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Sample records for intramuscular stimulation ims

  1. Feasibility of combining gait robot and multichannel functional electrical stimulation with intramuscular electrodes.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Jessica P; Dohring, Mark E; Marsolais, E Byron; Rogers, Jean; Burdsall, Richard; Roenigk, Kristen; Pundik, Svetlana; Daly, Janis J

    2008-01-01

    After stroke rehabilitation, many survivors of stroke exhibit persistent gait deficits. In previous work, we demonstrated significant gains in gait kinematics for survivors of chronic stroke using multichannel functional electrical stimulation with intramuscular electrodes (FES-IM). For this study, we tested the feasibility of combining FES-IM and gait robot technologies for treating persistent gait deficits after stroke. Six subjects, >or= 6 months after stroke, received 30-minute intervention sessions of combined FES-IM and gait robotics 4 days a week for 12 weeks. Feasibility was assessed according to three factors: (1) performance of the interface of the two technologies during intervention sessions, (2) clinicians' success in using two technologies simultaneously, and (3) subject satisfaction. FES-IM system hardware and software design features combined with the gait robot technology proved feasible to use. Each technology alone provided unique advantages and disadvantages of gait practice characteristics. Because of the unique advantages and disadvantages of each technology, gait deficits need to be accurately identified and a judicious treatment plan properly targeted before FES-IM, a gait robot, or both combined are selected.

  2. Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation for Muscle Activation of the Tibialis Anterior After Surgical Repair: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Sharon; McClure, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Background Loss of voluntary activation of musculature can result in muscle weakness. External neuromuscular stimulation can be utilized to improve voluntary activation but is often poorly tolerated because of pain associated with required stimulus level. Intramuscular electrical stimulation requires much lower voltage and may be better tolerated, and therefore more effective at restoring voluntary muscle activation. Case Description A 71-year-old man sustained a rupture of the distal attachment of the tibialis anterior tendon. Thirty-two weeks after surgical repair, there was no palpable or visible tension development in the muscle belly or tendon. Dorsiflexion was dependent on toe extensors. Electrical stimulation applied via a dry needling placement in the muscle belly was utilized to induce an isometric contraction. Outcomes Five sessions of intramuscular electrical stimulation were delivered. By day 4 (second visit), the patient was able to dorsiflex without prominent use of the extensor hallucis longus. By day 6 (third visit), active-range-of-motion dorsiflexion with toes flexed increased 20° (-10° to 10°). Eighteen days after the initial treatment, the patient walked without his previous high-step gait pattern, and the tibialis anterior muscle test improved to withstanding moderate resistance (manual muscle test score, 4/5). Discussion The rapid change in muscle function observed suggests that intramuscular electrical stimulation may facilitate voluntary muscle activation. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):965-969. Epub 15 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7368.

  3. Position Statement of the Israeli Society for Musculoskeletal Medicine on Intramuscular Stimulation for Myofascial Pain Syndrome-A Delphi Process.

    PubMed

    Ratmansky, Motti; Minerbi, Amir; Kalichman, Leonid; Kent, John; Wende, Osnat; Finestone, Aharon S; Vulfsons, Simon

    2017-04-01

    To develop consensus on a position paper on the use of intramuscular stimulation (IMS) for the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) by physicians in Israel. The Israeli Society of Musculoskeletal Medicine ran a modified Delphi process to gather opinions from a multidisciplinary expert panel. Eight experts in the treatment of MPS were chosen and asked to participate, and six participated. The position paper was iterated three times. After three iterations, general consensus was reached by all six experts. The general statement that was agreed on was: "IMS is one of the preferred treatments for myofascial pain syndrome. The treatment is evidence-based, effective, safe, and inexpensive. The position of the Israeli Society of Musculoskeletal Medicine is that the treatment should be taught and used by all primary care physicians and those physicians in other areas of medicine who deal with pain in their work." The position paper is a basis for clinical work and education programs for physicians interested in a better understanding and ability to treat patients with a musculoskeletal complaint or manifestation of disease. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  4. Intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulation for patients with traumatic high cervical injuries and ventilator dependent respiratory failure: A systematic review of safety and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Garara, Bhavin; Wood, Alasdair; Marcus, Hani J; Tsang, Kevin; Wilson, Mark H; Khan, Mansoor

    2016-03-01

    Intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulation using an abdominal laparoscopic approach has been proposed as a safer alternative to traditional phrenic nerve stimulation. It has also been suggested that early implementation of diaphragmatic pacing may prevent diaphragm atrophy and lead to earlier ventilator independence. The aim of this study was therefore to systematically review the safety and effectiveness of intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulators in the treatment of patients with traumatic high cervical injuries resulting in long-term ventilator dependence, with particular emphasis on the affect of timing of insertion of such stimulators. The Cochrane database and PubMed were searched between January 2000 and June 2015. Reference lists of selected papers were also reviewed. The inclusion criteria used to select from the pool of eligible studies were: (1) reported on adult patients with traumatic high cervical injury, who were ventilator-dependant, (2) patients underwent intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulation, and (3) commented on safety and/or effectiveness. 12 articles were included in the review. Reported safety issues post insertion of intramuscular electrodes included pneumothorax, infection, and interaction with pre-existing cardiac pacemaker. Only one procedural failure was reported. The percentage of patients reported as independent of ventilatory support post procedure ranged between 40% and 72.2%. The mean delay of insertion ranged from 40 days to 9.7 years; of note the study with the average shortest delay in insertion reported the greatest percentage of fully weaned patients. Although evidence for intramuscular diaphragmatic stimulation in patients with high cervical injuries and ventilator dependent respiratory failure is currently limited, the technique appears to be safe and effective. Earlier implantation of such devices does not appear to be associated with greater surgical risk, and may be more effective. Further high quality studies are warranted

  5. Effects of Intramuscular Trunk Stimulation on Manual Wheelchair Propulsion Mechanics in Six Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Triolo, Ronald J.; Bailey, Stephanie Nogan; Lombardo, Lisa M.; Miller, Michael E.; Foglyano, Kevin; Audu, Musa L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the effects of stabilizing the paralyzed trunk and pelvis with electrical stimulation on manual wheelchair propulsion. Design Single-subject design case series with subjects acting as their own concurrent controls. Setting Hospital-based clinical biomechanics laboratory. Participants Six (4M, 2F age 46±10.8yrs) long-time users (6.1±3.9yrs) of implanted neuroprostheses for lower extremity function with chronic (8.6±2.8yrs) mid-cervical or thoracic level injuries (C6-T10). Interventions Continuous low level stimulation to the hip (gluteus maximus, posterior adductor or hamstrings) and trunk extensor (lumbar erector spinae and/or quadratus lumborum) muscles with implanted intramuscular electrodes. Main Outcome Measure(s) Pushrim kinetics (peak resultant force, fraction effective force), kinematics (cadence, stroke length and maximum forward lean), and peak shoulder moment at preferred speed over 10m level surface; speed, pushrim kinetics and subjective ratings of effort for level 100m sprints and up a 30.5m ramp of approximately 5% grade. Results Three out of five subjects demonstrated reduced peak resultant pushrim forces (p≤0.014) and improved efficiency, (p≤0.048) with stimulation during self-paced level propulsion. Peak sagittal shoulder moment remained unchanged in three subjects and increased in two others (p<0.001). Maximal forward trunk lean also increased by 19-26% (p<0.001) with stimulation in these three subjects. Stroke lengths were unchanged by stimulation in all subjects, and two showed extremely small (5%) but statistically significant increases in cadence (p≤0.021). Performance measures for sprints and inclines were generally unchanged with stimulation, however subjects consistently rated propulsion with stimulation to be easier for both surfaces. Conclusions Stabilizing the pelvis and trunk with low levels of continuous electrical stimulation to the lumbar trunk and hip extensors can positively impact the mechanics of

  6. Giving an IM (intramuscular) injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wash your hands well with soap and water. Dry them. Carefully find the spot where you will give the injection. Clean the skin at that spot with an alcohol wipe. Let it dry. Take the cap off the needle. Hold the ...

  7. Corticospinal excitability measurements using transcranial magnetic stimulation are valid with intramuscular electromyography.

    PubMed

    Summers, Rebekah L S; Chen, Mo; Kimberley, Teresa J

    2017-01-01

    Muscular targets that are deep or inaccessible to surface electromyography (sEMG) require intrinsic recording using fine-wire electromyography (fEMG). It is unknown if fEMG validly record cortically evoked muscle responses compared to sEMG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the validity and agreement of fEMG compared to sEMG to quantify typical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures pre and post repetitive TMS (rTMS). The hypotheses were that fEMG would demonstrate excellent validity and agreement compared with sEMG. In ten healthy volunteers, paired pulse and cortical silent period (CSP) TMS measures were collected before and after 1200 pulses of 1Hz rTMS to the motor cortex. Data were simultaneously recorded with sEMG and fEMG in the first dorsal interosseous. Concurrent validity (r and rho) and agreement (Tukey mean-difference) were calculated. fEMG quantified corticospinal excitability with good to excellent validity compared to sEMG data at both pretest (r = 0.77-0.97) and posttest (r = 0.83-0.92). Pairwise comparisons indicated no difference between sEMG and fEMG for all outcomes; however, Tukey mean-difference plots display increased variance and questionable agreement for paired pulse outcomes. CSP displayed the highest estimates of validity and agreement. Paired pulse MEP responses recorded with fEMG displayed reduced validity, agreement and less sensitivity to changes in MEP amplitude compared to sEMG. Change scores following rTMS were not significantly different between sEMG and fEMG. fEMG electrodes are a valid means to measure CSP and paired pulse MEP responses. CSP displays the highest validity estimates, while caution is warranted when assessing paired pulse responses with fEMG. Corticospinal excitability and neuromodulatory aftereffects from rTMS may be assessed using fEMG.

  8. Corticospinal excitability measurements using transcranial magnetic stimulation are valid with intramuscular electromyography

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Muscular targets that are deep or inaccessible to surface electromyography (sEMG) require intrinsic recording using fine-wire electromyography (fEMG). It is unknown if fEMG validly record cortically evoked muscle responses compared to sEMG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the validity and agreement of fEMG compared to sEMG to quantify typical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures pre and post repetitive TMS (rTMS). The hypotheses were that fEMG would demonstrate excellent validity and agreement compared with sEMG. Materials and methods In ten healthy volunteers, paired pulse and cortical silent period (CSP) TMS measures were collected before and after 1200 pulses of 1Hz rTMS to the motor cortex. Data were simultaneously recorded with sEMG and fEMG in the first dorsal interosseous. Concurrent validity (r and rho) and agreement (Tukey mean-difference) were calculated. Results fEMG quantified corticospinal excitability with good to excellent validity compared to sEMG data at both pretest (r = 0.77–0.97) and posttest (r = 0.83–0.92). Pairwise comparisons indicated no difference between sEMG and fEMG for all outcomes; however, Tukey mean-difference plots display increased variance and questionable agreement for paired pulse outcomes. CSP displayed the highest estimates of validity and agreement. Paired pulse MEP responses recorded with fEMG displayed reduced validity, agreement and less sensitivity to changes in MEP amplitude compared to sEMG. Change scores following rTMS were not significantly different between sEMG and fEMG. Conclusion fEMG electrodes are a valid means to measure CSP and paired pulse MEP responses. CSP displays the highest validity estimates, while caution is warranted when assessing paired pulse responses with fEMG. Corticospinal excitability and neuromodulatory aftereffects from rTMS may be assessed using fEMG. PMID:28231250

  9. American football and other sports injuries may cause migraine/persistent pain decades later and can be treated successfully with electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS).

    PubMed

    Chu, J; McNally, S; Bruyninckx, F; Neuhauser, D

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous twitch elicitation at myofascial trigger points from spondylotic radiculopathies-induced denervation supersensitivity can provide favourable pain relief using electrical twitch-obtaining intramuscular stimulation (ETOIMS). To provide objective evidence that ETOIMS is safe and efficacious in migraine and persistent pain management due to decades-old injuries to head and spine from paediatric American football. An 83-year-old mildly hypertensive patient with 25-year history of refractory migraine and persistent pain self-selected to regularly receive fee-for-service ETOIMS 2/week over 20 months. He had 180 sessions of ETOIMS. Pain levels, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate/pulse were recorded before and immediately after each treatment alongside highest level of clinically elicitable twitch forces/session, session duration and intervals between treatments. Twitch force grades recorded were from 1 to 5, grade 5 twitch force being strongest. Initially, there was hypersensitivity to electrical stimulation with low stimulus parameters (500 µs pulse-width, 30 mA stimulus intensity, frequency 1.3 Hz). This resolved with gradual stimulus increments as tolerated during successive treatments. By treatment 27, autonomous twitches were noted. Spearman's correlation coefficients showed that pain levels are negatively related to twitch force, number of treatments, treatment session duration and directly related to BP and heart rate/pulse. Treatment numbers and session durations directly influence twitch force. At end of study, headaches and quality of life improved, hypertension resolved and antihypertensive medication had been discontinued. Using statistical process control methodology in an individual patient, we showed long-term safety and effectiveness of ETOIMS in simultaneous diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of migraine and persistent pain in real time obviating necessity for randomised controlled studies.

  10. Autonomic components of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) are favourably affected by Electrical Twitch-Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS): effects on blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jennifer; Bruyninckx, Frans; Neuhauser, Duncan V

    2017-07-01

    Favourable pain relief results on evoking autonomous twitches at myofascial trigger points with Electrical Twitch Obtaining Intramuscular Stimulation (ETOIMS). To document autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from blood pressure (BP) and pulse/heart rate changes with ETOIMS. A patient with persistent pain regularly received serial ETOIMS sessions of 60, 90, 120 or ≥150 min over 24 months. Outcome measures include BP: systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure and pulse/heart rate, pre-session/immediate-post-session summed differences (SDPPP index), and pain reduction. His results were compared with that of two other patients and one normal control. Each individual represented the following maximal elicitable twitch forces (TWF) graded 1-5: maximum TWF2: control subject; maximum TWF3: CRPS patient with suspected ANS dysfunction; and maximum TWF4 and TWF5: two patients with respective slow-fatigue and fast-fatigue twitches who during ETOIMS had autonomous twitching at local and remote myotomes simultaneously from denervation supersensitivity. ETOIMS results between TWFs were compared using one-way analysis of variance test. The patients showed immediate significant pain reduction, BP and pulse/heart rate changes/reduction(s) except for diastolic BP in the TWF5 patient. TWF2 control subject had diastolic BP reduction with ETOIMS but not with rest. Linear regression showed TWF grade to be the most significant variable in pain reduction, more so than the number of treatments, session duration and treatment interval. TWF grade was the most important variable in significantly reducing outcome measures, especially pulse/heart rate. Unlike others, the TWF3 patient had distinctive reductions in SDPPP index. Measuring BP and pulse/heart rate is clinically practical for alerting ANS dysfunction maintained CRPS. SDPPP index (≥26) and pulse/heart rate (≥8) reductions with almost every ETOIMS treatment, plus inability to evoke

  11. THE USE OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR A SUBJECT WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are widely accepted by clinicians and researchers as a primary source of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. Trigger point dry needling (TrP‐DN) is an invasive procedure that involves stimulation of MTrPs using an monofilament needle. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of TrP‐DN and intramuscular electrical stimulation (IES) as a primary treatment intervention in a subject with chronic low back pain. Case Description: The subject was a 30‐year‐old female, active duty military, who was referred to physical therapy for low back and right posterolateral hip pain. She noticed symptoms after suffering a lumbar flexion injury while picking up a barbell during weight training. Physical examination demonstrated findings that supported the diagnosis of lumbar segmental instability with a right hip stability dysfunction. Objective findings included a multi‐segmental flexion movement pattern dysfunction and MTrPs in the right gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles with deep palpation. The subject was treated with TrP‐DN and IES for a total of two visits. Bilateral L3 and L5 multifidus and right gluteus maximus and medius muscles were treated, along with implementing a home exercise program consisting of core stability exercises. Outcomes: The subject reported no existing pain and disability on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and a large perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination was normal, demonstrating no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal multi‐segmental flexion and no MTrPs with deep palpation. Discussion: The subject was able to return to full military active duty without any physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury activity levels, including the ability to resume all activities without pain. There is much promise

  12. Zagreb Regimen, an Abbreviated Intramuscular Schedule for Rabies Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. PMID:25392012

  13. Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin; Gong, Zhenyu

    2015-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Comparison of baseline and post-concussion ImPACT test scores in young athletes with stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Ryan M; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron; Bonfield, Christopher M; Solomon, Gary S

    2017-02-01

    Baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications are recognized as potential modifiers of performance on neurocognitive testing by the Concussion in Sport Group. Our goal was to assess whether individuals with ADHD perform differently on post-concussion testing and if this difference is related to the use of stimulants. Retrospective case-control study in which 4373 athletes underwent baseline and post-concussion testing using the ImPACT battery. 277 athletes self-reported a history of ADHD, of which, 206 reported no stimulant treatment and 69 reported stimulant treatment. Each group was matched with participants reporting no history of ADHD or stimulant use on several biopsychosocial characteristics. Non-parametric tests were used to assess ImPACT composite score differences between groups. Participants with ADHD had worse verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, and reaction time scores than matched controls at baseline and post-concussion, all with p ≤ .001 and |r|≥ 0.100. Athletes without stimulant treatment had lower verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, and reaction time scores than controls at baseline (p ≤ 0.01, |r|≥ 0.100 [except verbal memory, r = -0.088]) and post-concussion (p = 0.000, |r|> 0.100). Athletes with stimulant treatment had lower verbal memory (Baseline: p = 0.047, r = -0.108; Post-concussion: p = 0.023, r = -0.124) and visual memory scores (Baseline: p = 0.013, r = -0.134; Post-concussion: p = 0.003, r = -0.162) but equivalent visual motor speed and reaction time scores versus controls at baseline and post-concussion. ADHD-specific baseline and post-concussion neuropsychological profiles, as well as stimulant medication status, may need to be considered when interpreting ImPACT test results. Further investigation into the effects of ADHD and stimulant use on recovery from

  15. Effect of reduced dose schedules and intramuscular injection of anthrax vaccine adsorbed on immunological response and safety profile: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Rose, Charles E; Parker, Scott D; Babcock, Janiine; Keitel, Wendy; El Sahly, Hana; Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M; Keyserling, Harry L; Semenova, Vera A; Li, Han; Schiffer, Jarad; Dababneh, Hanan; Martin, Sandra K; Martin, Stacey W; Marano, Nina; Messonnier, Nancy E; Quinn, Conrad P

    2014-02-12

    We evaluated an alternative administration route, reduced schedule priming series, and increased intervals between booster doses for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA). AVA's originally licensed schedule was 6 subcutaneous (SQ) priming injections administered at months (m) 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12 and 18 with annual boosters; a simpler schedule is desired. Through a multicenter randomized, double blind, non-inferiority Phase IV human clinical trial, the originally licensed schedule was compared to four alternative and two placebo schedules. 8-SQ group participants received 6 SQ injections with m30 and m42 "annual" boosters; participants in the 8-IM group received intramuscular (IM) injections according to the same schedule. Reduced schedule groups (7-IM, 5-IM, 4-IM) received IM injections at m0, m1, m6; at least one of the m0.5, m12, m18, m30 vaccine doses were replaced with saline. All reduced schedule groups received a m42 booster. Post-injection blood draws were taken two to four weeks following injection. Non-inferiority of the alternative schedules was compared to the 8-SQ group at m2, m7, and m43. Reactogenicity outcomes were proportions of injection site and systemic adverse events (AEs). The 8-IM group's m2 response was non-inferior to the 8-SQ group for the three primary endpoints of anti-protective antigen IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC), geometric mean titer, and proportion of responders with a 4-fold rise in titer. At m7 anti-PA IgG GMCs for the three reduced dosage groups were non-inferior to the 8-SQ group GMCs. At m43, 8-IM, 5-IM, and 4-IM group GMCs were superior to the 8-SQ group. Solicited injection site AEs occurred at lower proportions in the IM group compared to SQ. Route of administration did not influence the occurrence of systemic AEs. A 3 dose IM priming schedule with doses administered at m0, m1, and m6 elicited long term immunological responses and robust immunological memory that was efficiently stimulated by a single booster vaccination at

  16. Treatment efficacy of intramuscular promethazine for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Jennings, Richard T.; Beck, Bradley G.; Bagian, James P.

    1993-01-01

    Intramuscular promethazine and its efficacy in the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) were evaluated using standardized questions administered during postflight debriefings to crewmembers immediately after their first Shuttle flight. The comparison showed that 25 percent of crewmembers treated with IM promethazine were 'sick' on flight day 2, compared to 50 percent of crewmembers who did not receive promethazine, 90 percent reported immediate symptom relief as well. Untreated crewmembers typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h, and those treated with oral scopolamine/dextroamphetamine show delayed symptom development. This study suggests that intramuscular promethazine is an effective treatment for SMS and merits continued use and further controlled investigations.

  17. Intramuscular and rectal therapies of acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Leppik, Ilo E; Patel, Sima I

    2015-08-01

    The intramuscular (IM) and rectal routes are alternative routes of delivery for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when the intravenous route is not practical or possible. For treatment of acute seizures, the AED used should have a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax). Some AEDs have preparations that may be given intramuscularly. These include the benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam) and others (fosphenytoin, levetiracetam). Although phenytoin and valproate have parenteral preparations, these should not be given intramuscularly. A recent study of prehospital treatment of status epilepticus evaluated a midazolam (MDZ) autoinjector delivering IM drug compared to IV lorazepam (LZP). Seizures were absent on arrival to the emergency department in 73.4% of the IM MDZ compared to a 63.4% response in LZP-treated subjects (p < 0.001 for superiority). Almost all AEDs have been evaluated for rectal administration as solutions, gels, and suppositories. In a placebo-controlled study, diazepam (DZP) was administered at home by caregivers in doses that ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg. Diazepam was superior to placebo in reduced seizure frequency in children (p < 0.001) and in adults (p = 0.02) and time to recurrent seizures after an initial treatment (p < 0.001). Thus, at this time, only MZD given intramuscularly and DZP given rectally appear to have the properties required for rapid enough absorption to be useful when intravenous routes are not possible. Some drugs cannot be administered rectally owing to factors such as poor absorption or poor solubility in aqueous solutions. The relative rectal bioavailability of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin is so low that the current formulations are not considered to be suitable for administration by this route. When administered as a solution, diazepam is rapidly absorbed rectally, reaching the Tmax within 5-20 min in children. By contrast, rectal administration of lorazepam is relatively slow, with a Tmax of 1-2h

  18. The intramuscular glucagon stimulation test does not provide good discrimination between normal and inadequate ACTH reserve when used in the investigation of short healthy children.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Ariel; Phillip, Moshe; de Vries, Liat

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the role of the glucagon stimulation test (GST) in evaluating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in children. We investigated the diagnostic value of the GST in evaluating the adrenocortical response in short healthy children. The GST was performed in 190 children investigated for short stature. A peak cortisol >500 nmol/l was considered a normal response. In the 45 (23.7%) with subnormal response, a 250-μg ACTH test was done. The rate of subnormal adrenal response to GST was higher among boys (33.9 vs. 8.9%, p < 0.001) and among children ≥6 years than among younger children (32.7 vs. 18.4%, p < 0.02). Both mean basal and peak cortisol levels were higher in girls than in boys: 381 ± 165 vs. 319 ± 151 nmol/l (p = 0.003) and 741 ± 102 vs. 595 ± 208 nmol/l (p < 0.001), respectively. Peak cortisol on GST was associated with basal cortisol (r = 0.45, p < 0.001) but not with glucose nadir (r = -0.31, p = 0.67), peak GH (r = 0.069, p = 0.33) or BMI-SDS (r = -0.08, p = 0.28). Peak cortisol was >500 nmol/l in all the patients undergoing an ACTH stimulation test. Since adrenal response to GST is age- and gender-related and the false-positive rate is high, its routine performance in healthy children warrants reconsideration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A naturalistic comparison of the efficacy and safety of intramuscular olanzapine and intramuscular haloperidol in agitated elderly patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Keishi; Takahashi, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was a comparative investigation of the clinical efficacy and safety of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM haloperidol in agitated elderly patients with schizophrenia at 2 hours postdose. Methods: The subjects were 23 inpatients who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Their clinical symptoms were assessed using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC), PANSS and Agitation Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES), and their safety were assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS), Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS) and laboratory tests. Results: The mean reduction from baseline on the PANSS-EC total score, the PANSS total score and the ACES score were significantly greater in the IM olanzapine injection group than in the IM haloperidol injection group. The mean changes from baseline on the AIMS score, the BARS score and the DIEPSS total score were significantly better in the IM olanzapine injection group than in the IM haloperidol injection group. No serious adverse events such as paralytic ileus, diabetic ketoacidosis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome or tardive dyskinesia occurred between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest the possibility that agitated elderly patients may result in superior efficacy and safety after IM olanzapine without serious adverse events in comparison with IM haloperidol. PMID:24294484

  20. Cost-effectiveness of an influenza vaccination program offering intramuscular and intradermal vaccines versus intramuscular vaccine alone for elderly.

    PubMed

    Leung, Man-Kit; You, Joyce H S

    2016-05-11

    Intradermal (ID) injection is an alternative route for influenza vaccine administration in elderly with potential improvement of vaccine coverage. This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of an influenza vaccination program offering ID vaccine to elderly who had declined intramuscular (IM) vaccine from the perspective of Hong Kong public healthcare provider. A decision analytic model was used to simulate outcomes of two programs: IM vaccine alone (IM program), and IM or ID vaccine (IM/ID program) in a hypothetic cohort of elderly aged 65 years. Outcome measures included influenza-related direct medical cost, infection rate, mortality rate, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) loss, and incremental cost per QALY saved (ICER). Model inputs were derived from literature. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of uncertainty of model variables. In base-case analysis, the IM/ID program was more costly (USD52.82 versus USD47.59 per individual to whom vaccine was offered) with lower influenza infection rate (8.71% versus 9.65%), mortality rate (0.021% versus 0.024%) and QALYs loss (0.00336 versus 0.00372) than the IM program. ICER of IM/ID program was USD14,528 per QALY saved. One-way sensitivity analysis found ICER of IM/ID program to exceed willingness-to-pay threshold (USD39,933) when probability of influenza infection in unvaccinated elderly decreased from 10.6% to 5.4%. In 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations of elderly populations of Hong Kong, the IM/ID program was the preferred option in 94.7% of time. An influenza vaccination program offering ID vaccine to elderly who had declined IM vaccine appears to be a highly cost-effective option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Intramuscular juvenile xantogranuloma].

    PubMed

    Berenguer, B; González, B; Marín, M; Rodríguez, P; Seguel, F; Enríquez de Salamanca, J; de Prada, I

    2004-01-01

    Deep or intramuscular juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is very rare. There are, however, some clinical and histological similarities between the case we present and the few cases that have been published in the literature. Although most of them will need histologic confirmation to establish the final diagnosis, surgeons who are operating tumors of infancy should consider it in the differential diagnosis of well circumscribed, rapidly growing dorsal masses in children under 3 years of age. Macroscopic appearance upon excision can help to support the diagnosis. Knowledge of this variant of JXG may avoid aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

  2. Patient-controlled analgesia versus intramuscular analgesic therapy.

    PubMed

    Smythe, M; Loughlin, K; Schad, R F; Lucarroti, R L

    1994-06-01

    The pharmacy and nursing time requirements, quality of postoperative pain control, and cost of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and intramuscular (i.m.) analgesic therapy were studied. All timings were conducted with a stopwatch on a single nursing unit that primarily receives gynecologic surgery patients. The various work elements involved in each type of therapy were timed individually. Both quality of analgesia and cost were evaluated in a prospective, randomized study in hysterectomy patients. I.M. patients received meperidine hydrochloride 75-100 mg every three to four hours as needed. PCA patients had access to morphine sulfate 1 mg or meperidine hydrochloride 10 mg, with a six-minute lockout period. The patients scored their pain every four hours. Direct costs for PCA were calculated as drug cost plus tubing cost plus form cost plus maintenance cost plus depreciation cost. Direct costs for i.m. therapy consisted of the cost of drugs. The total mean nursing time per patient was 16.9 minutes for PCA and 10.7 minutes for i.m. therapy. Pharmacy time per patient was 5.1 minutes longer for PCA than for i.m. therapy. Thirty-six hysterectomy patients (17 i.m. and 19 PCA) were enrolled in the study of pain control and cost. Among i.m. patients, 64% of the pain scores were mild or worse, compared with 40% for PCA patients. The median pain scores were moderate for i.m. patients and mild for PCA patients. Scores tended to be lower for PCA patients at 16 and 20 hours. Although equal numbers of patients in the two groups experienced nausea, i.m. patients needed more doses of antiemetics than PCA patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Intramuscular Tranexamic Acid in Tactical and Combat Settings.

    PubMed

    Vu, Erik N; Wan, Wilson C Y; Yeung, Titus C; Callaway, David W

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage remains a leading cause of preventable death in tactical and combat settings. Alternate routes of delivery of tranexamic acid (TXA), an adjunct in the management of hemorrhagic shock, are being studied. A working group for the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care reviewed the available evidence on the potential role for intramuscular (IM) administration of TXA in nonhospital settings as soon as possible from the point of injury. EMBASE and MEDLINE/PubMed databases were sequentially searched by medical librarians for evidence of TXA use in the following contexts and/or using the following keywords: prehospital, trauma, hemorrhagic shock, optimal timing, optimal dose, safe volume, incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), IM bioavailability. A total of 183 studies were reviewed. The strength of the available data was variable, generally weak in quality, and included laboratory research, case reports, retrospective observational reviews, and few prospective studies. Current volume and concentrations of available formulations of TXA make it, in theory, amenable to IM injection. Current bestpractice guidelines for large-volume injection (i.e., 5mL) support IM administration in four locations in the adult human body. One case series suggests complete bioavailability of IM TXA in healthy patients. Data are lacking on the efficacy and safety of IM TXA in hemorrhagic shock. There is currently insufficient evidence to support a strong recommendation for or against IM administration of TXA in the combat setting; however, there is an abundance of literature demonstrating efficacy and safety of TXA use in a broad range of patient populations. Balancing the available data and risk- benefit ratio, IM TXA should be considered a viable treatment option for tactical and combat applications. Additional studies should focus on the optimal dose and bioavailability of IM dosing of patients in hemorrhagic shock, with assessment of potential downstream

  4. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular aripiprazole for the treatment of agitation in patients with schizophrenia: A pragmatic double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kittipeerachon, Mantana; Chaichan, Warawat

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness and adverse effects of intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM aripiprazole for the treatment of agitated patients with schizophrenia in clinical practice. A 24-hour randomized double-blind study carried out at a psychiatric hospital in Thailand enrolled adult patients (18-65years old) with schizophrenia experiencing agitation. Patients received one dose of IM olanzapine or IM aripiprazole followed by routine oral psychotropic medications. Efficacy was primarily measured using the Excited Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC). A total of 80 patients with a PANSS-EC score range of 22-35 entered the study, of whom 13% had a medical comorbidity and 40% a history of active substance abuse. The 40 patients receiving IM olanzapine showed greater improvement than the 40 patients receiving IM aripiprazole in PANSS-EC scores at 2h after the injection (p=0.002) but not at 24h. The two treatments were well tolerated. Patients receiving IM olanzapine experienced greater somnolence than those receiving IM aripiprazole. There were no clinically relevant changes in vital signs in either group. The results indicate that IM olanzapine and aripiprazole are similarly effective and well tolerated in the real-world treatment of agitation associated with schizophrenia over the first 24h. However, in the early hours, IM olanzapine may produce more sedation and reductions in agitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heavy sows (n=126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x label dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intramuscular (IM) injection using 3 separate patterns (treatments) of drug administration (42 sows per treatment). Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s...

  6. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of loxoprofen sodium given intramuscularly in animals.

    PubMed

    Hyun, J E; Li, D W; Lee, E B; Jeong, C S

    2001-12-01

    The evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of loxoprofen sodium given in intramuscular route was investigated as compared to oral application in rats and mice. The intramuscular ED50 values of loxoprofen sodium in carrageenan edema and vascular permeability tests are 1.15 and 7.8 mg/kg, respectively, which represent more potent than in case of oral application. Its therapeutic effects in adjuvant arthritis were shown at 6 mg/kg i.m. and 3mg/kg p.o. Analgesic effect was shown to be more potent as given intramuscularly. Similar potency of antipyretic effects was shown in both administration routes. Considerably weak gastric damages were observed in intramuscular application.

  7. The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone after intramuscular administration to dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Fukui, Sho; Oyama, Norihiko; Kawase, Kodai; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2015-03-01

    The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone were evaluated after intramuscular (IM) administration to 6 healthy beagle dogs. The dogs received three IM doses each of alfaxalone at increasing dose rates of 5 mg/kg (IM5), 7.5 mg/kg (IM7.5) and 10 mg/kg (IM10) every other day. Anesthetic effect was subjectively evaluated by using an ordinal scoring system to determine the degree of neuro-depression and the quality of anesthetic induction and recovery from anesthesia. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured using noninvasive methods. Alfaxalone administered IM produced dose-dependent neuro-depression and lateral recumbency (i.e., 36 ± 28 min, 87 ± 26 min and 115 ± 29 min after the IM5, IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively). The endotracheal tube was tolerated in all dogs for 46 ± 20 and 58 ± 21 min after the IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively. It was not possible to place endotracheal tubes in 5 of the 6 dogs after the IM5 treatment. Most cardiorespiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges, but hypoxemia was observed by pulse oximetry for 5 to 10 min in 2 dogs receiving the IM10 treatment. Dose-dependent decreases in rectal temperature, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure also occurred. The quality of recovery was considered satisfactory in all dogs receiving each treatment; all the dog exhibited transient muscular tremors and staggering gait. In conclusion, IM alfaxalone produced a dose-dependent anesthetic effect with relatively mild cardiorespiratory depression in dogs. However, hypoxemia may occur at higher IM doses of alfaxalone.

  8. The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone after intramuscular administration to dogs

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Jun; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; FUKUI, Sho; OYAMA, Norihiko; KAWASE, Kodai; MIYOSHI, Kenjiro; SANO, Tadashi; PASLOSKE, Kirby; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone were evaluated after intramuscular (IM) administration to 6 healthy beagle dogs. The dogs received three IM doses each of alfaxalone at increasing dose rates of 5 mg/kg (IM5), 7.5 mg/kg (IM7.5) and 10 mg/kg (IM10) every other day. Anesthetic effect was subjectively evaluated by using an ordinal scoring system to determine the degree of neuro-depression and the quality of anesthetic induction and recovery from anesthesia. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured using noninvasive methods. Alfaxalone administered IM produced dose-dependent neuro-depression and lateral recumbency (i.e., 36 ± 28 min, 87 ± 26 min and 115 ± 29 min after the IM5, IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively). The endotracheal tube was tolerated in all dogs for 46 ± 20 and 58 ± 21 min after the IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively. It was not possible to place endotracheal tubes in 5 of the 6 dogs after the IM5 treatment. Most cardiorespiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges, but hypoxemia was observed by pulse oximetry for 5 to 10 min in 2 dogs receiving the IM10 treatment. Dose-dependent decreases in rectal temperature, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure also occurred. The quality of recovery was considered satisfactory in all dogs receiving each treatment; all the dog exhibited transient muscular tremors and staggering gait. In conclusion, IM alfaxalone produced a dose-dependent anesthetic effect with relatively mild cardiorespiratory depression in dogs. However, hypoxemia may occur at higher IM doses of alfaxalone. PMID:25428797

  9. A Phase-1 Clinical Trial of a DNA Vaccine for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Delivered by Intramuscular or Intradermal Electroporation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    A Phase 1 clinical trial of a DNA vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis delivered by intramuscular or intradermal electroporation Drew... vaccines against VEEV available in the United States. We developed a candidate DNA vaccine expressing the E3-E2-6K-E1 genes of VEEV (pWRG/VEEV) and...groups and were vaccinated with high and low doses of pWRG/VEE or a saline placebo by intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) electroporation (EP

  10. Sciatic nerve injury from intramuscular injection: a persistent and global problem.

    PubMed

    Mishra, P; Stringer, M D

    2010-10-01

    An intramuscular (i.m.) injection into the buttock risks damaging the sciatic nerve. Safe injection practices need to be understood by doctors and nurses alike. The aims of this study were to determine if sciatic nerve injury because of i.m. injection is a continuing problem and to establish the availability of published guidelines on i.m. injection techniques. Intramuscular injection related sciatic nerve injury claims to the New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation between July 2005 and September 2008 were reviewed. Nursing organisations were surveyed to enquire about guidelines on i.m. injection. I.m. injection related sciatic nerve injuries in the medical and medicolegal literature (1989-2009) were systematically reviewed. There were eight claims for sciatic nerve injection injury made to the ACC during the 3-year study period; all were in young adults. Only one of the nursing organisations contacted had published guidelines on i.m. injection technique, and these related specifically to immunisation. Seventeen reports of patients with sciatic nerve injury from i.m. injection were identified comprising a total of 1506 patients, at least 80% of which were children. Nine court decisions finding in favour of the plaintiff were identified, all from the North American legal system. A broad range of drugs were implicated in the offending i.m. injections. Sciatic nerve injury from an i.m. injection in the upper outer quadrant of the buttock is an avoidable but persistent global problem, affecting patients in both wealthy and poorer healthcare systems. The consequences of this injury are potentially devastating. Safer alternative sites for i.m. injection exist. These should be promoted more widely by medical and nursing organisations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Rituals in nursing: intramuscular injections.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    To consider to what extent intramuscular injection technique can be described to remain entrenched in ritualistic practice and how evidence-based practice should be considered and applied to the nursing practice of this essential skill. The notion of rituals within nursing and the value or futile impact they afford to this essential nursing skill will be critically reviewed. Discursive paper. Literature review from 2002-2013 to review the current position of intramuscular injection injections. Within the literature review, it became clear that there are several actions within the administration of an intramuscular injection that could be perceived as ritualistic and require consideration for contemporary nursing practice. The essential nursing skill of intramuscular injection often appears to fit into the description of a ritualised practice. By providing evidence-based care, nurses will find themselves empowered to make informed decisions based on clinical need and using their clinical judgement. For key learning, it will outline with rationale how site selection, needle selection, insertion technique and aspiration can be cited as examples of routinised or ritualistic practice and why these should be rejected in favour of an evidence-based approach. The effect on some student nurses of experiencing differing practices between what is taught at university and what is often seen in clinical practice will also be discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Are nursing students safe when choosing gluteal intramuscular injection locations?

    PubMed

    Cornwall, J

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are required to perform gluteal intramuscular (IM) injections in practice. There are dangers associated with erroneous performance of this task, particularly with dorsogluteal injections. Knowledge regarding safe injection practice is therefore vital for nursing students. Fifty-eight second year students at a New Zealand Nursing School were given schematic drawings of the posterior and lateral aspects of the gluteal region. They were asked to mark and justify the safest location for gluteal IM injections. Fifty-seven students marked the dorsal schematic and one the lateral, with 38 (66.7%) marking in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ). Twenty indicating the UOQ (52.6%) wrote 'sciatic' or 'nerve' in justifying their location. Nineteen (33.3%) marked a location outside the UOQ; nine (47.4%) of these mentioned 'sciatic' or 'nerve' as reasons for injection safety. Overall, 50% of students mentioned 'sciatic' or 'nerve' in justifying the safety of their chosen injection location. Results suggest some second year nursing students do not understand safe gluteal IM injection locations and rationale. Current teaching practices and IM injection techniques could be revisited to prepare students more effectively; this may help prevent pathologies arising from this procedure.

  13. Effect of intramuscular clebopride on postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Duarte, D F; Linhares, S; Gesser, N; Pederneiras, S G

    1985-01-01

    The antiemetic effect of clebopride, a new derivative of the orthopramide group, was compared with that of placebo in 298 women undergoing elective surgery. A group of 150 patients received premedication of 1 mg/kg of meperidine, administered intramuscularly (IM), and a group of 148 patients received premedication of 10 mg of diazepam IM. All patients received 0.5 mg of atropine IM. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with halogenated N2O/O2. In a double-blind procedure, clebopride (2 mg) or placebo was injected IM at the end of anesthesia and whenever a patient had a second episode of vomiting. Clebopride appeared to be better than placebo in the prevention of nausea (P less than or equal to 0.05) and vomiting (P less than or equal to 0.001) during the 12-hour observation period. The frequency of side effects was virtually the same in patients given clebopride and patients given placebo.

  14. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Cefquinome (Cobactan 2.5%) following Repeated Intramuscular Administrations in Sheep and Goats

    PubMed Central

    El-Hewaity, Mohamed; Abd El Latif, Amera

    2014-01-01

    The comparative pharmacokinetic profile of cefquinome was studied in sheep and goats following repeated intramuscular (IM) administrations of 2 mg/kg body weight. Cefquinome concentrations in serum were determined by microbiological assay technique using Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341) as test organism. Following intramuscular injection of cefquinome in sheep and goats, the disposition curves were best described by two-compartment open model in both sheep and goats. The pharmacokinetics of cefquinome did not differ significantly between sheep and goats; similar intramuscular dose rate of cefquinome should therefore be applicable to both species. On comparing the data of serum levels of repeated intramuscular injections with first intramuscular injection, it was revealed that repeated intramuscular injections of cefquinome have cumulative effect in both species sheep and goats. The in vitro serum protein-binding tendency was 15.65% in sheep and 14.42% in goats. The serum concentrations of cefquinome along 24 h after injection in this study were exceeding the MICs of different susceptible microorganisms responsible for serious disease problems. These findings indicate successful use of cefquinome in sheep and goats. PMID:26464946

  15. Effect of intramuscular cholecalciferol megadose in children with nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Bothra, Meenakshi; Gupta, Nandita; Jain, Vandana

    2016-06-01

    The treatment practices for vitamin D deficiency rickets are highly variable. Though a single intramuscular (IM) megadose of vitamin D is economical, and ensures good compliance, it poses the risk of hypervitaminosis D. This observational study was conducted to assess the duration of effect and safety of single IM megadose of cholecalciferol in the treatment of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Children younger than 14 years with rickets were enrolled. Baseline investigations included radiograph of wrists and estimation of serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25(OH) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels. All children received a single IM megadose of vitamin D3. Biochemical parameters were re-evaluated at 1.5, 3 and 6 months after the megadose and the values were compared to the baseline. We enrolled 21 children, out of which nine remained under active follow-up till 6 months. Radiological evidence of rickets was present in all 21 children, 14 had hypocalcemia at the time of presentation. After IM cholecalciferol megadose, median 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level remained significantly more than the baseline till 6 months after the megadose. At 1.5 months after the vitamin D megadose, three (30%) of the children were found to develop toxic levels of vitamin D (>150 ng/mL), although none had hypercalcemia or any clinical manifestation of vitamin D toxicity. At 3 months and 6 months after the megadose, 25(OH)D levels remained in the sufficient range (20-100 ng/mL) in seven out of the eight children who came for follow-up. A single IM megadose of vitamin D may be effective in significantly increasing the 25(OH)D levels for at least 6 months in children with rickets, but elevation of 25(OH)D to toxic range raises concern regarding its safety.

  16. Autoinjectors Preferred for Intramuscular Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ronna L.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Motosue, Megan S.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Rudis, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. We surveyed emergency department (ED) healthcare providers regarding two methods of intramuscular (IM) epinephrine administration (autoinjector and manual injection) for the management of anaphylaxis and allergic reactions and identified provider perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery. Methods This observational study adhered to survey reporting guidelines. It was performed through a Web-based survey completed by healthcare providers at an academic ED. The primary outcomes were assessment of provider perceptions and identification of the preferred IM epinephrine administration method by ED healthcare providers. Results Of 217 ED healthcare providers invited to participate, 172 (79%) completed the survey. Overall, 82% of respondents preferred the autoinjector method of epinephrine administration. Providers rated the autoinjector method more favorably for time required for training, ease of use, convenience, satisfaction with weight-based dosing, risk of dosing errors, and speed of administration (p<0.001 for all comparisons). However, manual injection use was rated more favorably for risk of provider self-injury and patient cost (p<0.001 for both comparisons). Three participants (2%) reported a finger stick injury from an epinephrine autoinjector. Conclusion ED healthcare providers preferred the autoinjector method of IM epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis or allergic reactions. Epinephrine autoinjector use may reduce barriers to epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis in the ED. PMID:27833688

  17. Large intramuscular lipoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Sanchirico, Paul J; Pfeiffer, David C

    2018-04-01

    We describe a case of a 57-year-old man referred to an oral maxillofacial surgeon for a nontender, large intramuscular tongue mass. A computed tomography scan with contrast showed a homogenous right tongue intramuscular fatty mass measuring 3.8 cm × 2.8 cm in the axial dimension and 2.2 cm in the craniocaudal dimension. Histologic examination revealed multiple lobulated sections of mature adipocytes and occasional entrapped skeletal muscle fibers. The final pathologic diagnosis was intramuscular lipoma. Although lipomas account for approximately 50% of all soft tissue neoplasms, intramuscular (infiltrating) lipoma of the tongue is exceedingly rare.

  18. Thermal antinociception after dexmedetomidine administration in cats: a comparison between intramuscular and oral transmucosal administration.

    PubMed

    Slingsby, Louisa S; Taylor, Polly M; Monroe, Taylor

    2009-10-01

    Dexmedetomidine 40microg/kg was administered either intramuscularly (IM) or oral transmucosally (OTM) to 12 cats in a randomised cross-over study. Thermal nociceptive thresholds and visual analogue scale (VAS) sedation scores were obtained before and at regular intervals up to 24h after test drug administration. The summary measures of overall mean threshold, overall mean VAS sedation plus onset, offset and duration of analgesia were investigated using a univariate general linear model. There were no significant differences between treatment groups. Data are presented as mean+/-standard deviation: delta T mean increase over time (IM 6 degrees C+/-3 degrees C, OTM 6 degrees C+/-2 degrees C); overall mean VAS (IM 43+/-9 OTM 39+/-1); onset (IM 35+/-32 and OTM 30+/-40min); offset (IM 96+/-56 and OTM 138+/-135min); duration (IM 61+/-47 OTM 99+/-124min). Dexmedetomidine is well absorbed through the oral mucosa in cats since OTM and IM administration of dexmedetomidine 40microg/kg produced similar overall sedative and antinociceptive effects.

  19. Intramuscular olanzapine versus intramuscular haloperidol plus lorazepam for the treatment of acute schizophrenia with agitation: An open-label, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Charles Lung-Cheng; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Guan-Hua; Hsieh, Ming H; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2015-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety profile between intramuscular (IM) olanzapine and IM haloperidol plus IM lorazepam in acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 67) were randomized to receive 10 mg IM olanzapine (n = 37) or 5 mg IM haloperidol plus 2 mg IM lorazepam (n = 30). Agitation was measured with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Excited Component (PANSS-EC) and Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES) during the first 2 hours and at 24 hours after the first injection. Safety was assessed using the Simpson-Angus Scale and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale and by recording adverse events at 24 hours following the first injection. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale was also rated. The PANSS-EC scores decreased significantly at 2 hours after the first injection in both groups (olanzapine: -10.2, p < 0.001; haloperidol + lorazepam: -9.9, p < 0.001). Haloperidol plus lorazepam was not inferior to olanzapine in reducing agitation at 2 hours. There were no significant differences in PANSS-EC or ACES scores between the two groups within 2 hours following the first injection. The frequencies of adverse events and changes in Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Simpson-Angus Scale, and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale scores from baseline to 24 hours showed no significant differences between the groups. The findings suggest that IM haloperidol (5 mg) plus lorazepam (2 mg) is not inferior to IM olanzapine (10 mg) in the treatment of acute schizophrenic patients with moderate to severe agitation (ClinialTrials.gov identifier number NCT00797277). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of intramuscular microparticle depot of valdecoxib in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Sagar M; Vavia, Pradeep R

    2009-09-01

    We did a prospective study to investigate pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscularly (i.m.) administered Valdecoxib (VC) polymeric microparticles in New Zealand white rabbits. Poly[lac(glc-leu)] microparticles encapsulating a potent cyclooxygenase-2- selective inhibitor, VC, were prepared by emulsion and solvent evaporation technique and administered i.m. to rabbits for pharmacokinetic study. A single i.m. dose of drug-loaded poly[lac(glc-leu)] microparticles resulted in sustained therapeutic drug levels in the plasma for 49 days. The relative bioavailability was increased severalfold as compared with unencapsulated drug. Injectable poly[lac(glc-leu)] microparticles hold promise for increasing drug bioavailability and reducing dosing frequency for better management of rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of imipenem after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Denamiel, Graciela A; Montoya, Laura; Quaine, Pamela C; Lupi, Martín P; Landoni, María F

    2013-06-01

    The study describes the pharmacokinetics and predicted efficacy of imipenem after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration to five adult cats at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Susceptibility to imipenem [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)] was determined for antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n = 13) and staphylococci (n = 3) isolated from domestic cat infections (urinary system, skin and conjunctiva). Maximum plasma concentrations of imipenem were 13.45 µg/ml (IV), 6.47 µg/ml (IM) and 3.83 µg/ml (SC). Bioavailability was 93.18% (IM) and 107.90% (SC). Elimination half-lives for IV, IM and SC administration were 1.17, 1.44 and 1.55 h, respectively. All tested bacteria were susceptible to imipenem; MIC values were 0.03 µg/ml for Staphylococcus species and <0.25-0.5 µg/ml for E coli. Mean imipenem concentrations remained above a MIC of 0.5 µg/ml for approximately 4 h (IV and IM) and 9 h (SC). Imipenem would be predicted to be effective for the treatment of antimicrobial resistant bacterial infections in cats at a dosage of 5 mg/kg every 6-8 h (IV, IM), or longer for the SC route. However, clinical trials are mandatory to establish its efficacy and proper dosing.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular parecoxib in healthy Beagles.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, M; Saccomanni, G; Del Carlo, S; Manera, C; Lavy, E

    2012-07-01

    Parecoxib is an inactive pro-drug that is rapidly converted to valdecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor registered for the management of post-operative pain in humans. Recent studies have suggested that parecoxib has excellent clinical efficacy and safety in veterinary species. The aim of the current study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of parecoxib and valdecoxib after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration. Seven healthy male Beagle dogs received 2.5 mg/kg parecoxib by either the i.v. or i.m. route in a cross-over design, with the alternative route of administration used 1 week later. The plasma concentrations of both analytes were detected according to a previously validated method using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL). No adverse effects were observed in any animal during the study. For both routes of administration, parecoxib was rapidly and almost completely converted to valdecoxib. The parecoxib/valdecoxib area under the curve (AUC) ratio for both routes of administration was 1.4. The half-life of valdecoxib was about 2 h, which was shorter than reported for humans, although the plasma concentrations following both routes of administration were likely to be effective for analgesia. The absolute bioavailability of parecoxib was 66%. The pharmacokinetic features of parecoxib make it suitable for treatment of acute pain in the canine species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intramuscular Heating Characteristics of Multihour Low-Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Justin H; Taggart, Rebecca M; Stratton, Kelly L; Lewis, George K; Draper, David O

    2015-11-01

    The heating characteristics of a stationary device delivering sustained acoustic medicine with low-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (LITUS) are unknown. To measure intramuscular (IM) heating produced by a LITUS device developed for long-duration treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Controlled laboratory study. University research laboratory. A total of 26 healthy volunteers (16 men, 10 women; age = 23.0 ± 2.1 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.09 m, mass = 73.48 ± 14.65 kg). Participants were assigned randomly to receive active (n = 20) or placebo (n = 6) LITUS at a frequency of 3 MHz and an energy intensity of 0.132 W/cm(2) continuously for 3 hours with a single transducer or dual transducers on the triceps surae muscle. We measured IM temperature using thermocouples inserted at 1.5- and 3-cm depths into muscle. Temperatures were recorded throughout treatment and 30 minutes posttreatment. We used 2-sample t tests to determine the heating curve of the LITUS treatment and differences in final temperatures between depth and number of transducers. A mild IM temperature increase of 1 °C was reached 10 ± 5 minutes into the treatment, and a more vigorous temperature increase of 4 °C was reached 80 ± 10 minutes into the treatment. The maximal steady-state IM temperatures produced during the final 60 minutes of treatment at the 1.5-cm depth were 4.42 °C ± 0.08 °C and 3.92 °C ± 0.06 °C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. At the 3.0-cm depth, the maximal steady-state IM temperatures during the final 60 minutes of treatment were 3.05 °C ± 0.09 °C and 3.17 °C ± 0.05 °C using 1 and 2 transducers, respectively. We observed a difference between the temperatures measured at each depth (t78 = -2.45, P = .02), but the number of transducers used to generate heating was not different (t78 = 1.79, P = .08). The LITUS device elicited tissue heating equivalent to traditional ultrasound but could be sustained for multiple hours. It is a safe and effective alternative tool

  4. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  5. Screening and confirmatory analyses of flunixin in tissues and bodily fluids after intravenous or intramuscular administration to cull dairy cows with or without lipopolysaccharide challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty cull dairy cows (645 ± 83 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration with, or without, exposure to lipopolysaccharide in a two factor balanced design. The usefulness of screening assays to identify violative flunixin levels in a varie...

  6. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  7. The pathogenesis of highly virulent African Swine Fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to optimize novel systems for African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) vaccine development, domestic pigs were challenged with the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain via intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), intramuscular (IM), and direct contact (DC) routes. Direct challenge doses ...

  8. Intramuscular injection of AAV8 in mice and macaques is associated with substantial hepatic targeting and transgene expression.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Peng, Hui; Ohlstein, Jason; Medina-Jaszek, C Angelica; Ahonkhai, Omua; Mentzinger, Anne; Grant, Rebecca L; Roy, Soumitra; Chen, Shu-Jen; Bell, Peter; Tretiakova, Anna P; Wilson, James M

    2014-01-01

    Intramuscular (IM) administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has entered the early stages of clinical development with some success, including the first approved gene therapy product in the West called Glybera. In preparation for broader clinical development of IM AAV vector gene therapy, we conducted detailed pre-clinical studies in mice and macaques evaluating aspects of delivery that could affect performance. We found that following IM administration of AAV8 vectors in mice, a portion of the vector reached the liver and hepatic gene expression contributed significantly to total expression of secreted transgenes. The contribution from liver could be controlled by altering injection volume and by the use of traditional (promoter) and non-traditional (tissue-specific microRNA target sites) expression control elements. Hepatic distribution of vector following IM injection was also noted in rhesus macaques. These pre-clinical data on AAV delivery should inform safe and efficient development of future AAV products.

  9. First intramuscular administration in the U.S. space program. [of motion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagian, James P.

    1991-01-01

    In the past, the only kind of medicines used for symptomatic treatment of space motion sickness (SMS) in space had been oral, transdermal, or suppositories. This paper describes the effect of the first intramuscular (IM) administration of Phenergan (50-mg in single dose) on SMS in one subject who exhibited grade-3 symptoms and signs which persisted unabated throughout the first and the second flight days aboard the Space Shuttle. Thirty minutes after the injection, the subject had completely recovered. His symptoms were gone, his appetite was back, and he had no recurrences for the remainder of the flight. Since that experiment, intramuscular injections have been given nine more times on subsequent flights, with similar results.

  10. Two Sudden and Unexpected Deaths of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Intramuscular Injections of Antipsychotics and Practice Guidelines to Limit the Use of High Doses of Intramuscular Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Brenzel, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP). These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. His death was probably caused by repeated IM haloperidol injections of 10 mg (totaling 35 mg in 2 days). The second case involves a 42-year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. Her probable cause of death was the last ziprasidone IM injection of 20 mg in addition to (1) three extra haloperidol doses (2 hours before the ziprasidone injection, 5 mg oral haloperidol; approximately 21 hours earlier, 5 mg oral haloperidol; and 2 days prior, one 10 mg IM haloperidol injection), (2) 10 mg/day of scheduled oral haloperidol for 6 days before death, and (3) a long-acting paliperidone injection of 156 mg 18 days before death. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended. PMID:27597919

  11. Pharmacokinetics of meropenem after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the pharmacokinetics and predicted efficacy of meropenem after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) administration to cats at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Five adult healthy cats were used. Blood samples were withdrawn at predetermined times over a 12 h period. Meropenem concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed with computer software. Initial estimates were determined using the residual method and refitted by non-linear regression. The time that plasma concentrations were greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration (T >MIC) was estimated by applying bibliographic MIC values and meropenem MIC breakpoint. Maximum plasma concentrations of meropenem were 101.02 µg/ml (C p(0) , IV), 27.21 µg/ml (C max , IM) and 15.57 µg/ml (C max , SC). Bioavailability was 99.69% (IM) and 96.52 % (SC). Elimination half-lives for the IV, IM and SC administration were 1.35, 2.10 and 2.26 h, respectively. Meropenem, when administered to cats at a dose of 10 mg/kg q12h,, is effective against bacteria with MIC values of 6 μg/ml, 7 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml for IV, IM and SC administration, respectively. However, clinical trials are necessary to confirm clinical efficacy of the proposed dosage regimen. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Establishing a new appropriate intramuscular injection site in the deltoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Takaoka, Kana; Hirose, Toshiko; Morishita, Keiko; Yamamoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Yuka; Urai, Tamae; Nakatani, Toshio

    2017-09-02

    It is becoming increasingly important for clinicians to identify a safer intramuscular (IM) injection site in the deltoid muscle because of possible complications following the vaccine administration of IM injections. We herein examined 4 original IM sites located on the perpendicular line through the mid-acromion to establish a safer IM injection site. Thirty healthy volunteers participated in this study and the distances from our 4 IM sites to some anatomical landmarks on their left arms were measured. Ultrasonography (US) was also performed to measure the thickness of the deltoid muscle and identify the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) along the course of the axillary nerve. Subcutaneous thickness was measured using 2 methods: measuring the skin thickness with caliper after pinching the skin, and with US. The results obtained revealed that the intersection between the anteroposterior axillary line (the line between the upper end of the anterior axillary line and the upper end of the posterior axillary line) and the perpendicular line from the mid-acromion was the most appropriate site for IM injections because it was distant from the axillary nerve, PCHA, and subdeltoid/subacromial brusa. At this site, depth of needle insertions was 5 mm greater than the subcutaneous thickness at a 90° angle, which was sufficient to penetrate subcutaneous tissue in both sexes. Subcutaneous thickness can be assessed with almost the same accuracy by US or measuring with calipers after pinching the skin. The results of the present study support the improved vaccine practice for safer IM injections.

  13. Postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or oral transmucosal buprenorphine administered to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Tatiana; Steagall, Paulo V M; Ferreira, Tatiana H; Minto, Bruno W; de Sá Lorena, Sílvia Elaine Rodolfo; Brondani, Juliana; Luna, Stelio P L

    2010-07-01

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) or oral transmucosal (OTM) buprenorphine administered to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, prospective and blinded clinical trial. 100 female cats. Cats were assigned to receive 0.01 mg kg(-1) of buprenorphine administered by the IV, IM, SC or OTM route (n = 25/group). Buprenorphine was made up to 0.3 mL with 0.9% saline. DIVAS (0-100 mm) and simple descriptive scale (SDS) (from 0 to 4) pain and sedation scores were assigned to each cat before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours after ovariohysterectomy. Buprenorphine and carprofen were administered for rescue analgesia. Data were analyzed using anova and Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups for breed, body weight, anesthetic time or surgery time (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups for sedation scores at any time. SDS pain scores did not detect any differences between groups (p > 0.05). DIVAS pain scores after OTM administration were significantly higher than IV and IM administration at 1 hour and at 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours, respectively (p < 0.05). DIVAS pain scores after SC administration were significantly higher than IV and IM administration at 2 hours and at 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours (p < 0.05), respectively. Six, four, 13 and 17 cats that received IV, IM, SC and OTM buprenorphine required rescue analgesia, respectively. There was a significantly higher incidence of treatment failure in cats that received SC and OTM buprenorphine compared with cats that received IV and IM buprenorphine (p < 0.05). IV and IM administration of buprenorphine provided better postoperative analgesia than SC or OTM administration of the drug and these routes of administration should be preferred when buprenorphine is administered to cats.

  14. Intramuscular Lipoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    McTighe, Shane; Chernev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common type of soft tissue mesenchymal tumors. They are typically located subcutaneously and consist of mature fatty tissue. When they occur under the enclosing fascia, they are called deep-seated lipomas. Infrequently, lipomas can arise inside the muscle and are called intramuscular lipomas. Intramuscular lipomas have been commonly investigated and categorized in the same group as other deep-seated and superficial lipomatous lesions. Their clinical, histological and imaging characteristics may resemble well-differentiated liposarcomas, further adding to the difficulties in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes the available literature and describes the typical epidemiological, pathological and clinical features of intramuscular lipomas, as well as delineating their treatment and prognosis. PMID:25568733

  15. Investigation of suitability of ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injections in children aged 36 months and under.

    PubMed

    Atay, Selma; Yilmaz Kurt, Fatma; Akkaya, Gülnur; Karatağ, Gülden; Ilhan Demir, Şeyda; Çalidağ, Ulviye

    2017-10-01

    This study was performed to determine suitability of ventrogluteal (VG) site for intramuscular (IM) injections in children aged 36 months and under. The present study was designed as a prospective descriptive study and performed between 2016 January and June. The study included a total of 120 children aged 36 months and under that met the study criteria. The subcutaneous tissue thickness and muscle thickness of anterolateral, deltoid, and VG sites were measured and assessed by ultrasound. A strong and powerful correlation was identified between the measurements of subcutaneous tissue and muscle thicknesses in the injection site by the age groups. The thickness of subcutaneous tissue was deltoid < anterolateral < VG by age groups. The muscle thickness of anterolateral and VG sites was significantly higher than that of deltoid site. This study established that skin thickness of VG site was suitable for IM injection in children aged 36 months and under. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Administration of imatinib mesylate in rats impairs the neonatal development of intramuscular interstitial cells in bladder and results in altered contractile properties.

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Thomas; Hutchings, Graham; Everaerts, Wouter; Prenen, Hans; Roskams, Tania; Nilius, Bernd; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    The KIT receptor is considered as a reliable marker for a subpopulation of interstitial cells (IC), and by persistent neonatal inhibition of KIT we have investigated the role of this receptor in the development of IC-networks in bladder and we have observed the functional consequences of this inhibition. Newborn rat pups were treated daily with the KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate (IM). After 7 days animals were sacrificed and bladder samples were dissected for morphological and functional studies. Morphological research consisted of immunohistochemistry with IC specific antigens (KIT and vimentin) and electron microscopy. The functional studies were based on isolated bladder strips in organ baths, in which spontaneous bladder contractility and the response to a non-subtype selective muscarinic agonist was evaluated. Suburothelial and intramuscular IC were found and characterized in neonatal rat bladder. IM-treatment induced a significant decrease in numbers of IC based on specific immunohistochemical markers, and electron microscopy revealed evidence of IC cell injury. These morphological alterations were observed on intramuscular IC only and not on IC in the suburothelium. Isolated muscle strips from IM-treated animals had a lower contractile frequency and an altered response to muscarinic agonists. The present study shows the presence of regional subpopulations of IC in neonatal rat bladder, provides evidence for a dependence on KIT of the development of intramuscular IC and supports the hypothesis that a poor development of networks of intramuscular IC might have repercussions on spontaneous and muscarinic-induced bladder contractility. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparison of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Split-virion, Inactivated, Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone®) Administered by Intradermal or Intramuscular Route in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Frenck, Robert W.; Belshe, Robert; Brady, Rebecca C; Winokur, Patricia L.; Campbell, James D.; Treanor, John; Hay, Christine M.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Cate, Thomas R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark; LeDuc, Tom; Tornieporth, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether reduced doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) administered by the intradermal (ID) route generated similar immune responses to standard TIV given intramuscularly (IM) with comparable safety profiles. Recent changes in immunization recommendations have increased the number of people for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. Thus, given this increased need and intermittent vaccine shortages, means to rapidly expand the vaccine supply are needed. Previously healthy subjects 18-64 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four TIV vaccine groups: standard 15 μg HA/strain TIV IM, either 9 μg or 6 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given using a new microinjection system, (BD Soluvia™ Microinjection Systema), or 3 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given by Mantoux technique. All vaccines contained A/New Caledonia (H1N1), A/Wyoming (H3N2) and B/Jiangsu strains of influenza. Sera were obtained 21 days after vaccination and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays were performed and geometric mean titers (GMT) were compared among the groups. Participants were queried immediately following vaccination regarding injection pain and quality of the experience. Local and systemic reactions were collected for 7 days following vaccination and compared. Ten study sites enrolled 1592 subjects stratified by age; 18-49 years, [N=814] and 50-64 years, [N=778]. Among all subjects, for each of the three vaccine strains, the GMTs at 21 days post-vaccination for both the 9 μg and the 6 μg doses of each strain given ID were non inferior to GMTs generated after standard 15 μg doses/strain IM. However, for the 3 μg ID dose, only the A/Wyoming antigen produced a GMT that was non-inferior to the standard IM dose. Additionally, in the subgroup of subjects 50-64 years of age, the 6 μg dose given ID induced GMTs that were inferior to the standard IM TIV for the A/H1N1 and B strains. No ID dose produced a GMT superior to that seen after

  18. Engraftment and reversal of diabetes after intramuscular transplantation of neonatal porcine islet-like clusters.

    PubMed

    Wolf-van Buerck, Lelia; Schuster, Marion; Baehr, Andrea; Mayr, Tanja; Guethoff, Sonja; Abicht, Jan; Reichart, Bruno; Nam-Apostolopoulos, Yun-Chung; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Wolf, Eckhard; Seissler, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Intraportal infusion is currently the method of choice for clinical islet cell transplantation but suffers from poor efficacy. As the liver may not represent an optimal transplantation site for Langerhans islets, we examined the potential of neonatal porcine islet-like clusters (NPICCs) to engraft in skeletal muscle as an alternative transplantation site. Neonatal porcine islet-like clusters were isolated from 2- to 5-day-old piglets and either transplanted under the kidney capsule (s.k.) or injected into the lower hindlimb muscle (i.m.) of streptozotocin-diabetic NOD-SCID IL2rγ(-/-) (NSG) mice. Survival, vascularization, maturation, and functional activity were analyzed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance testing and immunohistochemical analyses. Intramuscular transplantation of NPICCs resulted in development of normoglycemia and restored glucose homeostasis. Time to reversal of diabetes and glucose tolerance (AUC glucose and AUC insulin) did not significantly differ as compared to s.k. transplantation. Intramuscular grafts exhibited rapid neovascularization and graft composition with cytokeratin-positive ductal cells and beta cells at post-transplant weeks 2 and 8 and after establishment of normoglycemia was comparable in both groups. Intramuscular injection represents a minimally invasive but efficient alternative for transplantation of NPICCs and, thus, offers an attractive alternative site for xenotransplantation approaches. These findings may have important implications for improving the outcome and the monitoring of pig islet xenotransplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous lorazepam for the prehospital treatment of status epilepticus in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Welch, Robert D; Nicholas, Katherine; Durkalski-Mauldin, Valerie L; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Conwit, Robin; Mahajan, Prashant V; Lewandowski, Christopher; Silbergleit, Robert

    2015-02-01

    To examine the effectiveness of intramuscular (IM) midazolam versus intravenous (IV) lorazepam for the treatment of pediatric patients with status epilepticus (SE) in the prehospital care setting. This multicenter clinical trial randomized patients diagnosed with SE to receive either IM midazolam or IV lorazepam administered by paramedics in the prehospital care setting. Included in this secondary analysis were only patients younger than 18 years of age. Evaluated were the associations of the treatment group (IM vs. IV) with the primary outcome, defined as seizure cessation prior to emergency department (ED) arrival, and with patient characteristics, time to important events, and adverse events. Descriptive statistics and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for the analysis. Of 893 primary study subjects, 120 met criteria for this study (60 in each treatment group). There were no differences in important baseline characteristics or seizure etiologies between groups. The primary outcome was met in 41 (68.3%) and 43 (71.7%) of subjects in the IM and IV groups, respectively (risk difference [RD] -3.3%, 99% CI -24.9% to 18.2%). Similar results were noted for those younger than 11 years (RD -1.3%, 99% CI -25.7% to 23.1%). Time from initiating the treatment protocol was shorter for children who received IM midazolam, mainly due to the shorter time to administer the active treatment. Safety profiles were similar. IM midazolam can be rapidly administered and appears to be safe and effective for the management of children with SE treated in the prehospital setting. The results must be interpreted in the context of the secondary analysis design and sample size of the study. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Pediatric procedural sedation with ketamine: time to discharge after intramuscular versus intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Preeti; Babl, Franz E; Deasy, Conor; Sharwood, Lisa N

    2009-02-01

    Ketamine is an attractive agent for pediatric procedural sedation. There are limited data on time to discharge comparing intramuscular (IM) vs. intravenous (IV) ketamine. The authors set out to determine whether IM or IV ketamine leads to quicker discharge from the emergency department (ED) and how side effect profiles compare. All patients who had received ketamine IM or IV at a tertiary children's hospital ED during the 3-year study period (2004-2007) were identified. Prospective sedation registry data, retrospective medical records, and administrative data were reviewed for drug dosages, use of additional agents, time of drug administration to discharge, total ED time (triage to discharge), and adverse events. A subgroup analysis for patients requiring five or fewer sutures (short suture group) was performed. A total of 229 patients were enrolled (60% male) with median age of 2.8 years (IQR =1.8-4.3 years) and median weight of 15.7 kg (range = 8.7-74 kg). Ketamine was most frequently employed for laceration repair (80%) and foreign body removal (9%). Overall, 48% received ketamine IM and 52% received it IV. In the short-suture subgroup, 52% received ketamine IM, while 48% received it IV. Multivariate linear regression analysis determined time from drug administration to patient discharge as 21 minutes shorter for IV compared with IM administration, adjusted for age and number of additional doses (R(2) = -0.35; 95% CI = -0.5 to -0.19; p < 0.001). Total time in the ED (triage to discharge) comparing IV versus IM administration, adjusting for age and gender and number of additional doses, was not significantly different (p = 0.16). In the short-suture subgroup, time to discharge from administration was also shorter in the IV ketamine group (R(2) = -0.454; 95%CI = -0.66 to -0.25; p < 0.001) but similar for total time in ED (p = 0.16). Overall, adverse events occurred in 35% (95% CI = 27% to 45%) of the IM group and 20% (95% CI = 13% to 28%) of the IV group (p = 0

  1. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in mature swine after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) FM PK in mature swine. Appropriate pain management for lameness in swine is a critical control point for veterinarians and producers, but science-based guidance on optimal housing, management and treatment of lameness is deficient. Six mature swine (121–168 kg) were administered an IV, IM, or PO dose of flunixin meglumine at a target dose of 2.2 mg/kg in a cross-over design with a 10 day washout period between treatments. Plasma samples collected up to 48 hours post-administration were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Results No adverse effects were observed with flunixin meglumine administration for all routes. Flunixin meglumine was administered at an actual mean dose of 2.21 mg/kg (range: 2.05-2.48 mg/kg) IV, IM and PO. A mean peak plasma concentration (CMAX) for IM and PO administration was 3748 ng/ml (range: 2749–6004 ng/ml) and 946 ng/ml (range: 554–1593 ng/ml), respectively. TMAX was recorded at 1.00 hour (range: 0.50-2.00 hours) and 0.61 hours (range: 0.17-2.00 hours) after PO and IM administration. Half-life (T ½ λz) for IV, IM and PO administration was 6.29 hours (range: 4.84-8.34 hours), 7.49 hours (range: 5.55-12.98 hours) and 7.08 hours (range: 5.29-9.15 hours) respectively. In comparison, bioavailability (F) for PO administration was 22% (range: 11-44%) compared to IM F at 76% (range: 54-92%). Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that FM oral administration is not the most effective administration route for mature swine when compared to IV and IM. Lower F and Cmax of PO-FM in comparison to IM-FM suggest that PO-FM is less likely to be an effective therapeutic administration route. PMID:23941181

  2. Comparison of intraosseous and intramuscular drug administration for induction of anaesthesia in domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Kamiloglu, A; Atalan, G; Kamiloglu, N N

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of intraosseous anaesthetic drug administration in domestic pigeons and to compare this method with an intramuscular technique for clinical parameters (induction quality and recovery of anaesthesia), heart-respiratory rate and cloacal temperature. Sixteen clinically healthy mature pigeons (7 male and 9 female) were included into the study. The birds were allocated into two groups as group I and II. Pigeons in group I received 50mg/kg ketamine by intraosseous route (IO) and birds in group II received intramuscular (IM) ketamine application at a dose of 50mg/kg. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and cloacal temperature (CT) were measured before (0 min) and 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min after anaesthetic drug administration. Clinical and anaesthetic effect of the ketamine used in different route were assessed. Statistical assessment performed between the groups revealed that RR in IM group was higher than in IO group between 1 and 3 min (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively), whereas in 15 min it was higher in IO group than IM (p<0.01) (Fig. 1A). Compared to baseline values, there was a decrease for HR within 3 to 15 min for both groups. However, this was statistically different between 5, 10 and 15 min for IM group. No significant alterations were recorded for CT during the anaesthesia for both groups. The anaesthetic effect of the ketamine started 1 to 3 min (1.8+/-0.4) after injection for Group I and 5 to 10 min (7.5+/-0.8) for Group II. The recovery time ranged from 50 to 75 min (62+/-15) for Group I and 80 to 100 min (90+/-12) for the Group II. Intraosseous and intramuscular ketamine administration resulted in a satisfactory anaesthesia in pigeons. However, intraosseous drug administration provided a more rapid and effective anaesthesia and might be useful for the birds requiring urgent anaesthesia.

  3. IMS - MS Data Extractor

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    An automated drift time extraction and computed associated collision cross section software tool for small molecule analysis with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The software automatically extracts drift times and computes associated collision cross sections for small molecules analyzed using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) based on a target list of expected ions provided by the user.

  4. Weekly Intramuscular Injection of Levothyroxine following Myxoedema: A Practical Solution to an Old Crisis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter N; Tabasum, Arshiya; Sanki, Gina; Burberry, David; Tennant, Brian P; White, James; Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Aldridge, Andrew; Das, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old female with known hypothyroidism was admitted to hospital after being found on the floor. On examination, she was unkempt, confused, bradycardic, hypothermic, and barely arousable. Initial biochemistry revealed a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of >100 mU/L and free thyroxine (FT4) level of 1.5 pmol/L which supported a diagnosis of myxoedema coma. She was resuscitated and commenced on liothyronine, levothyroxine, and hydrocortisone and some improvement was made. It became apparent that she was hiding and spitting out her oral levothyroxine including levothyroxine elixir. Given the need for prompt alternative control, we sought advice from international experts where intramuscular levothyroxine was recommended. She was managed from day 50 onwards with intramuscular levothyroxine 200 mcg once a week, which was subsequently increased to 500 mcg. Thyroid function normalized and she made continual cognitive and physical progress and was discharged to a rehabilitation hospital. Her intramuscular levothyroxine was stopped and she was subsequently restarted on oral levothyroxine, with a plan for on-going close monitoring of her thyroid function. This report highlights the potential to use intramuscular levothyroxine in individuals with severe hypothyroidism arising from poor compliance with levothyroxine treatment or other potential causes such as impaired absorption.

  5. Intramuscular Contact Lead Filled With Conductive Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Hendrickson, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed sheath for braided-wire intramuscular conductor preserves electrical continuity even if wire breaks. Plastic sheath surrounds conductive solution in which braided wire immersed. At end of cable, wire and sheath crimped together and press-fit in porous titanium electrode. Implanted surgically with aid of device resembling catheter. Used to deliver electrical stimuli to muscles in biomedical research on human and animal physiology, development of prostheses, regeneration of nerves and muscles, and artificial implants.

  6. Distribution of Flunixin Residues in Muscles of Dairy Cattle Dosed with Lipopolysaccharide or Saline and Treated with Flunixin by Intravenous or Intramuscular Injection.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Schneider, Marilyn J; Smith, David J

    2016-12-28

    Twenty dairy cows received flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg bw, administered once daily by either the intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) route for three consecutive days with either intravenous normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) providing a balanced design with five animals per group. Cows were sacrificed after a 4 day withdrawal period, and 13 muscle types were collected and assayed for flunixin by LC-MS/MS. After elimination of sample outliers, the main effects of route of administration (IV or IM), treatment (NS or LPS), and tissue type significantly (P < 0.05) affected flunixin residues, with no interaction (P > 0.05). Intramuscular (nonlabel) flunixin administration produced greater (P < 0.05) flunixin residues in muscle than the IV (label) administration, whereas LPS resulted in lower flunixin levels. Differences among the tissue levels indicate it is necessary to specify the tissue to be used for any monitoring of drug levels for consumer protection.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of mepolizumab following administration at subcutaneous and intramuscular sites.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Hector; Yancey, Steve; Cozens, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized the pharmacokinetics (PK) of mepolizumab, after a single intravenous (IV), subcutaneous (SC), or intramuscular (IM) dose in healthy adults and determined the absolute bioavailability of SC and IM mepolizumab delivered at different anatomical regions. Sixty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of either mepolizumab 250 mg by IV, SC injection (upper arm, abdomen, or thigh); or IM injection (thigh). Following IV administration, the mean maximum observed plasma mepolizumab concentration (Cmax ) and the mean area under the concentration versus time curves from time zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) were 109 ± 17 µg/mL and 1,557 ± 250 µg d/mL, respectively. After SC administration, the mean (±SD) values of Cmax and AUC(0-∞) were 34.1-38.2 ± 7.3-12.1 µg/mL and 1,110-1,238 ± 228-372 µg d/mL, respectively. Following IM administration, the mean values of Cmax and AUC(0-∞) were 46.9 ± 10.6 µg/mL and 1,395 ± 348 µg d/mL. The median terminal half-life was similar for SC, IM and IV administration (17.9-20.4, 19.2, and 18.5 days, respectively). The overall mean bioavailability of SC mepolizumab was 64-75%, and absorption was relatively similar for the three SC injection sites. Mepolizumab 250 mg was generally well tolerated in this study. These results support flexibility in the SC injection site for mepolizumab. © 2013, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Sedative and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine after oral transmucosal or intramuscular administration in cats.

    PubMed

    Porters, Nathalie; Bosmans, Tim; Debille, Mariëlla; de Rooster, Hilde; Duchateau, Luc; Polis, Ingeborgh

    2014-01-01

    To compare sedation and antinociception after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (IM) administration of a dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine combination in healthy adult cats. Randomized, 'blinded' crossover study, with 1 month washout between treatments. Six healthy neutered female cats, weighing 5.3-7.5 kg. A combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg kg(-1) ) and buprenorphine (20 μg kg(-1) ) was administered by either the OTM (buccal cavity) or IM (quadriceps muscle) route. Sedation was measured using a numerical rating scale, at baseline and at various time points until 6 hours after treatment. At the same time points, analgesia was scored using a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale, based on the response to an ear pinch, and by the cat's response to a mechanical stimulus exerted by a pressure rate onset device. Physiological and adverse effects were recorded, and oral pH measured. Signed rank tests were performed, with significance set at p < 0.05. Data are presented as median and range. There were no differences in sedation or antinociception scores between OTM and IM dosing at any of the time points. Nociceptive thresholds increased after both treatments but without significant difference between groups. Buccal pH remained between 8 and 8.5. Salivation was noted after OTM administration (n = 2) and vomiting after both OTM (n = 4), and IM (n = 3) dosing. In healthy adult cats, OTM administration of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine resulted in comparable levels of sedation and antinociception to IM dosing. The OTM administration may offer an alternative route to administer this sedative-analgesic combination in cats. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine after single intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intramuscular administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long-shan; Yin, Ran; Wei, Bin-bin; Li, Qing; Jiang, Zhen-yuan; Chen, Xiao-hui; Bi, Kai-shun

    2012-11-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine, a new second-generation of cephalosporin antibiotics, after intravenous (IV), intraperitoneal (IP), or intramuscular (IM) administration. Twelve male and 12 virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were divided into three groups (n=4 for each gender in each group). The rats were administered a single dose (67.5 mg/kg) of cefuroxime lysine via IV bolus or IP or IM injection. Blood samples were collected and analyzed with a validated UFLC-MS/MS method. The concentration-time data were then calculated by compartmental and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic methods using DAS software. After IV, IP or IM administration, the plasma cefuroxime lysine disposition was best described by a tri-compartmental, bi-compartmental or mono-compartmental open model, respectively, with first-order elimination. The plasma concentration profiles were similar through the 3 administration routes. The distribution process was rapid after IV administration [t(1/2(d)), 0.10 ± 0.11 h vs 1.36 ± 0.65 and 1.25 ± 1.01 h]. The AUMC(0-∞) is markedly larger, and mean residence time (MRT) is greatly longer after IP administration than that in IV, or IM routes (AUMC(0-∞): 55.33 ± 20.34 vs 16.84 ± 4.85 and 36.17 ± 13.24 mg·h(2)/L; MRT: 0.93 ± 0.10 h vs 0.37 ± 0.07 h and 0.65 ± 0.05 h). The C(max) after IM injection was significantly higher than that in IP injection (73.51 ± 12.46 vs 49.09 ± 7.06 mg/L). The AUC(0-∞) in male rats were significantly higher than that in female rats after IM administration (66.38 ± 16.5 vs 44.23 ± 6.37 mg·h/L). There was no significantly sex-related difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine between male and female rats. Cefuroxime lysine shows quick absorption after IV injection, a long retension after IP injection, and a high C(max) after IM injection. After IM administration the AUC(0-∞) in male rats was significantly larger than that in

  10. Virosomal hepatitis a vaccine: comparing intradermal and subcutaneous with intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Frösner, Gert; Steffen, Robert; Herzog, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) is unaffordable to many developing countries. Substantial reductions in cost occur when vaccines are administered intradermally at low doses. Aluminum-free HAV vaccines are considered more suitable for intradermal use than traditional vaccines which can cause long-lasting local reactions. Thus, we compared the immunogenicity and safety of an aluminum-free virosomal HAV vaccine (Epaxal) administered by different routes: intradermal (i.d.), subcutaneous (s.c.), and intramuscular (i.m.). Two open pilot studies were conducted as sub-studies of a large lot consistency trial. Healthy subjects aged 18 to 45 were enrolled. Study 1 compared two i.d. regimens of a lower dose of Epaxal [0.1 mL (4.8 IU), one or two injection sites] with i.m. administration of the standard dose [0.5 mL (24 IU)]. Study 2 compared the s.c. with the i.m. administration of the standard dose. At month 12, subjects in study 1 received a booster dose of 0.1 mL i.d. or 0.5 mL i.m.; subjects in study 2 received 0.5 mL via the respective route (s.c. or i.m.). Serum was tested for antibodies at baseline, 2 weeks (study 1), and 1 and 6 months after the primary vaccination as well as prior and 1 month after the booster dose. Incidences of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Seroprotection rates (anti-HAV geometric mean concentration of > or =20 mIU/mL) after 1 month ranged from 93.2% to 100% in all groups and remained high until month 12 (range 85.2&-90.2%). Complete (100%) seroprotection was achieved by all subjects in all groups after booster vaccination. All routes of administration were well tolerated. Local reactions were more common in subjects vaccinated i.d. and s.c. than i.m. The aluminum-free virosomal HAV vaccine Epaxal is highly immunogenic and well tolerated when administered either via i.d., s.c., or i.m. Vaccination via the i.d. route may confer significant cost savings over the conventional i.m. route.

  11. Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous diazepam for treatment of seizures in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Portela, J L; Garcia, P C R; Piva, J P; Barcelos, A; Bruno, F; Branco, R; Tasker, R C

    2015-04-01

    To compare the therapeutic efficacy of intramuscular midazolam (MDZ-IM) with that of intravenous diazepam (DZP-IV) for seizures in children. Randomized clinical trial. Pediatric emergency department. Children aged 2 months to 14 years admitted to the study facility with seizures. Patients were randomized to receive DZP-IV or MDZ-IM. Groups were compared with respect to time to treatment start (min), time from drug administration to seizure cessation (min), time to seizure cessation (min), and rate of treatment failure. Treatment was considered successful when seizure cessation was achieved within 5min of drug administration. Overall, 32 children (16 per group) completed the study. Intravenous access could not be obtained within 5min in four patients (25%) in the DZP-IV group. Time from admission to active treatment and time to seizure cessation was shorter in the MDZ-IM group (2.8 versus 7.4min; p<0.001 and 7.3 versus 10.6min; p=0.006, respectively). In two children per group (12.5%), seizures continued after 10min of treatment, and additional medications were required. There were no between-group differences in physiological parameters or adverse events (p=0.171); one child (6.3%) developed hypotension in the MDZ-IM group and five (31%) developed hyperactivity or vomiting in the DZP-IV group. Given its efficacy and ease and speed of administration, intramuscular midazolam is an excellent option for treatment of childhood seizures, enabling earlier treatment and shortening overall seizure duration. There were no differences in complications when applying MDZ-IM or DZP-IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  12. Single-use autoinjector for once-weekly intramuscular injection of IFNβ-1a.

    PubMed

    Limmroth, Volker; Gerbershagen, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    IFNβ products and glatiramer acetate are established treatment first-line options in long-term disease-modifying therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). These self-injectable medications are used once weekly to once daily. Injection-related issues are common patient-cited reasons for nonadherence. Autoinjectors have been shown to support long-term adherence to injectable medications. The ability to self-inject in MS patients has been associated with a reduced risk of missed injections and drug discontinuation, and a beneficial effect on patient independence. The recently introduced easy-to-use prefilled once-weekly pen is a safe and effective device for intramuscular (IM) IFNβ-1a application and provides a convenient method for self-injection. We reviewed the available published evidence on the characteristics of this device. The once-weekly pen facilitates self-injection and was preferred over prefilled syringes by patients in a prospective open-label, multicenter Phase IIIb trial in MS patients who had been using IM IFNβ-1a in prefilled syringes. The simple and safe handling, shielded short needle, single-use disposable design and virtually painless injection by the device may contribute to adherence, quality of life and independence in patients using IM IFNβ-1a.

  13. Pharmacokinetic properties of methadone hydrochloride after single intramuscular administration in adult dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Kock, M; Thompson, E; Vulliet, P R; Brooks, D L

    1994-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of methadone were studied in adult dairy goats. Five goats were each given methadone hydrochloride as a single 0.2 mg/kg of body weight dosage by intramuscular (IM) administration. Plasma methadone concentrations were determined for 96 h after dosing. Plasma methadone concentrations after IM administration were best described by an open one-compartment model. Overall elimination half-life (t1/2) was 1.38 h. Peak plasma concentrations were reached 0.25 h after dosing, and the actual plasma concentration averaged 37.8 ng/ml (SD = 12.76) at that time. The data obtained from this study suggest that plasma concentrations, similar to those that are analgesic in humans, can be achieved after IM administration of methadone at a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. In addition, these plasma concentrations can be maintained for up to 3 h after a single injection and, therefore, may provide satisfactory analgesia for such period.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) following intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Sinphithakkul, P; Klangkaew, N; Sanyathitiseree, P; Giorgi, M; Kumagai, S; Poapolathep, A; Poapolathep, S

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic characteristics of amoxicillin (AMX) trihydrate in male Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, following intramuscular administration at two dosages of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Blood samples were collected from 0.5 up to 72 h. The concentration of AMX in elephant plasma was measured using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. AMX was measurable up to 24 h after administration at two dosages. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was 1.20 ± 0.39 μg/mL after i.m. administration at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w., whereas it was 3.40 ± 0.63 μg/mL at a dosage of 11 mg/kg b.w. A noncompartment model was developed to describe the disposition of AMX in Asian elephants. Based on the preliminary findings found in this research, the dosage of 5.5 and 11 mg/kg b.w. produced drug plasma concentrations higher than 0.25 mg/mL for 24 h after i.m. administration. Thereafter, i.m. administration with AMX at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg b.w. appeared a more suitable dose than 11 mg/kg b.w. However, more studies are needed to determine AMX clinical effectiveness in elephants. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Hatakeyama, Naohiro; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Fukui, Sho; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral, intramuscular and bath administration in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Shan, Q; Fan, J; Wang, J; Zhu, X; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of 2.29, 3.24 and 0.36 μg/ml was obtained at 4.08, 0.68 and 0 hr, respectively; the elimination half-life (T 1/2β ) was 80.95, 62.17 and 61.15 hr, respectively; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 223.46, 162.72 and 14.91 μg hr/ml, respectively. CIP, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was detected and measured after all methods of drug administration except bath. It is possible and practical to obtain therapeutic blood concentrations of enrofloxacin in the crucian carp using IM, PO and bath immersion administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The myth of the 90 degrees-angle intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Katsma, D L; Katsma, R

    2000-01-01

    This article shows that the textbook 90 degrees-angle requirement for intramuscular injections is unrealistic. Trigonometry demonstrates that an injection given at 72 degrees reaches 95% of the depth of an injection given at 90 degrees. This relation between needle angle and needle depth, previous research into the kinematics of hand motion during an intramuscular injection, and other practical considerations support the proposal for a new, relaxed standard: Intramuscular injections administered at a comfortable angle between 72 degrees and 90 degrees.

  18. Comparison of gene delivery techniques for therapeutic angiogenesis ultrasound-mediated destruction of carrier microbubbles versus direct intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Kobulnik, Jeremy; Kuliszewski, Michael A; Stewart, Duncan J; Lindner, Jonathan R; Leong-Poi, Howard

    2009-10-27

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of angiogenic gene delivery by ultrasound-mediated (UM) destruction of intravenous carrier microbubbles to direct intramuscular (IM) injections. Current trials of gene therapy for angiogenesis remain limited by suboptimal, invasive delivery techniques. Hind-limb ischemia was produced by iliac artery ligation in 99 rats. In 32 rats, UM delivery of green fluorescent protein (GFP)/vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(165)) plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid was performed. Thirty-five animals received IM injections of VEGF(165)/GFP plasmid. Remaining rats received no treatment. Before delivery (day 14 after ligation) and at days 17, 21, and 28 and week 8 after ligation, microvascular blood volume and microvascular blood flow to the proximal hind limbs were assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (n = 8 per group). Total transfection was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and localization of transfection was determined by immunohistochemistry. By day 28, both IM and UM delivery of VEGF(165) produced significant increases in microvascular blood volume and microvascular blood flow. Whereas increases in microvascular blood volume were similar between treatment groups, microvascular blood flow was greater (p < 0.005) in UM-treated animals as compared with IM-treated animals, persisting to week 8. The VEGF(165)/GFP messenger ribonucleic acid expression was greater (p < 0.05) for IM-treated animals. A strong GFP signal was detected for both groups and was localized to focal perivascular regions and myocytes around injection sites for IM and to the vascular endothelium of arterioles/capillaries in a wider distribution for UM delivery. Despite lower transfection levels, UM delivery of VEGF(165) is as effective as IM injections. The UM delivery results in directed vascular transfection over a wider distribution, which may account for the more efficient angiogenesis.

  19. Electrophysiological characterization of the rat trigeminal caudalis (Vc) neurons following intramuscular injection of capsaicin

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yang H; Ro, Jin Y

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular single unit recording experiments were performed to examine response characteristics of wide dynamic range neurons in the Vc that receive masseter afferent input in Sprague Dawley rats. Capsaicin, or its vehicle, was directly administered into the masseter muscle and changes in resting discharge, responses to mechanical stimulation on the cutaneous receptive field and the electrical threshold for masseter nerve stimulation were assessed. Intramuscular capsaicin induced significant increase in the background discharge and mechanical hypersensitivity to the cutaneous stimulation and lowered the threshold masseter nerve stimulation evoked responses in the majority of neurons. The capsaicin-induced increase in evoked responses, but not the resting discharge, was partially attenuated when the muscle was pretreated with a mGluR antagonist. The present study suggests that injury or inflammation in the masseter muscle induce generalized hyperexcitability of central trigeminal neurons and that the blockade of peripherally localized mGluR5 can effectively attenuate muscular hypersensitivity. PMID:19818833

  20. Uber Phosphorylierung im Licht

    PubMed Central

    Warburg, Otto

    1962-01-01

    Während bisher der Zusammenhang zwischen Dehydrierung und Phosphorylierung im Licht nur für die stöchiometrischen Chinonreactionen bewiesen worden war, ist nunmehr auch für die katalytischen Chinonreactionen, die aeroben wie die anaeroben, gezeigt worden, dass die Dehydrierung die Phosphorylierung bewirkt. Eine andere Phosphorylierung, als die Phosphorylierung durch Dehydrierung gibt es in den grünen Grana nicht. Natürlich entsteht nunmehr die Frage, welche Substanz das Substrat von Dehydrierung und Phosphorylierung ist. Da die Grana keine Dunkelatmung haben und deshalb im Dunkeln nicht phosphorylieren können, auch nicht nach Zusatz von Chinon, so muss das gesuchte Substrat im Licht entstehen; und da der Photolyt der Granareactionen eine Kohlensäureverbindung ist, so muss das gesuchte Substrat eine im Licht entstehende Kohlenstoffverbindung sein. Wegen der Gärungen und dem einzigen bisher bekannten chemischen Mechanismus der Phosphorylierung durch Dehydrierung (4) denkt man an Triosephosphat. Aber chemisch ist jeder Aldehyd möglich. PMID:14004907

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of revaccination with reduced dose intradermal and standard dose intramuscular influenza vaccines in adults 18-64 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gorse, Geoffrey J; Falsey, Ann R; Johnson, Carol M; Morrison, Dennis; Fried, David L; Ervin, John E; Greenberg, David P; Ozol-Godfrey, Ayca; Landolfi, Victoria; Tsang, Peter H

    2013-12-05

    This clinical trial examined the safety and immunogenicity of annual revaccination with Fluzone(®) Intradermal (Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA) vaccine compared to a standard intramuscular (IM) split-virion trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone(®), Sanofi Pasteur). This phase II, active-controlled, multi-centre, open-label trial was conducted in 2009 and 2010, and enrolled 1250 adults 18-64 years of age who were randomly selected from participants in a phase III influenza vaccine trial the previous year (NCT00772109). Subjects who had previously received the ID vaccine were randomized 2:1 to be revaccinated with the ID or IM vaccine and those who previously received the IM vaccine were randomized 1:1. Solicited reactions were recorded on the day of vaccination and continuing for the next 7 days, non-serious adverse events for 28 days, and serious adverse events for 6 months after vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titres were assessed pre-vaccination and at day 28. Reactions were well-tolerated and resolved in the first 7 days, but erythema, induration, swelling, pruritus and ecchymosis were reported by more subjects receiving the ID vaccine than the IM vaccine. Compared to receipt of IM vaccine in the previous year, ID vaccine in the previous year led to statistically higher rates of erythema, swelling and induration after IM vaccine in the second year. Injection-site pain and systemic reactions did not differ between ID and IM vaccines. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Geometric mean antibody titres, seroprotection rates, and seroconversion rates were non-inferior for the ID and IM vaccines for all three viral strains. The ID vaccine was as immunogenic as the IM vaccine, and raised no safety concerns. It can be used interchangeably with the IM vaccine for annual revaccination in adults 18-64 years of age in consecutive years without safety concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of intramuscular alfaxalone and ketamine combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration in cats.

    PubMed

    Khenissi, Latifa; Nikolayenkova-Topie, Olga; Broussaud, Ségolène; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Cardiorespiratory parameters and anaesthesia quality in cats anaesthetised with either intramuscular (IM) alfaxalone or ketamine both combined with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol for castration were evaluated. Methods Thirty-two client-owned cats were randomly assigned to receive either alfaxalone (A; 3 mg/kg IM) or ketamine (K; 5 mg/kg IM), combined with dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (T°) were recorded prior to drug administration. Pulse rate (PR) and RR were recorded 10 (T 10 ) and 15 (T 15 ) mins after injection (T 0 ). Cardiorespiratory values (PR, RR, SPO 2 , blood pressure, P E 'CO 2 ) were recorded every 5 mins for the duration of the procedure. Pain at injection, intubation and recovery were evaluated with simple descriptive scores. Feasibility of anaesthesia was evaluated by the number of top-ups of anaesthetic needed. Cat attitude, ability to walk and presence of ataxia were assessed several times after extubation (T exmin ) and the time between injection and extubation recorded. Pain was assessed at T ex120 and T ex240 with the 4Avet-pain score. Results The RR was significantly lower in group K at T 10 (RR K = 28 ±13.35 breaths per minute [brpm], RR A = 43.24 ±7.04 brpm) and T 15 (RR K = 28 ±11.53 brpm vs RR A = 43 ±12.18 brpm). Time to extubation was significantly longer in group A (T A = 62 ±14.6 mins, T K = 45.13 ± 7.38 mins). Cats in group K needed more top-ups, were more ataxic at T ex120 , had a worse recovery score at T ex60 and were less willing to walk at T ex30 . Conclusions and relevance Cats receiving alfaxalone had a longer but better quality recovery. Cardiorespiratory parameters were stable and within clinically acceptable values following IM injection of either alfaxalone or ketamine in healthy cats. Intramuscular alfaxalone is a suitable alternative to ketamine for short procedures requiring anaesthesia when used in combination

  3. Ivermectin disposition kinetics after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of an oil-based formulation to cattle.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Pis, A; Imperiale, F; Sanchez, S; Alvarez, L; Kujanek, R; Lanusse, C

    1999-10-01

    Slight differences in formulation may change the plasma kinetics and ecto-endoparasiticide activity of endectocide compounds. This work reports on the disposition kinetics and plasma availability of ivermectin (IVM) after subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) administration as an oil-based formulation to cattle. Parasite-free Aberdeen Angus calves (n = 24; 240-280 kg) were divided into three groups (n = 8) and treated (200 microg/kg) with either an IVM oil-based pharmaceutical preparation (IVM-TEST formulation) (Bayer Argentina S.A.) given by subcutaneous (Group A) and intramuscular (Group B) injections or the IVM-CONTROL (non-aqueous formulation) (Ivomec, MSD Agvet) subcutaneously administered (Group C). Blood samples were taken over 35 days post-treatment and the recovered plasma was extracted and analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection. IVM was detected in plasma between 12 h and 35 days post-administration of IVM-TEST (SC and IM injections) and IVM-CONTROL formulations. Prolonged IVM absorption half-life (p < 0.05) and delayed peak plasma concentration (p < 0.001) were obtained following the SC administration of the IVM-TEST compared to the IVM-CONTROL formulation. No differences in total plasma availability were observed among treatments. However, the plasma residence time and elimination half-life of IVM were significantly longer after injection of the IVM-TEST formulation. IVM plasma concentrations were above 0.5 ng/ml for 20.6 (CONTROL) and 27.5 days (IVM-TEST SC), respectively (p < 0.05). The modified kinetic behaviour of IVM obtained after the administration of the novel oil-based formulation examined in this trial, compared to the standard preparation, may positively impact on its strategic use in cattle.

  4. Myostatin inhibits porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, W X; Dodson, M V; Jiang, Z H; Yu, S G; Chu, W W; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of myostatin on adipogenesis by porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. Intramuscular preadipocytes were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn pigs. Myostatin inhibited intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Myostatin treatment during preadipocyte differentiation significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the expression of the adipogenic marker genes CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid-binding protein, and adiponectin. Myostatin also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the release of glycerol and decreased both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase expression in intramuscular adipocytes. Our study suggests that myostatin acts as an extrinsic regulatory factor in regulating intramuscular adipogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  6. Oily nanosuspension for long-acting intramuscular delivery of curcumin didecanoate prodrug: preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Lan; Han, Ying-Rui; Quan, Li-Hui; Liu, Chun-Yu; Liao, Yong-Hong

    2013-05-13

    The objective of this study was to prepare the nanocrystals of curcumin didecanoate (CurDD) by wet ball milling and to investigate the comparative pharmacokinetics of oily nano- and micro-suspensions after intramuscular (i.m.) administration to rats. Upon optimizing the wet ball milling parameters, CurDD nanocrystals were produced with median particle size of ~500 nm and the freeze-dried nanocrystals were readily dispersed in peanut oil to form stable nanosuspensions. Although the nanosuspension appeared to exhibit slower clearance from the injection site after i.m. injection, compared to microsuspension (~5 μm), a significantly higher maximum plasma curcumin concentration (69.0 ng/ml) was observed for the former than that for the latter (18.5 ng/ml). In addition, the nanosuspension provided significant higher plasma curcumin concentrations and brain CurDD contents for at least 15 days than the microsuspension, except for the initial times. A single i.m. injection of nanosuspension appeared to achieve reversal effect on reserpine-induced hypothermia for at least 13 days. This study demonstrates that CurDD nanosuspension may act as a long-acting i.m. injectable for sustained delivery of curcumin, potentially applicable to elicit a long-lasting antidepressant effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intramuscular arteether for treating severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, B B; Okoromah, C N

    2004-10-18

    Quinine and artemisinin drugs are used in severe malaria, but quinine resistance is increasing. Arteether is a recently developed artemisinin derivative that is oil soluble, has a long elimination half life, and is more stable than other derivatives. To compare intramuscular arteether with other antimalarial drugs to treat severe malaria. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (August 2004), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2004), MEDLINE (1966 to August 2004), EMBASE (1980 to August 2004), U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) Gateway (1953 to 1965), Web Science Citation (1981 to August 2004), LILACS (August 2004), Google search engine (August 2004), conference proceedings, and reference lists. We also contacted researchers, organizations, and pharmaceutical companies to help identify trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of intramuscular arteether in adults and children with severe malaria. We independently assessed the methodological quality of the trials and extracted data, and analysed data using Review Manager 4.2. Two small trials (n = 194) met the inclusion criteria. Both trials compared arteether with quinine in children with cerebral malaria and reported on similar outcomes. There was no statistically significant difference in the number of deaths (relative risk 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.43 to 1.30; n = 194, 2 trials), neurological complications (relative risk 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 4.46; n = 58, 1 trial), or other outcomes including time to regain consciousness, parasite clearance time, and fever clearance time. The meta-analyses lack statistical power to detect important differences. More trials with a larger number of participants are needed before a firm conclusion about the efficacy and safety of arteether can be reached.

  8. The effect of anabolic implants on intramuscular lipid deposition in finished beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Smith, K R; Duckett, S K; Azain, M J; Sonon, R N; Pringle, T D

    2007-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of anabolic implants on performance, changes in ultrasound measurements, carcass quality, cellularity of i.m. and s.c. adipose depots, and mRNA expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in i.m. adipose tissue of finished beef cattle. Angus heifers (experiment 1: n = 10; 411 kg of BW) and steers (experiment 2: n = 18; 279 kg of BW) were randomly allotted as control (C) or implanted with Synovex-Plus (SP) at d 0 and midway through the finishing period. The cattle were fed a high-concentrate diet and were weighed at approximately 28-d intervals. Heifers and steers were finished for 108 and 133 d, respectively. At slaughter, a section of the LM (sixth to ninth rib) was removed, and i.m. adipose tissue was dissected for mRNA analysis. Subcutaneous and i.m. adipose tissues also were collected for determination of cellularity. At 48 h postmortem, carcass data were collected, and a steak (12th rib) was removed for analysis of lipid and fatty acid composition. Body weight did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments until after reimplanting of the heifers (d 55) or steers (d 73). Average daily gain was 36 and 16% faster (P < or = 0.01) for implanted heifers and steers, respectively, compared with their control counterparts. Implanting resulted in larger (P < or = 0.10) HCW and LM area for heifers and steers. However, implanting did not affect (P > 0.10) dressing percent, fat thickness, percentage of KPH, yield grade, or marbling score. Intramuscular lipid content and concentrations of major fatty acids did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments. Percentage of SC adipocytes was greater at larger diameters ( > 150 microm), whereas the majority of i.m. adipocytes were at small to middle diameters (50 to 150 microm). The number of i.m. adipocytes per gram of tissue was greater (P < 0.05) for SP than C and also were greater (P < 0.05) than the number of s

  9. Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine administered to cats via oral transmucosal or intramuscular routes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luiz Cesar P; Ludders, John W; Erb, Hollis N; Basher, Karen L; Kirch, Pati; Gleed, Robin D

    2010-09-01

    To determine if buprenorphine plus dexmedetomidine administered via the oral transmucosal route produces sufficient sedation in cats so that students can insert intravenous catheters. Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Eighty-seven shelter-owned female cats aged 4-48 months, weighing 1.1-4.9 kg. Cats were randomly allocated to two treatment groups based on route of drug administration: oral transmucosal (OTM), or intramuscular (IM). Buprenorphine (20 microg kg(-1)) plus dexmedetomidine (20 microg kg(-1)) were administered as pre-medicants via one of these two routes. Prior to and 20 minutes after drug administration, heart and respiratory rates, systolic arterial pressure, and posture were measured and recorded. Twenty minutes after drug administration the same variables plus each cat's response to clipper sound, clipping, and restraint were recorded; higher scores indicated more sedation. There were no significant differences between the two groups prior to pre-medication. Within each treatment group heart rate was significantly lower 20 minutes after treatment, but it did not differ significantly between the two groups. Twenty minutes after treatment, respiratory rate was significantly less in the OTM group, but did not differ significantly between the two groups. Systolic arterial pressure did not differ within or between the two groups at either time. Scores for posture increased significantly within both groups, and cats in the IM group had higher scores after treatment. Twenty minutes after treatment, cats in the IM group had higher scores for clipping and restraint than OTM cats. Ketamine (IM) was necessary to facilitate catheterization in 25% and 16% of cats in the OTM and IM groups, respectively, but this was not significantly different. Administration of dexmedetomidine plus buprenorphine by the OTM route is easy to perform, but produces less sedation than the IM route for IV catheterization in cats.

  10. Potentiation of epidural lidocaine by co-administering tramadol by either intramuscular or epidural route in cats

    PubMed Central

    Hermeto, Larissa C.; DeRossi, Rafael; Marques, Beatriz C.; Jardim, Paulo H.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the analgesic and systemic effects of intramuscular (IM) versus epidural (EP) administration of tramadol as an adjunct to EP injection of lidocaine in cats. Six healthy, domestic, shorthair female cats underwent general anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, crossover trial was then conducted with each cat receiving the following 3 treatments: EP injection of 2% lidocaine [LEP; 3.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)]; EP injection of a combination of lidocaine and 5% tramadol (LTEP; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively); or EP injection of lidocaine and IM injection of tramadol (LEPTIM; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively). Systemic effects, spread and duration of analgesia, behavior, and motor blockade were determined before treatment and at predetermined intervals afterwards. The duration of analgesia was 120 ± 31 min for LTEP, 71 ± 17 min for LEPTIM, and 53 ± 6 min for LEP (P < 0.05; mean ± SD). The cranial spread of analgesia obtained with LTEP was similar to that with LEP or LEPTIM, extending to dermatomic region T13–L1. Complete motor blockade was similar for the 3 treatments. It was concluded that tramadol produces similar side effects in cats after either EP or IM administration. Our findings indicate that EP and IM tramadol (2 mg/kg BW) with EP lidocaine produce satisfactory analgesia in cats. As an adjunct to lidocaine, EP tramadol provides a longer duration of analgesia than IM administration. The adverse effects produced by EP and IM administration of tramadol were not different. Further studies are needed to determine whether EP administration of tramadol could play a role in managing postoperative pain in cats when co-administered with lidocaine after painful surgical procedures. PMID:26130854

  11. Preclinical advantages of intramuscularly administered peptide A3-APO over existing therapies in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections.

    PubMed

    Ostorhazi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Sztodola, Andras; Harmos, Ferenc; Kovalszky, Ilona; Szabo, Dora; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Cassone, Marco; Wade, John D; Bonomo, Robert A; Otvos, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    The designer antibacterial peptide A3-APO is efficacious in mouse models of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii systemic infections. Here we compare the efficacy of the peptide with that of imipenem and colistin in A. baumannii wound infections after burn injury. CD-1 mice were inflicted with burn wounds and different inocula of A. baumannii, isolated from an injured soldier, were placed into the wound sites. The antibiotics were given intramuscularly (im) one to five times. Available free peptide in the blood and the systemic toxicity of colistin and A3-APO were studied in healthy mice. While toxicity of colistin was observed at 25 mg/kg bolus drug administration, the lowest toxic dose of A3-APO was 75 mg/kg. In the A. baumannii blast injury models, 5 mg/kg A3-APO improved survival and reduced bacterial counts in the blood as well as in the wounds and improved wound appearance significantly better than any other antibiotic treatment. The free peptide concentration in the blood did not reach 1 µg/mL. Peptide A3-APO, with an intramuscular therapeutic index of 15, is more efficacious and less toxic than any existing burn injury infection therapy modality against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. A3-APO administered by the im route probably binds to a biopolymer that promotes the peptide's biodistribution.

  12. Protection of the liver against CCl4-induced injury by intramuscular electrotransfer of a kallistatin-encoding plasmid.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yong; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Lin, Jun-Sheng; Wang, Qi-Zhao; Xu, Rui-An

    2011-01-07

    To investigate the effect of transgenic expression of kallistatin (Kal) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver injury by intramuscular (im) electrotransfer of a Kal-encoding plasmid formulated with poly-L-glutamate (PLG). The pKal plasmid encoding Kal gene was formulated with PLG and electrotransferred into mice skeletal muscle before the administration of CCl4. The expression level of Kal was measured. The serum biomarker levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were monitored. The extent of CCl4-induced liver injury was analyzed histopathologically. The transgene of Kal was sufficiently expressed after an im injection of plasmid formulated with PLG followed by electroporation. In the Kal gene-transferred mice, protection against CCl4-induced liver injury was reflected by significantly decreased serum ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels compared to those in control mice (P<0.01 to 0.05 in a dose-dependent manner). Histological observations also revealed that hepatocyte necrosis, hemorrhage, vacuolar change and hydropic degeneration were apparent in mice after CCl4 administration. In contrast, the damage was markedly attenuated in the Kal gene-transferred mice. The expression of hepatic fibrogenesis marker transforming growth factor-β1 was also reduced in the pKal transferred mice. Intramuscular electrotransfer of plasmid pKal which was formulated with PLG significantly alleviated the CCl4-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response, and reduced the liver damage in a mouse model.

  13. Oral versus intramuscular phytomenadione: safety and efficacy compared.

    PubMed

    von Kries, R

    1999-07-01

    Oral and intramuscular phytomenadione (vitamin K1) prophylaxis became an issue following the report of a potential carcinogenic effect of intramuscular but not oral phytomenadione prophylaxis. There is increasing evidence, however, that oral phytomenadione prophylaxis is less effective for the prevention of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) than intramuscular prophylaxis. Following a report of an increased cancer risk after intramuscular phytomenadione, a series of papers on this issue appeared. Although an increased risk for solid tumours could almost certainly be excluded, a potential risk for acute lymphatic leukaemia in childhood could not be ruled out definitively. Almost all cases of late VKDB are preventable with intramuscular phytomenadione prophylaxis administered once at birth, whereas a single oral dose given at birth is much less effective. Repeated oral phytomenadione doses given to breast-fed infants either weekly (1 mg) or daily (25 microg) seem to be as effective as intramuscular phytomenadione prophylaxis. The efficacy of 3 oral 2mg doses with the new mixed micellar preparation ('Konakion MM') remains to be established. Although a number of studies have failed to confirm a cancer risk with phytomenadione, these studies have been unable to rule out a risk definitely because absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. A meta-analysis of the available studies might provide 95% confidence intervals narrow enough to exclude even a small cancer risk with some certainty. Oral prophylaxis will probably be as safe as the intramuscular prophylaxis if given daily (25 microg) or weekly (1 mg).

  14. Estimated protective effectiveness of intramuscular immune serum globulin post-exposure prophylaxis during a measles outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bigham, Mark; Murti, Michelle; Fung, Christina; Hemming, Felicity; Loadman, Susan; Stam, Robert; Van Buynder, Paul; Lem, Marcus

    2017-05-09

    Intramuscular Immune Serum Globulin (IM ISG) is recommended as post-measles exposure prophylaxis (PEP) when administered within 6days of initial exposure, with variable effectiveness in preventing measles disease. Effectiveness of IM ISG PEP in preventing clinical measles was assessed during a 2014 measles outbreak among a religious-affiliated community in British Columbia, Canada. Fifty-five self-reporting measles susceptible contacts were offered exclusively IM ISG PEP within an eligibility period best surmised to be within 6days of initial measles case exposure. Clinical outcome of IM ISG PEP recipients was determined by selective active surveillance and case self-reporting. IM ISG PEP failure was defined as onset of a measles-like rash 8-21days post-IM ISG PEP. Post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody level was tested in 8 recipients. Factors associated with measles disease were analyzed. Seventeen of 55 IM ISG PEP recipients developed clinically consistent measles in the following 8-21days, corresponding to an estimated crude protective effectiveness of 69%. In school aged children 5-18years, among whom potential exposure intensity and immune status confounders were considered less likely, estimated IM ISG PEP protective effectiveness was 50%. Age <25years was significantly associated with breakthrough clinical measles in bivariate analysis (p=0.0217). Among 8 tested contacts of 17 considered IM ISG PEP failures, post-IM ISG PEP measles IgG antibody levels (mean 16.3days (range 16-17days) post-PEP) were all <150mIU/ml. The estimated crude IM ISG PEP protective effectiveness against measles disease within 8-21days post-ISG administration was 69%. Accuracy of this estimated protective effectiveness is vulnerable to assumptions and uncertainties in ascertaining exposure details and pre-exposure immune status. Increasing the Canadian recommended measles IM ISG PEP dose from 0.25 to 0.5ml/kg (up to 15ml maximum volume) may increase protective effectiveness. Copyright

  15. Development and comparison of intramuscularly long-acting paliperidone palmitate nanosuspensions with different particle size.

    PubMed

    Leng, Donglei; Chen, Hongming; Li, Guangjing; Guo, Mengran; Zhu, Zhaolu; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-09-10

    The main purpose of this study was to develop and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior of two paliperidone palmitate (PP) nanosuspensions with different particle size after intramuscular (i.m.) administration. PP nanosuspensions were prepared by wet media milling method and the mean particle size of nanosuspension was controlled as 1,041 ± 6 nm (A) and 505 ± 9 nm (B), respectively. The morphology of nanosuspensions was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the crystallinity of PP in nanosuspensions. The physical and chemical stabilities of nanosuspensions A and B were investigated by particle analyzer and HPLC after storage for 2 months at 25°C, 4°C and mechanical shaking condition. No obvious change in particle size and chemical degradation of drug were observed. Following single-dose i.m. administration to beagle dogs, the release of paliperidone lasted for nearly 1 month. The Tmax of nanosuspensions A and B was 6 (d) and 10 (d). The AUC0-t and Cmax of nanosuspensions A was 2.0-fold and 1.8-fold higher than nanosuspensions B (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that PP nanosuspensions formulation had long-acting effect. Nanosuspension A with a larger particle size performed better than nanosuspension B. As a result, it is important to design appropriate particle size of nanosuspensions for i.m. administration in order to produce larger therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after single intramuscular injection in Pacific white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Zhou, J; Liu, X

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties and tissue distribution of enrofloxacin (EF) were investigated after single intramuscular (i.m.) dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in Pacific white shrimp at 22 to 25°C. EF and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CF) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i.m. administration, EF was absorbed quickly, and the peak of EF concentration (C max ) reached at first time point in hemolymph. The volume of distribution V d(area) of EF was 3.84 L/kg, indicating that the distribution of EF was good. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of EF was 90.1 and 274.2 μg hr/ml in muscle and hepatopancreas, respectively, which was higher than 75.8 μg hr/ml in hemolymph. The EF elimination was slow in muscle and hepatopancreas with the half-life (T 1/2β ) of 52.3 and 75.8 hr, respectively. CF, the mainly metabolite of EF, was detected in hemolymph, muscle and hepatopancreas. The C max was 0.030, 0.013 and 0.218 μg/ml, respectively. Based on a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.006-0.032 μg/ml for susceptible strains, EF i.m. injected at a dose 10 mg/kg could be efficacious against common pathogenic bacteria of Pacific white shrimp. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (< 10%), thus

  18. IMS applications analysis

    SciTech Connect

    RODACY,PHILIP J.; REBER,STEPHEN D.; SIMONSON,ROBERT J.

    This report examines the market potential of a miniature, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Military and civilian markets are discussed, as well as applications in a variety of diverse fields. The strengths and weaknesses of competing technologies are discussed. An extensive Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) bibliography is included. The conclusions drawn from this study are: (1) There are a number of competing technologies that are capable of detecting explosives, drugs, biological, or chemical agents. The IMS system currently represents the best available compromise regarding sensitivity, specificity, and portability. (2) The military market is not as large as the commercial market, butmore » the military services are more likely to invest R and D funds in the system. (3) Military applications should be addressed before commercial applications are addressed. (4) There is potentially a large commercial market for rugged, hand-held Ion Mobility Spectrometer systems. Commercial users typically do not invest R and D funds in this type of equipment rather, they wait for off-the-shelf availability.« less

  19. Leg intramuscular pressures during locomotion in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Murthy, G.; Holley, D. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of 10 volunteers during treadmill walking and running by using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking [181 +/- 69 (SE) mmHg] and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer produced linear relationships (n = 2, r = 0.97 for both). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-1.65 N . m/kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 N . m/kg during running. Phasic elevations of IMP during exercise are probably generated by local muscle tissue deformations due to muscle force development. Thus profiles of IMP provide a direct, reproducible index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  20. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Intramuscular Pressure Measurement During Locomotion in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Ricard E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of ten volunteers during, treadmill walking, and running using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking (181 +/- 69 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.) and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer in two subjects produced linear relationships (r = 0.97). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-165 Nm/Kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 Nm/Kg during running. IMP results from local muscle tissue deformations caused by muscle force development and thus, provides a direct, practical index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  2. Intramuscular injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-30

    Intramuscular injections require a thorough and meticulous approach to patient assessment and injection technique. This article, the second in a series of two, reviews the evidence base to inform safer practice and to consider the evidence for nursing practice in this area. A framework for safe practice is included, identifying important points for safe technique, patient care and clinical decision making. It also highlights the ongoing debate in selection of intramuscular injection sites, predominately the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles.

  3. Bioavailability of oral and intramuscular molindone hydrochloride in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Zetin, M; Cramer, M; Garber, D; Plon, L; Paulshock, M; Hoffman, H E; Schary, W L

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the bioequivalence of intramuscular molindone hydrochloride and marketed oral molindone. Ten schizophrenic patients (mean age, 30.2 years) received oral molindone in single daily doses of 100 or 150 mg for four to eight days followed by intramuscular molindone in single daily doses of 50 or 75 mg for four days. On the last day each molindone formulation was given, plasma samples were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The pharmacokinetic measures of area under the curve and maximum concentration show that intramuscular molindone is 1.49 to 1.67 times more bioavailable than oral molindone. This finding indicates that once a patient's acute psychotic episode has been stabilized with intramuscular molindone, therapy can continue without interruption by substituting 1.5 mg of oral molindone for every 1 mg of intramuscular molindone. The time to maximum concentration occurred significantly earlier (P = 0.05) with intramuscular molindone (0.6 hours) than with oral molindone (1.1 hours). Elimination half-life values were approximately two hours for both formulations.

  4. Summation of IMS Volume Frequencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordillo, Frank

    A computer program designed to produce summary information on the data processing volume of the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) Instructional Management System (IMS) is described. Written in FORTRAN IV for use on an IBM 360 Model 91, the program sorts IMS input data on the basis of run identifier and on the basis of classroom identification…

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of intramuscular versus intramammary treatment of subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in dairy cows in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J; Chaffer, M; Sanchez, J; Torres, G; Macias, D; Jaramillo, M; Duque, P C; Ceballos, A; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed in 17 Colombian dairy herds to determine the cure risk among cows subclinically infected with Streptococcus agalactiae exposed to 2 antibiotic therapies. Composite milk samples were collected before milking at the onset of the trial (pretreatment) and 2 subsequent times over a period of approximately 63 d. The intramammary application (IMM) of ampicillin-cloxacillin was compared with the intramuscular application (IM) of penethamate hydriodide, and cure risks after an initial and retreatment application were assessed. Cure risk after the initial treatment was higher (82.4%) for the IMM treatment than for IM therapy (65.8%). However, no difference was observed in the cure risk of refractory cases after retreatment (IMM=52.6% vs. IM=51.2%). The cumulative cure risk (both initial and retreatment) was 90.4 and 82.9% for the IMM and IM products, respectively. A 2-level random effects logistic model that controlled for pretreatment cow-level somatic cell count, indicated that IM treatment (odds ratio=0.37) had a lower cure risk than IMM and a tendency for a lower cure risk with increasing baseline somatic cell count. Our findings suggest that both products and administration routes can reduce the prevalence of S. agalactiae in affected herds, but the IMM product had a better efficacy in curing the infection. In addition to the treatment protocol, the cow somatic cell count should be considered when making management decisions for cows infected with S. agalactiae. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increases in intramuscular pressure raise arterial blood pressure during dynamic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, K. M.; Fadel, P. J.; Smith, S. A.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the role of intramuscular pressure-sensitive mechanoreceptors and chemically sensitive metaboreceptors in affecting the blood pressure response to dynamic exercise in humans. Sixteen subjects performed incremental (20 W/min) cycle exercise to fatigue under four conditions: control, exercise with thigh cuff occlusion of 90 Torr (Cuff occlusion), exercise with lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 45 Torr, and a combination of thigh cuff occlusion and LBPP (combination). Indexes of central command (heart rate, oxygen uptake, ratings of perceived exertion, and electromyographic activity), cardiac output, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were not significantly different between the four conditions. Mechanical stimulation during LBPP and combination conditions resulted in significant elevations in intramuscular pressure and mean arterial pressure from control at rest and throughout the incremental exercise protocol (P < 0.05). Conversely, there existed no significant changes in mean arterial pressure when the metaboreflex was stimulated by cuff occlusion. These findings suggest that under normal conditions the mechanoreflex is tonically active and is the primary mediator of exercise pressor reflex-induced alterations in arterial blood pressure during submaximal dynamic exercise in humans.

  7. Comparison of epidural morphine versus intramuscular morphine for postoperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Baftiu, Nehat; Hadri, Burhan; Mustafa, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    To compare effects and side effects or complications of epidural versus intramuscularly administered morphine for relieve of postoperative pain. In the first group (epidural) analgesia is achieved by application of morphine through epidural catheter. To the amount of morphine is added physiological solution until 10 ml of total volume of the mixture is achieved. This mixture is given to 150 patients, by epidural route before the exit from the operation room. Epidural catheter is removed after 48 hours. Second group (intramuscular) analgesia is realized by application of 10 mg of morphine by intramuscular route. Morphine is injected at the end of surgery. Pain is assessed with combination of verbal categorical scale and visual analog scale. Verbal categorical scale used is 8 points scale and contains words of Tursky: 0 no pain, 1 very low pain, 2 week pain, 3 mild pain, 4 moderate pain, 5 strong pain, 6 severe pain, 7 untolerated pain. Awareness is assed during first 24 hours. For this Reynolds 4 points scale is used: awaked 1, somnolent 2, sleepy 3, deep sleep 4. Pain assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) is 15.17-29.62 in the epidural group patients versus 26.39-70.83 in intramuscular group. Variation of respiration rate in both groups is not significant 22.21 +/- 4.23 and 23.98 +/- 2.72 in minute, in epidural and intramuscular morphine groups, respectively. PaCO2 and PaO2 values are similar without significant variation 35.34 +/- 4.72 mmHg in the epidural morphine group and 31.3 +/- 3.21 mmHg in intramuscular morphine group. Epidural administration of morphine provides better analgesia in quality, since it is deeper, longer in duration and with less inhibitory supra-spinal actions when compared to intramuscular administered morphine.

  8. Intramuscular injection of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol for sedation in cats.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Julia; Jolliffe, Colette; Archer, Emma; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2017-07-01

    To assess quality of sedation following intramuscular (IM) injection of two doses of alfaxalone in combination with butorphanol in cats. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A total of 38 cats undergoing diagnostic imaging or noninvasive procedures. Cats were allocated randomly to be administered butorphanol 0.2 mg kg -1 combined with alfaxalone 2 mg kg -1 (group AB2) or 5 mg kg -1 (group AB5) IM. If sedation was inadequate, alfaxalone 2 mg kg -1 IM was administered and cats were excluded from further analysis. Temperament [1 (friendly) to 5 (aggressive)], response to injection, sedation score at 2, 6, 8, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes, overall sedation quality scored after data collection [1 (excellent) to 4 (inadequate)] and recovery quality were assessed. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (f R ) and arterial haemoglobin saturation (SpO 2 ) were recorded every 5 minutes. Groups were compared using t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Sedation was analysed using two-way anova, and additional alfaxalone using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Groups were similar for sex, age, body mass and response to injection. Temperament score was lower in group AB2 [2 (1-3)] compared to AB5 [3 (1-5)] (p = 0.006). Group AB5 had better sedation at 6, 8, 20 and 30 minutes and overall sedation quality was better in AB5 [1 (1-3)], compared to AB2 [3 (1-4)] (p = 0.0001). Additional alfaxalone was required for 11 cats in AB2 and two in AB5 (p = 0.005). Recovery quality, HR, f R and SpO 2 were similar. Seven cats required oxygen supplementation. Complete recovery times were shorter in AB2 (81.8 ± 24.3 versus 126.6 ± 33.3 minutes; p = 0.009). Twitching was the most common adverse event. In combination with butorphanol, IM alfaxalone at 5 mg kg -1 provided better quality sedation than 2 mg kg -1 . Monitoring of SpO 2 is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia

  9. Intramuscular Lipoma of the Thenar: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Papakostas, Theodoros; Tsovilis, Aristomenis E.; Pakos, Emilios E.

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors. They are located either subcutaneously or under the investing fascia in intramuscular or intermuscular regions. The reported frequency of intramuscular lipomas among all benign adipocytic tumors is 1.0%–5.0% and for intermuscular lipomas is 0.3%–1.9%. The frequency of these lesions is the same in all age groups, but in adults deep seated-lipomas are most commonly discovered between the ages of 30 and 60. The most common sites of involvement of intramuscular lipomas are the large muscles of the extremities, especially those of the thigh, shoulder, and upper arm. Intramuscular lipomas of the hand are extremely rare and only few cases have been reported in the literature. In cases with hand location, they may present with functional deficit or neurovascular compromise due to the effect of the mass. We report an unusual case of a large intramuscular lipoma of the thenar that was treated with surgical excision due to the impairment of hand function. PMID:26894225

  10. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    PubMed

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  11. 23 CFR 500.111 - IMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false IMS. 500.111 Section 500.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.111 IMS. An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems provides... the various land-based transportation facilities and systems. An IMS should include, at a minimum: (a...

  12. Deep-seated intramuscular lipoma penetrates the intercostal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jinwook; Min, Byoung-Ju; Shin, Jae Seung

    2015-01-01

    Deep-seated intramuscular lipomas are rare, and most exhibit an infiltrating behavior. This study reports serial radiographs of a lipoma in chest wall muscles which penetrated the intercostal muscle for a 6-year period. Although this lipoma did not involve the parietal pleura, it compressed lung. To the authors’ knowledge, the present study is the first report to show the growth of a deep-seated chest wall lipoma into the thoracic cavity through serial radiographs. We consider the surgical treatment is needed before deep-seated intramuscular chest wall lipoma compress intrathoracic structures. PMID:26623127

  13. Placental transfer of flunitrazepam following intramuscular administration during labour.

    PubMed Central

    Kanto, J; Erkkola, R; Kangas, L; Pitkänen, Y

    1987-01-01

    After a single intramuscular dose of flunitrazepam 0.015 mg kg-1 (n = 14) in women 37 to 41 weeks pregnant, the concentrations in the umbilical artery and amniotic fluid were significantly lower than in maternal venous plasma. Although the difference between the maternal venous and umbilical venous plasma concentrations was not significant, the mean fetomaternal ratio was 0.7. The plasma protein binding of flunitrazepam was 80 +/- 4% in the mother and 79 +/- 5% in the umbilical circulation. Both mothers and midwives subjectively estimated intramuscular flunitrazepam as a valuable sedative-anxiolytic agent during the first stage of labour. PMID:3580256

  14. Intravenous application of HI-6 salts (dichloride and dimethansulphonate) in pigs: comparison with pharmacokinetics profile after intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Zdarova Karasova, Jana; Zemek, Filip; Kunes, Martin; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Chladek, Jaroslav; Jun, Daniel; Bures, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Oxime HI-6 is an acetylcholinesterase reactivator therapeutically efficient against nerve agents. Because of their physico-chemical properties, oximes are typically applied intramuscularly (i.m.). This route of administration has also some disadvantages, and alternative strategies ought to be examined. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles of two HI-6 salts after their intravenous (i.v.) administration, and compare the results with the known pharmacokinetics after i.m. administration. Pigs were administered with HI-6 salts (i.v), either HI-6 dichloride (10.71 mg/kg) or molar equivalent HI-6 dimethansulphonate (13.59 mg/kg). Doses of the HI-6 salts corresponded with a standard HI-6 dichloride dose in one autoinjector (500 mg) and were recalculated for one kilogram of body weight. The main pharmacokinetic parameters are comparable after i.v. and i.m. HI-6 administration. The compared pharmacokinetic parameters were half-life, terminal rate constant, mean residence time of the molecule in the body, clearance, and the apparent volume in the terminal phase. The bioavailability after i.m. administration was comparable with that of i.v.; these results suggest that the oxime is well released from the muscle depot. Significant differences were found in parameters Cmax and Tmax which are important in cases of emergency when rapidity and bioavailability are paramount for the success of treatment. I.v. administration should solve the problem of rapid clearance. Infusion or bolus administration may be considered as a logical subsequent step in oxime treatment strategy. The main advantage is in maintenance of an effective therapeutic plasma concentration, a more easily achievable effective therapeutic concentration, and fewer local adverse reactions.

  15. Effect of statins on clinical and molecular responses to intramuscular interferon beta-1a.

    PubMed

    Rudick, R A; Pace, A; Rani, M R S; Hyde, R; Panzara, M; Appachi, S; Shrock, J; Maurer, S L; Calabresi, P A; Confavreux, C; Galetta, S L; Lublin, F D; Radue, E-W; Ransohoff, R M

    2009-06-09

    Findings from a small clinical study suggested that statins may counteract the therapeutic effects of interferon beta (IFNbeta) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from the Safety and Efficacy of Natalizumab in Combination With IFNbeta-1a in Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (SENTINEL) study to determine the effects of statins on efficacy of IFNbeta. SENTINEL was a prospective trial of patients with RRMS treated with natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec, Inc., Cambridge, MA) plus IM IFNbeta-1a (Avonex, Biogen Idec, Inc.) 30 microg compared with placebo plus IM IFNbeta-1a 30 microg. Clinical and MRI outcomes in patients treated with IM IFNbeta-1a only (no-statins group, n = 542) were compared with those of patients taking IM IFNbeta-1a and statins at doses used to treat hyperlipidemia (statins group, n = 40). No significant differences were observed between treatment groups in adjusted annualized relapse rate (p = 0.937), disability progression (p = 0.438), number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions (p = 0.604), or number of new or enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions (p = 0.802) at 2 years. More patients in the statins group reported fatigue, extremity pain, muscle aches, and increases in hepatic transaminases compared with patients in the no-statins group. Statin treatment had no ex vivo or in vitro effect on induction of IFN-stimulated genes. Statin therapy does not appear to affect clinical effects of IM interferon beta-1a in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or the primary molecular response to interferon beta treatment.

  16. Artesunate Suppositories versus Intramuscular Artemether for Treatment of Severe Malaria in Children in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Reeder, John; Lorry, Kerry; Dabod, Elizah; Hamzah, Juliana; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Chiswell, Gregory M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2006-01-01

    Drug treatment of severe malaria must be rapidly effective. Suppositories may be valuable for childhood malaria when circumstances prevent oral or parenteral therapy. We compared artesunate suppositories (n = 41; 8 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at 0 and 12 h and then daily) with intramuscular (i.m.) artemether (n = 38; 3.2 mg/kg at 0 h and then 1.6 mg/kg daily) in an open-label, randomized trial with children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Parasite density and temperature were measured every 6 h for ≥72 h. Primary endpoints included times to 50% and 90% parasite clearance (PCT50 and PCT90) and the time to per os status. In a subset of 29 patients, plasma levels of artemether, artesunate, and their common active metabolite dihydroartemisinin were measured during the first 12 h. One suppository-treated patient with multiple complications died within 2 h of admission, but the remaining 78 recovered uneventfully. Compared to the artemether-treated children, those receiving artesunate suppositories had a significantly earlier mean PCT50 (9.1 versus 13.8 h; P = 0.008) and PCT90 (15.6 versus 20.4 h; P = 0.011). Mean time to per os status was similar for each group. Plasma concentrations of primary drug plus active metabolite were significantly higher in the artesunate suppository group at 2 h postdose. The earlier initial fall in parasitemia with artesunate is clinically advantageous and mirrors higher initial plasma concentrations of active drug/metabolite. In severely ill children with malaria in PNG, artesunate suppositories were at least as effective as i.m. artemether and may, therefore, be useful in settings where parenteral therapy cannot be given. PMID:16495259

  17. Subcutaneous Injection of Testosterone Is an Effective and Preferred Alternative to Intramuscular Injection: Demonstration in Female-to-Male Transgender Patients.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Daniel I; Stewart, India I; Savage, Clara; Craig, Wendy; Spack, Norman P; Chandler, Donald Walt; Spratt, Lindsey V; Eimicke, Toni; Olshan, Jerrold S

    2017-07-01

    Testosterone (T) is commonly administered intramuscularly to treat hypogonadal males and female-to-male (FTM) transgender patients. However, these injections can involve significant discomfort and may require arrangements for administration by others. We assessed whether T could be administered effectively and safely subcutaneously as an alternative to intramuscular (IM) injections. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient reproductive endocrinology clinic at an academic medical center. Sixty-three FTM transgender patients aged >18 years electing to receive subcutaneous (SC) T therapy for sex transition were included. Fifty-three patients were premenopausal. Patients were administered T cypionate or enanthate weekly at an initial dose of 50 mg. Dose was adjusted if needed to achieve serum total T levels within the normal male range. Serum concentrations of free and total T and total estradiol (E2), masculinization, and surveillance for reactions at injection sites. Serum T levels within the normal male range were achieved in all 63 patients with doses of 50 to 150 mg (median, 75/80 mg). Therapy was effective across a wide range of body mass index (19.0 to 49.9 kg/m2). Minor and transient local reactions were reported in 9 out of 63 patients. Among 53 premenopausal patients, 51 achieved amenorrhea and 35 achieved serum E2 concentrations <50 pg/mL. Twenty-two patients were originally receiving IM and switched to SC therapy. All 22 had a mild (n = 2) or marked (n = 20) preference for SC injections; none preferred IM injections. Our observations indicate that SC T injections are an effective, safe, and well-accepted alternative to IM T injections. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  18. 'I'm worried about getting water in the holes in my head': A phenomenological psychology case study of the experience of undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Eatough, Virginia; Shaw, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a form of biotechnological surgery which has had considerable success for the motor improvement of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Paradoxically, this observed motor improvement is not matched with improved psychosocial adjustment. This study contributes to a small but growing body of research aiming to understand this paradox. We conclude by discussing these aspects from a phenomenological and health psychology understanding of decision-making, human affectivity, and embodiment. A hermeneutic phenomenological case study. Semi-structured interviews with one woman with Parkinson's disease were carried out paying particular attention to (1) how the decision to have the procedure was made and (2) the affective experience in the time periods immediately prior to the procedure, shortly after and 1 month later. The thematic structure derived from the hermeneutic phenomenological analysis comprises the following experiential aspects: Making the decision: 'I was feeling rather at a dead end with my Parkinson's'; Shifting emotions and feelings: 'Terrified, excited, disappointed, overjoyed'; Embodied meaning: 'This extraordinary procedure where they were going to drill holes in my head'. This research has elucidated the complexity of decision-making, the emotional landscape, and specific bodily nature of the experience of DBS. It has suggested implications for practice informed by both existential-phenomenological theory and health psychology. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a newly developed form of biotechnological surgery and research indicates a mismatch between motor success and psychosocial adjustment. Most studies focuses on life post-DBS and there is relatively little research on how people make the decision to have the procedure, what their experience is of undergoing it including its emotional aspects. What does this study add? This study demonstrates that

  19. Effectiveness and duration of intramuscular antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Mims, M.

    1992-01-01

    Motion sickness inhibits gastric motility, making the oral route ineffective for medications. The intramuscular route is an effective alternative. The rotating chair was used to produce the M 111 level of motion sickness on the Graybiel Symptom Scale. The intramuscular medications given 30 minutes before rotation were compared with placebo (saline, 1 mL) for effectiveness and duration in increasing the number of tolerated head movements. Average placebo number of head movements was 294. Promethazine 25 mg increased head movements by 78% (P < .05), with a duration of 12 hours. Scopolamine 0.2 mg increased head movements by 91% (P < .05), with a duration of 4 hours. The effect of caffeine 250 mg and ephedrine 25 mg was not significant. When combined with scopolamine, ephedrine produced an 32% additive effect. Scopolamine 0.08 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg and also promethazine 12.5 mg and 25 mg were significant (P < .05). Promethazine appears to be the drug of choice for intramuscular use because of a longer duration and a high level of effectiveness. Scopolamine was of high effectiveness, but had a duration of 4 hours. It was eight times as potent by the intramuscular as by the oral route.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of mequindox and one of its major metabolites in chickens after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huanzhong; Liu, Yingchun; Zeng, Zhenling; Si, Hongbin; Liu, Kaiyong; Liu, Yiming; Yang, Fan; Li, Yafei; Zeng, Dongping

    2012-08-01

    Pharmacokinetics of mequindox and one of its major metabolites (M) was determined in chickens after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral administration of mequindox at a single dose of 10 (i.v. and i.m.) or 20 mg/kg b.w. (oral). Plasma concentration profiles were analyzed by a non-compartmental pharmacokinetic method. Following i.v., i.m. and oral administration, the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞)) were 0.71±0.15, 0.67±0.21, 0.25±0.10 μg h/mL (mequindox) and 37.24±7.98, 36.40±9.16, 86.39±16.01 μg h/mL (M), respectively. The terminal elimination half-lives (t(1/2λz)) were determined to be 0.15±0.06, 0.21±0.09, 0.49±0.23 h (mequindox) and 5.36±0.86, 5.39±0.52, 5.22±0.35 h (M), respectively. The bioavailabilities (F) of mequindox were 89.4% and 16.6% for i.m. and oral administration. Steady-state distribution volume (V(ss)) of 1.20±0.34 L/kg and total body clearance (Cl(B)) of 13.57±2.16 L/kg h were determined for mequindox after i.v. dosing. After single i.m. and oral administration, peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 3.04±1.32, 0.36±0.13 μg/mL (mequindox) and 3.81±0.92, 5.99±1.16 μg/mL (M) were observed at t(max) of 0.08±0.02, 0.32±0.12 h (mequindox) and 0.66±0.19, 6.67±1.03 h (M), respectively. The results showed that mequindox was rapidly absorbed after i.m. or p.o. administration and most of mequindox was transformed to metabolites in chickens, with much higher C(max)s and AUCs of metabolite (M) than those of mequindox in plasma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional variation in contribution of myenteric and intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal to generation of slow waves in mouse gastric antrum

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, G D S; Beckett, E A H; Sanders, K M; Ward, S M

    2002-01-01

    When intracellular recordings were made from the antral region of murine stomach, cells with three different patterns of electrical activity were detected. One group of cells generated follower potentials, the second group generated pacemaker potentials and the third group generated slow waves that consisted of primary and secondary components. Slow waves recorded in different regions of the gastric antrum had similar amplitudes but different characteristic shapes. At the greater curvature, slow waves had large initial components. Midway between the greater and lesser curvature, the amplitude of the initial component was reduced and at the lesser curvature an initial component was difficult to detect. When the distributions of myenteric (ICC-MY) and intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) were determined, using an antibody to Kit, ICC-MY were found to be present at the greater curvature but were greatly reduced in density at the lesser curvature. In contrast, ICC-IM were found in the circular layer of each region. When recordings were made from the antrum of W/WV mice, which lack ICC-IM, incomplete slow waves were detected and their amplitudes fell from the greater to the lesser curvature. Again, a corresponding fall in the density of ICC-MY was detected. The observations indicate that the contribution of ICC-MY and ICC-IM to the generation of slow waves varies in different regions of the mouse gastric antrum. PMID:11986385

  2. The Myotoxic Effects of Microencapsulated Naproxen and Carrier Polymer After Intramuscular Injection in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-10

    THE MYOTOXIC EFFECTS OF MICROENCAPSULATED NAPROXEN AND CARRIER POLYMER AFTER INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTION IN RATS A Masters Thesis By Kevin J. Bohan... Microencapsulated Naproxen and Carrier Polymer After Intramuscular Injection in Rats" beyond brief excerpts is with the pennission of the copyright...naproxen to be microencapsulated (MEC) for parenteral use. Intramuscular MEC naproxen could provide greater pain relief than ketoralac with a longer

  3. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B.; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased (p<0.05) expression of AMP-activated protein kinase-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, but decreased (p<0.05) CAAT/enhancer binding protein-β gene expression and tended to decrease stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression in i.m. adipose tissue. Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05) compared to the control i.m. adipose tissue, but had no effect on saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids. Although there were significant effects of supplemental palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle. PMID:28515640

  4. Carcass and Meat Characteristics and Gene Expression in Intramuscular Adipose Tissue of Korean Native Cattle Fed Finishing Diets Supplemented with 5% Palm Oil.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungkwon; Yan, Zhang; Choi, Changweon; Kim, Kyounghoon; Lee, Hyunjeong; Oh, Youngkyoon; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Jonggil; Smith, Stephen B; Choi, Seongho

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression but depress stearoyl-CoA desaturase ( SCD ) gene expression in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of Hanwoo steers during fattening period (from 16 to 32 mon of age). Fourteen Hanwoo steers were allotted randomly to 2 groups of 7 steers based on initial BW and fed either a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 5% palm oil (BDSP). At slaughter, i.m. adipose tissue was harvested for analysis of adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition. There were no differences in BW or average daily gain between treatment groups. Supplemental palm oil had no effect on carcass quality traits (carcass weight, backfat thickness, loin muscle area, or marbling scores) or meat color values. Palm oil increased ( p <0.05) expression of AMP-activated protein kinase-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, but decreased ( p <0.05) CAAT/enhancer binding protein-β gene expression and tended to decrease stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expression in i.m. adipose tissue. Palm oil increased total i.m. polyunsaturated fatty acids ( p <0.05) compared to the control i.m. adipose tissue, but had no effect on saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids. Although there were significant effects of supplemental palm oil on i.m. adipose tissue gene expression, the absence of negative effects on carcass and meat characteristics indicates that palm oil could be a suitable dietary supplement for the production of Hanwoo beef cattle.

  5. Safety and immunogenicity of a Herpes Zoster subunit vaccine in Japanese population aged ≥50 years when administered subcutaneously vs. intramuscularly.

    PubMed

    Vink, Peter; Shiramoto, Masanari; Ogawa, Masayuki; Eda, Masahiro; Douha, Martine; Heineman, Thomas; Lal, Himal

    2017-03-04

    The impact of alternate routes of vaccine administration, subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM), on the safety and immunogenicity of herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine (HZ/su) was assessed in Japanese adults aged ≥ 50 y. During this phase III open-label study, 60 subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive HZ/su through SC or IM routes in a 0, 2 month schedule. Vaccine response rates (VRRs) and geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of varicella zoster virus glycoprotein E (gE)-specific antibodies were determined by ELISA. Solicited and unsolicited symptoms were recorded for 7 and 30 d after each vaccination and graded 1-3 in severity. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded throughout the study. At one month post-dose 2, VRRs were 100% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 88.1-100) in both groups; anti-gE antibody GMCs were 44126.1 mIU/ml (95% CI: 36326.1-53601.0) and 45521.5 mIU/ml (95% CI; 37549.5-55185.9) in the SC and IM groups, respectively. Injection site reactions (pain, swelling and redness) were common, and observed more frequently following SC administration. Grade 3 redness and swelling were more frequently observed after SC administration. Fatigue and headache were the most frequently reported general symptoms for both routes of administration. Ten and 7 unsolicited AEs were reported in the SC and IM group, respectively. Two unsolicited AEs (1 in SC; 1 in IM) were considered related to vaccination by the investigator. Three non-fatal SAEs considered unrelated to vaccination were reported during the study. Administration of the HZ/su vaccine candidate resulted in a substantial immune response that was comparable between SC and IM subjects, but local reactogenicity may be greater for SC.

  6. Florfenicol Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Adult Alpacas after Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, K.; Bedenice, D.; Papich, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    A single dose of florfenicol (Nuflor®) was administered to eight healthy adult alpacas, at 20mg/kg IM (intramuscular) and 40mg/kg SC (subcutaneous) using a randomized, cross-over design and 28-day washout period. Subsequently, 40mg/kg florfenicol was injected SC every other day for 10 doses to evaluate long-term effects. Maximum plasma florfenicol concentrations (Cmax, measured via high-performance-liquid-chromatography) were achieved rapidly, leading to a higher Cmax of 4.31+/−3.03 μg/ml following administration of 20mg/kg IM than 40mg/kg SC (Cmax: 1.95+/−0.94 μg/ml). Multiple SC dosing at 48hr intervals achieved a Cmax of 4.48+/−1.28 μg/ml at steady state. The area under the curve and terminal elimination half-lives were 51.83+/−11.72μg/ml.h and 17.59+/−11.69 hours after single 20mg/kg IM administration, as well as 99.78+/−23.58μg/ml.h and 99.67+/−59.89 hours following 40mg/kg injection of florfenicol SC, respectively. Florfenicol decreased the following hematological parameters after repeated administration between weeks 0 and 3: total protein (6.38 vs. 5.61 g/dL, P<0.0001), globulin (2.76 vs. 2.16 g/dL, P<0.0003), albumin (3.61 vs. 3.48 g/dL, P=0.0038), white blood cell count (11.89 vs. 9.66 ×10^3/μL, P<0.044), and hematocrit (27.25 vs. 24.88%, P<0.0349). Significant clinical illness was observed in one alpaca. The lowest effective dose of florfenicol should thus be used in alpacas and limited to treatment of highly susceptible pathogens. PMID:21736588

  7. Distributed stimulation increases force elicited with functional electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmire, Alie J.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Doane, Cynthia J.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. The maximum muscle forces that can be evoked using functional electrical stimulation (FES) are relatively modest. The reason for this weakness is not fully understood but could be partly related to the widespread distribution of motor nerve branches within muscle. As such, a single stimulating electrode (as is conventionally used) may be incapable of activating the entire array of motor axons supplying a muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether stimulating a muscle with more than one source of current could boost force above that achievable with a single source. Approach. We compared the maximum isometric forces that could be evoked in the anterior deltoid of anesthetized monkeys using one or two intramuscular electrodes. We also evaluated whether temporally interleaved stimulation between two electrodes might reduce fatigue during prolonged activity compared to synchronized stimulation through two electrodes. Main results. We found that dual electrode stimulation consistently produced greater force (~50% greater on average) than maximal stimulation with single electrodes. No differences, however, were found in the fatigue responses using interleaved versus synchronized stimulation. Significance. It seems reasonable to consider using multi-electrode stimulation to augment the force-generating capacity of muscles and thereby increase the utility of FES systems.

  8. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  9. Impact of an experimental PRRSV and Streptococcus suis coinfection on the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride after intramuscular injection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Day, D N; Sparks, J W; Karriker, L A; Stalder, K J; Wulf, L W; Zhang, J; Kinyon, J M; Stock, M L; Gehring, R; Wang, C; Ellingson, J; Coetzee, J F

    2015-10-01

    This study determined the impact of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis coinfection on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of ceftiofur hydrochloride in pigs after intramuscular (i.m.) injection. Eighteen clinically normal crossbred gilts were assigned by weight into a challenge group (10 pigs) and control group (eight pigs). Pigs in both groups received a single i.m. injection of ceftiofur hydrochloride (Excenel RTU Sterile Suspension; Zoetis) at a 5 mg/kg BW dose. Serial blood samples were collected to characterize the plasma concentration curve. After a 10 days drug washout period, the challenge group was inoculated with 2 mL of PRRSV isolate VR-2385 (10(5.75) 50% tissue culture infective doses per mL) intranasally and 8 days later inoculated S. suis. When clinical disease was evident, the second PK assessment began in both challenge and control groups. Coinfected pigs demonstrated lower values of AUC and CMAX , but higher values of Cl/F and Vz/F indicating drug kinetics were altered by infection. The data from this study have implications on ceftiofur treatment regimens in diseased pigs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Placebo-controlled pilot trial testing dose titration and intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous routes for ketamine in depression.

    PubMed

    Loo, C K; Gálvez, V; O'Keefe, E; Mitchell, P B; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Leyden, J; Harper, S; Somogyi, A A; Lai, R; Weickert, C S; Glue, P

    2016-07-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility, efficacy and safety of an individual dose-titration approach, and of the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) routes for treating depression with ketamine. Fifteen treatment-refractory depressed participants received ketamine or midazolam (control treatment) in a multiple crossover, double-blind study. Ketamine was administered by IV (n = 4), IM (n = 5) or SC (n = 6) injection. Dose titration commenced at 0.1 mg/kg, increasing by 0.1 mg/kg up to 0.5 mg/kg, given in separate treatment sessions separated by ≥1 week, with one placebo control treatment randomly inserted. Mood, psychotomimetic and hemodynamic effects were assessed and plasma ketamine concentrations assayed. Twelve participants achieved response and remission criteria, achieved at doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg. All three routes of administration resulted in comparable antidepressant effects. Fewest adverse effects were noted with the SC route. Antidepressant response, adverse effects and ketamine concentrations were dose-related. Antidepressant response occurred at a range of doses and at <0.5 mg/kg. The dose-titration approach is a practical method for optimizing the efficacy - side-effects trade-off on an individual patient basis. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for SC injection as a practical, feasible and efficacious treatment approach. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Intramuscular preparations of antipsychotics: uses and relevance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Cario; Sassella, Francesca; Santini, Annalisa; Montresor, Clauno; Fumagalli, Sara; Mundo, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics can be sub-divided into two groups on the basis of their pharmacokinetic features: short-acting preparations and long-acting or depot preparations. Short-acting intramuscular formulations are used to manage acute psychotic episodes. On the other hand, long-acting compounds, also called "depot", are administered as antipsychotic maintenance treatment to ensure compliance and to eliminate bioavailability problems related to absorption and first pass metabolism. Adverse effects of antipsychotics have been studied with particular respect to oral versus short- and long-acting intramuscular formulations of the different compounds. For short-term intramuscular preparations the main risk with classical compounds are hypotension and extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Data on the incidence of EPS with depot formulations are controversial: some studies point out that the incidence of EPS is significantly higher in patients receiving depot preparations, whereas others show no difference between oral and depot antipsychotics. Studies on the strategies for switching patients from oral to depot treatment suggest that this procedure is reasonably well tolerated, so that in clinical practice depot antipsychotic therapy is usually begun while the oral treatment is still being administered, with gradual tapering of the oral dose. Efficacy, pharmacodynamics and clinical pharmacokinetics of haloperidol decanoate, fluphenazine enanthate and decanoate, clopenthixol decanoate, zuclopenthixol decanoate and acutard, flupenthixol decanoate, perphenazine enanthate, pipothiazine palmitate and undecylenate, and fluspirilene are reviewed. In addition, the intramuscular preparations of atypical antipsychotics and clinical uses are reviewed. Olanzapine and ziprasidone are available only as short-acting preparations, while risperidone is to date the only novel antipsychotic available as depot formulation. To date, acutely ill, agitated psychotic patients

  12. Is there a difference between the effects of single and triple indirect moxibustion stimulations on skin temperature changes of the posterior trunk surface?

    PubMed

    Mori, Hidetoshi; Kuge, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tim Hideaki; Taniwaki, Eiichi; Ohsawa, Hideo

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether any difference exists in responses to indirect moxibustion (IM) relative to thermal stimulation duration. In experiment 1, 9 subjects attended two experimental sessions consisting of single stimulation with IM or triple stimulation with IM, using a crossover design. A K-type thermocouple temperature probe was fixed on the skin surface at the GV14 acupuncture point. IM stimulation was administered to the top of the probe in order to measure the temperature curve. In addition, each subject evaluated his or her subjective feeling of heat on a visual analogue scale after each stimulation. Experiment 2 was conducted on 42 participants, divided into three groups according to the envelope allocation method: single stimulation with IM (n=20), triple stimulation with IM (n=11) and a control group (n=11). A thermograph was used to obtain the skin temperature on the posterior trunk of the participant. To analyse skin temperature, four arbitrary frames (the scapular, interscapular, lumbar and vertebral regions) were made on the posterior trunk. In experiment 1, no significant difference in maximum temperature was found in IM and subjective feeling of heat intensity between single and triple stimulation with IM. In experiment 2, increases in skin temperature occurred on the posterior trunk, but no differences in skin temperature occurred between the groups receiving single and triple stimulation with IM. No difference exists in the skin temperature response to moxibustion between the single and triple stimulation with IM.

  13. Advanced Interval Management (IM) Concepts of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    This document provides a high-level description of several advanced IM operations that NASA is considering for future research and development. It covers two versions of IM-CSPO and IM with Wake Mitigation. These are preliminary descriptions to support an initial benefits analysis

  14. Pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone following intra-articular, intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in horses and its effects on endogenous hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; Liu, Y; Li, X; Robinson, M A; Boston, R C; Colahan, P T

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated and compared the pharmacokinetics of intra-articular (IA) administration of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) into three equine joints, femoropatellar (IAS), radiocarpal (IAC), and metacarpophalangeal (IAF), and the intramuscular (IM), oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) administrations. No significant differences in the pharmacokinetic estimates between the three joints were observed with the exception of maximum concentration (Cmax ) and time to maximum concentration (Tmax ). Median (range) Cmax for the IAC, IAF, and IAS were 16.9 (14.6-35.4), 23.4 (13.5-73.0), and 46.9 (24.0-72.1) ng/mL, respectively. The Tmax for IAC, IAF, and IAS were 1.0 (0.75-4.0), 0.62 (0.5-1.0), and 0.25 (0.08-0.25) h, respectively. Median (range) elimination half-lives for IA and IM administrations were 3.6 (3.0-4.6) h and 3.4 (2.9-3.7) h, respectively. A 3-compartment model was fitted to the plasma dexamethasone concentration-time curve following the IV administration of DSP; alpha, beta, and gamma half-lives were 0.03 (0.01-0.05), 1.8 (0.34-2.3), and 5.1 (3.3-5.6) h, respectively. Following the PO administration, the median absorption and elimination half-lives were 0.34 (0.29-1.6) and 3.4 (3.1-4.7) h, respectively. Endogenous hydrocortisone plasma concentrations declined from a baseline of 103.8 ± 29.1-3.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL at 20.0 ± 2.7 h following the administration of DSP and recovered to baseline values between 96 and 120 h for IV, IA, and IM administrations and at 72 h for the PO. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of cefquinome in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    PubMed

    Uney, K; Altan, F; Cetin, G; Aboubakr, M; Dik, B; Sayın, Z; Er, A; Elmas, M

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) injections of 2 mg/kg body weight in red-eared slider turtles. Plasma concentrations of CFQ were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and analyzed using noncompartmental methods. The pharmacokinetic parameters following IV injection were as follows: elimination half-life (t 1/2λz ) 21.73 ± 4.95 hr, volume of distribution at steady-state (V dss ) 0.37 ± 0.11 L/kg, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) 163 ± 32 μg hr -1  ml -1 , and total body clearance (Cl T ) 12.66 ± 2.51 ml hr -1  kg -1 . The pharmacokinetic parameters after IM injection were as follows: peak plasma concentration (C max ) 3.94 ± 0.84 μg/ml, time to peak concentration (T max ) 3 hr, t 1/2λz 26.90 ± 4.33 hr, and AUC 0-∞ 145 ± 48 μg hr -1  ml -1 . The bioavailability after IM injection was 88%. Data suggest that CFQ has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a long half-life and a high bioavailability in red-eared slider turtles. Further studies are needed to establish a multiple dosage regimen and evaluate clinical efficacy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cost effectiveness of fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and intramuscular interferon-β1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinke; Hay, Joel W; Niu, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cost effectiveness of fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and intramuscular (IM) interferon (IFN)-β(1a) as first-line therapies in the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) from a US societal perspective. The time horizon in the base case was 5 years. The primary outcome was incremental net monetary benefit (INMB), and the secondary outcome was incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The base case INMB willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold was assumed to be US$150,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), and the costs were in 2012 US dollars. One-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted to test the robustness of the model results. Dimethyl fumarate dominated all other therapies over the range of WTPs, from US$0 to US$180,000. Compared with IM IFN-β(1a), at a WTP of US$150,000, INMBs were estimated at US$36,567, US$49,780, and US$80,611 for fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, respectively. The ICER of fingolimod versus teriflunomide was US$3,201,672. One-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated the model results were sensitive to the acquisition costs of DMDs and the time horizon, but in most scenarios, cost-effectiveness rankings remained stable. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that for more than 90% of the simulations, dimethyl fumarate was the optimal therapy across all WTP values. The three oral therapies were favored in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Of the four DMDs, dimethyl fumarate was a dominant therapy to manage RRMS. Apart from dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide was the most cost-effective therapy compared with IM IFN-β(1a), with an ICER of US$7,115.

  17. Intramuscular pressures for monitoring different tasks and muscle conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sejersted, O. M.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular fluid pressure (IMP) can easily be measured in man and animals. It follows the law of Laplace which means that it is determined by the tension of the muscle fibers, the recording depth and by fiber geometry (fiber curvature or pennation angle). Thick, bulging muscles create high IMPs (up to 1000 mmHg) and force transmission to tendons becomes inefficient. High resting or postexercise IMPs are indicative of a compartment syndrome due to muscle swelling within a low-compliance osseofascial boundary. IMP increases linearly with force (torque) independent of the mode or speed of contraction (isometric, eccentric, concentric). IMP is also a much better predictor of muscle force than the EMG signal. During prolonged low-force isometric contractions, cyclic variations in IMP are seen. Since IMP influences muscle blood flow through the muscle pump, autoregulating vascular elements, and compression of the intramuscular vasculature, alterations in IMP have important implications for muscle function.

  18. Comparison of intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, oral risperidone solution, and intramuscular haloperidol in the management of acute agitation in an acute care psychiatric ward in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Huang, Si-Sheng; Lee, Bo-Shyan; Chiu, Nan-Ying

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety among intramuscular olanzapine, intramuscular haloperidol, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution for agitated patients with psychosis during the first 24 hours of treatment in an acute care psychiatric ward. Forty-two inpatients from an acute care psychiatric ward of a medical center in central Taiwan were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 treatment groups (10-mg intramuscular olanzapine, 10-mg olanzapine oral disintegrating tablet, 3-mg oral risperidone solution, or 7.5-mg intramuscular haloperidol). Agitation was measured by using the excited component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression--Severity Scale during the first 24 hours. There were significant differences in the PANSS-EC total scores for the 4 intervention groups at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after the initiation of treatment. More significant differences were found early in the treatment. In the post hoc analysis, the patients who received intramuscular olanzapine or orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets showed significantly greater improvement in PANSS-EC scores than did patients who received intramuscular haloperidol at points 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after injection. These findings suggest that intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution are as effective treatments as intramuscular haloperidol for patients with acute agitation. Intramuscular olanzapine and disintegrating olanzapine tablets are more effective than intramuscular haloperidol in the early phase of the intervention. There is no significant difference in effectiveness among intramuscular olanzapine, orally disintegrating olanzapine tablets, and oral risperidone solution.

  19. Acute compartment syndrome complicating an intramuscular haemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Radke, H; Spreng, D; Sigrist, N; Lang, J; Bornand, V; Schawalder, P

    2006-05-01

    Acute compartment syndrome in dogs is a rare complication of muscle trauma, but it has not been previously reported as a consequence of neoplasia in dogs. This case report describes the occurrence of a compartment syndrome of the femoral compartment in an 11-year-old, male, mixed-breed dog caused by acute bleeding of an intramuscular haemangiosarcoma. The compartment syndrome was relieved by immediate fasciotomy. The dog was euthanased following acute recurrence of clinical signs seven weeks after surgery.

  20. Comparison of the selection of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli during enrofloxacin administration with a local drug delivery system or with intramuscular injections in a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Béraud, Romain; Huneault, Louis; Bernier, Dave; Beaudry, Francis; Letellier, Ann; del Castillo, Jérôme R.E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated, for the first time, the selection of antibiotic resistance in fecal Escherichia coli, a potential reservoir of genes of resistance, during the prolonged exposure to fluoroquinolones after the implantation of a local drug delivery system (LDDS) in a swine model. Fourteen pigs were randomly assigned to group IM (5 mg/kg/day of intramuscular enrofloxacin — EFX) or LD (surgical implantation of EFX-polymethyl-methacrylate perifemoral implants). Blood samples were collected daily for determination of plasma EFX and ciprofloxacin (CFX) concentrations. Fecal samples were collected daily to determine the E. coli counts and the susceptibility patterns of its isolates as evaluated by antibiotic disk diffusion tests. In both groups, EFX administration significantly reduced the bacterial counts after 2 days. During recolonization, the bacterial counts remained lower than baseline in group IM but not significantly, and almost reached pre-treatment levels in group LD. Susceptibility to EFX, CFX, and nalidixic acid of recolonizing E. coli in LD pigs slightly decreased but remained within the limit of “susceptible” isolates. In contrast, quinolone susceptibility of recolonizing E. coli in IM pigs dropped dramatically (P < 0.0001). In addition, intramuscular exposure to fluoroquinolones significantly decreased the susceptibility of E. coli to ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the use of a dosing regimen that minimized the intestinal output of fluoroquinolones also minimized the selection of resistance to several classes of antibiotics. This could represent another advantage of LDDS usage compared to long-lasting systemic administration of fluoroquinolones. PMID:18783019

  1. Islet grafting and imaging in a bioengineered intramuscular space.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Piotr; Sondermeijer, Hugo; Hardy, Mark A; Woodland, David C; Lee, Keagan; Bhagat, Govind; Witkowski, Kajetan; See, Fiona; Rana, Abbas; Maffei, Antonella; Itescu, Silviu; Harris, Paul E

    2009-11-15

    Because the hepatic portal system may not be the optimal site for islet transplantation, several extrahepatic sites have been studied. Here, we examine an intramuscular transplantation site, bioengineered to better support islet neovascularization, engraftment, and survival, and we demonstrate that at this novel site, grafted beta cell mass may be quantitated in a real-time noninvasive manner by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Streptozotocin-induced rats were pretreated intramuscularly with a biocompatible angiogenic scaffold received syngeneic islet transplants 2 weeks later. The recipients were monitored serially by blood glucose and glucose tolerance measurements and by PET imaging of the transplant site with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine. Parallel histopathologic evaluation of the grafts was performed using insulin staining and evaluation of microvasularity. Reversal of hyperglycemia by islet transplantation was most successful in recipients pretreated with bioscaffolds containing angiogenic factors when compared with those who received no bioscaffolds or bioscaffolds not treated with angiogenic factors. PET imaging with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine, insulin staining, and microvascular density patterns were consistent with islet survival, increased levels of angiogenesis, and with reversal of hyperglycemia. Induction of increased neovascularization at an intramuscular site significantly improves islet transplant engraftment and survival compared with controls. The use of a nonhepatic transplant site may avoid intrahepatic complications and permit the use of PET imaging to measure and follow transplanted beta cell mass in real time. These findings have important implications for effective islet implantation outside of the liver and offer promising possibilities for improving islet survival, monitoring, and even prevention of islet loss.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of butafosfan after intravenous and intramuscular administration in piglets.

    PubMed

    Sun, F; Wang, J; Yang, S; Zhang, S; Shen, J; Xingyuan, C

    2017-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of butafosfan in piglets were investigated following intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Plasma concentration-time data and relevant parameters were best described by noncompartmental analysis after intravenous and intramuscular injection. The data were analyzed through WinNolin 6.3 software. After intravenous administration, the mean pharmacokinetic parameters were determined as T 1/2λz of 3.30 h, Cl of 0.16 L kg/h, AUC of 64.49 ± 15.07 μg h/mL, V ss of 0.81 ± 0.44/kg, and MRT of 1.51 ± 0.27 h. Following intramuscular administration, the C max (28.11 μg/mL) was achieved at T max (0.31 h) with an absolute availability of 74.69%. Other major parameters including AUC and MRT were 48.29 ± 21.67 μg h/mL and 1.74 ± 0.29 h, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) onboard THOR will provide the first high-time resolution measurements of mass-resolved ions in near-Earth space, focusing on hot ions in the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath turbulent regions. These measurements are required to study how kinetic-scale turbulent fluctuations heat and accelerate different ion species. IMS will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of main ion species (H+, He++, O+) in the energy range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q with energy resolution DE/E down to 10% and angular resolution down to 11.25˚ . The time resolution will be 150 ms for O+, 300 ms for He++ and ˜ 1s for O+, which correspond to ion scales in the the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting four identical IMS units phased by 90˚ in the spacecraft spin plane. Each IMS unit combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. Adequate mass-per-charge resolution (M/q)/(ΔM/q) (≥ 8 for He++ and ≥ 3 for O+) is obtained through a 6 cm long Time-of-Flight (TOF) section. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCPs) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification and discrimination and a discrete Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) to determine the ion time of flight. A processor board will be used to for ion events formatting and will interface with the Particle Processing Unit (PPU), which will perform data processing for THOR particle detectors. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built and calibrated by an international consortium of scientific institutes from France, USA, Germany and Japan and Switzerland.

  4. Comparison of intramuscular and subcutaneous administration of a herpes zoster live-attenuated vaccine in adults aged ≥50 years: a randomised non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Diez-Domingo, Javier; Weinke, Thomas; Garcia de Lomas, Juan; Meyer, Claudius U; Bertrand, Isabelle; Eymin, Cécile; Thomas, Stéphane; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-02-04

    Zostavax(®) is a live, attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine developed specifically for the prevention of HZ and PHN in individuals aged ≥50 years. During the clinical development of Zostavax, which was mainly in the US, the vaccine was administrated by the subcutaneous (SC) route. In Europe, many healthcare professionals prefer administering vaccines by the intramuscular (IM) route. This was an open-label, randomised trial conducted in 354 subjects aged ≥50 years. The primary objectives were to demonstrate that IM administration is both non-inferior to SC administration in terms of 4-week post-vaccination geometric mean titres (GMTs), and elicits an acceptable geometric mean fold-rise (GMFR) of antibody titres measured by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pre-specified non-inferiority was set as the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the GMT ratio (IM/SC) being >0.67. An acceptable GMFR for the IM route was pre-specified as the lower bound of its 95% CI being >1.4. Description of the VZV immune response using the interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISPOT) assay and of the safety were secondary objectives. Participants were randomised to IM or SC administration (1:1). The baseline demographics were comparable between groups; mean age: 62.6 years (range: 50.0-90.5). The primary immunogenicity objectives were met (per protocol analysis): GMT ratio (IM/SC): 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93-1.18); GMFR: 2.7 (2.4-3.0). VZV immune response using IFN-γ ELISPOT were comparable between groups. Frequencies of systemic adverse events were comparable between groups. Injection-site reactions were less frequent with IM than SC route: erythema (15.9% versus 52.5%), pain (25.6% versus 39.5%) and swelling (13.6% versus 37.3%), respectively. In adults aged ≥50 years, IM administration of Zostavax elicited similar immune responses to SC administration and was well tolerated, with fewer injection-site reactions than with SC

  5. The IMS Software Integration Platform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-12

    products to incorporate all data shared by the IMS applications. Some entities (time-series, images, a algorithm -specific parameters) must be managed...dbwhoanii, dbcancel Transaction Management: dbcommit, dbrollback Key Counter Assignment: dbgetcounter String Handling: cstr ~to~pad, pad-to- cstr Error...increment *value; String Maniputation: int cstr topad (array, string, arraylength) char *array, *string; int arrayjlength; int pad tocstr (string

  6. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Heba F

    2010-01-01

    The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC) gel (r2 > 0.99). The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL) in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a Tmax of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC0-∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng·h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone. PMID:21187946

  7. Sustained-release progesterone nanosuspension following intramuscular injection in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Salem, Heba F

    2010-11-10

    The production of an intramuscular (IM) injection of natural progesterone would provide a safer solution than using semi synthetic progesterone. However, disadvantages such as low solubility and a short half life prevent the use of natural progesterone. In this study, we formulated a sustained release form of natural progesterone to be given as IM injection. A progesterone nanosuspension (PNS) was first developed and then dispersed in a thermosensitive gel matrix. The selected nanoparticles showed an average particle size of 267 nm and a zeta potential approaching-41 mV. The in vitro release profile of PNS from the F127 plus methyl cellulose gel followed zero order kinetics and correlated linearly with the weight percentage of gel dissolved, demonstrating that the overall rate of release of PNS is controlled by dissolution of the pluronic F127/methyl cellulose (MC) gel (r² > 0.99). The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PNS (6 mg/mL) in pluronic F127/MC gel were evaluated in comparison with the control progesterone suspension. After the administration of PNS in F127/MC gel into the rats, a maximum serum concentration of 22.1 ± 1.9 ng/mL was reached at a T(max) of 4.05 ± 0.1 h. The terminal half life was 12.7 ± 0.8 h. The area under the curve AUC₀₋∞ of the injected formula was 452.75 ± 42.8 ng·h/mL and the total mean residence time was 18.57 ± 1.44 h. The PNS in gel was significantly different from the control in rate and extent at P < 0.001. The natural progesterone which was nanosized and formulated in a thermosensitive gel significantly sustained the action of natural progesterone so that it could be injected every 36 h instead of every day. Moreover, this formula is expected to provide a much safer choice than the use of semi-synthetic progesterone.

  8. Intramuscular temperature changes during and after 2 different cryotherapy interventions in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kimberly A; Herman, Daniel C; Hertel, Jay; Saliba, Susan A

    2012-08-01

    Crossover. To compare the time required to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline temperature, and to compare intramuscular temperature 90 minutes posttreatment, between 2 cryotherapy modalities. Cryotherapy is used to treat pain from muscle injuries. Cooler intramuscular temperatures may reduce cellular metabolism and secondary hypoxic injury to attenuate acute injury response, specifically the rate of chemical mediator activity. Modalities that decrease intramuscular temperature quickly may be beneficial in the treatment of muscle injuries. Eighteen healthy subjects received 2 cryotherapy conditions, crushed-ice bag (CIB) and cold-water immersion (CWI), in a randomly allocated order, separated by 72 hours. Each condition was applied until intramuscular temperature decreased 8°C below baseline. Intramuscular temperature was monitored in the gastrocnemius, 1 cm below subcutaneous adipose tissue. The primary outcome was time to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline. A secondary outcome was intramuscular temperature at the end of a 90-minute rewarming period. Paired t tests were used to examine outcomes. Time to reach an 8°C reduction in intramuscular temperature was not significantly different between CIB and CWI (mean difference, 2.6 minutes; 95% confidence interval: -3.10, 8.30). Intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes post-CWI compared to CIB (mean difference, 2.8°C; 95% confidence interval: 2.07°C, 3.52°C). There was no difference in time required to reduce intramuscular temperature 8°C 1 cm below adipose tissue using CIB and CWI. However, intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes following CWI. These results provide clinicians with information that may guide treatment-modality decisions.

  9. Islet grafting and imaging in a bioengineered intramuscular space†

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Piotr; Sondermeijer, Hugo; Hardy, Mark A.; Woodland, David C.; Lee, Keagan; Bhagat, Govind; Witkowski, Kajetan; See, Fiona; Rana, Abbas; Maffei, Antonella; Itescu, Silviu; Harris, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the hepatic portal system may not be the optimal site for islet transplantation, several extrahepatic sites have been studied. Here we examine an intramuscular transplantation site, bioengineered to better support islet neovascularization, engraftment, and survival, and demonstrate that at this novel site, grafted beta cell mass may be quantitated in a real time non-invasive manner by PET imaging. Methods Streptozotocin induced rats were pretreated intramuscularly with a biocompatible angiogenic scaffold received syngeneic islet transplants 2 weeks later. The recipients were monitored serially by blood glucose and glucose tolerance measurements and by PET imaging of the transplant site with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine. Parallel histopathologic evaluation of the grafts was done using insulin staining and evaluation of microvasularity. Results Reversal of hyperglycemia by islet transplantation was most successful in recipients pretreated with bioscaffolds containing angiogenic factors as compared to those who received no bioscaffolds or bioscaffolds not treated with angiogenic factors. PET imaging with [11C] dihydrotetrabenazine, insulin staining and microvascular density patterns were consistent with islet survival, increased levels of angiogenesis, and with reversal of hyperglycemia. Conclusions Induction of increased neovascularization at an intramuscular site significantly improves islet transplant engraftment and survival compared to controls. The use of a non hepatic transplant site may avoid intrahepatic complications and permit the use of PET imaging to measure and follow transplanted beta-cell mass in real time. These findings have important implications for effective islet implantation outside of the liver, and offer promising possibilities for improving islet survival, monitoring, and even prevention of islet loss. PMID:19898201

  10. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P < 0.05. The VO2 at which ventilatory threshold occurred was significantly reduced from CON (2.17+/-0.28 L x min(-1)) to 1.60+/-0.19 L x min(-1), 1.45+/-0.15 L x min(-1), and 1.15+/-0.11 L x min(-1) during CUFF, PP, and CUFF+PP, respectively. The slope of the linear regression describing the VE/CO2 output relationship was increased from CON by approximately 22% during CUFF, 40% during PP, and 41% during CUFF+PP. CONCLUSIONS: As intramuscular pressure was significantly elevated immediately upon application of LBPP during PP and CUFF+PP without a concomitant increase in VE, it seems unlikely that LBPP-induced increases in VE can be attributed to activation of the mechanoreflex. These findings suggest that LBPP-induced reductions in perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  11. Contrast Therapy and Intramuscular Temperature in the Human Leg

    PubMed Central

    Myrer, J. William; Draper, David O.; Durrant, Earlene

    1994-01-01

    Contrast therapy, although having a long history of use in sports medicine and physical therapy, remains insufficiently researched. We investigated the thermal effects of contrast therapy on intramuscular temperature. We randomly assigned 28 college students to either a control or a contrast group, eight women and six men per group. We shaved and cleansed a 4- × 4-cm area of skin over the right medial calf and inserted a microprobe to a depth of 1 cm below the skin and subcutaneous fat in the center of the gastrocnemius. Each control subject immersed the treatment leg in a hot whirlpool (40.6°C) for 20 minutes. Each contrast subject first immersed the treatment leg in a hot whirlpool (40.6°C) for 4 minutes then into a cold whirlpool (15.6°C) for 1 minute. Contrast subjects repeated this sequence three additional times. We recorded intramuscular temperatures every 30 seconds over the entire treatment time for both groups. The control group had a temperature increase of 2.83 ± 1.14°C over the 20-minute treatment. The contrast group temperature increased 0.39 ± 0.46°C from baseline to the end of the treatment. The largest temperature change from the end of one contrast immersion to the end of the next was only 0.15 ± 0.10°C. None of the differences between the end of one immersion to the end of the next were significant. Conversely, all differences between the same time periods in the control group had significant temperature increases. Apparently contrast therapy, as studied, is incapable of producing any significant physiological effect on the intramuscular tissue temperature 1 cm below the skin and subcutaneous tissue. We recommend that further research be done to examine the effects of longer periods in both the hot and cold environments on the intramuscular temperature of the human leg. Further investigation of intra-articular or peri-articular temperature change produced by contrast therapy should also be undertaken. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558294

  12. Simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacokinetic analysis of intramuscular depots.

    PubMed

    Probst, Mareike; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Scheuch, Eberhard; Seidlitz, Anne; Hadlich, Stefan; Evert, Katja; Oswald, Stefan; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner

    2016-04-10

    The present pilot study introduces a method that might give novel insights in drug absorption processes from intramuscularly administered depots. An oily suspension or an aqueous solution of paracetamol (6 mg/kg body mass), prednisolone or its hemisuccinate sodium salt for the aqueous solutions (10mg/kg body mass) or diclofenac (10mg/kg body mass) was injected into the muscle tissue of the hind leg of female Lewis-rats (n=47). For the oily suspensions the micronized particles were suspended in medium-chain triglycerides. The aqueous solutions were buffered to a pH of 7.4 ± 0.5. Polyethylene glycol was added as a cosolvent in the formulations containing paracetamol (acetaminophen) and diclofenac and sodium chloride was added to the aqueous solutions of prednisolone hemisuccinate sodium to achieve nearly isotonic formulations. The formed depot was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and characterized with regard to volume and surface area. A 7 T-small animal scanner was used and T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences including a fat saturation were performed. Simultaneously blood samples were taken and the drugs were quantitatively analyzed. The water based solvent and the oily dispersion agent were visible in the MRI images without the use of contrast agents. Since a free hand injection mostly led to an application directly into the fascia, resulting in a fast removal of the depot, MRI-guided injection was conducted. Comparing pharmacokinetic data with MRI data it was observed that maximal blood levels occurred before the solvent and the dispersion agent were removed from the muscle tissue. Thus, the drug is not absorbed together with the depot. Furthermore, no correlation was found between the shape of the depot and the rate of absorption. Consequently, a higher surface area or volume of the depot did not result in a faster release or absorption of the drugs from the tested formulations. In contrast to the paracetamol and prednisolone formulations the

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Yves; Habermehl, Pirmin; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile; Fiquet, Anne

    2009-04-14

    When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro) and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX) compared with the subcutaneous route. An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to 18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374) or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378). Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of >or= 1.25 gpELISA units/ml). Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (IM group. The incidence and nature of systemic adverse events were comparable for the two routes of administration, except varicella-like rashes

  14. Adiposity, lipogenesis, and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues of Brahman and Angus crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M G; Sanders, J O; Lunt, D K; Gill, C A; Taylor, J F; Davis, S K; Riley, D G; Smith, S B

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate differences in aspects of adipose tissue cellularity, lipid metabolism, and fatty and cholesterol composition in Angus and Brahman crossbred cattle. We hypothesized that in vitro measures of lipogenesis would be greater in three-fourths Angus progeny than in three-fourths Brahman progeny, especially in intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Progeny ( = 227) were fed a standard, corn-based diet for approximately 150 d before slaughter. Breed was considered to be the effect of interest and was forced into the model. There were 9 breed groups including all 4 kinds of three-fourths Angus calves: Angus bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 32), Angus bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 20), Brahman-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 24), and Angus-sired F bulls Angus cows ( = 20). There were all 4 kinds of three-fourths Brahman calves: Brahman bulls Brahman-sired F cows ( = 21), Brahman bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 43), Brahman-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 26), and Angus-sired F bulls Brahman cows ( = 13). Additionally, F calves (one-half Brahman and one-half Angus) were produced only from Brahman-sired F bulls Angus-sired F cows ( = 28). Contrasts were calculated when breed was an important fixed effect, using the random effect family(breed) as the error term. Most contrasts were nonsignificant ( > 0.10). Those that were significant ( < 0.05) included cholesterol concentration of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue (three-fourths Angus > F, three-fourths Brahman > F, and three-fourths crossbred progeny combined > F), s.c. adipocyte volume (three-fourths Angus > F and three-fourths bloods combined > F), lipogenesis from acetate in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman dams > three-fourths Brahman calves from F dams), and percentage 18:3-3 in s.c. adipose tissue (three-fourths Brahman calves from Brahman-sired F dams < three-fourths Brahman calves from Angus-sired F dams). Intramuscular adipocyte volume ( < 0.001) was

  15. IMS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2012-11-30

    Information Management System An online user interface which provides data and metadata ... on a 24-hour basis; accepts user orders for data; provides information about future data acquision and processing schedules and maintains ...

  16. Low-dose intradermal and intramuscular vaccination against hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J P; Sjogren, M H; Perine, P L; Legters, L J

    1992-03-01

    Hepatitis B and its sequelae are global problems preventable by immunization. Expense limits the use of hepatitis B vaccines, but low-dose intradermal immunization has been evaluated as a cost-saving strategy in numerous studies. With few exceptions, low-dose intradermal plasma-derived vaccines have elicited protective levels of antibody in 82%-100% of young healthy adults--a proportion similar to that noted with full-dose regimens; peak levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are lower with reduced doses, however. Although children respond well to low-dose intradermal immunization, this procedure is technically difficult in neonates and should not be used for those born to HBsAg-positive mothers. For persons at high risk, antibody to HBsAg must be assessed after immunization to determine the need for a booster dose. A fourth dose 1-2 years after the initial series substantially increases antibody concentrations. In low intradermal doses, recombinant vaccine elicits lower rates of seroconversion than plasma-derived vaccine. However, low intramuscular doses of recombinant vaccine give favorable results. In short, low-dose intradermal or intramuscular immunization offers protection against hepatitis B at significant savings and may be useful for mass immunization of populations at high risk.

  17. Screening and Confirmatory Analyses of Flunixin in Tissues and Bodily Fluids after Intravenous or Intramuscular Administration to Cull Dairy Cows with or without Lipopolysaccharide Challenge.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Smith, David J; Tell, Lisa A; Baynes, Ronald E; Schroeder, J W; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-01-13

    Twenty cull dairy cows (645 ± 83 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration with, or without, exposure to lipopolysaccharide in a two factor balanced design. The usefulness of screening assays to identify violative flunixin levels in a variety of easily accessible ante-mortem fluids in cattle was explored. Two animals with violative flunixin liver residue and/or violative 5-hydroxy flunixin milk residues were correctly identified by a flunixin liver ELISA screen. Oral fluid did not produce anticipated flunixin concentration profiles using ELISA determination. One cow that had liver and milk violative residues, and one cow that had a milk violation at the prescribed withdrawal period were correctly identified by flunixin milk lateral flow analyses. The ratio of urinary flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin may be useful for predicting disruption of metabolism caused by disease or other factors potentially leading to violative liver flunixin residues.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, milk penetration and PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation of marbofloxacin, after intravenous and intramuscular administration to lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Lorenzutti, A M; Litterio, N J; Himelfarb, M A; Zarazaga, M D P; San Andrés, M I; De Lucas, J J

    2017-12-01

    The main objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the serum pharmacokinetic behaviour and milk penetration of marbofloxacin (MFX; 5 mg/kg), after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration in lactating goats and simulate a multidose regimen on steady-state conditions, (ii) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from caprine mastitis in Córdoba, Argentina and (iii) to make a PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation from steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters of MFX by IV and IM routes to evaluate the efficacy and risk of the emergence of resistance. The study was carried out with six healthy, female, adult Anglo Nubian lactating goats. Marbofloxacin was administered at 5 mg/kg bw by IV and IM route. Serum and milk concentrations of MFX were determined with HPLC/uv. From 106 regional strains of CNS isolated from caprine mastitis in herds from Córdoba, Argentina, MICs and MPCs were determined. MIC 90 and MPC 90 were 0.4 and 6.4 μg/ml, respectively. MIC and MPC-based PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation indicates that IV and IM administration of MFX in lactating goats may not be adequate to recommend it as an empirical therapy against CNS, because the most exigent endpoints were not reached. Moreover, this dose regimen could increase the probability of selecting mutants and resulting in emergence of resistance. Based on the results of Monte Carlo simulation, the optimal dose of MFX to achieve an adequate antimicrobial efficacy should be 10 mg/kg, but it is important take into account that fluoroquinolones are substrates of efflux pumps, and this fact may determine that assumption of linear pharmacokinetics at high doses of MFX may be incorrect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Immune Responses Induced by Gene Gun or Intramuscular Injection of DNA Vaccines That Express Immunogenic Regions of the Serine Repeat Antigen from Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Belperron, Alexia A.; Feltquate, David; Fox, Barbara A.; Horii, Toshihiro; Bzik, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The liver- and blood-stage-expressed serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a candidate protein for a human malaria vaccine. We compared the immune responses induced in mice immunized with SERA-expressing plasmid DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection or delivered intradermally by Gene Gun immunization. Mice were immunized with a pcdna3 plasmid encoding the entire 47-kDa domain of SERA (amino acids 17 to 382) or the N-terminal domain (amino acids 17 to 110) of SERA. Minimal antibody responses were detected following DNA vaccination with the N-terminal domain of SERA, suggesting that the N-terminal domain alone is not highly immunogenic by this route of vaccine delivery. Immunization of mice by Gene Gun delivery of the 47-kDa domain of SERA elicited a significantly higher serum antibody titer to the antigen than immunization of mice by i.m. injection with the same plasmid did. The predominant isotype subclass of the antibodies elicited to the SERA protein following i.m. and Gene Gun immunizations with SERA plasmid DNA was immunoglobulin G1. Coimmunization of mice with SERA plasmid DNA and a plasmid expressing the hepatitis B surface antigen (pCMV-s) by the i.m. route resulted in higher anti-SERA titers than those generated in mice immunized with the SERA DNA plasmid alone. Vaccination with DNA may provide a viable alternative or may be used in conjunction with protein-based subunit vaccines to maximize the efficacy of a human malaria vaccine that includes immunogenic regions of the SERA protein. PMID:10496891

  20. Intramuscular administration of paliperidone palmitate extended-release injectable microsuspension induces a subclinical inflammatory reaction modulating the pharmacokinetics in rats.

    PubMed

    Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; Vynckier, An; De Meulder, Marc; Sterkens, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-07-01

    The present study aims at elucidating the intricate nature of the drug release and absorption following intramuscular (i.m.) injection of sustained-release prodrug nanocrystals/microcrystals. A paliperidone palmitate (PPP) long-acting suspension was characterized with regard to particle size (Dv,50 = 1.09 μm) and morphology prior to i.m. injection in rats. The local disposition was rigorously investigated by means of (immuno)histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy while the concurrent multiphasic pharmacokinetics was linked to the microanatomy. A transient (24 h) trauma-induced inflammation promptly evolved into a subclinical but chronic granulomatous inflammatory reaction initiated by the presence of solid material. The dense inflammatory envelope (CD68(+) macrophages) led to particle agglomeration with subsequent drop in dissolution rate beyond 24 h postinjection. This was associated with a decrease in apparent paliperidone (PP) absorption (near-zero order) until 96 h and a delayed time of occurrence of observed maximum drug plasma concentration (168 h). The infiltrating macrophages phagocytosed large fractions of the depot, thereby influencing the (pro)drug release. Radial angiogenesis (CD31(+)) was observed throughout the inflammatory rim from 72 h onwards and presumably contributed to the sustained systemic PP concentrations by maintaining a sufficient absorptive capacity. No solid-state transitions of the retrieved formulation were recorded with X-ray diffraction analysis. In summary, the initial formulation-driven prodrug (PPP) dissolution and drug (PP) absorption were followed by a complex phase determined by the relative contribution of formulation factors and dynamic physiological variables. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. GEOSPATIAL IT/IM QA CHECKLIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quality assurance (QA) of information technology (IT) and Information Management (IM) systems help to ensure that the end product is of known quality and integrity. As the complexity of IT & IM processes increase, so does the need for regular QA evaluation.

    The areas revi...

  2. Population pharmacokinetics of intramuscular droperidol in acutely agitated patients

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Lee‐Kien; Duffull, Stephen B.; Calver, Leonie; Schneider, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Intramuscular droperidol is used increasingly for sedation of aggressive and violent patients. This study aimed to characterise the pharmacokinetics of intramuscular droperidol in these patients to determine how rapidly it is absorbed and the expected duration of measurable drug concentrations. Methods We undertook a population pharmacokinetic analysis of a subgroup of patients from a clinical trial comparing droperidol and midazolam: 17 receiving 5 mg and 24 receiving 10 mg droperidol. Droperidol was measured using high‐performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic modelling was performed under a nonlinear mixed effects modelling framework (NONMEM v7.2). The model was used to simulate concentration time profiles of three typical doses, 5 mg, 10 mg and 10 mg + 10 mg repeated at 15 min. Results A two‐compartment first‐order input with first‐order output model fitted the data best. The absorption rate constant was poorly characterised by the data and an estimate of the first order rate constant of absorption when fixed to 10 h–1 provided a stable model and lowest objective function. This represents extremely rapid absorption with a half‐life of 5 min. The final model had a clearance of 41.9 l h–1 and volume of distribution of the central compartment of, 73.6 l. Median and interquartile range of initial (alpha) half‐life was 0.32 h (0.26–0.37 h) and second (beta) half‐life was 3.0 h (2.5–3.6 h). Simulations indicate that 10 mg alone provides an 80% probability of being above the lower limit of quantification (5 μg l–1) for 7 h, 2 h longer than for 5 mg. Giving two 10 mg doses increased this duration to 10 h. Conclusions Intramuscular droperidol is rapidly absorbed with high therapeutic concentrations after 5 and 10 mg doses, and supports clinical data in which droperidol sedates rapidly for up to 6 h. PMID:27530285

  3. Group III/IV muscle afferents limit the intramuscular metabolic perturbation during whole body exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Mangum, Tyler S.; Sidhu, Simranjit K.; Weavil, Joshua C.; Hureau, Thomas J.; Jessop, Jacob E.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Richardson, Russell S.; Amann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Key points The purpose of this study was to determine the role of group III/IV muscle afferents in limiting the endurance exercise‐induced metabolic perturbation assayed in muscle biopsy samples taken from locomotor muscle.Lumbar intrathecal fentanyl was used to attenuate the central projection of μ‐opioid receptor‐sensitive locomotor muscle afferents during a 5 km cycling time trial.The findings suggest that the central projection of group III/IV muscle afferent feedback constrains voluntary neural ‘drive’ to working locomotor muscle and limits the exercise‐induced intramuscular metabolic perturbation.Therefore, the CNS might regulate the degree of metabolic perturbation within locomotor muscle and thereby limit peripheral fatigue. It appears that the group III/IV muscle afferents are an important neural link in this regulatory mechanism, which probably serves to protect locomotor muscle from the potentially severe functional impairment as a consequence of severe intramuscular metabolic disturbance. Abstract To investigate the role of metabo‐ and mechanosensitive group III/IV muscle afferents in limiting the intramuscular metabolic perturbation during whole body endurance exercise, eight subjects performed 5 km cycling time trials under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl impairing lower limb muscle afferent feedback (FENT). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after exercise. Motoneuronal output was estimated through vastus lateralis surface electromyography (EMG). Exercise‐induced changes in intramuscular metabolites were determined using liquid and gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry. Quadriceps fatigue was quantified by pre‐ to post‐exercise changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch torque (ΔQTsingle) evoked by electrical femoral nerve stimulation. Although motoneuronal output was 21 ± 12% higher during FENT compared to CTRL (P < 0.05), time to complete the time trial

  4. Discontinuing the Use of PRN Intramuscular Medication for Agitation in an Acute Psychiatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Ariel; Russ, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the impact of eliminating intramuscular PRN medication for agitation on patient and staff safety in an acute psychiatric inpatient setting. The current retrospective chart review investigated the use of PRN medications (oral and intramuscular) to treat acute agitation, including aggression, and related outcomes before and after a mandated change in PRN practice that required real time physician input before administration of intramuscular medications. The use of both oral and intramuscular PRN medications dramatically decreased following implementation of the mandated change in practice. In particular, the use of intramuscular PRNs for agitation decreased by about half. Despite this decrease, the assault rate in the hospital was unchanged, and the utilization of restraint and seclusion continued to decrease. It is possible to reduce the utilization of PRN medications for agitation without broadly compromising safety on acute care psychiatric inpatient units.

  5. Evaluating skeletal muscle electromechanical delay with intramuscular pressure.

    PubMed

    Go, Shanette A; Litchy, William J; Evertz, Loribeth Q; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2018-06-08

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) is the fluid pressure generated within skeletal muscle and directly reflects individual muscle tension. The purpose of this study was to assess the development of force, IMP, and electromyography (EMG) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle during ramped isometric contractions and evaluate electromechanical delay (EMD). Force, EMG, and IMP were simultaneously measured during ramped isometric contractions in eight young, healthy human subjects. The EMD between the onset of force and EMG activity (Δt-EMG force) and the onset of IMP and EMG activity (Δt EMG-IMP) were calculated. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the mean force-EMG EMD (36 ± 31 ms) and the mean IMP-EMG EMD (3 ± 21 ms). IMP reflects changes in muscle tension due to the contractile muscle elements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guiding Intramuscular Diaphragm Injections Using Real-time Ultrasound & Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Sarwal, Aarti; Cartwright, Michael S.; Mitchell, Erin; Williams, Koudy; Walker, Francis O.; Childers, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We describe a unique method that combines ultrasound and electromyography to guide intramuscular diaphragm injections in anesthetized large animals. Methods Ultrasound was used to visualize the diaphragm on each side of spontaneously breathing, anesthetized beagle dogs and cynomolgus macaques. An electromyography needle was introduced and directed by ultrasound to confirm that the needle entered the muscular portion of the diaphragm, and methylene blue was injected. Injection accuracy was confirmed upon necropsy by tracking the spread of methylene blue. Results All methylene blue injections were confirmed to have been placed appropriately into the diaphragm. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of using ultrasound and EMG to guide injections and to reduce complications associated with conventional blind techniques. Ultrasound guidance can be used for clinical electromyography of the diaphragm. Future applications may include targeted diaphragm injections with gene replacement therapy in neuromuscular diseases. PMID:25354257

  7. Altered biodistribution of Ga-67 by intramuscular gold salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moult, R.G.; Bekerman, C.

    1989-11-01

    The authors observed a deviation from the normal scintigraphic pattern of Ga-67 citrate biodistribution. An 8-year-old black girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, who had been treated with intramuscular injections of gold salts, had a Ga-67 study as part of her workup. The study demonstrated no hepatic uptake, but showed elevated skeletal and renal activity. This characteristic biodistribution of Ga-67 may be due to inhibition of lysosomal enzymes by gold and/or to accumulation of gold in lysosomes. To study these possibilities, the authors reviewed the mechanisms of Ga-67 localization and gold metabolism. Alteration of the Ga-67 citrate scintigraphic pattern due tomore » earlier treatment with gold salts has not been reported previously.« less

  8. Intramuscular ketamine in acute depression: A report on two cases

    PubMed Central

    Harihar, Chilukuri; Dasari, Padmavathy; Srinivas, Jakka Sriramulu

    2013-01-01

    It takes about 2 weeks for the onset of antidepressant action of drugs while electroconvulsive therapy though faster, is a cumbersome procedure requiring an anaesthetist and at least a minor operation theatre. Recent studies have shown that Ketamine, when given to severely depressed patients in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg as a slow intravenous infusion over 40 minutes, brought about acute relief from depression and amelioration of suicidal risk within a few hours. The improvement, however, was transient and lasted for up to a week but could be sustained by further weekly or biweekly injections. As the dose of ketamine administered was found to be safe, it was now tried in the intramuscular route in two severely depressed patients with similar rapid improvement. The cases are reported here which pave way for an easier mode of treating acute depression. PMID:23825857

  9. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone for sedation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh; Poumeyrol, Séverine; Pignon, Charly; Le Teuff, Gwenaël; Zilberstein, Luca

    2015-03-07

    Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid derivative of pregnanedione that was recently reintroduced to the market for use as an induction agent in small animal anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine an intramuscular alfaxalone dose for safe immobilisation. Ten healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used to evaluate a single intramuscular injection of alfaxalone. The design of the study was a three-way, complete block, cross-over trial to compare the effect of alfaxalone at three doses (4, 6 and 8 mg). The mean duration of the effect for the 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg doses was, respectively, 36.9 (95% CI (31.6 to 42.3)), 51.8 (46.4 to 57.2) and 58.4 (52.8 to 63.9) minutes. The loss of the righting reflex was achieved after 3.1 (2.5 to 3.8), 2.4 (1.7 to 3.1) and 2.3 (1.6 to 2.9) minutes, respectively. The mean duration of the effect for the 6 and 8 mg doses was significantly higher than for the 4 mg dose (with estimated differences of 14.8 95% CI (8.8 to 20.8) minutes and 21.4 (15.3 to 27.6) minutes, respectively). No significant dose effect was observed before the loss of the righting reflex (P=0.14). Ear pinching and limb withdrawal were elicited in all groups at every dose. Doses of 4 or 6 mg/kg could be recommended; higher doses do not provide clinical benefits and can be associated with anaesthetic complication. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Review of the clinical pharmacokinetics of artesunate and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin following intravenous, intramuscular, oral or rectal administration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Artesunate (AS) is a clinically versatile artemisinin derivative utilized for the treatment of mild to severe malaria infection. Given the therapeutic significance of AS and the necessity of appropriate AS dosing, substantial research has been performed investigating the pharmacokinetics of AS and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In this article, a comprehensive review is presented of AS clinical pharmacokinetics following administration of AS by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), oral or rectal routes. Intravenous AS is associated with high initial AS concentrations which subsequently decline rapidly, with typical AS half-life estimates of less than 15 minutes. AS clearance and volume estimates average 2 - 3 L/kg/hr and 0.1 - 0.3 L/kg, respectively. DHA concentrations peak within 25 minutes post-dose, and DHA is eliminated with a half-life of 30 - 60 minutes. DHA clearance and volume average between 0.5 - 1.5 L/kg/hr and 0.5 - 1.0 L/kg, respectively. Compared to IV administration, IM administration produces lower peaks, longer half-life values, and higher volumes of distribution for AS, as well as delayed peaks for DHA; other parameters are generally similar due to the high bioavailability, assessed by exposure to DHA, associated with IM AS administration (> 86%). Similarly high bioavailability of DHA (> 80%) is associated with oral administration. Following oral AS, peak AS concentrations (Cmax) are achieved within one hour, and AS is eliminated with a half-life of 20 - 45 minutes. DHA Cmax values are observed within two hours post-dose; DHA half-life values average 0.5 - 1.5 hours. AUC values reported for AS are often substantially lower than those reported for DHA following oral AS administration. Rectal AS administration yields pharmacokinetic results similar to those obtained from oral administration, with the exceptions of delayed AS Cmax and longer AS half-life. Drug interaction studies conducted with oral AS suggest that AS does not

  11. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6) or ECP (ECP group, n = 6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose of both

  12. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration of a single dose to African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Montesinos, A; Ardiaca, M; Gilabert, J A; Bonvehí, C; Oros, J; Encinas, T

    2017-06-01

    Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used in avian species. In this study, the pharmacokinetic parameters for meloxicam were determined following single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral (p.o.) administrations of the drug (1 mg/kg·b.w.) in adult African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus; n = 6). Serial plasma samples were collected and meloxicam concentrations were determined using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography assay. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. No undesirable side effects were observed during the study. After i.v. administration, the volume of distribution, clearance and elimination half-life were 90.6 ± 4.1 mL/kg, 2.18 ± 0.25 mL/h/kg and 31.4 ± 4.6 h, respectively. The peak mean ± SD plasma concentration was 8.32 ± 0.95 μg/mL at 30 min after i.m. administration. Oral administration resulted in a slower absorption (t max  = 13.2 ± 3.5 h; C max  = 4.69 ± 0.75 μg/mL) and a lower bioavailability (38.1 ± 3.6%) than for i.m. (78.4 ± 5.5%) route. At 24 h, concentrations were 5.90 ± 0.28 μg/mL for i.v., 4.59 ± 0.36 μg/mL for i.m. and 3.21 ± 0.34 μg/mL for p.o. administrations and were higher than those published for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots at 12 h with predicted analgesic effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine in cats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo-Mocholí, Diego; Belda, Eliseo; Bosmans, Tim; Laredo, Francisco G

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the sedative, anaesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine in cats. Blinded, randomized crossover study with a washout period of 15 days. Seven adult cats, weighing 3.5 ± 0.7 kg. Cats were assigned randomly to each of three treatments: A5 (alfaxalone 5 mg kg(-1) ), D20 A5 (dexmedetomidine 20 μg kg(-1) and alfaxalone 5 mg kg(-1) ) and D40 A5 (dexmedetomidine 40 μg kg(-1) and alfaxalone 5 mg kg(-1) ). Drugs were administered IM into the epaxial muscles. Sedation or anaesthesia scores were evaluated by a modified numerical rating scale. Times to extubation, head-lift, sternal recumbency and standing were recorded. Heart and respiratory rates, systolic arterial pressure, arterial oxygen saturation of haemoglobin, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension and rectal temperature were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes after drug administration. Adverse events were recorded. Data were analysed by one-way anova with Tukey's post-hoc test for parametric values and, for non-normally distributed parameters, a Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test for two independent samples (p < 0.05). Sedation scores were significantly different among the treatments. Cats in A5 were deeply sedated, whereas cats administered dexmedetomidine were anaesthetized. The onset of action and the duration of anaesthesia were related to the dose of dexmedetomidine. Cardiorespiratory parameters remained stable in the A5 group. Lower heart rates, higher systolic blood pressures and occasional low pulse oximetry readings were observed in the dexmedetomidine groups. A limited number of adverse events (hyperkinesia, emesis) occurred during recovery. Alfaxalone administered IM induced sedation in cats. The addition of dexmedetomidine to alfaxalone induced general anaesthesia with a mild decrease in the heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation of haemoglobin

  14. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling newmore » applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.« less

  15. Antinociceptive effects of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Braun, Jana M; Steagall, Paulo V M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 10 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (33.7 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IM in a randomized complete crossover experimental design (periods 1 and 2). Foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus was used to evaluate responses. Baseline thermal withdrawal threshold was recorded 1 hour before drug or saline solution administration, and thermal foot withdrawal threshold measurements were repeated 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after drug administration. Nalbuphine decanoate administered IM at a dose of 33.7 mg/kg significantly increased thermal foot withdrawal threshold, compared with results after administration of saline solution during period 2, and also caused a significant change in withdrawal threshold for up to 12 hours, compared with baseline values. Nalbuphine decanoate increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots for up to 12 hours and provided a longer duration of action than has been reported for other nalbuphine formulations. Further studies with other types of nociceptive stimulation, dosages, and dosing intervals as well as clinical trials are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine decanoate in psittacine birds.

  16. Comparison of the Local Tolerability to 5 Long-acting Drug Nanosuspensions with Different Stabilizing Excipients, Following a Single Intramuscular Administration in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; De Jonghe, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effects of common nanosuspension-stabilizing excipients on the nature and temporal evolution of histopathological changes at intramuscular (i.m.) administration sites, 5 groups of 39 male rats per group received a single injection of 1 of the 5 analogous crystalline drug nanosuspensions containing 200 mg/ml of an antiviral compound with particle sizes of ±200 nm and identical vehicle compositions, except for the type of nanosuspension stabilizer. The investigated stabilizers were poloxamer 338, poloxamer 407, d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1,000-succinate (TPGS), polysorbate 80, and polysorbate 80 combined with egg phosphatidylglycerol. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed progressive inflammatory changes at the i.m. administration sites and the draining lymph nodes that differed according to the time point of sacrifice and the type of stabilizer. Although the overall time course of inflammatory changes was similar across the groups, differences in the nature, severity, and timing of the inflammatory response were observed between animals injected with poloxamer- or TPGS-containing nanosuspensions and those injected with formulations containing polysorbate 80. A more severe and prolonged active inflammatory phase, the presence of multinucleate giant cells, prolonged macrophage infiltration of the formulation depot, and more persistent histiocytic infiltrates in the lymph nodes were observed in the polysorbate 80-containing nanosuspension groups. Such vehicle-mediated effects could influence the overall tolerability profile of long-acting nanosuspensions.

  17. Modeling the Time Course of the Tissue Responses to Intramuscular Long-acting Paliperidone Palmitate Nano-/Microcrystals and Polystyrene Microspheres in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Darville, Nicolas; van Heerden, Marjolein; Erkens, Tim; De Jonghe, Sandra; Vynckier, An; De Meulder, Marc; Vermeulen, An; Sterkens, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Long-acting injectable (LAI) drug suspensions consist of drug nano-/microcrystals suspended in an aqueous vehicle and enable prolonged therapeutic drug exposure up to several months. The examination of injection site reactions (ISRs) to the intramuscular (IM) injection of LAI suspensions is relevant not only from a safety perspective but also for the understanding of the pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to perform a multilevel temporal characterization of the local and lymphatic histopathological/immunological alterations triggered by the IM injection of an LAI paliperidone palmitate suspension and an analog polystyrene suspension in rats and identify critical time points and parameters with regard to the host response. The ISRs showed a moderate to marked chronic granulomatous inflammation, which was mediated by multiple cyto-/chemokines, including interleukin-1β, monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Lymphatic uptake and lymph node retention of nano-/microparticles were observed, but the contribution to the drug absorption was negligible. A simple image analysis procedure and empirical model were proposed for the accurate evaluation of the depot geometry, cell infiltration, and vascularization. This study was designed as a reference for the evaluation and comparison of future LAIs and to support the mechanistic modeling of the formulation-physiology interplay regulating the drug absorption from LAIs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Intramuscular and intranasal immunization with an H7N9 influenza virus-like particle vaccine protects mice against lethal influenza virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhiguang; Zhao, Yongkun; Liu, Jing; Ji, Xianliang; Meng, Lingnan; Wang, Tiecheng; Sun, Weiyang; Zhang, Kun; Sang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Yang, Zhengyan; Ma, Yuanfang; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2018-05-01

    The H7N9 influenza virus epidemic has been associated with a high mortality rate in China. Therefore, to prevent the H7N9 virus from causing further damage, developing a safe and effective vaccine is necessary. In this study, a vaccine candidate consisting of virus-like particles (VLPs) based on H7N9 A/Shanghai/2/2013 and containing hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix protein (M1) was successfully produced using a baculovirus (BV) expression system. Immunization experiments showed that strong humoral and cellular immune responses could be induced by the developed VLPs when administered via either the intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) immunization routes. Notably, VLPs administered via both immunization routes provided 100% protection against lethal infection caused by the H7N9 virus. The IN immunization with 40μg of H7N9 VLPs induced strong lung IgA and lung tissue resident memory (TRM) cell-mediated local immune responses. These results provide evidence for the development of an effective preventive vaccine against the H7N9 virus based on VLPs administered through both the IM and IN immunization routes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. I'm a Map, I'm a Green Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    I'm talking about the ways we represent ourselves and our world. I've put some thoughts on the topic together here--a gathering that enacts new media creating and takes up conceptual layers like metaphors, models, and composing. The primary sources are videos from the Get a Mac campaign, aka I'm a Mac; I'm a PC ads. Posthuman concepts blending…

  20. Intensity Modulation: A Novel Approach to Percept Control in Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Daniel; Tyler, Dustin; Sweet, Jennifer; Miller, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) can be effective for neuropathic pain, but clinical benefit is sometimes inadequate or is offset by stimulation-induced side-effects, and response can be inconsistent among patients. Intensity-modulated stimulation (IMS) is an alternative to tonic stimulation (TS) that involves continuous variation of stimulation intensity in a sinusoidal pattern between two different values, sequentially activating distinct axonal populations to produce an effect that resembles natural physiological signals. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of IMS on the clinical effect of SCS. Seven patients undergoing a percutaneous SCS trial for postlaminectomy syndrome were enrolled. Thresholds for perception, pain relief, and discomfort were measured and used to create patient-specific models of axonal activation and charge delivery for both TS and IMS. All participants underwent three two-min periods of blinded stimulation using TS, IMS, and placebo, and were asked to describe the effect on quality of the sensory percept and pain relief. All participants perceived IMS differently from placebo, and five noted significant differences from TS that resulted in a more comfortable sensation. TS was described as electric and tingling, whereas IMS was described as producing a focal area of deep pressure with a sense of motion away from that focus. The anatomic location of coverage was similar between the two forms of stimulation, although one participant reported better lower back coverage with IMS. Computer modeling revealed that, compared with TS, IMS involved 36.4% less charge delivery and produced 78.7% less suprathreshold axonal activation. IMS for SCS is feasible, produces a more comfortable percept than conventional TS, and appears to provide a similar degree of pain relief with significantly lower energy requirements. Further studies are necessary to determine whether this represents an effective alternative to tonic SCS for treatment of

  1. Reproductive responses following royal jelly treatment administered orally or intramuscularly into progesterone-treated Awassi ewes.

    PubMed

    Husein, M Q; Kridli, R T

    2002-11-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether natural royal jelly (RJ) paste administered orally or intramuscularly (i.m.) in conjunction with exogenous progesterone is associated with improved reproductive responses in ewes. Thirty 3-6-year-old Awassi ewes were randomly allocated into three (RJ-capsule, RJC; RJ-injection, RJI and control, CON) groups of 10 ewes each. All ewes were treated with intravaginal progesterone sponges for 12 days. Ewes in the RJC and RJI were administered orally or i.m. with a total of 3g of RJ given in 12 equal doses of 250 mg per ewe per day starting at the time of sponge insertion. At the time of sponge withdrawal (day 0, 0 h), ewes were exposed to three rams and checked for breeding marks at 6-h intervals for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all ewes for analysis of progesterone concentrations. Pretreatment progesterone levels were <0.5 ng x ml(-1) in 16/30 and >1.3 ng x ml(-1) in the remaining ewes indicating luteal function and cyclicity. Similar reproductive responses and progesterone levels occurred in ewes of the RJC and RJI; therefore, data of the two groups were pooled. Following sponge insertion, progesterone levels increased rapidly and reached maximum values of 5.8+/-0.2 ng x ml(-1) within 2 days among ewes of the three groups, and then declined gradually to day 0 values of 1.6+/-0.1 and 1.9+/-0.1 ng x ml(-1) for the RJ-treated and CON ewes, respectively. The rate of progesterone decline was greater (P<0.001) in RJ-treated than in CON. Mean progesterone levels during the 12-day period were lower (P<0.001) in RJ-treated than in CON (2.8+/-0.2 ng x ml(-1) versus 3.3+/-0.2 ng x ml(-1)). Treatment with RJ resulted in greater (P<0.05) incidence of oestrus and shorter (P<0.05) intervals to onset of oestrus than CON. Based upon progesterone levels, ovulation occurred following day 0 in all ewes. Progesterone increased on day 3 in RJ-treated and on day 4 in CON ewes. Progesterone remained elevated through day 18 in 8

  2. ANO1 in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal plays a key role in the generation of slow waves and tone in the internal anal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, E. E.; Zhu, M. H.; Lyle, H. E.; Rock, J. R.; Sanders, K. M.; Ward, S. M.; Keef, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    Key points The internal anal sphincter develops tone important for maintaining high anal pressure and continence. Controversy exists regarding the mechanisms underlying tone development.We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC‐IM) by activation of Ca2+‐activated Cl− channels (ANO1, encoded by Ano1) and voltage‐dependent L‐type Ca2+ channels (CavL, encoded by Cacna1c).Measurement of membrane potential and contraction indicated that ANO1 and CavL have a central role in SW generation, phasic contractions and tone, independent of stretch.ANO1 expression was examined in wildtype and Ano1/+egfp mice with immunohistochemical techniques. Ano1 and Cacna1c expression levels were examined by quantitative PCR in fluorescence‐activated cell sorting.ICC‐IM were the predominant cell type expressing ANO1 and the most likely candidate for SW generation. SWs in ICC‐IM are proposed to conduct to smooth muscle where Ca2+ entry via CavL results in phasic activity that sums to produce tone. Abstract The mechanism underlying tone generation in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is controversial. We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon generation of electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC‐IM) by activation of Ca2+‐activated Cl− channels (encoded by Ano1) and voltage‐dependent L‐type Ca2+ channels (encoded by Cacna1c). Phasic contractions and tone in the IAS were nearly abolished by ANO1 and CavL antagonists. ANO1 antagonists also abolished SWs as well as transient depolarizations that persisted after addition of CavL antagonists. Tone development in the IAS did not require stretch of muscles, and the sensitivity of contraction to ANO1 antagonists was the same in stretched versus un‐stretched muscles. ANO1 expression was examined in wildtype and Ano1/+egfp mice with immunohistochemical techniques. Dual

  3. A Three-Dose Intramuscular Injection Schedule of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Generates Sustained Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Protective Antigen and Provides Long-Term Protection against Inhalation Anthrax in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sabourin, Carol L.; Niemuth, Nancy A.; Li, Han; Semenova, Vera A.; Rudge, Thomas L.; Mayfield, Heather J.; Schiffer, Jarad; Mittler, Robert S.; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; Brys, April M.; Hunt, Robert E.; Levesque, Denyse; Estep, James E.; Barnewall, Roy E.; Robinson, David M.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Marano, Nina

    2012-01-01

    A 3-dose (0, 1, and 6 months) intramuscular (3-IM) priming series of a human dose (HuAVA) and dilutions of up to 1:10 of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) provided statistically significant levels of protection (60 to 100%) against inhalation anthrax for up to 4 years in rhesus macaques. Serum anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) IgG and lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA) were detectable following a single injection of HuAVA or 1:5 AVA or following two injections of diluted vaccine (1:10, 1:20, or 1:40 AVA). Anti-PA and TNA were highly correlated (overall r2 = 0.89 for log10-transformed data). Peak responses were seen at 6.5 months. In general, with the exception of animals receiving 1:40 AVA, serum anti-PA and TNA responses remained significantly above control levels at 28.5 months (the last time point measured for 1:20 AVA), and through 50.5 months for the HuAVA and 1:5 and 1:10 AVA groups (P < 0.05). PA-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) CD4+ cell frequencies and T cell stimulation indices were sustained through 50.5 months (the last time point measured). PA-specific memory B cell frequencies were highly variable but, in general, were detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by 2 months, were significantly above control levels by 7 months, and remained detectable in the HuAVA and 1:5 and 1:20 AVA groups through 42 months (the last time point measured). HuAVA and diluted AVA elicited a combined Th1/Th2 response and robust immunological priming, with sustained production of high-avidity PA-specific functional antibody, long-term immune cell competence, and immunological memory (30 months for 1:20 AVA and 52 months for 1:10 AVA). Vaccinated animals surviving inhalation anthrax developed high-magnitude anamnestic anti-PA IgG and TNA responses. PMID:22933399

  4. A three-dose intramuscular injection schedule of anthrax vaccine adsorbed generates sustained humoral and cellular immune responses to protective antigen and provides long-term protection against inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Conrad P; Sabourin, Carol L; Niemuth, Nancy A; Li, Han; Semenova, Vera A; Rudge, Thomas L; Mayfield, Heather J; Schiffer, Jarad; Mittler, Robert S; Ibegbu, Chris C; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; Brys, April M; Hunt, Robert E; Levesque, Denyse; Estep, James E; Barnewall, Roy E; Robinson, David M; Plikaytis, Brian D; Marano, Nina

    2012-11-01

    A 3-dose (0, 1, and 6 months) intramuscular (3-IM) priming series of a human dose (HuAVA) and dilutions of up to 1:10 of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) provided statistically significant levels of protection (60 to 100%) against inhalation anthrax for up to 4 years in rhesus macaques. Serum anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) IgG and lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA) were detectable following a single injection of HuAVA or 1:5 AVA or following two injections of diluted vaccine (1:10, 1:20, or 1:40 AVA). Anti-PA and TNA were highly correlated (overall r(2) = 0.89 for log(10)-transformed data). Peak responses were seen at 6.5 months. In general, with the exception of animals receiving 1:40 AVA, serum anti-PA and TNA responses remained significantly above control levels at 28.5 months (the last time point measured for 1:20 AVA), and through 50.5 months for the HuAVA and 1:5 and 1:10 AVA groups (P < 0.05). PA-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) CD4(+) cell frequencies and T cell stimulation indices were sustained through 50.5 months (the last time point measured). PA-specific memory B cell frequencies were highly variable but, in general, were detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by 2 months, were significantly above control levels by 7 months, and remained detectable in the HuAVA and 1:5 and 1:20 AVA groups through 42 months (the last time point measured). HuAVA and diluted AVA elicited a combined Th1/Th2 response and robust immunological priming, with sustained production of high-avidity PA-specific functional antibody, long-term immune cell competence, and immunological memory (30 months for 1:20 AVA and 52 months for 1:10 AVA). Vaccinated animals surviving inhalation anthrax developed high-magnitude anamnestic anti-PA IgG and TNA responses.

  5. Nine μg intradermal influenza vaccine and 15 μg intramuscular influenza vaccine induce similar cellular and humoral immune responses in adults

    PubMed Central

    Nougarede, Nolwenn; Bisceglia, Hélène; Rozières, Aurore; Goujon, Catherine; Boudet, Florence; Laurent, Philippe; Vanbervliet, Beatrice; Rodet, Karen; Hennino, Ana; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Intanza® 9 μg (Sanofi Pasteur), a trivalent split-virion vaccine administered by intradermal (ID) injection, was approved in Europe in 2009 for the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults 18 to 59 years. Here, we examined the immune responses induced in adults by the ID 9 μg vaccine and the standard trivalent intramuscular (IM) vaccine (Vaxigrip® 15 μg, Sanofi Pasteur). This trial was a randomized, controlled, single-center, open-label study in healthy adults 18 to 40 years of age during the 2007/8 influenza season. Subjects received a single vaccination with the ID 9 μg (n = 38) or IM 15 μg (n = 42) vaccine. Serum, saliva, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected up to 180 days post-vaccination. Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates, and pre-vaccination-to-post-vaccination ratios of geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers did not differ between the two vaccines. Compared with pre-vaccination, the vaccines induced similar increases in vaccine-specific circulating B cells at day 7 but did not induce significant increases in vaccine-specific memory B cells at day 180. Cell-mediated immunity to all three vaccine strains, measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was high at baseline and not increased by either vaccine. Neither vaccine induced a mucosal immune response. These results show that the humoral and cellular immune responses to the ID 9 μg vaccine are similar to those to the standard IM 15 μg vaccine. PMID:25483667

  6. Nine μg intradermal influenza vaccine and 15 μg intramuscular influenza vaccine induce similar cellular and humoral immune responses in adults.

    PubMed

    Nougarede, Nolwenn; Bisceglia, Hélène; Rozières, Aurore; Goujon, Catherine; Boudet, Florence; Laurent, Philippe; Vanbervliet, Beatrice; Rodet, Karen; Hennino, Ana; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Intanza® 9 μg (Sanofi Pasteur), a trivalent split-virion vaccine administered by intradermal (ID) injection, was approved in Europe in 2009 for the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults 18 to 59 years. Here, we examined the immune responses induced in adults by the ID 9 μg vaccine and the standard trivalent intramuscular (IM) vaccine (Vaxigrip® 15 μg, Sanofi Pasteur). This trial was a randomized, controlled, single-center, open-label study in healthy adults 18 to 40 years of age during the 2007/8 influenza season. Subjects received a single vaccination with the ID 9 μg (n=38) or IM 15 μg (n=42) vaccine. Serum, saliva, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected up to 180 days post-vaccination. Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates, and pre-vaccination-to-post-vaccination ratios of geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers did not differ between the two vaccines. Compared with pre-vaccination, the vaccines induced similar increases in vaccine-specific circulating B cells at day 7 but did not induce significant increases in vaccine-specific memory B cells at day 180. Cell-mediated immunity to all three vaccine strains, measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was high at baseline and not increased by either vaccine. Neither vaccine induced a mucosal immune response. These results show that the humoral and cellular immune responses to the ID 9 μg vaccine are similar to those to the standard IM 15 μg vaccine.

  7. A new approach to estimate vaccine efficacy based on immunogenicity data applied to influenza vaccines administered by the intradermal or intramuscular routes.

    PubMed

    Coudeville, Laurent; Andre, Philippe; Bailleux, Fabrice; Weber, Françoise; Plotkin, Stanley

    2010-10-01

    Despite their pivotal role in the assessment of influenza vaccines, limited attempts have been made to use haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers for predicting vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza. We present here the second step of a two-step approach allowing performing such predictions and use it to compare a new trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine administered by the intradermal (ID) route (INTANZA® /IDFlu®) with the vaccine administered by the classical intramuscular (IM) route. The first step corresponding to the estimation of the level of protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza that can be linked to each HI titer, referred to as the HI protection curve, was achieved by using a meta-analytical approach based on published information. Vaccine efficacy and differences in vaccine efficacy are predicted in a second step using this HI protection curve alongside the results of two randomized clinical trials providing comparative information on the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines administered ID or IM in 3503 & 1645 elderly participants, respectively. Pooling all available immunogenicity data, the predicted vaccine efficacy was 63.3% [CI: 58.1; 68.7] for ID route and 54.4% [CI: 49.4; 59.2] for IM route. The corresponding relative increase in efficacy that is of 16.5% [CI: 12.7; 20.1]. Predicted vaccine efficacies decreased with age for both vaccines, but the decrease was less marked by ID route: the relative increase in efficacy for subjects aged 70 years and above is of 18.0% [CI:12;24]. The analysis performed confirmed that the superior immune response provided by the vaccine using the ID route should translate into a higher vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza.

  8. Pathogenesis of highly virulent African swine fever virus in domestic pigs exposed via intraoropharyngeal, intranasopharyngeal, and intramuscular inoculation, and by direct contact with infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Howey, Erin B; O'Donnell, Vivian; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Borca, Manuel V; Arzt, Jonathan

    2013-12-26

    To investigate the pathogenesis of African swine fever virus (ASFV), domestic pigs (n=18) were challenged with a range (10(2)-10(6) 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD50)) of the highly virulent ASFV-Malawi strain by inoculation via the intraoropharyngeal (IOP), intranasopharyngeal (INP), or intramuscular (IM) routes. A subsequent contact challenge experiment was performed in which six IOP-inoculated donor pigs were allowed to have direct contact (DC) with six naïve pigs for exposure times that varied from 24 to 72 h. All challenge routes resulted in clinical progression and postmortem lesions similar to those previously described in experimental and natural infection. The onset of clinical signs occurred between 1 and 7 days post inoculation (dpi) and included pyrexia with variable progression to obtundation, hematochezia, melena, moribundity and death with a duration of 4-11 days. Viremia was first detected between 4 and 5 dpi in all inoculation groups whereas ASFV shedding from the nasal cavity and tonsil was first detected at 3-9 dpi. IM and DC were the most consistent modes of infection, with 12/12 (100%) of pigs challenged by these routes becoming infected. Several clinical and virological parameters were significantly different between IM and DC groups indicating dissimilarity between these modes of infection. Amongst the simulated natural routes, INP inoculation resulted in the most consistent progression of disease across the widest range of doses whilst preserving simulation of natural exposure and therefore may provide a superior system for pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy investigation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. High-Dose Intramuscular Vitamin D Provides Long-Lasting Moderate Increases in Serum 25-Hydroxvitamin D Levels and Shorter-Term Changes in Plasma Calcium.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Shelley; Zafirau, Mark Zafir; Lim, Ee Mun; Clarke, Michael W; Dhamrait, Gursimran; Fleury, Naomi; Walsh, John P; Kaufmann, Martin; Jones, Glenville; Lucas, Robyn M

    2017-09-01

    The best management of vitamin D deficiency, defined as a 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] level <50 nM, is unclear. Intramuscular (IM) injection of a large bolus of vitamin D (≥100 000 IU) is used, but its safety is uncertain. In 10 adults given an IM injection of 600 000IU vitamin D3, we measured at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks postinjection the serum levels of vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, total 25(OH)D, 3-epi-25(OH)D3, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] using a standardized LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) assay; serum levels of 25(OH)D using the Abbott ARCHITECT i2000 immunoassay; and markers of bone metabolism. Bone markers and 25(OH)D (immunoassay) were remeasured at 24 weeks. All participants had baseline total 25(OH)D levels >50 nM. Serum 25(OH)D levels increased at 3, 4, and 24 weeks postinjection, peaking at 4 weeks [mean ± SEM of 126 ± 7.9 nM (immunoassay) and 100 ± 5.5 nM (LC-MS/MS)] but generally remained <125 nM, the upper limit recommended by the U.S. Institute of Medicine. Serum 24,25(OH)2D3 levels increased at 3 and 4 weeks postinjection. Serum ionized calcium levels were higher than baseline at 1, 3, and 4 weeks postinjection but remained within the clinically normal range. Other biochemical parameters, including other vitamin D metabolites, plasma alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels, were unchanged. IM injection of a large bolus of vitamin D effectively increases serum 25(OH)D levels without evidence of metabolic abnormality.

  10. Inferior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm related to intramuscular injection

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Paulo Fernandes; Saad, Karen Ruggeri; Armstrong, Dinani Matoso Fialho de Oliveira; Soares, Bruno Leonardo de Freitas; de Almeida, Paulo Henrique Freitas; Razuk Filho, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gluteal artery pseudoaneurysms are rare, yet the most common in cases involving the superior gluteal artery. Pseudoaneurysms of the inferior gluteal artery are uncommon and are often related to blunt or penetrating trauma, infections and fractures of the pelvis. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors present a case of pseudoaneurysm of the inferior gluteal artery related to an iatrogenic injury due to intramuscular injection of medication, which was treated with selective embolization of the artery during angiography. DISCUSSION The most common manifestation of an inferior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysm is the presence of a painful mass in the buttock that may or may not be associated with neurological symptoms due to compression of the sciatic nerve. Ultrasound with color Doppler and computerized tomography with multi-detectors are useful non-invasive tools for diagnosis. However, both diagnosis and therapy are facilitated by catheter angiography. CONCLUSION This case cautions that although pseudoaneurysms are rare, pseudoaneurysms of the inferior gluteal artery require a high index of suspicion and careful physical examination by the physician in order to avoid misdiagnosis. It also illustrates the usefulness of a minimally invasive modality for treatment of these lesions. PMID:25506847

  11. Intramuscular (Infiltrating) Lipoma of the Floor of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Lipa; Shaco-Levy, Ruthy

    2018-01-01

    Lipoma is a very common soft tissue neoplasm, but only infrequently found in the oral region. Intramuscular lipoma (IML) is a relatively common variant of lipoma. The most common site for IML is the large muscles of the extremities, and it is quite rare in the oral cavity. A case of IML affecting the floor of the mouth/tongue of a 42-year-old female is described. The patient presented with a 4 cm diameter yellow mass in the right side of the sublingual area. Axial and coronal magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated its infiltrating nature that can be distinguished from the ordinary well-encapsulated lesion. The lesion was excised with adequate surgical margins. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of mature adipose tissue that infiltrated the muscle in a diffuse manner. No lipoblasts, atypical cells, or high mitotic index were found. There was no evidence of recurrence two years postoperatively. Review of the literature yielded that IML occurring in the sublingual region is extremely rare.

  12. Predicting pork loin intramuscular fat using computer vision system.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-H; Sun, X; Young, J M; Bachmeier, L A; Newman, D J

    2018-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of computer vision system to predict pork intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%). Center-cut loin samples (n = 85) were trimmed of subcutaneous fat and connective tissue. Images were acquired and pixels were segregated to estimate image IMF% and 18 image color features for each image. Subjective IMF% was determined by a trained grader. Ether extract IMF% was calculated using ether extract method. Image color features and image IMF% were used as predictors for stepwise regression and support vector machine models. Results showed that subjective IMF% had a correlation of 0.81 with ether extract IMF% while the image IMF% had a 0.66 correlation with ether extract IMF%. Accuracy rates for regression models were 0.63 for stepwise and 0.75 for support vector machine. Although subjective IMF% has shown to have better prediction, results from computer vision system demonstrates the potential of being used as a tool in predicting pork IMF% in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina

    2017-08-01

    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Neck and Occipital Pain Caused by Deep Cervical Intramuscular Lipoma: A Surgical Case.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Kazunari; Yamazaki, Michio; Tamaki, Tomonori; Node, Yoji; Morita, Akio

    2017-01-01

    A lipoma is a slow-growing, benign tumor and is usually asymptomatic; hence, surgical intervention can often be avoided in patients with these tumors in the cervical and cranial area. Lipomas arise most commonly in the subcutaneous fat, but occasionally in muscle tissue. Intramuscular lipomas in the cervico-cranial area have rarely been reported. We describe here a patient with a large intramuscular lipoma in the deep cervical tissue. The patient experienced troublesome pain in the neck and occipital area, and surgical treatment was therefore suggested. Particularly in the cervical area, intramuscular lipomas sometimes invade the surrounding muscles and tissue layers and develop into an irregular mass, despite being benign. In addition, the cervical area has one of the most complex muscle structures. Nevertheless, surgical management of intramuscular lipoma in the cervical and cranial area is sometimes indicated, for example, in patients with clinical symptoms or masses with a tendency to grow large.

  15. Pharmacokinetic behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus) after intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Samanta; Prados, Ana Paula; de Lucas, José Julio; San Andrés, Manuel Ignacion; Regner, Pablo; de Oliveira, Vanesa Costa; de Roodt, Adolfo; Rodríguez, Casilda

    2014-03-01

    Enrofloxacin is widely used in veterinary medicine and is an important alternative to treating bacterial infections, which play an important role as causes of disease and death in captive snakes. Its extralabel use in nontraditional species has been related to its excellent pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial characteristics. This can be demonstrated by its activity against gram-negative organisms implicated in serious infectious diseases of reptile species with a rapid and concentration-dependent bactericidal effect and a large volume of distribution. Pharmacokinetic parameters for enrofloxacin were investigated in seven urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus), following intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood samples were collected from the ventral coccygeal veins at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 108, and 168 hr. The kinetic behavior was characterized by a relatively slow absorption (time of maximal plasma concentration = 4.50 +/- 3.45 hr) with peak plasma concentration of 4.81 +/- 1.12 microg/ml. The long half-life during the terminal elimination phase (t1/2 lambda = 27.91 +/- 7.55 hr) of enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration, calculated in the present study, could suggest that the antibiotic is eliminated relatively slowly and/or the presence of a slow absorption in urutu pit vipers. Ciprofloxacin reached a peak plasma concentration of 0.35 microg/ml at 13.45 hr, and the fraction of enrofloxacin metabolized to ciprofloxacin was 13.06%. If enrofloxacin's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values of 0.5 microg/ml were used, the ratios AUC(e+c): MIC90 (276 +/- 67 hr) and Cmax(e+c): MIC90 (10 +/- 2) reach the proposed threshold values (125 hr and 10, respectively) for optimized efficacy and minimized resistance development when treating infections caused by Pseudomonas. The administration of 10 mg/kg of

  16. Dynamic hydraulic fluid stimulation regulated intramedullary pressure.

    PubMed

    Hu, Minyi; Serra-Hsu, Frederick; Bethel, Neville; Lin, Liangjun; Ferreri, Suzanne; Cheng, Jiqi; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2013-11-01

    Physical signals within the bone, i.e. generated from mechanical loading, have the potential to initiate skeletal adaptation. Strong evidence has pointed to bone fluid flow (BFF) as a media between an external load and the bone cells, in which altered velocity and pressure can ultimately initiate the mechanotransduction and the remodeling process within the bone. Load-induced BFF can be altered by factors such as intramedullary pressure (ImP) and/or bone matrix strain, mediating bone adaptation. Previous studies have shown that BFF induced by ImP alone, with minimum bone strain, can initiate bone remodeling. However, identifying induced ImP dynamics and bone strain factor in vivo using a non-invasive method still remains challenging. To apply ImP as a means for alteration of BFF, it was hypothesized that non-invasive dynamic hydraulic stimulation (DHS) can induce local ImP with minimal bone strain to potentially elicit osteogenic adaptive responses via bone-muscle coupling. The goal of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects on local and distant ImP and strain in response to a range of loading frequencies using DHS. Simultaneous femoral and tibial ImP and bone strain values were measured in three 15-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats during DHS loading on the tibia with frequencies of 1Hz to 10Hz. DHS showed noticeable effects on ImP induction in the stimulated tibia in a nonlinear fashion in response to DHS over the range of loading frequencies, where they peaked at 2Hz. DHS at various loading frequencies generated minimal bone strain in the tibiae. Maximal bone strain measured at all loading frequencies was less than 8με. No detectable induction of ImP or bone strain was observed in the femur. This study suggested that oscillatory DHS may regulate the local fluid dynamics with minimal mechanical strain in the bone, which serves critically in bone adaptation. These results clearly implied DHS's potential as an effective, non-invasive intervention for

  17. Early biomarker response and patient preferences to oral and intramuscular vitamin B12 substitution in primary care: a randomised parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Corina; Mathis, Deborah; Jeger, Cyrill; Hersberger, Kurt Eduard; Arnet, Isabelle; Walter, Philipp

    2017-04-19

    Vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency can be treated with oral high-dose substitution or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of VB12. Whenever alternative routes of administration exist, patient preferences should be considered when choosing the treatment. We aimed to assess outpatient preferences towards oral or IM VB12 substitution and confirm noninferiority of early biomarker response with oral treatment, in a typical primary care population. Prospective randomised nonblinded parallel-group trial. Patients were recruited by their general practitioner and randomly assigned to oral or IM treatment. Group O-oral was given 28 tablets of 1000 µg cyanocobalamin in a monthly punch card fitted with an electronic monitoring system. Group I-IM received four, weekly injections of 1000 µg hydroxocobalamin. Blood samples were drawn before the first administration and after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, and analysed for VB12, holotranscobalamin (HoloTc), homocysteine (Hcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). For group O-oral, treatment adher-ence and percentage of days with 2 dosing events were calcu-lated. Before and after 28 days of treatment, patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their preference for the therapy options and associated factors. Between November 2013 and December 2015, 37 patients (age: 49.5 ± 18.5 years; women: 60.5%) were recruited for oral (19) or IM (18) treatment. Baseline values with 95% confidence intervals for serum VB12, HoloTc, Hcy and MMA were 158 pmol/l [145-172], 49.0 pmol/l [40.4-57.5], 14.8 µmol/l [12.0-17.7] and 304 nmol/l [219-390], respective-ly, in group O-oral and 164 pmol/l [154-174], 50.1 pmol/l [38.7-61.6], 13.0 µmol/l [11.0-15.1] and 321 nmol/l [215-427], respectively, in group I-IM (not significant). After 1 month of treatment, levels of VB12 and HoloTc showed a significant increase compared with baseline (group O-oral: VB12 354 pmol/l [298-410] and HoloTc 156 pmol/l [116-196]; group I-IM: VB12 2796 pmol/l [1277-4314] and

  18. Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance.

    PubMed

    Methenitis, Spyridon; Terzis, Gerasimos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fifteen moderately-trained young females performed countermovement jumps as well as an isometric leg press test in order to determine the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Vastus lateralis MFCV was measured with intramuscular microelectrodes at rest on a different occasion. Maximum MFCV was significantly correlated with maximum isometric force (r = 0.66, p < 0.01), nevertheless even closer with the leg press rate of force development at 100 ms, 150 ms, 200 ms, and 250 ms (r = 0.85, r = 0.89, r = 0.91, r = 0.92, respectively, p < 0.01). Similarly, mean MFCV and type II MFCV were better correlated with the rate of force development than with maximum isometric leg press force. Lower, but significant correlations were found between mean MFCV and countermovement jump power (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). These data suggest that muscle fiber conduction velocity is better linked with the rate of force development than with isometric force, perhaps because conduction velocity is higher in the larger and fastest muscle fibers which are recognized to contribute to explosive actions.

  19. Intramuscular architecture of the autochthonous back muscles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Heiko; Fröber, Rosemarie; Schilling, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Many training concepts take muscle properties such as contraction speed or muscle topography into account to achieve an optimal training outcome. Thus far, the internal architecture of muscles has largely been neglected, although it is well known that parameters such as pennation angles or the lengths of fascicles but also the proportions of fleshy and tendinous fascicle parts have a major impact on the contraction behaviour of a muscle. Here, we present the most detailed description of the intramuscular fascicle architecture of the human perivertebral muscles available so far. For this, one adult male cadaver was studied. Our general approach was to digitize the geometry of each fascicle of the muscles of back proper (Erector spinae) – the Spinalis thoracis, Iliocostalis lumborum, Longissimus thoracis and the Multifidus thoracis et lumborum – and of the deep muscles of the abdomen – Psoas minor, Psoas major and Quadratus lumborum – during a layerwise dissection. Architectural parameters such as fascicle angles to the sagittal and the frontal planes as well as fascicle lengths were determined for each fascicle, and are discussed regarding their consequences for the function of the muscle. For example, compared with the other dorsovertebral muscles, the Longissimus thoracis can produce greater shortening distances because of its relatively long fleshy portions, and it can store more elastic energy due to both its relatively long fleshy and tendinous fascicle portions. The Quadratus lumborum was outstanding because of its many architectural subunits defined by distinct attachment sites and fascicle lengths. The presented database will improve biomechanical models of the human trunk by allowing the incorporation of anisotropic muscle properties such as the fascicle direction into finite element models. This information will help to increase our understanding of the functionality of the human back musculature, and may thereby improve future training concepts

  20. Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altınok, Hıfsı; Et, Mikail; Işık, Mahmut

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the concepts of Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α and lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α. We establish some connections between lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-convergence of order α and Δim-lacunary statistical convergence of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is lacunary strongly (Δim,p )-summable of order α then it is Δim-lacunary statistically convergent of order α.

  1. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans)--effects of dose and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Kischinovsky, Michelle; Duse, Anna; Wang, Tobias; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2013-01-01

    To characterise the effects of alfaxalone by intramuscular (i.m.) injection in red-eared slider turtles and the influence of body temperature on anaesthetic duration and depth. Prospective, randomised part-blinded experimental trial. Ten healthy adult female red-eared sliders. Each turtle was anaesthetized four times with 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) alfaxalone at 20 and 35°C respectively. Time to maximal effect and plateau and recovery periods were recorded. Skeletal muscle tone, presence of various reflexes, response to noxious stimuli, and heart rate were assessed. Results are given for protocols 10 mg kg(-1) 20°C; 20 mg kg(-1) 20°C; 10 mg kg(-1) 35°C and 20 mg kg(-1) 35°C, respectively: mean time (±SD) to maximal effect was 16±8, 19±6, 5±2 and 7±5 minutes; duration of the plateau phase was 13±12, 28±13, 8±5 and 8±5 minutes and recovery time was 76±20, 126±17, 28±9 and 41±20 minutes. Endotracheal intubation was successful in 80%, 100%, 0% and 30% of turtles, respectively. At 35°C, all animals retained nociceptive sensation in the front limbs, hind limbs and vent, whereas at 20°C a few turtles lost peripheral nociceptive sensation. Corneal and tap reflexes were retained in all trials. Mean heart rates were 30±2 and 66±4 beats minute(-1) at 20 and 35°C, respectively. Alfaxalone administered i.m. in red-eared sliders provided smooth, rapid induction and uneventful recovery. At 35°C either dosage provided only short (5-10 minutes) and light sedation. At 20°C, 10 mg kg(-1) provided sedation suitable for short non-invasive procedures. About 20 mg kg(-1) provided anaesthesia of approximately 20 minutes duration, appropriate for induction of inhalational anaesthesia or for brief surgical procedures with supplemental analgesia. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  2. Safety Profile and Immunologic Responses of a Novel Vaccine Against Shigella sonnei Administered Intramuscularly, Intradermally and Intranasally: Results From Two Parallel Randomized Phase 1 Clinical Studies in Healthy Adult Volunteers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Launay, Odile; Lewis, David J M; Anemona, Alessandra; Loulergue, Pierre; Leahy, Jo; Sciré, Antonella Silvia; Maugard, Anaïs; Marchetti, Elisa; Zancan, Stefano; Huo, Zhiming; Rondini, Simona; Marhaba, Rachid; Finco, Oretta; Martin, Laura B; Auerbach, Jochen; Cohen, Daniel; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane; Podda, Audino

    2017-08-01

    Approximately 164,000 deaths yearly are due to shigellosis, primarily in developing countries. Thus, a safe and affordable Shigella vaccine is an important public health priority. The GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) developed a candidate Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB) using the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology. The paper reports results of 1790GAHB Phase 1 studies in healthy European adults. To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity profiles of 1790GAHB, we performed two parallel, phase 1, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose escalation studies in France ("study 1") and the United Kingdom ("study 2") between February 2014 and April 2015 (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02017899 and NCT02034500, respectively) in 18-45years old subjects (50 in study 1, 52 in study 2). Increasing doses of Alhydrogel adsorbed 1790, expressed by both O Antigen (OAg) and protein quantity, or placebo were given either by intramuscular route (0.059/1, 0.29/5, 1.5/25, 2.9/50, 5.9/100μg of OAg/μg of protein; study 1) or by intradermal (ID), intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) route of immunization (0.0059/0.1, 0.059/1, 0.59/10μg ID, 0.29/5, 1.2/20, 4.8/80μg IN and 0.29/5μg IM, respectively; study 2). In absence of serologic correlates of protection for Shigella sonnei, vaccine induced immunogenicity was compared to anti-LPS antibody in a population naturally exposed to S. sonnei. Vaccines were well tolerated in both studies and no death or vaccine related serious adverse events were reported. In study 1, doses ≥1.5/25μg elicited serum IgG median antibody greater than median level in convalescent subjects after the first dose. No vaccine group in study 2 achieved median antibody greater than the median convalescent antibody. Intramuscularly administered Shigella sonnei GMMA vaccine is well tolerated, up to and including 5.9/100μg and induces antibody to the OAg of at least the same magnitude of those observed following

  3. Spread of Quadratus Lumborum Block to the Paravertebral Space Via Intramuscular Injection: A Volunteer Study.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takahiro; Kitamura, Kana; Yokota, Shuichi; Ito, Shigeki; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Nishiwaki, Kimitoshi

    2018-05-01

    Several types of quadratus lumborum block (QLB) are used for postoperative analgesia and are believed to be effective against both somatic and visceral pain via a local anesthetic (LA) effect in the paravertebral space (PVS). However, it remains unclear whether all QLB techniques result in LA spread into the PVS. We hypothesized that LA administered via intramuscular QLB would spread into the paravertebral space and investigated the spread and sensory block area of LA in intramuscular QLB. This volunteer study included 5 healthy men and 1 woman, with no previous medical history. Intramuscular QLB and lateral transversus abdominis plane block were performed under real-time ultrasound guidance for comparison of sensory deprivation range. Two days later, the same procedure was performed on the contralateral side of the body. The spread of LA via intramuscular QLB spread to the PVS was assessed 1 hour after the first injections using magnetic resonance imaging. Sensory perception was also evaluated by the pinprick test at 90 minutes after injection. In total, we performed 11 intramuscular QLBs and 11 lateral transversus abdominis plane blocks. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that LA did not spread into the PVS after ultrasound-guided intramuscular QLB. The analgesic area corresponded to the side of the body that was ipsilateral to the block. Ultrasound-guided intramuscular QLBs are not clinically useful for procedures requiring LA spread into the PVS but do result in an ipsilateral analgesic effect in healthy volunteers. This study was registered at University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry, UMIN 000019149.

  4. Oronasal and intramuscular vaccination of swine with a modified live porcine parvovirus vaccine: multiplication and transmission of the vaccine virus.

    PubMed

    Paul, P S; Mengeling, W L

    1984-12-01

    An attenuated strain NADL-2 of porcine parvovirus (PPV) has been used at the 54th cell culture passage as a modified live-virus (MLV) vaccine. The present study was conducted to determine the minimum immunizing dose of MLV, the extent of MLV multiplication in swine tissues, and its transmission from swine administered MLV oronasally or intramuscularly. Immune response to MLV was dose dependent and swine responded to as little as 10(2) median cell-culture infective doses (CCID50). A 10(5) CCID50 of MLV, the largest dose given, induced the best immune response and was used in subsequent experiments. Route of MLV administration also was found to be important. The MLV replicated in tissues of swine after IM inoculation; however, viral antigen in tissues was less, as measured by immunofluorescence, and serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers for PPV were lower in MLV-inoculated swine than we have previously observed in virulent PPV-inoculated swine. In contrast, oronasal inoculation with MLV did not consistently result in infection of pigs; only 5 of 23 swine had virologic and/or serologic evidence of infection. Virus transmission studies indicated that MLV is shed in feces, but shedding occurs later than that in virulent-PPV-inoculated swine and is inconsistent. Delayed transmission of MLV was observed in contact pigs, which were seronegative at 2 weeks, but became seropositive at 4 weeks--indicating that perhaps a virus population capable of infecting pigs by oronasal route was selected by passage through the pig.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Mitigation of Lethal Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Intramuscular Injection of 3D Cultured Adherent Human Placental Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gaberman, Elena; Pinzur, Lena; Levdansky, Lilia; Tsirlin, Maria; Netzer, Nir; Aberman, Zami; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system. In the current study C3H/HeN mice were total body irradiated by 7.7 Gy. Twenty four hrs and 5 days after irradiation 2×106 cells from different preparations of human derived 3D expanded adherent placental stromal cells (PLX) were injected intramuscularly. Treatment with batches consisting of pure maternal cell preparations (PLX-Mat) increased the survival of the irradiated mice from ∼27% to 68% (P<0.001), while cell preparations with a mixture of maternal and fetal derived cells (PLX-RAD) increased the survival to ∼98% (P<0.0001). The dose modifying factor of this treatment for both 50% and 37% survival (DMF50 and DMF37) was∼1.23. Initiation of the more effective treatment with PLX-RAD injection could be delayed for up to 48 hrs after irradiation with similar effect. A delayed treatment by 72 hrs had lower, but still significantly effect (p<0.05). A faster recovery of the BM and improved reconstitution of all blood cell lineages in the PLX-RAD treated mice during the follow-up explains the increased survival of the cells treated irradiated mice. The number of CD45+/SCA1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells within the fast recovering population of nucleated BM cells in the irradiated mice was also elevated in the PLX-RAD treated mice. Our study suggests that IM treatment with PLX-RAD cells may serve as a highly effective “off the shelf” therapy to treat BM failure following total body exposure to high doses of radiation. The results suggest that similar treatments may be beneficial also for clinical conditions associated with severe BM aplasia and pancytopenia. PMID:23823334

  6. Mitigation of Lethal Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Intramuscular Injection of 3D Cultured Adherent Human Placental Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Gaberman, Elena; Pinzur, Lena; Levdansky, Lilia; Tsirlin, Maria; Netzer, Nir; Aberman, Zami; Gorodetsky, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high lethal dose of ionizing radiation results in acute radiation syndrome with deleterious systemic effects to different organs. A primary target is the highly sensitive bone marrow and the hematopoietic system. In the current study C3H/HeN mice were total body irradiated by 7.7 Gy. Twenty four hrs and 5 days after irradiation 2×10(6) cells from different preparations of human derived 3D expanded adherent placental stromal cells (PLX) were injected intramuscularly. Treatment with batches consisting of pure maternal cell preparations (PLX-Mat) increased the survival of the irradiated mice from ∼27% to 68% (P<0.001), while cell preparations with a mixture of maternal and fetal derived cells (PLX-RAD) increased the survival to ∼98% (P<0.0001). The dose modifying factor of this treatment for both 50% and 37% survival (DMF50 and DMF37) was∼1.23. Initiation of the more effective treatment with PLX-RAD injection could be delayed for up to 48 hrs after irradiation with similar effect. A delayed treatment by 72 hrs had lower, but still significantly effect (p<0.05). A faster recovery of the BM and improved reconstitution of all blood cell lineages in the PLX-RAD treated mice during the follow-up explains the increased survival of the cells treated irradiated mice. The number of CD45+/SCA1+ hematopoietic progenitor cells within the fast recovering population of nucleated BM cells in the irradiated mice was also elevated in the PLX-RAD treated mice. Our study suggests that IM treatment with PLX-RAD cells may serve as a highly effective "off the shelf" therapy to treat BM failure following total body exposure to high doses of radiation. The results suggest that similar treatments may be beneficial also for clinical conditions associated with severe BM aplasia and pancytopenia.

  7. IMS Seismic and Infrasound Stations Instrumental Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoit, Y. O.; Dricker, I. G.; Marty, J.

    2016-12-01

    The IMS seismic network is a set of monitoring facilities including 50 primary stations and 120 auxiliary stations. Besides the difference in the mode of data transmission to the IDC, technical specifications for seismographic equipment to be installed at both types of stations are essentially the same. The IMS infrasound network comprises 60 facilities with the requirement of continuous data transmission to IDC. The objective of this presentation is to report instrumental challenges associated with both seismic and infrasound technologies. In context of specifications for IMS seismic stations it was stressed that verification seismology is concerned with searching of reliable methods of signal detections at high frequencies. In the meantime MS/mb screening criteria between earthquakes and explosions relies on reliable detection of surface waves. The IMS seismic requirements for instrumental noise and operational range of data logger are defined as certain dB level below minimum background within the required frequency band from 0.02 to 16Hz. The type of sensors response is requested to be flat either in velocity or acceleration. The compliance with IMS specifications may thus introduce a challenging task when low-noise conditions have been recorded at the site. It means that as a station noise PSD approaches the NLNM it requires a high sensitive sensor to be connected to a quiet digitizer which may cause a quick system clip and waste of the available dynamic range. The experience has shown that hybrid frequency response of seismic sensors where combination of flat to velocity and flat to acceleration portions of the sensor frequency response may provide an optimal solution for utilization of the dynamic range and low digitizer noise floor. Vast efforts are also being undertaken and results achieved in the infrasound technology to standardize and optimize the response of the Wind-Noise Reduction System within the IMS infrasound passband from 0.02-4Hz and to deploy

  8. Developing an effective IM/IT strategy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Sarah; Walker, Joanne; Falk, Will

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare organizations and systems around the world lag far behind banking, manufacturing, travel and other industries in their use of information management/information technology (IM/IT) to deliver high-quality products and services. Across Canada, healthcare organizations, as well as governments, understand that information and information technology are needed to deliver quality care and to sustain our publicly funded health system. However, insufficient funding, few experienced resources, lack of strong leadership and absence of clear business/clinical rationale have restricted innovation and advancement in the use of IM/IT to improve healthcare delivery and patient outcomes.

  9. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-07

    LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is a command line software application which searches for possible molecular ion signatures in multidimensional liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry, and mass spectrometry data by clustering deisotoped peaks with similar monoisotopic mass values, charge states, elution times, and drift times. The software application includes an algorithm for detecting multiple conformations and co-eluting species in the ion mobility dimension. LC-IMS-MS Feature Finder is designed to create an output file with detected features that includes associated information about the detected features.

  10. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation following botulinum toxin and other focal intramuscular treatment for post-stroke spasticity.

    PubMed

    Demetrios, Marina; Khan, Fary; Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Brand, Caroline; McSweeney, Shane

    2013-06-05

    Spasticity may affect stroke survivors by contributing to activity limitations, caregiver burden, pain and reduced quality of life (QoL). Spasticity management guidelines recommend multidisciplinary (MD) rehabilitation programmes following botulinum toxin (BoNT) treatment for post-stroke spasticity. However, the evidence base for the effectiveness of MD rehabilitation is unclear. To assess the effectiveness of MD rehabilitation, following BoNT and other focal intramuscular treatments such as phenol, in improving activity limitations and other outcomes in adults and children with post-stroke spasticity. To explore what settings, types and intensities of rehabilitation programmes are effective. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011), EMBASE (1980 to January 2012), CINAHL (1982 to January 2012), AMED (1985 to January 2012), LILACS (1982 to September 2012), PEDro, REHABDATA and OpenGrey (September 2012). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials we searched trials registries and reference lists, handsearched journals and contacted authors. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared MD rehabilitation (delivered by two or more disciplines in conjunction with medical input) following BoNT and other focal intramuscular treatments for post-stroke spasticity with placebo, routinely available local services, or lower levels of intervention; or studies that compared MD rehabilitation in different settings, of different types, or at different levels of intensity. We excluded RCTs that assessed the effectiveness of unidisciplinary therapy (for example physiotherapy only) or a single modality (for example stretching, casting, electrical stimulation or splinting only). The primary outcomes were validated measures of activity level (active and passive function

  11. (Im)migrant Voices: An Ethnographic Inquiry into Contemporary (Im)migrant Issues Faced by (Im)migrant University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines contemporary issues that 18 (im)migrant university students faced during a time of highly militarized U.S.-Mexico border relations while living in Arizona during the time of this dissertation research. Utilizing critical race theory and public sphere theory as theoretical frameworks, the project addresses several related…

  12. Spectral amplitude code label switching system for IM, DQPSK and PDM-DQPSK with frequency swept coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, Aboagye Adjaye; Yongsheng, Cao; Fushen, Chen

    2018-05-01

    We present and compare the outcome of implicit and explicit labels using intensity modulation (IM), differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK), and polarization division multiplexed (PDM-DQPSK). A payload bit rate of 1, 2, and 5 Gb/s is considered for IM implicit labels, while payloads of 40, 80, and 112 Gb/s are considered in DQPSK and PDM-DQPSK explicit labels by stimulating a 4-code 156-Mb/s SAC label. The generated label and payloads are observed by assessing the eye diagram, received optical power (ROP), and optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR).

  13. Transient finite element modeling of functional electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Nenad D; Peulic, Aleksandar S; Zdravkovic, Nebojsa D; Grbovic-Markovic, Vesna M; Jurisic-Skevin, Aleksandra J

    2011-03-01

    Transcutaneous functional electrical stimulation is commonly used for strengthening muscle. However, transient effects during stimulation are not yet well explored. The effect of an amplitude change of the stimulation can be described by static model, but there is no differency for different pulse duration. The aim of this study is to present the finite element (FE) model of a transient electrical stimulation on the forearm. Discrete FE equations were derived by using a standard Galerkin procedure. Different tissue conductive and dielectric properties are fitted using least square method and trial and error analysis from experimental measurement. This study showed that FE modeling of electrical stimulation can give the spatial-temporal distribution of applied current in the forearm. Three different cases were modeled with the same geometry but with different input of the current pulse, in order to fit the tissue properties by using transient FE analysis. All three cases were compared with experimental measurements of intramuscular voltage on one volunteer.

  14. Evaluation of IMS - Swedish Laser road tester : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-09-01

    A test of the IMS - Swedish Laser road tester was conducted in September 1988. The vehicle mounted laser equipment was used to survey pavement conditions on sections of Oregon's Interstate and non-interstate highway system. : The IMS laser equipment ...

  15. Magnesium sulphate for prevention of eclampsia: are intramuscular and intravenous regimens equivalent? A population pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Salinger, D H; Mundle, S; Regi, A; Bracken, H; Winikoff, B; Vicini, P; Easterling, T

    2013-06-01

    To compare magnesium sulphate concentrations achieved by intramuscular and intravenous regimens used for the prevention of eclampsia. Low-resource obstetric hospitals in Nagpur and Vellore, India. Pregnant women at risk for eclampsia due to hypertensive disease. A pharmacokinetic study was performed as part of a randomised trial that enrolled 300 women comparing intramuscular and intravenous maintenance regimens of magnesium dosing. Data from 258 enrolled women were analysed in the pharmacokinetic study. A single sample was drawn per woman with the expectation of using samples in a pooled data analysis. Pharmacokinetic parameters of magnesium distribution and clearance. Magnesium clearance was estimated to be 48.1 dl/hour, volume of distribution to be 156 dl and intramuscular bioavailability to be 86.2%. The intramuscular regimen produced higher initial serum concentrations, consistent with a substantially larger loading dose. At steady state, magnesium concentrations in the intramuscular and intravenous groups were comparable. With either regimen, a substantial number of women would be expected to have serum concentrations lower than those generally held to be therapeutic. Clinical implications were that a larger loading dose for the intravenous regimen should be considered; where feasible, individualised dosing of magnesium sulphate would reduce the variability in serum concentrations and might result in more women with clinically effective magnesium concentrations; and lower dose magnesium sulphate regimens should be considered with caution. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  16. Intramuscular pressure and torque during isometric, concentric and eccentric muscular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styf, J.; Ballard, R.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Watenpaugh, D.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular pressures, electromyography (EMG) and torque generation during isometric, concentric and eccentric maximal isokinetic muscle activity were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers. Pressure and EMG activity were continuously and simultaneously measured side by side in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles. Ankle joint torque and position were monitored continuously by an isokinetic dynamometer during plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the foot. The increased force generation during eccentric muscular activity, compared with other muscular activity, was not accompanied by higher intramuscular pressure. Thus, this study demonstrated that eccentric muscular activity generated higher torque values for each increment of intramuscular pressure. Intramuscular pressures during antagonistic co-activation were significantly higher in the tibilis anterior muscle (42-46% of maximal agonistic activity) compared with the soleus muscle (12-29% of maximal agonistic activity) and was largely due to active recruitment of muscle fibers. In summary, eccentric muscular activity creates higher torque values with no additional increase of the intramuscular pressure compared with concentric and isometric muscular activity.

  17. Does insertion of intramuscular electromyographic electrodes alter motor behavior during locomotion?

    PubMed

    Armour Smith, Jo; Kulig, Kornelia

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular electromyography (EMG) is commonly used to quantify activity in the trunk musculature. However, it is unclear if the discomfort or fear of pain associated with insertion of intramuscular EMG electrodes results in altered motor behavior. This study examined whether intramuscular EMG affects locomotor speed and trunk motion, and examined the anticipated and actual pain associated with electrode insertion in healthy individuals and individuals with a history of low back pain (LBP). Before and after insertion of intramuscular electrodes into the lumbar and thoracic paraspinals, participants performed multiple repetitions of a walking turn at self-selected and controlled average speed. Low levels of anticipated and actual pain were reported in both groups. Self-selected locomotor speed was significantly increased following insertion of the electrodes. At the controlled speed, the amplitude of sagittal plane lumbo-pelvic motion decreased significantly post-insertion, but the extent of this change was the same in both groups. Lumbo-pelvic motion in the frontal and axial planes and thoraco-lumbar motion in all planes were not affected by the insertions. This study demonstrates that intramuscular EMG is an appropriate methodology to selectively quantify the activation patterns of the individual muscles in the paraspinal group, both in healthy individuals and individuals with a history of LBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Learning Design Ontology Based on the IMS Specification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorim, Ricardo R.; Lama, Manuel; Sanchez, Eduardo; Riera, Adolfo; Vila, Xose A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present an ontology to represent the semantics of the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification, a meta-language used to describe the main elements of the learning design process. The motivation of this work relies on the expressiveness limitations found on the current XML-Schema implementation of the IMS LD conceptual model. To…

  19. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  20. Signal processing methods for reducing artifacts in microelectrode brain recordings caused by functional electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.; Willett, F.; Memberg, W. D.; Murphy, B.; Walter, B.; Sweet, J.; Miller, J.; Hochberg, L. R.; Kirsch, R. F.; Ajiboye, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising technology for restoring movement to paralyzed limbs. Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) have enabled intuitive control over virtual and robotic movements, and more recently over upper extremity FES neuroprostheses. However, electrical stimulation of muscles creates artifacts in intracortical microelectrode recordings that could degrade iBCI performance. Here, we investigate methods for reducing the cortically recorded artifacts that result from peripheral electrical stimulation. Approach. One participant in the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial had two intracortical microelectrode arrays placed in the motor cortex, and thirty-six stimulating intramuscular electrodes placed in the muscles of the contralateral limb. We characterized intracortically recorded electrical artifacts during both intramuscular and surface stimulation. We compared the performance of three artifact reduction methods: blanking, common average reference (CAR) and linear regression reference (LRR), which creates channel-specific reference signals, composed of weighted sums of other channels. Main results. Electrical artifacts resulting from surface stimulation were 175  ×  larger than baseline neural recordings (which were 110 µV peak-to-peak), while intramuscular stimulation artifacts were only 4  ×  larger. The artifact waveforms were highly consistent across electrodes within each array. Application of LRR reduced artifact magnitudes to less than 10 µV and largely preserved the original neural feature values used for decoding. Unmitigated stimulation artifacts decreased iBCI decoding performance, but performance was almost completely recovered using LRR, which outperformed CAR and blanking and extracted useful neural information during stimulation artifact periods. Significance. The LRR method was effective at reducing electrical artifacts resulting from both intramuscular and surface FES, and

  1. Pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular versus oral syrup paracetamol in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Wattanakul, Thanaporn; Teerapong, Pramote; Plewes, Katherine; Newton, Paul N; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Silamut, Kamolrat; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Tarning, Joel

    2016-04-27

    Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with acute falciparum malaria and high body temperature was performed. A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, crossover, pharmacokinetic study of paracetamol dosed orally and intramuscularly was conducted. Twenty-one adult patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to receive a single 600 mg dose of paracetamol either as syrup or intramuscular injection on day 0 followed by a single dose administered by the alternative route on day 1. Paracetamol plasma concentrations were quantified frequently and modelled simultaneously using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The final population pharmacokinetic model was used for dose optimization simulations. Relationships between paracetamol concentrations with temperature and parasite half-life were investigated using linear and non-linear regression analyses. The population pharmacokinetic properties of paracetamol were best described by a two-compartment disposition model, with zero-order and first-order absorption for intramuscular and oral syrup administration, respectively. The relative bioavailability of oral syrup was 84.4 % (95 % CI 68.2-95.1 %) compared to intramuscular administration. Dosing simulations showed that 1000 mg of intramuscular or oral syrup administered six-hourly reached therapeutic steady state concentrations for antipyresis, but more favourable concentration-time profiles were achieved with a loading dose of 1500 mg, followed by a 1000 mg maintenance dose. This ensured that maximum therapeutic concentrations were reached rapidly during the first 6 h. No significant relationships between paracetamol concentrations

  2. Efficacy of a single intramuscular injection of porcine FSH in hyaluronan prior to ovum pick-up in Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Rodrigues, C A; Castro Netto, A; Guerreiro, B M; Silveira, C R A; Freitas, B G; Bragança, L G M; Marques, K N G; Sá Filho, M F; Bó, G A; Mapletoft, R J; Baruselli, P S

    2016-03-15

    Plasma FSH profiles, in vitro embryo production (IVP) after ovum pickup (OPU), and establishment of pregnancy with IVP embryos were compared in untreated Holstein oocyte donors and those superstimulated with multiple injections or a single intramuscular (IM) injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) in hyaluronan (HA). Plasma FSH profiles were determined in 23 heifers randomly allocated to one of four groups. Controls received no treatment, whereas the F200 group received 200 mg of pFSH in four doses, 12 hours apart. The F200HA and F300HA groups received 200- or 300-mg pFSH in 5 mL or 7.5 mL, respectively of a 0.5% HA solution by a single IM injection. Plasma FSH levels were determined before the first pFSH treatment and every 6 hours over 96 hours. All data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Circulating FSH area under curve (AUC) in pFSH-treated animals was greater than that in the control group (P = 0.02). Although the AUC did not differ among FSH-treated groups (P = 0.56), the total period with elevated plasma FSH was greater in the F200 group than in the HA groups (P < 0.0001). However, the F300HA group had a greater AUC than the F200HA group (P = 0.006), with a similar total period with elevated plasma FSH (P = 0.17). The IVP was performed in 90 nonlactating Holstein cows randomly allocated to one of the four treatment groups as in the first experiment. A greater proportion of medium-sized (6-10 mm) follicles was observed in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group (P < 0.0001). Also, numbers of follicles (P = 0.01), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (P = 0.01) and matured (P = 0.02), cleavage rates (P = 0.002), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) were greater in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group. Cows in the F200HA group had a greater recovery rate (P = 0.009), number of COCs cultured (P = 0.04), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) than cows in the F300HA group. Similar pregnancy rates were

  3. Intra-muscular and oral vaccination using a Koi Herpesvirus ORF25 DNA vaccine does not confer protection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Embregts, Carmen W E; Tadmor-Levi, Roni; Veselý, Tomáš; Pokorová, Dagmar; David, Lior; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Forlenza, Maria

    2018-03-19

    Koi Herpes Virus (KHV or Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3, CyHV-3) is among the most threatening pathogens affecting common carp production as well as the highly valuable ornamental koi carp. To date, no effective commercial vaccine is available for worldwide use. A previous study reported that three intramuscular injections with an ORF25-based DNA vaccine, led to the generation of neutralizing antibodies and conferred significant protection against an intraperitoneal challenge with KHV. In the present study, we set out to optimize an ORF25-based DNA vaccination protocol that required fewer injections and would confer protection upon a challenge that better resembled the natural route of infection. To this end, ORF25 was cloned in pcDNA3 either as a soluble protein or as a full-length transmembrane GFP-fusion protein. We tested our ORF25-based DNA vaccines in multiple vaccination trials using different doses, vaccination routes (i.m. injection and oral gavage) and challenge methods (bath and cohabitation). Furthermore, we analysed local and systemic responses to the i.m. injected DNA vaccine through histological and RT-qPCR analysis. We observed a strong protection when fish received three injections of either of the two DNA vaccines. However, this protection was observed only after bath challenge and not after cohabitation challenge. Furthermore, protection was insufficient when fish received one injection only, or received the plasmid orally. The importance of choosing a challenge model that best reflects the natural route of infection and the possibility to include additional antigens in future DNA vaccination strategies against KHV will be discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Longevity of rAAV vector and plasmid DNA in blood after intramuscular injection in nonhuman primates: implications for gene doping.

    PubMed

    Ni, W; Le Guiner, C; Gernoux, G; Penaud-Budloo, M; Moullier, P; Snyder, R O

    2011-07-01

    Legitimate uses of gene transfer technology can benefit from sensitive detection methods to determine vector biodistribution in pre-clinical studies and in human clinical trials, and similar methods can detect illegitimate gene transfer to provide sports-governing bodies with the ability to maintain fairness. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect a performance-enhancing transgene (erythropoietin, EPO) and backbone sequences in the presence of endogenous cellular sequences. In addition to developing real-time PCR assays, the steps involved in DNA extraction, storage and transport were investigated. By real-time PCR, the vector transgene is distinguishable from the genomic DNA sequence because of the absence of introns, and the vector backbone can be identified by heterologous gene expression control elements. After performance of the assays was optimized, cynomolgus macaques received a single dose by intramuscular (IM) injection of plasmid DNA, a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotype 1 (rAAV1) or a rAAV8 vector expressing cynomolgus macaque EPO. Macaques received a high plasmid dose intended to achieve a significant, but not life-threatening, increase in hematocrit. rAAV vectors were used at low doses to achieve a small increase in hematocrit and to determine the limit of sensitivity for detecting rAAV sequences by single-step PCR. DNA extracted from white blood cells (WBCs) was tested to determine whether WBCs can be collaterally transfected by plasmid or transduced by rAAV vectors in this context, and can be used as a surrogate marker for gene doping. We demonstrate that IM injection of a conventional plasmid and rAAV vectors results in the presence of DNA that can be detected at high levels in blood before rapid elimination, and that rAAV genomes can persist for several months in WBCs.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of ziprasidone versus haloperidol in sequential intramuscular/oral treatment of exacerbation of schizophrenia: economic subanalysis of the ZIMO trial.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Fernando; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Díaz, Silvia; Rejas, Javier

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the cost effectiveness of ziprasidone versus haloperidol in sequential intramuscular (IM)/oral treatment of patients with exacerbation of schizophrenia in Spain. A cost-effectiveness analysis from the hospital perspective was performed. Length of stay, study medication and use of concomitant drugs were calculated using data from the ZIMO trial. The effectiveness of treatment was determined by the percentage of responders (reduction in baseline Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS] negative symptoms subscale >or=30%). Economic assessment included estimation of mean (95% CI) total costs, cost per responder and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per additional responder. The economic uncertainty level was controlled by resampling and calculation of cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. A total of 325 patients (ziprasidone n = 255, haloperidol n = 70) were included in this economic subanalysis. Ziprasidone showed a significantly higher responder rate compared with haloperidol (71% vs 56%, respectively; p = 0.023). Mean total costs were euro3582 (95% CI 3226, 3937) for ziprasidone and euro2953 (95% CI 2471, 3436) for haloperidol (p = 0.039), mainly due to a higher ziprasidone acquisition cost. However, costs per responder were lower with ziprasidone (euro5045 [95% CI 4211, 6020]) than with haloperidol (euro5302 [95% CI 3666, 7791], with a cost per additional responder (ICER) for ziprasidone of euro4095 (95% CI -130, 22 231). The acceptability curve showed an ICER cut-off value of euro13 891 at the 95% cost-effectiveness probability level for >or=30% reduction in BPRS negative symptoms. Compared with haloperidol, ziprasidone was significantly better at controlling psychotic negative symptoms in acute psychoses. The extra cost of ziprasidone was offset by a higher effectiveness rate, yielding a lower cost per responder. In light of the social benefit (less family burden and greater restoration of productivity), the incremental

  6. TRIENNIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SYMPOSIUM: Factors influencing bovine intramuscular adipose tissue development and cellularity.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, E; Schering, L; Liu, Y; Komolka, K; Kühn, C; Wimmers, K; Gotoh, T; Maak, S

    2017-05-01

    Appearance, distribution, and amount of intramuscular fat (IMF), often referred to as marbling, are highly variable and depend on environmental and genetic factors. On the molecular level, the concerted action of several drivers, including hormones, receptors, transcription factors, etc., determines where clusters of adipocytes arise. Therefore, the aim of future studies remains to identify such factors as biological markers of IMF to increase the ability to identify animals that deposit IMF early in age to increase efficiency of high-quality meat production. In an attempt to unravel the cellular development of marbling, we investigated the abundance of markers for adipogenic differentiation during fattening of cattle and the transcriptome of muscle and dissected IMF. Markers of different stages of adipogenic differentiation are well known from cell culture experiments. They are usually transiently expressed, such as delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) that is abundant in preadipocytes and absent during differentiation to mature adipocytes. It is even a greater challenge to detect those markers in live animals. Within skeletal muscles, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes can be observed throughout life. Therefore, development of marbling requires, on the cellular level, recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of adipogenic cells to store excess energy in the form of lipids in new cells. In a recent study, we investigated the localization and abundance of early markers of adipogenic differentiation, such as DLK1, in bovine muscle tissue. An inverse relationship between IMF content and number of DLK1-positive cells in bovine muscle was demonstrated. Considering the cellular environment of differentiating adipocytes in muscle and the secretory action of adipocytes and myocytes, it becomes obvious that cross talk between cells via adipokines and myokines may be important for IMF development. Secreted proteins can act on other cells, inhibiting or stimulating

  7. λ (Δim) -statistical convergence of order α

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Rifat; Et, Mikail; Altin, Yavuz

    2017-09-01

    In this study, using the generalized difference operator Δim and a sequence λ = (λn) which is a non-decreasing sequence of positive numbers tending to ∞ such that λn+1 ≤ λn+1, λ1 = 1, we introduce the concepts of λ (Δim) -statistical convergence of order α (α ∈ (0, 1]) and strong λ (Δim) -Cesàro summablility of order α (α > 0). We establish some connections between λ (Δim) -statistical convergence of order α and strong λ (Δim) -Cesàro summablility of order α. It is shown that if a sequence is strongly λ (Δim) -Cesàro summable of order α, then it is λ (Δim) -statistically convergent of order β in case 0 < α ≤ β ≤ 1.

  8. Lidocaine Injection in the Intramuscular Innervation Zone Can Effectively Treat Chronic Neck Pain Caused by MTrPs in the Trapezius Muscle.

    PubMed

    Xie, Peng; Qin, Bangyong; Yang, Fangjiu; Yu, Tian; Yu, Jin; Wang, Jiang; Zheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    intramuscular terminal nerve branches presented a "dendritic" distribution in the trapezius muscle and were connected with each other to form an S-shaped IZ belt in the middle of the muscle belly. Compared with the MTrP injection group, lidocaine-injection therapy in the IZ significantly reduced the degree and frequency of neck pain in patients at 6 months after treatment, especially the combined lidocaine-injection therapy in the IZ of both the mid-upper trapezius and the lower trapezius are more effective (all P < 0.05). This study confirms that lidocaine-injection therapy in the IZ significantly reduces the degree and frequency of neck pain in patients at 6 months after treatment. The combined lidocaine-injection therapy in the IZ of both the mid-upper trapezius and the lower trapezius is more effective. In addition, this study establishes a clear distribution map of intramuscular nerves that will be conducive to the future use of chemical blockers and electrical stimulation in the nervous system in treating MPS of the trapezius muscle. The small number of patients and the short duration of follow-up.

  9. Improved efficacy of intramuscular weekly administration of clodronate 200 mg (100 mg twice weekly) compared with 100 mg (once weekly) for increasing bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Frediani, Bruno; Bertoldi, Ilaria; Pierguidi, Serena; Nicosia, Antonella; Picerno, Valentina; Filippou, Georgios; Cantarini, Luca; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    Clodronate is a bisphosphonate used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and all conditions characterized by excess bone resorption. We have previously reported that intramuscular (IM) therapy with clodronate at a dose of 100 mg/week displays significant effects on bone mineral density (BMD) although a plateau effect is observed after 1 year of treatment. Previous reports indicate that the densitometric effects of bisphosphonates directly correlate with the drug dosage and suggest that using IM clodronate at doses higher than 100 mg/week may result in improved efficacy. However, to the best of our knowledge, this has never been proved. The primary endpoint of the study was the effect on BMD of IM clodronate 100 mg once weekly or 100 mg twice weekly in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The incidence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures and adverse events was also reported. The present study was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial conducted between January 2007 and December 2009 in the Osteoporosis and Osteoarticular Instrumental Diagnosis Centre (University of Siena, Siena, Italy). The study involved 60 women, aged 57-78 years, with a history of postmenopausal osteoporosis for more than 5 years. Patients were randomized to receive IM clodronate 100 mg once weekly (Group A, 30 patients) or 100 mg twice weekly (Group B, 30 patients), for 2 years. Significant increases compared with baseline in BMD were observed for both groups at 1 and 2 years, with significantly higher increases for Group B compared with Group A. Group B displayed a BMD increase (± SD) at the lumbar spine of +4.0 % (± 2.1) and +5.9 % (± 2.0) at 1 and 2 year(s), respectively, compared with +2.8 % (± 1.7) and +3.5 % (± 2.2), respectively, observed for Group A. Similarly, Group B showed better performance compared with Group A for BMD increase at the femoral neck, with an observed increase of +3.5 % (± 1.7) and +5.4 % (± 1.8) at 1 and 2 year(s), respectively

  10. The Effect of Electrical Stimulation in Improving Muscle Tone (Clinical)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azman, M. F.; Azman, A. W.

    2017-11-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) and also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) involves the use of electrical current to stimulate the nerves or nerve endings that innervate muscle beneath the skin. Electrical stimulation may be applied superficially on the skin (transcutaneously) or directly into a muscle or muscles (intramuscularly) for the primary purpose of enhancing muscle function. The basic theoretical premise is that if the peripheral nerve can be stimulated, the resulting excitation impulse will be transmitted along the nerve to the motor endplates in the muscle, producing a muscle contraction. In this work, the effect of mere electrical stimulation to the muscle bulk and strength are tested. This paper explains how electrical stimulation can affect the muscle bulk, muscle size, muscle tone, muscle atrophy and muscle strength. The experiment and data collection are performed on 5 subjects and the results obtained are analyzed. This research aims to understand the full potential of electrical stimulation and identifying its possible benefits or disadvantages to the muscle properties. The results indicated that electrical stimulation alone able to improve muscle properties but with certain limits and precautions which might be useful in rehabilitation programme.

  11. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  12. Application of hyperspectral imaging for characterization of intramuscular fat distribution in beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, a hyperspectral imaging system in the spectral region of 400–1000 nm was used for visualization and determination of intramuscular fat concentration in beef samples. Hyperspectral images were acquired for beef samples, and spectral information was then extracted from each single sampl...

  13. Microstructure alterations in beef intramuscular connective tissue caused by hydrodynamic pressure processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to evaluate microstructural changes in intramuscular connective tissue of beef semimembranosus muscle subjected to hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP). Samples were HDP treated in a plastic container (HDP-PC) or a steel commercial unit (HDP-CU). C...

  14. Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fat deposition and composition in Nellore cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red meat from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds are an important source of nutrients for humans and intramuscular fat (IMF) influences its flavor, nutritional value and impacts human health. Human consumption of fat that contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce the conce...

  15. Intramuscular nerve distribution of the hamstring muscles: Application to treating spasticity.

    PubMed

    Rha, Dong-Wook; Yi, Kyu-Ho; Park, Eun Sook; Park, Chunung; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this article is to elucidate the ideal sites for botulinum toxin injection by examining the intramuscular nerve distributions in the hamstring muscles. The hamstring muscles, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus (10 specimens each) were stained by the modified Sihler method. The locations of the muscle origins, nerve entry points, and intramuscular arborized areas were recorded as percentages of the total distance from the line crossing the medial and lateral tibial condyles (0%) to the ischial tuberosity (100%). Intramuscular arborization patterns were observed at 15-30% and 50-60% for the biceps femoris, 25-40% and 60-80% for the semitendinosus, and 20-40% for the semimembranosus. This study suggests that botulinum toxin injection for spasticity of the hamstring muscles should be targeted to specific areas. These areas, where the arborization of intramuscular nerve branches is maximal, are recommended as the most effective and safest points for injection. Clin. Anat. 29:746-751, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effectiveness of intramuscularly administered cyanide antidotes and the rate of methemoglobin formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, J.A.; Von Bredow, J.D.

    1993-05-13

    Successful first aid therapy for cyanide intoxication is dependent upon the immediate administration of antidotes which directly or indirectly interact with the cyanide ion to remove it from circulation. Exceptionally rapid methemoglobin formers (hydroxylamine hydrochloride 'HA) and Dimethylaminophenol (DMAP) are usually able to prevent the lethal effect of cyanide following intramuscular injections in doses sufficient to induce 20% methemoglobin (HA = 20 mg/kg and DMAP= 2 mg/kg). Sodium nitrite, the methemoglobin inducer approved by the FDA and is available for military use, must be administered by intravenous infusion since it is not an effective cyanide antidote by the intramuscular route.more » In the normal un-intoxicated animal an intramuscular injection of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite will form 20% methemoglobin at a rapid rate; however, in the presence of acute cyanide intoxication the associated severe bradycardia appears to limit the rate of absorption of sodium nitrite from the intramuscular site which prevents the rapid formation of sufficient methemoglobin to counteract cyanide intoxication.« less

  17. Intramuscular Lipoma-Induced Occipital Neuralgia on the Lesser Occipital Nerve.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyun Ho; Kim, Hak Soo; Rhie, Jong Won; Moon, Suk Ho

    2016-06-01

    Occipital neuralgia (ON) is commonly characterized by a neuralgiform headache accompanied by a paroxysmal burning sensation in the dermatome area of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerve. The authors report a rare case of ON caused by an intramuscular lipoma originating from the lesser occipital nerve.A 52-year-old man presented with sharp pain in the left postauricular area with a 3 × 2-cm palpable mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass suspiciously resembling an intramuscular lipoma within splenius muscle. In the operation field, a protruding mass causing stretching of the lesser occipital nerve was found. After complete resection, the neuralgiform headache symptom had resolved and the intramuscular lipoma was confirmed through histopathology.Previous studies on the causes of ON have reported that variation in normal anatomic structures results in nerve compression. Occipital neuralgia, however, caused by intramuscular lipomas in splenius muscles have not been previously reported, and the dramatic resolution following surgery makes it an interesting case worth reporting.

  18. Effects of intramuscular morphine in men and women with temporomandibular disorder with myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Park, Hyeji; Ro, Jin Y; Auh, Q-Schick

    2018-06-19

    This placebo-controlled randomized double-blinded clinical study assessed the analgesic efficacy of intramuscular morphine in TMD patients with myofascial pain and sex dependent responses of the morphine treatment. Men and women with TMD were treated with morphine (1.5 or 5 mg), lidocaine or saline in the masseter muscle. VAS of pain intensity, PPT and PPtol were compared between treatment groups and gender. An additional group was treated with morphine in the trapezius muscle to evaluate the systemic effect of morphine that may reduce pain in the masseter muscle. There was a significant difference in VAS scores between the morphine 5 mg group and the saline group favoring morphine, but not between the morphine 5 mg and lidocaine. Morphine 1.5 mg and 5 mg treatments led to consistently and significantly elevated PPT and PPtol measures in men, but not in women. Morphine administered in the trapezius muscle did not affect the outcome measures. A single dose intramuscular morphine produced analgesic effects up to 48 hrs in patients with myofascial pain. Intramuscular morphine elevated mechanical pain threshold and tolerance in the masseter only in male patients, suggesting sex differences in local morphine effects. No systemic effect of intramuscular morphine was detected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

  20. Iterative Assessment of Statistically-Oriented and Standard Algorithms for Determining Muscle Onset with Intramuscular Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Tenan, Matthew S; Tweedell, Andrew J; Haynes, Courtney A

    2017-12-01

    The onset of muscle activity, as measured by electromyography (EMG), is a commonly applied metric in biomechanics. Intramuscular EMG is often used to examine deep musculature and there are currently no studies examining the effectiveness of algorithms for intramuscular EMG onset. The present study examines standard surface EMG onset algorithms (linear envelope, Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator, and sample entropy) and novel algorithms (time series mean-variance analysis, sequential/batch processing with parametric and nonparametric methods, and Bayesian changepoint analysis). Thirteen male and 5 female subjects had intramuscular EMG collected during isolated biceps brachii and vastus lateralis contractions, resulting in 103 trials. EMG onset was visually determined twice by 3 blinded reviewers. Since the reliability of visual onset was high (ICC (1,1) : 0.92), the mean of the 6 visual assessments was contrasted with the algorithmic approaches. Poorly performing algorithms were stepwise eliminated via (1) root mean square error analysis, (2) algorithm failure to identify onset/premature onset, (3) linear regression analysis, and (4) Bland-Altman plots. The top performing algorithms were all based on Bayesian changepoint analysis of rectified EMG and were statistically indistinguishable from visual analysis. Bayesian changepoint analysis has the potential to produce more reliable, accurate, and objective intramuscular EMG onset results than standard methodologies.

  1. Muscle Injury After Intramuscular Administration of Diclofenac: A Case Report Supported by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Probst, Mareike; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Modeß, Christiane; Scheuch, Eberhard; Seidlitz, Anne; Hosten, Norbert; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner

    2017-12-01

    Intramuscular injection of diclofenac is still frequently practiced, although there is ample evidence that the risk of local tissue intolerability is highly underestimated. The aim of this study was to evaluate local toxicity in a patient using magnetic resonance imaging. A patient who gave written informed consent received a medically indicated intramuscular administration of diclofenac 75 mg/2 mL. Simultaneously with magnetic resonance imaging of the depot, a clinical-chemical evaluation and quantification of diclofenac in plasma was performed. A manifold enhancement of the T2-weighted magnetic resonance signal was observed in a muscle area of approximately 60 mL volume, with maximum signal intensity 30 min after injection, the time of maximum diclofenac plasma exposure. Plasma creatine kinase activity was elevated approximately sixfold within 8 h and normalized within 1 week, whereas the magnetic resonance enhancement disappeared within 5 weeks. Interestingly, the patient did not complain about any clinical symptoms at the injection site. Asymptomatic tissue injury after intramuscular injection of diclofenac, caused by intramuscular dosing, can be reliably evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and should be applied early during the development of parenteral dosage forms. Clinical Trials Registration Number: BB130/16 (Ethics Committee of the University Medicine Greifswald).

  2. [Gluteoplasty with intramuscular silicone cohesive gel implants: a retrospective study of 50 cases].

    PubMed

    Horn, G

    2009-10-01

    For a few years, surgery of the gluteus has become more and more popular. In this retrospective study of 50 cases over a period of five years, the author presents his results, using a personal technique of gluteoplasty with intramuscular implants. After a review of the different current surgical techniques and of the different types of gluteus, the author describes his own surgical strategy.

  3. Controlled human malaria infection by intramuscular and direct venous inoculation of cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in malaria-naïve volunteers: effect of injection volume and dose on infectivity rates.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Gloria P; Legarda, Almudena; Muñoz, Jose; Sim, B Kim Lee; Ballester, María Rosa; Dobaño, Carlota; Moncunill, Gemma; Campo, Joseph J; Cisteró, Pau; Jimenez, Alfons; Barrios, Diana; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Pardos, Josefina; Navarro, Mireia; Zita, Cecilia Justino; Nhamuave, Carlos Arlindo; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Sanz, Ariadna; Aldea, Marta; Manoj, Anita; Gunasekera, Anusha; Billingsley, Peter F; Aponte, John J; James, Eric R; Guinovart, Caterina; Antonijoan, Rosa M; Kremsner, Peter G; Hoffman, Stephen L; Alonso, Pedro L

    2015-08-07

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by mosquito bite is a powerful tool for evaluation of vaccines and drugs against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, only a small number of research centres have the facilities required to perform such studies. CHMI by needle and syringe could help to accelerate the development of anti-malaria interventions by enabling centres worldwide to employ CHMI. An open-label CHMI study was performed with aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge) in 36 malaria naïve volunteers. In part A, the effect of the inoculation volume was assessed: 18 participants were injected intramuscularly (IM) with a dose of 2,500 PfSPZ divided into two injections of 10 µL (n = 6), 50 µL (n = 6) or 250 µL (n = 6), respectively. In part B, the injection volume that resulted in highest infectivity rates in part A (10 µL) was used to formulate IM doses of 25,000 PfSPZ (n = 6) and 75,000 PfSPZ (n = 6) divided into two 10-µL injections. Results from a parallel trial led to the decision to add a positive control group (n = 6), each volunteer receiving 3,200 PfSPZ in a single 500-µL injection by direct venous inoculation (DVI). Four/six participants in the 10-µL group, 1/6 in the 50-µL group and 2/6 in the 250-µL group developed parasitaemia. Geometric mean (GM) pre-patent periods were 13.9, 14.0 and 15.0 days, respectively. Six/six (100%) participants developed parasitaemia in the 25,000 and 75,000 PfSPZ IM and 3,200 PfSPZ DVI groups. GM pre-patent periods were 12.2, 11.4 and 11.4 days, respectively. Injection of PfSPZ Challenge was well tolerated and safe in all groups. IM injection of 75,000 PfSPZ and DVI injection of 3,200 PfSPZ resulted in infection rates and pre-patent periods comparable to the bite of five PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes. Remarkably, it required 23.4-fold more PfSPZ administered IM than DVI to achieve the same parasite kinetics. These results allow for translation of CHMI from research to routine

  4. Pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin-sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, S; Cárceles, C M

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a 2:1 ampicillin-sulbactam combination were studied in 6 sheep, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open 2-compartment model after intravenous administration and a one-compartment model with first order absorption after intramuscular administration. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.32+/-0.06 L/kg and 0.42+/-0.04 L/kg, respectively and the total body clearances were 0.69+/-0.07 and 0.38+/-0.03 L/kg x h, respectively. The elimination half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32+/-0.05 h and 0.75+/-0.27 h, respectively, whereas for sulbactam the half-lives were 0.74+/-0.10 h and 0.89+/-0.16 h, respectively. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar in both drugs (72.76+/-9.65% for ampicillin and 85.50+/-8.35% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were reached at similar times (0.25+/-0.10 h and 0.24+/-0.08 h, respectively) and peak concentrations were also similar but nonproportional to the dose of both products administered (13.01+/-7.36 mg/L of ampicillin and 10.39+/-3.95 mg/L of sulbactam). Both drugs had a similar pharmacokinetic behavior after intramuscular administration in sheep. Since the plasma concentrations of sulbactam where consistently higher during the elimination phase of their disposition, consideration could be given to formulating the ampicillin-sulbactam combination in a higher than 2:1 ratio. PMID:9918330

  5. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  6. Passive energy absorption by human muscle-tendon unit is unaffected by increase in intramuscular temperature.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, S P; Aagaard, P; Larsson, B; Kjaer, M

    2000-04-01

    The present study measured hamstring intramuscular temperature and muscle-tendon unit viscoelastic properties in healthy young men before and after 10 and 30 min of running with (day S) or without stretch (day NS). On day NS, passive energy absorption and intramuscular temperature were measured before running (Preex), after 10 min of running at 70% of maximum O(2) uptake (Postex10), and after 30 min of running at 75% of maximum O(2) uptake (Postex30). On day S, the protocol was repeated with three stretches (stretches 1-3) added after Postex10. Intramuscular temperature was elevated Postex10 (P < 0.01) and further Postex30 (P < 0.05). On day NS, the total energy absorbed Preex (14.3 +/- 2.3 J), Postex10 (14.5 +/- 3.2 J), and Postex30 (13.5 +/- 2.4 J) was not different. On day S, the total energy absorbed in stretch 3 (10.8 +/- 1.8 J) was lower than that Preex (14.5 +/- 1.7 J, P < 0.01) and Postex10 (13.5 +/- 1.9 J, P < 0.05) but not Postex30 (13.3 +/- 1.8 J). The total energy absorbed Postex30 did not differ from Preex. In conclusion, warm-up and continuous running elevated intramuscular temperature but did not affect the passive energy absorption. Repeated passive stretching reduced the energy absorption immediately; however, the effect did not remain after 30 min of running. These data suggest that passive energy absorption of the human skeletal muscle is insensitive to physiological increases in intramuscular temperature.

  7. Wrist torque estimation during simultaneous and continuously changing movements: surface vs. untargeted intramuscular EMG.

    PubMed

    Kamavuako, Ernest N; Scheme, Erik J; Englehart, Kevin B

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, the predictive capability of surface and untargeted intramuscular electromyography (EMG) was compared with respect to wrist-joint torque to quantify which type of measurement better represents joint torque during multiple degrees-of-freedom (DoF) movements for possible application in prosthetic control. Ten able-bodied subjects participated in the study. Surface and intramuscular EMG was recorded concurrently from the right forearm. The subjects were instructed to track continuous contraction profiles using single and combined DoF in two trials. The association between torque and EMG was assessed using an artificial neural network. Results showed a significant difference between the two types of EMG (P < 0.007) for all performance metrics: coefficient of determination (R(2)), Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), and root mean square error (RMSE). The performance of surface EMG (R(2) = 0.93 ± 0.03; PCC = 0.98 ± 0.01; RMSE = 8.7 ± 2.1%) was found to be superior compared with intramuscular EMG (R(2) = 0.80 ± 0.07; PCC = 0.93 ± 0.03; RMSE = 14.5 ± 2.9%). The higher values of PCC compared with R(2) indicate that both methods are able to track the torque profile well but have some trouble (particularly intramuscular EMG) in estimating the exact amplitude. The possible cause for the difference, thus the low performance of intramuscular EMG, may be attributed to the very high selectivity of the recordings used in this study.

  8. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  9. Comparative single-dose pharmacokinetics of clonazepam following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Crevoisier, C; Delisle, M C; Joseph, I; Foletti, G

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to assess the single-dose pharmacokinetics of clonazepam following i.m., p.o. and i.v. administration. In an open-label, three-way crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single dose of 2 mg clonazepam either by the i.m., p.o. or i.v. route. Serial blood samples were collected up to 120 h after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of clonazepam were determined by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography. The absorption rates of clonazepam after i.m. and p.o. administration of clonazepam were significantly different from each other, as reflected by the respective mean values of maximum plasma concentration (C(max) 11.0 vs. 14.9 ng.ml(-1)) and time to reach maximum concentration (t(max) 3.1 vs. 1.7 h). Secondary plasma peaks of clonazepam were observed in 9 volunteers after i.m. injection (C(max) 9.9 ng.ml(-1); t(max) 10.4 h). A comparison of the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) shows that the i.m. route is equivalent to the oral route (AUC(0- infinity ) 620 vs. 561 ng.h.ml(-1)). Clonazepam was almost completely absorbed after i.m. and p.o. administration, as shown by the mean absolute bioavailability of 93 and 90%, respectively. No significant differences existed between the elimination half-lives (i.v. 38.0 h; i.m. 43.6 h; p.o. 39.0 h). The average clearance and volume of distribution (V(Z)) were 55 ml.min(-1) and 180 liters, respectively. In conclusion, the observed differences in C(max) and t(max) after i.m. and p.o. administration were consistent with a slower absorption rate of clonazepam after i.m. injection. The systemic exposure to clonazepam was not affected by the route of extravascular administration. Statistical evaluation of these kinetic data showed differences in the absorption rate, so that clonazepam given by the i.m. route is not bioequivalent to the oral route. On the basis of the results of this study, we would recommend the same i.m. and p.o. dose in epileptic patients

  10. Effects of castration method and frequency of intramuscular injections of ketoprofen on behavioral and physiological indicators of pain in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Moya, D; González, L A; Janzen, E; Caulkett, N A; Fireheller, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a single or multiple intramuscular (i.m.) injection of ketoprofen and castration technique on physiological and behavioral indicators of pain in beef calves. A total of 150 bull calves (284.8 ± 22.7 kg BW) were used in both experiments, each 1 conducted as a 3 × 2 factorial design, where main factors included castration technique--no castration (CT), surgical (SU), or band (BA)--and drug administration--physiological solution (PS) or i.m. injection of ketoprofen (KP; 3 mg Anafen/kg BW) in the neck of calves. Animals were weighed weekly during the experiment to calculate ADG. Behavioral responses indicative of pain and discomfort during the castration procedure were documented using a visual analog score (VAS) by an experienced observer who was blind to the treatments. Movements of the animals in the chute during castration were quantified using a strain gauge system mounted on the head gate to evaluate the escape response of the cattle. Pens were equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored for each individual. Thermographic images of the scrotal area were evaluated 24 and 0.5 h before castration, 0.5, 1, 24, 48, and 270 h postcastration, and weekly thereafter until the end of the trial. Blood samples were obtained postcastration to evaluate changes in total white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N:L) ratio. Saliva samples were taken 24 and 0.5 h before castration, immediately after castration, and 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 24, and 48 h and then 5, 7, and 14 d after castration to determine cortisol concentration. Scrotal temperature, VAS, total WBC, N:L ratio, salivary cortisol, mobility, and pressure exerted in the chute were greater (P < 0.05) and ADG and feed intake were lower (P < 0.05) in SU than in CT animals within the first week after castration. Also, BA calves had a greater (P < 0.05) scrotal temperature

  11. Caloric stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... differences in temperature to diagnose damage to the acoustic nerve. This is the nerve that is involved ... This test stimulates your acoustic nerve by delivering cold or warm water or air into your ear canal. When cold water or air enters your ...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Keller, Dominique L; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Klauer, Julia M; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández, Julia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software. Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.

  13. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  14. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling to Inform Development of Intramuscular Long Acting Nanoformulations for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rajoli, Rajith KR; Back, David J; Rannard, Steve; Meyers, Caren Freel; Flexner, Charles; Owen, Andrew; Siccardi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are currently used for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. Poor adherence and low tolerability of some existing oral formulations can hinder their efficacy. Long-acting (LA) injectable nanoformulations could help address these complications by simplifying ARV administration. The aim of this study is to inform the optimisation of intramuscular LA formulations for eight ARVs through physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. Methods A whole-body PBPK model was constructed using mathematical descriptions of molecular, physiological and anatomical processes defining pharmacokinetics. These models were validated against available clinical data and subsequently used to predict the pharmacokinetics of injectable LA formulations Results The predictions suggest that monthly intramuscular injections are possible for dolutegravir, efavirenz, emtricitabine, raltegravir, rilpivirine and tenofovir provided that technological challenges to control release rate can be addressed. Conclusions These data may help inform the target product profiles for LA ARV reformulation strategies. PMID:25523214

  15. Vitamins E and C may increase collagen turnover by intramuscular fibroblasts. Potential for improved meat quality.

    PubMed

    Archile-Contreras, Anangelina C; Cha, Ming C; Mandell, Ira B; Miller, Stephen P; Purslow, Peter P

    2011-01-26

    Vitamins influence collagen metabolism in animals grown for meat. This study investigated whether vitamins E and C regulate collagen turnover in muscle by the balance of effects on the synthesis of collagen and its degradation by secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by bovine intramuscular fibroblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from longissimus dorsi (LD) and semitendinosus (ST) muscle were treated with different concentrations of vitamins. Pro-MMP-2, MMP-2, and total soluble collagen (TSC) synthesis were determined. Vitamins E and C each preferentially increased (P < 0.05) MMP-2 in cells derived from LD relative to those derived from ST. Higher TSC values (P < 0.05) were found for ST cells than for LD cells. Both vitamins may increase collagen turnover exerted by intramuscular connective tissue fibroblasts. These results may have implications in vivo on animal production, as a high rate of collagen turnover may lead to increased collagen solubility in muscles, which can affect meat tenderness.

  16. Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2013-12-01

    A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers.

  17. Intramuscular Distribution of the Abducens Nerve in the Lateral Rectus Muscle for the Management of Strabismus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Shin, Kang-Jae; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2018-06-01

    To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections. Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated. The distances from the muscle insertion to the point at which the abducens nerve enters the LR and to the terminal nerve plexus were also measured. The LR was 46.0 mm long. The abducens nerve enters the muscle on the posterior one-third of the LR and then typically divides into a few branches (average of 1.8). This supports a segregated abducens nerve selectively innervating compartments of the LR. The intramuscular nerve distribution showed a Y-shaped ramification with root-like arborization. The intramuscular nerve course finished around the middle of the LR (24.8 mm posterior to the insertion point) to form the terminal nerve plexus. This region should be considered the optimal target site for botulinum toxin injections. We have also identified the presence of an overlapping zone and communicating nerve branches between the neighboring LR compartments. Sihler's staining is a useful technique for visualizing the entire nerve network of the LR. Improving the knowledge of the nerve distribution patterns is important not only for researchers but also clinicians to understand the functions of the LR and the diverse pathophysiology of strabismus.

  18. Comparisons of Cubed Ice, Crushed Ice, and Wetted Ice on Intramuscular and Surface Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Intervention(s): Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Results: Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. Conclusions: As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures. PMID:19295957

  19. Influence of hatch time and access to feed on intramuscular adipose tissue deposition in broilers.

    PubMed

    Powell, D J; Velleman, S G; Cowieson, A J; Singh, M; Muir, W I

    2016-06-01

    The effect of hatch time and subsequent access to feed on intramuscular adipose tissue deposition was studied in the pectoralis major muscle of male Ross 308 broiler chickens. Based on their hatch time chicks were classified as early (EH), midterm (MH), or late (LH) hatchers, with an average incubation duration of 497.7 h for EH, 508.8 h for MH, and 514.5 h for LH birds. Chicks were provided access to feed either immediately at hatch, or 24 h after the conclusion of the hatch window. Expression of the adipogenic regulatory genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), were measured at the time of hatch, and zero, one, 4, 7, 28, and 40 d. Intramuscular adipocyte cell width and visualization of adipose tissue deposition was observed at 28 and 40 d. Expression of PPARγ was increased in the pectoralis major of LH birds at the time of hatch, zero, and one d. The expression of PPARγ at one and 7 d, and SCD at 7 d were increased in all birds that received delayed access to feed. At 28 d, adipocyte cell width was increased in LH birds with delayed access to feed, compared to EH and MH birds with delayed access to feed and LH birds with immediate access to feed. At 40 d, adipocyte cell width was increased in all birds that received delayed access to feed. Also at 40 d, there was a trend (P = 0.078) for more extensive intramuscular adipose tissue deposition in LH than EH birds, and in birds with delayed access to feed (P = 0.075). These data indicate delayed access to feed increases intramuscular adipose tissue deposition in the pectoralis major muscle, and suggest that hatch time influences this regulation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Solitary intramuscular nasal Juvenile Xanthogranuloma: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Kiran; Pahuja, Sangeeta

    2002-07-01

    Juvenile Xanthogranuloma is a non-langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by yellowish cutaneous nodules that usually appear in early infancy and childhood. Intramuscular variant is a rare form, with only eight reported cases, and none reported in ala of nose. Sheets of histiocytes, few touton giant cells and infiltrative borders makes it susceptible to misdiagnosis as childhood sarcomas or lymphoproliferative disorders. Awareness of the lesion aided by immunohistochemistry helps in reaching the proper diagnosis.

  1. Serial MR Imaging of Intramuscular Hematoma: Experimental Study in a Rat Model with the Pathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Kwon, Soon Tae; Kim, Jong Ok

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wanted to demonstrate the temporal changes of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas in rats and to correlate these data with the concurrent pathologic observations. Materials and Methods Intramuscular hematoma was induced in 30 rats. The MR images were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 10 days and at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after muscle injury. The characteristic serial MRI findings were evaluated and the relative signal intensities were calculated. Pathologic specimens were obtained at each time point. Results On the T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), the intramuscular hematomas exhibited isointensity compared to that of muscle or the development of a high signal intensity (SI) rim on day one after injury. The high SI persisted until eight weeks after injury. On the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), the hematomas showed high SI or centrally low SI on day one after injury, and mainly high SI after four days. A dark signal rim was apparent after seven days, which was indicative of hemosiderin on the pathology. The gradient echo (GRE) imaging yielded dark signal intensities at all stages. Conclusion Unlike brain hematomas, experimentally-induced intramuscular hematomas show increased SI on both the T1WI and T2WI from the acute stage onward, and this is pathologically correlated with a rich blood supply and rapid healing response to injury in the muscle. On the T2WI and GRE imaging, high SI with a peripheral dark signal rim is apparent from seven days to the chronic stage. PMID:21228942

  2. Intramuscular glucocorticoid injection versus placebo injection in hip osteoarthritis: a 12-week blinded randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dorleijn, Desirée M J; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Reijman, Max; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bindels, Patrick J E; Bos, Pieter Koen; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2018-06-01

    Guidelines recommend intra-articular glucocorticoid injection in patients with painful hip osteoarthritis. However, intra-articular hip injection is an invasive procedure. The efficacy of systemic glucocorticoid treatment for pain reduction in hip osteoarthritis is unknown. This randomised, double-blind, trial assessed effectiveness in hip pain reduction of an intramuscular glucocorticoid injection compared with a placebo injection in patients with hip osteoarthritis. Patients with painful hip osteoarthritis were randomised to either 40 mg triamcinolone acetate or placebo with an intramuscular injection into the gluteus muscle. The primary outcomes were severity of hip pain at rest, during walking (0-10) and WOMAC pain at 2-week postinjection. We used linear mixed models for repeated measurements at 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks for the intention-to-treat data analysis. Of the 107 patients randomised, 106 could be analysed (52 in the glucocorticoid group, 54 in the placebo group). At 2-week follow-up, compared with placebo injection, the intramuscular glucocorticoid injection showed a significant and clinically relevant difference in hip pain reduction at rest (difference -1.3, 95% CI -2.3 to -0.3). This effect persisted for the entire 12-week follow-up. For hip pain during walking, the effect was present at 4-week, 6-week and 12-week follow-ups, and for WOMAC pain the effect was present at 6-week and 12-week follow-up. An intramuscular glucocorticoid injection showed effectiveness in patients with hip osteoarthritis on one of the three primary outcomes at 2-week postinjection. All primary outcomes showed effectiveness from 4 to 6 weeks, up to a 12-week follow-up. NTR2966. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, P<.05). In the pigs, the drugs attenuated an increase in the plasma lactate concentration within 5 minutes postantidote injection (difference: plasma lactate, saline solution-treated versus nitrite- or thiosulfate-treated 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.27]). We conclude that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate administered by intramuscular injection are effective against severe cyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intramuscular tendon involvement on MRI has limited value for predicting time to return to play following acute hamstring injury.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L

    2018-01-01

    Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with <50%, 50%-99% and 100% disruption of tendon cross-sectional area had a mean time to RTP of 24.0±9.7, 25.3±8.6 and 31.6±10.9 days, respectively. Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  5. Oral ketamine/midazolam is superior to intramuscular meperidine, promethazine, and chlorpromazine for pediatric cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Auden, S M; Sobczyk, W L; Solinger, R E; Goldsmith, L J

    2000-02-01

    An IM combination of meperidine, promethazine, and chlorpromazine (DPT) has been given as sedation for pediatric procedures for more than 40 years. We compared this IM combination to oral (PO) ketamine/midazolam in children having cardiac catheterization. A total of 51 children, ages 9 mo to 10 yr, were enrolled and randomized in this double-blinded study. All children received an IM injection at time zero and PO fluid 15 minutes later. We observed acceptance of medication, onset of sedation and sleep, and sedative efficacy. The cardiorespiratory changes were evaluated. Sedation was supplemented with IV propofol as required. Recovery time, parental satisfaction, and patient amnesia were assessed. Ketamine/midazolam given PO was better tolerated (P < 0.0005), had more rapid onset (P < 0.001), and provided superior sedation (P < 0.005). Respiratory rate decreased after IM DPT only. Heart rate and shortening fraction were stable. Oxygen saturation and mean blood pressure decreased minimally in both groups. Supplemental propofol was more frequently required (P < or = 0.02) and in larger doses (P < 0.05) after IM DPT. Parental satisfaction ratings were higher (P < 0.005) and amnesia was more reliably obtained (P = 0.007) with PO ketamine/midazolam. Two patients needed airway support after the PO medication, as did two other patients when PO ketamine/midazolam was supplemented with IV propofol. Although PO ketamine/midazolam provided superior sedation and amnesia compared to IM DPT, this regimen may require the supervision of an anesthesiologist for safe use. Oral medication can be superior to IM injections for sedating children with congenital heart disease; however, the safety of all medications remains an issue.

  6. Extracellular Matrix and Growth Factors Improve the Efficacy of Intramuscular Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Haruyuki; Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Fukase, Masahiko; Aoki, Takeshi; Ishida, Masaharu; Katayose, Yu; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation is poor despite being technically simple, safe, and associated with reduced rates of severe complications. We evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors in intramuscular islet transplantation. Male BALB/C mice were used for the in vitro and transplantation studies. The following three groups were evaluated: islets without treatment (islets-only group), islets embedded in ECM with growth factors (Matrigel group), and islets embedded in ECM without growth factors [growth factor-reduced (GFR) Matrigel group]. The viability and insulin-releasing function of islets cultured for 96 h were significantly improved in Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups compared with the islets-only group. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels immediately following transplantation were significantly improved in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups and remained significantly improved in the Matrigel group at postoperative day (POD) 28. On histological examination, significantly decreased numbers of TdT-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling-positive islet cells and significantly increased numbers of Ki67-positive cells were observed in the Matrigel and GFR Matrigel groups at POD 3. Peri-islet revascularization was most prominent in the Matrigel group at POD 14. The efficacy of intramuscular islet transplantation was improved by combination treatment with ECM and growth factors through the inhibition of apoptosis, increased proliferation of islet cells, and promotion of revascularization.

  7. Analgesia Following Major Gynecological Laparoscopic Surgery - PCA versus Intermittent Intramuscular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Alan M.; Carlton, Mark A.; Cario, Gregory M.; McBride, Lindsay

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To compare the use of patient-controlled analgesia to intermittent intramuscular injections of morphine following major gynecological laparoscopic procedures in order to assess differences in level of pain, sedation, episodes of nausea and/or vomiting, hospitalization time and patient satisfaction with their postoperative analgesia. Methods: Seventy-two patients undergoing major gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomized to receive either postoperative analgesia via intermittent intramuscular injection of morphine (Group 1) or patient controlled analgesia (PCA - Group 2). All patients received anesthesia via a standardized protocol. Postoperative pain levels were recorded via a 10 cm visual analogue scale, and sedation scores were recorded on a standard PCA form. Episodes of nausea and vomiting were also recorded on the same form. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between intramuscular analgesia and PCA for any of the factors studied. Most significantly it was found that most patients ceased to require either form of parenteral analgesia within 24 hours of their procedure, regardless of the operating time. Conclusion: It is important for the surgeon to be aware of the effects of postoperative analgesia on his or her patients' level of satisfaction. We do not recommend the use of PCA analgesia following major laparoscopic gynecological surgery. PMID:9876706

  8. Pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of intramuscular and intranasal naloxone: an explorative study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Skulberg, Arne Kristian; Tylleskar, Ida; Nilsen, Turid; Skarra, Sissel; Salvesen, Øyvind; Sand, Trond; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Dale, Ola

    2018-03-22

    This study aimed to develop a model for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies of naloxone antagonism under steady-state opioid agonism and to compare a high-concentration/low-volume intranasal naloxone formulation 8 mg/ml to intramuscular 0.8 mg. Two-way crossover in 12 healthy volunteers receiving naloxone while receiving remifentanil by a target-controlled infusion for 102 min. The group were subdivided into three different doses of remifentanil. Blood samples for serum naloxone concentrations, pupillometry and heat pain threshold were measured. The relative bioavailability of intranasal to intramuscular naloxone was 0.75. Pupillometry showed difference in antagonism; the effect was significant in the data set as a whole (p < 0.001) and in all three subgroups (p < 0.02-p < 0.001). Heat pain threshold showed no statistical difference. A target-controlled infusion of remifentanil provides good conditions for studying the pharmacodynamics of naloxone, and pupillometry was a better modality than heat pain threshold. Intranasal naloxone 0.8 mg is inferior for a similar dose intramuscular. Our design may help to bridge the gap between studies in healthy volunteers and the patient population in need of naloxone for opioid overdose. clinicaltrials.gov : NCT02307721.

  9. Kinesio® Tape Barrier Does Not Inhibit Intramuscular Cooling During Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Katie J; McCrone, Michael; Hanson, Thomas A; Mellinger, Christopher D; Gange, Kara

    2018-05-29

    Allied health care professionals commonly apply cryotherapy as treatment for acute musculoskeletal trauma and the associated symptoms. Understanding the impact of a tape barrier on intramuscular temperature can assist in determining treatment duration for effective cryotherapy. To determine whether Kinesio® Tape acts as a barrier that affects intramuscular temperature during cryotherapy application. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design in which the independent variable was tape application and the dependent variable was muscle temperature as measured by thermocouples placed 1 cm beneath the adipose layer. Additional covariates for robustness were BMI and adipose thickness. University research laboratory. 19 male college students with no contraindications to cryotherapy, no known sensitivity to Kinesio® Tape, and no reported quadriceps injury within the past six months. Topical cryotherapy: crushed-ice bags of 1 kg and 0.5 kg. Intramuscular temperature. The tape barrier had no statistically significant effect on muscle temperature. The pattern of temperature change was indistinguishable between participants with and without tape application. Findings suggest health care professionals can combine cryotherapy with a Kinesio® Tape application without any need for adjustments to cryotherapy duration.

  10. Irreversible muscle damage in bodybuilding due to long-term intramuscular oil injection.

    PubMed

    Banke, I J; Prodinger, P M; Waldt, S; Weirich, G; Holzapfel, B M; Gradinger, R; Rechl, H

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular oil injections generating slowly degrading oil-based depots represent a controversial subject in bodybuilding and fitness. However they seem to be commonly reported in a large number of non-medical reports, movies and application protocols for 'site-injections'. Surprisingly the impact of long-term (ab)use on the musculature as well as potential side-effects compromising health and sports ability are lacking in the medical literature. We present the case of a 40 year old male semi-professional bodybuilder with systemic infection and painful reddened swellings of the right upper arm forcing him to discontinue weightlifting. Over the last 8 years he daily self-injected sterilized sesame seed oil at numerous intramuscular locations for the purpose of massive muscle building. Whole body MRI showed more than 100 intramuscular rather than subcutaneous oil cysts and loss of normal muscle anatomy. 2-step septic surgery of the right upper arm revealed pus-filled cystic scar tissue with the near-complete absence of normal muscle. MRI 1 year later revealed the absence of relevant muscle regeneration. Persistent pain and inability to perform normal weight training were evident for at least 3 years post-surgery. This alarming finding indicating irreversible muscle mutilation may hopefully discourage people interested in bodybuilding and fitness from oil-injections. The impact of such chronic tissue stress on other diseases like malignancy remains to be determined. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Effect of cooling during inter-exercise periods on subsequent intramuscular water movement and muscle performance.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, O; Otsuka, S; Fukubayashi, T

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of cooling between exercise sessions on intramuscular water movement and muscle performance, the lower extremities of nine untrained men were assigned to either a cooling protocol (20-min water immersion, 15 °C) or a noncooling protocol. Each subject performed two exercise sessions involving maximal concentric knee extension and flexion (three repetitions, 60°/s; followed by 50 repetitions, 180°/s). The peak torque at 60°/s and total work, mean power, and decrease rate of torque value at 180°/s were evaluated. Axial magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted images of the mid-thigh were obtained before and after each exercise session. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for the quadriceps and hamstrings were calculated for evaluating intramuscular water movement. Both groups exhibited significantly increased ADC values for the quadriceps and hamstrings after each exercise session. These ADC values returned to the pre-exercise level after water immersion. No significant difference was observed in muscle performance from first exercise session to the next in either group, except for increased total work and mean power in knee flexion in the cooled group. Cooling intervention between exercise sessions decreased exercise-induced elevation of intramuscular water movement and had some beneficial effects on muscle endurance of knee flexors, but not knee extensors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Immunogenicity of Obiltoxaximab After Intramuscular Administration to Healthy Humans.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Christa F; Leach, Timothy S; King, Alex; Guttendorf, Robert

    2017-11-10

    Inhalational anthrax is a highly lethal infection caused by Bacillus anthracis and a serious bioterrorism threat. Protective antigen (PA) is a critical component required for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that neutralizes PA, is approved in the United States for intravenous use for the treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or appropriate. Here, we explored the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of obiltoxaximab administered by intramuscular injection at doses of 4, 8, 16, 20, and 24 mg/kg in healthy humans. Systemic exposures were approximately dose proportional, maximum serum concentrations were observed after 6-9 days, and terminal half-life ranged from 16 to 23 days. Average absolute intramuscular bioavailability was 64%. Obiltoxaximab was well tolerated, and local tolerability was acceptable up to 24 mg/kg intramuscularly, up to 6 injections per dose, and up to 5 mL per injection. No injection-site abscesses or hypersensitivity reactions occurred; no subjects developed treatment-emergent antitherapeutic antibodies over the study period of 71 days. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Intramuscular injection of malignant hyperthermia trigger agents induces hypermetabolism in susceptible and nonsusceptible individuals.

    PubMed

    Metterlein, Thomas; Schuster, Frank; Kranke, Peter; Roewer, Norbert; Anetseder, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A new minimally invasive metabolic test for the diagnosis of susceptibility for malignant hyperthermia measuring intramuscular p(CO(2)) and lactate following local application of caffeine and halothane in humans was recently proposed. The present study tested the hypothesis that a more simplified test protocol allows a differentiation between malignant hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) and malignant hyperthermia nonsusceptible (MHN) and control individuals. With approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent, microdialysis and p(CO(2)) probes with attached microtubing were placed into the lateral vastus muscle of six MHS, seven MHN and seven control individuals. Following equilibration, boluses of 500 microl caffeine 80 mmol l(-1) and halothane 10 vol% dissolved in soybean oil were injected locally. p(CO(2)) and lactate were measured spectrophotometrically. The maximal rate of p(CO(2)) increase was significantly higher in MHS than in MHN and control individuals following application of halothane and caffeine, respectively. Intramuscular caffeine injection leads to a significantly higher increase of local lactate levels in MHS than in MHN and control individuals, whereas halothane increased local lactate levels in all investigated groups. Haemodynamic and systemic metabolic parameters did not differ between the investigated groups. Local caffeine and halothane injection increased intramuscular metabolism in MHS individuals significantly more than in the two other groups. In contrast to previous investigations, direct injection of the concentrations of halothane described here increased lactate and p(CO(2)) even in MHN skeletal muscle.

  14. Assessing Anticalcification Treatments in Bioprosthetic Tissue by Using the New Zealand Rabbit Intramuscular Model

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Gregory A; Faught, Joelle M; Olin, Jane M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit intramuscular model can be used for detecting calcification in bioprosthetic tissue and to compare the calcification in the rabbit to that of native human valves. The rabbit model was compared with the commonly used Sprague–Dawley rat subcutaneous model. Eighteen rabbits and 18 rats were used to assess calcification in bioprosthetic tissue over time (7, 14, 30, and 90 d). The explanted rabbit and rat tissue discs were measured for calcium by using atomic absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Calcium deposits on the human valve explants were assessed by using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the NZW rabbit model is robust for detecting calcification in a shorter duration (14 d), with less infection complications, more space to implant tissue groups (thereby reducing animal use numbers), and a more metabolically and mechanically dynamic environment than the rat subcutaneous model . The human explanted valves and rabbit explanted tissue both showed Raman peaks at 960 cm−1 which is representative of hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the final calcium and phosphate species in the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves and rabbit intramuscular implants. The NZW rabbit intramuscular model is an effective model for assessing calcification in bioprosthetic tissue. PMID:19619417

  15. The effect of intramuscular fat on skeletal muscle mechanics: implications for the elderly and obese

    PubMed Central

    Rahemi, Hadi; Nigam, Nilima; Wakeling, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle accumulates intramuscular fat through age and obesity. Muscle quality, a measure of muscle strength per unit size, decreases in these conditions. It is not clear how fat influences this loss in performance. Changes to structural parameters (e.g. fibre pennation and connective tissue properties) affect the muscle quality. This study investigated the mechanisms that lead to deterioration in muscle performance due to changes in intramuscular fat, pennation and aponeurosis stiffness. A finite-element model of the human gastrocnemius was developed as a fibre-reinforced composite biomaterial containing contractile fibres within the base material. The base-material properties were modified to include intramuscular fat in five different ways. All these models with fat generated lower fibre stress and muscle quality than their lean counterparts. This effect is due to the higher stiffness of the tissue in the fatty models. The fibre deformations influence their interactions with the aponeuroses, and these change with fatty inclusions. Muscles with more compliant aponeuroses generated lower forces. The muscle quality was further reduced for muscles with lower pennation. This study shows that whole-muscle force is dependent on its base-material properties and changes to the base material due to fatty inclusions result in reductions to force and muscle quality. PMID:26156300

  16. Vascular anatomy of the medial sural artery perforator flap: a new classification system of intra-muscular branching patterns.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, Joseph R; Pham, Quy J; Ngo, Quan; Gianoutsos, Mark; Moradi, Pouria

    2014-09-01

    The medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap is a versatile fasciocutaneous flap. The main difficulty encountered when raising the MSAP flap is in obtaining adequate pedicle length during intra-muscular dissection. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of intra-muscular course of the MSAP flap pedicle. 14 cadaveric specimens were dissected and CT angiograms of 84 legs were examined. The intra-muscular branching pattern and depths of the medial sural artery branches were analyzed. The number of perforators, position of the dominant perforator and both intra-muscular and total pedicle length were also recorded and compared to existing anatomical data. Three types of arterial branching pattern were identified within the medial gastrocnemius, demonstrating one (31%), two (59%) or three or more (10%) main branches. A dominant perforator from the medial sural artery was present in 92% of anatomical specimens (13/14). Vertically, the location of the perforator from the popliteal crease was on average 13 cm (±2 cm). Transversely, the perforator originated 2.5 cm (±1 cm) from the posterior midline. Using CT angiography it was possible in 10 consecutive patients to identify a more superficial intra-muscular branch and determine the leg with the optimal branching pattern type for flap harvest. This study is the first to describe the variability of the intra-muscular arterial anatomy of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. Surgeons utilizing the MSAP flap option should be aware of the possible branching pattern types and consequently the differing perforator distribution and depths of intra-muscular branches. Routine use of pre-operative CT angiogram may help determine which leg has the most favorable branching pattern type and intra-muscular course for flap harvest. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Digitalisierung im Verteilnetz: Evolution oder Revolution anhand konkreter Beispiele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, Oliver; Bachmann, Maurus

    Durch die Integration der neuen erneuerbaren Energien steht das Stromnetz vor großen Herausforderungen. Das Energiesystem als Gesamtes und die Verteilnetze im Speziellen werden smart. Anhand konkreter Beispiele wird aufgezeigt, wie die Digitalisierung im Elektrizitätsnetz voranschreitet. Diese Entwicklung ist eine Evolution, nicht aber eine Revolution.

  18. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine Protects Nonhuman Primates from Intramuscular and Aerosol Challenge with Ebolavirus

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Barth, James F.; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Nichols, Donald K.; Zak, Samantha E.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Muhammad, Majidat A.; Bakken, Russell R.; Prugar, Laura I.; Olinger, Gene G.; Groebner, Jennifer L.; Lee, John S.; Pratt, William D.; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I.; Smith, Jonathan F.; Hart, Mary Kate

    2013-01-01

    There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine. PMID:23408633

  19. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle vaccine protects nonhuman primates from intramuscular and aerosol challenge with ebolavirus.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Barth, James F; Ortiz, Ramon A; Nichols, Donald K; Zak, Samantha E; Stonier, Spencer W; Muhammad, Majidat A; Bakken, Russell R; Prugar, Laura I; Olinger, Gene G; Groebner, Jennifer L; Lee, John S; Pratt, William D; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I; Smith, Jonathan F; Hart, Mary Kate; Dye, John M

    2013-05-01

    There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine.

  20. Response to intramuscular methyl prednisolone in inflammatory hand pain: evidence for a targeted clinical, ultrasonographic and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zunaid; Quinn, Mark A; Wakefield, Richard J; Brown, Andrew K; Green, Michael J; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Conaghan, Philip G; Emery, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Hand pain with stiffness is a common clinical presentation to early arthritis clinics, with outcome varying from resolution to the development of rheumatoid arthritis. Objective To assess the response and predictors of response to intramuscular methylprednisolone (MP) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) using a standardised treatment protocol. Methods Patients with inflammatory hand pain (IHP), defined as predominantly hand pain and morning stiffness of at least 30 min duration, received a standardised assessment prior to receiving intramuscular MP. Response (primary outcome) at 4 weeks was a 50% improvement in symptoms as perceived by the patient; responders who relapsed received repeat intramuscular MP and HCQ. Results 102 patients were recruited, of which 21% were rheumatoid factor (RF) positive, 23% had clinical synovitis, 25% had raised C‐reactive protein level and 55% had ultrasound‐detected synovitis. 73% responded, with associated significant reductions in morning stiffness, Health Assessment Questionnaire, painful and tender joint counts, and visual analogue scores (p⩽0.006 for all). Ultrasound‐detected synovitis (p<0.001) and RF (p = 0.04), but not clinical synovitis (p = 0.74), were significantly associated with response to intramuscular MP. 86% who remained on HCQ long term reported a benefit. Conclusions Patients with IHP have significant improvement in symptoms and function following intramuscular MP. Further placebo‐controlled trials are required to assess the role of intramuscular MP and ultrasonography in managing this patient group. PMID:17127687

  1. [Multisensory stimulation].

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, M C; Abad-Mas, L; Pina, J

    2003-02-01

    Diagnosis in early care (EC) involves a global study that covers the child's development, their personal history, family and surroundings. The specific aims of an intervention programme in EC could be summed up in four areas: the prevention of deficits or difficulties, the detection of problems linked with a socio-family deficiency or shortages, the stimulation of development, and help and assistance for families. Multisensory stimulation (MSS) of small children is essential for their future existence. The presentation of stimuli must follow a strict schedule; indeed, this observation is so important that if the critical moment for incorporating a stimulus is missed, providing the stimulus at another time will not have the same effect. Intellectual development during early childhood was taken into account when defining the fundamental aims of a therapeutic intervention programme in EC. To develop suitable therapy according to these concepts, an EMS (Snoezelen) room with certain special characteristics is required. This room must allow the stimuli offered in each moment and under each sensory modality to be controlled. Applying intervention programmes in a proper, specific and timely manner will enable us to accompany each child, as far as is possible in each case, in the development of his or her abilities and capabilities.

  2. IMS R and D program at Canada customs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilon, Pierre; Mungham, Tony; Ng, Lay-Keow; Lawrence, Andre

    1995-01-01

    Over the last few years, Revenue Canada, in collaboration with Barringer Instruments Limited, has been involved in the development of a field-usable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) for the detection of drugs of abuse. This work has culminated in the manufacturing and commercialization by Barringer of the Ionscan 350 instruments, now in use by various law enforcement agencies worldwide. Although IMS exhibits a very strong and distinctive response toward some nitrogen containing drugs, e.g., cocaine, like all separation techniques it has inherent limitations, namely moderate resolution and low chemical signal to noise ratio which may affect the reliability of IMS-based drug detectors. A program is in place at the Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate (LSSD) to investigate the applicability of various digital signal processing (DSP) techniques to IMS output signals. The application of neural network techniques to overlapping IMS peaks is presented.

  3. Intramuscular Administration of a Synthetic CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotide Modulates Functional Responses of Neutrophils of Neonatal Foals

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Noah D.; Bourquin, Jessica R.; Bordin, Angela I.; Kuskie, Kyle R.; Brake, Courtney N.; Weaver, Kaytee B.; Liu, Mei; Felippe, M. Julia B.; Kogut, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in protecting against infection. Foals have age-dependent deficiencies in neutrophil function that may contribute to their predisposition to infection. Thus, we investigated the ability of a CpG-ODN formulated with Emulsigen to modulate functional responses of neutrophils in neonatal foals. Eighteen foals were randomly assigned to receive either a CpG-ODN with Emulsigen (N = 9) or saline intramuscularly at ages 1 and 7 days. At ages 1, 3, 9, 14, and 28, blood was collected and neutrophils were isolated from each foal. Neutrophils were assessed for basal and Rhodococcus equi-stimulated mRNA expression of the cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, and IL-8 using real-time PCR, degranulation by quantifying the amount of β-D glucuronidase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using flow cytometry. In vivo administration of the CpG-ODN formulation on days 1 and 7 resulted in significantly (P<0.05) increased IFN-γ mRNA expression by foal neutrophils on days 3, 9, and 14. Degranulation was significantly (P<0.05) lower for foals in the CpG-ODN-treated group than the control group at days 3 and 14, but not at other days. No effect of treatment on ROS generation was detected. These results indicate that CpG-ODN administration to foals might improve innate and adaptive immune responses that could protect foals against infectious diseases and possibly improve responses to vaccination. PMID:25333660

  4. Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round.

    PubMed

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Maddock, R J

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles from the beef round: biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor (AD). At 48 h postmortem, the BF, ST, SM, and AD were dissected from either the left or right side of ten carcasses, vacuum packaged, and aged for an additional 8 d. Each muscle was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. Steaks were broiled on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. Location-specific cores were obtained from each cooked steak, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was evaluated. Definable intramuscular shear force variation (SD = 0.56 kg) was almost twice as large as between-animal shear force variation (SD = 0.29 kg) and 2.8 times as large as between-muscle variation (SD = 0.20 kg). The ranking of muscles from greatest to least definable intramuscular shear force variation was BF, SM, ST, and AD (SD = 1.09, 0.72, 0.29, and 0.15 kg, respectively). The BF had its lowest shear force values at the origin (sirloin end), intermediate shear force values at the insertion, and its highest shear force values in a middle region 7 to 10 cm posterior to the sirloin-round break point (P < 0.05). The BF had lower shear force values toward the ST side than toward the vastus lateralis side (P < 0.05). The ST had its lowest shear force values in a 10-cm region in the middle, and its highest shear force values toward each end (P < 0.05). The SM had its lowest shear force values in the first 10-cm from the ischial end (origin), and its highest shear force values in a 13-cm region at the insertion end (P < 0.05). Generally, shear force was lower toward the superficial (medial) side than toward the deep side of the SM (P < 0.05). There were no intramuscular differences in shear force values within the AD (P > 0.05). These data indicate that definable intramuscular tenderness variation is substantial and

  5. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-12-01

    Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  7. Pharmacologic effects of epidural versus intramuscular administration of detomidine in cattle.

    PubMed

    Prado, M E; Streeter, R N; Mandsager, R E; Shawley, R V; Claypool, P L

    1999-10-01

    To determine whether epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride to cattle induced analgesia of the perineum and to compare analgesic and systemic effects of epidural versus i.m. administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 microg/kg in cattle. 18 healthy adult cows. 6 cows were given detomidine by epidural administration, 6 were given detomidine i.m., and 6 (control group) were not given detomidine. Analgesia was assessed by determining responses to needle pinpricks in the perineum and flank and by applying electrical stimuli to the perineum and flank and determining the voltage that induced an avoidance response. Degree of sedation and ataxia were scored, and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and frequency of ruminal contractions were measured. Epidural and i.m. administration of detomidine induced comparable degrees of analgesia of the perineum and flank, accompanied by moderate sedation and ataxia, hypertension, cardiorespiratory depression, and rumen hypomotility. Epidural and i.m. administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 microg/kg induced similar analgesic and systemic effects in cattle. Epidural administration of detomidine did not appear to be advantageous over i.m. administration.

  8. Electrical Stimulation of Afferent Pathways for the Suppression of Pathological Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Dideriksen, Jakob L.; Laine, Christopher M.; Dosen, Strahinja; Muceli, Silvia; Rocon, Eduardo; Pons, José L.; Benito-Leon, Julian; Farina, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Pathological tremors are involuntary oscillatory movements which cannot be fully attenuated using conventional treatments. For this reason, several studies have investigated the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation for tremor suppression. In a recent study, however, we found that electrical stimulation below the motor threshold also suppressed tremor, indicating involvement of afferent pathways. In this study, we further explored this possibility by systematically investigating how tremor suppression by afferent stimulation depends on the stimulation settings. In this way, we aimed at identifying the optimal stimulation strategy, as well as to elucidate the underlying physiological mechanisms of tremor suppression. Stimulation strategies varying the stimulation intensity and pulse timing were tested in nine tremor patients using either intramuscular or surface stimulation. Significant tremor suppression was observed in six patients (tremor suppression > 75% was observed in three patients) and the average optimal suppression level observed across all subjects was 52%. The efficiency for each stimulation setting, however, varied substantially across patients and it was not possible to identify a single set of stimulation parameters that yielded positive results in all patients. For example, tremor suppression was achieved both with stimulation delivered in an out-of-phase pattern with respect to the tremor, and with random timing of the stimulation. Overall, these results indicate that low-current stimulation of afferent fibers is a promising approach for tremor suppression, but that further research is required to identify how the effect can be maximized in the individual patient. PMID:28420958

  9. Isothermal aging of IM7/8320 and IM7/5260

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Roderick H.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1992-01-01

    Isothermal aging was conducted on two composite systems being considered as possible candidates for the next generation supersonic transport. The composite systems were IM7/5260, a carbon/thermoset, and IM7/8320, a carbon/amorphous thermoplastic. The materials were isothermally aged for a total of 5000 hours at 125 C and 175 C. These temperatures are approximately equivalent to the upper skin temperatures of an aircraft flying at Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4, respectively. The variations of the following properties were determined as a function of aging time: weight loss, moduli, glass transition temperature, microcracking, and modulus and strength of a +/- 45 laminate. The difficulties and accuracy of strain measurements are also discussed.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and effects of alfaxalone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to cats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo-Mocholí, D; Escudero, E; Belda, E; Laredo, F G; Hernandis, V; Marín, P

    2018-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics, and anaesthetic and sedative effects of alfaxalone after I/V and I/M administration to cats. Six European shorthair cats, three males and three females, with a mean weight of 4.21 (SD 0.53) kg and aged 3.8 (SD 0.9) years were enrolled in this crossover, two-treatment, two-period study. Alfaxalone at a dose of 5 mg/kg was administered either I/V or I/M. Blood samples were collected between 2-480 minutes after drug administration and analysed for concentrations of alfaxalone by HPLC. The plasma concentration-time curves were analysed by non-compartmental analysis. Sedation scores were evaluated between 5-120 minutes after drug administration using a numerical rating scale (from 0-18). Intervals from drug administration to sit, sternal and lateral recumbency during the induction phase, and to head-lift, sternal recumbency and standing position during recovery were recorded. The mean half-life and mean residence time of alfaxalone were longer after I/M (1.28 (SD 0.21) and 2.09 (SD 0.36) hours, respectively) than after I/V (0.49 (SD 0.07) and 0.66 (SD 0.16) hours, respectively) administration (p<0.05). Bioavailability after I/M injection of alfaxalone was 94.7 (SD 19.8)%. The mean intervals to sternal and lateral recumbency were longer in the I/M (3.73 (SD 1.99) and 6.12 (SD 0.90) minutes, respectively) compared to I/V (0 minutes for all animals) treated cats (p<0.01). Sedation scores indicative of general anaesthesia (scores >15) were recorded from 5-15 minutes after I/V administration and deep sedation (scores 11-15) at 20 and 30 minutes. Deep sedation was observed from 10-45 minutes after I/M administration. One cat from each group showed hyperkinesia during recovery, and the remainder had an uneventful recovery. Alfaxalone administered I/V in cats provides rapid and smooth induction of anaesthesia. After I/M administration, a longer exposure to the drug and an extended half life were obtained compared to I/V administration

  11. Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine hydrochloride following intramuscular and intravenous administration to American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustavsen, Kate A.; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Knych, Heather K.; Petritz, Olivia A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Buprenorphine was rapidly absorbed, and bioavailability was good after IM administration to American kestrels. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 9 hours after both IM and IV administration. These results, in combination with those of a pharmacodynamic study, suggested that the analgesic effects of buprenorphine could last at least 6 to 9 hours in this species. Further investigations of the duration of analgesic effects, multiple-dose protocols, and potential adverse effects of buprenorphine are warranted in American kestrels and other raptors.

  12. Pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone after single-dose intramuscular administration in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans): a comparison of two different doses at two different ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Molly K; Divers, Stephen; Braun, Christina; Hofmeister, Erik H

    2013-11-01

    This study compares the pharmacodynamics of two different doses of alfaxalone administered intramuscularly (IM) to red-eared sliders at two ambient temperatures. Prospective blinded crossover experimental study. Nine adult female sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Following a 2-week acclimation at 22-25 °C, nine sliders were randomly assigned to receive alfaxalone, 10 mg kg(-1) (W10), or 20 mg kg(-1) (W20) IM. Each turtle received each dose, with a minimum 7-day washout period. A blinded observer evaluated heart rate (HR), palpebral and corneal reflexes, muscle relaxation, handling, and response to toe pinch at the following points: pre-injection, and 5, 12, 20, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes post-injection. Turtles then acclimated to 18-20 °C for 63 days, and the experiment was repeated in this lower-temperature environment, with treatment groups C10 (alfaxalone 10 mg kg(-1)) and C20 (alfaxalone 20 mg kg(-1)) subjected to the same crossover design. C10 and C20 groups had significantly lower intraanesthetic HR than W10 or W20, respectively. C10 and W20 were significantly more relaxed and easier to handle than W10. No significant differences were observed in palpebral reflex, nor responsiveness to the toe pinch stimulus. None of the turtles lost corneal reflex. W20 and C20 had prolonged recoveries, compared to low-dose groups within the same temperature environment. Recovery was also longer at C20 and C10 compared to W10. Turtles given 10 mg kg(-1) were more relaxed and easier to handle in cold than warm conditions. Warm turtles were more relaxed and easier to handle when given 20 mg kg(-1) than those given 10 mg kg(-1). Cold conditions correlated with lower HR and longer recovery time for each dose category. The turtles had dose-dependent and inconsistent responses to alfaxalone. Lower ambient temperature augmented the behavioral effects of this drug. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  13. Anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular medetomidine-ketamine combination alone or with morphine or tramadol for orchiectomy in cats.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Dzikiti, Brighton T; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Stegmann, Frik G; Venter, Frans J; Rioja, Eva

    2014-07-01

    To compare the anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular (IM) medetomidine and ketamine administered alone or combined with morphine or tramadol, for orchiectomy in cats. Randomised, blinded, prospective clinical study. Thirty client-owned cats. Cats (n = 10 in each group) received a combination of medetomidine (60 μgkg(-1) ) and ketamine (10 mg kg(-1) ) alone (MedK); combined with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKM), or combined with tramadol (2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKT) IM. Time of induction, surgical and recovery events were recorded, and physiological parameters measured and recorded. Analgesia was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, a composite scoring system and the von Frey mechanical threshold device, every hour from three to eight hours post-drug administration injection. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests (p < 0.05). Median (IQR) induction and recovery times (minutes) were not significantly (p = 0.125) different between groups: 5.6 (2.7-8.0), 7.4 (5.1-9.6) and 8.0 (5.8-14.9) for induction and 128.5 (95.1-142.8), 166.4 (123.1-210.0) and 142.9 (123.4-180.2) for recovery, with MedK, MedKT and MedKM, respectively. Two cats (MedKM) required alfaxalone for endotracheal intubation. In all groups, three or four cats required additional isoflurane for surgery. Arterial oxygen tension overall (mean ± SD: 66 ± 2 mmHg) was low. Surgery resulted in increased systolic arterial blood pressure (p < 0.001), haemoglobin saturation (p < 0.001), respiratory (p = 0.003) and heart rates (p = 0.002). Pain scores did not differ significantly between groups. Von Frey responses decreased over time; changes over time varied by treatment (p < 0.001), MedK returning to baseline values more rapidly than MedKM and MedKT. No cat required rescue analgesics. All three protocols can provide adequate anaesthesia and analgesia for orchiectomy in cats. However, rescue intervention to maintain surgical anaesthesia may be

  14. Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 2 (Ergänzungen 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieve, M.; Lenarz, Thomas

    In Deutschland leben ca. 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung hinsichtlich des Schädigungsortes im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. eine Schalleitungsschwerhörigkeit, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, d. h. eine Schallempfindungsschwerhörigkeit, wobei hier der Schädigungsort auch am Hörnerven oder in den zentralen Hörabschnitten liegen kann. Therapeutisch lassen sich sowohl Schwerhörigkeiten im Bereich des Mittelohres als auch im Innenohr und sogar im Hirnstammbereich (Hirnstammimplantat) behandeln. 1,9 Millionen Schwerhörige haben eine Erkrankung im Mittelohrbereich, d. h. der Schall kann nur ungenügend auf das Innenohr übertragen werden. Die Ursache besteht meist in einer chronischen Mittelohrentzündung, die zu einer Zerstörung des Trommelfells und der Gehörknöchelchenkette geführt haben. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluß des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen. Mittelohroperationen werden mikrochirurgisch unter dem Operationsmikroskop durchgeführt, wobei zunächst durch eine sanierende Operation der Entzündungsprozeß entfernt wird und nach einer Ausheilungszeit die Gehörknöchelchenkette durch künstliche Prothesen rekonstruiert werden kann.

  15. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Taiane S.; Sanglard, Letícia M. P.; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L.; Rennó, Luciana N.; Serão, Nick V. L.; Silva, Fabyano F.; Guimarães, Simone E. F.; Ladeira, Márcio M.; Dodson, Michael V.; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP–1, CPT–2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis. PMID:26436893

  16. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle.

    PubMed

    Martins, Taiane S; Sanglard, Letícia M P; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L; Rennó, Luciana N; Serão, Nick V L; Silva, Fabyano F; Guimarães, Simone E F; Ladeira, Márcio M; Dodson, Michael V; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP-1, CPT-2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis.

  17. Pharmacokinetic and tolerability of i.m. disodium clodronate 200 mg/lidocaine 1%, given twice monthly, in comparison with i.m. disodium clodronate 100 mg/lidocaine 1%, given weekly, in healthy postmenopausal female patients.

    PubMed

    Radicioni, Milko; Cremonesi, Giovanni; Baraldi, Enrica; Leuratti, Chiara; Mariotti, Fabrizia

    2013-04-01

    Clodronate is a bisphosphonate effective in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Non-adherence to bisphosphonates, however, is a major issue in clinical practice. Simplifying dose regimens may increase compliance. To assess bioequivalence between an intramuscular (i.m.) clodronate 200 mg/lidocaine 1% twice-a-month formulation and a clodronate 100 mg/lidocaine 1% weekly formulation in 32 postmenopausal women. In this double-blind, randomized, two-way crossover study, test and reference formulations were administered in single dose, with a 2-week wash-out between administrations. The primary endpoint was clodronic acid cumulative excretion in the first 24 hours after injection (Xu0-24h). Cumulative excretion in the 72 hours post-dose (Xu0-72h) and maximum excretion rate (Ratemax) were also evaluated. Bioequivalence was assumed if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric means ratios of the dose-normalized parameters were within the 80.00 - 125.00% range. Local tolerability was evaluated. Mean Xu0-24h values were 114.03 ±23.13 mg and 55.22 ±9.73 mg for clodronate 200 mg and 100 mg. The 90% CIs for dose-normalized Xu0-24h, Xu0-72h and Ratemax ere 95 -110%, 94 -107% and 95 - 113%. Local tolerability of both treatments was good. The differences in pain intensity between formulations were not sigificantly different at most assessment times. Headache was the only treatment-related adverse event. Bioequivalence of the two formulations was confirmed in terms of dose-normalized rate and amount of clodronic acid excretion. This result, together with the favorable tolerability of the novel 200 mg formulation, suggests the possibility of reducing the number of i.m. administrations from once-a-week to twice-a-month.

  18. Dissociating external power from intramuscular exercise intensity during intermittent bilateral knee‐extension in humans

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Matthew J.; Benson, Alan P.; Cannon, Daniel T.; Marwood, Simon; Kemp, Graham J.; Rossiter, Harry B.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Continuous high‐intensity constant‐power exercise is unsustainable, with maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2 max ) and the limit of tolerance attained after only a few minutes.Performing the same power intermittently reduces the O2 cost of exercise and increases tolerance. The extent to which this dissociation is reflected in the intramuscular bioenergetics is unknown.We used pulmonary gas exchange and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure whole‐body V˙O2, quadriceps phosphate metabolism and pH during continuous and intermittent exercise of different work:recovery durations.Shortening the work:recovery durations (16:32 s vs. 32:64 s vs. 64:128 s vs. continuous) at a work rate estimated to require 110% peak aerobic power reduced V˙O2, muscle phosphocreatine breakdown and muscle acidification, eliminated the glycolytic‐associated contribution to ATP synthesis, and increased exercise tolerance.Exercise intensity (i.e. magnitude of intramuscular metabolic perturbations) can be dissociated from the external power using intermittent exercise with short work:recovery durations. Abstract Compared with work‐matched high‐intensity continuous exercise, intermittent exercise dissociates pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) from the accumulated work. The extent to which this reflects differences in O2 storage fluctuations and/or contributions from oxidative and substrate‐level bioenergetics is unknown. Using pulmonary gas‐exchange and intramuscular 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we tested the hypotheses that, at the same power: ATP synthesis rates are similar, whereas peak V˙O2 amplitude is lower in intermittent vs. continuous exercise. Thus, we expected that: intermittent exercise relies less upon anaerobic glycolysis for ATP provision than continuous exercise; shorter intervals would require relatively greater fluctuations in intramuscular bioenergetics than in V˙O2 compared to longer intervals. Six men performed bilateral knee

  19. Sublingual misoprostol versus intramuscular oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage in low-risk women.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Picklu; Biswas, Jhuma; Mandal, Apurba

    2012-02-01

    To compare sublingual misoprostol with intramuscular oxytocin for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in low-risk vaginal birth. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 530 women without risk of PPH were randomly allocated to receive either 400 μg of misoprostol sublingually or 10 units of oxytocin intramuscularly within 1minute of delivery. The outcome measures were incidence of PPH, postpartum blood loss, drop in hemoglobin level in 24 hours, need for additional uterotonic drug, incidence of adverse effects, and need for blood transfusion. Student t, χ(2), Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests were used for comparison. Incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (≥ 500 mL) and postpartum blood loss in the misoprostol group were similar to those in the oxytocin group (6% versus 5.7%, P=0.85; 153 mL versus 146 mL, P=0.36). Shivering and pyrexia were encountered more often in the misoprostol than in the oxytocin group (shivering: 19% versus 0.8%, P<0.001, relative risk [RR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-0.90; pyrexia: 2.3% versus 0%, P=0.03, RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99). The efficacy of 400 μg of misoprostol administered sublingually was equivalent to that of 10 units of oxytocin given intramuscularly for prevention of PPH in low-risk vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between FASN gene polymorphisms ultrasound carcass traits and intramuscular fat in Qinchuan cattle.

    PubMed

    Raza, Sayed Haidar Abbas; Gui, Linsheng; Khan, Rajwali; Schreurs, Nicola M; Xiaoyu, Wang; Wu, Sen; Mei, Chugang; Wang, Li; Ma, Xueyao; Wei, Dawei; Guo, Hongfang; Zhang, Song; Wang, Xingping; Kaleri, Hubdar Ali; Zan, Linsen

    2018-03-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an enzyme involved with fat deposition and fatty acid composition in cattle. This study was conducted to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FASN gene and explore their relationships with ultrasound carcass traits in order to assess the potential use of the FASN gene for the breeding selection of Qinchuan cattle for desirable carcass traits. The frequencies of SNP g.12740C>T, g.13192T>C and g.13232C>T were identified in 525 individual Qinchuan cattle which were also assessed for backfat depth, eye muscle area and intramuscular fat by ultrasound. According to the PIC values, g.13192T>C possessed an intermediate polymorphism (0.25T, g.12740C>T possessed low polymorphism (PIC<0.25). Chi-square tests showed that g.13192T>C were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (c2C was associated with a greater eye muscle area and the TT genotype at g.13232C>T was associated with greater intramuscular fat. When these genotypes were combined there was no difference in eye muscle area and intramuscular fat between the diplotypes. The H 2 H 2 diplotype was associated with carcass traits that are likely to provide economic advantage in Qinchuan cattle. Variations in the FASN genes and their corresponding genotypes may be considered as molecular markers for economic traits in cattle breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The reproducibility of measurements of intramuscular magnesium concentrations and muscle oxidative capacity using 31P MRS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) has been used to measure intramuscular magnesium concentrations and muscle metabolism. Abnormal intramuscular magnesium has been reported in several patient populations with suspected metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our ability to measure intramuscular magnesium and muscle metabolism in the quadriceps muscles of healthy subjects, and to test whether these measurements were influenced by prior exercise. Twelve normal, healthy male volunteers were tested in a 3 Tesla magnet on four separate days. Resting [Mg2+] was calculated from the heights and frequency shifts of the phosphate, phosphocreatine and ATP peaks. Phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery kinetics were measured after 30-39 second bouts of isometric exercise. Thirty minutes prior to the 3rd test session the subjects completed a 2 hour treadmill walk at 40-60% of heart rate reserve. Resting [Mg2+] averaged 0.388 mM and had an interclass correlation coefficient between days (ICC) of 0.352. The mean end exercise PCr was 47.6% and the mean end exercise pH was 6.97. PCr recovery averaged 39 seconds (p = 0.892) and had an ICC of 0.819. Prior long duration exercise did not produce significant alterations in either PCr recovery kinetics or intracellular magnesium levels (p = 0.440). In conclusion, the reproducibility of Resting [Mg2+] was less than that of PCr recovery measurements, and may reflect the sensitivity of these measurements to phasing errors. In addition, prior exercise is unlikely to alter measurements of resting metabolites or muscle metabolism suggesting that rigorous control of physical activity prior to metabolic testing is unnecessary. PMID:20003509

  2. Real-time simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myoelectric prostheses use electromyographic (EMG) signals to control movement of prosthetic joints. Clinically available myoelectric control strategies do not allow simultaneous movement of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs); however, the use of implantable devices that record intramuscular EMG signals could overcome this constraint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the real-time simultaneous control of three DOFs (wrist rotation, wrist flexion/extension, and hand open/close) using intramuscular EMG. Approach We evaluated task performance of five able-bodied subjects in a virtual environment using two control strategies with fine-wire EMG: (i) parallel dual-site differential control, which enabled simultaneous control of three DOFs and (ii) pattern recognition control, which required sequential control of DOFs. Main Results Over the course of the experiment, subjects using parallel dual-site control demonstrated increased use of simultaneous control and improved performance in a Fitts' Law test. By the end of the experiment, performance using parallel dual-site control was significantly better (up to a 25% increase in throughput) than when using sequential pattern recognition control for tasks requiring multiple DOFs. The learning trends with parallel dual-site control suggested that further improvements in performance metrics were possible. Subjects occasionally experienced difficulty in performing isolated single-DOF movements with parallel dual-site control but were able to accomplish related Fitts' Law tasks with high levels of path efficiency. Significance These results suggest that intramuscular EMG, used in a parallel dual-site configuration, can provide simultaneous control of a multi-DOF prosthetic wrist and hand and may outperform current methods that enforce sequential control. PMID:25394366

  3. Onset in abdominal muscles recorded simultaneously by ultrasound imaging and intramuscular electromyography.

    PubMed

    Vasseljen, Ottar; Fladmark, Anne M; Westad, Christian; Torp, Hans G

    2009-04-01

    Delayed onset of muscle activity in abdominal muscles has been related to low back pain. To investigate this in larger clinical trials it would be beneficial if non-invasive and less cumbersome alternatives to intramuscular electromyography (EMG) were available. This study was designed to compare onset of muscle activity recorded by intramuscular EMG to onset of muscle deformations by ultrasound imaging. Muscle deformations were recorded by two ultrasound imaging modes at high time resolution (m-mode and tissue velocity) in separate sessions and compared to simultaneously recorded intramuscular EMG in three abdominal muscles. Tissue velocity imaging was converted to strain rate which measures deformation velocity gradients within small regions, giving information about the rate of local tissue shortening or lengthening along the beam axis. Onsets in transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE) were recorded during rapid arm flexions in ten healthy subjects. During ultrasound m-mode recordings, the results showed that mean onsets by EMG were detected 7 ms (95% CI of mean difference; +/-4 ms) and 2 ms (95% CI of mean difference; +/-6 ms) before concurrent ultrasound m-mode detected onsets in TrA and OI, respectively. In contrast, OE onset was recorded 54 ms (95% CI of bias; +/-16 ms) later by EMG compared to ultrasound m-mode. The discrepancy of ultrasound m-mode to accurately record onset in OE was practically corrected in the ultrasound-based strain rate recordings. However, this could only be applied on half of the subjects due to the angle dependency between the ultrasound beam and the direction of the contraction in strain rate recordings. The angle dependency needs to be further explored.

  4. Intramuscular nerve damage in lacerated skeletal muscles may direct the inflammatory cytokine response during recovery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Barry P; Tan, Bee Leng; Han, Hwan Chour; Zou, Yu; Aung, Khin Zarchi; Leong, David T

    2012-07-01

    The expression of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in surgically repaired lacerated muscles over a 12-week recovery phase was investigated. We hypothesized that these expression levels are influenced by both neural and muscular damage within lacerated muscles. Microarrays were confirmed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays and histology of biopsies at the lesion of three simulated lacerated muscle models in 130 adult rats. The lacerated medial gastrocnemius with the main intramuscular nerve branch either cut (DN), crushed but leaving an intact nerve sheath (RN); or preserved intact (PN) were compared. At 4 weeks, DN had a higher number of interleukins up-regulated. DN and RN also had a set of Bmp genes significantly expressed between 2 and 8 weeks (P ≤ 0.05). By 12 weeks, DN had a poorer and slower myogenic recovery and greater fibrosis formation correlating with an up-regulation of the Tgf-β gene family. DN also showed poorer re-innervation with higher mRNA expression levels of nerve growth factor (Ngf) and brain-derived neurotrophin growth factor (Bdnf) over RN and PN. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory response over 12 weeks in lacerated muscles may be directed by the type of intramuscular nerve damage, which can influence the recovery at the lesion site. Inflammatory-related genes associated to the type of intramuscular nerve damage include Gas-6, Artemin, Fgf10, Gdf8, Cntf, Lif, and Igf-2. qPCR also found up-regulation of Bdnf (1-week), neurotrophin-3 (2w), Lif (4w), and Ngf (4w, 8w) mRNA expressions in DN, making them possible candidates for therapeutic treatment to arrest the poor recovery in muscle lacerations (250). Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Real-time simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control using intramuscular EMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lauren H.; Kuiken, Todd A.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric prostheses use electromyographic (EMG) signals to control movement of prosthetic joints. Clinically available myoelectric control strategies do not allow simultaneous movement of multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs); however, the use of implantable devices that record intramuscular EMG signals could overcome this constraint. The objective of this study was to evaluate the real-time simultaneous control of three DOFs (wrist rotation, wrist flexion/extension, and hand open/close) using intramuscular EMG. Approach. We evaluated task performance of five able-bodied subjects in a virtual environment using two control strategies with fine-wire EMG: (i) parallel dual-site differential control, which enabled simultaneous control of three DOFs and (ii) pattern recognition control, which required sequential control of DOFs. Main results. Over the course of the experiment, subjects using parallel dual-site control demonstrated increased use of simultaneous control and improved performance in a Fitts’ Law test. By the end of the experiment, performance using parallel dual-site control was significantly better (up to a 25% increase in throughput) than when using sequential pattern recognition control for tasks requiring multiple DOFs. The learning trends with parallel dual-site control suggested that further improvements in performance metrics were possible. Subjects occasionally experienced difficulty in performing isolated single-DOF movements with parallel dual-site control but were able to accomplish related Fitts’ Law tasks with high levels of path efficiency. Significance. These results suggest that intramuscular EMG, used in a parallel dual-site configuration, can provide simultaneous control of a multi-DOF prosthetic wrist and hand and may outperform current methods that enforce sequential control.

  6. Interaction of central venous pressure, intramuscular pressure, and carotid baroreflex function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Foresman, B. H.; Raven, P. B.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Seven healthy volunteer men participated in an experiment involving lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 30 Torr and acute volume expansions of 5-6% (VE-I) and 9-10% (VE-II) of their total blood volume (TBV) to differentiate the effect of increased intramuscular pressure and central venous pressure (CVP) on the maximal gain (Gmax) of the carotid baroreflex. During each experimental condition, the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP; intraradial artery or Finapres), and CVP (at the 3rd-4th intercostal space) were monitored continuously. Gmax was derived from the logistic modeling of the HR and MAP responses to ramped changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure using a protocol of pulsatile changes in neck chamber pressure from +40 to -65 Torr. The increase in CVP during +30-Torr LBPP was 1.5 mmHg (P < 0.05) and was similar to that observed during VE-I (1.7 mmHg, P > 0.05). The Gmax of the carotid baroreflex of HR and MAP was significantly decreased during LBPP by -0.145 +/- 0.039 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1) (38%) and -0.071 +/- 0.013 mmHg/mmHg (25%), respectively; however, VE-I did not affect Gmax. During VE-II, CVP was significantly greater than that elicited by LBPP, and the Gmax of the carotid baroreflex of the HR and MAP responses was significantly reduced. We conclude that carotid baroreflex responsiveness was selectively inhibited by increasing intramuscular pressure, possibly resulting in an activation of the intramuscular mechanoreceptors during LBPP. Furthermore, it would appear that the inhibition of the carotid baroreflex, via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor loading (increased CVP), occurred when a threshold pressure (CVP) was achieved.

  7. Influence of Cu10x copper nanoparticles intramuscular injection on mineral composition of rat spleen.

    PubMed

    Sizova, Elena; Glushchenko, Natalia; Miroshnikov, Sergey; Skalny, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Spleen mineral composition was studied for 25 elements using atomic emission and mass spectrometry (AES-ISP and MS-ISP) for the first time by one- and manifold intramuscular injection of Cu10x copper nanoparticles. This was done, because the spleen is considered to be the organ most amenable of immunological defense and sensitive to exposure. The research is new and based on the necessity to check the accumulation of elements, which can result in toxic effects, and also the character of the influence of nanoparticles on the change of the natural fluctuation rhythm, as well as the interrelation between them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Colella, Giuseppe; Biondi, Paolo; Caltabiano, Rosario; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Amico, Paolo; Magro, Gaetano

    2009-06-22

    We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle fibers of the tongue. The patient is well with no local recurrence after a 15-month follow-up period.

  9. An unusual case of an intramuscular lipoma of the biceps brachii

    PubMed Central

    Lahrach, Kamal; el Kadi, Khalid Ibn; Mezzani, Amine; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    Lipomas are common benign neoplasms consisting of mature fatty tissue. They are usually of roundish or ovoid shape and are situated in a single anatomical region. They most frequently occur on the back and in the extremities. Most lipomas are subcutaneous and require no imaging evaluation. When deep, large and unusual in location, MRI can identify and localise these tumours and is the best exploration to differentiate lipoma and lipo-sarcoma. We describe a case of a patient with an intramuscular lipoma of the biceps brachii. PMID:24062869

  10. Giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of giant intramuscular lipoma of the tongue. A 75-year-old Italian male presented at our department with a large tumor at the tip of the tongue that had been present for over 30 years. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 10 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from lingual surface. Histological examination showed an unencapsulated lipomatous tumor composed of mature adipocytes, uniform in size and shape, diffusely infiltrating striated muscle fibers of the tongue. The patient is well with no local recurrence after a 15-month follow-up period. PMID:19830025

  11. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with a Live-Attenuated Triple Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 Induces Robust Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity To Completely Protect Animals against Pneumonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B; Fitts, Eric C; Popov, Vsevolod L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-12-01

    Earlier, we showed that the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 with deleted genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp), an acyltransferase (MsbB), and the attachment invasion locus (Ail), respectively, was avirulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. In this study, we further evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant and its derivative by different routes of vaccination. Mice were immunized via the subcutaneous (s.c.) or the intramuscular (i.m.) route with two doses (2 × 10(6) CFU/dose) of the above-mentioned triple mutant with 100% survivability of the animals. Upon subsequent pneumonic challenge with 70 to 92 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of wild-type (WT) strain CO92, all of the mice survived when immunization occurred by the i.m. route. Since Ail has virulence and immunogenic potential, a mutated version of Ail devoid of its virulence properties was created, and the genetically modified ail replaced the native ail gene on the chromosome of the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant, creating a Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 vaccine strain. This newly generated mutant was attenuated similarly to the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant when administered by the i.m. route and provided 100% protection to animals against subsequent pneumonic challenge. Not only were the two above-mentioned mutants cleared rapidly from the initial i.m. site of injection in animals with no histopathological lesions, the immunized mice did not exhibit any disease symptoms during immunization or after subsequent exposure to WT CO92. These two mutants triggered balanced Th1- and Th2-based antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity. A substantial increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) from the T cells of vaccinated mice, a cytokine of the Th17 cells, further augmented their vaccine potential. Thus, the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail and Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 mutants represent excellent vaccine candidates for plague, with the latter mutant still retaining Ail immunogenicity but

  12. Plasma concentrations, behavioural and physiological effects following intravenous and intramuscular detomidine in horses.

    PubMed

    Mama, K R; Grimsrud, K; Snell, T; Stanley, S

    2009-11-01

    Detomidine hydrochloride is used to provide sedation, muscle relaxation and analgesia in horses, but a lack of information pertaining to plasma concentration has limited the ability to correlate drug concentration with effect. To build on previous information and assess detomidine for i.v. and i.m. use in horses by simultaneously assessing plasma drug concentrations, physiological parameters and behavioural characteristics. Systemic effects would be seen following i.m. and i.v. detomidine administration and these effects would be positively correlated with plasma drug concentrations. Behavioural (e.g. head position) and physiological (e.g. heart rate) responses were recorded at fixed time points from 4 min to 24 h after i.m. or i.v. detomidine (30 microg/kg bwt) administration to 8 horses. Route of administration was assigned using a balanced crossover design. Blood was sampled at predetermined time points from 0.5 min to 48 h post administration for subsequent detomidine concentration measurements using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were summarised as mean +/- s.d. for subsequent analysis of variance for repeated measures. Plasma detomidine concentration peaked earlier (1.5 min vs. 1.5 h) and was significantly higher (105.4 +/- 71.6 ng/ml vs. 6.9 +/- 1.4 ng/ml) after i.v. vs. i.m. administration. Physiological and behavioural changes were of a greater magnitude and observed at earlier time points for i.v. vs. i.m. groups. For example, head position decreased from an average of 116 cm in both groups to a low value 35 +/- 23 cm from the ground 10 min following i.v. detomidine and to 64 +/- 24 cm 60 min after i.m. detomidine. Changes in heart rate followed a similar pattern; low value of 17 beats/min 10 min after i.v. administration and 29 beats/min 30 min after i.m. administration. Plasma drug concentration and measured effects were correlated positively and varied with route of administration following a single dose of detomidine. Results support a

  13. Side effects and potential risk factors of botulinum toxin type A intramuscular injections in knee flexion contractures of hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos; De la Corte-Rodriguez, Hortensia

    2017-07-01

    Knee flexion contracture (KFC) is a common complication of recurrent hemarthrosis in children and young adults with hemophilia. If the KFC is not prevented (by means of primary prophylaxis) and treated properly and early (be means of physical medicine and rehabilitation), it will become fixed. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the potential role of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) intramuscular injections for the treatment of KFC in people with hemophilia (PWH). Expert commentary: Although two recent reports have mentioned the benefits of intramuscular injections of BTX-A in PWH with KFC, the data are still scant and too preliminary. The use of intramuscular injections of BTX-A in PWH today should not be recommended until more case studies/small series (ideally well-designed clinical trials) fully demonstrate that this is safe and effective. The risks of intramuscular injections to a hemophilia patient cannot be underestimated (iatrogenic muscle hematomas and pseudotumors). This paper calls the attention of hemophilia treaters on the potential risks of this apparently interesting technique. The current use of BTX-A intramuscular injections in KFC of PWH could make no sense. Raising false expectations in these patients should be avoided.

  14. Diamorphine for pain relief in labour : a randomised controlled trial comparing intramuscular injection and patient-controlled analgesia.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hillan, Edith; Clark, Diana; Gilmour, Harper

    2004-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of diamorphine administered by a patient-controlled pump (patient-controlled analgesia) with intramuscular administration for pain relief in labour. Randomised controlled trial. The South Glasgow University Hospitals NHS Trust. Primigravidae and multigravidae in labour at term (37-42 weeks). Women were randomised in labour to the study (patient-controlled analgesia) or control group (intramuscular). Randomisation was achieved through a random permuted block design stratified by parity. Study group women were given a loading dose of 1.2 mg diamorphine intravenously and then attached to the pump. Control group women received intramuscular diamorphine as per hospital protocol. Participants were also given 3 mg of buccal Stemetil. Data were collected throughout labour and at six postnatal weeks. Analgesia requirements during labour and women's satisfaction with the method of pain relief. Women in the study group (patient-controlled analgesia) used significantly less diamorphine than women in the control group (intramuscular) but were significantly more likely to state that they were very dissatisfied with their use of diamorphine and were significantly more likely to opt out of the trial before the birth of the baby. The majority of women in both groups used other analgesia concurrent with diamorphine such as Entonox, aromatherapy or TENS. Patient-controlled analgesia administration of diamorphine for the relief of pain in labour offers no significant advantages over intramuscular administration. The results also suggest that diamorphine is a poor analgesic for labour pain irrespective of the mode of administration.

  15. Quantensprung Digitalisierung - Energiewirtschaft im 21. Jahrhundert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyen, Elmar

    Die Energiewende wird ohne eine umfassende Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft Stückwerk bleiben. Die historisch gewachsene, aus hunderten fossilen Großkraftwerken getriebene Energieversorgung hat sich durch den Zubau von mehr als einer Millionen dezentraler Erzeugungseinheiten innerhalb der vergangenen 15 Jahren radikal verändert. Zum Ausgleich von Last und Erzeugung, aber auch zum Aufbau neuer Geschäftsfelder ist die digitale Technik unverzichtbar. Ihre Möglichkeiten scheinen nahezu unbegrenzt, ihre Rolle wird in einer zukünftig nahezu vollständig elektrifizierten Gesellschaft zunehmend wichtiger werden. Neue Anbieter drängen auf den Markt und setzen die traditionelle Energiewirtschaft unter Druck. Energieversorger, die sich dem Wandel nicht stellen, drohen den Anschluss zu verpassen. Noch werden Verbundunternehmen und Stadtwerke von weitreichenden regulatorischen Vorgaben geschützt. Beispiele aus anderen Branchen zeigen aber, dass die Digitalisierung im Stande ist, regulatorische Mechanismen außer Kraft zu setzen. Zugleich verhindert die enge Regulierung und ein falsch verstandener Datenschutzbegriff in Deutschland die Entwicklung neuer Geschäftsmodelle, die energie- und volkswirtschaftlich sinnvoll wären.

  16. A digital boxcar integrator for IMS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin J.; Stimac, Robert M.; Wernlund, Roger F.; Parker, Donald C.

    1995-01-01

    When trying to detect or quantify a signal at or near the limit of detectability, it is invariably embeded in the noise. This statement is true for nearly all detectors of any physical phenomena and the limit of detectability, hopefully, occurs at very low signal-to-noise levels. This is particularly true of IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometers) spectra due to the low vapor pressure of several chemical compounds of great interest and the small currents associated with the ionic detection process. Gated Integrators and Boxcar Integrators or Averagers are designed to recover fast, repetitive analog signals. In a typical application, a time 'Gate' or 'Window' is generated, characterized by a set delay from a trigger or gate pulse and a certain width. A Gated Integrator amplifies and integrates the signal that is present during the time the gate is open, ignoring noise and interference that may be present at other times. Boxcar Integration refers to the practice of averaging the output of the Gated Integrator over many sweeps of the detector. Since any signal present during the gate will add linearly, while noise will add in a 'random walk' fashion as the square root of the number of sweeps, averaging N sweeps will improve the 'Signal-to-Noise Ratio' by a factor of the square root of N.

  17. The effects of combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation on motor function in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae Gun; Park, Eunhee; Kang, Chung; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2016-11-22

    Both transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), when provided to stroke patients in combination with motor training, enhance therapeutic efficacy and motor function. However, the majority of previous studies have only examined a single treatment modality. The authors investigated the modulating influence of combination dual-mode brain stimulation upon bihemispheric stimulation with motor training in stroke patients. Twenty stroke patients with hemiparesis underwent five randomly arranged sessions of diverse combinations of rTMS and tDCS. We applied cathodal or anodal tDCS over the contralesional primary motor cortex (cM1) and 10 Hz rTMS over the ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) in a simultaneous or preconditioning method including sham stimulation. Immediately after dual-mode stimulation, sequential hand motor training was performed for 5 minutes. The total pulses of rTMS and the duration of tDCS and motor training were the same for all sessions. Cortical excitability and sequential motor performance were evaluated before and after each session. Motor function and corticomotor excitability following simultaneous stimulation via cathodal tDCS over the cM1 combined with 10 Hz rTMS over the iM1 were significantly increased after the intervention, with significantly greater motor improvement than seen with other treatment conditions (P < 0.05). For the combination of bihemispheric rTMS and tDCS, simultaneous stimulation of cathodal tDCS and 10 Hz rTMS results in better motor performance in stroke patients than other combination methods. This result seemed to be related to effective modulation of interhemispheric imbalance of cortical excitability by dual-mode stimulation.

  18. Development of a human-specific B. thetaiotaomicron IMS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) assays utilize paramagnetic beads and target-specific antibodies to isolate target organisms. Following isolation, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) is extracted from the target population and quantified. An inversely-coupled (Inv-IMS/ATP)assay for detection of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was developed and applied for rapid detection of human-associated fecal contamination in surface waters in Baja California. Specificity of the assay was tested against challenge solutions of varying concentrations of dog, gull, horse and chicken feces, and a field validation survey of coastal and WWTP effluent water quality in Rosarito and Enseneda, Baja California was conducted. Inv IMS/ATP measurements made shown to be specific and sensitive to human fecal contamination. At test concentrations of less than 1000 MPN ENT/100 mL, sensitivity and specificity of the assay both exceeded 80%. Moreover, the Inv-IMS/ATP assay yielded measurements of viable B. thetaiotaomicron that were comparable to the HF183 human marker in complex surface waters impacted with both wastewater and runoff, and the Inv-IMS/ATP assay was able to effectively differentiate between surface waters impacted with adequately and inadequately treated wastewater. The Inv-IMS/ATP assays shows promise for rapid evaluation of recreational water quality in areas where access to more expensive methods is limited and in areas where water quality in unpredicta

  19. Thin layer chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (TLC-IMS).

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-06

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a fast and sensitive analytical method which operates at the atmospheric pressure. To enhance the capability of IMS for the analysis of mixtures, it is often used with preseparation techniques, such as GC or HPLC. Here, we report for the first time the coupling of the thin-layer chromatography and IMS. A variety of coupling schemes were tried that included direct electrospray from the TLC strip tip, indirect electrospray from a needle connected to the TLC strip, introducing the moving solvent into the injection port, and, the simplest way, offline introduction of scratched or cut pieces of strips into the IMS injection port. In this study a special solvent tank was designed and the TLC strip was mounted horizontally where the solvent would flow down. A very small funnel right below the TLC tip collected the solvent and transferred it to a needle via a capillary tubing. Using the TLC-ESI-IMS technique, acceptable separations were achieved for two component mixtures of morphine-papaverine and acridine-papaverine. A special injection port was designed to host the pieces cut off the TLC. The method was successfully used to identify each spot on the TLC by IMS in a few seconds.

  20. Overview of IMS infrasound station and engineering projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Doury, B.; Kramer, A.; Martysevich, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in acoustic source detection, localization and characterization. The infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) constitutes the only worldwide ground-based infrasound network. It consists of sixty stations, among which forty-eight are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. The characteristics of infrasonic waves are computed in near real-time by IDC automatic detection software and are used as an input to IDC source categorization and localization algorithms. The PTS is continuously working towards the completion and sustainment of the IMS infrasound network. The objective of this presentation is to review the main activities performed in the IMS infrasound network over the last five years. This includes construction, installation, certification, major upgrade and revalidation activities. Major technology development projects to improve the reliability and robustness of IMS infrasound stations as well as their compliance with IMS Operational Manual requirements will also be presented. This includes advances in array geometry, wind noise reduction, system calibration, meteorological data as well as power and communication infrastructures. Finally the impact of all these changes on the overall detection capability of the IMS infrasound network will be highlighted.

  1. Coherent ambient infrasound recorded by the global IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Landes, M.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Brown, D.

    2011-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) includes a global network of infrasound arrays, which is designed to detect atmospheric nuclear explosions anywhere on the planet. The infrasound network also has potential application in detection of natural hazards such as large volcanic explosions and severe weather. Ambient noise recorded by the network includes incoherent wind noise and coherent infrasound. We present a statistical analysis of coherent infrasound recorded by the IMS network. We have applied broadband (0.01 to 5 Hz) array processing systematically to the multi-year IMS historical dataset (2005-present) using an implementation of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) algorithm in log-frequency space. We show that IMS arrays consistently record coherent ambient infrasound across the broad frequency range from 0.01 to 5 Hz when wind-noise levels permit. Multi-year averaging of PMCC detection bulletins emphasizes continuous signals such as oceanic microbaroms, as well as persistent transient signals such as repetitive volcanic, surf, or anthropogenic activity (e.g., mining or industrial activity). While many of these continuous or repetitive signals are of interest in their own right, they may dominate IMS array detection bulletins and obscure or complicate detection of specific signals of interest. The new PMCC detection bulletins have numerous further applications, including in volcano and microbarom studies, and in IMS data quality assessment.

  2. Dietary Effects on Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of Fatty Acids in Polar and Neutral Fractions of Intramuscular Fat of Lambs.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Katryna A; Camin, Federica; Jerónimo, Eliana; Vasta, Valentina; Prenzler, Paul D; Ryan, Danielle; Bessa, Rui J B

    2017-11-01

    In this study we measured δ 13 C values of the main fatty acids (FA) present in neutral and polar intramuscular lipids of meat samples from 24 lambs, fed with four different diets supplemented with sunflower and linseed oil and the tanniferous shrub Cistus ladanifer L. The objective was to understand if the increase in intramuscular fat observed in lambs fed simultaneously C. ladanifer and oil was explained mostly by incorporation of diet derived FA or by increased de novo FA synthesis. De novo FA synthesis was evaluated by 13 C enrichment (‰) of 16:0 in intramuscular lipids compared to bulk diet or compared to dietary 16:0. Oil reduced 13 C enrichment of 16:0 in muscle lipid but had no effect when the diet included C. ladanifer (P value <0.01). Thus, dietary C. ladanifer blocked the inhibitory effects of lipid supplementation on de novo FA synthesis.

  3. Selection for intramuscular fat and lean meat yield will improve the bloomed colour of Australian lamb loin meat.

    PubMed

    Calnan, H B; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2017-09-01

    The colour of bloomed m. longissimus was measured 24h post slaughter for 8165 lamb carcasses produced over 5years across 8 sites in Australia. Intramuscular fat across a 2 to 8% range and shortloin fat weight were positively associated with meat lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue and chroma (P<0.01). Shortloin muscle weight was negatively associated with these meat colour parameters (P<0.01), although this was largely accounted for by correlated changes in intramuscular fat (P<0.01). The effect of sire breeding values for lamb weight, shortloin muscle depth and fat depth on loin L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma were small and varied between lambs of different sire type, dam breed and sex. Thus selection for lean meat yield will have neutral or positive effects on meat colour, while selection for increased intramuscular fat will make the bloomed colour of lamb meat lighter and redder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Intramuscular Active Hemorrhage with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jhj@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Hyo-Cheol

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for intramuscular active hemorrhage of varied etiologies and anatomic sites. Methods: Eighteen patients who demonstrated hematoma with pseudoaneurysm and/or active extravasation of contrast media underwent TAE with NBCA. Etiologies of hematoma included trauma, postoperative complication, and coagulopathy (due to underlying disease or anticoagulation therapy). Sites of embolization included chest wall, abdomen wall, retroperitoneum, and extremity. TAE was performed by using 1:3 to 1:5 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil, either solely (n = 15) or in combination with microcoilmore » (n = 3). The technical and clinical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 83% (15/18), respectively. Two patients expired while admitted due to other comorbidities. One patient expired due to recurrent bleeding at another site. There were no serious complications relating to the embolization procedure. Conclusions: TAE with NBCA is effective and safe treatment modality for intramuscular active hemorrhage.« less

  5. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    PubMed

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  6. Intramuscular pressure varies with depth. The tibialis anterior muscle studied in 12 volunteers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhostine, M.; Styf, J. R.; van Leuven, S.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    Pressures in the tibialis anterior muscle were recorded at rest and during exercise with transducer-tipped catheters in 12 volunteers while they were supine or standing. The recordings were repeated with venous stasis created by an inflated tourniquet cuff on the thigh. Catheters were placed at 3 different sites in the muscle: catheter I adjacent to the deep surface of the fascia over the anterior compartment; catheter II between the fascia and the central tendon; and catheter III deep in the muscle close to the interosseous membrane. In both the supine and standing positions the intramuscular pressure at rest and the muscle relaxation pressure during exercise, obtained by catheter II, were greater than the corresponding pressures measured by the superficially located catheter I in the normal as well as in the volume loaded limb. The same conditions for pressure measurement consistently revealed lower pressures recorded by catheter III compared to II, but the difference was not significant. Our results indicate that intramuscular pressure increases centripetally, as the centrally lying tendon is approached. We conclude that pressure measurements for diagnosis of acute and chronic compartment syndromes and in ergonomic studies should be based on recordings from a standard location of the catheter within the muscle and a standard posture of the subject.

  7. Liver metabolism traits in two rabbit lines divergently selected for intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvaro, M; Paucar, Y; Satué, K; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2018-06-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) has a large effect in the sensory properties of meat because it affects tenderness, juiciness and flavour. A divergent selection experiment for IMF in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was performed in rabbits. Since liver is the major site of lipogenesis in rabbits, the objective of this work is to study the liver metabolism in the lines of the divergent selection experiment. Intramuscular fat content, perirenal fat weight, liver weight, liver lipogenic activities and plasma metabolites related to liver metabolism were measured in the eighth generation of selection. Direct response on IMF was 0.34 g/100 g of LD, which represented 2.7 SD of the trait, and selection showed a positive correlated response in the perirenal fat weight. High-IMF line showed greater liver size and greater liver lipogenic activities of enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. We did not find differences between lines for fatty acid synthase lipogenic activity. With regard to plasma metabolites, low-IMF line showed greater plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase than high-IMF line, whereas high-IMF line showed greater albumin and alanine transaminase concentrations than low-IMF line. We did not observe differences between lines for glucose, total protein and plasma concentrations. Phenotypic correlations between fat (IMF and perirenal fat weight) and liver traits showed that liver lipogenesis affects fat deposition in both, muscle and carcass. However, the mechanisms whereby liver lipogenesis affected IMF content remain to be clarified.

  8. Treatment for Intramuscular Lipoma Frequently Confused with Sarcoma: A 6-Year Restrospective Study and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jong Yun; Seo, Bommie F.; Oh, Deuk Young; Ahn, Sang Tae; Rhie, Jong Won

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Intramuscular lipoma is a very rare form of lipoma, known to be categorized as an infiltrating lipoma due to its tendencies to infiltrate the muscle or the synovium. Contrary to other subcutaneous lipomas, even after surgical removal, the rate of local recurrence ranges at a high rate from 50∼80% and differential diagnosis with liposarcoma is very difficult. Patients and Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted for a total of 27 patients. Before performing a surgery based on the types of mass, a radiologic imaging study was performed. An intraoperative frozen biopsy was performed on every patient and the results were compared. The progress was monitored every 3 to 6 months for recurrence or struggles with rehabilitation. Results. There were 13 male and 14 female patients with an average age of 54.6. The average tumor size was 8.2 cm (1.1 cm∼31.6 cm). Excision was performed using a wide excision. All 27 individuals were initially diagnosed as intramuscular lipoma; however, 1 of the patients was rediagnosed as liposarcoma in the final checkup. The patients had an average of 3 years and 1 month of follow-up and did not suffer recurrences. Conclusion. Thus, it is essential that a frozen biopsy is performed during the surgery in order to identify its malignancy. And a wide excision like malignant tumor operation is a principle of treatment. PMID:25574469

  9. Relationship between grasping force and features of single-channel intramuscular EMG signals.

    PubMed

    Kamavuako, Ernest Nlandu; Farina, Dario; Yoshida, Ken; Jensen, Winnie

    2009-12-15

    The surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal can be used for force prediction and control in prosthetic devices. Because of technological advances on implantable sensors, the use of intramuscular EMG (iEMG) is becoming a potential alternative to sEMG for the control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF). An invasive system is not affected by crosstalk, typical of sEMG, and provides more stable and independent control sites. However, intramuscular recordings provide more local information because of their high selectivity, and may thus be less representative of the global muscle activity with respect to sEMG. This study investigates the capacity of selective single-channel iEMG recordings to represent the grasping force with respect to the use of sEMG with the aim of assessing if iEMG can be an effective method for proportional myoelectric control. sEMG and iEMG were recorded concurrently from 10 subjects who exerted six grasping force profiles from 0 to 25/50N. The linear correlation coefficient between features extracted from iEMG and force was approximately 0.9 and was not significantly different from the degree of correlation between sEMG and force. This result indicates that a selective iEMG recording is representative of the applied grasping force and can be used for proportional control.

  10. Best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular needle injections.

    PubMed Central

    Hutin, Yvan; Hauri, Anja; Chiarello, Linda; Catlin, Mary; Stilwell, Barbara; Ghebrehiwet, Tesfamicael; Garner, Julia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To draw up evidence-based guidelines to make injections safer. METHODS: A development group summarized evidence-based best practices for preventing injection-associated infections in resource-limited settings. The development process included a breakdown of the WHO reference definition of a safe injection into a list of potentially critical steps, a review of the literature for each of these steps, the formulation of best practices, and the submission of the draft document to peer review. FINDINGS: Eliminating unnecessary injections is the highest priority in preventing injection-associated infections. However, when intradermal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injections are medically indicated, best infection control practices include the use of sterile injection equipment, the prevention of contamination of injection equipment and medication, the prevention of needle-stick injuries to the provider, and the prevention of access to used needles. CONCLUSION: The availability of best infection control practices for intradermal, subcutaneous, and intramuscular injections will provide a reference for global efforts to achieve the goal of safe and appropriate use of injections. WHO will revise the best practices five years after initial development, i.e. in 2005. PMID:12973641

  11. Transcriptome analysis reveals differential gene expression in intramuscular adipose tissues of Jinhua and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhiguo; Wei, Panpeng; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Zhang, Jinzhou; Guo, Liping; Liu, Dongyang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Bai, Yueyu; Wang, Shan

    2018-05-01

    Meat is a rich source of protein, fatty acids and carbohydrates for human needs. In addition to necessary nutrients, high fat contents in pork increase the tenderness and juiciness of the meat, featuring diverse application in various dishes. This study investigated the transcriptomic profiles of intramuscular adipose tissues in Jinhua and Landrace pigs by employing advanced RNA sequencing. Results showed significant interesting to note that there were significant differences in the expression of genes. 1,632 genes showed significant differential expression, 837 genes were up-regulated and 195 genes were down-regulated. Variations in genes responsible for cell aggregation, extracellular matrix formation, cellular lipid catabolic process, and fatty acid binding strongly supported that both pig breeds feature variable fat and muscle metabolism. Certain differentially expressed genes are included in the pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, Ras signaling pathway and insulin pathway. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction also validated the differential expression of 17 mRNAs between meats of the two pig breeds. Overall, these findings reveal significant differences in fat and protein metabolism of intramuscular adipose tissues of two pig breeds at the transcriptomic level and suggest diversification at the genetic level between breeds of the same species.

  12. Genetics of Marbling in Wagyu Revealed by the Melting Temperature of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Jose L.; Steele, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme marbling or intramuscular deposition of lipid is associated with Wagyu breeds and is therefore assumed to be largely inherited. However, even within 100% full blood Wagyu prepared under standard conditions, there is unpredictable scatter of the degree of marbling. Here, we evaluate melting temperature (Tm) of intramuscular fat as an alternative to visual scores of marbling. We show that “long fed” Wagyu generally has Tm below body temperature but with a considerable range under standardized conditions. Individual sires have a major impact indicating that the variation is genetic rather than environmental or random error. In order to measure differences of lower marbling breeds and at shorter feeding periods, we have compared Tm in subcutaneous fat samples from over the striploin. Supplementary feeding for 100 to 150 days leads to a rapid decrease in Tm of 50% Red Wagyu (Akaushi) : 50% European crosses, when compared to 100% European. This improvement indicates that the genetic effect of Wagyu is useful, predictable, and highly penetrant. Contemporaneous DNA extraction does not affect the measurement of Tm. Thus, provenance can be traced and substitution can be eliminated in a simple and cost-effective manner. PMID:29201894

  13. Comparing performance of amoxicillin and intramuscular benzathine penicillin in relieving manifestations of streptococcal pharyngitis in children.

    PubMed

    Eslami, S T; Nassirian, A; Nassirian, H; Hatami, E; Sobhani, E; Najibpour, R

    2014-12-01

    To compare clinical and bacteriologic responses to intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) and single dose of amoxicillin in Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. This study included 571 children from 6 to 15 years old age, with pharyngitis, who were admitted to 45 elementary and guidance schools from 7 regions of Education Organization in North-East of Iran, Mashhad. They were screened for enrollment and if he/she presented pharyngitis with clinical criteria of sore throat, erythema, exudate and tender or enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes. Exclusion criteria included reports of antibiotic use, negative throat culture for GAS and history of allergy to the drugs. Clinical and bacteriologic responses to BPG and once daily orally amoxicillin were considered and compared. In the amoxicillin group, treatment failure was more than the penicillin group (18.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively) but the difference was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Both drugs were significantly effective in reducing pharyngitis manifestations but penicillin was significantly more effective in reducing exudate than amoxicillin. Our study was in line with studies comparing the two drugs. The results show that once-daily therapy with amoxicillin is as effective as intramuscular benzathine penicillin G for the treatment of GAS pharyngitis, but penicillin was significantly more effective in reducing exudate and concurrent signs vs. amoxicillin.

  14. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke.

    PubMed

    Duricki, Denise A; Hutson, Thomas H; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Shine, H David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C R; Gage, Fred H; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A fatal case of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis possibly caused by an intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Okita, Shunji; Kuroe, Yasutoshi; Nojima, Hiroyoshi; Otani, Shinkichi; Sugiyama, Junichi; Naito, Hiromichi; Kawanishi, Susumu; Hagioka, Shingo; Morimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    An 88-year-old man died of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to a group G streptococcus infection that was possibly caused by an intramuscular injection given 30 hours earlier in his right deltoid muscle. The causative pathogen was later identified to be Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (stG485). Although providing intramuscular injections is an essential skill of health care workers that is performed daily worldwide, it may constitute a port of entry for pathogens via skin breaches that can cause life-threatening infections. All invasive procedures should be carefully performed, especially when immunologically compromised patients are involved.

  16. Grundlegende Steuerungsverfahren im heterogenen Logistiknetz mit Kanban

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Lödding, Hermann; Möller, Niklas; Rücker, Thomas; Schneider, Herfried M.; Zäh, Michael F.

    In vielen Unternehmen werden heterogene (verschiedene) Steuerungen in einem abgestimmten Konzept kombiniert. Je nach Anwendungsfall und Rahmenbedingungen werden Kombinationen allgemein bekannter Steuerungen oder Steuerungsvarianten gemischt eingesetzt, um eine optimale Steuerung für unterschiedliche Fälle zu erreichen. Hierbei stehen neben den bekannten und weit verbreiteten Methoden, wie Material Requirements Planning (MRP) oder Kanban, auch weniger bekannte oder neue Methoden zur Auswahl, wie die Produktionssteuerung mit dezentraler, bestandsorientierter Fertigungsregelung (DBF). Kanban ist ein simples und effizientes Steuerungskonzept, das in der klassischen Form für spezifische einfache Anwendungsfälle umsetzbar ist. Hochentwickelte Steuerungsalgorithmen können helfen, komplexe Abläufe optimal abzubilden. Mit einer grundlegenden Vereinfachung der Abläufe kann allerdings in vielen Fällen ein wesentlich stärkerer und umfassender Verbesserungseffekt erzielt werden. Die wesentliche Fragestellung sollte folglich lauten: Warum ist der Ablauf nicht mit einer einfachen Steuerung wie Kanban abzubilden? Um die Vorteile des Konzepts auch in untypischen Bereichen anwenden zu können, sind jedoch verschiedene Varianten oder Kanban-ähnliche Steuerungsmethoden entstanden. Darüber hinaus sind in der Praxis hybride Steuerungen im Einsatz, welche so kombiniert werden, dass die Zusammensetzung anspruchsvolle Eigenschaftsbilder noch exakt abbildet. In der Praxis basieren die Steuerungsentscheidungen nur zu einem kleinen Teil auf den eigentlichen Steuerungsalgorithmen, wie sie uns das MRP-System zur Verfügung stellt. Moderne Steuerungswelten" schließen alle relevanten Informationsquellen in eine heterogene Entscheidungsmatrix mit ein. Letztlich zählt nicht, ob die Entscheidung auf den Informationen aus dem MRP-System oder auf Softfacts basierend getroffen wurde, sondern nur, ob die Entscheidung erfolgreich war.

  17. A New IMS Based Inter-working Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhongwen; Brunner, Richard

    With the evolution of third generation network, more and more multimedia services are developed and deployed. Any new service to be deployed in IMS network is required to inter-work with existing Internet communities or legacy terminal users in order to appreciate the end users, who are the main drivers for the service to succeed. The challenge for Inter-working between IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) and non-IMS network is “how to handle recipient’s address”. This is because each network has its own routable address schema. For instance, the address for Google Talk user is xmpp:xyz@google.com, which is un-routable in IMS network. Hereafter a new Inter-working (IW) solution between IMS and non-IMS network is proposed for multimedia services that include Instant Messaging, Chat, and File transfer, etc. It is an end-to-end solution built on IMS infrastructure. The Public Service Identity (PSI) defined in 3GPP standard (3rd Generation Partnership Project) is used to allow terminal clients to allocate this IW service. When sending the SIP (Session Initial Protocol) request out for multimedia services, the terminal includes the recipient’s address in the payload instead of the “Request-URI” header. In the network, the proposed solution provides the mapping rules between different networks in MM-IW (Multimedia IW). The detailed technical description and the corresponding use cases are present. The comparison with other alternatives is made. The benefits of the proposed solution are highlighted.

  18. Evaluation of Gas Chromatography/Mini-IMS to Detect VOCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Reese, Eric; Peters, Randy; James, John T.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Toxicology Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (JSC) has pioneered the use of gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC/IMS) for measuring target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) aboard spacecraft. Graseby Dynamics, under contract to NASA/Wyle, has built several volatile organic analyzers (VOA) based on GC/IMS. Foremost among these have been the volatile organic analyzer-risk mitigation unit and the two flight VOA units for International Space Station (ISS). The development and evaluation of these instruments has been chronicled through presentations at the International Conference on Ion Mobility Spectrometry over the past three years. As the flight VOA from Graseby is prepared for operation on ISS at JSC, it is time to begin evaluations of technologies for the next generation VOA, Although the desired instrument characteristics for the next generation unit are the same as the current unit, the requirements are much more stringent. As NASA looks toward future missions beyond Earth environs, a premium will be placed upon small, light, reliable, autonomous hardware. It is with these visions in mind that the JSC Toxicology Laboratory began a search for the next generation VOA. One technology that is a candidate for the next generation VOA is GC/IMS. The recent miniaturization of IMS technology permits it to compete with other, inherently small, technologies such as chip-sized sensor arrays. This paper will discuss the lessons learned from the VOA experience and how that has shaped the design of a potential second generation VOA based upon GC/IMS technology. Data will be presented from preliminary evaluations of GC technology and the mini-IMS when exposed to VOCs likely to be detected aboard spacecraft. Results from the evaluation of an integrated GC/mini-IMS system will be shown if available.

  19. Physiological recruitment of motor units by high-frequency electrical stimulation of afferent pathways.

    PubMed

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Muceli, Silvia; Dosen, Strahinja; Laine, Christopher M; Farina, Dario

    2015-02-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation, but electrically evoked muscle activation is in several ways different from voluntary muscle contractions. These differences lead to challenges in the use of NMES for restoring muscle function. We investigated the use of low-current, high-frequency nerve stimulation to activate the muscle via the spinal motoneuron (MN) pool to achieve more natural activation patterns. Using a novel stimulation protocol, the H-reflex responses to individual stimuli in a train of stimulation pulses at 100 Hz were reliably estimated with surface EMG during low-level contractions. Furthermore, single motor unit recruitment by afferent stimulation was analyzed with intramuscular EMG. The results showed that substantially elevated H-reflex responses were obtained during 100-Hz stimulation with respect to a lower stimulation frequency. Furthermore, motor unit recruitment using 100-Hz stimulation was not fully synchronized, as it occurs in classic NMES, and the discharge rates differed among motor units because each unit was activated only after a specific number of stimuli. The most likely mechanism behind these observations is the temporal summation of subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials from Ia fibers to the MNs. These findings and their interpretation were also verified by a realistic simulation model of afferent stimulation of a MN population. These results suggest that the proposed stimulation strategy may allow generation of considerable levels of muscle activation by motor unit recruitment that resembles the physiological conditions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Progesterone PLGA/mPEG-PLGA Hybrid Nanoparticle Sustained-Release System by Intramuscular Injection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin; Liu, Yang; Guo, Yuting; Zhang, Enbo; Pu, Chenguang; He, Haibing; Yin, Tian; Tang, Xing

    2018-02-14

    To prepare sustained-release PLGA/mPEG-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles of progesterone (PRG), and evaluate the descending required administration dosage in vivo. PRG hybrid nanoparticles (PRG H-NPs) based on PLGA/mPEG-PLGA were compared with PRG nanoparticles (PRG-NPs) of pure PLGA as the matrix and PRG-oil solutions. Nanoparticles (NPs) were formed by the method of nanoemulsion, and the pharmacokinetics of the sustained-release PRG H-NPs in male Sprague dawley (SD) rats were investigated. The rats were randomly divided into four groups, each group received: single dose of PRG H-NPs (14.58 mg/kg, i.m.) and PRG-NPs (14.58 mg/kg, i.m.), repeated dosing for 7 days of PRG-oil (2.08 mg/kg, i.m.) solution (Oil-L) and a higher dosage of PRG-oil (6.24 mg/kg, i.m.) solution (Oil-H), respectively. In the pharmacokinetic test, the PRG H-NPs exhibited a comparatively good sustained-release effect against the PRG-NPs without mPEG-PLGA and PRG-oil solution. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the PRG H-NPs, PRG-NPs, Oil-L and Oil-H were AUC 0-t (ng·h·mL -1 ) 8762.1, 1546.1, 1914.5, and 12,138.9, t 1/2 (h)52.7, 44.1, 8.4 and 44.6 respectively. Owing to the modification of PEG, PRG H-NPs can act as safe delivery platforms for sustained-release of drugs with a lower dosage required.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of detomidine and its metabolites following intravenous and intramuscular administration in horses.

    PubMed

    Grimsrud, K N; Mama, K R; Thomasy, S M; Stanley, S D

    2009-04-01

    Detomidine is commonly used i.v. for sedation and analgesia in horses, but the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of this drug have not been well described. To describe the pharmacokinetics of detomidine and its metabolites, 3-hydroxy-detomidine (OH-detomidine) and detomidine 3-carboxylic acid (COOH-detomidine), after i.v. and i.m. administration of a single dose to horses. Eight horses were used in a balanced crossover design study. In Phase 1, 4 horses received a single dose of i.v. detomidine, administered 30 microg/kg bwt and 4 a single dose i.m. 30 microg/kg bwt. In Phase 2, treatments were reversed. Plasma detomidine, OH-detomidine and COOH-detomidine were measured at predetermined time points using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Following i.v. administration, detomidine was distributed rapidly and eliminated with a half-life (t1/2(el)) of approximately 30 min. Following i.m. administration, detomidine was distributed and eliminated with t1/2(el) of approximately one hour. Following, i.v. administration, detomidine clearance had a mean, median and range of 12.41, 11.66 and 10.10-18.37 ml/min/kg bwt, respectively. Detomidine had a volume of distribution with the mean, median and range for i.v. administration of 470, 478 and 215-687 ml/kg bwt, respectively. OH-detomidine was detected sooner than COOH-detomidine; however, COOH-detomidine had a much greater area under the curve. These pharmacokinetic parameters provide information necessary for determination of peak plasma concentrations and clearance of detomidine in mature horses. The results suggest that, when a longer duration of plasma concentration is warranted, the i.m. route should be considered.

  2. The Other in Me: Interpersonal Multisensory Stimulation Changes the Mental Representation of the Self

    PubMed Central

    Tajadura-Jiménez, Ana; Grehl, Stephanie; Tsakiris, Manos

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that the well-known effect of multisensory stimulation on body-awareness can be extended to self-recognition. Seeing someone else’s face being touched at the same time as one’s own face elicits changes in the mental representation of the self-face. We sought to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms and the effects of interpersonal multisensory stimulation (IMS) on the mental representation of the self and others. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants saw an unfamiliar face being touched synchronously or asynchronously with their own face, as if they were looking in the mirror. Following synchronous, but not asynchronous, IMS, participants assimilated features of the other’s face in the mental representation of their own face as evidenced by the change in the point of subjective equality for morphed pictures of the two faces. Interestingly, synchronous IMS resulted in a unidirectional change in the self-other distinction, affecting recognition of one’s own face, but not recognition of the other’s face. The participants’ autonomic responses to objects approaching the other’s face were higher following synchronous than asynchronous IMS, but this increase was not specific to the pattern of IMS in interaction with the viewed object. Finally, synchronous, as compared to asynchronous, IMS resulted in significant differences in participants’ ratings of their experience, but unlike other bodily illusions, positive changes in subjective experience were related to the perceived physical similarity between the two faces, and not to identification. Conclusions/Significance Synchronous IMS produces quantifiable changes in the mental representations of one’s face, as measured behaviorally. Changes in autonomic responses and in the subjective experience of self-identification were broadly consistent with patterns observed in other bodily illusions, but less robust. Overall, shared multisensory experiences between

  3. Transplantate und Implantate im Mittelohrbereich - Teil 1 (Stand 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, Hans-Georg; Lenarz, Thomas; Eckert, Karl-Ludwig

    In Deutschland leben ungefähr 12 Millionen Menschen, die an einer ein- oder beidseitigen Schwerhörigkeit leiden. Diese kann angeboren oder im Laufe des Lebens erworben sein. Klinisch und therapeutisch wichtig ist die Unterscheidung, ob die Ursache der Schwerhörigkeit im Bereich des Mittelohres, d. h. der Schallübertragung, oder im Bereich des Innenohres, der Hörnerven und der zentralen Hörbahnabschnitte, d. h. der Schallempfindung, liegt. 2,5 Millionen Schwerhörige haben dabei das Problem der Schallübertragung, d.h. die Störung liegt im Mittelohrbereich, und hier kann man in der Regel mit operativen, mikrochirurgisch durchgeführten Massnahmen helfen [1, 2]. Im Vordergrund steht als Ursache hier die chronische Mittelohrentzündung, die sich als Perforation des Trommelfells, als Defekt oder Unterbrechung der Gehörknöchelchen oder auch als Cholesteatom, einer sogenannte Knocheneiterung äussern kann [3]. Therapeutisch und damit als Prinzip der operativen Hörverbesserung steht primär der Verschluss des Trommelfells oder eine Rekonstruktion der Gehörknöchelchen an.

  4. The muscular force transmission system: role of the intramuscular connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Turrina, Andrea; Martínez-González, Miguel Antonio; Stecco, Carla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to analyze in detail the microscopic structure and relations among muscular fibers, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae. In particular, the multilayer organization and the collagen fiber orientation of these elements are reported. The endomysium, perimysium, epimysium and deep fasciae have not just a role of containment, limiting the expansion of the muscle with the disposition in concentric layers of the collagen tissue, but are fundamental elements for the transmission of muscular force, each one with a specific role. From this review it appears that the muscular fibers should not be studied as isolated elements, but as a complex inseparable from their fibrous components. The force expressed by a muscle depends not only on its anatomical structure, but also the angle at which its fibers are attached to the intramuscular connective tissue and the relation with the epimysium and deep fasciae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Guiding intramuscular diaphragm injections using real-time ultrasound and electromyography.

    PubMed

    Sarwal, Aarti; Cartwright, Michael S; Mitchell, Erin; Williams, Koudy; Walker, Francis O; Childers, Martin K

    2015-02-01

    We describe a unique method that combines ultrasound and electromyography to guide intramuscular diaphragm injections in anesthetized large animals. Ultrasound was used to visualize the diaphragm on each side of spontaneously breathing, anesthetized beagle dogs and cynomolgus macaques. An electromyography (EMG) needle was introduced and directed by ultrasound to confirm that the needle entered the muscular portion of the diaphragm, and methylene blue was injected. Injection accuracy was confirmed upon necropsy by tracking the spread of methylene blue. All methylene blue injections were confirmed to have been placed appropriately into the diaphragm. This study demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of using ultrasound and EMG to guide injections and to reduce complications associated with conventional blind techniques. Ultrasound guidance can be used for clinical EMG of the diaphragm. Future applications may include targeted diaphragm injections with gene replacement therapy in neuromuscular diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prediction of intramuscular fat levels in Texel lamb loins using X-ray computed tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Conington, J; Maltin, C; Knott, S; Lambe, N R

    2014-10-01

    For the consumer, tenderness, juiciness and flavour are often described as the most important factors for meat eating quality, all of which have a close association with intramuscular fat (IMF). X-ray computed tomography (CT) can measure fat, muscle and bone volumes and weights, in vivo in sheep and CT predictions of carcass composition have been used in UK sheep breeding programmes over the last few decades. This study aimed to determine the most accurate combination of CT variables to predict IMF percentage of M. longissimus lumborum in Texel lambs. As expected, predicted carcass fat alone accounted for a moderate amount of the variation (R(2)=0.51) in IMF. Prediction accuracies were significantly improved (Adj R(2)>0.65) using information on fat and muscle densities measured from three CT reference scans, showing that CT can provide an accurate prediction of IMF in the loin of purebred Texel sheep. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparison of liquid chromatographic and bioassay procedures for determining depletion of intramuscularly injected tylosin.

    PubMed

    Moats, W A; Harris, E W; Steele, N C

    1985-01-01

    Crossbred pigs weighing 80-110 kg were injected intramuscularly in the ham with 8.8 mg/kg tylosin. Animals were slaughtered in groups of 3 at intervals of 4 h, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after injection, and samples of blood, injected muscle, uninjected muscle, liver, and kidney were analyzed by liquid chromatography (LC) and by bioassay using Sarcina lutea as the test organism. The LC method was far more sensitive with a detection limit of less than 0.1 ppm, while the detection limit by bioassay was about 0.5 ppm in tissue. Results by bioassay and LC sometimes differed considerably for tissue samples. Residues in all tissues were below the tolerance limit of 0.2 ppm at 24 h, except in the injected muscle in one animal. Residues were not detected in any tissue of any animal at 48 h after treatment.

  8. Tissue Distribution of Enrofloxacin in African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) after Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Felt, Stephen; Papich, Mark G; Howard, Antwain; Long, Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Green, Sherril

    2013-01-01

    As part of an enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic study, concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (metabolite) were measured in various tissues (brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and spleen) collected from treated (subcutaneous delivery, n = 3; intramuscular delivery, n = 3; untreated controls, n = 2) adult female Xenopus laevis by using HPLC. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after administration by either route and readily diffused into all sampled tissues. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were present in the tissue samples collected at 8 h. The highest average tissue concentrations for enrofloxacin were found in kidney, with the lowest concentrations in liver. Ciprofloxacin tissue concentrations paralleled but were always lower than those of enrofloxacin for all time points and tissues except brain and kidney. These results, together with previously published pharmacokinetic data and known minimal inhibitory concentrations of common pathogenic bacteria, provide a strong evidence-based rationale for choosing enrofloxacin to treat infectious diseases in X. laevis. PMID:23562103

  9. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Felt, Stephen; Papich, Mark G; Howard, Antwain; Long, Tyler; McKeon, Gabriel; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Green, Sherril

    2013-03-01

    As part of an enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic study, concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (metabolite) were measured in various tissues (brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and spleen) collected from treated (subcutaneous delivery, n = 3; intramuscular delivery, n = 3; untreated controls, n = 2) adult female Xenopus laevis by using HPLC. Enrofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after administration by either route and readily diffused into all sampled tissues. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were present in the tissue samples collected at 8 h. The highest average tissue concentrations for enrofloxacin were found in kidney, with the lowest concentrations in liver. Ciprofloxacin tissue concentrations paralleled but were always lower than those of enrofloxacin for all time points and tissues except brain and kidney. These results, together with previously published pharmacokinetic data and known minimal inhibitory concentrations of common pathogenic bacteria, provide a strong evidence-based rationale for choosing enrofloxacin to treat infectious diseases in X. laevis.

  10. Tissue Response to, and Degradation Rate of, Photocrosslinked Trimethylene Carbonate-Based Elastomers Following Intramuscular Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Timbart, Laurianne; Tse, Man Yat; Pang, Stephen C.; Amsden, Brian G.

    2010-01-01

    Cylindrical elastomers were prepared through the UV-initiated crosslinking of terminally acrylated, 8,000 Da star-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-ε-caprolactone) and star-poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-d,l-lactide). These elastomers were implanted intramuscularly into the hind legs of male Wistar rats to determine the influence of the comonomer on the weight loss, tissue response, and change in mechanical properties of the elastomer. The elastomers exhibited only a mild inflammatory response that subsided after the first week; the response was greater for the stiffer d,l-lactide-containing elastomers. The elastomers exhibited weight loss and sol content changes consistent with a bulk degradation mechanism. The d,l-lactide-containing elastomers displayed a nearly zero-order change in Young’s modulus and stress at break over the 30 week degradation time, while the ε-caprolactone-containing elastomers exhibited little change in modulus or stress at break.

  11. Factors Associated with Loss of Penicillin G Concentrations in Serum After Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin G Injection: A Meta-analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    penicillin V in eradication of group a streptococci from children with acute pharyngitis. Pediatrics. 2001;108:1180–1186. 13. Kassem AS, Zaher SR, Abou...Clin Ther. 1959;6:232–241. 38. Zaher SR, Kassem AS, Abou Shleib H, et al. Differences in serum penicillin concentrations following intramuscular

  12. Intramuscular migration of calcific tendinopathy in the rotator cuff: ultrasound appearance and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Becciolini, Marco; Bonacchi, Giovanni; Galletti, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder is a common condition caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystals, affecting the tendons of the rotator cuff. Among uncommon complication, one is the migration of the calcium in the subacromion-subdeltoid bursa. More rare is the intraosseous migration. We present four cases of an even more rare condition, not well described in literature yet, the intramuscular migration of calcium.

  13. PPARγ coactivator-1α contributes to exercise-induced regulation of intramuscular lipid droplet programming in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Koves, Timothy R; Sparks, Lauren M; Kovalik, J P; Mosedale, Merrie; Arumugam, Ramamani; DeBalsi, Karen L; Everingham, Karen; Thorne, Leigh; Phielix, Esther; Meex, Ruth C; Kien, C Lawrence; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Schrauwen, Patrick; Muoio, Deborah M

    2013-02-01

    Intramuscular accumulation of triacylglycerol, in the form of lipid droplets (LD), has gained widespread attention as a hallmark of metabolic disease and insulin resistance. Paradoxically, LDs also amass in muscles of highly trained endurance athletes who are exquisitely insulin sensitive. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate the expansion and appropriate metabolic control of LDs in the context of habitual physical activity could lead to new therapeutic opportunities. Herein, we show that acute exercise elicits robust upregulation of a broad program of genes involved in regulating LD assembly, morphology, localization, and mobilization. Prominent among these was perilipin-5, a scaffolding protein that affects the spatial and metabolic interactions between LD and their surrounding mitochondrial reticulum. Studies in transgenic mice and primary human skeletal myocytes established a key role for the exercise-responsive transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α in coordinating intramuscular LD programming with mitochondrial remodeling. Moreover, translational studies comparing physically active versus inactive humans identified a remarkably strong association between expression of intramuscular LD genes and enhanced insulin action in exercise-trained subjects. These results reveal an intimate molecular connection between intramuscular LD biology and mitochondrial metabolism that could prove relevant to the etiology and treatment of insulin resistance and other disorders of lipid imbalance.

  14. PPARγ coactivator-1α contributes to exercise-induced regulation of intramuscular lipid droplet programming in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Koves, Timothy R.; Sparks, Lauren M.; Kovalik, J. P.; Mosedale, Merrie; Arumugam, Ramamani; DeBalsi, Karen L.; Everingham, Karen; Thorne, Leigh; Phielix, Esther; Meex, Ruth C.; Kien, C. Lawrence; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Intramuscular accumulation of triacylglycerol, in the form of lipid droplets (LD), has gained widespread attention as a hallmark of metabolic disease and insulin resistance. Paradoxically, LDs also amass in muscles of highly trained endurance athletes who are exquisitely insulin sensitive. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that mediate the expansion and appropriate metabolic control of LDs in the context of habitual physical activity could lead to new therapeutic opportunities. Herein, we show that acute exercise elicits robust upregulation of a broad program of genes involved in regulating LD assembly, morphology, localization, and mobilization. Prominent among these was perilipin-5, a scaffolding protein that affects the spatial and metabolic interactions between LD and their surrounding mitochondrial reticulum. Studies in transgenic mice and primary human skeletal myocytes established a key role for the exercise-responsive transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α in coordinating intramuscular LD programming with mitochondrial remodeling. Moreover, translational studies comparing physically active versus inactive humans identified a remarkably strong association between expression of intramuscular LD genes and enhanced insulin action in exercise-trained subjects. These results reveal an intimate molecular connection between intramuscular LD biology and mitochondrial metabolism that could prove relevant to the etiology and treatment of insulin resistance and other disorders of lipid imbalance. PMID:23175776

  15. Taking the alternative route: Women's experience of intranasal fentanyl, subcutaneous fentanyl or intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Julie-Anne; Jones, Meril; Belan, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    To compare women's experience of receiving either intranasal fentanyl, subcutaneous fentanyl or intramuscular pethidine for labour analgesia. A content analysis was undertaken as part of the third phase of a larger randomised controlled trial, using the per-protocol dataset to examine women's experiences of treatment received. Healthy women birthing at term, who received intranasal fentanyl (n=41), subcutaneous fentanyl (n=37) and/or intramuscular pethidine (n=38) for labour analgesia, were contacted at 6 weeks postpartum to complete a phone questionnaire. A tertiary and regional maternity unit in South Australia. Over 80% of women who received intranasal or subcutaneous fentanyl reported that they would use the treatment again compared to 44.8% of women who had received pethidine (self-administered intranasal fentanyl provided more expressive responses emphasising the route provided a strong sense of control and enablement. Route of administration influenced the women's experience, more women who self-administered intranasal fentanyl reported positive emotional responses, with women reporting increased autonomy and satisfaction. Whereas, women who relied on the midwife to administer subcutaneous fentanyl or intramuscular pethidine, were more often focused on the physical effect of the drug. Pethidine was the least preferred option due to adverse effects. For women requesting parenteral analgesia, fentanyl administered by less invasive routes offers women additional options that may better meet their emotional, cognitive and physical needs than the current practice of administering intramuscular pethidine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of aerosol spray and intramuscular injection of bacteriophage to treat an Escherichia coli respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Huff, W E; Huff, G R; Rath, N C; Balog, J M; Donoghue, A M

    2003-07-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of either aerosol or i.m. injection of bacteriophage to treat an Escherichia coli respiratory infection in broiler chickens. An additional two studies were conducted to enumerate the bacteriophage in the blood of birds at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 24, and 48 h after being sprayed or injected i.m. with bacteriophage. Five birds were bled at each period. In study 1, there were 10 treatments with three replicate pens of 10 birds. The treatments consisted of an untreated control, heat-killed bacteriophage spray, active bacteriophage spray, E. coli challenge at 7 d of age, and E. coli challenge followed by spraying the birds with heat-killed bacteriophage or active bacteriophage at 2, 24, or 48 h after challenge. In study 2 there were 11 treatments with three replicate pens of 10 birds per pen. The treatments were untreated controls, birds injected i.m. in the thigh with heat-killed or active bacteriophage, E. coli challenge at 7 d of age, PBS challenge, E. coli challenge followed by injection of heat-killed or active bacteriophage immediately after challenge or at 24 or 48 h after challenge. In both studies the E. coli challenge consisted of injecting 10(4) cfu into the thoracic air sac. Treatment of this severe E. coli infection with the bacteriophage aerosol spray significantly reduced mortality from 50 to 20% when given immediately after the challenge but had little treatment efficacy when administered 24 or 48 h after challenge. The i.m. injection of bacteriophage significantly reduced mortality from 53 to 17%, 46 to 10%, and 44 to 20% when given immediately, 24, or 48 h after challenge, respectively. Only a few birds sprayed with bacteriophage had detectable bacteriophage in their blood with an average of 96 pfu/mL 1 h after bacteriophage administration, and no bacteriophage was detected 24 and 48 h after bacteriophage administration. All birds injected i.m. with bacteriophage had detectable levels of bacteriophage in

  17. Repeated pulse intramuscular injection of pralidoxime chloride in severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xue; Wang, Ruilan; Xie, Hui; Hu, Jiachang; Zhao, Wenbiao

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the efficacy of 2 therapies for patients with severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, including atropine adverse effects, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, complications, and mortality. A retrospective cohort study of 152 cases collected from May 2008 to November 2012 at 2 urban university hospitals was conducted. Patients admitted to the hospital for organophosphate poisoning were divided into 2 groups with different therapeutic regimens: group A was administered a repeated pulse intramuscular injection of pralidoxime chloride, and group B received the same initial dosage of atropine and pralidoxime chloride, but pralidoxime chloride intravenous therapy was administered for only 3 days, regardless of the length of atropine therapy. Subsequently, atropine adverse effects, length of ICU stay, complications, and mortality were statistically analyzed and compared between the 2 groups. The total dose of atropine was 57.40 ± 15.14 mg in group A and 308.26 ± 139.16 mg in group B; group A received less atropine than did group B (P = .001). The length of ICU stay in group A was reduced (P = .025), and group A had fewer atropine adverse effects (P = .002). However, there was no significant difference in the mortality or complication rate between the 2 groups (P > .05). In patients with severe poisoning, group A used less atropine, had fewer atropine adverse effects, and had a shorter ICU stay. We suggest that therapy should be started as early as possible using a sufficient amount of pralidoxime chloride started intramuscularly in combination with atropine and that the drugs should not be prematurely discontinued. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of intramuscular granisetron on experimentally induced muscle pain by acidic saline.

    PubMed

    Louca, S; Ernberg, M; Christidis, N

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intramuscular administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron reduces experimental muscle pain induced by repeated intramuscular injections of acidic saline into the masseter muscles. Twenty-eight healthy and pain-free volunteers, fourteen women and fourteen men participated in this randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. After a screening examination and registration of the baseline pressure-pain threshold (PPT), the first simultaneous bilateral injections of 0·5 mL acidic saline (9 mg mL(-1) , pH 3·3) into the masseter muscles were performed. Two days later, PPT and pain (VAS) were re-assessed. The masseter muscle was then pre-treated with 0·5 mL granisetron (Kytril(®) 1 mg mL(-1) pH 5·3) on one side and control substance (isotonic saline, 9 mg mL(-1) pH 6) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter a bilateral simultaneous injection of 0·5 mL acidic saline followed. The evoked pain intensity, pain duration, pain area and PPT were assessed. The volunteers returned 1 week later to re-assess VAS and PPT. On the side pre-treated with granisetron, the induced pain had significantly lower intensity and shorter duration (P < 0·05) compared with the side pre-treated with control. A subgroup analysis showed that the effect of granisetron on pain duration was significant only in women (P < 0·001), while the effect on peak pain and pain area were significant in both sexes. The results showed no significant change in PPT. In conclusion, these results indicate that granisetron has a pain-reducing effect on experimentally induced muscle pain by repeated acidic saline injection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Toxicity of Single-dose Intramuscular Injection of Samjeong Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kang; Kim, Chul-Yun; Kim, Nam-Kwen; Sun, Seung-Ho; Seo, Hyung-Sik

    2015-06-01

    This study was carried out in order to find both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of samjeong pharmacopuncture (SP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The SD rats in this study were divided into four groups, one control group (1.0 mL/animal, normal saline) and three experimental groups (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/animal, SP). All groups consisted of five male and five female rats. SP was injected as a single-dose intramuscularly at the thigh. After the injection, general symptoms and weight were observed for 14 days. After the observations had ended, hematologic and serum biochemical examinations, necropsy and a local tolerance test at the injection site were performed. The experiments were carried out at the Good Laboratory Practice firm, Biotoxtech Co. (Cheongwon, Chungbuk). Animal experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee (Approval Number: 130379). No deaths occurred in any of the three experimental groups. The injection of SP had no effects on the general symptoms, body weights, results of the hematologic, and serum biochemical examinations, and necropsy findings. In local tolerance tests at the injection sites, mild inflammation was observed in the experimental group, but it did not appear to be a treatment related effect. Under the conditions of this test, the results from the injection of SP suggest that the approximate lethal dose of SP is above 1.0 mL/animal for both male and female SD rats. Therefore, the clinical use of SP is thought to be safe.

  20. Transduction of satellite cells after prenatal intramuscular administration of lentiviral vectors.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Tippi C; Kobinger, Gary P; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Radu, Antoneta; Javazon, Elizabeth H; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Wilson, James M; Flake, Alan W

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported long-term expression of lacZ in myocytes after in utero intramuscular injection of Mokola and Ebola pseudotyped lentiviral vectors. In further experiments, we have noted that these vectors also transduce small cells at the periphery of the muscle fibers that have the morphology of satellite cells, or muscle stem cells. In this study we performed experiments to further define the morphology and function of these cells. Balb/c mice at 14-15 days gestation were injected intramuscularly with Ebola or Mokola pseudotyped lentiviral vectors carrying CMV-lacZ. Animals were harvested at various time points, muscles were stained with X-gal, and processed for electron microscopy (EM) and immunofluorescence. To determine whether transduced satellite cells were functionally capable of regenerating injured muscles, animals were injected with notexin in the same area 8 weeks after the in utero injection of viral vector. Transmission EM of transduced cells confirmed the ultrastructural appearance of satellite cells. Double immunofluorescence for beta-galactosidase and satellite cell markers demonstrated co-localization of these markers in transduced cells. In the notexin-injured animals, small blue cells were seen at the areas of regeneration that co-localized beta-galactosidase with markers of regenerating satellite cells. Central nucleated blue fibers were seen at late time points, indicating regenerated muscle fibers arising from a transduced satellite cell. This study demonstrates transduction of muscle satellite cells following prenatal viral vector mediated gene transfer. These findings may have important implications for gene therapy strategies directed toward muscular dystrophy.

  1. Resistance exercise increases intramuscular NF-κb signaling in untrained males.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Jeremy R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Jajtner, Adam R; Church, David D; Beyer, Kyle S; Oliveira, Leonardo P; La Monica, Michael B; Riffe, Joshua J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Baker, Kayla M; Fukuda, David H; Roberts, Michael D; Hoffman, Jay R

    2016-12-01

    The NF-κB signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes following exercise stress. This study aims to examine the effects of an acute lower-body resistance exercise protocol and subsequent recovery on intramuscular NF-κB signaling. Twenty-eight untrained males were assigned to either a control (CON; n = 11) or exercise group (EX; n = 17) and completed a lower-body resistance exercise protocol consisting of the back squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises. Skeletal muscle microbiopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis pre-exercise (PRE), 1-hour (1H), 5-hours (5H), and 48-hours (48H) post-resistance exercise. Multiplex signaling assay kits (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA) were used to quantify the total protein (TNFR1, c-Myc) or phosphorylation status of proteins belonging to the NF-κB signaling pathway (IKKa/b, IkBα, NF-κB) using multiplex protein assay. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to determine the effects of the exercise bout on intramuscular signaling at each time point. Additionally, change scores were analyzed by magnitude based inferences to determine a mechanistic interpretation. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a trend for a two-way interaction between the EX and CON Group (p = 0.064) for c-Myc post resistance exercise. Magnitude based inference analysis suggest a "Very Likely" increase in total c-Myc from PRE-5H and a "Likely" increase in IkBα phosphorylation from PRE-5H post-resistance exercise. Results indicated that c-Myc transcription factor is elevated following acute intense resistance exercise in untrained males. Future studies should examine the role that post-resistance exercise NF-κβ signaling plays in c-Myc induction, ribosome biogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration.

  2. Capreomycin oleate microparticles for intramuscular administration: Preparation, in vitro release and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cambronero-Rojas, Adrián; Torres-Vergara, Pablo; Godoy, Ricardo; von Plessing, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Jacqueline; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2015-07-10

    Capreomycin sulfate (CS) is a second-line drug used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The adverse effects profile and uncomfortable administration scheme of CS has led to the development of formulations based on liposomes and polymeric microparticles. However, as CS is a water-soluble peptide that does not encapsulate properly into hydrophobic particulate matrices, it was necessary to reduce its aqueous solubility by forming the pharmacologically active capreomycin oleate (CO) ion pair. The aim of this research was to develop a new formulation of CO for intramuscular injection, based on biodegradable microparticles that encapsulate CO in order to provide a controlled release of the drug with reduced local and systemic adverse effects. The CO-loaded microparticles prepared by spray drying or solvent emulsion-evaporation were characterized in their morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro/in vivo kinetics and tissue tolerance. Through scanning electron microscopy it was confirmed that the microparticles were monodisperse and spherical, with an optimal size for intramuscular administration. The interaction between CO and the components of the microparticle matrix was confirmed on both formulations by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The encapsulation efficiencies for the spray-dried and emulsion-evaporation microparticles were 92% and 56%, respectively. The in vitro kinetics performed on both formulations demonstrated a controlled and continuous release of CO from the microparticles, which was successfully reproduced on an in vivo rodent model. The results of the histological analysis demonstrated that none of the formulations produced significant tissue damage on the site of injection. Therefore, the results suggest that injectable CO microparticles obtained by spray drying and solvent emulsion-evaporation could represent an interesting therapeutic alternative for the treatment of MDR

  3. Intramuscular pressure: A better tool than EMG to optimize exercise for long-duration space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Styf, J.; Kahan, N.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    A serious problem experienced by astronauts during long-duration space flight is muscle atrophy. In order to develop countermeasures for this problem, a simple method for monitoring in vivo function of specific muscles is needed. Previous studies document that both intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) provide quantitative indices of muscle contraction force during isometric exercise. However, at present there are no data available concerning the usefulness of IMP versus EMG during dynamic exercise. Methods: IMP (Myopress catheter) and surface EMG activity were measured continuously and simultaneously in the tibalis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles of 9 normal male volunteers (28-54 years). These parameters were recorded during both concentric and eccentric exercises which consisted of plantarflexon and dorsiflexon of the ankle joint. A Lido Active Isokinetic Dynamometer concurrently recorded ankle joint torque and position. Results: Intramuscular pressure correlated linearly with contraction force for both SOL (r exp 2 = 0.037) and TA (R exp 2 = 0.716 and r exp 2 = 0.802, respectively). During eccentric exercises, SOL and TA IMP also correlated linearly with contraction force (r(exp 2) = 0.883 and r(exp 2) = 0.904 respectively), but SOL and TA EMG correlated poorly with force (r(exp 2) = 0.489 and r(exp 2) = 0.702 respectively). Conclusion: IMP measurement provides a better index of muscle contraction force than EMG during concentric and eccentric exercise. IMP reflects intrinsic mechanical properties of individual muscles, such as length tension relationships. Although invasive, IMP provides a more powerful tool and EMG for developing exercise hardware and protocols for astronauts exposed to long-duration space flight.

  4. Intramuscular deoxygenation during exercise in patients who have chronic anterior compartment syndrome of the leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, L. R.; Styf, J. R.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, the definitive diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome is based on invasive measurements of intracompartmental pressure. We measured the intramuscular pressure and the relative oxygenation in the anterior compartment of the leg in eighteen patients who were suspected of having chronic compartment syndrome as well as in ten control subjects before, during, and after exercise. Chronic compartment syndrome was considered to be present if the intramuscular pressure was at least fifteen millimeters of mercury (2.00 kilopascals) before exercise, at least thirty millimeters of mercury (4.00 kilopascals) one minute after exercise, or at least twenty millimeters of mercury (2.67 kilopascals) five minutes after exercise. Changes in relative oxygenation were measured with use of the non-invasive method of near-infrared spectroscopy. In all patients and subjects, there was rapid relative deoxygenation after the initiation of exercise, the level of oxygenation remained relatively stable during continued exercise, and there was reoxygenation to a level that exceeded the pre-exercise resting level after the cessation of exercise. During exercise, maximum relative deoxygenation in the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (mean relative deoxygenation [and standard error], -290 +/- 39 millivolts) was significantly greater than that in the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (-190 +/- 10 millivolts) and that in the control subjects (-179 +/- 14 millivolts) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). In addition, the interval between the cessation of exercise and the recovery of the pre-exercise resting level of oxygenation was significantly longer for the patients who had chronic compartment syndrome (184 +/- 54 seconds) than for the patients who did not have chronic compartment syndrome (39 +/- 19 seconds) and the control subjects (33 +/- 10 seconds) (p < 0.05 for both comparisons).

  5. Daidzein enhances intramuscular fat deposition and improves meat quality in finishing steers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Wang, Can-Yu; -Zhou, Shan; Gong, Jian-Ming; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Xu, Lan-Jiao; Liu, Chan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soy isoflavone daidzein on carcass characteristics, fat deposition, meat quality, and blood metabolites in finishing steers. Fourteen crossbred steers were used in a 120-d finishing study. These steers were stratified by weight into groups and randomly allotted by group to one of two dietary treatments: (1) control and (2) daidzein (500 mg/kg concentrate). The steers were fed a 90% concentrate diet. Supplemental daidzein did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage, but tended to reduce fat proportion (not including intramuscular fat) in carcass and backfat thickness of steers. The carcass bone proportion was greater in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Daidzein supplementation reduced pH at 24 h after slaughtered and moisture content and increased isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, fat content (16.28% and 7.94%), marbling score (5.29 and 3.36), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values in longissimus muscle relative to control treatment. The concentrations of blood metabolites including glucose, blood urea nitrogen, triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were all lower in steers fed daidzein diets than those fed control diets. Current results suggest that supplemental daidzein can affect lipid metabolism, increase intramuscular fat content and marbling score, and improve meat quality in finishing steers. Daidzein should be a promising feed additive for production of high-quality beef meat. PMID:25526906

  6. Information management system study results. Volume 1: IMS study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The information management system (IMS) special emphasis task was performed as an adjunct to the modular space station study, with the objective of providing extended depth of analysis and design in selected key areas of the information management system. Specific objectives included: (1) in-depth studies of IMS requirements and design approaches; (2) design and fabricate breadboard hardware for demonstration and verification of design concepts; (3) provide a technological base to identify potential design problems and influence long range planning (4) develop hardware and techniques to permit long duration, low cost, manned space operations; (5) support SR&T areas where techniques or equipment are considered inadequate; and (6) permit an overall understanding of the IMS as an integrated component of the space station.

  7. IMS: a new technology to develop a telemedicine system.

    PubMed

    Uceda, J D; Elena, M; Blasco, S; Tarrida, C L; Quero, J M

    2008-01-01

    The emergent IMS (Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem) technology appears to improve the current communication technologies. Its characteristics, such as Quality of Service (QoS), make it an advantageous system for innovative applications. Providing integrated services to users is one of the main reasons for the existence of IMS. Operators provide the technology as an open source, to be able to use services developed by researchers. Combining and integrating them, users will receive completely new services. Our proposal of use for IMS is the development of a telemedicine platform, designed to support not only remote biological signal monitoring, but value-added services for diagnosis and medical care, both of these working in real time.

  8. Direct analysis of organic priority pollutants by IMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giam, C. S.; Reed, G. E.; Holliday, T. L.; Chang, L.; Rhodes, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many routine methods for monitoring of trace amounts of atmospheric organic pollutants consist of several steps. Typical steps are: (1) collection of the air sample; (2) trapping of organics from the sample; (3) extraction of the trapped organics; and (4) identification of the organics in the extract by GC (gas chromatography), HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography), or MS (Mass Spectrometry). These methods are often cumbersome and time consuming. A simple and fast method for monitoring atmospheric organics using an IMS (Ion Mobility Spectrometer) is proposed. This method has a short sampling time and does not require extraction of the organics since the sample is placed directly in the IMS. The purpose of this study was to determine the responses in the IMS to organic 'priority pollutants'. Priority pollutants including representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, phenols, chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) were analyzed in both the positive and negative detection mode at ambient atmospheric pressure. Detection mode and amount detected are presented.

  9. Repeated maternal intramuscular or intraamniotic erythromycin incompletely resolves intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection in a sheep model of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Watts, Rory; Megharaj, Smruthi; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Spiller, O Brad; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp are the most commonly isolated microorganisms in association with preterm birth. Maternal erythromycin administration is a standard treatment for preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. There is little evidence of its effectiveness in eradicating Ureaplasma spp from the intrauterine cavity and fetus. We used a sheep model of intrauterine Ureaplasma spp infection to investigate the efficacy of repeated maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment to eradicate such an infection. Thirty ewes with singleton pregnancies received an intraamniotic injection of 10(7) color change units of erythromycin-sensitive Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3 at 55 days' gestation. At 116 days' gestation, 28 ewes with viable fetuses were randomized to receive (1) intraamniotic and maternal intramuscular saline solution treatment (n = 8), (2) single intraamniotic and repeated maternal intramuscular erythromycin treatment (n = 10), or (3) single maternal intramuscular and repeated intraamniotic erythromycin treatment (n = 10). Fetuses were surgically delivered at 125 days' gestation. Treatment efficacy was assessed by culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and histopathologic evaluation. Animals treated with intraamniotic erythromycin had significantly less viable U parvum serovar 3 in the amniotic fluid at delivery. However, neither combination of maternal intramuscular and intraamniotic erythromycin treatment successfully cleared U parvum serovar 3 from the amniotic fluid or fetal tissues. Three de novo erythromycin-resistant U parvum isolates were identified in erythromycin-treated animals. Erythromycin treatment, given both to the ewe and into the amniotic cavity, fails to eradicate intrauterine and fetal U parvum serovar 3 infection and may lead to development of erythromycin resistant U parvum. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intramuscular ketorolac versus oral ibuprofen for pain relief in first-trimester surgical abortion: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Kari P; Hurwitz, Shelley; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2014-02-01

    Oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce pain with first-trimester surgical abortion compared to placebo, but it is unclear if one NSAID is better than another. Some providers administer intramuscular ketorolac, though data regarding its efficacy in abortion are limited. This study was designed to compare oral ibuprofen to intramuscular ketorolac for pain management during first-trimester surgical abortion. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion with local anesthesia were randomized to preprocedural oral ibuprofen, 800 mg given 60-90 min preprocedure, or intramuscular ketorolac, 60 mg given 30-60 min preprocedure. The primary outcome was pain with uterine aspiration on a 21-point, 0-100, numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes included pain with cervical dilation, postoperative pain and patient satisfaction. Ninety-four women were enrolled; 47 were randomized to ibuprofen and 47 to ketorolac. The groups did not differ with regards to demographics, reproductive history or Depression Anxiety Stress Scale scores. Mean pain scores for suction curettage did not differ between groups (52.3 vs. 56.2, p=.53). There was also no difference in pain with cervical dilation (41.6 vs. 45.4, p=0.48) or postoperative pain (22.3 vs. 15.0 p=.076), though patients in the ketorolac group experienced significantly greater arm pain than those who received a placebo injection (30.4 vs. 15.6, p<.001). Satisfaction with pain control did not differ significantly by group. Intramuscular ketorolac does not offer superior pain control compared to oral ibuprofen for first-trimester surgical abortion. Intramuscular ketorolac does not offer superior pain control over oral ibuprofen during first-trimester surgical abortion, is more expensive and causes patients significant arm discomfort. Its use should therefore be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate oral NSAIDs. © 2014.

  11. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  12. Pulsation research during the IMS. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    After describing the development status of the field of magnetic pulsations in 1975, before the initiation of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS), attention is given to the IMS's novel observational results and an attempt is made to identify the most effective research methods employed. It is found that the most fruitful work involved small-scale collaboration between a few individuals or a few groups possessing complementary data sets. Consideration is restricted to research on the long period pulsations which can be broadly classified as field line resonances. Recommendations are made for future research efforts.

  13. 78 FR 37571 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-IMS Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Production Act of 1993--IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on May 30, 2013... seq. (``the Act''), IMS Global Learning Consortium, Inc. (``IMS Global'') has [[Page 37572

  14. Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Harris, Robert T.; Woodard, Daniel; Dudley, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of muscle contractile activity elicited by electromyostimulation (EMS) was mapped and compared to the contractile-activity pattern produced by voluntary effort. This was done by examining the patterns and the extent of contrast shift, as indicated by T2 values, im magnetic resonance (MR) images after isometric activity of the left m. quadriceps of human subjects was elicited by EMS (1-sec train of 500-microsec sine wave pulses at 50 Hz) or voluntary effort. The results suggest that, whereas EMS stimulates the same fibers repeatedly, thereby increasing the metabolic demand and T2 values, the voluntary efforts are performed by more diffuse asynchronous activation of skeletal muscle even at forces up to 75 percent of maximal to maintain performance.

  15. Differential block of nicotinic synapses on B versus C neurones in sympathetic ganglia of frog by alpha-conotoxins MII and ImI.

    PubMed

    Tavazoie, S F; Tavazoie, M F; McIntosh, J M; Olivera, B M; Yoshikami, D

    1997-03-01

    1. The effects of two new acetylcholine receptor antagonists, alpha-conotoxin MII and alpha-conotoxin ImI, on nicotinic synaptic transmission in the 10th paravertebral sympathetic ganglion of the leopard frog (Rana pipiens) were examined. The preganglionic nerve was electrically stimulated (at low frequency, < or = 1 min-1, to avoid use-dependent changes) while compound action potentials of B and C neurones were monitored from the postganglionic nerve. 2. alpha-Conotoxins MII and ImI, at low micromolar concentrations, reversibly blocked both B and C waves, alpha-Conotoxin MII blocked the C wave more effectively than the B wave, whereas the potency of alpha-conotoxin ImI was opposite that of MII. The observation that nicotinic antagonists can differentially block synaptic transmission of B versus C neurones with opposite selectivities strongly suggests that these neurones possess distinct nicotinic receptors. 3. In addition to fast and slow B waves described by others. C waves with two temporally distinguishable components were present in our recordings. Each alpha-conotoxin affected fast and slow B waves similarly. Likewise, toxins did not discriminate between the two components of C waves. This suggests that all neurones within each major class (B or C) may have the same nicotinic receptors. 4. Synthetic forms of alpha-conotoxins MII and ImI were used in the present study. Their ease of synthesis and their specificities should make these toxins useful probes to investigate the various subtypes of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  16. Cost-effectiveness decision analysis of intramuscular ceftriaxone versus oral cefixime in adolescents with gonococcal cervicitis.

    PubMed

    Friedland, L R; Kulick, R M; Biro, F M; Patterson, A

    1996-03-01

    We compared the cost-effectiveness of two single-dose treatment strategies for adolescents with uncomplicated Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis. We used a cost-effectiveness decision- analysis model to compare the two methods: the standard, ceftriaxone 125 mg given by IM injection; and an alternative, cefixime 400 mg given orally. The effect of the costs associated with the risk of accidental needlestick during IM administration was also evaluated. Key baseline assumptions (with ranges, when tested) were from the literature or costs to our hospital. These included ceftriaxone, $8.60 per dose; cefixime, $4.67 per dose; ceftriaxone efficacy, 98% (range, 94.9% to 100%); cefixime efficacy, 97% (94.1% to 100%); and a 15% probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) related to failed treatment. We included costs for PID necessitating hospitalization, disseminated gonococcal infection, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Assumptions related to accidental needlestick included the rate of needlesticks with the disposable syringe, 6.9 per 100,000 injections (range, 0 to 69); cost of accidental needlestick to hospital; risk of HIV seroconversion after needlestick exposure to HIV-infected blood, .36% (range, 0% to .86%); rate of HIV infection in 15- to 19-year-olds attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics, .4% (range, 0 to 5); and lifetime treatment costs for a person with HIV. At baseline values the model favored ceftriaxone ($45 per patient) or cefixime ($59 per patient). However, over the range of efficacy of both drugs, two-way sensitivity analysis revealed no consistent cost advantage for either drug. The model was also insensitive to the economic effects associated with the risk of accidental needlestick during IM injection. over the range of efficacy by the 95% confidence intervals of both drugs, our analysis demonstrated no clear cost advantage for either. The economic effects of accidental needlestick do not change this conclusion. Compared with the IM

  17. Implantation of a 16-channel functional electrical stimulation walking system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Marsolais, E B; Polando, G; Triolo, R J; Davis, J A; Bhadra, N; Uhlir, J P

    1998-02-01

    A 16-channel electrical stimulation system was implanted in a 39-year-old patient with T10 paraplegia to restore sit to stand, walking, and exercise functions. System implantation required two surgical sessions. In the first session, the posterior muscle set consisting of bilateral semimembranosus, adductor magnus, and gluteus maximus muscles were exposed and epimysial electrodes sutured at the point of greatest muscle contraction. Closed double helix intramuscular electrodes were implanted in the erector spinae. Two weeks later, epimysial electrodes were attached to the eight anterior muscles consisting of the tibialis anterior, sartorius, tensor fasciae latae, and vastus lateralis with all 16 electrode leads passed to the anterior abdominal wall. The electrodes were connected to two eight-channel stimulators placed in the iliac fossae, and the system was checked by activating the individual muscles. The implanted stimulators received stimulation instructions and power via a radio frequency link to an external control. Stimulation patterns for standing, walking, sitting, and exercise functions were chosen from a preprogrammed menu via a finger key pad. After 3 weeks of restricted patient activity, all electrodes stimulated either the target muscle or had an acceptable spillover pattern. The patient is undergoing a 16-week rehabilitation course of stimulated exercises gradually increasing in intensity. At the conclusion, the goal is to discharge the patient with the system for spontaneous use. Although long term followup is required to determine system reliability, preliminary clinical results indicate that targeted, repeatable, functional muscle contractions in the lower extremity can be achieved with a system consisting of epimysial electrodes.

  18. Aripiprazole (intramuscular) for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation (rapid tranquillisation).

    PubMed

    Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Jajawi, Salwan; Spyridi, Styliani; Sayal, Kamlaj; Jayaram, Mahesh B

    2018-01-08

    People experiencing psychosis may become aggressive. Antipsychotics, such as aripiprazole in intramuscular form, can be used in such situations. To evaluate the effects of intramuscular aripiprazole in the treatment of psychosis-induced aggression or agitation (rapid tranquillisation). On 11 December 2014 and 11 April 2017, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-based Register of Trials which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, Embase, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that randomised people with psychosis-induced aggression or agitation to receive either intramuscular aripiprazole or another intramuscular intervention. We independently inspected citations and, where possible, abstracts, ordered papers and re-inspected and quality assessed these. We included studies that met our selection criteria. At least two review authors independently extracted data from the included studies. We chose a fixed-effect model. We analysed dichotomous data using risk ratio (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed continuous data using mean differences (MD) and their CIs. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to create 'Summary of findings' tables. Searching found 63 records referring to 21 possible trials. We could only include three studies, all completed over the last decade, with 885 participants, of which 707 were included for quantitative analyses in this systematic review. Due to limited comparisons, small size of trials and a paucity of investigated and reported 'pragmatic' outcomes, evidence was mostly graded as low or very low quality. No trials reported useful data for one of our primary outcomes of tranquil or asleep by 30 minutes. Economic outcomes were also not reported in the trials.When compared with placebo, fewer people in the aripiprazole group needed additional injections compared to the placebo group (2 RCTs, n = 382, RR 0

  19. VoIM-Mediated Cooperative Tasks for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnery, George M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of telephones--even mobile phones--in language learning is not unique (see Chinnery 2006). The literature is also The literature is also replete with imaginative ideas on how to apply Internet chat software like instant messengers (IM) to language learning. A more recent technological development of use to educators is Internet telephony,…

  20. Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusch, Gene E.

    This student manual explains an innovative strategy through which Bellingham Technical College's (Washington) evening Industrial Electrician and Millwright Apprenticeships were aggregated with workforce upgrade course offerings to form the college's first evening degree program in Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Section 1 contains a…

  1. I'm Positive: Growing Up with Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document presents "I'm Positive: Growing Up With Self-Esteem," an informal, personal study course designed to strengthen the reader's ability to nurture self-esteem in children from birth through adolescence. Special emphasis is given to four parenting skills: acceptance, encouragement, empowerment, and love. Weekly activities are provided…

  2. IMS Version 3 Student Data Base Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John R.

    Computer routines that update the Instructional Management System (IMS) Version 3 student data base which supports the Southwest Regional Laboratory's (SWRL) student monitoring system are described. Written in IBM System 360 FORTRAN IV, the program updates the data base by adding, changing and deleting records, as well as adding and deleting…

  3. Criteria Underlying the Formation of Alternative IMS Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Ashok

    To assist the formation of IMS (Instructional Management System) configurations, three categories of characteristics are developed and explained. Categories 1 and 2 emphasize automation, and the necessity of forming workable configurations to carry out instructional management for Southwest Regional Laboratory developed instructional and/or…

  4. IM Nor monitoring requested for HST COS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2017-02-01

    Dr. Ed Sion (Villanova University) and colleagues have requested AAVSO observers' assistance in monitoring the symbiotic-type recurrent nova IM Nor in support of observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph scheduled for 2017 February 13 - 17 UT. These observations are part of a study on short orbital period recurrent novae as Supernovae Type Ia progenitors. It is essential to know 24 hours prior to the HST COS observations that IM Nor is not in outburst, in order to protect the instrumentation. Also, photometry is needed throughout the HST window to insure knowledge of the brightness of the system. Observers are asked to monitor IM Nor with nightly snapshot images (V preferred) from now through February 20, and to report their observations promptly. It will be especially important to know the brightness of IM Nor each night through February 17 UT. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  5. Optical design of the EPIC-IM crossed Dragone telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Huan; Johnson, Brad; Dragovan, Mark; Bock, James; Aljabri, Abdullah; Amblard, Alex; Bauman, Daniel; Betoule, Marc; Chui, Talso; Colombo, Loris; Cooray, Asantha; Crumb, Dustin; Day, Peter; Dickenson, Clive; Dowell, Darren; Golwala, Sunil; Gorski, Krzysztof; Hanany, Shaul; Holmes, Warren; Irwin, Kent; Keating, Brian; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lee, Adrian; Lange, Andrew; Lawrence, Charles; Meyer, Steve; Miller, Nate; Nguyen, Hien; Pierpaoli, Elena; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Puget, Jean-Loup; Raab, Jeff; Richards, Paul; Satter, Celeste; Seiffert, Mike; Shimon, Meir; Williams, Brett; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology - Intermediate Mission (EPIC-IM) is a concept for the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe satellite. EPIC-IM is designed to characterize the polarization properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for the B-mode polarization signal characteristic of gravitational waves generated during the epoch of Inflation in the early universe. EPIC-IM employs a large focal plane with 11,000 detectors operating in 9 wavelength bands to provide 30 times higher sensitivity than the currently operating Planck satellite. The optical design is based on a wide-field 1.4 m crossed-Dragone telescope, an aperture that allows not only comprehensive measurements of Inflationary B-mode polarization, but also measurements of the E-mode and lensing polarization signals to cosmological limits, as well as all-sky maps of Galactic polarization with unmatched sensitivity and angular resolution. The optics are critical to measuring these extremely faint polarization signals, and any design must meet demanding requirements on systematic error control. We describe the EPIC-IM crossed Dragone optical design, its polarization properties, and far-sidelobe response.

  6. Collaborative Research: Calibration for IMS Stations in Eastern Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Atomnaya Energia , Vol.87, Issue 3, 1989 (in Russian). 142 BondAr, I. Combining 1-D models for regional calibration, in Proceedings of a Workshop on IMS...Zelentsov and V.N. Mikhailov, Characteristics of 96 underground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Atomaya Energia , (in Russian), Vol. 67

  7. The (Im)possibility of the Project: Radford Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this address, the author engages both with the possibility "and" the impossibility of the educational project--and suggests something of what it means to say this. His presentation is specifically addressed to the theme of the (im)possibility of the educational project. He draws from philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis and history,…

  8. Irinotecan-loaded double-reversible thermogel with improved antitumor efficacy without initial burst effect and toxicity for intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Din, Fakhar Ud; Kim, Dong Wuk; Choi, Ju Yeon; Thapa, Raj Kumar; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Shik; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Ku, Sae Kwang; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2017-05-01

    Intramuscularly administered, anti-tumour drugs induce severe side effects due to their direct contact with body tissues and initial burst effect. In this study, to solve this problem, a novel double-reversible thermogel system (DRTG) for the intramuscular administration of irinotecan was developed. This irinotecan-loaded DRTG was prepared by dispersing the irinotecan-loaded thermoreversible solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in the thermoreversible hydrogel. In DRTG, the former was solid at 25°C but converted to liquid at 36.5°C; in contrast, the latter existed in a liquid form but transformed to gel state in the body. The DRTG was easily administered intramuscularly. Its particle size and drug content were not noticeably changeable, resulting that it was stable at 40°C for at least 6months. Compared to the irinotecan-loaded solution and conventional hydrogel, the DRTG significantly delayed drug release, leading to a reduced burst effect. Moreover, it showed decreased C max and maintained the sustained plasma concentrations at a relatively low level for the long period of 60h in rats, resulting in ameliorated side effects of the anti-tumour drug. Furthermore, it gave significantly improved anti-tumour efficacy in tumour-bearing mice compared to the hydrogel but, unlike the conventional hydrogel, induced no body weight loss and local damage to the muscle. Thus, this DRTG with improved antitumor efficacy without initial burst effect and toxicity could provide a potential pharmaceutical system for the intramuscular administration of irinotecan. Intramuscularly administered, anti-tumour drugs induce severe side effects due to their direct contact with body tissues and initial burst effect. To solve this problem, we developed a novel double-reversible thermogel system (DRTG) for the intramuscular administration of irinotecan. Unlike the conventional hydrogel, the DRTG is a dispersion of the irinotecan-loaded thermoreversible solid lipid nanoparticles in the

  9. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kefyalew, Takele; Kebede, Zelalem; Getachew, Dawit; Mukanga, David; Awano, Tessema; Tekalegne, Agonafer; Batisso, Esey; Edossa, Wasihun; Mekonnen, Emebet; Tibenderana, James; Baba, Ebenezer Sheshi; Shumba, Constance; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-10-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples' region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Key findings from this study are: (1) provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2) with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe malaria using intramuscular artesunate where referral is

  10. Choosing the Right Free IM Providers and Clients for Your Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izenstark, Amanda K.

    2009-01-01

    With virtual library services increasing, public services librarians may find themselves with questions such as: What instant messaging services (IM) are available? Which IM service would best suit my patrons' needs? Which IM service best suits my library's technology profile? This column describes the features and functionality of major instant…

  11. Literature and best practices scan : Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-06-01

    The state of Wisconsin operates one of the nation's most effective inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs. In Wisconsin's I/M program, vehicles registered in the Milwaukee metropolitan area are subjected to a transient emission test using the IM240 te...

  12. Flexible Authoring and Delivery of Online Courses Using IMS Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Henry; Janssen, José; Koper, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the IMS Learning Design (IMS LD) specification in 2003, many initiatives have been undertaken to build authoring tools that are simple enough to be used by non-technical instructors and teachers. IMS LD's technical complexity is believed to be a major burden for the adoption of the specification. We have developed a new…

  13. Intramuscular renin-angiotensin system is activated in human muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guilian; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Dai, Hongmei; Chiba, Yoko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Onuma, Akira; Iinuma, Kazuie; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2009-05-15

    To investigate the role of the muscular renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in human muscular dystrophy, we used immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to examine the cellular localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) in muscle biopsies from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). In normal muscle, ACE was expressed in vascular endothelial cells and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas AT1 was immunolocalized to the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels and intramuscular nerve twigs. AT2 was immunolocalized in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels. These findings suggest that the RAS has a functional role in peripheral nerves and NMJs. ACE and AT1, but AT2 immunoreactivity were increased markedly in dystrophic muscle as compared to controls. ACE and the AT1 were strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of regenerating muscle fibers, fibroblasts, and in macrophages infiltrating necrotic fibers. Double immunolabeling revealed that activated fibroblasts in the endomysium and perimysium of DMD and CMD muscle were positive for ACE and AT1. Triple immunolabeling demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and ACE were colocalized on the cytoplasm of activated fibroblasts in dystrophic muscle. Furthermore, Western blotting showed increases in the expression of AT1 and TGF-beta1 protein in dystrophic muscle, which coincided with our immunohistochemical results. The overexpression of ACE and AT1 in dystrophic muscle would likely result in the increased production of Ang II, which may act on these cells in an autocrine manner via AT1. The activation of AT1 may induce fibrous tissue formation through overexpression of TGF-beta1, which potently activates fibrogenesis and suppresses regeneration. In conclusion, our results imply that the intramuscular RAS-TGF-beta1 pathway

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Short- and Long-acting Formulations of Oxytetracycline After Intramuscular Administration in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Gberindyer, Aondover F; Okpeh, Ene R; Semaka, Asaaga A

    2015-12-01

    Both short- and long-acting formulations of oxytetracycline are commonly used in veterinary medicine to treat animals infected with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, rickettsiae, mycoplasma, and chlamydiae. To compare pharmacokinetics of short- and long-acting oxytetracycline in chickens, injectable formulations from the same pharmaceutical company were administered to healthy 6-week-old broiler chickens in accordance to the labeled instructions. Fourteen chickens were separated into 2 groups: chickens in group A (n = 7) were administered the short-acting formulation (10 mg/kg IM q24h) for 4 consecutive days, whereas those in group B (n = 7) were treated with a single dose (20 mg/kg IM) of the long-acting formulation. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after initial treatment. Thereafter, blood samples were taken every 24 hours up to 120 hours. Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. Both formulations delivered therapeutic plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline for approximately 100% of their respective dosing intervals as recommended. However, considering the additional labor, patient stress, and mortalities associated with handling, in addition to rejection of the carcass due to tissue necrosis resulting from multiple injections, we recommend use of the long-acting instead of the short-acting injectable formulation in broiler chickens.

  15. Brain Stimulation in Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction. PMID:27240657

  16. Plasma Retention and Systemic Kinetics of 90Sr Intramuscularly Injected in Female Nonhuman Primates

    DOE PAGES

    Poudel, Deepesh; Klumpp, John A.; Bertelli, Luiz; ...

    2017-08-01

    Thirteen female Rhesus macaques were intramuscularly injected with 90Sr(NO 3) 2 diluted in sodium citrate solution. The biokinetic data from these animals were compared against the predictions of the NCRP 156 wound models combined with the ICRP systemic models. We observed observed that the activities measured in plasma of these nonhuman primates (NHPs) were consistently lower than those predicted by the default human biokinetic models. The urinary excretion from the NHPs at times immediately after injection was much greater than that in humans. The fecal excretion rates were found to be in relatively better agreement with humans. Similarly, the activitiesmore » retained in the skeleton of the NHPs were lower than that in humans. These differences were attributed to the higher calcium diet of the NHPs (0.03 to 0.12 g/d/kg body weight) compared to that of humans. These observations were consistent with the early animal and human studies that showed the effect of calcium on strontium metabolism, specifically urinary excretion. Strontium is preferentially filtered at a much higher rate in kidneys than calcium because it is less completely bound to protein than is calcium. Furthermore, these differences, along with large inter-animal variability, should be considered when estimating the behavior of Sr in humans from the metabolic data in animals or vice-versa.« less

  17. Intramuscular fatty acid composition of lambs fed diets containing alternative protein sources.

    PubMed

    Scerra, M; Caparra, P; Foti, F; Cilione, C; Zappia, G; Motta, C; Scerra, V

    2011-03-01

    Thirty male Merinizzata italiana lambs were divided into three groups after weaning according to live weight. The diet of the three groups differed in the main protein source used in the concentrate, soybean meal for treatment SBM, faba bean for treatment FB and peas for treatment PEA. Lambs were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at about 160 days of age. Meat from the PEA group had higher proportions of the essential fatty acids C18:2 ω-6 and C18:3 ω-3 than from FB and SBM lambs and consequently its derivatives, C20:4 ω-6 and C20:5 ω-3 respectively, were higher in meat from PEA animals, compared to SBM and FB ones. The total n-3 fatty acids were highest in meat from PEA lambs and consequently PEA lambs showed a more favourable n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion the use of legume seeds such as peas in lamb diets positively affected intramuscular fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitric oxide nanoparticles: pre-clinical utility as a therapeutic for intramuscular abscesses.

    PubMed

    Schairer, David; Martinez, Luis R; Blecher, Karin; Chouake, Jason; Nacharaju, Parimala; Gialanella, Philip; Friedman, Joel M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a critical component of host defense against invading pathogens; however, its therapeutic utility is limited due to a lack of practical delivery systems. Recently, a NO-releasing nanoparticulate platform (NO-np) was shown to have in vitro broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and in vivo pre-clinical efficacy in a dermal abscess model. To extend these findings, both topical (TP) and intralesional (IL) NO-np administration was evaluated in a MRSA intramuscular murine abscess model and compared with vancomycin. All treatment arms accelerated abscess clearance clinically, histologically, and by microbiological assays on both days 4 and 7 following infection. However, abscesses treated with NO-np via either route demonstrated a more substantial, statistically significant decrease in bacterial survival based on colony forming unit assays and histologically revealed less inflammatory cell infiltration and preserved muscular architecture. These data suggest that the NO-np may be an effective addition to our armament for deep soft tissue infections.

  19. Testicular biodistribution of 450 nm fluorescent latex particles after intramuscular injection in mice.

    PubMed

    Klein, J-P; Boudard, D; Cadusseau, J; Palle, S; Forest, V; Pourchez, J; Cottier, M

    2013-06-01

    The significant expansion in the use of nanoparticles and submicron particles during the last 20 years has led to increasing concern about their potential toxicity to humans and particularly their impact on male fertility. Currently, an insufficient number of studies have focused on the testicular biodistribution of particles. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of 450 nm fluorescent particles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. To this end, testes were removed from 5 groups of 3 mice each at 1 h (H1), 4 days (D4), 21 days (D21), 45 days (D45) and 90 days (D90) after the injection of 7.28 × 10⁹ particles in the tibialis anterior muscles of each mouse. We examined histological sections from these samples by epifluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy and identified testicular biodistribution of a small number of particles in groups H1, D4, D21, D45 and D90. Using CD11b immunostaining, we showed that particles were not carried into the testis by macrophages. The intratesticular repartition of particles mainly followed testicular vascularization. Finally, we found some particles in seminiferous tubules but could not determine if the blood-testis barrier was crossed.

  20. Testicular biodistribution of 450 nm fluorescent latex particles after intramuscular injection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jean-Philippe; Boudard, Delphine; Cadusseau, Josette; Palle, Sabine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Cottier, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    The significant expansion in the use of nanoparticles and submicron particles during the last 20 years has led to increasing concern about their potential toxicity to humans and particularly their impact on male fertility. Currently, an insufficient number of studies have focused on the testicular biodistribution of particles. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of 450 nm fluorescent particles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. To this end, testes were removed from 5 groups of 3 mice each at 1 h (H1), 4 days (D4), 21 days (D21), 45 days (D45) and 90 days (D90) after the injection of 7.28 × 109 particles in the tibialis anterior muscles of each mouse. We examined histological sections from these samples by epifluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy and identified testicular biodistribution of a small number of particles in groups H1, D4, D21, D45 and D90. Using CD11b immunostaining, we showed that particles were not carried into the testis by macrophages. The intratesticular repartition of particles mainly followed testicular vascularization. Finally, we found some particles in seminiferous tubules but could not determine if the blood–testis barrier was crossed. PMID:23329290

  1. Accessing the biocompatibility of layered double hydroxide by intramuscular implantation: histological and microcirculation evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Vanessa Roberta Rodrigues; de Souza, Rodrigo Barbosa; da Fonseca Martins, Ana Maria Cristina Rebello Pinto; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo

    2016-08-02

    Biocompatibility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials or double metal hydroxides, was investigated by in vivo assays via intramuscular tablets implantation in rat abdominal wall. The tablets were composed by chloride ions intercalated into LDH of magnesium/aluminum (Mg2Al-Cl) and zinc/aluminum (Zn2Al-Cl). The antigenicity and tissue integration capacity of LDHs were assessed histologically after 7 and 28 days post-implantation. No fibrous capsule nearby the LDH was noticed for both materials as well any sign of inflammatory reactions. Sidestream Dark Field imaging, used to monitor in real time the microcirculation in tissues, revealed overall integrity of the microcirculatory network neighboring the tablets, with no blood flow obstruction, bleeding and/or increasing of leukocyte endothelial adhesion. After 28 days Mg2Al-Cl promoted multiple collagen invaginations (mostly collagen type-I) among its fragments while Zn2Al-Cl induced predominantly collagen type-III. This work supports previous results in the literature about LDHs compatibility with living matter, endorsing them as functional materials for biomedical applications.

  2. Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases. © 2013.

  3. Oral and intramuscular toxicity of inorganic and organic mercury chloride to growing quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, E.F.; Soares, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The lethal toxicity of inorganic (HgCl2) and organic (CH3HgCl) mercury chloride was compared for Coturnix (Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica) of different ages from hatch through adulthood by single-dose acute oral and intramuscular injections and by a 5-d dietary trial. Sublethal mercury toxicity was studied by evaluation of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity. CH3HgCl was more toxic than HgCl2 in all tests at each age tested. LD50s consistently increased over the first 4 wk for both acute methods and both mercurials and then stabilized. The striking difference between single-dose acute and 5-d dietary tests was that CH3HgCl averaged about twice as toxic as HgCl2 by both acute methods, compared to 100 times as toxic by the dietary method. For example, at 2 wk of age, the oral LD50s for CH3HgCl and HgCl2 were 18 and 42 mg/kg and the dietary LC50s were 47 and 5086 ppm. When birds were fed HgCl2 and developed clinical signs of intoxication, they could recover once treatment was withdrawn; however, on CH3HgCl, clinical signs often commenced after treatment was withdrawn, and then actually intensified for several days and culminated in death.

  4. Intramuscular communicating branches in the flexor digitorum profundus: dissection and Sihler's staining.

    PubMed

    Won, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Da-Yae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Yoon, Kwan-Hyun; Kwak, Hyun-Ho; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2010-03-01

    This study was designed to clarify the anatomy of the intramuscular communicating branch (ICb) between the median and ulnar nerves in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), and morphologically demonstrate the location of connection. Twenty Korean cadavers were dissected and a further 8 were subjected to modified Sihler's staining to investigate the pattern of innervation of the ICb and the location of its communicating points in muscle. The median and ulnar nerves divided into small branches before entering FDP muscle. Of these small branches, one or two met inside the muscle. This communicating pattern could be classified into three types: type I, communicating branches in both the proximal and distal regions; type II, at least one communicating branch in the proximal region; type III, at least one communicating branch in the distal region. Of 20 dissected specimens, no case of type I was observed, but 3 cases of type II and 15 cases of type III were found. No ICbs at all were found in two of the dissected specimens. In eight stained specimens, one was classified as type I, two as type II, and five as type III. The proximal communicating branches were located at 34.1% from the interepicondylar line, inside the third muscle bundle. The distal communicating branches were located at 66.0% from the interepicondylar line, between third and fourth muscle bundles. These findings could provide critical anatomical information regarding the nerve distribution of FDP focused on the ICbs.

  5. The comprehensive liver transcriptome of two cattle breeds with different intramuscular fat content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xizhong; Wang, Dongcai; Jin, Guang; Li, Bo; Xu, Fang; Cheng, Jing; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Sujun; Rui, Su; He, Jiang; Zhang, Ronghua; Liu, Wenzhong

    2017-08-26

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important determinant factor of meat quality in cattle. There is significant difference in IMF content between Jinnan and Simmental cattle. Here, to identify candidate genes and networks associated with IMF deposition, we deeply explored the transcriptome architecture of liver in these two cattle breeds. We sequenced the liver transcriptome of five Jinnan and three Simmental cattle, yielding about 413.9 million sequencing reads. 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected, of which 53 were up-regulated and 71 were down-regulated in Jinnan cattle. 1282 potentially novel genes were also identified. Gene ontology analysis revealed these DEGs (including CYP21A2, PC, ACACB, APOA1, and FADS2) were significantly enriched in lipid biosynthetic process, regulation of cholesterol esterification, reverse cholesterol transport, and regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity. Genes involved in pyruvate metabolism pathway were also significantly overrepresented. Moreover, we identified an interaction network which related to lipid metabolism, which might be contributed to the IMF deposition in cattle. We concluded that the DEGs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism could play an important role in IMF deposition. Overall, we proposed a new panel of candidate genes and interaction networks that can be associated with IMF deposition and used as biomarkers in cattle breeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Key Gene, PLIN1, Can Affect Porcine Intramuscular Fat Content Based on Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bojiang; Weng, Qiannan; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Zengkai; Li, Rongyang; Liu, Jingge; Jiang, Aiwen; Li, Qifa; Jia, Chao; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2018-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important indicator for meat quality evaluation. However, the key genes and molecular regulatory mechanisms affecting IMF deposition remain unclear. In the present study, we identified 75 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the higher (H) and lower (L) IMF content of pigs using transcriptome analysis, of which 27 were upregulated and 48 were downregulated. Notably, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicated that the DEG perilipin-1 (PLIN1) was significantly enriched in the fat metabolism-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Furthermore, we determined the expression patterns and functional role of porcine PLIN1. Our results indicate that PLIN1 was highly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, and its expression level was significantly higher in the H IMF content group when compared with the L IMF content group, and expression was increased during adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, our results confirm that PLIN1 knockdown decreases the triglyceride (TG) level and lipid droplet (LD) size in porcine adipocytes. Overall, our data identify novel candidate genes affecting IMF content and provide new insight into PLIN1 in porcine IMF deposition and adipocyte differentiation. PMID:29617344

  7. Accessing the biocompatibility of layered double hydroxide by intramuscular implantation: histological and microcirculation evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Vanessa Roberta Rodrigues; de Souza, Rodrigo Barbosa; da Fonseca Martins, Ana Maria Cristina Rebello Pinto; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials or double metal hydroxides, was investigated by in vivo assays via intramuscular tablets implantation in rat abdominal wall. The tablets were composed by chloride ions intercalated into LDH of magnesium/aluminum (Mg2Al-Cl) and zinc/aluminum (Zn2Al-Cl). The antigenicity and tissue integration capacity of LDHs were assessed histologically after 7 and 28 days post-implantation. No fibrous capsule nearby the LDH was noticed for both materials as well any sign of inflammatory reactions. Sidestream Dark Field imaging, used to monitor in real time the microcirculation in tissues, revealed overall integrity of the microcirculatory network neighboring the tablets, with no blood flow obstruction, bleeding and/or increasing of leukocyte endothelial adhesion. After 28 days Mg2Al-Cl promoted multiple collagen invaginations (mostly collagen type-I) among its fragments while Zn2Al-Cl induced predominantly collagen type–III. This work supports previous results in the literature about LDHs compatibility with living matter, endorsing them as functional materials for biomedical applications. PMID:27480483

  8. Tissue damage caused by the intramuscular injection of long-acting penicillin.

    PubMed

    Schanzer, H; Jacobson, J H

    1985-04-01

    In order to elucidate whether tissue damage produced on occasion by intramuscular injection of long-acting penicillin is due to accidental intra-arterial injection or vasospasm, two types of experiments were carried out in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, six New Zealand White rabbits were given intra-arterial injections of 0.4 mL of a mixture containing 300,000 U of penicillin G benzathine and 300,000 units of penicillin procaine per milliliter (Bicillin C-R) into the left femoral artery and 0.4 mL of normal saline into the right femoral artery as autocontrol. In a second set of experiments, 0.4 mL of the same penicillin preparation was injected in the space surrounding the left femoral artery in five New Zealand rabbits, and 0.4 mL of normal saline was injected in a similar fashion around the right femoral artery as control. The legs of the rabbits that received the intra-arterial injection of penicillin invariably developed ischemic manifestations. None of the legs of rabbits given intra-arterial injections of normal saline had pathologic manifestations. None of the rabbits that received the periarterial penicillin preparation or normal saline developed abnormalities. These results strongly suggest that the tissue damage produced by penicillin is secondary to the intra-arterial administration of the drug.

  9. Changes in plasma enzyme activity after intramuscular injection of bupivacaine into the human biceps brachii.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, K; Sakamoto, K

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of changes in plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity after intramuscular injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (BPVC). A total of 10 mL BPVC was injected into the biceps brachii (two sites, 5 mL per site) of five healthy, male subjects. Blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein before and 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the injection. Affected muscle size was visualized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was performed 4 days after the injection. Plasma CK activity started to increase 2 h and peaked 12 h after the injection. The peak CK activity (470 +/- 62 IU L-1) was approximately four times the pre-injection value (133 +/- 24 IU L-1), and no additional increase was observed after 24 h. Plasma LDH, AST and ALT activities did not change significantly over time. Muscle around the injection sites showed increased T2 signal intensity using MRI. When smaller (2 mL) or larger (20 mL) amounts of BPVC were injected into the biceps brachii in additional experiments, the amount of increase in plasma CK activity appeared to be related to the size of the affected muscle. It was concluded that CK started to leak from damaged muscle cells shortly after the BPVC injection, and the amount of increase in plasma CK activity appeared to reflect the amount of muscle damage.

  10. A 12-week intramuscular toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Wang, W; Ye, L; Cen, X; Guan, X; Zhang, J; Yu, P; Du, G; Liu, W; Li, Y

    2014-05-01

    Long-acting formulations of antipsychotics are important treatment options to increase the compliance of schizophrenic patients. Risperidone, a 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, was developed as long-acting sustained-release microspheres with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as a drug carrier for the treatment of schizophrenia. In the present study, the main objective is to determine the nonclinical safety profile of risperidone-loaded microspheres (RM) in Beagle dogs after intramuscular administration for 3 months, once in 2 weeks, followed by 8-week recovery phase. No animal death was found and no special toxicological findings were observed. The findings, such as hypoactivity, ptosis, increased heart rate, and elevated serum and pituitary prolactin levels, were observed and related to the pharmacological effects of risperidone. The changes in the reproductive system (uterus, ovary, vagina, cervix, and mammary gland) were considered secondary to the prolactin elevation, and the congestion of spleen was related to risperidone. The foreign body granulomas at injection sites might be caused by PLGA. At the end of recovery phase, the above changes mostly recovered to normal, and on administering 3 mg/kg dose level once in 2 weeks on Beagle dogs showed no observed adverse effect. Taken together, RM had exhibited the acceptable safety.

  11. Isolated (localized) idiopathic granulomatous (giant cell) vasculitis in an intramuscular lipoma.

    PubMed

    Fernando Val-Bernal, J; Val, Daniel; Calvo, Ignacio; Francisca Garijo, M

    2006-01-01

    Isolated (localized) idiopathic granulomatous vasculitis (IGV) is an uncommon, heterogeneous, and poorly defined group of disorders characterized by infiltration of the arterial wall caused by compactly grouped mononuclear phagocytes, with or without giant cells, in segmental distribution. We report on a 55-year-old woman with IGV limited to an intramuscular lipoma of the left thigh. The vasculitis was identified incidentally upon microscopic examination of the removed tumor. The IGV was centered on two medium-sized arteries, accompanied by narrowing of the lumens, and not associated with secondary changes such as infart or postinfart fibrosis. The inflammatory infiltrate was rich in T-lymphocytes and macrophages, with the presence of giant cells. The patient was asymptomatic and well in a follow-up period of 2 months, during which she was not treated. To our knowledge, this is the first report of lipoma involvement in localized IGV. It is important to distinguish cases of isolated intratumorous IGV from systemic disease, because the latter implies a poor prognosis and requires an aggressive treatment.

  12. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Model To Evaluate Intramuscular Tetracycline Treatment Protocols To Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Amais; Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Toft, Nils; Matthews, Louise

    2014-01-01

    High instances of antimicrobial resistance are linked to both routine and excessive antimicrobial use, but excessive or inappropriate use represents an unnecessary risk. The competitive growth advantages of resistant bacteria may be amplified by the strain dynamics; in particular, the extent to which resistant strains outcompete susceptible strains under antimicrobial pressure may depend not only on the antimicrobial treatment strategies but also on the epidemiological parameters, such as the composition of the bacterial strains in a pig. This study evaluated how variation in the dosing protocol for intramuscular administration of tetracycline and the composition of bacterial strains in a pig affect the level of resistance in the intestine of a pig. Predictions were generated by a mathematical model of competitive growth of Escherichia coli strains in pigs under specified plasma concentration profiles of tetracycline. All dosing regimens result in a clear growth advantage for resistant strains. Short treatment duration was found to be preferable, since it allowed less time for resistant strains to outcompete the susceptible ones. Dosing frequency appeared to be ineffective at reducing the resistance levels. The number of competing strains had no apparent effect on the resistance level during treatment, but possession of fewer strains reduced the time to reach equilibrium after the end of treatment. To sum up, epidemiological parameters may have more profound influence on growth dynamics than dosing regimens and should be considered when designing improved treatment protocols. PMID:25547361

  13. Intramuscular pressure and electromyography as indexes of force during isokinetic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aratow, M.; Ballard, R. E.; Grenshaw, A. G.; Styf, J.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    A direct method for measuring force production of specific muscles during dynamic exercise is presently unavailable. Previous studies indicate that both intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) correlate linearly with muscle contraction force during isometric exercise. The objective of this study was to compare IMP and EMG as linear assessors of muscle contraction force during dynamic exercise. IMP and surface EMG activity were recorded during concentric and eccentric isokinetic plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint from the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles of nine male volunteers. Ankle torque was measured using a dynamometer, and IMP was measured via catheterization. IMP exhibited better linear correlation than EMG with ankle joint torque during concentric contractions of the SOL and the TA, as well as during eccentric contractions. IMP provides a better index of muscle contraction force than EMG during concentric and eccentric exercise through the entire range of torque. IMP reflects intrinsic mechanical properties of individual muscles, such as length-tension relationships, which EMG is unable to assess.

  14. Plasma Retention and Systemic Kinetics of 90Sr Intramuscularly Injected in Female Nonhuman Primates

    SciTech Connect

    Poudel, Deepesh; Klumpp, John A.; Bertelli, Luiz

    Thirteen female Rhesus macaques were intramuscularly injected with 90Sr(NO 3) 2 diluted in sodium citrate solution. The biokinetic data from these animals were compared against the predictions of the NCRP 156 wound models combined with the ICRP systemic models. We observed observed that the activities measured in plasma of these nonhuman primates (NHPs) were consistently lower than those predicted by the default human biokinetic models. The urinary excretion from the NHPs at times immediately after injection was much greater than that in humans. The fecal excretion rates were found to be in relatively better agreement with humans. Similarly, the activitiesmore » retained in the skeleton of the NHPs were lower than that in humans. These differences were attributed to the higher calcium diet of the NHPs (0.03 to 0.12 g/d/kg body weight) compared to that of humans. These observations were consistent with the early animal and human studies that showed the effect of calcium on strontium metabolism, specifically urinary excretion. Strontium is preferentially filtered at a much higher rate in kidneys than calcium because it is less completely bound to protein than is calcium. Furthermore, these differences, along with large inter-animal variability, should be considered when estimating the behavior of Sr in humans from the metabolic data in animals or vice-versa.« less

  15. Subcellular Localization and Polymorphism of Bovine FABP4 in Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Shinichi; Hirota, Shohei; Miyazaki, Honami; Tokutake, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) I74 V, a gene polymorphism associated with unsaturated fatty acid contents, was discovered in Japanese Black cattle. Individuals with FABP4 I/I genotype contain a significantly high level of palmitoleic acid compared to those with FABP4 V/V genotype. It remains unknown how the FABP4 polymorphism leads to different palmitoleic acid contents. We overexpressed FABP4 of different genotypes in bovine intramuscular preadipocytes and examined whether the intracellular localization of FABP4 and the expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes were different among cells expressing different genotypes. Nuclear localization was observed for the FABP4 V/V, while the FABP4 I/I almost did not. The cells expressing FABP4 of different genotypes were comparable in terms of the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism. FABP4 I/I was localized in most of the lipid droplets 4 days after differentiation induction, whereas approximately 25% lipid droplet co-localized with FABP4 in cells expressing FABP4 V/V. The lipid droplet size increased when palmitoleic acid was added compared to the size observed when palmitic acid was added. These results suggest that lipid droplet enlargement caused by palmitoleic acid and genotype-dependent differences in the fatty acid transporting capacity underlie variations in palmitoleic acid content among FABP4 polymorphisms.

  16. Effect of divergent selection for intramuscular fat on sensory traits and instrumental texture in rabbit meat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvaroi, M; Penalba, V; Blasco, A; Hernández, P

    2016-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the main parameters affecting meat quality. This work analyzes the effect of selection for IMF on sensory attributes and instrumental texture parameters in rabbit meat. A total of 115 rabbits after 6 generations of divergent selection for IMF were slaughtered at 9 or 13 wk (57 and 58 animals, respectively). For each animal, the left longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) was analyzed by near-infrared spectroscopy to measure IMF whereas the right LD was used for the sensory or instrumental texture analysis. Sensory attributes measured were rabbit odor, liver odor, rabbit flavor, liver flavor, aniseed flavor, hardness, juiciness, and fibrousness. The instrumental texture parameters maximum shear force, shear firmness, and total work to cut the sample were measured by a Warner-Bratzler shear test. The line selected for high IMF showed 58% greater IMF than the line selected for low IMF. This divergence affected firmness that was 9.9% greater in the low-IMF line, although no effect was found for the other instrumental texture traits. No effect of selection was observed in any odor or flavor, except for aniseed flavor, which was greater in the high-IMF line than in the low-IMF line. Age had an effect on IMF, instrumental texture parameters, and sensory attributes. Rabbits at 13 wk showed greater IMF and instrumental and sensory hardness and more intense odor and flavor and lower juiciness than rabbits at 9 wk.

  17. A Key Gene, PLIN1, Can Affect Porcine Intramuscular Fat Content Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bojiang; Weng, Qiannan; Dong, Chao; Zhang, Zengkai; Li, Rongyang; Liu, Jingge; Jiang, Aiwen; Li, Qifa; Jia, Chao; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2018-04-04

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important indicator for meat quality evaluation. However, the key genes and molecular regulatory mechanisms affecting IMF deposition remain unclear. In the present study, we identified 75 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the higher (H) and lower (L) IMF content of pigs using transcriptome analysis, of which 27 were upregulated and 48 were downregulated. Notably, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicated that the DEG perilipin-1 ( PLIN1 ) was significantly enriched in the fat metabolism-related peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway. Furthermore, we determined the expression patterns and functional role of porcine PLIN1. Our results indicate that PLIN1 was highly expressed in porcine adipose tissue, and its expression level was significantly higher in the H IMF content group when compared with the L IMF content group, and expression was increased during adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, our results confirm that PLIN1 knockdown decreases the triglyceride (TG) level and lipid droplet (LD) size in porcine adipocytes. Overall, our data identify novel candidate genes affecting IMF content and provide new insight into PLIN1 in porcine IMF deposition and adipocyte differentiation.

  18. Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Fathke, Robert L; Sanchez, Susan; Stanton, James B

    2016-07-01

    Organisms previously classified as Streptococcus bovis (i.e., the S. bovis/S. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. In the current work, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. Within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. Autopsies were performed on the cow, 2 dead calves, and 1 affected surviving calf, which was euthanized ~24 h after vaccine administration. The animals had similar gross anatomic and microscopic lesions, including subcutaneous and intramuscular dark hemorrhage on the caudal neck, multiorgan ecchymosis and petechiation, and alveolitis to interstitial pneumonia. Gram-positive cocci were in the vasculature of the lung and skeletal muscle, and S. infantarius subsp. coli was cultured from tissues and from the vaccines used on affected animals, but not in vials used on unaffected animals. Together, these findings suggest death caused by streptococcal septicemia and toxemia as a result of contamination. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Effects of dietary lysine levels and lighting conditions on intramuscular fat accumulation in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Ashihara, Akane; Ishida, Aiko

    2018-04-29

    This study was conducted to test our hypothesis that intramuscular fat (IMF) accumulation increases in pigs fed on a low lysine diet during the dark period than those fed on the same diet during the light period. Using barrows aged 6 weeks, we monitored whether serum glucose and insulin levels were affected by light conditions. Two diets with different levels of lysine, 0.78% (LL diet) and 1.37% (control diet) were prepared. Eight pigs were fed on the diet during the light period, while the remaining pigs were fed during the dark period. The pigs were fed either the LL diet or the control diet. Although IMF contents of Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle were higher in the pigs fed on a LL diet (p < .05), the light conditions had no effect. Low dietary lysine caused reduction in serum glucose levels (p < .05) and serum insulin levels (p = .0613). However, they were also unaffected by the lighting conditions. To gain further insights, we determined the messenger RNA levels of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase in LD and Rhomboideus muscles and in the liver. © 2018 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Comparison of the Intramuscular, Intranasal or Sublingual Routes of Midazolam Administration for the Control of Soman-Induced Seizures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    23, 2008) Abstract: This study evaluated the anticonvulsant effectiveness of midazolam to stop seizures elicited by the nerve agent soman when...seizure activity that was detected in the electroencephalographic record. When given immediately after seizure onset, the anticonvulsant ED 50 of...that time. At the 40-min. treatment delay, the anticonvulsant ED 50 s of intramuscular or intranasal midazolam did not differ and both were

  1. Pharmacokinetics of meloxicam after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Molter, Christine M; Court, Michael H; Cole, Gretchen A; Gagnon, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-03-01

    To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 11 healthy parrots. Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively). Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

  2. Gluteal Augmentation With Intramuscular Implants in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus With Lipoatrophy Related to the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Guilherme Augusto; Coltro, Pedro Soler; Barros, Mário Eduardo; Müller Neto, Bruno Francisco; Lima, Renan Victor; Farina, Jayme Adriano

    2017-11-01

    Lipodystrophy syndrome associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may lead to low self-esteem and poor compliance with the drug treatment on patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is a matter of concern for the health system. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with HIV submitted to gluteal augmentation with intramuscular silicone implants to correct gluteal lipoatrophy related to the use of HAART. This is a retrospective evaluation of 10 patients submitted to gluteal augmentation with intramuscular silicone implant for correction of gluteal lipoatrophy related to the use of HAART, operated between 2012 and 2015. Postoperative complications and the degree of patient's satisfaction were analyzed. There were 3 postoperative complications including 1 case of surgical wound dehiscence and 2 cases of seroma. Six months after surgery, 8 patients had an excellent degree of satisfaction, and 2 patients had a good degree of satisfaction related to the procedure. Although this intervention does not offer functional advantages, it improves the body contour, increases patients' self-esteem, and helps them to accept their body image. These advantages can lead to higher compliance with prolonged HAART. Gluteal augmentation with intramuscular silicone implant can be a viable option to treat patients with HIV with gluteal lipoatrophy related to the use of HAART. The patients were satisfied with the outcomes of the procedure, and there were only minor self-limited postoperative complications.

  3. Influenza vaccination in healthcare workers; comparison of side effects and preferred route of administration of intradermal versus intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Meijer, W J; Wensing, A M J; Bos, A A; Kuiphuis, J C F; Hagelen, E M M; Wilschut, J C; de Vries, M J T; Riezebos-Brilman, A

    2017-03-13

    To explore the nature and severity of side effects and future preference of intradermal versus intramuscular influenza vaccination in healthcare workers. Prospective cohort study. Two University Medical Centers in The Netherlands. Healthcare workers receiving an influenza vaccination. Healthcare workers that were vaccinated during the influenza vaccination season of 2012-2013 were approached for participation in a questionnaire study. The questionnaire was divided into two parts. The first part had to be answered directly after vaccination and the second part two weeks after vaccination. The motivation for vaccine uptake, whether or not the HCWs had direct contact with patients and the prevalence and severity of local and systemic side effects of influenza vaccination were explored. In addition, it was assessed how participants experienced the vaccination and which type of administration they preferred for future vaccination. Side effects of vaccination were more prevalent in the intradermal group versus the intramuscular group (56% versus 26%, p<0.001). Local side effects were perceived as more severe in healthcare workers receiving the intradermal vaccine. Directly after vaccination, healthcare workers preferred the intradermal vaccination. Two weeks after vaccination both types of vaccine were equally appreciated. This study shows that there are significant differences in the nature and severity of side effects upon intramuscular and intradermal influenza vaccination. This difference did not result in a preference among the vaccinated subjects for one type of vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intramuscular migration of calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposits involving the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder: report of 11 patients.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno P G; Chang, Eric Y; Resnick, Donald L; Pathria, Mini N

    2016-01-01

    The intent of the study is to describe an unusual pattern of intramuscular migration of calcific deposits related to hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD) involving the rotator cuff, to illustrate the characteristic imaging features of this phenomenon, and to discuss the clinical significance of such migration. A series of cases of intramuscular accumulation of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals collected over a 7-year period at multiple hospitals within the same academic institution were retrospectively reviewed. The patient group was composed of seven men and four women, ranging in age from 51 to 79 years, with a mean age of 63 years. All subjects presented with acute shoulder pain. The majority of subjects reported the spontaneous onset of the symptoms (64%), while others reported weight lifting (27%) and a fall on the arm (9%) as the mechanisms of injury. The right shoulder was affected in 73% of the subjects. The supraspinatus was the most commonly affected muscle (82%), followed by the infraspinatus muscle (36%). Knowledge of the imaging features of intramuscular migration of hydroxyapatite deposits is important in order to avoid the erroneous diagnosis of other causes of muscle edema and inflammation such as myotendinous injury, myositis, subacute denervation, and neoplasm.

  5. Rationale and design of the PLACID study: a randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of inhaled loxapine versus IM aripiprazole in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    San, L; Estrada, G; Oudovenko, N; Vieta, E

    2017-04-04

    The management of acute agitation manifesting in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder requires swift pharmacological intervention to provide rapid symptomatic relief and prevent escalation to aggression and violence. Antipsychotic medications are widely used in this setting and the availability of an inhaled formulation with deep lung absorption of the antipsychotic loxapine has the potential to deliver a faster onset of therapeutic effect than the available intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics. The efficacy of inhaled loxapine and the alternative antipsychotic aripiprazole delivered via intramuscular (IM) injection will be compared in the Phase IIIb PLACID study. Adults (18-65 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder presenting with acute agitation will be randomly assigned to open-label treatment in a 1:1 ratio. Clinical evaluation will be conducted by raters blinded to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint is time to response (defined as a Clinical Global Impression of Improvement [CGI-I] score of 1 [very much improved] or 2 [much improved]). Secondary endpoints will include the percentage of responders at different time points after dosing; the proportion of patients who receive 1 or 2 doses of study drug; time to second dose; time to rescue medication; satisfaction with study drug (evaluated using Item 14 of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication); and safety and tolerability. Approximately 360 patients will be recruited with an interim analysis conducted once 180 patients have completed the study to decide whether to stop for futility or continue with or without an increase in the sample size up to additional 288 patients. The PLACID trial will assess the efficacy and safety of inhaled loxapine with deep lung absorption compared with the IM antipsychotic, aripiprazole, in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In the event that the median time to

  6. Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline (control) in the treatment of acute, survivable, mitochondrial toxins in swine (Sus Scrofa): a pilot study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-04-10

    Type of Research: Animal Research 3. Title: Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline ( control ) in the treatment...the hyperkalemia under control and in our upcoming protocol we feel we will finally be able to induce apnea with the toxin and calcium channel...intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline ( control ) in the treatment of acute, survivable, mitochondrial toxins in swine (Sus Scrofa): a pilot

  7. Intramuscular delivery of adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing humanized protective antigen induces rapid protection against anthrax that may bypass intranasally originated preexisting adenovirus immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-01

    Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 10⁸ infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax.

  8. Intramuscular Delivery of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vector Expressing Humanized Protective Antigen Induces Rapid Protection against Anthrax That May Bypass Intranasally Originated Preexisting Adenovirus Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie

    2014-01-01

    Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 108 infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax. PMID:24307239

  9. Posttransplant Intramuscular Injection of PLX-R18 Mesenchymal-Like Adherent Stromal Cells Improves Human Hematopoietic Engraftment in A Murine Transplant Model.

    PubMed

    Metheny, Leland; Eid, Saada; Lingas, Karen; Ofir, Racheli; Pinzur, Lena; Meyerson, Howard; Lazarus, Hillard M; Huang, Alex Y

    2018-01-01

    Late-term complications of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are numerous and include incomplete engraftment. One possible mechanism of incomplete engraftment after HCT is cytokine-mediated suppression or dysfunction of the bone marrow microenvironment. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) elaborate cytokines that nurture or stimulate the marrow microenvironment by several mechanisms. We hypothesize that the administration of exogenous MSCs may modulate the bone marrow milieu and improve peripheral blood count recovery in the setting of incomplete engraftment. In the current study, we demonstrated that posttransplant intramuscular administration of human placental derived mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells [PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-R18] harvested from a three-dimensional in vitro culture system improved posttransplant engraftment of human immune compartment in an immune-deficient murine transplantation model. As measured by the percentage of CD45 + cell recovery, we observed improvement in the peripheral blood counts at weeks 6 (8.4 vs. 24.1%, p  < 0.001) and 8 (7.3 vs. 13.1%, p  < 0.05) and in the bone marrow at week 8 (28 vs. 40.0%, p  < 0.01) in the PLX-R18 cohort. As measured by percentage of CD19 + cell recovery, there was improvement at weeks 6 (12.6 vs. 3.8%) and 8 (10.1 vs. 4.1%). These results suggest that PLX-R18 may have a therapeutic role in improving incomplete engraftment after HCT.

  10. Posttransplant Intramuscular Injection of PLX-R18 Mesenchymal-Like Adherent Stromal Cells Improves Human Hematopoietic Engraftment in A Murine Transplant Model

    PubMed Central

    Metheny, Leland; Eid, Saada; Lingas, Karen; Ofir, Racheli; Pinzur, Lena; Meyerson, Howard; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Huang, Alex Y.

    2018-01-01

    Late-term complications of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are numerous and include incomplete engraftment. One possible mechanism of incomplete engraftment after HCT is cytokine-mediated suppression or dysfunction of the bone marrow microenvironment. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) elaborate cytokines that nurture or stimulate the marrow microenvironment by several mechanisms. We hypothesize that the administration of exogenous MSCs may modulate the bone marrow milieu and improve peripheral blood count recovery in the setting of incomplete engraftment. In the current study, we demonstrated that posttransplant intramuscular administration of human placental derived mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells [PLacental eXpanded (PLX)-R18] harvested from a three-dimensional in vitro culture system improved posttransplant engraftment of human immune compartment in an immune-deficient murine transplantation model. As measured by the percentage of CD45+ cell recovery, we observed improvement in the peripheral blood counts at weeks 6 (8.4 vs. 24.1%, p < 0.001) and 8 (7.3 vs. 13.1%, p < 0.05) and in the bone marrow at week 8 (28 vs. 40.0%, p < 0.01) in the PLX-R18 cohort. As measured by percentage of CD19+ cell recovery, there was improvement at weeks 6 (12.6 vs. 3.8%) and 8 (10.1 vs. 4.1%). These results suggest that PLX-R18 may have a therapeutic role in improving incomplete engraftment after HCT. PMID:29520362

  11. MAT2B promotes adipogenesis by modulating SAMe levels and activating AKT/ERK pathway during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Cunzhen; Chen, Xiaochang; Wu, Wenjing

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) has been demonstrated as one of the crucial factors of livestock meat quality. The MAT2B protein with MAT2α catalyzes the formation of methyl donor S- adenosylmethionine (SAMe) to mediate cell metabolism including proliferation and apoptosis. However, the regulatory effect of MAT2B on IMF deposition is still unclear. In this study, the effect of MAT2B on adipogenesis and its potential mechanism during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation was studied. The results showed that overexpression of MAT2B promoted adipogenesis and significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenic marker genes including FASN, PPARγ and aP2, consistently, knockdown of MAT2Bmore » inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of the above genes. Furthermore, flow cytometry and EdU-labeling assay indicated that MAT2B regulate adipogenesis was partly due to influence intracellular SAMe levels and further affect cell clonal expansion. Also, increased expression of MAT2B activated the phosphorylations of AKT and ERK1/2, whereas knockdown of MAT2B blocked AKT signaling and repressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of LY294002 (a specific PI3K inhibitor) on the activities of AKT and ERK1/2 was partially recovered by overexpression of MAT2B in porcine intramuscular adipocytes. Finally, Co-IP experiments showed that MAT2B can directly interact with AKT. Taken together, our findings suggested that MAT2B acted as a positive regulator through modifying SAMe levels as well as activating AKT/ERK signaling pathway to promote porcine intramuscular adipocyte differentiation. - Highlights: • MAT2B up-regulates the expression of adipogenic marker genes and promotes porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation. • MAT2B influences intracellular SAMe levels and further affects cell clonal expansion. • MAT2B interacts with AKT and activates AKT/ERK signaling pathway.« less

  12. Seismicity of Central Asia as Observed on Three IMS Stations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    and BVAR are all high-quality seismic arrays . Noise levels at the stations are generally acceptable for the period reviewed, except during the...following conditions: (1) a 4.5-Hz intermittent noise source at MKAR, (2) periodic high-frequency bursts on portions of the SONM array , and (3) a...seismic events (including single station events) observable on three central Asian IMS seismic array stations: Makanchi, Kazakhstan (MKAR); Songino

  13. Tinea capitis: Erregerspektrum und Epidemiologie im zeitlichen Wandel.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Wiebke; Lempert, Sigrid; Goebeler, Matthias; Kolb-Mäurer, Annette

    2016-08-01

    Die Tinea capitis ist die häufigste Dermatomykose des Kindesalters. Das Erregerprofil zeigt unterschiedliche geographische Verteilungsmuster und variiert im Laufe der Zeit. Zwischen 1990-2014 an der Würzburger Universitätsklinik für Dermatologie erhobene Daten von 150 Patienten mit mykologisch gesicherter Tinea capitis wurden hinsichtlich Alter, Geschlecht und Erregerspektrum analysiert und über zwei Zeiträume von jeweils 12,5 Jahren miteinander verglichen. Obwohl eine Tinea capitis am häufigsten bei Kindern der Altersgruppe zwischen 0 und 5 Jahren diagnostiziert wurde, lag der Anteil betroffener Erwachsener mit 16 % höher als bislang berichtet. Der zoophile Dermatophyt Microsporum canis konnte am häufigsten als Erreger der Tinea capitis identifiziert werden, jedoch war ein Anstieg von Infektionen mit den anthropophilen Pilzen Trichophyton tonsurans und Trichophyton rubrum zu verzeichnen. Tendenziell sank der Anteil zoophiler im Verhältnis zu den anthropophilen Erregern. Im zeitlichen Verlauf zeigte sich eine zunehmende Heterogenität des Erregerspektrums: Dermatophyten wie Trichophyton soudanense und Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton anamorph von Arthroderma benhamiae sowie Trichophyton schoenleinii und Microsporum audouinii konnten erstmalig bzw. nach langer Zeit wieder erneut isoliert werden. Wenngleich Microsporum-canis-Infektionen noch dominieren, sind zunehmend anthropophile Erreger nachzuweisen. Angesichts des unerwartet hohen Anteils von Erwachsenen sollte eine Tinea capitis in allen Altersgruppen differenzialdiagnostisch in Betracht gezogen werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential featuresmore » of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.« less

  15. Factor Structure of ImPACT® in Adolescent Student Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Paul B; Iverson, Grant L; Atkins, Joseph E; Maxwell, Bruce A; Zafonte, Ross; Schatz, Philip; Berkner, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    ImPACT ® (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) is a computerized neuropsychological screening battery, which is widely used to measure the acute effects of sport-related concussion and to monitor recovery from injury. This study examined the factor structure of ImPACT ® in several samples of high school student athletes. We hypothesized that a 2-factor structure would be present in all samples. A sample of 4,809 adolescent student athletes was included, and subgroups with a history of treatment for headaches or a self-reported history of learning problems or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed separately. Exploratory principal axis factor analyses with Promax rotations were used. As hypothesized, both the combination of Verbal Memory and Visual Memory Composite scores loaded on one (Memory) factor, while Visual Motor Speed and Reaction Time loaded on a different (Speed) factor, in the total sample and in all subgroups. These results provide reasonably compelling evidence, across multiple samples, which ImPACT ® measures 2 distinct factors: memory and speed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with the Live-Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Vaccine Strain VC2 Expressing Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) Glycoprotein D Generates Anti-EHV-1 Immune Responses in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang A; Stanfield, Brent A; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Naidu, Shan; Langohr, Ingeborg; Del Piero, Fabio; Ferracone, Jacqueline; Roy, Alma A; Kousoulas, Konstantin G

    2017-06-15

    Vaccination remains the best option to combat equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection, and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past few decades. Herein, we report that the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) VC2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of EHV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) and that the intramuscular immunization of mice results in strong antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses. The VC2-EHV-1-gD recombinant virus was constructed by inserting an EHV-1 gD expression cassette under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter into the VC2 vector in place of the HSV-1 thymidine kinase (UL23) gene. The vaccines were introduced into mice through intramuscular injection. Vaccination with both the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine and the commercially available vaccine Vetera EHV XP 1/4 (Vetera; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) resulted in the production of neutralizing antibodies, the levels of which were significantly higher in comparison to those in VC2- and mock-vaccinated animals ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). Analysis of EHV-1-reactive IgG subtypes demonstrated that vaccination with the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine stimulated robust IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies after three vaccinations ( P < 0.001). Interestingly, Vetera-vaccinated mice produced significantly higher levels of IgM than mice in the other groups before and after challenge ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Vaccination with VC2-EHV-1-gD stimulated strong cellular immune responses, characterized by the upregulation of both interferon- and tumor necrosis factor-positive CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells. Overall, the data suggest that the HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain may be used as a viral vector for the vaccination of horses as well as, potentially, for the vaccination of other economically important animals. IMPORTANCE A novel virus

  17. Intramuscular adipose tissue determined by T1-weighted MRI at 3T primarily reflects extramyocellular lipids.

    PubMed

    Akima, Hiroshi; Hioki, Maya; Yoshiko, Akito; Koike, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Oshida, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between intramuscular adipose tissue (IntraMAT) content determined by MRI and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) determined by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) or echo intensity determined by B-mode ultrasonography of human skeletal muscles. Thirty young and elderly men and women were included. T1-weighted MRI was taken from the right mid-thigh to measure IntraMAT content of the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) using a histogram shape-based thresholding technique. IMCL and EMCL were measured from the VL and BF at the right mid-thigh using (1)H MRS. Ultrasonographic images were taken from the VL and BF of the right mid-thigh to measure echo intensity based on gray-scale level for quantitative analysis. There was a significant correlation between IntraMAT content by MRI and EMCL of the VL and BF (VL, r=0.506, P<0.01; BF, r=0.591, P<0.001) and between echo intensity and EMCL of the VL and BF (VL, r=0.485, P<0.05; BF, r=0.648, P<0.01). IntraMAT content was also significantly correlated with echo intensity of the VL and BF (VL, r=0.404, P<0.05; BF, r=0.493, P<0.01). Our study suggests that IntraMAT content determined by T1-weighted MRI at 3T primarily reflects extramyocellular lipids, not intramyocellular lipids, in human skeletal muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depletion of long-acting ampicillin in goat milk following intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, Anna Maria; Trenta, Simona; Mannoni, Veruscka; Rosati, Remo; Coni, Ettore

    2010-12-08

    Although goat milk production represents today a very small percentage of the world milk market, this percentage has been growing continuously during the past 20 years. Goat milk is the basic milk supply in many developing countries and provides tasteful derivative products in developed countries. Goats, as well as all milk-producing animals, can be affected by mastitis, but goats being considered a minor species, few drugs are specifically registered for these animals; most, at least for mastitis treatment, are usually tested and registered for use in cows. This situation leads often to the adoption for goat milk of withdrawal periods defined for cows even if these extrapolations prove almost never valid for goats. In the present study, the elimination of the β-lactam antibacterial agent ampicillin in goat milk was investigated. Ampicillin was chosen because it is one of the most common antibiotics used by goat farmers against mastitis due to the fact that it is well tolerated and has short elimination times in cows. Goats were treated with long-acting ampicillin at 15 mg (kg of body weight)(-1) by double intramuscular injection at 72 h interval. Milk was collected in a 12 h milking scheme. The method used to determine the levels of ampicillin in goat milk was based on a liquid-liquid extraction of this drug from the matrix, successive derivatization with formaldehyde, and final separation by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The results point out a slow depletion of ampicillin and, consequently, a withdrawal period (13 milkings) longer than that extrapolated and authorized for cows and sheep.

  19. Rapid geographical clustering of wound botulism in Germany after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection of heroin.

    PubMed

    Galldiks, Norbert; Nolden-Hoverath, Silke; Kosinski, Christoph M; Stegelmeyer, Ulrike; Schmidt, Sylvia; Dohmen, Christian; Kuhn, Jens; Gerbershagen, Kathrin; Bewermeyer, Heiko; Walger, Peter; Biniek, Rolf; Neveling, Michael; Jacobs, Andreas H; Haupt, Walter F

    2007-01-01

    Wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum in Germany are rare and occur predominantly in heroin injectors, especially after subcutaneous or intramuscular injection of heroin ("skin popping"), which is contaminated with spores of C. botulinum. We report a rapid geographical clustering of cases in Germany in a region between Cologne, Bonn, and Aachen with wound botulism and consecutive systemic C. botulinum intoxication in intravenous drug users (IDUs) within 6 weeks in October and November 2005. A group of 12 IDUs with wound botulism after "skin popping." Clinical data were available in 11 (92%) of 12 patients; in 7 (58%) of the 12 cases, there was cranial nerve involvement including mydriasis, diplopia, dysarthria, and dysphagia, followed by progressing symmetric and flaccid paralysis of proximal muscles of the neck, arms, trunk, and respiratory muscles. Mechanical respiratory support was necessary. Five of the IDUs were treated with antitoxin, but mechanical respiratory support could not be avoided. The mean ventilation duration was 27.4 days (range 6-77 days). In 4 patients (33%), mechanical ventilation could be avoided; two were treated with antitoxin. This report describes rapid geographical clustering of wound botulism with severe respiratory complications in IDUs after "skin popping," which has not previously been reported either in Germany or any other European country. Based on these observations and those in other European countries, we conclude that there is a trend towards "skin popping," suggesting a change in injection practices in IDUs. Secondly, we conclude that the total number of cases with wound botulism is likely to increase because "skin popping" is the main risk factor.

  20. Intramuscular pressures in antigravity muscles using gravity-independent, pneumatic hardware.

    PubMed

    Macias, Brandon R; Minocha, Ranjeet; Cutuk, Adnan A; Hill, James; Shiau, Jonathon; Hargens, Alan R

    2008-08-01

    Resistive exercise helps prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity, but better exercise equipment is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if a pneumatic, gravity-independent leg-press device (LPD) provides sufficient force to leg musculature. We hypothesized that intramuscular pressure (IMP), a quantitative index of muscle force, is greater in the antigravity superficial posterior and deep posterior compartments than in the non-antigravity anterior compartment during bilateral leg-press exercise. Millar pressure transducers were inserted into the anterior, lateral, superficial posterior, and deep posterior muscle compartments of the left leg of eight healthy subjects (three women, five men). Subjects were supine on the Keiser SX-1, a pneumatic LPD. Then maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined; each subject performed three consecutive voluntary contractions at approximately 18%, 50%, and 100% MVC while continuously measuring IMP. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine differences of IMPs between compartments and loads. The magnitudes of IMP (mean +/- SEM) at 18 - 3% (abbreviated approximately 18%), 50%, and 100% MVC in the superficial and deep posterior compartments were significantly greater than that in the anterior compartment during exercise (P < 0.05). Additionally, IMPs in all four compartments significantly rose as resistance increased at approximately 18%, 50%, and 100% MVC (P < 0.05). The LPD provides significantly increased resistance to all four compartments, but with greater loading of the antigravity compartments as compared to the non-antigravity compartment. Since antigravity muscles of the leg are contained primarily in the superficial and deep posterior compartments, the LPD may help prevent muscle atrophy associated with microgravity.

  1. Effects of balanced selection for intramuscular fat and abdominal fat percentage and estimates of genetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M; Fan, W L; Xing, S Y; Wang, J; Li, P; Liu, R R; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Cui, H X; Wen, J; Zhao, G P

    2017-02-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content contributes to meat flavor and improves meat quality. Excessive abdominal fat, however, leads to a waste of feed resources. Here, an independent up-selection for IMF was used as a control (Line C), and a balanced selection program, with up-selection for IMF and down-selection AFP (Line B), was studied in JingXing yellow chickens. The mean of IMF and AFP within a family was the phenotypic value upon which selection was based. The selective pressures of IMF in line B and line C were the same in each generation. At G5, the IMF was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that at G0 in both lines. For AFP, Line C was significantly higher at G5 (P < 0.05) than at G0, but the difference in Line B was not significant (P > 0.05). IMF increased by 11.4% and AFP decreased by 1.5% in Line B compared with the G0 generation. In contrast, the IMF increased by 17.6%, but was accompanied by an 18.7% increase in AFP, in control Line C. Of 10 other traits measured, body weight at 56 d age (BW56) and the percentages of eviscerated weight (EWP) showed a significant difference between the 2 lines (P < 0.05). The heritabilities for IMF and AFP, estimated by the DMU package, were 0.16 and 0.32, respectively. A moderate positive correlation existed between IMF and AFP (0.35). A balanced selection program for increasing IMF while controlling AFP (Line B) is shown here to be effective in practical chicken breeding. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Quadriceps intramuscular fat fraction rather than muscle size is associated with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; MacLeod, Toran D.; Lin, Wilson; Nardo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila; Souza, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare thigh muscle intramuscular fat (intraMF) fractions and area between people with and without knee radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA); and to evaluate the relationships of quadriceps adiposity and area with strength, function and knee MRI lesions. Methods Ninety six subjects (ROA: KL >1; n = 30, control: KL = 0,1; n = 66) underwent 3-Tesla MRI of the thigh muscles using chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging (fat fractions) and the knee (clinical grading). Subjects were assessed for isometric/isokinetic quadriceps/hamstrings strength, function (KOOS, stair climbing test [SCT], and 6-minute walk test [(6MWT]. Thigh muscle intraMF fractions, muscle area and strength, and function were compared between controls and ROA subjects, adjusting for age. Relationships between measures of muscle fat/area with strength, function, KL and lesion scores were assessed using regression and correlational analyses. Results The ROA group had worse KOOS scores but SCT and 6MWT were not different. The ROA group had greater quadriceps intraMF fraction but not for other muscles. Quadriceps strength was lower in ROA group but the area was not different. Quadriceps intraMF fraction but not area predicted self-reported disability. Aging, worse KL, and cartilage and meniscus lesions were associated with higher quadriceps intraMF fraction. Conclusion Quadriceps intraMF is higher in people with knee OA and is related to symptomatic and structural severity of knee OA, where as the quadriceps area is not. Quadriceps fat fraction from chemical shift-based water/fat MR imaging may have utility as a marker of structural and symptomatic severity of knee OA disease process. PMID:24361743

  3. Cognitive and subjective acute dose effects of intramuscular ketamine in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Lofwall, Michelle R; Griffiths, Roland R; Mintzer, Miriam Z

    2006-11-01

    Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist. Given the purported role of the NMDA receptor in long-term potentiation, the primary purpose of the present study was to further understand the dose-related effects of ketamine on memory. The study was also designed to provide information about the relative effects of ketamine on memory versus nonmemory effects and to more fully characterize ketamine's overall pattern and time course of effects. Single intramuscular injections of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg) were administered to 18 healthy adult volunteers using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Word lists were used to evaluate episodic memory (free recall, recognition memory, source memory) and metamemory. Working memory, time estimation, psychomotor performance, and subjective effects were assessed repeatedly for 5 hours after drug administration. Ketamine selectively impaired encoding (as measured by free recall) while sparing retrieval, working memory while sparing attention, and digit symbol substitution task speed while sparing accuracy. Ketamine did not significantly impair recognition or source memory, metamemory, or time estimation. There were no hallucinations or increases in mystical experiences with ketamine. Memory measures were less sensitive to ketamine effects than subjective or psychomotor measures. Subjective effects lasted longer than memory and most psychomotor impairments. Ketamine produces selective, transient, dose- and time-related effects. In conjunction with previous studies of drugs with different mechanisms of actions, the observed selectivity of effects enhances the understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying memory, attention, psychomotor performance, and subjective experience.

  4. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. Methods/design: This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1∗107 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. Discussion: This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. Conclusion: This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. Trial registration number: NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/). PMID:29095305

  5. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2.

    PubMed

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H; Momcilovic, M; Grujic, N G

    2014-12-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7566605) is linked to lipid metabolism, and this study assessed its potential influence on fat in the upper arm following arm training. Twenty healthy sedentary volunteers (22.0 ± 1.1 years, body mass index 25.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2) ; mean ± standard deviation) carried out a 12-week two-arm elbow extensor training (10 maximal extensions with 1 min recovery between bouts) five times per day, five times per week. For 17 volunteers, upper arm muscle and adipose tissue [subcutaneous (SCAT) and intramuscular (IMAT)] volumes were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging before, immediately after, and 12 months after training and variables were related to the subjects' INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 genotype. Muscle volume and SCAT for the upper arm, as the decrease in IMAT during training were not related to INSIG2 SNP rs7566605: GG: %IMAT 1.0 ± 0.9%; GC/CC: %IMAT 0.6 ± 0.5% (P > 0.05). However, in the year following the training, accumulation of upper arm IMAT was twice as large in participants homozygous for the G allele (GG: Δ%IMAT +2.5 ± 0.8%; GC/CC: Δ%IMAT +1.1 ± 0.7%; P < 0.01). This study suggests that the G allele in the INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 is more relevant for changes in IMAT following training than for the amount of subcutaneous fat. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lack of gender effect on the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in Fenneropenaeus chinensis after intramuscular administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming; Li, Jian; Chang, Zhiqiang; Guo, Wenting; Zhao, Fazhen; Li, Jitao

    2015-04-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis, an economically important shrimp species, currently suffers from epizootic diseases due to high density stocking and bacterial infections. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been widely used to treat various systemic bacterial infections in shrimp farming. In the present study, the effect of gender on pharmacokinetics of OTC in F. chinensis was investigated. The OTC concentrations in hemolymph of shrimp after single intramuscular administration (75 mg OTC per kg body weight) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and best described with a two-compartment open model which is characterized by a short elimination half-life, low clearance, and a relatively large apparent volume of distribution. The pharmacokinetic equations were C t = 58.54e-0.38 t + 11.67e-0.04 t for females; and C t = 27.94e-0.28 t + 14.87e-0.04 t for males. The distribution and elimination half-lives of OTC were 1.82 and 19.58 h, respectively, in females and 2.50 and 16.11 h, respectively, in males at 22°C. The areas under the drug concentration curve were 480 mg L-1 h-1 in females and 430 mg L-1 h-1 in males. The total body clearance of the drug was 157.11 mL kg-1 h-1 in females and 172.47 mL kg-1 h-1 in males. The apparent volume distribution was 4.44 in females and 4.01 L kg-1 in males. There was no significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters between female and male shrimps, indicating that there is no need to consider the gender effect in clinical use of OTC in F. chinensis farming.

  7. On-line determination of pork color and intramuscular fat by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi-Tao; Fan, Yu-Xia; Wu, Xue-Qian; Xie, Li-juan; Cheng, Fang

    2010-04-01

    In this study, the application potential of computer vision in on-line determination of CIE L*a*b* and content of intramuscular fat (IMF) of pork was evaluated. Images of pork chop from 211 pig carcasses were captured while samples were on a conveyor belt at the speed of 0.25 m•s-1 to simulate the on-line environment. CIE L*a*b* and IMF content were measured with colorimeter and chemical extractor as reference. The KSW algorithm combined with region selection was employed in eliminating the surrounding fat of longissimus dorsi muscle (MLD). RGB values of the pork were counted and five methods were applied for transforming RGB values to CIE L*a*b* values. The region growing algorithm with multiple seed points was applied to mask out the IMF pixels within the intensity corrected images. The performances of the proposed algorithms were verified by comparing the measured reference values and the quality characteristics obtained by image processing. MLD region of six samples could not be identified using the KSW algorithm. Intensity nonuniformity of pork surface in the image can be eliminated efficiently, and IMF region of three corrected images failed to be extracted. Given considerable variety of color and complexity of the pork surface, CIE L*, a* and b* color of MLD could be predicted with correlation coefficients of 0.84, 0.54 and 0.47 respectively, and IMF content could be determined with a correlation coefficient more than 0.70. The study demonstrated that it is feasible to evaluate CIE L*a*b* values and IMF content on-line using computer vision.

  8. Intramuscular Therapeutic Vaccination Targeting HPV16 Induces T Cell Responses That Localize in Mucosal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Jotova, Iveta; Wu, T. C.; Wang, Chenguang; Desmarais, Cindy; Boyer, Jean D.; Tycko, Benjamin; Robins, Harlan S.; Clark, Rachael A.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2014-01-01

    About 25% of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN2/3) caused by human papillomavirus serotype 16 (HPV16) undergo complete spontaneous regression. However, to date, therapeutic vaccination strategies for HPV disease have yielded limited success when measured by their ability to induce robust peripheral blood T cell responses to vaccine antigen. We report marked immunologic changes in the target lesion microenvironment after intramuscular therapeutic vaccination targeting HPV16 E6/E7 antigens, in subjects with CIN2/3 who had modest detectable responses in circulating T lymphocytes. Histologic and molecular changes, including markedly (average threefold) increased intensity of CD8+ T cell infiltrates in both the stromal and epithelial compartments, suggest an effector response to vaccination. Postvaccination cervical tissue immune infiltrates included organized tertiary lymphoid-like structures in the stroma subjacent to residual intraepithelial lesions and, unlike infiltrates in unvaccinated lesions, showed evidence of proliferation induced by recognition of cognate antigen. At a molecular level, these histologic changes in the stroma were characterized by increased expression of genes associated with immune activation (CXCR3) and effector function (Tbet and IFNβ), and were also associated with an immunologic signature in the overlying dysplastic epithelium. High-throughput T cell receptor sequencing of unmanipulated specimens identified clonal expansions in the tissue that were not readily detectable in peripheral blood. Together, these findings indicate that peripheral therapeutic vaccination to HPV antigens can induce a robust tissue-localized effector immune response, and that analyses of immune responses at sites of antigen are likely to be much more informative than analyses of cells that remain in the circulation. PMID:24477000

  9. Intramuscular fat in lamb muscle and the impact of selection for improved carcass lean meat yield.

    PubMed

    Anderson, F; Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Gardner, G E

    2015-06-01

    Intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%) has been shown to have a positive influence on the eating quality of red meat. Selection of Australian lambs for increased lean tissue and reduced carcass fatness using Australian Sheep Breeding Values has been shown to decrease IMF% of the Muscularis longissimus lumborum. The impact this selection has on the IMF% of other muscle depots is unknown. This study examined IMF% in five different muscles from 400 lambs (M. longissimus lumborum, Muscularis semimembranosus, Muscularis semitendinosus, Muscularis supraspinatus, Muscularis infraspinatus). The sires of these lambs had a broad range in carcass breeding values for post-weaning weight, eye muscle depth and fat depth over the 12th rib (c-site fat depth). Results showed IMF% to be highest in the M. supraspinatus (4.87 ± 0.1, P<0.01) and lowest in the M. semimembranosus (3.58 ± 0.1, P<0.01). Hot carcass weight was positively associated with IMF% of all muscles. Selection for decreasing c-site fat depth reduced IMF% in the M. longissimus lumborum, M. semimembranosus and M. semitendinosus. Higher breeding values for post-weaning weight and eye muscle depth increased and decreased IMF%, respectively, but only in the lambs born as multiples and raised as singles. For each per cent increase in lean meat yield percentage (LMY%), there was a reduction in IMF% of 0.16 in all five muscles examined. Given the drive within the lamb industry to improve LMY%, our results indicate the importance of continued monitoring of IMF% throughout the different carcass regions, given its importance for eating quality.

  10. Correlated responses to selection for increased intramuscular fat in a Chinese quality chicken line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J; Zhang, Y

    2007-11-01

    The correlated response in traits encompassing meat quality, carcass, sexual maturity, egg production, and egg quality traits arising from selection for increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content of breast muscle were investigated in the fifth generation of a selection experiment including a line (F) selected for increased IMF and a randombred control line (C). The results showed that breast muscle IMF content in the F line (4.25%) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that in the C line (3.80%) after 5 generations of selection. The same trend was observed in IMF content in thigh muscle (20.03 vs. 19.41%, P < 0.05). The shear force of breast muscle in the F line was lower than that in the C line (1.82 vs. 2.12 kg, P < 0.01), whereas increases occurred in BW (P < 0.05), carcass weight (P < 0.05), breast muscle weight (P < 0.001), breast muscle percentage of live weight (P < 0.05), abdominal fat weight (P < 0.001), ovarian weight at 90 d of age (P < 0.05), and egg weight (P < 0.05) in the F line, relative to the C line. Age at first lay in the F line was 4.84 d earlier than that in the C line (P < 0.001). No differences were found between the 2 lines (P > 0.05) in the following traits: drip loss, meat color (L*, a*, and b*), carcass percentage, thigh muscle weight, thigh muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, first egg weight, egg number (until 43 wk), Haugh units, shell thickness, and egg shape. The results of the present study demonstrated that selection for breast muscle IMF leads to desirable changes in meat quality, carcass, sexual maturity, and egg production traits.

  11. Randomised, prospective, non-blinded pilot study comparing the effect of intramuscular steroid injections and intralesional steroid injections in the management of tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Hasan; Biro, Izolda; Donnelly, Simon; Greenwood, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is an overuse injury affecting people performing repetitive forearm movements. It is a soft tissue disorder that causes significant disability and pain. The aim of the study was to establish that an intramuscular steroid injection is effective in the short-term pain relief and functional improvement of tennis elbow. The severity of pain at the injection site was monitored to determine whether the intramuscular injection is better tolerated than the intralesional injection. Methods and results 19 patients, who had no treatment for tennis elbow in the preceding 3 months, were recruited from Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, and were randomised to receive either 80 mg of intramuscular Depo-Medrone or 40 mg of intralesional Depo-Medrone injection. Blinding proved difficult as the injection sites differed and placebo arms were not included in the study. A Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire and a 10-point Likert scale were used to assess primary outcome. Six weeks after the treatment, there was a reduction in pain, improvement in function and total PRTEE scores in both intramuscular and intralesional groups (p=0.008) using a 95% CI for mean treatment difference of −26 to +16 points. A statistically significant result (p=0.001) in favour of intramuscular causing less pain at the injection site was noted. Conclusion Non-inferiority of intramuscular to intralesional injections was not confirmed; however, the intramuscular injection proved to be effective in reducing tennis elbow-related symptoms and was found less painful at the site of injection at the time of administration. Trial registration number EUDRACT Number: 2010-022131-11. REC Number: 10/H0718/76 (NRES, Central London REC 1). PMID:28879024

  12. Cellular/intramuscular myxoma and grade I myxofibrosarcoma are characterized by distinct genetic alterations and specific composition of their extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Stefan M; Mohseny, Alex B; Balog, Crina; Sewrajsing, Raj; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge H; Knijnenburg, Jeroen; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Sciot, Raf; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Deelder, André M; Szuhai, Karoly; Hensbergen, Paul J; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W

    2009-01-01

    Cellular myxoma and grade I myxofibrosarcoma are mesenchymal tumours that are characterized by their abundant myxoid extracellular matrix (ECM). Despite their histological overlap, they differ clinically. Diagnosis is therefore difficult though important. We investigated their (cyto) genetics and ECM. GNAS1-activating mutations have been described in intramuscular myxoma, and lead to downstream activation of cFos. KRAS and TP53 mutations are commonly involved in sarcomagenesis whereby KRAS subsequently activates c-Fos. A well-documented series of intramuscular myxoma (three typical cases and seven cases of the more challenging cellular variant) and grade I myxofibrosarcoma (n= 10) cases were karyotyped, analyzed for GNAS1, KRAS and TP53 mutations and downstream activation of c-Fos mRNA and protein expression. ECM was studied by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and expression of proteins identified was validated by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. Grade I myxofibrosarcoma showed variable, non-specific cyto-genetic aberrations in 83,5% of cases (n= 6) whereas karyotypes of intramuscular myxoma were all normal (n= 7). GNAS1-activating mutations were exclusively found in 50% of intramuscular myxoma. Both tumour types showed over-expression of c-Fos mRNA and protein. No mutations in KRAS codon 12/13 or in TP53 were detected. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry revealed structural proteins (collagen types I, VI, XII, XIV and decorin) in grade I myxofibrosarcoma lacking in intramuscular myxoma. This was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and qPCR. Intramuscular/cellular myxoma and grade I myxofibrosarcoma show different molecular genetic aberrations and different composition of their ECM that probably contribute to their diverse clinical behaviour. GNAS1 mutation analysis can be helpful to distinguish intramuscular myxoma from grade I myxofibrosarcoma in selected cases. PMID:19320777

  13. Prehospital Agitation and Sedation Trial (PhAST): A Randomized Control Trial of Intramuscular Haloperidol versus Intramuscular Midazolam for the Sedation of the Agitated or Violent Patient in the Prehospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, Derek L; Jacobs, Dorian

    2015-10-01

    Violent patients in the prehospital environment pose a threat to health care workers tasked with managing their medical conditions. While research has focused on methods to control the agitated patient in the emergency departme