996-03-08

    Pharmacologically interesting lycorines were obtained by a short, efficient method based on an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction between an alpha-pyrone and an alkyne, followed by loss of CO(2) in a retro Diels-Alder reaction. The cyclization precursors (pyrones 9) were obtained in good yields in two or three steps from the corresponding homophthalic acid or anhydride.

  20. Exploration of zeroth-order wavefunctions and energies as a first step toward intramolecular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, Jérôme F.; Corminboeuf, Clémence

    2014-04-21

    Non-covalent interactions occur between and within all molecules and have a profound impact on structural and electronic phenomena in chemistry, biology, and material science. Understanding the nature of inter- and intramolecular interactions is essential not only for establishing the relation between structure and properties, but also for facilitating the rational design of molecules with targeted properties. These objectives have motivated the development of theoretical schemes decomposing intermolecular interactions into physically meaningful terms. Among the various existing energy decomposition schemes, Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) is one of the most successful as it naturally decomposes the interaction energy into physical and intuitive terms. Unfortunately, analogous approaches for intramolecular energies are theoretically highly challenging and virtually nonexistent. Here, we introduce a zeroth-order wavefunction and energy, which represent the first step toward the development of an intramolecular variant of the SAPT formalism. The proposed energy expression is based on the Chemical Hamiltonian Approach (CHA), which relies upon an asymmetric interpretation of the electronic integrals. The orbitals are optimized with a non-hermitian Fock matrix based on two variants: one using orbitals strictly localized on individual fragments and the other using canonical (delocalized) orbitals. The zeroth-order wavefunction and energy expression are validated on a series of prototypical systems. The computed intramolecular interaction energies demonstrate that our approach combining the CHA with strictly localized orbitals achieves reasonable interaction energies and basis set dependence in addition to producing intuitive energy trends. Our zeroth-order wavefunction is the primary step fundamental to the derivation of any perturbation theory correction, which has the potential to truly transform our understanding and quantification of non

  1. Transition metal-catalyzed/mediated reaction of allenes with a nucleophilic functionality connected to the alpha-carbon atom.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengming

    2003-09-01

    Allenes with a nucleophilic functionality connected to the alpha-carbon atom have been shown to be versatile building blocks for the syn-thesis of gamma-butenolides, gamma-lactams, gamma-iminolactones, vinylic epoxides, 4-amino-2-alkenols, 2-amino-3-alkenols, 2,5-dihydrofurans, furans, vinylic cyclopropanes, and cyclopentenes, depending on the nature of the nucleophilic centers. The reaction may proceed via the carbometalation-nucleophilic attack mechanism or nucleometallation-reductive elimination. The stereochemical outcomes by these two pathways are different.

  2. Breaking the dogma of aldolase specificity: Simple aliphatic ketones and aldehyde are nucleophiles for fructose-6-phosphate aldolase.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Raquel; Sanchez-Moreno, Israel; Scheidt, Thomas; Hélaine, Virgil; Lemaire, Marielle; Parella, Teodor; Clapés, Pere; Fessner, Wolf-Dieter; Guérard-Hélaine, Christine

    2017-03-07

    D-Fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) was probed for extended nucleophile promiscuity by using a series of fluorogenic substrates to reveal retro-aldol activity. Four nucleophiles ethanal, propanone, butanone and cyclopentanone were subsequently confirmed to be non-natural substrates in the synthesis direction using the wild type enzyme and its D6H variant. This exceptional widening of the nucleophile substrate scope offers a rapid entry, in good yields and high stereoselectivity, to less oxygenated alkyl ketones and aldehydes, which was hitherto impossible.

  3. Frustrated Lewis pair-like reactions of nucleophilic palladium carbenes with B(C6F5)3.

    PubMed

    Cui, Peng; Comanescu, Cezar C; Iluc, Vlad M

    2015-04-11

    The reactions of two nucleophilic palladium carbene complexes with the strong Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 afforded two zwitterionic products. One of them features a remote nucleophilic attack at the para-carbon of the supporting ligand, while the other indicates C-F activation of B(C6F5)3. Both behaviours are reminiscent of the reactivity of frustrated Lewis pairs due to the steric inaccessibility of the nucleophilic carbon center, but are unprecedented for transition metal carbene complexes. Furthermore, when those reactions are carried out in the presence of H2, products resulting from H2 splitting are observed.

  4. Anionic polymerization of oxadiazole-containing 2-vinylpyridine by precisely tuning nucleophilicity and the polyelectrolyte characteristics of the resulting polymers

    DOE PAGES

    Goodwin, Andrew; Goodwin, Kimberly M.; Wang, Weiyu; ...

    2016-09-01

    Anionic polymerization is one of the most powerful techniques for preparation of well-defined polymers. However, this well-known and widely employed polymerization technique encounters major limitations for the polymerization of functional monomers containing heteroatoms. This work presents the anionic polymerization of 2-phenyl-5-(6-vinylpyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (VPyOzP), a heteroatom monomer that contains both oxadiazole and pyridine substituents within the same pendant group, using various initiating systems based on diphenylmethyl potassium (DPM-K) and triphenylmethyl potassium (TPM-K). Remarkably, well-defined poly(2-phenyl-5-(6-vinylpyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole) (PVPyOzP) polymers having predicted molecular weights (MW) ranging from 2200 to 21 100 g/mol and polydispersity indices (PDI) ranging from 1.11 to 1.15 were prepared with TPM-K,more » without any additional additives, at –78 °C. The effect of temperature on the polymerization of PVPyOzP was also studied at –78, –45, 0, and 25 °C, and it was observed that increasing the polymerization temperature produced materials with unpredictable MW’s and broader molecular weight distributions. Furthermore, the nucleophilicity of PVPyOzP was investigated through copolymerization with methyl methacrylate and acrylonitrile, where only living poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared by DPM-K/VPPy and in the absence of additives such as lithium chloride (LiCl) and diethyl zinc (ZnEt2) could be used to produce the well-defined block copolymer of PMMA-b-PVPyOzP. It was also demonstrated by sequential monomer addition that the nucleophilicity of living PVPyOzP is located between that of living PMMA and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Here, the pyridine moiety of the pendant group also allowed for quaternization and produced PQVPyOzP homopolymer using methyl iodide (CH3I) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide [Tf2N–]. The resulting charged polymer and counterion complexes were manipulated and investigated

  5. Anionic polymerization of oxadiazole-containing 2-vinylpyridine by precisely tuning nucleophilicity and the polyelectrolyte characteristics of the resulting polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Andrew; Goodwin, Kimberly M.; Wang, Weiyu; Yu, Yong -Guen; Lee, Jae -Suk; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Dai, Sheng; Mays, Jimmy W.; Kang, Nam -Goo

    2016-09-01

    Anionic polymerization is one of the most powerful techniques for preparation of well-defined polymers. However, this well-known and widely employed polymerization technique encounters major limitations for the polymerization of functional monomers containing heteroatoms. This work presents the anionic polymerization of 2-phenyl-5-(6-vinylpyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (VPyOzP), a heteroatom monomer that contains both oxadiazole and pyridine substituents within the same pendant group, using various initiating systems based on diphenylmethyl potassium (DPM-K) and triphenylmethyl potassium (TPM-K). Remarkably, well-defined poly(2-phenyl-5-(6-vinylpyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole) (PVPyOzP) polymers having predicted molecular weights (MW) ranging from 2200 to 21 100 g/mol and polydispersity indices (PDI) ranging from 1.11 to 1.15 were prepared with TPM-K, without any additional additives, at –78 °C. The effect of temperature on the polymerization of PVPyOzP was also studied at –78, –45, 0, and 25 °C, and it was observed that increasing the polymerization temperature produced materials with unpredictable MW’s and broader molecular weight distributions. Furthermore, the nucleophilicity of PVPyOzP was investigated through copolymerization with methyl methacrylate and acrylonitrile, where only living poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared by DPM-K/VPPy and in the absence of additives such as lithium chloride (LiCl) and diethyl zinc (ZnEt2) could be used to produce the well-defined block copolymer of PMMA-b-PVPyOzP. It was also demonstrated by sequential monomer addition that the nucleophilicity of living PVPyOzP is located between that of living PMMA and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Here, the pyridine moiety of the pendant group also allowed for quaternization and produced PQVPyOzP homopolymer using methyl iodide (CH3I) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide [Tf2N]. The resulting charged polymer and counterion complexes

  6. Anionic polymerization of oxadiazole-containing 2-vinylpyridine by precisely tuning nucleophilicity and the polyelectrolyte characteristics of the resulting polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, Andrew; Goodwin, Kimberly M.; Wang, Weiyu; Yu, Yong -Guen; Lee, Jae -Suk; Mahurin, Shannon M.; Dai, Sheng; Mays, Jimmy W.; Kang, Nam -Goo

    2016-09-01

    Anionic polymerization is one of the most powerful techniques for preparation of well-defined polymers. However, this well-known and widely employed polymerization technique encounters major limitations for the polymerization of functional monomers containing heteroatoms. This work presents the anionic polymerization of 2-phenyl-5-(6-vinylpyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (VPyOzP), a heteroatom monomer that contains both oxadiazole and pyridine substituents within the same pendant group, using various initiating systems based on diphenylmethyl potassium (DPM-K) and triphenylmethyl potassium (TPM-K). Remarkably, well-defined poly(2-phenyl-5-(6-vinylpyridin-3-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole) (PVPyOzP) polymers having predicted molecular weights (MW) ranging from 2200 to 21 100 g/mol and polydispersity indices (PDI) ranging from 1.11 to 1.15 were prepared with TPM-K, without any additional additives, at –78 °C. The effect of temperature on the polymerization of PVPyOzP was also studied at –78, –45, 0, and 25 °C, and it was observed that increasing the polymerization temperature produced materials with unpredictable MW’s and broader molecular weight distributions. Furthermore, the nucleophilicity of PVPyOzP was investigated through copolymerization with methyl methacrylate and acrylonitrile, where only living poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) prepared by DPM-K/VPPy and in the absence of additives such as lithium chloride (LiCl) and diethyl zinc (ZnEt2) could be used to produce the well-defined block copolymer of PMMA-b-PVPyOzP. It was also demonstrated by sequential monomer addition that the nucleophilicity of living PVPyOzP is located between that of living PMMA and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Here, the pyridine moiety of the pendant group also allowed for quaternization and produced PQVPyOzP homopolymer using methyl iodide (CH3I) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide [Tf2N]. The resulting charged polymer and counterion complexes

  7. Chemoselective Boron-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Activation of Carboxylic Acids for Mannich-Type Reactions.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yuya; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Nagai, Hideoki; Shimizu, Yohei; Kanai, Motomu

    2015-06-10

    The carboxyl group (COOH) is an omnipresent functional group in organic molecules, and its direct catalytic activation represents an attractive synthetic method. Herein, we describe the first example of a direct catalytic nucleophilic activation of carboxylic acids with BH3·SMe2, after which the acids are able to act as carbon nucleophiles, i.e. enolates, in Mannich-type reactions. This reaction proceeds with a mild organic base (DBU) and exhibits high levels of functional group tolerance. The boron catalyst is highly chemoselective toward the COOH group, even in the presence of other carbonyl moieties, such as amides, esters, or ketones. Furthermore, this catalytic method can be extended to highly enantioselective Mannich-type reactions by using a (R)-3,3'-I2-BINOL-substituted boron catalyst.

  8. Chemoselective nucleophilic fluorination induced by selective solvation of the SN2 transition state.

    PubMed

    Pliego, Josefredo R; Piló-Veloso, Dorila

    2007-02-22

    Reaction of the fluoride ion with secondary alkyl halides leads to 90% of elimination reaction and only 10% of nucleophilic substitution in dipolar aprotic solvents. Adding water to the organic phase, the SN2 yield increases in the cost of decreased reactivity. Using ab initio calculations, we have shown that it is possible to increase the reaction rate and the selectivity toward the SN2 process through supramolecular organocatalysis. The catalytic concept is based on selective solvation of the transition state through two hydrogen bonds provided by the 1,4-benzenedimethanol. The two hydrogen bonds between the catalyst and the SN2 transition state favor this pathway while just one strong hydrogen bond between the catalyst and the fluoride ion leads to a lower stabilization of the nucleophile, resulting in a higher reaction rate. Our calculations predict that the substitution product increases to 40% yield because of the selective catalysis provided by the 1,4-benzenedimethanol.

  9. Specific anion binding to sulfobetaine micelles and kinetics of nucleophilic reactions.

    PubMed

    Marte, Luisa; Beber, Rosane C; Farrukh, M Akhyar; Micke, Gustavo A; Costa, Ana C O; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Bunton, Clifford A; Di Profio, Pietro; Savelli, Gianfranco; Nome, Faruk

    2007-08-23

    With fully micellar bound substrates reactions of OH- with benzoic anhydride, Bz(2)O, and of Br- with methyl naphthalene-2-sulfonate, MeONs, in micellized sulfobetaines are strongly inhibited by NaClO4 which displaces the nucleophilic anions from the micellar pseudophases. Micellar incorporations of ClO4- and Br- are estimated with an ion-selective electrode and by electrophoresis, and partitioning of Br- between water and micelles is related to changes in NMR spectral (79)Br- line widths. Extents of inhibition by ClO4- of these nucleophilic reactions in the micellar pseudophase are related to quantitative displacement of the reactive anions from the micelles by ClO4-. The kinetic data are correlated with physical evidence on the strong interactions between sulfobetaines and ClO4-, which turn sulfobetaine micelles anionic and effectively provoke displacement of OH- and Br-.

  10. Organolithium compounds in the nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen in arenes and hetarenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. S.; Kopchuk, D. S.; Zyryanov, G. V.; Rusinov, V. L.; Chupakhin, O. N.; Charushin, V. N.

    2015-12-01

    The review considers the most typical examples of the direct non-activated non-catalytic C-C bond formation in arenes and their metal complexes activated by electron-withdrawing substituents in the aromatic nucleus and in hetarenes (azines and their N-oxides, porphyrins, etc.) upon the reactions with aliphatic and (hetero)aromatic (hetero)organolithium nucleophiles. Particular attention is given to the direct introduction of nitroxide radicals and (hetero)organic moieties into mono-, di- and triazines and their N-oxides. The influence of the structures of the (hetero)aromatic substrate and the (hetero)organolithium nucleophile on the reaction pathway and rate and on the structure of the reaction product is analyzed. The bibliography includes 237 references. Dedicated to Academician N S Zefirov on the occasion of 80th birthday.

  11. Easy access to nucleophilic boron through diborane to magnesium boryl metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécharman, Anne-Frédérique; Colebatch, Annie L.; Hill, Michael S.; McMullin, Claire L.; Mahon, Mary F.; Weetman, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Organoboranes are some of the most synthetically valuable and widely used intermediates in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry. Their synthesis, however, is limited by the behaviour of common boron starting materials as archetypal Lewis acids such that common routes to organoboranes rely on the reactivity of boron as an electrophile. While the realization of convenient sources of nucleophilic boryl anions would open up a wealth of opportunity for the development of new routes to organoboranes, the synthesis of current candidates is generally limited by a need for highly reducing reaction conditions. Here, we report a simple synthesis of a magnesium boryl through the heterolytic activation of the B-B bond of bis(pinacolato)diboron, which is achieved by treatment of an easily generated magnesium diboranate complex with 4-dimethylaminopyridine. The magnesium boryl is shown to act as an unambiguous nucleophile through its reactions with iodomethane, benzophenone and N,N'-di-isopropyl carbodiimide and by density functional theory.

  12. Control of Diastereoselectivity for Iridium-catalyzed Allylation of a Prochiral Nucleophile with a Phosphate Counterion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We report a highly diastereo- and enantioselective allylation of azlactones catalyzed by the combination of a metallayclic iridium complex and an optically inactive phosphate anion. The process demonstrates an approach to conduct diastereoselective reactions with prochiral nucleophiles in the presence of metallacyclic allyliridium complexes. The reaction provides access to an array of enantioenriched allylated azlactones containing adjacent tertiary and quaternary carbon centers. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the phosphate and methyl carbonate anions together induce the unusually high diastereoselectivity. PMID:23286279

  13. Transition-Metal-Free Stereospecific Cross-Coupling with Alkenylboronic Acids as Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengxi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Qi; Gu, Tongnian; Peng, Henian; Tang, Wenjun

    2016-08-31

    We herein report a transition-metal-free cross-coupling between secondary alkyl halides/mesylates and aryl/alkenylboronic acid, providing expedited access to a series of nonchiral/chiral coupling products in moderate to good yields. Stereospecific SN2-type coupling is developed for the first time with alkenylboronic acids as pure nucleophiles, offering an attractive alternative to the stereospecific transition-metal-catalyzed C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) cross-coupling.

  14. Trivalent boron nucleophile as a new tool in organic synthesis: reactivity and asymmetric induction.

    PubMed

    Cid, Jessica; Gulyás, Henrik; Carbó, Jorge J; Fernández, Elena

    2012-05-07

    Boron compounds have been traditionally regarded as "Lewis acids" preferring to accept electrons rather than donate them in the course of their reactions but current examples of unusual reactivity between tricoordinated boranes and electrophilic sites suggest a new conceptual context for the boryl moieties, based on their nucleophilic character which can be enhanced depending on the substituents on boron. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  15. Interrupting Nazarov Reaction with Different Trapping Modality: Utilizing Potassium Alkynyltrifluoroborate as a σ-Nucleophile.

    PubMed

    William, Ronny; Wang, Siming; Mallick, Asadulla; Liu, Xue-Wei

    2016-09-16

    The putative oxyallyl cation intermediate generated following Nazarov cyclization of dienone has been successfully intercepted with potassium alkynyltrifluoroborates which act as σ-nucleophiles in the presence of BF3·Et2O. This new trapping modality allowed unprecedented introduction of an alkynyl moiety to the cyclopentanone framework by means of an interrupted Nazarov reaction. The α-alkynyl cyclopentanone product can be further transformed into an array of densely functionalized cyclic compounds.

  16. Nucleophilic reactivity and electrocatalytic reduction of halogenated organic compounds by nickel o-phenylenedioxamidate complexes.

    PubMed

    Das, Siva Prasad; Ganguly, Rakesh; Li, Yongxin; Soo, Han Sen

    2016-09-14

    A growing number of halogenated organic compounds have been identified as hazardous pollutants. Although numerous advanced oxidative processes have been developed to degrade organohalide compounds, reductive and nucleophilic molecular approaches to dehalogenate organic compounds have rarely been reported. In this manuscript, we employ nickel(ii)-ate complexes bearing the o-phenylenebis(N-methyloxamide) (Me2opba) tetraanionic ligand as nucleophilic reagents that can react with alkyl halides (methyl up to the bulky isobutyl) by O-alkylation to give their respective imidate products. Four new nickel(ii) complexes have been characterized by X-ray crystallography, and the salient structural parameters and FT-IR vibrational bands (∼1655 cm(-1)) concur with their assignment as the imidate tautomeric form. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the nucleophilic reactivity of Ni(II)(Me2opba) with halogenated organic compounds. The parent nickel(ii) Me2opba complex exhibits reversible electrochemical oxidation and reduction behavior. As a proof of concept, Ni(II)(Me2opba) and its alkylated congeners were utilized for the electrocatalytic reduction of chloroform, as a representative, simple polyhalogenated organic molecule that could arise from the oxidative treatment of organic compounds by chlorination. Modest turnover numbers of up to 6 were recorded, with dichloromethane identified as one of the possible products. Future efforts are directed towards bulkier -ate complexes that possess metal-centered instead of ligand-centered nucleophilic activity to create more effective electrocatalysts for the reduction of halogenated organic compounds.

  17. Nucleophilic selectivity as a determinant of carcinogenic potency (TD50) in rodents: a comparison of mono- and bi-functional alkylating agents and vinyl chloride metabolites.

    PubMed

    Barbin, A; Bartsch, H

    1989-11-01

    Using published data, the carcinogenic potency (TD50) in rodents of a series of monofunctional alkylating agents, bifunctional antitumor drugs and the vinyl chloride (VC) metabolites chloroethylene oxide (CEO) and chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) was compared to their nucleophilic selectivity (Swain and Scott's constant s or initial ratio of 7-/O6-alkylguanine in DNA). A positive correlation between the log of TD50 estimates and the s values for a series of 14, mostly monofunctional, alkylating agents was observed. This linear relationship also included 2 bifunctional chloroethylnitrosoureas, although their carcinogenic potency was compared to their initial 7-/O6-alkylguanine ratio rather than their s values (n = 16, r = 0.91, p less than 0.005). In addition, the carcinogenic potency of 2 alkyl sulfates, which is not yet known accurately, may correlate with their nucleophilic selectivity through the same relationship. By contrast, 2 methyl halides and 5 bifunctional antitumor drugs (nitrogen mustards and azyridinyl derivatives) did not follow this linear relationship: at similar nucleophilic selectivity, they were more potent carcinogens than the above 18 alkylating agents; this may hold true for CEO and CAA too, although further carcinogenicity experiments are needed to calculate their precise TD50 values. The possible molecular mechanisms involved in tumor induction by these agents are discussed on the basis of these findings. Comparison of the estimated TD50 for CEO, CAA and VC in rodents confirms that CEO is the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of VC and suggests that only a very small proportion of metabolically generated CEO is available for DNA alkylation in vivo.

  18. Novel nucleophiles enhance the human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1)-mediated detoxication of organophosphates.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Janice E; Chambers, Howard W; Meek, Edward C; Funck, Kristen E; Bhavaraju, Manikanthan H; Gwaltney, Steven R; Pringle, Ronald B

    2015-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent hydrolase associated with serum high-density lipoprotein particles. PON1 hydrolyzes some organophosphates (OPs), including some nerve agents, through nucleophilic attack of hydroxide ion (from water) in the active site. Most OPs are hydrolyzed inefficiently. This project seeks to identify nucleophiles that can enhance PON1-mediated OP degradation. A series of novel nucleophiles, substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes, has been synthesized which enhance the degradation of surrogates of sarin (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate; NIMP) and VX (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate; NEMP). Two types of in vitro assays have been conducted, a direct assay using millimolar concentrations of substrate with direct spectrophotometric quantitation of a hydrolysis product (4-nitrophenol) and an indirect assay using submicromolar concentrations of substrate with quantitation by the level of inhibition of an exogenous source of acetylcholinesterase from non-hydrolyzed substrate. Neither NIMP nor NEMP is hydrolyzed effectively by PON1 if one of these novel oximes is absent. However, in the presence of eight novel oximes, PON1-mediated degradation of both surrogates occurs. Computational modeling has created a model of PON1 embedded in phospholipid and has indicated general agreement of the binding enthalpies with the relative efficacy as PON1 enhancers. PON1 enhancement of degradation of OPs could be a unique and unprecedented mechanism of antidotal action.

  19. Detoxication of sulfur half-mustards by nucleophilic scavengers: robust activity of thiopurines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyun; Powell, K Leslie; Thames, Howard D; MacLeod, Michael C

    2010-03-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide) has been used in chemical warfare since World War I and is well known as an acutely toxic vesicant. It has been implicated as a carcinogen after chronic low-level exposure and is known to form interstrand cross-links in DNA. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards are currently of interest as potential chemical threat agents for terrorists because of ease of synthesis. Sulfur mustard and monofunctional analogues (half-mustards, 2-[chloroethyl] alkyl sulfides) react as electrophiles, damaging cellular macromolecules, and thus are potentially subject to scavenging by nucleophilic agents. We have determined rate constants for the reaction of four purine derivatives that contain nucleophilic thiol moieties with several sulfur-half-mustards. Three of these compounds, 2,6-dithiopurine, 2,6-dithiouric acid, and 9-methyl-6-mercaptopurine, exhibit facile reaction with the electrophilic mustard compounds. At near neutral pH, these thiopurines are much better nucleophilic scavengers of mustard electrophiles than other low molecular weight thiols such as N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione. Progress curves calculated by numerical integration techniques indicate that equimolar concentrations of thiopurine provide significant reductions in the overall exposure to the episulfonium ions, which are the major reactive, electrophiles produced when sulfur mustards are dissolved in aqueous solution.

  20. Detoxication of sulfur half-mustards by nucleophilic scavengers: robust activity of thiopurines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyun; Powell, K. Leslie; Thames, Howard D.; MacLeod, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (bis-(2-chloroethyl)sulfide) has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is well known as an acutely toxic vesicant. It has been implicated as a carcinogen after chronic low-level exposure, and is known to form inter-strand crosslinks in DNA. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards are currently of interest as potential chemical threat agents for terrorists due to ease of synthesis. Sulfur mustard and monofunctional analogs (half-mustards, 2-[chloroethyl] alkyl sulfides) react as electrophiles, damaging cellular macromolecules, and thus are potentially subject to scavenging by nucleophilic agents. We have determined rate constants for the reaction of four purine derivatives that contain nucleophilic thiol moieties with several sulfur-half-mustards. Three of these compounds, 2,6-dithiopurine, 2,6-dithiouric acid, and 9-methyl-6-mercaptopurine, exhibit facile reaction with the electrophilic mustard compounds. At near neutral pH, these thiopurines are much better nucleophilic scavengers of mustard electrophiles than other low molecular weight thiols such as N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione. Progress curves calculated by numerical integration techniques indicate that equimolar concentrations of thiopurine provide significant reductions in the overall exposure to the episulfonium ions, which are the major reactive, electrophiles produced when sulfur mustards are dissolved in aqueous solution. PMID:20050632

  1. Nucleophile Assisting Leaving Groups: A Strategy for Aliphatic 18F-Fluorination

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuiyu; Lepore, Salvatore D.; Li, Song Ye; Mondal, Deboprosad; Cohn, Pamela C.; Bhunia, Anjan K.; Pike, Victor W.

    2009-01-01

    A series of arylsulfonate nucleophile assisting leaving groups (NALGs) were prepared in which the metal chelating unit is attached to the aryl ring via an ether linker. These NALGs exhibited significant rate enhancements in halogenation reactions using metal halides. Studies with a NALG containing a macrocyclic ether unit suggest that rate enhancements of these nucleophilic halogenation reactions are facilitated by stabilization of charge in the transition state rather than through strong pre-complexation with metal cation. In several cases, a primary substrate containing one of the new leaving groups rivaled or surpassed the reactivity of triflates when exposed to nucleophile but was otherwise highly stable and isolable. These and previously disclosed chelating leaving groups were used in 18F-fluorination reactions using no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride ion (t1/2 = 109.7 min, β+ = 97%) in CH3CN. Under microwave irradiation and without the assistance of a cryptand, such as K2.2.2, primary substrates with select NALGs led to a substantial improvement (2 to 3 fold) in radiofluorination yields over traditional leaving groups. PMID:19572583

  2. Reactivity of Aziridinomitosene Derivatives Related to FK317 in the Presence of Protic Nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Vedejs, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    The syntheses and reactivity of N-TBDPS and N-trityl protected derivatives of an aziridinomitosene corresponding to FK317 are described. New reactivity patterns were observed for these highly sensitive and functionally dense heterocycles under mild nucleophilic conditions approaching the threshold for degradation. Thus, the silyl or trityl protected aziridinomitosene reacted with Cs2CO3/CD3OD to give isomeric products where substitution occurred at C(10) and C(9a) (mitomycin numbering) providing a CD3 ether and a CD3 hemiaminal respectively. These findings show that heterolysis at C(10) is faster than at aziridine C(1), in contrast to the behavior of typical aziridinomitosenes in the mitomycin series. The labile N-TBDPS hemiaminal and the more stable N-trityl hemiaminal resemble the mitomycin K substitution pattern. A reagent consisting of CsF in CF3CH2OH/CH3CN desilylated a simple N-TBDPS aziridine, but caused nucleophilic cleavage at C(1) as well as C(10) without cleavage of the N-TBPDS group in the fully functionalized penultimate aziridinomitosene. The high reactivity of the C(10) carbamate with nucleophiles precludes the use of deprotection methodology that requires N-protonation for fully functionalized aziridinomitosenes in the FK317 series. PMID:22208619

  3. Role of Intramolecular Aromatic π-π Interactions in the Self-Assembly of Di-l-Phenylalanine Dipeptide Driven by Intermolecular Interactions: Effect of Alanine Substitution.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh

    2016-09-19

    Although the role of intermolecular aromatic π-π interactions in the self-assembly of di-l-phenylalanine (l-Phe-l-Phe, FF), a peptide that is known for hierarchical structure, is well established, the influence of intramolecular π-π interactions on the morphology of the self-assembled structure of FF has not been studied. Herein, the role of intramolecular aromatic π-π interactions is investigated for FF and analogous alanine (Ala)-containing dipeptides, namely, l-Phe-l-Ala (FA) and l-Ala-l-Phe (AF). The results reveal that these dipeptides not only form self-assemblies, but also exhibit remarkable differences in structural morphology. The morphological differences between FF and the analogues indicate the importance of intramolecular π-π interactions, and the structural difference between FA and AF demonstrates the crucial role of the nature of intramolecular side-chain interactions (aromatic-aliphatic or aliphatic-aromatic), in addition to intermolecular interactions, in deciding the final morphology of the self-assembled structure. The current results emphasise that intramolecular aromatic π-π interaction may not be essential to induce self-assembly in smaller peptides, and π (aromatic)-alkyl or alkyl-π (aromatic) interactions may be sufficient. This work also illustrates the versatility of aromatic and a combination of aromatic and aliphatic residues in dipeptides in the formation of structurally diverse self-assembled structures.

  4. 1,1,1-Trimethylhydrazinium iodide: A novel, highly reactive reagent for aromatic amination via vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Pagoria, P.F.; Mitchell, A.R.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1996-05-03

    1,1,1-Trimethylhydrazinium iodide, TMHI, has been shown to be a novel vicarious nucleophilic substitution aminating reagent. It can be used to obtain isomers not produced by reaction with other nucleophilic aminating reagents. It is easily prepared from 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, or directly from hydrazine. Further studies on the use of TMHI and related quaternary hydrazines as nucleophlic aminating reagents are in progress. 1 tab.

  5. Dendrimer light-harvesting: intramolecular electrodynamics and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Andrews, David L; Bradshaw, David S; Jenkins, Robert D; Rodríguez, Justo

    2009-12-07

    In the development of highly efficient materials for harvesting solar energy, there is an increasing focus on purpose-built dendrimers and allied multi-chromophore systems. A proliferation of antenna chromophores is not the only factor determining the sought light-harvesting efficiency; the internal geometry and photophysics of these molecules are also crucially important. In particular, the mechanisms by means of which radiant energy is ultimately trapped depends on an intricate interplay of electronic, structural, energetic and symmetry properties. To better understand these processes a sound theoretical representation of the intramolecular electrodynamics is required. A suitable formalism, based on quantum electrodynamics, readily delivers physical insights into the necessary excitation channelling processes, and it affords a rigorous basis for modelling the intramolecular flow of energy.

  6. Proximity vs. strain in intramolecular ring-closing reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Rafik

    2010-07-01

    The DFT and ab initio calculation results for ring-closing reactions of eight different ω-bromoalkanecarboxylate anions (1-8) reveal that the activation energy (ΔG ‡) for the intramolecular cyclization process is strongly correlated with both (i) the experimental intramolecular cyclization rate (log k intra) and (ii) the distance between the two reactive centres, whereas the slope values of the change in enthalpy (ΔH) vs. the attack angle (α) and the distance between the two reacting centres (r) were found to correlate strongly with the experimental strain energy of the cycle being formed (E s Exp). These results assist in designing pro-prodrug systems that can be utilized to improve the overall biopharmaceutical profile of current medications in order to enhance their effectiveness and ease their utility.

  7. Intramolecular amide bonds stabilize pili on the surface of bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Budzik, Jonathan M.; Poor, Catherine B.; Faull, Kym F.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; He, Chuan; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-01-12

    Gram-positive bacteria elaborate pili and do so without the participation of folding chaperones or disulfide bond catalysts. Sortases, enzymes that cut pilin precursors, form covalent bonds that link pilin subunits and assemble pili on the bacterial surface. We determined the x-ray structure of BcpA, the major pilin subunit of Bacillus cereus. The BcpA precursor encompasses 2 Ig folds (CNA{sub 2} and CNA{sub 3}) and one jelly-roll domain (XNA) each of which synthesizes a single intramolecular amide bond. A fourth amide bond, derived from the Ig fold of CNA{sub 1}, is formed only after pilin subunits have been incorporated into pili. We report that the domains of pilin precursors have evolved to synthesize a discrete sequence of intramolecular amide bonds, thereby conferring structural stability and protease resistance to pili.

  8. Efficient Pd-catalyzed allene synthesis from alkynes and aryl bromides through an intramolecular base-assisted deprotonation (iBAD) mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nella, Natalie; Parker, Evelyne; Hitce, Julien; Larini, Paolo; Jazzar, Rodolphe; Baudoin, Olivier

    2014-10-06

    An optimized ligand-controlled palladium-catalyzed allene synthesis starting from alkynes and aryl bromides giving rise to allene products in a simple and direct manner is described. The methodology is performed in an inter- and intramolecular fashion with unprecedented scope and excellent yields. Based on mechanistic investigations and on DFT calculations, the role played by the carboxylic additive (i.e., PivOH) in controlling the selectivity of the reaction is discussed, allowing us to propose an intramolecular base-assisted deprotonation (iBAD) mechanism for this process. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Chemical dynamics simulations of X- + CH3Y → XCH3 + Y- gas-phase S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution reactions. Nonstatistical dynamics and nontraditional reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Paranjothy; Zhang, Jiaxu; Hase, William L

    2012-03-29

    Extensive classical chemical dynamics simulations of gas-phase X(-) + CH(3)Y → XCH(3) + Y(-) S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution reactions are reviewed and discussed and compared with experimental measurements and predictions of theoretical models. The primary emphasis is on reactions for which X and Y are halogen atoms. Both reactions with the traditional potential energy surface (PES), which include pre- and postreaction potential energy minima and a central barrier, and reactions with nontraditional PESs are considered. These S(N)2 reactions exhibit important nonstatistical atomic-level dynamics. The X(-) + CH(3)Y → X(-)---CH(3)Y association rate constant is less than the capture model as a result of inefficient energy transfer from X(-)+ CH(3)Y relative translation to CH(3)Y rotation and vibration. There is weak coupling between the low-frequency intermolecular modes of the X(-)---CH(3)Y complex and higher frequency CH(3)Y intramolecular modes, resulting in non-RRKM kinetics for X(-)---CH(3)Y unimolecular decomposition. Recrossings of the [X--CH(3)--Y](-) central barrier is important. As a result of the above dynamics, the relative translational energy and temperature dependencies of the S(N)2 rate constants are not accurately given by statistical theory. The nonstatistical dynamics results in nonstatistical partitioning of the available energy to XCH(3) +Y(-) reaction products. Besides the indirect, complex forming atomic-level mechanism for the S(N)2 reaction, direct mechanisms promoted by X(-) + CH(3)Y relative translational or CH(3)Y vibrational excitation are possible, e.g., the roundabout mechanism.

  10. The Physical Chemistry of the Intramolecular Cyclodehydration Reactions of Prepolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, I. B.; Karyakin, Nikolai V.; Rusanov, Aleksandr L.; Korshak, V. V.

    1986-07-01

    The experimental data on the thermodynamics of the intramolecular cyclodehydration reactions of prepolymers in the solid phase are examined and treated systematically. The changes in the thermodynamic functions of the above processes have been analysed in detail over a wide temperature range. The temperature ranges corresponding to the formation of polyheteroarylenes which are "defect-free" to the maximum extent have been estimated. The bibliography includes 65 references.

  11. Overcoming product inhibition in catalysis of the intramolecular Schmidt reaction.

    PubMed

    Motiwala, Hashim F; Fehl, Charlie; Li, Sze-Wan; Hirt, Erin; Porubsky, Patrick; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2013-06-19

    A method for carrying out the intramolecular Schmidt reaction of alkyl azides and ketones using a substoichiometric amount of catalyst is reported. Following extensive screening, the use of the strong hydrogen-bond-donating solvent hexafluoro-2-propanol was found to be consistent with low catalyst loadings, which ranged from 2.5 mol % for favorable substrates to 25 mol % for more difficult cases. Reaction optimization, broad substrate scope, and preliminary mechanistic studies of this improved version of the reaction are described.

  12. Overcoming Product Inhibition in Catalysis of the Intramolecular Schmidt Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Motiwala, Hashim F.; Fehl, Charlie; Li, Sze-Wan; Hirt, Erin; Porubsky, Patrick; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    A method for carrying out the intramolecular Schmidt reaction of alkyl azides and ketones using a substoichiometric amount of catalyst is reported. Following extensive screening, the use of the strong hydrogen bond donating solvent hexafluoro-2-propanol was found to be consistent with low catalyst loadings, which range from 2.5 mol% for favorable substrates to 25 mol% for more difficult cases. Reaction optimization, broad substrate scope, and preliminary mechanistic studies of this improved version of the reaction are described. PMID:23687993

  13. Short intramolecular hydrogen bonds: derivatives of malonaldehyde with symmetrical substituents.

    PubMed

    Hargis, Jacqueline C; Evangelista, Francesco A; Ingels, Justin B; Schaefer, Henry F

    2008-12-24

    A systematic study of various derivatives of malonaldehyde has been carried out to explore very short hydrogen bonds (r(OO) < 2.450 A). Various electron-withdrawing groups, including CN, NO(2), and BH(2), have been attached to the central carbon atom, C(2). To C(1) and C(3), strong electron donors and/or sterically hindered substituents were used to strengthen the intramolecular hydrogen bond, including but not limited to NH(2), N(CH(3))(2), and C(CH(3))(3). Seven molecules (Figure 2 ) were found to have extremely short intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The chemical systems investigated are intriguing due to their low energetic barriers for the intramolecular hydrogen atom transfers. Classical barriers were predicted using correlated methods including second-order perturbation theory and coupled cluster theory in conjunction with the Dunning hierarchy of correlation consistent basis sets, cc-pVXZ (X = D, T, Q, 5). Focal point analyses allowed for the barriers to be evaluated at the CBS limit including core correlation and zero-point vibrational energy corrections. B3LYP energies are benchmarked against highly accurate correlated energies for intramolecular hydrogen bonded systems. The focal point extrapolated method, including coupled cluster full triple excitation contributions, gives a hydrogen transfer barrier for malonaldehyde of approximately 4 kcal mol(-1). We describe two compounds with extremely low classical barriers, nitromalonamide (0.43 kcal mol(-1)) and 2-borylmalonamide (0.60 kcal mol(-1)). An empirical relationship was drawn between the B3LYP energetic barriers and the predicted coupled cluster barriers at the CBS limit. By relating these two quantities, barrier heights may be estimated for systems too large to presently use highly correlated electronic structure methods.

  14. Communication: Pseudoisomorphs in liquids with intramolecular degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Andreas Elmerdahl; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Schrøder, Thomas B.

    2016-12-01

    Computer simulations show that liquids of molecules with harmonic intramolecular bonds may have "pseudoisomorphic" lines of approximately invariant dynamics in the thermodynamic phase diagram. We demonstrate that these lines can be identified by requiring scale invariance of the inherent-structure reduced-unit low-frequency vibrational spectrum evaluated for a single equilibrium configuration. This rationalizes why generalized excess-entropy scaling, density scaling, and isochronal superposition apply for many liquids with internal degrees of freedom.

  15. Bimorpholine-mediated enantioselective intramolecular and intermolecular aldol condensation.

    PubMed

    Kanger, Tõnis; Kriis, Kadri; Laars, Marju; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Aleksander-Mati; Pehk, Tõnis; Lopp, Margus

    2007-07-06

    Monosalts of N-substituted bimorpholine derivatives are efficient organocatalysts in intramolecular and intermolecular aldol reactions. The properties of the catalysts can be tuned either by the selection of an appropriate acid for the salt formation or by the change of a substituent at the nitrogen atom. In aldol condensation, i-Pr-substituted bimorpholine is the most stereoselective catalyst affording products in high yield with enantioselectivities up to 95% ee.

  16. Ultrafast excited-state intramolecular proton transfer of aloesaponarin I.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Uno, Hidemitsu; Huppert, Dan

    2013-04-25

    Time-resolved emission of aloesaponarin I was studied with the fluorescence up-conversion and time-correlated single-photon-counting techniques. The rates of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, of the solvent and molecular rearrangements, and of the decay from the excited proton-transferred species were determined and interpreted in the light of time-dependent density functional calculations. These results were discussed in conjunction with UV protection and singlet-oxygen quenching activity of aloe.

  17. Visible-Light Photocatalytic Intramolecular Cyclopropane Ring Expansion.

    PubMed

    Luis-Barrera, Javier; Laina-Martín, Víctor; Rigotti, Thomas; Peccati, Francesca; Solans-Monfort, Xavier; Sodupe, Mariona; Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Liras, Marta; Alemán, José

    2017-06-26

    Described herein is a new visible-light photocatalytic strategy for the synthesis of enantioenriched dihydrofurans and cyclopentenes by an intramolecular nitro cyclopropane ring expansion reaction. Mechanistic studies and DFT calculations are used to elucidate the key factors in this new ring expansion reaction, and the need for the nitro group on the cyclopropane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enantioselective Nucleophile-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl Fluorides via the α-Fluorination of Ketenes: Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of alkyl fluorides, particularly α-fluorocarbonyl compounds, has been the focus of substantial effort in recent years. While significant progress has been described in the formation of enantioenriched secondary alkyl fluorides, advances in the generation of tertiary alkyl fluorides have been more limited. Here, we describe a method for the catalytic asymmetric coupling of aryl alkyl ketenes with commercially available N-fluorodibenzenesulfonimide (NFSI) and C6F5ONa to furnish tertiary α-fluoroesters. Mechanistic studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the addition of an external nucleophile (C6F5ONa) is critical for turnover, releasing the catalyst (PPY*) from an N-acylated intermediate. The available data can be explained by a reaction pathway wherein the enantioselectivity is determined in the turnover-limiting transfer of fluorine from NFSI to a chiral enolate derived from the addition of PPY* to the ketene. The structure and the reactivity of the product of this proposed elementary step, an α-fluoro-N-acylpyridinium salt, have been examined. PMID:24922581

  19. Enantioselective nucleophile-catalyzed synthesis of tertiary alkyl fluorides via the α-fluorination of ketenes: synthetic and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah Yunmi; Neufeind, Stefan; Fu, Gregory C

    2014-06-25

    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of alkyl fluorides, particularly α-fluorocarbonyl compounds, has been the focus of substantial effort in recent years. While significant progress has been described in the formation of enantioenriched secondary alkyl fluorides, advances in the generation of tertiary alkyl fluorides have been more limited. Here, we describe a method for the catalytic asymmetric coupling of aryl alkyl ketenes with commercially available N-fluorodibenzenesulfonimide (NFSI) and C6F5ONa to furnish tertiary α-fluoroesters. Mechanistic studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the addition of an external nucleophile (C6F5ONa) is critical for turnover, releasing the catalyst (PPY*) from an N-acylated intermediate. The available data can be explained by a reaction pathway wherein the enantioselectivity is determined in the turnover-limiting transfer of fluorine from NFSI to a chiral enolate derived from the addition of PPY* to the ketene. The structure and the reactivity of the product of this proposed elementary step, an α-fluoro-N-acylpyridinium salt, have been examined.

  20. Extremely slow intramolecular diffusion in unfolded protein L

    PubMed Central

    Waldauer, Steven A.; Bakajin, Olgica; Lapidus, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial parameter in many theories of protein folding is the rate of diffusion over the energy landscape. Using a microfluidic mixer we have observed the rate of intramolecular diffusion within the unfolded B1 domain of protein L before it folds. The diffusion-limited rate of intramolecular contact is about 20 times slower than the rate in 6 M GdnHCl, and because in these conditions the protein is also more compact, the intramolecular diffusion coefficient decreases 100–500 times. The dramatic slowdown in diffusion occurs within the 250 μs mixing time of the mixer, and there appears to be no further evolution of this rate before reaching the transition state of folding. We show that observed folding rates are well predicted by a Kramers model with a denaturant-dependent diffusion coefficient and speculate that this diffusion coefficient is a significant contribution to the observed rate of folding. PMID:20643973

  1. Stereocontrolled intramolecular iron-mediated diene/olefin cyclocoupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorange, Ismet B.

    A methodology for stereocontrol during the intramolecular coupling between cyclohexadiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes and pendant alkenes is presented. Introduction of a methoxy group at the C(3) position of the diene moiety controls pre- and post-cyclization rearrangements of the diene Fe(CO)3 unit, allowing the preparation of spirolactams with defined relative stereochemistry and with a cyclohexenone framework, thus making this reaction a potentially valuable tool for the construction of quaternary carbon centers.* A new methodology for the formation of tricarbonyl(cyclohexadienyl)ketone iron complexes was also developed. This method involves the coupling of a Grignard reagent with an acyl mesylate iron complex, giving rise to ketone derivatives in excellent yields. The possibility of intramolecular coupling between diene-Fe(CO)3 complexes and homoallylic olefin was demonstrated. The stereospecific formation of spiroketones occurred in excellent yields under thermal conditions, but appeared to be limited to the simpler, less substituted pendant alkenes. The control of the stereochemical outcome of these spirocyclization was achieved using the "C(3) substitution method" previously described. The same trends were observed in these series. Also illustrated in these studies is the extension of this spirocoupling to the formation of a spiro[5.5]undecane framework. It is the first time that this framework has been accessed using this intramolecular coupling.* *Please refer to dissertation for diagram.

  2. Nucleophilic reactions at a vinylic center. XVI. Investigation of the nucleophilic exchange of fluorine in. beta. -fluoroacrylonitriles by the MINDO/3 method

    SciTech Connect

    Shainyan, B.A.

    1986-01-10

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of F/sup -/ with cis- and trans-..beta..-fluoroacrylonitriles were calculated by the MINDO/3 method. It was shown that three reaction paths can be realized in the system, i.e., attack by the nucleophile at the ..beta..-carbon atom, the elimination of a proton from the ..cap alpha.. position, and the elimination of a proton from the ..beta.. position. All three reaction paths are exothermic in the gas phase, and the elimination of the proton from the ..cap alpha.. position is 70 kJ/mole more favorable than from the ..beta.. position. Allowance for the effect of the medium in terms of an unconcerted solvation model modes not lead to the appearance of an activation barrier, in contrast to the reactions of anions with ethylene.

  3. Competitive reaction pathways for o-anilide aryl radicals: 1,5- or 1,6-hydrogen transfer versus nucleophilic coupling reactions. A novel rearrangement to afford an amidyl radical.

    PubMed

    Rey, Valentina; Pierini, Adriana B; Peñéñory, Alicia B

    2009-02-06

    The photoinduced reactions of o-iodoanilides (o-IC6H4N(Me)COR, 4a-d) with sulfur nucleophiles such as thiourea anion (1, -SCNH(NH2)), thioacetate anion (2, MeCOS-), and sulfide anion (3, S(2-)) follow different reaction channels, giving the sulfides by a radical nucleophilic substitution or the dehalogenated products by hydrogen atom transfer pathways. After an initial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from 1 to iodide 4, the o-amide aryl radicals 12 are generated. These aryl radicals 12 afford alternative reaction pathways depending on the structure of the alpha-carbonyl moiety: (a) 12b (R = Me) adds to 1 to render the methylthio-substituted compounds by quenching the thiolate anion intermediate with MeI after irradiation; (b) 12c (R = -CH2Ph) follows a 1,5-hydrogen transfer to give a stabilized alpha-carbonyl radical (17); and (c) 12d (R = t-Bu) affords 1,6-hydrogen transfer, followed by a 1,4-aryl migration to render an amidyl radical (20), which is reduced to the N-benzyl-N,2-dimethylpropanamide (10). Together with this last rearranged product, the ipso substitution derivative was also observed. Similar results were obtained in the PET reactions of 4d (R = t-Bu) with anions 2 and 3 under entrainment conditions with the enolate anion from cyclohexenone (5) or the tert-butoxide anion (6). From this novel rearrangement, and only under reductive conditions by PET reaction with anion 5, iodide 4d (R = t-Bu) affords quantitatively the propanamide 10. The energetic of the intramolecular rearrangements followed by radicals 12b-d were rationalized by B3LYP/6-31+G* calculations.

  4. Intra-molecular Triplet Energy Transfer is a General Approach to Improve Organic Fluorophore Photostability

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qinsi; Jockusch, Steffen; Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G.; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Hong; Altman, Roger B.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Bright, long-lasting and non-phototoxic organic fluorophores are essential to the continued advancement of biological imaging. Traditional approaches towards achieving photostability, such as the removal of molecular oxygen and the use of small-molecule additives in solution, suffer from potentially toxic side effects, particularly in the context of living cells. The direct conjugation of small-molecule triplet state quenchers, such as cyclooctatetraene (COT), to organic fluorophores has the potential to bypass these issues by restoring reactive fluorophore triplet states to the ground state through intra-molecular triplet energy transfer. Such methods have enabled marked improvement in cyanine fluorophore photostability spanning the visible spectrum. However, the generality of this strategy to chemically and structurally diverse fluorophore species has yet to be examined. Here, we show that the proximal linkage of COT increases the photon yield of a diverse range of organic fluorophores widely used in biological imaging applications, demonstrating that the intra-molecular triplet energy transfer mechanism is a potentially general approach for improving organic fluorophore performance and photostability. PMID:26700693

  5. Intra-molecular triplet energy transfer is a general approach to improve organic fluorophore photostability.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qinsi; Jockusch, Steffen; Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Hong; Altman, Roger B; Abruña, Héctor D; Blanchard, Scott C

    2016-02-01

    Bright, long-lasting and non-phototoxic organic fluorophores are essential to the continued advancement of biological imaging. Traditional approaches towards achieving photostability, such as the removal of molecular oxygen and the use of small-molecule additives in solution, suffer from potentially toxic side effects, particularly in the context of living cells. The direct conjugation of small-molecule triplet state quenchers, such as cyclooctatetraene (COT), to organic fluorophores has the potential to bypass these issues by restoring reactive fluorophore triplet states to the ground state through intra-molecular triplet energy transfer. Such methods have enabled marked improvement in cyanine fluorophore photostability spanning the visible spectrum. However, the generality of this strategy to chemically and structurally diverse fluorophore species has yet to be examined. Here, we show that the proximal linkage of COT increases the photon yield of a diverse range of organic fluorophores widely used in biological imaging applications, demonstrating that the intra-molecular triplet energy transfer mechanism is a potentially general approach for improving organic fluorophore performance and photostability.

  6. Intramolecular hydrogen bond in 3-imino-propenylamine isomers: AIM and NBO studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, H.; Jalbout, Abraham F.; Abbasi, B.; Fazli, F.; Farzad, F.; Nadim, E.; Leon, Aned De

    The molecular structure and intramolecular hydrogen bond energy of 18 conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were investigated at MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory using the standard 6-311++G** basis set. The atom in molecules or AIM theory of Bader, which is based on the topological properties of the electron density (rho), was used additionally and the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was also carried out. Furthermore calculations for all possible conformations of 3-imino-propenyl-amin in water solution were also carried out at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G** levels of theory. The calculated geometrical parameters and conformational analyses in gas phase and water solution show that the imine-amine conformers of this compound are more stable than the other conformers. B3LYP method predicts the IMA-1 as global minimum. This stability is mainly due to the formation of a strong N bond H···N intramolecular hydrogen bond, which is assisted by pi-electrons resonance, and this pi-electrons are established by NH2 functional group. Hydrogen bond energies for all conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were obtained from the related rotamers methods.

  7. Enantioselective Desymmetrization of Prochiral Cyclohexanones by Organocatalytic Intramolecular Michael Additions to α,β-Unsaturated Esters**

    PubMed Central

    Gammack Yamagata, Adam D; Datta, Swarup; Jackson, Kelvin E; Stegbauer, Linus; Paton, Robert S; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    A new catalytic asymmetric desymmetrization reaction for the synthesis of enantioenriched derivatives of 2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, a key motif common to many alkaloids, has been developed. Employing a cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine organocatalyst, a range of prochiral cyclohexanone derivatives possessing an α,β-unsaturated ester moiety linked to the 4-position afforded the bicyclic products, which possess three stereogenic centers, as single diastereoisomers in high enantioselectivity (83–99 % ee) and in good yields (60–90 %). Calculations revealed that stepwise C–C bond formation and proton transfer via a chair-shaped transition state dictate the exclusive endo selectivity and enabled the development of a highly enantioselective primary amine catalyst. PMID:25727215

  8. Enantioselective desymmetrization of prochiral cyclohexanones by organocatalytic intramolecular Michael additions to α,β-unsaturated esters.

    PubMed

    Gammack Yamagata, Adam D; Datta, Swarup; Jackson, Kelvin E; Stegbauer, Linus; Paton, Robert S; Dixon, Darren J

    2015-04-13

    A new catalytic asymmetric desymmetrization reaction for the synthesis of enantioenriched derivatives of 2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, a key motif common to many alkaloids, has been developed. Employing a cyclohexanediamine-derived primary amine organocatalyst, a range of prochiral cyclohexanone derivatives possessing an α,β-unsaturated ester moiety linked to the 4-position afforded the bicyclic products, which possess three stereogenic centers, as single diastereoisomers in high enantioselectivity (83-99% ee) and in good yields (60-90%). Calculations revealed that stepwise C-C bond formation and proton transfer via a chair-shaped transition state dictate the exclusive endo selectivity and enabled the development of a highly enantioselective primary amine catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Phosphine-Catalyzed Enantioselective Intramolecular [3+2] Annulations To Generate Fused Ring Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Substantial progress has been described in the development of asymmetric variants of the phosphine-catalyzed intermolecular [3+2] annulation of allenes with alkenes; however, there have not been corresponding advances for the intramolecular process, which can generate a higher level of complexity (an additional ring and stereocenter(s)). In this study, we describe the application of chiral phosphepine catalysts to address this challenge, thereby providing access to useful scaffolds that are found in bioactive compounds, including diquinane and quinolin-2-one derivatives, with very good stereoselectivity. The products of the [3+2] annulation can be readily transformed into structures that are even more stereochemically rich. Mechanistic studies are consistent with β addition of the phosphepine to the allene being the turnover-limiting step of the catalytic cycle, followed by a concerted [3+2] cycloaddition to the pendant olefin. PMID:25815702

  10. Dithizone as novel and efficient chromogenic probe for cyanide detection in aqueous media through nucleophilic addition into diazenylthione moiety.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Kiyani, Sajede

    2014-01-01

    A new selective chemodosimeter probe was developed by the introduction of dithizone (DTZ) as a simple and available dye for detection of cyanide in aqueous media which enables recognition of cyanide over other competing anions such as acetate, dihydrogen phosphate, fluoride and benzoate through covalent bonding. The sensing properties of DTZ were investigated in DMSO/H2O (1:9) and have demonstrated a very high selectivity toward the cyanide anions. A reasonable recognition mechanism was suggested using UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. Time dependent density function theory (TDDFT) computations of UV-Vis excitation for DTZ2-CN adduct agreed well with our experimental findings. The detection limit of the new chromogenic probe was measured to be 0.48 μmol L(-1) which is much lower than most recently reported chromogenic probes for cyanide determination. The analytical utility of the method for the analysis of cyanide ions in electroplating wastewater (EPWW), human serum, tap and mineral water samples was demonstrated and the results were compared successfully with the conventional reference method. The short time response and the detection by the naked eye make the method available for the detection and quantitative determination of cyanide in a variety of real samples.

  11. Nucleophilic addition of amines to ruthenium carbenes: ortho-(alkynyloxy)benzylamine cyclizations towards 1,3-benzoxazines.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Carlos; Suárez, José Ramón; Varela, Jesús A; Saá, Carlos

    2015-02-23

    A new ruthenium-catalyzed cyclization of ortho-(alkynyloxy)benzylamines to dihydro-1,3-benzoxazines is reported. The cyclization is thought to take place via the vinyl ruthenium carbene intermediates which are easily formed from [Cp*RuCl(cod)] and N2 CHSiMe3 . The mild reaction conditions and the efficiency of the procedure allow the easy preparation of a broad range of new 2-vinyl-2-substituted 1,3-benzoxazine derivatives. Rearrangement of an internal C(sp) in the starting material into a tetrasubstituted C(sp(3) ) atom in the final 1,3-benzoxazine is highly remarkable. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dithizone as novel and efficient chromogenic probe for cyanide detection in aqueous media through nucleophilic addition into diazenylthione moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Kiyani, Sajede

    2014-03-01

    A new selective chemodosimeter probe was developed by the introduction of dithizone (DTZ) as a simple and available dye for detection of cyanide in aqueous media which enables recognition of cyanide over other competing anions such as acetate, dihydrogen phosphate, fluoride and benzoate through covalent bonding. The sensing properties of DTZ were investigated in DMSO/H2O (1:9) and have demonstrated a very high selectivity toward the cyanide anions. A reasonable recognition mechanism was suggested using UV-Vis, 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. Time dependent density function theory (TDDFT) computations of UV-Vis excitation for DTZ2-CN adduct agreed well with our experimental findings. The detection limit of the new chromogenic probe was measured to be 0.48 μmol L-1 which is much lower than most recently reported chromogenic probes for cyanide determination. The analytical utility of the method for the analysis of cyanide ions in electroplating wastewater (EPWW), human serum, tap and mineral water samples was demonstrated and the results were compared successfully with the conventional reference method. The short time response and the detection by the naked eye make the method available for the detection and quantitative determination of cyanide in a variety of real samples.

  13. Theoretical Design and Calculation of a Crown Ether Phase-Transfer-Catalyst Scaffold for Nucleophilic Fluorination Merging Two Catalytic Concepts.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nathália F; Pliego, Josefredo R

    2016-09-16

    Fluorinated organic molecules are playing an increased role in the area of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. This fact demands the development of efficient catalytic fluorination processes. In this paper, we have designed a new crown ether with four hydroxyl groups strategically positioned. The catalytic activity of this basic scaffold was investigated with high levels of electronic structure theory, such as the ONIOM approach combining MP4 and MP2 methods. On the basis of the calculations, this new structure is able to solubilize potassium fluoride in toluene solution much more efficiently than 18-crown-6 (18C6). In addition, the strong interaction of the new catalyst with the SN2 transition state leads to a very important catalytic effect, with a predicted free energy barrier of 23.3 kcal mol(-1) for potassium fluoride plus ethyl bromide reaction model. Compared with experimental data and previous theoretical studies, this new catalyst is 10(4) times more efficient than 18C6 for nucleophilic fluorination of alkyl halides. The catalysis is predicted to be selective, leading to 97% of fluorination and only 3% of elimination. Catalytic fluorination of the aromatic ring has also been investigated, and although the catalyst is less efficient in this case, our analysis has indicated further development of this strategy can lead to more efficient catalysis.

  14. Rapid determination of trace semicarbazide in flour products by high-performance liquid chromatography based on a nucleophilic substitution reaction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tianfu; Li, Gongke; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2017-05-01

    Semicarbazide, a toxic food contaminant, widely exists in food products and it originates from the thermal degradation of a food additive of azodicarbonamide or a metabolite of nitrofurazone abused in meat specimens. Many previous methods for semicarbazide determination usually required expensive instruments, difficult-to-prepare monoclonal antibodies, and a long operation time. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the rapid determination of trace semicarbazide coupling with a nucleophilic substitution reaction firstly using 4-nitrobenzoyl chloride as derivatization reagent. The derivatization reaction was mild at room temperature for 1 min in neutral solution. Then, semicarbazide derivative was separated and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection under optimal separation conditions at λmax = 261 nm. The proposed method offered the detection limit of 1.8 μg/L and was successfully applied for the rapid determination of trace semicarbazide in flour products. Semicarbazide in positive real samples could be actually found and quantified in the range of 0.47-7.53 mg/kg. The recoveries were 76.6-119% with relative standard deviations of 0.5-9.1% (n = 3). This developed method was rapid, reliable, and convenient for the determination of trace semicarbazide in food. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Theoretical estimation of kinetic parameters for nucleophilic substitution reactions in solution: an application of a solution translational entropy model.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling-Li; Li, Shi-Jun; Fang, De-Cai

    2016-02-17

    The kinetic parameters, such as activation entropy, activation enthalpy, activation free-energy, and reaction rate constant, for a series of nucleophilic substitution (SN) reactions in solution, are investigated using both a solution-phase translational entropy model and an ideal gas-phase translational entropy model. The results obtained from the solution translational entropy model are in excellent agreement with the experimental values, while the overestimation of activation free-energy from the ideal gas-phase translational entropy model is as large as 6.9 kcal mol(-1). For some of the reactions studied, such as and in methanol, and and in aqueous solution, the explicit + implicit model, namely, a cluster-continuum type model, should be employed to account for the strong solvent-solute interactions. In addition, the explicit + implicit models have also been applied to the DMSO-H2O mixtures, which would open up a door to investigate the reactions in a mixed solvent using density functional theory (DFT) methods.

  16. Highly nucleophilic acetylide, vinyl, and vinylidene complexes. Final progress report, 1 January 1991--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, G.L.

    1994-10-04

    In the course of this research the authors found that the anionic alkynyl complex [Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 3}]{sup {minus}} can be generated in situ by the addition of two equivalents of n-BuLi to a solution of the carbene complex Cp{prime}(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{double_bond}C(OMe)CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}. It was also found that the highly nucleophilic propynyl complex [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn-C{triple_bond}C-Me]{sup {minus}} reacts with a variety of aldehydes and ketones in the presence of BF{sub 3}{center_dot}Et{sub 2}O to give, after quenching with MeOH, a series of cationic vinylcarbyne complexes of the general form [Cp(CO)(PPh{sub 3})Mn{triple_bond}C-C(Me){double_bond}C(R)(R{prime})]BF{sub 4}. The cationic alkylidyne complexes [Cp(CO){sub 2}M{triple_bond}C-CH{sub 2}R]{sup +} [M = Re, R = H, M = Mn, R = H, Me, Ph] have been found to undergo facile deprotonation to give the corresponding neutral vinylidene complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}M{double_bond}C{double_bond}C(H)R. The authors have also investigated reactions relevant to the halide promoted Fe and Ru catalyzed carbonylation of nitroaromatics. The final part of this work has involved investigations of metal-oxo complexes.

  17. Nucleophilic substitution with two reactive centers: The CN{sup −} + CH{sub 3}I case

    SciTech Connect

    Carrascosa, E.; Bawart, M.; Stei, M.; Carelli, F.; Meyer, J.; Gianturco, F. A.; Wester, R.; Linden, F.; Geppert, W. D.

    2015-11-14

    The nucleophilic substitution reaction CN{sup −} + CH{sub 3}I allows for two possible reactive approaches of the reactant ion onto the methyl halide, which lead to two different product isomers. Stationary point calculations predict a similar shape of the potential and a dominant collinear approach for both attacks. In addition, an H-bonded pre-reaction complex is identified as a possible intermediate structure. Submerged potential energy barriers hint at a statistical formation process of both CNCH{sub 3} and NCCH{sub 3} isomers at the experimental collision energies. Experimental angle- and energy differential cross sections show dominant direct rebound dynamics and high internal excitation of the neutral product. No distinct bimodal distributions can be extracted from the velocity images, which impedes the indication of a specific preference towards any of the product isomers. A forward scattering simulation based on the experimental parameters describes accurately the experimental outcome and shows how the possibility to discriminate between the two isomers is mainly hindered by the large product internal excitation.

  18. Benefits of a Dual Chemical and Physical Activation: Direct aza-Michael Addition of Anilines Promoted by Solvent Effect under High Pressure.

    PubMed

    Fedotova, Alena; Crousse, Benoit; Chataigner, Isabelle; Maddaluno, Jacques; Rulev, Alexander Yu; Legros, Julien

    2015-10-16

    The unique combination of hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) employed as solvent and hyperbaric conditions (10-15 kbar) allows unprecedented 1,4-addition of poor nucleophiles, such as aromatic amines, onto sluggish (cumbersome) Michael acceptors without any promoter or workup.

  19. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF 4-HYDROXY-2-NONENAL AND ACROLEIN TOXICITY: NUCLEOPHILIC TARGETS AND ADDUCT FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    LoPachin, Richard M.; Gavin, Terrence; Petersen, Dennis R.; Barber, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) are by-products of lipid peroxidation and are thought to play central roles in various traumatic injuries and disease states that involve cellular oxidative stress; e.g., spinal cord trauma, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease. In this Commentary, we will discuss the chemical attributes of acrolein and HNE that determine their toxicities. Specifically, these aldehydes are classified as type-2 alkenes and are characterized by an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl structure. This structure is a conjugated system that contains mobile pi electrons. The carbonyl oxygen atom is electronegative and can promote the withdrawal of mobile electron density from the β carbon atom causing regional electron deficiency. Based on this type of electron polarizability, both acrolein and HNE are considered to be soft electrophiles that preferentially form 1,4-Michael type adducts with soft nucleophiles. Proteomic, quantum mechanical and kinetic data will be presented indicating that cysteine sulfhydryl groups are the primary soft nucleophilic targets of acrolein and HNE. This is in contrast to nitrogen groups on harder biological nucleophiles such as lysine or histidine residues. The toxicological outcome of adduct formation is not only dependent upon residue selectivity, but also the importance of the targeted amino acid in protein function or structure. In attempting to discern the toxicological significance of a given adduct, we will consider the normal roles of cysteine, lysine and histidine residues in proteins and the relative merits of corresponding adducts in the manifestations of diseases or toxic states. Understanding the molecular actions of acrolein and HNE could provide insight into many pathogenic conditions that involve initial cellular oxidative stress and could, thereby, offer new efficacious avenues of pharmacological defense. PMID:19610654

  20. Enhanced Reactivity in Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Ion/Ion Reactions Using Triazole-Ester Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Jiexun; Peng, Zhou; Zhao, Feifei; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-02-01

    The acyl substitution reactions between 1-hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole (HOAt)/1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) ester reagents and nucleophilic side chains on peptides have been demonstrated in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions. The HOAt/HOBt ester reagents were synthesized in solution and ionized via negative nano-electrospray ionization. The anionic reagents were then reacted with doubly protonated model peptides containing amines, guanidines, and imidazoles in the gas phase. The complexes formed in the reaction cell were further probed with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) yielding either a covalently modified analyte ion or a proton transfer product ion. The covalent reaction yield of HOAt/HOBt ester reagents was demonstrated to be higher than the yield with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester reagents over a range of equivalent conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with a primary amine model system for both triazole-ester and NHS-ester reactants, which indicated a lower transition state barrier for the former reagent, consistent with experiments. The work herein demonstrates that the triazole-ester reagents are more reactive, and therefore less selective, than the analogous NHS-ester reagent. As a consequence, the triazole-ester reagents are the first to show efficient reactivity with unprotonated histidine residues in the gas phase. For all nucleophilic sites and all reagents, covalent reactions are favored under long time, low amplitude activation conditions. This work presents a novel class of reagents capable of gas-phase conjugation to nucleophilic sites in analyte ions via ion/ion chemistry.

  1. Enhanced Reactivity in Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Ion/Ion Reactions Using Triazole-Ester Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Jiexun; Peng, Zhou; Zhao, Feifei; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-07-01

    The acyl substitution reactions between 1-hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole (HOAt)/1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) ester reagents and nucleophilic side chains on peptides have been demonstrated in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions. The HOAt/HOBt ester reagents were synthesized in solution and ionized via negative nano-electrospray ionization. The anionic reagents were then reacted with doubly protonated model peptides containing amines, guanidines, and imidazoles in the gas phase. The complexes formed in the reaction cell were further probed with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) yielding either a covalently modified analyte ion or a proton transfer product ion. The covalent reaction yield of HOAt/HOBt ester reagents was demonstrated to be higher than the yield with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester reagents over a range of equivalent conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with a primary amine model system for both triazole-ester and NHS-ester reactants, which indicated a lower transition state barrier for the former reagent, consistent with experiments. The work herein demonstrates that the triazole-ester reagents are more reactive, and therefore less selective, than the analogous NHS-ester reagent. As a consequence, the triazole-ester reagents are the first to show efficient reactivity with unprotonated histidine residues in the gas phase. For all nucleophilic sites and all reagents, covalent reactions are favored under long time, low amplitude activation conditions. This work presents a novel class of reagents capable of gas-phase conjugation to nucleophilic sites in analyte ions via ion/ion chemistry.

  2. Pyrrolidine and Piperidine Formation Via Copper(II) Carboxylate Promoted Intramolecular Carboamination of Unactivated Olefins: Diastereoselectivity and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Eric S.; Fuller, Peter H.; Kasi, Dhanalakshmi; Chemler, Sherry R.

    2008-01-01

    An expanded substrate scope and in depth analysis of the reaction mechanism of the copper(II) carboxylate promoted intramolecular carboamination of unactivated alkenes is described. This method provides access to N-functionalized pyrrolidines and piperidines. Both aromatic and aliphatic γ- and δ-alkenyl N-arylsulfonamides undergo the oxidative cyclization reaction efficiently. N-Benzoyl-2-allylaniline also underwent the oxidative cyclization. The terminal olefin substrates examined were more reactive than those with internal olefins, and the latter terminated in elimination rather than carbon-carbon bond formation. The efficiency of the reaction was enhanced by the use of more organic soluble copper(II) carboxylate salts, copper(II) neodecanoate in particular. The reaction times were reduced by the use of microwave heating. High levels of diastereoselectivity were observed in the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, wherein the cis substitution pattern predominates. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in the context of the observed reactivity and in comparison to analogous reactions promoted by other reagents and conditions. Our evidence supports a mechanism wherein the N-C bond is formed via intramolecular syn aminocupration and the C-C bond is formed via intramolecular addition of a primary carbon radical to an aromatic ring. PMID:17428100

  3. Pyrrolidine and piperidine formation via copper(II) carboxylate-promoted intramolecular carboamination of unactivated olefins: diastereoselectivity and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Eric S; Fuller, Peter H; Kasi, Dhanalakshmi; Chemler, Sherry R

    2007-05-11

    An expanded substrate scope and in-depth analysis of the reaction mechanism of the copper(II) carboxylate-promoted intramolecular carboamination of unactivated alkenes is described. This method provides access to N-functionalized pyrrolidines and piperidines. Both aromatic and aliphatic gamma- and delta-alkenyl N-arylsulfonamides undergo the oxidative cyclization reaction efficiently. N-Benzoyl-2-allylaniline also underwent the oxidative cyclization. The terminal olefin substrates examined were more reactive than those with internal olefins, and the latter terminated in elimination rather than carbon-carbon bond formation. The efficiency of the reaction was enhanced by the use of more organic soluble copper(II) carboxylate salts, copper(II) neodecanoate in particular. The reaction times were reduced by the use of microwave heating. High levels of diastereoselectivity were observed in the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidines, wherein the cis substitution pattern predominates. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in the context of the observed reactivity and in comparison to analogous reactions promoted by other reagents and conditions. Our evidence supports a mechanism wherein the N-C bond is formed via intramolecular syn aminocupration and the C-C bond is formed via intramolecular addition of a primary carbon radical to an aromatic ring.

  4. Chiral phase-transfer catalysis in the asymmetric α-heterofunctionalization of prochiral nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Schörgenhumer, Johannes; Tiffner, Maximilian; Waser, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Chiral phase-transfer catalysis is one of the major catalytic principles in asymmetric catalysis. A broad variety of different catalysts and their use for challenging applications have been reported over the last decades. Besides asymmetric C-C bond forming reactions the use of chiral phase-transfer catalysts for enantioselective α-heterofunctionalization reactions of prochiral nucleophiles became one of the most important field of application of this catalytic principle. Based on several highly spectacular recent reports, we thus wish to discuss some of the most important achievements in this field within the context of this review.

  5. Chiral phase-transfer catalysis in the asymmetric α-heterofunctionalization of prochiral nucleophiles

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chiral phase-transfer catalysis is one of the major catalytic principles in asymmetric catalysis. A broad variety of different catalysts and their use for challenging applications have been reported over the last decades. Besides asymmetric C–C bond forming reactions the use of chiral phase-transfer catalysts for enantioselective α-heterofunctionalization reactions of prochiral nucleophiles became one of the most important field of application of this catalytic principle. Based on several highly spectacular recent reports, we thus wish to discuss some of the most important achievements in this field within the context of this review. PMID:28904619

  6. Nucleophilic displacement reactions of 5′-derivatised nucleosides in a vibration ball mill

    PubMed Central

    Eguaogie, Olga; Conlon, Patrick F; Ravalico, Francesco; Sweet, Jamie S T; Elder, Thomas B; Conway, Louis P; Lennon, Marc E; Hodgson, David R W

    2017-01-01

    Vibration ball-milling in a zirconia-lined vessel afforded clean and quantitative nucleophilic displacement reactions between 4-methoxybenzylthiolate salts and nucleoside 5′-halides or 5′-tosylates in five to 60 minutes. Under these conditions, commonly-encountered nucleoside cyclisation byproducts (especially of purine nucleosides) were not observed. Liquid-assisted grinding of the same 5'-iodide and 5′-tosylate substrates with potassium selenocyanate in the presence of DMF produced the corresponding 5′-selenocyanates in variable yields over the course of between one and eleven hours thereby avoiding the preparation and use of hygroscopic tetrabutylammonium salts. PMID:28179952

  7. Synthesis of Allenamides by Copper-Catalyzed Coupling of Propargylic Bromides and Nitrogen Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Charles S; Benoit, Emeline; Evano, Gwilherm

    2016-03-18

    An efficient and general synthesis of allenamides derived from oxazolidinones and hydantoins is reported. Upon activation with a combination of a copper catalyst and a 2,2'-bipyridine derivative in the presence of an inorganic base, propargylic bromides were found to be suitable reagents for the direct allenylation of nitrogen nucleophiles by a formal copper-catalyzed S(N)2' reaction. Besides the availability of the starting materials, notable features of this route to allenamides are its mild reaction conditions, the reaction being performed at room temperature in most cases, and its applicability to the preparation of mono-, di-, as well as trisubstituted allenamides.

  8. [Study of humic substance transformation in phosphatic soil in terms of nucleophilicity and electrophilicity].

    PubMed

    Kudeiarova, A Iu

    2006-01-01

    The applicability of the nucleophilicity/electrophilicity concept to the explanation of mechanisms of formation and transformation of humic substances was considered. Sequential time changes in the structure and properties of humic substances in phosphatic soil have been revealed. Different elemental composition of humic and fulvic acids at different stages of humus transformation was due to different patterns of electron density distribution in phosphorus-modified fragments of humic molecules. The important role of metals and phosphorus in realization of different pathways of humic substance transformation was demonstrated.

  9. Backbone dynamics in an intramolecular prolylpeptide-SH3 complex from the diphtheria toxin repressor, DtxR

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Nilakshee; Yi, Myunggi; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Logan, Timothy M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The diphtheria toxin repressor contains an SH3-like domain that forms an intramolecular complex with a proline-rich (Pr) peptide segment and stabilizes the inactive state of the repressor. Upon activation of DtxR by transition metals, this intramolecular complex must dissociate as the SH3 domain and Pr segment form different interactions in the active repressor. In this study we investigate the dynamics of this intramolecular complex using backbone amide nuclear spin relaxation rates determined using NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics trajectories. The SH3 domain in the unbound and bound states showed typical dynamics in that the secondary structures were fairly ordered with high generalized order parameters and low effective correlation times while residues in the loops connecting β-strands exhibited reduced generalized order parameters and required additional motional terms to adequately model the relaxation rates. Residues forming the Pr segment exhibited low order parameters with internal rotational correlation times on the order of 0.6 – 1 ns. Further analysis showed that the SH3 domain was rich in millisecond timescale motions while the Pr segment was rich in motions on the 100s μs timescale. Molecular dynamics simultations indicated structural rearrangements that may contribute to the observed relaxation rates and, together with the observed relaxation rate data, suggested that the Pr segment exhibits a binding ↔ unbinding equilibrium. The results of this study provide new insights into the nature of the intramolecular complex and provide a better understanding of the biological role of the SH3 domain in regulating DtxR activity. PMID:17976643

  10. Tyrosine-Lipid Peroxide Adducts from Radical Termination: Para-Coupling and Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N.; Kim, Hye-young H.; Hatch, Duane M.; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogs of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR as well as by mass spectrometry. The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic 13C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl 13C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignment of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision induced dissociation. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion giving a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found either in the primary or the cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein crosslinks via interprotein Michael adducts. PMID:21090613

  11. Gas-Phase Intramolecular Cyclization of Argentinated N-Allylbenzamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hezhi; Chai, Yunfeng; Jin, Zhe; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2015-05-01

    The fragmentations of argentinated N-allylbenzamides have been exhaustively studied through collision-induced dissociation and through deuterium labeling. The intriguing elimination of AgOH is certified as the consequence of intramolecular cyclization between terminal olefin and carbonyl carbon following proton transfer to carbonyl oxygen, rather than simple enolization of amide. Linear free energy correlations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to understand the competitive relationship between AgOH loss and AgH loss, which results from the 1,2-elimination of α-hydrogen (to the amido nitrogen) with the silver.

  12. Intramolecular charge transfer in donor-acceptor molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Slama-Schwok, A.; Blanchard-Desce, M.; Lehn, J.M. )

    1990-05-17

    The photophysical properties of donor-acceptor molecules, push-pull polyenes and carotenoids, have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The compounds bear various acceptor and donor groups, linked together by chains of different length and structure. The position of the absorption and fluorescence maxima and their variation in solvents of increasing polarity are in agreement with long-distance intramolecular charge-transfer processes, the linker acting as a molecular wire. The effects of the linker length and structure and of the nature of acceptor and donor are presented.

  13. Recording intramolecular mechanics during the manipulation of a large molecule.

    PubMed

    Moresco, F; Meyer, G; Rieder, K H; Tang, H; Gourdon, A; Joachim, C

    2001-08-20

    The technique of single atom manipulation by means of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) applies to the controlled displacement of large molecules. By a combined experimental and theoretical work, we show that in a constant height mode of manipulation the STM current intensity carries detailed information on the internal mechanics of the molecule when guided by the STM tip. Controlling and time following the intramolecular behavior of a large molecule on a surface is the first step towards the design of molecular tunnel-wired nanorobots.

  14. Recording Intramolecular Mechanics during the Manipulation of a Large Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresco, Francesca; Meyer, Gerhard; Rieder, Karl-Heinz; Tang, Hao; Gourdon, André; Joachim, Christian

    2001-08-01

    The technique of single atom manipulation by means of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) applies to the controlled displacement of large molecules. By a combined experimental and theoretical work, we show that in a constant height mode of manipulation the STM current intensity carries detailed information on the internal mechanics of the molecule when guided by the STM tip. Controlling and time following the intramolecular behavior of a large molecule on a surface is the first step towards the design of molecular tunnel-wired nanorobots.

  15. Catalytic Intramolecular Ketone Alkylation with Olefins by Dual Activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Nam; Dong, Guangbin

    2015-12-07

    Two complementary methods for catalytic intramolecular ketone alkylation reactions with unactivated olefins, resulting in Conia-ene-type reactions, are reported. The transformations are enabled by dual activation of both the ketone and the olefin and are atom-economical as stoichiometric oxidants or reductants are not required. Assisted by Kool's aniline catalyst, the reaction conditions can be both pH- and redox-neutral. A broad range of functional groups are thus tolerated. Whereas the rhodium catalysts are effective for the formation of five-membered rings, a ruthenium-based system that affords the six-membered ring products was also developed.

  16. C1-Cx revisited: intramolecular synergism in a cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Din, N; Damude, H G; Gilkes, N R; Miller, R C; Warren, R A; Kilburn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Endoglucanase A (CenA) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is composed of a catalytic domain and a nonhydrolytic cellulose-binding domain that can function independently. The individual domains interact synergistically in the disruption and hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. This intramolecular synergism is distinct from the well-known intermolecular synergism between individual cellulases. The catalytic domain corresponds to the hydrolytic Cx system and the cellulose-binding domain corresponds to the nonhydrolytic C1 system postulated by Reese et al. [Reese, E. T., Sui, R. G. H. & Levinson, H. S. (1950) J. Bacteriol. 59, 485-497] to be required for the hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:7972069

  17. Chemo- and Enantioselective Intramolecular Silver-Catalyzed Aziridinations.

    PubMed

    Ju, Minsoo; Weatherly, Cale D; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-08-07

    Asymmetric nitrene-transfer reactions are a powerful tool for the preparation of enantioenriched amine building blocks. Reported herein are chemo- and enantioselective silver-catalyzed aminations which transform di- and trisubstituted homoallylic carbamates into [4.1.0]-carbamate-tethered aziridines in good yields and with ee values of up to 92 %. The effects of the substrate, silver counteranion, ligand, solvent, and temperature on both the chemoselectivity and ee value were explored. Stereochemical models were proposed to rationalize the observed absolute stereochemistry of the aziridines, which undergo nucleophilic ring opening to yield enantioenriched amines with no erosion in stereochemical integrity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Reduced Reactivity of Amines against Nucleophilic Substitution via Reversible Reaction with Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Fiaz S; Kitchens, Christopher L

    2015-12-23

    The reversible reaction of carbon dioxide (CO₂) with primary amines to form alkyl-ammonium carbamates is demonstrated in this work to reduce amine reactivity against nucleophilic substitution reactions with benzophenone and phenyl isocyanate. The reversible formation of carbamates has been recently exploited for a number of unique applications including the formation of reversible ionic liquids and surfactants. For these applications, reduced reactivity of the carbamate is imperative, particularly for applications in reactions and separations. In this work, carbamate formation resulted in a 67% reduction in yield for urea synthesis and 55% reduction for imine synthesis. Furthermore, the amine reactivity can be recovered upon reversal of the carbamate reaction, demonstrating reversibility. The strong nucleophilic properties of amines often require protection/de-protection schemes during bi-functional coupling reactions. This typically requires three separate reaction steps to achieve a single transformation, which is the motivation behind Green Chemistry Principle #8: Reduce Derivatives. Based upon the reduced reactivity, there is potential to employ the reversible carbamate reaction as an alternative method for amine protection in the presence of competing reactions. For the context of this work, CO₂ is envisioned as a green protecting agent to suppress formation of n-phenyl benzophenoneimine and various n-phenyl-n-alky ureas.

  19. Nucleophilic substitution at silicon (SN2@Si) via a central reaction barrier.

    PubMed

    Bento, A Patrícia; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2007-03-16

    It is textbook knowledge that nucleophilic substitution at carbon (SN2@C) proceeds via a central reaction barrier which disappears in the corresponding nucleophilic substitution reaction at silicon (SN2@Si). Here, we address the question why the central barrier disappears from SN2@C to SN2@Si despite the fact that these processes are isostructural and isoelectronic. To this end, we have explored and analyzed the potential energy surfaces (PES) of various Cl-+CR3Cl (R=H, CH3) and Cl-+SiR3Cl model reactions (R=H, CH3, C2H5, and OCH3). Our results show that the nature of the SN2 reaction barrier is in essence steric, but that it can be modulated by electronic factors. Thus, simply by increasing the steric demand of the substituents R around the silicon atom, the SN2@Si mechanism changes from its regular single-well PES (with a stable intermediate transition complex, TC), via a triple-well PES (with a pre- and a post-TS before and after the central TC), to a double-well PES (with a TS; R=OCH3), which is normally encountered for SN2@C reactions.

  20. The second-shell metal ligands of human arginase affect coordination of the nucleophile and substrate.

    PubMed

    Stone, Everett M; Chantranupong, Lynne; Georgiou, George

    2010-12-14

    The active sites of eukaryotic arginase enzymes are strictly conserved, especially the first- and second-shell ligands that coordinate the two divalent metal cations that generate a hydroxide molecule for nucleophilic attack on the guanidinium carbon of l-arginine and the subsequent production of urea and l-ornithine. Here by using comprehensive pairwise saturation mutagenesis of the first- and second-shell metal ligands in human arginase I, we demonstrate that several metal binding ligands are actually quite tolerant to amino acid substitutions. Of >2800 double mutants of first- and second-shell residues analyzed, we found more than 80 unique amino acid substitutions, of which four were in first-shell residues. Remarkably, certain second-shell mutations could modulate the binding of both the nucleophilic water/hydroxide molecule and substrate or product ligands, resulting in activity greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. The data presented here constitute the first comprehensive saturation mutagenesis analysis of a metallohydrolase active site and reveal that the strict conservation of the second-shell metal binding residues in eukaryotic arginases does not reflect kinetic optimization of the enzyme during the course of evolution.

  1. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Anionic sp(2) -sp(3) Diboron Compounds: Readily Accessible Boryl Nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Sabrina; Neeve, Emily C; Apperley, David C; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Mo, Fanyang; Qiu, Di; Cheung, Man Sing; Dang, Li; Wang, Jianbo; Radius, Udo; Lin, Zhenyang; Kleeberg, Christian; Marder, Todd B

    2015-05-04

    Lewis base adducts of tetra-alkoxy diboron compounds, in particular bis(pinacolato)diboron (B2 pin2 ), have been proposed as the active source of nucleophilic boryl species in metal-free borylation reactions. We report the isolation and detailed structural characterization (by solid-state and solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography) of a series of anionic adducts of B2 pin2 with hard Lewis bases, such as alkoxides and fluoride. The study was extended to alternative Lewis bases, such as acetate, and other diboron reagents. The B(sp(2) )-B(sp(3) ) adducts exhibit two distinct boron environments in the solid-state and solution NMR spectra, except for [(4-tBuC6 H4 O)B2 pin2 ](-) , which shows rapid site exchange in solution. DFT calculations were performed to analyze the stability of the adducts with respect to dissociation. Stoichiometric reaction of the isolated adducts with two representative series of organic electrophiles-namely, aryl halides and diazonium salts-demonstrate the relative reactivities of the anionic diboron compounds as nucleophilic boryl anion sources.

  2. The active site sulfenic acid ligand in nitrile hydratases can function as a nucleophile.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Salette; Wu, Rui; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Liu, Dali; Holz, Richard

    2014-01-29

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase) catalyzes the hydration of nitriles to their corresponding commercially valuable amides at ambient temperatures and physiological pH. Several reaction mechanisms have been proposed for NHase enzymes; however, the source of the nucleophile remains a mystery. Boronic acids have been shown to be potent inhibitors of numerous hydrolytic enzymes due to the open shell of boron, which allows it to expand from a trigonal planar (sp(2)) form to a tetrahedral form (sp(3)). Therefore, we examined the inhibition of the Co-type NHase from Pseudonocardia thermophila JCM 3095 (PtNHase) by boronic acids via kinetics and X-ray crystallography. Both 1-butaneboronic acid (BuBA) and phenylboronic acid (PBA) function as potent competitive inhibitors of PtNHase. X-ray crystal structures for BuBA and PBA complexed to PtNHase were solved and refined at 1.5, 1.6, and 1.2 Å resolution. The resulting PtNHase-boronic acid complexes represent a "snapshot" of reaction intermediates and implicate the cysteine-sulfenic acid ligand as the catalytic nucleophile, a heretofore unknown role for the αCys(113)-OH sulfenic acid ligand. Based on these data, a new mechanism of action for the hydration of nitriles by NHase is presented.

  3. Intramolecular hydrogen migration in alkylperoxy and hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals: accurate treatment of hindered rotors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Raman, Sumathy; Green, William H

    2010-05-13

    We have calculated the thermochemistry and rate coefficients for stable molecules and reactions in the title reaction families using CBS-QB3 and B3LYP/CBSB7 methods. The accurate treatment of hindered rotors for molecules having multiple internal rotors with potentials that are not independent of each other can be problematic, and a simplified scheme is suggested to treat them. This is particularly important for hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals (HOOQOO). Two new thermochemical group values are suggested in this paper, and with these values, the group additivity method for calculation of enthalpy as implemented in reaction mechanism generator (RMG) gives good agreement with CBS-QB3 predictions. The barrier heights follow the Evans-Polanyi relationship for each type of intramolecular hydrogen migration reaction studied.

  4. Electron diffraction analysis for the molecules with degenerate large amplitude motions: Intramolecular dynamics in arsenic pentafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochikov, Igor V.; Kovtun, Dmitry M.; Tarasov, Yury I.

    2017-03-01

    There exists a noticeable disagreement in the difference of axial and equatorial bond lengths in D3h symmetry arsenic and phosphorus pentafluorides between the GED data and high level quantum chemical results. In order to resolve this disagreement, a new structural analysis of the original experiment of (Clippard & Bartell, Inorg. Chem., 9 (1970) 805-811) was undertaken on the basis of modern approach incorporating spectroscopic evidence and quantum chemical information and allowing for intramolecular large-amplitude motion. The results of the analysis prove the internal insufficiency of the experimental material in the description of the accurate positions of the peaks on the radial distribution function. Additional experimental investigation of pentahalide molecules, especially at high temperatures, is of interest.

  5. Iridium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Asymmetric Allylic Dearomatization Reaction of Pyridines, Pyrazines, Quinolines, and Isoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ze-Peng; Wu, Qing-Feng; Shao, Wen; You, Shu-Li

    2015-12-23

    The first Ir-catalyzed intramolecular asymmetric allylic dearomatization reaction of pyridines, pyrazines, quinolines, and isoquinolines has been developed. Enabled by in situ formed chiral Ir-catalyst, the dearomatized products were isolated in high levels of yield (up to 99% yield) and enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee). It is worth noting that the Me-THQphos ligand is much more efficient than other tested ligands for the dearomatization of pyrazines and certain quinolines. Mechanistic studies of the dearomatization reaction were carried out, and the results suggest the feasibility of an alternative process which features the formation of a quinolinium as the key intermediate. The mechanistic findings render this reaction a yet unknown type in the chemistry of Reissert-type reactions. In addition, the utility of this method was showcased by a large-scale reaction and formal synthesis of (+)-gephyrotoxin.

  6. Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in a 2,7-diaminofluorene chromophore decorated with two benzophenone subunits.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ming; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Chaumeil, Hélène; Defoin, Albert; Batat, Pinar; Jonusauskas, Gediminas

    2009-04-21

    An extensive photophysical analysis of a 2,7-bis-(N-4-methoxyphenyl-N-phenylamino)fluorene derivative covalently linked with two benzophenone moieties is presented. A systematic comparison with a model chromophore without benzophenone was performed. For both chromophores, the electronic properties of the ground states are completely equivalent indicating that benzophenone subunits do not exhibit any electronic interaction with the diaminofluorene core. However, at the singlet excited state, the presence of benzophenones induces the occurrence of additional non-radiative de-excitation pathways. Even the intersystem crossing rate is significantly increased with respect to that of the model one. A photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer (PIET) from diaminofluorene to benzophenone subunits is proposed as the most efficient quenching process. At low polar solvent, the emission of an exciplex confirms the PIET process and the occurrence of a partial charge separation between donor and acceptor parts.

  7. P450-catalyzed intramolecular sp(3) C-H amination with arylsulfonyl azide substrates.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ritesh; Bordeaux, Melanie; Fasan, Rudi

    2014-01-06

    The direct amination of aliphatic C-H bonds represents a most valuable transformation in organic chemistry. While a number of transition metal-based catalysts have been developed and investigated for this purpose, the possibility to execute this transformation with biological catalysts has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report that cytochrome P450 enzymes can serve as efficient catalysts for mediating intramolecular benzylic C-H amination reactions in a variety of arylsulfonyl azide compouds. Under optimized conditions, the P450 catalysts were found to support up to 390 total turnovers leading to the formation of the desired sultam products with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, the chiral environment provided by the enzyme active site allowed for the reaction to proceed in a stereo- and enantioselective manner. The C-H amination activity, substrate profile, and enantio/stereoselectivity of these catalysts could be modulated by utilizing enzyme variants with engineered active sites.

  8. Effect of Off-Diagonal Exciton-Phonon Coupling on Intramolecular Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongkai; Fujihashi, Yuta; Zhao, Yang

    2017-07-20

    Intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) materials provide remarkable advantages in terms of tunable electronic structures, and quantum chemistry studies have indicated strong electronic coupling modulation by high frequency phonon modes. In this work, we formulate a microscopic model of iSF with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal coupling to high-frequency modes. A nonperturbative treatment, the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach is adopted using the multiple Davydov trial states. It is shown that both diagonal and off-diagonal coupling can aid efficient singlet fission if excitonic coupling is weak, and fission is only facilitated by diagonal coupling if excitonic coupling is strong. In the presence of off-diagonal coupling, it is found that high frequency modes create additional fission channels for rapid iSF. Results presented here may help provide guiding principles for design of efficient singlet fission materials by directly tuning singlet-triplet interstate coupling.

  9. Structural and functional studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase B: An intramolecular trans-sialidase.

    PubMed

    Gut, Heinz; King, Samantha J; Walsh, Martin A

    2008-10-15

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae expresses neuraminidase proteins that cleave sialic acids from complex carbohydrates. The pneumococcus genome encodes up to three neuraminidase proteins that have been shown to be important virulence factors. Here, we report the first structure of a neuraminidase from S. pneumoniae: the crystal structure of NanB in complex with its reaction product 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac. Our structural data, together with biochemical analysis, establish NanB as an intramolecular trans-sialidase with strict specificity towards alpha2-3 linked sialic acid substrates. In addition, we show that NanB differs in its substrate specificity from the other pneumococcal neuraminidase NanA.

  10. Gold-Catalyzed Benzylic Azidation of Phthalans and Isochromans and Subsequent FeCl3-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Asai, Shota; Yabe, Yuki; Goto, Ryota; Nagata, Saori; Monguchi, Yasunari; Kita, Yasuyuki; Sajiki, Hironao; Sawama, Yoshinari

    2015-01-01

    The benzylic positions of the phthalan and isochroman derivatives (1) as benzene-fused cyclic ethers effectively underwent gold-catalyzed direct azidation using trimethylsilylazide (TMSN3) to give the corresponding 1-azidated products (2) possessing the N,O-acetal partial structure. The azido group of the N,O-acetal behaved as a leaving group in the presence of catalytic iron(III) chloride, and 1-aryl or allyl phthalan and isochroman derivatives were obtained by nucleophilic arylation or allylation, respectively. Meanwhile, a double nucleophilic substitution toward the 1-azidated products (2) occurred at the 1-position using indole derivatives as a nucleophile accompanied by elimination of the azido group and subsequent ring opening of the cyclic ether nucleus produced the bisindolylarylmethane derivatives.

  11. Identification of the nucleophile catalytic residue of GH51 α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Antonella; Iadonisi, Alfonso; Vincent, Florence; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-12-21

    In this paper, the recombinant α-l-arabinofuranosidase from the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (rPoAbf) was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis in order to identify the catalytic nucleophile residue. Based on bioinformatics and homology modelling analyses, E449 was revealed to be the potential nucleophilic residue. Thus, the mutant E449G of PoAbf was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris and its recombinant expression level and reactivity were investigated in comparison to the wild-type. The design of a suitable set of hydrolysis experiments in the presence or absence of alcoholic arabinosyl acceptors and/or formate salts allowed to unambiguously identify the residue E449 as the nucleophile residue involved in the retaining mechanism of this GH51 arabinofuranosidase. 1H NMR analysis was applied for the identification of the products and the assignement of their anomeric configuration.

  12. Aliphatic Versus Aromatic Nucleophilic Attack of NH3 on Trialkoxy-trinitrobenzenes in the Preparation of TATB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straessler, Nicholas A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    1,3,5-Trimethoxy-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-triethoxy-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, and 1,3-dimethoxy-2,4,6-trinitro-5-propoxybenzene were used in a comparative amination study to evaluate the effect that alkyl ether chain length has on directing the nucleophile in the preparation of 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. The results indicated that in the presence of excess ammonia, the aromatic propyl ether carbon is more susceptible to nucleophilic attack than the aromatic methyl ether carbons. Amination of 1,3,5-triethoxy-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene yielded the purest 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene. The implications of these results on the nucleophilic amination reaction are discussed.

  13. Semirubin. A novel dipyrrinone strapped by intramolecular hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Huggins, M T; Lightner, D A

    2000-09-22

    (4Z)-9-(5-Carboxypentyl)-2,3,7,8-tetramethyl-(10H)-dipyrrin- 1-one (1, semirubin), a new dipyrrinone model for one-half of bilirubin, the yellow-orange neurotoxic pigment of jaundice, was synthesized following Friedel-Crafts acylation of 2,3,7, 8-tetramethyl-(10H)-dipyrrin-1-one (5) with the half-ester acid chloride of adipic acid. Unlike other dipyrrinone models for bilirubin, such as the xanthobilirubic acids, which engage only in intermolecular hydrogen bonding, 1 is unique in having been designed and found to engage in intramolecular hydrogen bonding, between the carboxylic acid and the dipyrrinone lactam and pyrrole. This important conformation-determining structural characteristic, shared by 1 and bilirubin, renders them less polar than their methyl esters and leaves them monomeric in nonpolar solvents, where their esters are dimeric. The corresponding 10-oxo analogue (3) of 1 serves as a model for 10-oxo-bilirubin, a presumed bilirubin metabolite in alternate pathways for bilirubin excretion. Like 1, 3 is found to engage in intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Unlike the methyl ester of 1, the ethyl ester of 3 is not intermolecularly hydrogen bonded in nonpolar solvents.

  14. Heuristic RNA pseudoknot prediction including intramolecular kissing hairpins

    PubMed Central

    Sperschneider, Jana; Datta, Amitava; Wise, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoknots are an essential feature of RNA tertiary structures. Simple H-type pseudoknots have been studied extensively in terms of biological functions, computational prediction, and energy models. Intramolecular kissing hairpins are a more complex and biologically important type of pseudoknot in which two hairpin loops form base pairs. They are hard to predict using free energy minimization due to high computational requirements. Heuristic methods that allow arbitrary pseudoknots strongly depend on the quality of energy parameters, which are not yet available for complex pseudoknots. We present an extension of the heuristic pseudoknot prediction algorithm DotKnot, which covers H-type pseudoknots and intramolecular kissing hairpins. Our framework allows for easy integration of advanced H-type pseudoknot energy models. For a test set of RNA sequences containing kissing hairpins and other types of pseudoknot structures, DotKnot outperforms competing methods from the literature. DotKnot is available as a web server under http://dotknot.csse.uwa.edu.au. PMID:21098139

  15. Intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid in vinegar.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Ryota; Yamada, Keita; Kikuchi, Makiko; Hirano, Satoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2011-09-14

    Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of acetic acid is useful for origin discrimination and quality control of vinegar. Intramolecular carbon isotope distributions, which are each carbon isotope ratios of the methyl and carboxyl carbons in the acetic acid molecule, may be required to obtain more detailed information to discriminate such origin. In this study, improved gas chromatography-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-GC-C-IRMS) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to measure the intramolecular carbon isotope distributions of acetic acid in 14 Japanese vinegars. The results demonstrated that the methyl carbons of acetic acid molecules in vinegars produced from plants were mostly isotopically depleted in (13)C relative to the carboxyl carbon. Moreover, isotopic differences (δ(13)C(carboxyl) - δ(13)C(methyl)) had a wide range from -0.3 to 18.2‰, and these values differed among botanical origins, C3, C4, and CAM plants.

  16. Recent Advances in Asymmetric Organocatalyzed Conjugate Additions to Nitroalkenes.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Diego A; Baeza, Alejandro; Chinchilla, Rafael; Gómez, Cecilia; Guillena, Gabriela; Pastor, Isidro M; Ramón, Diego J

    2017-05-29

    The asymmetric conjugate addition of carbon and heteroatom nucleophiles to nitroalkenes is a very interesting tool for the construction of highly functionalized synthetic building blocks. Thanks to the rapid development of asymmetric organocatalysis, significant progress has been made during the last years in achieving efficiently this process, concerning chiral organocatalysts, substrates and reaction conditions. This review surveys the advances in asymmetric organocatalytic conjugate addition reactions to α,β-unsaturated nitroalkenes developed between 2013 and early 2017.

  17. Analysis of chemical warfare agents III. Use of bis-nucleophiles in the trace level determination of phosgene and perfluoroisobutylene.

    PubMed

    Muir, Bob; Cooper, David B; Carrick, Wendy A; Timperley, Christopher M; Slater, Ben J; Quick, Suzanne

    2005-12-09

    The reactivity of phosgene and perfluoroisobutylene (PFIB) towards 1,2-bis-nucleophiles was exploited to allow determination of these gases in air samples. 2-Aminothiophenol (ATP), 3,4-dimercaptotoluene (DMT) and 2-hydroxymethylpiperidine (HMP) were evaluated as bis-nucleophiles capable of forming thermally-stable derivatives with phosgene and PFIB when loaded with triethylamine onto Tenax TA. Experimental design was used to optimise thermal desorption conditions. Detection limits in the low ngm(-3) range were observed for the five derivatives investigated. This work represents the most sensitive analytical method for trace level quantitation of phosgene and PFIB published to date.

  18. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding Restricts Gd-Aqua-Ligand Dynamics [The Day the Water Stood Still: Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding to Restrict Gd-Aqua Ligand Dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Boros, Eszter; Srinivas, Raja; Kim, Hee -Kyung; ...

    2017-04-11

    Aqua ligands can undergo rapid internal rotation about the M-O bond. For magnetic resonance contrast agents, this rotation results in diminished relaxivity. Herein, we show that an intramolecular hydrogen bond to the aqua ligand can reduce this internal rotation and increase relaxivity. Molecular modeling was used to design a series of four Gd complexes capable of forming an intramolecular H-bond to the coordinated water ligand, and these complexes had anomalously high relaxivities compared to similar complexes lacking a H-bond acceptor. Molecular dynamics simulations supported the formation of a stable intramolecular H-bond, while alternative hypotheses that could explain the higher relaxivitymore » were systematically ruled out. Finally, intramolecular H-bonding represents a useful strategy to limit internal water rotational motion and increase relaxivity of Gd complexes.« less

  19. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen bonding of compounds based on 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazole in solution: A TDDFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Yufang; Yang, Yonggang; Yang, Dapeng; Sun, Jinfeng

    2014-12-01

    The excited-state properties of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the compounds based on 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazole (6 and its tautomers 6a and 6b) have been investigated using theoretical methods. According to the geometric optimization and IR spectra in the ground and excited states calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods respectively, the type of intramolecular hydrogen bonding N⋯Hsbnd O in 6 and 6a is demonstrated to be significantly strengthened, while Nsbnd H⋯O in the tautomers 6a and 6b are proved to be sharply weakened upon excitation to excited state S1. The calculated absorption peaks of 6 are in good accordance with the experimental results. Moreover, other compounds based on 6 that R1 and R2 are both substituted as well as that only R1 is substituted are investigated to understand the effect of substituent on intramolecular hydrogen bonding. It is found that the hydrogen bond strength can be controlled by the inductive field effect of the substituent. In addition, the intramolecular charge transfers (ICT) of the S1 state for 6 and its tautomers 6a and 6b were theoretically investigated by analyses of molecular orbital.

  20. Intramolecular cyclization of a diruthenium complex: insight into the mechanism of heteroatom-directed intramolecular C-H/olefin coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dawei; Hu, Bowen; Shi, Jing; Chen, Dafa

    2015-07-28

    Complex 2, synthesized by the reaction of {(C5H4N)(μ2-η(5):η(1)-C9H5)}Ru3(CO)9 (1) with 1,5-hexadiene, could further transform to another diruthenium complex 3via intramolecular carbometalation. The results are relevant to the mechanism of transition-metal catalyzed heteroatom-directed intramolecular C-H/olefin coupling reactions.

  1. One pot synthesis of Curcumin-NSAIDs prodrug, spectroscopic characterization, conformational analysis, chemical reactivity, intramolecular interactions and first order hyperpolarizability by DFT method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Gupta, Preeti; Sethi, Arun; Singh, Ranvijay Pratap

    2016-08-01

    A novel Curcumin-NSAIDs prodrug 4-((1E, 3Z, 6E)-3-hydroxy-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-oxohepta-1,3,3-trienyl)-2-methoxyphenyl-2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propanoate (2) derivative was synthesized by Steglich esterification in high yield and characterized with the help of 1H, 13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, UV, FT-IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The molecular geometry of synthesized compound was calculated in ground state by Density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) using two different basis set 6-31G (d, p) and 6-311G (d, p). Conformational analysis of 2 was carried out to determine the most stable conformation. Stability of the molecule as a result of hyperconjugative interactions and electron delocalization were analysed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Intramolecular interactions were analysed by AIM (Atom in molecule) approach. Global and local reactivity descriptors were calculated to study the reactive site within molecule. The electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated using time dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT). The vibrational wavenumbers were calculated using DFT method and assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED). First hyperpolarizability value has been calculated to describe the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of the synthesized compound. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) for synthesized compounds have also been determined to check their electrophilic or nucleophilic reactivity.

  2. Novel synthetic ester of Brassicasterol, DFT investigation including NBO, NLO response, reactivity descriptor and its intramolecular interactions analyzed by AIM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Arun; Prakash, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, Brassicasterol (compound 1) isolated from Allamanda Violacea reacted with the well known NSAID ibuprofen by Steglich esterification yielding a novel steroidal ester, 3β-(2-(4-isobutyl phenyl) propionoxy) 24 methyl cholest-5, 22-dien (compound 2). Identity of synthetic derivative (compound 2) was done with the help of modern spectroscopic techniques like, 1H NMR, IR and UV as well as mass spectrometry. Molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of compound 2 were calculated using density functional method (DFT/B3LYP) and 6-31(d,p) basis set. NMR chemical shifts of the compound were calculated with GIAO method. Electronic properties such as HOMO-LUMO energies were measured with the help of time dependent DFT method. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to study hyperconjugative interactions. Non linear optical (NLO) response of compound 2 was also evaluated. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface has been used to indicate nucleophilic and electrophilic sites. Global reactivity descriptors of compound 1 and 2 were also calculated. Intramolecular interactions were analyzed using Atoms in molecule (AIM) theory.

  3. Lithium choreography: intramolecular arylations of carbamate-stabilised carbanions and their mechanisms probed by in situ IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Anne M; Nichols, Christopher J; Vincent, Mark A; Hillier, Ian H; Clayden, Jonathan

    2012-12-14

    Deprotonation of O-allyl, O-propargyl or O-benzyl carbamates in the presence of a lithium counterion leads to carbamate-stabilised organolithium compounds that may be quenched with electrophiles. We now report that when the allylic, propargylic or benzylic carbamate bears an N-aryl substituent, an aryl migration takes place, leading to stereochemical inversion and C-arylation of the carbamate α to oxygen. The aryl migration is an intramolecular S(N) Ar reaction, despite the lack of anion-stabilising aryl substituents. Our in situ IR studies reveal a number of intermediates along the rearrangement pathway, including a "pre-lithiation complex," the deprotonated carbamate, the rearranged anion, and the final arylated carbamate. No evidence was obtained for a dearomatised intermediate during the aryl migration. DFT calculations predict that during the reaction the solvated Li cation moves from the carbanion centre, thus freeing its lone pair for nucleophilic attack on the remote phenyl ring. This charge separation leads to several alternative conformations. The one having Li(+) bound to the carbamate oxygen gives rise to the lowest-energy transition structure, and also leads to inversion of the configuration. In agreement with the IR studies, the DFT calculations fail to locate a dearomatised intermediate. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Reaction of trifluoroacetaldehyde with amino acids, nucleotides, lipid nucleophiles, and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Crowder, R J; Jones, J P; Anders, M W

    1996-01-01

    Trihaloacetaldehydes are used as sedatives, are key intermediates in the metabolism of 1,1,1,2-tetrahaloethanes, some of which are chlorofluorocarbon substitutes, and are metabolites of trihaloethanols, which are intestinal and bone marrow toxins. In the present study, trifluoroacetaldehyde was used as a model to examine the reactions of trihaloacetaldehydes with cellular nucleophiles, including amino acids, nucleotides, and lipid components. Reaction of trifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate (10 mM) with amino acids (100 mM) in buffer at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C showed that only L-cysteine formed stable adducts, which were identified as (2R,4R)- and (2S,4R)-2-(trifluoromethyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. The absolute stereochemistry of (2R,4R)- and (2S,4R)-2-(trifluoromethyl)thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid was determined by homonuclear Overhauser effect experiments. The diastereoisomers were formed in a 2.8:1 ratio at 37 degrees C and in a 1:4.0 ratio at 80 degrees C. Trifluoroacetaldehyde also reacted with L-cysteine methyl ester and 2-mercaptoethylamine to form stable thiazolidine derivatives, but did not react with N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The reaction of trifluoroacetaldehyde with the amino groups of ATP, GMP, CMP, L-citrulline, and urea resulted in the formation of stable imines. TMP, which lacks an exocyclic amino group, did not react. Glutathione reacted with trifluoroacetaldehyde to form (2R,5R)- and (2S,5R)-5-amino-6-[carboxymethyl)imino]-2-(trifluoromethyl)-1,3- oxathiane, whose formation was accompanied by simultaneous cleavage of the glutamyl moiety. The reactivity of nucleophilic groups with trifluoroacetaldehyde follows the order SH > NH2 > OH. The results of the present study indicate that trifluoroacetaldehyde covalently modifies cellular nucleophiles. The biological significance of these reactions warrants further investigation. The reaction of trifluoroacetaldehyde with L-cysteine and glutathione may afford routes for the stereoselective synthesis of

  5. Identification of Glu-120 as the catalytic nucleophile in Streptomyces lividans endoglucanase celB.

    PubMed Central

    Zechel, D L; He, S; Dupont, C; Withers, S G

    1998-01-01

    Streptomyces lividans CelB is a family-12 endoglucanase that hydrolyses cellulose with retention of anomeric configuration. A recent X-ray structure of the catalytic domain at 1.75 A resolution has led to the preliminary assignment of Glu-120 and Glu-203 as the catalytic nucleophile and general acid-base respectively [Sulzenbacher, Shareck, Morosoli, Dupont and Davies (1997) Biochemistry 36, 16032-16039]. The present study confirms the identity of the nucleophile by trapping the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate with the mechanism-based inactivator 2', 4'-dinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta-D-cellobioside (2FDNPC). The kinetics of inactivation proceeded in a saturable fashion, yielding the parameters kinact=0.29+/-0.02 min-1 and Kinact=0.72+/-0.08 mM. Uncompetitive inhibition was observed at high concentrations of 2FDNPC (Ki=9+/-1 mM), a behaviour that was also observed with the substrate 2',4'-dinitrophenyl beta-D-cellobioside (kcat=40+/-1 s-1, Km=0.35+/-0.03 mM, Ki=24+/-4 mM). Protection against inactivation was afforded by the competitive inhibitor cellobiose. The electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrum of the intact labelled CelB indicated that the inactivator had labelled the enzyme stoichiometrically. Reactivation of the trapped intermediate occurred spontaneously (kH2O=0.0022 min-1) or via transglycosylation, with cellobiose acting as an acceptor ligand (kreact=0.024 min-1, Kreact=54 mM). Digestion of the labelled enzyme by pepsin followed by LC-ESI-tandem MS (MS-MS) operating in neutral loss mode identified a labelled, singly charged peptide of m/z 947.5 Da. Isolation of this peptide by HPLC and subsequent collision-induced fragmentation by ESI-MS-MS produced a daughter-ion spectrum that corresponded to a sequence (QTEIM) containing Glu-120. The nucleophile Glu-120 and the putative acid-base catalyst Glu-203 are conserved in all known family-12 sequences. PMID:9806895

  6. Online Measurement of the Intramolecular Isotopic Composition of Acetate in Natural Porewater Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane are traditionally considered to be the dominant end products of anaerobic metabolism while acetate is thought to be a rapidly consumed intermediate. However, in some settings, recent evidence has grown to suggest that, at least transiently, acetate can be a major metabolic end product. In natural systems, isotopic mass balances can be used to partition the flow of carbon to methane, CO2, and acetate. However, these isotopic estimates require intramolecular measurements of acetate in addition to isotopic measurements of the gaseous species, CO2 and CH4. In practice, the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate is rarely measured because the analysis is technically challenging and traditionally requires prior separation and offline pyrolysis of purified acetate. As a result of these technical challenges, acetate methyl carbon is usually assumed to be a few permil depleted relative to the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter. In environments where acetate may be produced by autotrophic acetogens this assumption can be devastatingly false. This work describes the use of an online method for the analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of dissolved acetate from dilute surface water samples with a detection limit of injected sample down to 500uM. Preconcentration of samples via lyophilization has resulted in detection limits as low as 30uM. In 2002, at Penn State, Dias et al. (Organic Geochemistry Vol. 33, p161-168) reported a technique to examine the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate from oil-prone source rocks using SPME extraction with an online GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. We have adapted the Dias method to be used with direct injection of dilute natural water samples. Briefly, this procedure protonates acetate with a .1M addition of oxalic acid and vaporizes the sample in the GC inlet at low temperatures. This prevents oxalic acid decomposition and provides sufficient separation of acetate from

  7. Strong intramolecular calcium-π interactions with aryl substituents--requirements and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loh, Claas; Seupel, Susanne; Koch, Alexander; Görls, Helmar; Krieck, Sven; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2014-10-14

    The amidines Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)-Qu (1a) (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, Qu = 8-quinolyl) and Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)-Py (1b) (Py = 2-pyridyl) are deprotonated with KN(SiMe3)2, yielding potassium N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(8-quinolyl)pivalamidinate (2a) and potassium N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(2-pyridyl)pivalamidinate (2b). Metalation of 1a with [(thf)2Ca{N(SiMe3)2}2] in tetrahydrofuran (thf) leads to the formation of ether-free calcium bis[N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(8-quinolyl)pivalamidinate] (3a) with a strong intramolecular calcium-π interaction with one Dipp group. Furthermore, agostic bonds to one tert-butyl substituent complete the coordination sphere of the metal center and stabilize this bonding situation. The metathesis reaction of 2b with [(thf)4CaI2] yields the thf adduct of calcium bis[N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(2-pyridyl)pivalamidinate] (3b). In addition to the bonds between calcium and the hard Lewis bases (oxygen of thf, nitrogen atoms of the pyridylamido moieties), anagostic Ca-H bonds to the tert-butyl substituents complete the coordination sphere. The intramolecular calcium-π interaction with an aryl group as observed in 3a requires steric shielding of the alkaline earth metal center, safely excluding the formation of a complex with more than one thf ligand.

  8. Aqueous synthesis of 1-H-2-substituted benzimidazoles via transition-metal-free intramolecular amination of aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxia; Chen, Chen; Li, Bin; Tao, Jingwei; Peng, Jinsong

    2012-10-24

    A straightforward method has been developed for the synthesis of the benzimidazole ring system through a carbon-nitrogen cross-coupling reaction. In the presence of 2.0 equiv. of K(2)CO(3) in water at 100 °C for 30 h, the intramolecular cyclization of N-(2-iodoaryl)benzamidine provides benzimidazole derivatives in moderate to high yields. Remarkably, the procedure occurs exclusively in water and doesn’t require the use of any additional reagent/catalyst, rendering the methodology highly valuable from both environmental and economical points of view.

  9. Conversion of the rocket propellant UDMH to a reagent useful in vicarious nucleophilic substitution reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1995-11-10

    The objective of our program is to develop novel, innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus energetic materials resulting from the demilitarization of conventional and nuclear munitions. In this report we describe the use of surplus propellant (UDMH) and explosives (TNT, Explosive D) as chemical precursors for higher value products. The conversion of UDMH to 1,1,1-trimethylhydrazinium iodide (TMHI) provides a new aminating reagent for use in Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution (VNS) reactions. When TMHI is reacted with various nitroarenes the amino functionality is introduced in good to excellent yields. Thus, 2,4,6-trinitroaniline (picramide) reacts with TMHI to give 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitroaniline (TATB) while 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) reacts with TMHI to give 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT). The advantages, scope and limitations of the VNS approach and the use of TMHI are discussed.

  10. Effect of electrophilic and nucleophilic substituents on the protonation microequilibria of tyrosine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sipos, P; Peintler, G; Tóth, G

    1992-03-01

    The microscopic protonation constants of 10 tyrosine-like, unusual amino acids used in the syntheses of opioid peptides have been determined by using a combined pH-metric-spectrophotometric method, at 0.10 mol dm-3 (NaCl) ionic strength and 25.0 degrees. The role of the different electrophilic and nucleophilic substituents on the individual basicity of the aliphatic amine and phenolic hydroxylate basic centers is discussed in detail. The interactivity parameters between these two groups correlate fairly well with the structure of the skeleton and the distance between the two basic centers, but they were found to be substituent-independent. This finding made it possible to extend the calculations to compounds having non-overlapping protonation equilibria.

  11. Taming of fluoroform: direct nucleophilic trifluoromethylation of Si, B, S, and C centers.

    PubMed

    Prakash, G K Surya; Jog, Parag V; Batamack, Patrice T D; Olah, George A

    2012-12-07

    Fluoroform (CF(3)H), a large-volume by-product of the manufacture of Teflon, refrigerants, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), fire-extinguishing agents, and foams, is a potent and stable greenhouse gas that has found little practical use despite the growing importance of trifluoromethyl (CF3) functionality in more structurally elaborate pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials. Direct nucleophilic trifluoromethylation using CF(3)H has been a challenge. Here, we report on a direct trifluoromethylation protocol using close to stoichiometric amounts of CF(3)H in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), diethyl ether, and toluene. The methodology is widely applicable to a variety of silicon, boron, and sulfur-based electrophiles, as well as carbon-based electrophiles.

  12. Highly Enantioselective Nucleophilic Dearomatization of Pyridines by Anion-Binding Catalysis.

    PubMed

    García Mancheño, Olga; Asmus, Sören; Zurro, Mercedes; Fischer, Theresa

    2015-07-20

    The asymmetric dearomatization of N-heterocycles is an important synthetic method to gain bioactive and synthetically valuable chiral heterocycles. However, the catalytic enantio- and regioselective dearomatization of the simplest six-membered-ring N-heteroarenes, the pyridines, is still very challenging. The first anion-binding-catalyzed, highly enantioselective nucleophilic dearomatization of pyridines with triazole-based H-bond donor catalysts is presented. Contrary to other more common NH-based H-bond donors, this type of organocatalyst shows a prominent higher C2-regioselectivity and is able to promote high enantioinductions via formation of a close chiral anion-pair complex with a preformed N-acyl pyridinium ionic intermediate. This method offers a straightforward and useful synthetic approach to chiral N-heterocycles from abundant and readily available pyridines.

  13. Mechanism of Oxidative Amidation of Nitroalkanes with Oxygen and Amine Nucleophiles by Using Electrophilic Iodine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lear, Martin J; Kwon, Eunsang; Hayashi, Yujiro

    2016-04-11

    Recently, we developed a direct method to oxidatively convert primary nitroalkanes into amides that entailed mixing an iodonium source with an amine, base, and oxygen. Herein, we systematically investigated the mechanism and likely intermediates of such methods. We conclude that an amine-iodonium complex first forms through N-halogen bonding. This complex reacts with aci-nitronates to give both α-iodo- and α,α-diiodonitroalkanes, which can act as alternative sources of electrophilic iodine and also generate an extra equimolar amount of I(+) under O2. In particular, evidence supports α,α-diiodonitroalkane intermediates reacting with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy adduct; alternatively, these tetrahedral intermediates rearrange anaerobically to form a cleavable nitrite ester. In either case, activated esters are proposed to form that eventually reacts with nucleophilic amines in a traditional fashion.

  14. Diverse Reactivity of an Electrophilic Phosphasilene towards Anionic Nucleophiles: Substitution or Metal-Amino Exchange.

    PubMed

    Willmes, Philipp; Junk, Lukas; Huch, Volker; Yildiz, Cem B; Scheschkewitz, David

    2016-08-26

    The reaction of MesLi (Mes=2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) with the electrophilic phosphasilene R2 (NMe2 )Si-RSi=PNMe2 (2, R=Tip=2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl) cleanly affords R2 (NMe2 )Si-RSi=PMes and thus provides the first example of a substitution reaction at an unperturbed Si=P bond. In toluene, the reaction of 2 with lithium disilenide, R2 Si=Si(R)Li (1), apparently proceeds via an initial nucleophilic substitution step as well (as suggested by DFT calculations), but affords a saturated bicyclo[1.1.0]butane analogue as the final product, which was further characterized as its Fe(CO)4 complex. In contrast, in 1,2-dimethoxyethane the reaction of 1 with 2 results in an unprecedented metal-amino exchange reaction.

  15. Nucleophilic catalysis of acylhydrazone equilibration for protein-directed dynamic covalent chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Venugopal T.; Caniard, Anne M.; Luksch, Torsten; Brenk, Ruth; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Greaney, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic covalent chemistry uses reversible chemical reactions to set up an equilibrating network of molecules at thermodynamic equilibrium, which can adjust its composition in response to any agent capable of altering the free energy of the system. When the target is a biological macromolecule, such as a protein, the process corresponds to the protein directing the synthesis of its own best ligand. Here, we demonstrate that reversible acylhydrazone formation is an effective chemistry for biological dynamic combinatorial library formation. In the presence of aniline as a nucleophilic catalyst, dynamic combinatorial libraries equilibrate rapidly at pH 6.2, are fully reversible, and may be switched on or off by means of a change in pH. We have interfaced these hydrazone dynamic combinatorial libraries with two isozymes from the glutathione S-transferase class of enzyme, and observed divergent amplification effects, where each protein selects the best-fitting hydrazone for the hydrophobic region of its active site. PMID:20489719

  16. Intramolecular hydrophobic interactions are critical mediators of STAT5 dimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Li, Jinyu; Ernst, Sabrina; Schmitz-van de Leur, Hildegard; Chatain, Nicolas; Küster, Andrea; Koschmieder, Steffen; Lüscher, Bernhard; Rossetti, Giulia; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    STAT5 is an essential transcription factor in hematopoiesis, which is activated through tyrosine phosphorylation in response to cytokine stimulation. Constitutive activation of STAT5 is a hallmark of myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia. Using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, a model of the STAT5 phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain interface was generated providing first structural information on the activated STAT5 dimer including a sequence, for which no structural information is available for any of the STAT proteins. We identified a novel intramolecular interaction mediated through F706, adjacent to the phosphotyrosine motif, and a unique hydrophobic interface on the surface of the SH2 domain. Analysis of corresponding STAT5 mutants revealed that this interaction is dispensable for Epo receptor-mediated phosphorylation of STAT5 but essential for dimer formation and subsequent nuclear accumulation. Moreover, the herein presented model clarifies molecular mechanisms of recently discovered leukemic STAT5 mutants and will help to guide future drug development.

  17. Flexible Viologen Cyclophanes: Odd/Even Effects on Intramolecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Berville, Mathilde; Choua, Sylvie; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Boudon, Corinne; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Bailly, Corinne; Cobo, Saioa; Saint-Aman, Eric; Wytko, Jennifer; Weiss, Jean

    2017-01-04

    The ability of three bis-viologen cyclophanes to act as redox-triggered contractile switches is investigated. Odd/even effects in the formation of cyclic bis-viologens are circumvented by the use of a Zincke salt intermediate and a tetrathiafulvalene template to prepare a flexible cyclophane with hexyl linkers. Comparative spectro-electrochemical studies of this macrocycle with two other pentyl- or heptyl-linked cyclic bis-viologens show that the development of intramolecular interactions in aqueous solution depends on the length of the bridges. This dependence is confirmed by EPR and DFT studies of the magnetic coupling in the diradical dication species. The anti-ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic nature of the coupling depend, respectively, on the odd or even number of methylene groups in the spacer.

  18. Direct Preparation of Carbon Nanotube Intramolecular Junctions on Structured Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Jianing; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Mohan, Hari Krishna Salila Vijayalal; Zhou, Jinyuan; Kim, Young-Jin; Zheng, Lianxi

    2016-12-01

    Leveraging the unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) intramolecular junctions (IMJs) in innovative nanodevices and next-generation nanoelectronics requires controllable, repeatable, and large-scale preparation, together with rapid identification and comprehensive characterization of such structures. Here we demonstrate SWNT IMJs through directly growing ultralong SWNTs on trenched substrates. It is found that the trench configurations introduce axial strain in partially suspended nanotubes, and promote bending deformation in the vicinity of the trench edges. As a result, the lattice and electronic structure of the nanotubes can be locally modified, to form IMJs in the deformation regions. The trench patterns also enable pre-defining the formation locations of SWNT IMJs, facilitating the rapid identification. Elaborate Raman characterization has verified the formation of SWNT IMJs and identified their types. Rectifying behavior has been observed by electrical measurements on the as-prepared semiconducting-semiconducting (S-S) junction.

  19. Prodrugs design based on inter- and intramolecular chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Rafik

    2013-12-01

    This review provides the reader a concise overview of the majority of prodrug approaches with the emphasis on the modern approaches to prodrug design. The chemical approach catalyzed by metabolic enzymes which is considered as widely used among all other approaches to minimize the undesirable drug physicochemical properties is discussed. Part of this review will shed light on the use of molecular orbital methods such as DFT, semiempirical and ab initio for the design of novel prodrugs. This novel prodrug approach implies prodrug design based on enzyme models that were utilized for mimicking enzyme catalysis. The computational approach exploited for the prodrug design involves molecular orbital and molecular mechanics (DFT, ab initio, and MM2) calculations and correlations between experimental and calculated values of intramolecular processes that were experimentally studied to assign the factors determining the reaction rates in certain processes for better understanding on how enzymes might exert their extraordinary catalysis.

  20. Direct Preparation of Carbon Nanotube Intramolecular Junctions on Structured Substrates

    PubMed Central

    An, Jianing; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Mohan, Hari Krishna Salila Vijayalal; Zhou, Jinyuan; Kim, Young-Jin; Zheng, Lianxi

    2016-01-01

    Leveraging the unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) intramolecular junctions (IMJs) in innovative nanodevices and next-generation nanoelectronics requires controllable, repeatable, and large-scale preparation, together with rapid identification and comprehensive characterization of such structures. Here we demonstrate SWNT IMJs through directly growing ultralong SWNTs on trenched substrates. It is found that the trench configurations introduce axial strain in partially suspended nanotubes, and promote bending deformation in the vicinity of the trench edges. As a result, the lattice and electronic structure of the nanotubes can be locally modified, to form IMJs in the deformation regions. The trench patterns also enable pre-defining the formation locations of SWNT IMJs, facilitating the rapid identification. Elaborate Raman characterization has verified the formation of SWNT IMJs and identified their types. Rectifying behavior has been observed by electrical measurements on the as-prepared semiconducting-semiconducting (S-S) junction. PMID:27905564

  1. Measurement of electromagnetic pulse emitted during rapid intramolecular electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Matthew C.; Turner, Gordon M.; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A.

    2001-03-01

    We have measured the electromagnetic radiation emitted during intramolecular electron transfer using a method does not rely on secondary processes.^1 The motion of the electrons themselves generates the measured signal (as understood by Maxwell's equations). If the electron transfer occurs on a timescale of 0.1 to 10 picoseconds, the emitted radiation will fall in the THz or far-infrared region of the spectrum (1 THz = 33.33 wavenumbers), which is the region covered by our detector. We photoexcite a sample of partially oriented molecules and measure the emitted waveform. The polarity of the emitted field determines the direction of charge transfer unambiguously, and the shape of the field encodes the dynamics of the charge transfer -- a slower transfer rate produces a broader temporal pulse. Future work will extend this method to systems that are difficult to study by traditional means. 1. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11541 (2000).

  2. Intramolecular transposition by a synthetic IS50 (Tn5) derivative

    SciTech Connect

    Tomcsanyi, T.; Phadnis, S.H.; Berg, D.E. ); Berg, C.M. )

    1990-11-01

    We report the formation of deletions and inversions by intramolecular transposition of Tn5-derived mobile elements. The synthetic transposons used contained the IS50 O and I end segments and the transposase gene, a contraselectable gene encoding sucrose sensitivity (sacB), antibiotic resistance genes, and a plasmid replication origin. Both deletions and inversions were associated with loss of a 300-bp segment that is designated the vector because it is outside of the transposon. Deletions were severalfold more frequent than inversions, perhaps reflecting constraints on DNA twisting or abortive transposition. Restriction and DNA sequence analyses showed that both types of rearrangements extended from one transposon end to many different sites in target DNA. In the case of inversions, transposition generated 9-bp direct repeats of target sequences.

  3. Intramolecular Charge Transfer States in the Condensed Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. F.; Herbert, J. M.

    2009-06-01

    Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with long range corrected functionals can give accurate results for the energies of electronically excited states involving Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) in large molecules. If this is combined with a Molecular Mechanics (MM) representation of the surrounding solvent this technique can be used to interpret the results of condensed phase UV-Vis Spectroscopy. Often the MM region is represented by a set of point charges, however this means that the solvent cannot repolarize to adapt to the new charge distribution as a result of ICT and so the excitation energies to ICT states are overestimated. To solve this problem an algorithm that interfaces TDDFT with the polarizable force-field AMOEBA is presented; the effect of solvation on charge transfer in species such as 4,4'dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) is discussed. M.A. Rohrdanz, K.M. Martins, and J.M. Herbert, J. Chem. Phys. 130 034107 (2008).

  4. Acquisition of accurate data from intramolecular quenched fluorescence protease assays.

    PubMed

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Wiener, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The Intramolecular Quenched Fluorescence (IQF) protease assay utilizes peptide substrates containing donor-quencher pairs that flank the scissile bond. Following protease cleavage, the dequenched donor emission of the product is subsequently measured. Inspection of the IQF literature indicates that rigorous treatment of systematic errors in observed fluorescence arising from inner-filter absorbance (IF) and non-specific intermolecular quenching (NSQ) is incompletely performed. As substrate and product concentrations vary during the time-course of enzyme activity, iterative solution of the kinetic rate equations is, generally, required to obtain the proper time-dependent correction to the initial velocity fluorescence data. Here, we demonstrate that, if the IQF assay is performed under conditions where IF and NSQ are approximately constant during the measurement of initial velocity for a given initial substrate concentration, then a simple correction as a function of initial substrate concentration can be derived and utilized to obtain accurate initial velocity data for analysis.

  5. Solvent reorganizational red-edge effect in intramolecular electron transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Demchenko, A P; Sytnik, A I

    1991-01-01

    Polar solvents are characterized by statistical distributions of solute-solvent interaction energies that result in inhomogeneous broadening of the solute electronic spectra. This allows photoselection of the high interaction energy part of the distribution by excitation at the red (long-wavelength) edge of the absorption bands. We observe that intramolecular electron transfer in the bianthryl molecule from the locally excited (LE) to the charge-transfer (CT) state, which requires solvent relaxation and does not occur in vitrified polar solutions, is dramatically facilitated in low-temperature propylene glycol glass by the red-edge excitation. This allows one to obtain spectroscopically the pure CT form and observe its dependence upon the relaxational properties of the solvent. A qualitative potential model of this effect is presented. PMID:11607224

  6. Estimating the energy of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in chitosan oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, G. P.; Lazarev, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The effect the number of chitosan monomer units CTS n ( n = 1-5), the protonation of chitosan dimers, and the interaction between CTS n ( n = 1-3) and acetate ions have on the energy of intramolecular hydrogen bonds is investigated by means of QTAIM analysis and solving the vibrational problem within the cluster-continuum model. It is established that the number of H-bonds in CTS n is 2 n - 1 and the total energy of H-bonds grows by ~20 kJ/mol. It is concluded that the hydrogen bonds between CTS and acetate ions play a major role in the stabilization of polyelectrolyte complexes in dilute acetic acid solutions of CTS.

  7. Intramolecular strain coordinates kinesin stepping behavior along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Ahmet; Tomishige, Michio; Gennerich, Arne; Vale, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Kinesin advances 8 nm along a microtubule per ATP hydrolyzed, but the mechanism responsible for coordinating the enzymatic cycles of kinesin’s two identical motor domains remains unresolved. Here, we have tested whether such coordination is mediated by intramolecular tension generated by the “neck linkers”, mechanical elements that span between the motor domains. When tension is reduced by extending the neck linkers with artificial peptides, the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and forward stepping is impaired and motor’s velocity decreases as a consequence. However, speed recovers to nearly normal levels when external tension is applied by an optical trap. Remarkably, external load also induces bidirectional stepping of an immotile kinesin that lacks its mechanical element (neck linker) and fuel (ATP). Our results indicate that the kinesin motor domain senses and responds to strain in a manner that facilitates its plus-end-directed stepping and communication between its two motor domains. PMID:18805095

  8. Intramolecular hydrophobic interactions are critical mediators of STAT5 dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Li, Jinyu; Ernst, Sabrina; Schmitz-Van de Leur, Hildegard; Chatain, Nicolas; Küster, Andrea; Koschmieder, Steffen; Lüscher, Bernhard; Rossetti, Giulia; Müller-Newen, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    STAT5 is an essential transcription factor in hematopoiesis, which is activated through tyrosine phosphorylation in response to cytokine stimulation. Constitutive activation of STAT5 is a hallmark of myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemia. Using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, a model of the STAT5 phosphotyrosine-SH2 domain interface was generated providing first structural information on the activated STAT5 dimer including a sequence, for which no structural information is available for any of the STAT proteins. We identified a novel intramolecular interaction mediated through F706, adjacent to the phosphotyrosine motif, and a unique hydrophobic interface on the surface of the SH2 domain. Analysis of corresponding STAT5 mutants revealed that this interaction is dispensable for Epo receptor-mediated phosphorylation of STAT5 but essential for dimer formation and subsequent nuclear accumulation. Moreover, the herein presented model clarifies molecular mechanisms of recently discovered leukemic STAT5 mutants and will help to guide future drug development. PMID:27752093

  9. Ground State Destabilization by Anionic Nucleophiles Contributes to the Activity of Phosphoryl Transfer Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Logan D.; Fenn, Tim D.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes stabilize transition states of reactions while limiting binding to ground states, as is generally required for any catalyst. Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and other nonspecific phosphatases are some of Nature's most impressive catalysts, achieving preferential transition state over ground state stabilization of more than 1022-fold while utilizing interactions with only the five atoms attached to the transferred phosphorus. We tested a model that AP achieves a portion of this preference by destabilizing ground state binding via charge repulsion between the anionic active site nucleophile, Ser102, and the negatively charged phosphate monoester substrate. Removal of the Ser102 alkoxide by mutation to glycine or alanine increases the observed Pi affinity by orders of magnitude at pH 8.0. To allow precise and quantitative comparisons, the ionic form of bound Pi was determined from pH dependencies of the binding of Pi and tungstate, a Pi analog lacking titratable protons over the pH range of 5–11, and from the 31P chemical shift of bound Pi. The results show that the Pi trianion binds with an exceptionally strong femtomolar affinity in the absence of Ser102, show that its binding is destabilized by ≥108-fold by the Ser102 alkoxide, and provide direct evidence for ground state destabilization. Comparisons of X-ray crystal structures of AP with and without Ser102 reveal the same active site and Pi binding geometry upon removal of Ser102, suggesting that the destabilization does not result from a major structural rearrangement upon mutation of Ser102. Analogous Pi binding measurements with a protein tyrosine phosphatase suggest the generality of this ground state destabilization mechanism. Our results have uncovered an important contribution of anionic nucleophiles to phosphoryl transfer catalysis via ground state electrostatic destabilization and an enormous capacity of the AP active site for specific and strong recognition of the phosphoryl group in the transition

  10. Energy landscapes of nucleophilic substitution reactions: a comparison of density functional theory and coupled cluster methods.

    PubMed

    Swart, Marcel; Solà, Miquel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2007-07-15

    We have carried out a detailed evaluation of the performance of all classes of density functional theory (DFT) for describing the potential energy surface (PES) of a wide range of nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reactions involving, amongst others, nucleophilic attack at carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and sulfur. In particular, we investigate the ability of the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), meta-GGA as well as hybrid DFT to reproduce high-level coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) benchmarks that are close to the basis set limit. The most accurate GGA, meta-GGA, and hybrid functionals yield mean absolute deviations of about 2 kcal/mol relative to the coupled cluster data, for reactant complexation, central barriers, overall barriers as well as reaction energies. For the three nonlocal DFT classes, the best functionals are found to be OPBE (GGA), OLAP3 (meta-GGA), and mPBE0KCIS (hybrid DFT). The popular B3LYP functional is not bad but performs significantly worse than the best GGA functionals. Furthermore, we have compared the geometries from several density functionals with the reference CCSD(T) data. The same GGA functionals that perform best for the energies (OPBE, OLYP), also perform best for the geometries with average absolute deviations in bond lengths of 0.06 A and 0.6 degrees, even better than the best meta-GGA and hybrid functionals. In view of the reduced computational effort of GGAs with respect to meta-GGAs and hybrid functionals, let alone coupled cluster, we recommend the use of accurate GGAs such as OPBE or OLYP for the study of SN2 reactions. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Use of phosphoimidazolide-activated guanosine to investigate the nucleophilicity of spermine and spermidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Baird, E. E.; Smith, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Guanosine 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG), a labile phosphoimidazolide analog of guanosine triphosphate, was used to test the reactivity of the natural polyamines (PAs), spermine (spm) and spermidine (spd). The products are the guanosine 5'-phosphate-polyamine derivatives (PA-pG: spd-pG and spm-pG) which are quite stable in the range 4 < pH < 11. Our study is the first of which we are aware that reports on the nucleophilicity of these amines. The main findings are as follows. (i) HPLC analysis of the products indicates the formation of only two of the three possible spd products and only one of the two possible spm products. These results can be explained if only the primary amino groups of the two polyamines are reactive, while the secondary amino groups are rendered unreactive by a steric effect. The reactions of 2-MeImpG and other phosphoimidazolide derivatives of nucleosides (ImpNs) with primary and secondary monoamines support this interpretation (Kanavarioti et al. J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 632). (ii) The product ratio of the two spd-pG adducts derived from the primary amino groups varies between 2.40 and 0.71 in the range 6.1 < or equal to pH < or equal to 11.9. Such small variation in the product ratio can only be rationalized by the similar, but not identical, basicity of the two primary amino groups and provides strong support for a previously reported model for polyamine ionization (Onasch et. al. Biophys. Chem. 1984, 19, 245). (iii) On the basis of our kinetic determinations conditions at which the nucleophilicity of these amines is at a minimum and at which other interactions with ImpNs could be tested can be chosen.

  12. Steric, hydrogen-bonding and structural heterogeneity effects on the nucleophilic substitution of N-(p-fluorophenyldiphenylmethyl)-4-picolinium chloride in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cameron C; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2013-04-21

    The nucleophilic substitution of N-(p-fluorophenyldiphenylmethyl)-4-picolinium chloride was investigated using water and a range of alcoholic nucleophiles in ionic liquid solvents. The reactivity patterns across the nucleophiles examined could be attributed to steric factors, which mediated the relative nucleophilicities. Reducing the hydrogen-bond acidity of the ionic liquid cation was found to generally increase the rate of reaction, however, the magnitude of this rate effect could be influenced by the steric bulk of the nucleophile and the structural heterogeneity of the ionic liquid. Preferential solvation phenomena in binary mixtures of ionic liquids were examined and suggest that the mechanism behind the hydrogen-bond solvation phenomenon arises from direct cation-mediated, rather than indirect anion-mediated, effects.

  13. Nucleophile dependent formation of 6- and 7-membered N-heterocycles by platinum-catalysed cyclisation of 1,5-bisallenes.

    PubMed

    Quirós, María Teresa; Hurtado-Rodrigo, César; Muñoz, María Paz

    2017-08-16

    An unprecedented Pt-catalysed cyclisation of N-tethered 1,5-bisallenes in the presence of oxygen nucleophiles is reported, where formation of 6- or 7-membered rings is driven by the choice of nucleophile and the mechanism dictated by the nucleophile and the electronic properties of the bisallene. The reaction in the presence of alcohols gives preferentially vinyltetrahydropyridines with an extra alkoxy group and Pt-H as the active species in the catalytic cycle, while formation of di- and tetrahydroazepines with an extra hydroxyl group is favoured when water is used as nucleophile, via nucleophilic attack/carbocyclization as the favoured pathway. The products obtained are frequently found in the core of natural products with important biological activities, so understanding this complex mechanistic behaviour and exploiting this new methodology will have a big impact in organic synthesis and organometallic chemistry.

  14. Polymeric photosensitizers: effects of intramolecular energy migration on sensitization efficiences

    SciTech Connect

    Urruti, E.H.; Kilp, T.

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of intramolecular energy migration was found to have no significant effect on the efficiency of ketyl radical formation via hydrogen abstration from cumene by benzophenone (BP) or poly(vinylbenzophenone) (PVBP). Rate constants were found to be 1.1 x 10/sup 6/ and 0.81 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for the small molecule and the polymer, respectively. The large difference in rate constants, 9.6 x 10/sup 6/ and 22.2 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for BP and PVBP, respectively, when tetrahydrofuran was used as a quencher is probably attributable to preferential solvation. Conversely, intramolecular energy migration was found to significantly enhance the overall efficiency of triplet energy transfer to 1-methylnaphthalene (MeN). Rate constants for formation of /sup 3/MeN were found to be 0.94 x 10/sup 9/ and 1.85 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for BP and PVBP, respectively. An energy migration coefficient, LAMBDA, of 3.28 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ and a frequency of energy migration, omega, of 7.88 x 10/sup 10/ x/sup -1/ were calculated for PVBP. For a series of copolymers of methyl methacrylate with vinylbenzophenone, values of LAMBDA and omega were strongly dependent on the ketone content of the polymer and decreased sharply at 40 mol % VBP or less.

  15. Direct sp(3)C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinolines by merging photoredox catalysis with nucleophilic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhu-Jia; Xuan, Jun; Xia, Xu-Dong; Ding, Wei; Guo, Wei; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zou, You-Quan; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing

    2014-04-07

    Sequence catalysis merging photoredox catalysis (PC) and nucleophilic catalysis (NC) has been realized for the direct sp(3) C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ). The reaction was performed under very mild conditions and afforded products in 50-91% yields. A catalytic asymmetric variant was proved to be successful with moderate enantioselectivities (up to 83 : 17 er).

  16. Reaction of 6H-6-oxo-3(5)-halogenoanthra(1,9-cd)isoxazoles with inorganic nucleophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gornostaev, L.M.; Zeibert, G.F.

    1986-11-20

    The reaction of 6H-6-oxo-3(5)-halogenoanthral(1,9-cd)isoxazoles with sodium azide in DMFA and also the potassium fluoride in acetonitrile in the presence of crown ethers leads to nucleophilic substitution of the halogen by the azide and fluoride ion respectively.

  17. Phosphine catalyzed alpha-arylation of enones and enals using hypervalent bismuth reagents: regiospecific enolate arylation via nucleophilic catalysis.

    PubMed

    Koech, Phillip K; Krische, Michael J

    2004-05-05

    Exposure of enones and enals to 20 mol % tributylphosphine in the presence of triarylbismuth(V) dichlorides results in regiospecific aryl transfer to the alpha-position of the enone or enal pronucleophile. These results represent the first examples of enolate arylation under the conditions of nucleophilic catalysis.

  18. Expeditious solvent-free synthesis of chromene derivatives via three-component reactions of N-nucleophiles.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Tabatabaei, Mohammad R; Rostami-Charati, Faramarz

    2012-12-01

    Multicomponent reactions involving 4-hydroxycumarine, activated acetylenic compounds and N-nucleophiles under solvent-free conditions were investigated. The reactions could also be extended to quinoline or CH-acides. Substituted chromen could be obtained from this routine, which may have potential applications in drugs fields.

  19. ortho-Quinol Acetate Chemistry - Reactivity towards Aryl-Based Nucleophiles and Applications to the Synthesis of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Companys, Simon; Pouységu, Laurent; Peixoto, Philippe A; Chassaing, Stefan; Quideau, Stephane

    2017-03-10

    Two model ortho-quinol acetates were easily prepared by iodane-mediated acetoxylative phenol dearomatization and evaluated for their reactivity towards various aryl-based nucleophiles, i.e., aryl metallic reagents and phenolic derivatives. Novel modes of reactivity, allowing the formation of biaryl linkages, were revealed and here exploited for the synthesis of two natural phenolics.

  20. From α-nucleophiles to functionalized aggregates: exploring the reactivity of hydroxamate ion towards esterolytic reactions in micelles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Namrata; Karpichev, Yevgen; Sharma, Rahul; Gupta, Bhanushree; Sahu, Arvind K; Satnami, Manmohan L; Ghosh, Kallol K

    2015-03-14

    Owing to the rising threats of neurotoxic organophosphosphorus compounds, facile and efficient decontamination systems are required. Since the last few decades, the search for promising α-nucleophiles for straightforward and eco-friendly decontamination reactions using α-nucleophiles has been considerably boosted up. Among these, hydroxamic acids have been widely studied due to their potential α-nucleophilicity towards carbon and phosphorus based esters. This account summarizes our research on α-nucleophilicity of hydroxamate ions in water and micelles towards esterolytic reactions. Efforts of our group in the last few years have been collectively judged and compared with the crucial findings of researchers in the relevant field. The present article sheds light on the rich chemistry of the hydroxamate ion as a perfect candidate to degrade organophosphorus esters (i.e. nerve agents, pesticides and their simulants) in water, in micelles of conventional surfactants, and in functionalized micelles. The current report also provides an insight into the possible nature and mechanisms of these reactions. A brief account of the biological activities of hydroxamic acids that have recently spurred research in medicine against some fatal diseases has been included.