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Sample records for intramuscularly administered cyanide

  1. Effectiveness of intramuscularly administered cyanide antidotes on methemoglobin formation and survival.

    PubMed

    Vick, J A; Von Bredow, J D

    1996-01-01

    Successful first aid therapy for cyanide intoxication is dependent upon immediate administration of antidotes which directly or indirectly interact with the cyanide ion to remove it from circulation. Owing to the severe respiratory, cardiovascular and convulsive episodes following acute cyanide intoxication, the most practical approach is to administer antidotes by intramuscular injection. Exceptionally rapid methemoglobin formers-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH) and dimethylaminophenol (DMAP)-are usually able to prevent the lethal effect of cyanide following intramuscular injections in doses sufficient to induce 20% methemoglobin (HH = 20 mg kg-1 and DMAP = 2 mg kg-1). Sodium nitrite, the methemoglobin inducer approved for military use, must be administered by intravenous infusion because it is not an effective cyanide antidote by the intramuscular route. In the normal unintoxicated animal an intramuscular injection of 20 mg kg-1 sodium nitrite will form 20% methemoglobin; however, in acute cyanide intoxication the associated severe bradycardia appears to limit the rate of absorption and thus the rapid formation of methemoglobin. If the bradycardia is prevented or reversed by atropine, the rate of absorption of sodium nitrite and the formation of methemoglobin is able to reverse the otherwise lethal effects of cyanide. Thus, an intramuscularly administered combination of 20 mg kg-1 sodium nitrite and 1 mg kg-1 atropine sulfate, rapidly absorbed from the intramuscular site, appears to achieve the same degree of effectiveness against acute cyanide intoxication as intramuscularly administered HH or DMAP. It would appear from these studies that HH, DMAP and sodium nitrite with atropine are all potentially effective intramuscular antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

  2. Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Thiosulfate Are Effective Against Acute Cyanide Poisoning When Administered by Intramuscular Injection.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Brittain, Matthew; Chan, Adriano; Garrett, Norma; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Babin, Michael; Pilz, Renate B; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Boss, Gerry R

    2017-06-01

    The 2 antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning in the United States must be administered by intravenous injection. In the out-of-hospital setting, intravenous injection is not practical, particularly for mass casualties, and intramuscular injection would be preferred. The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are effective cyanide antidotes when administered by intramuscular injection. We used a randomized, nonblinded, parallel-group study design in 3 mammalian models: cyanide gas inhalation in mice, with treatment postexposure; intravenous sodium cyanide infusion in rabbits, with severe hypotension as the trigger for treatment; and intravenous potassium cyanide infusion in pigs, with apnea as the trigger for treatment. The drugs were administered by intramuscular injection, and all 3 models were lethal in the absence of therapy. We found that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate individually rescued 100% of the mice, and that the combination of the 2 drugs rescued 73% of the rabbits and 80% of the pigs. In all 3 species, survival in treated animals was significantly better than in control animals (log rank test, P<.05). In the pigs, the drugs attenuated an increase in the plasma lactate concentration within 5 minutes postantidote injection (difference: plasma lactate, saline solution-treated versus nitrite- or thiosulfate-treated 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.27]). We conclude that sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate administered by intramuscular injection are effective against severe cyanide poisoning in 3 clinically relevant animal models of out-of-hospital emergency care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of Intramuscularly Administered Cyanide Antidotes and the Rate of Methemoglobin Formation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Dimethylaminophenol (DMAP) are usually able to prevent the lethal effect of cyanide following intramuscular injections in doses sufficient to induce 20...associated severe bradycardia appears to limit the rate of absorption of sodium nitrite from the intramuscular site which prevents the rapid formation of sufficient methemoglobin to counteract cyanide intoxication.

  4. Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2015-02-26

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure.

  5. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  6. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  7. Intramuscular cobinamide sulfite in a rabbit model of sublethal cyanide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G; Mahon, Sari B; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S; Boss, Gerry R

    2010-04-01

    Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigate the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity-induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model and determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and within deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system occurred within a mean of 1,032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group, with a difference of 1,023 minutes (95% confidence interval 116 to 1,874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes, with a difference of 52 minutes (95% confidence interval 7 to 98 minutes). RBC cyanide levels returned toward normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Intramuscular cobinamide

  8. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Current antidotes for cyanide poisoning must be administered by...dimethyltrisulfide, and sulfanegen. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyanide Poisoning ; Intramuscular Injection; Intraosseous Injection; Inhalational Delivery 16...7 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………. 8 4 INTRODUCTION Cyanide is a rapidly acting poison , and, thus, antidotes must be

  9. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  10. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Water-Soluble Salts of the Dithiane (Sulfanegen) from 3-Mercaptopyruvate for Intramuscular Administration

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Steven E.; Monteil, Alexandre R.; Cohen, Jonathan F.; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T.

    2013-01-01

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote. PMID:23301495

  11. A Lipid Base Formulation for Intramuscular Administration of a Novel Sulfur Donor for Cyanide Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kristof; Jayanna, Prashanth K; Duke, Anna; Winner, Brittany; Negrito, Melaeni; Angalakurthi, Siva; Yu, Jorn C C; Füredi, Petra; Ludányi, Krisztina; Sipos, Peter; Rockwood, Gary A; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a new formulation of the novel Cyanide (CN) antidote, Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), for intramuscular administration. This is a naturally occurring organosulfur molecule with the capability of reacting with CN more efficiently than the present sulfur donor type CN therapy of Thiosulfate (TS). Two types of micelles (PEG2000-DSPE and PEG2000-DSPE/TPGS) were prepared and tested for their ability to encapsulate the liquid, highly lipophilic and volatile drug, DMTS. The micellar encapsulation for DMTS does not only eliminate the possible muscle necrosis at the injection sites, but the rate of evaporation within the micelles is suppressed, that can provide a level of stability for the formulation. The method of micelle preparation was optimized and it was demonstrated that the PEG2000-DSPE preparation can dissolve up to 2.0 mg/ml of the antidote candidate. Keeping the injection volume minimized this could provide a maximum DMTS dose of 12.5 mg/kg. However, even this low dose of DMTS showed a remarkable in vivo therapeutic efficacy (2 X LD50 protection) in a mice model when injected intramuscularly. These in vitro and in vivo findings proved the efficacy of DMTS in combating CN intoxication, and the presented work gives valuable insight to micelle preparation and sets the bases for a more advanced future formulation of DMTS.

  12. Safety of ceftiofur sodium administered intramuscularly in horses.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, C R

    1992-11-01

    Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, was evaluated for safe use in horses. Male or female horses were allotted to groups and were given either saline solution (control), or 2.2, 6.6, or 11 mg of an aqueous solution of ceftiofur sodium/kg of body weight/d, IM, for 30 or 31 days. These dosages are expressed in terms of the ceftiofur free acid, and represent 1 to 5 times the proposed therapeutic dosage (2.2 mg/kg/d) administered for 3 times the maximal recommended duration of 10 days. Some of the horses were euthanatized and necropsied on day 31 or 32. The other horses were evaluated for an additional 30 days, and some were euthanatized and necropsied on day 60. The following types of data were collected: clinical observation; physical examination; pelleted food consumption; body weight; hematologic, serum biochemical, and urinalysis findings; organ weight; gross necropsy observations; and histopathologic findings. Ceftiofur sodium was generally well tolerated at the exaggerated doses and treatment durations used in these safety studies. Slight to mild decrease in pelleted food consumption was detected in horses given 6.6 or 11 mg of ceftiofur sodium/kg/d. Decreased food consumption began on day 2 and lasted for approximately 9 to 12 days. Generally, mild skeletal muscle irritation was detected by gross and microscopic examination of the injection sites of horses given ceftiofur sodium. Prevalence and severity of the muscle irritation tended to increase with increasing concentration of the dosing solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    held high- throughput ultrasonic monodisperse aerosol inhalers for detoxification of massive CN poisoning. IV. CONCLUSIONS Significant effect of...Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerry R...Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery 5a. CONTRACT

  14. Local effects and mechanism of absorption of iron preparations administered intramuscularly

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, C. R.; Golberg, L.; Smith, J. P.

    1957-01-01

    An attempt has been made to correlate factors involved in the absorption of iron-polysaccharide complexes administered intramuscularly. Different complexes varied greatly in degree of retention in muscle and in diffusibility in agar; these two characteristics were not closely related. The local changes in the muscle produced by the iron complexes consisted of an acute inflammatory reaction at the site of injection, with degenerative changes. Subsequent regeneration was rapid and complete. The major proportion of the absorption occurred during the initial 72 hr. and appeared to be mediated partly by the inflammatory reaction evoked, with enhancement of lymphatic transport of the iron complex. Rapid fixation by tissue macrophages impeded absorption and, with some complexes, this factor may make much of the injection inaccessible. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:13413161

  15. Postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or oral transmucosal buprenorphine administered to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Tatiana; Steagall, Paulo V M; Ferreira, Tatiana H; Minto, Bruno W; de Sá Lorena, Sílvia Elaine Rodolfo; Brondani, Juliana; Luna, Stelio P L

    2010-07-01

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) or oral transmucosal (OTM) buprenorphine administered to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, prospective and blinded clinical trial. 100 female cats. Cats were assigned to receive 0.01 mg kg(-1) of buprenorphine administered by the IV, IM, SC or OTM route (n = 25/group). Buprenorphine was made up to 0.3 mL with 0.9% saline. DIVAS (0-100 mm) and simple descriptive scale (SDS) (from 0 to 4) pain and sedation scores were assigned to each cat before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours after ovariohysterectomy. Buprenorphine and carprofen were administered for rescue analgesia. Data were analyzed using anova and Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups for breed, body weight, anesthetic time or surgery time (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups for sedation scores at any time. SDS pain scores did not detect any differences between groups (p > 0.05). DIVAS pain scores after OTM administration were significantly higher than IV and IM administration at 1 hour and at 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours, respectively (p < 0.05). DIVAS pain scores after SC administration were significantly higher than IV and IM administration at 2 hours and at 2, 3, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours (p < 0.05), respectively. Six, four, 13 and 17 cats that received IV, IM, SC and OTM buprenorphine required rescue analgesia, respectively. There was a significantly higher incidence of treatment failure in cats that received SC and OTM buprenorphine compared with cats that received IV and IM buprenorphine (p < 0.05). IV and IM administration of buprenorphine provided better postoperative analgesia than SC or OTM administration of the drug and these routes of administration should be preferred when buprenorphine is administered to cats.

  16. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscularly administered etorphine and carfentanil in goats.

    PubMed

    Heard, D J; Nichols, W W; Buss, D; Kollias, G V

    1996-01-01

    To determine comparative cardiopulmonary effects of IM administered etorphine and carfentanil in goats. Seven clinically normal adult female goats. Each goat received at least 9 drug treatments (etorphine HCl, 5 [twice], 10, 20, and 40 and carfentanil citrate, 5, 10, 20 and 40 micrograms/kg of body weight), with a minimal 2-day interval between trials. Although drug dosages were randomized, etorphine and carfentanil treatments were alternated. To assess for drug tolerance, the first and last treatments always were etorphine (5 micrograms/kg). All goats were instrumented for long-term cardiopulmonary variable data collection. Both drugs induced rapid catatonic immobilization, characterized by limb and neck hyperextension, with occasional vocalization and bruxation. Etorphine elicited transient violent struggling and vocalization immediately. Time to immobilization appeared dose-dependent, and was more rapid with carfentanil (< or = 5 minutes) than etorphine (5 to 10 minutes) at all dosages. Recovery to standing occurred earlier for etorphine (1 to 2 hours) than carfentanil (> 2 hours) at all dosages. Both drugs at all dosages significantly (P < or = 0.05) increased systemic and left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressures, LV peak negative dP/dt, total peripheral resistance (TPR), hemoglobin concentration, and left atrial (LA) and pulmonary O2 contents. They also significantly decreased heart and respiration rates, and TPR. A significant increase was observed at some dosages for LV stroke volume and index, LV peak positive dP/dt, mean pulmonary artery pressure, PaO2, pulmonary artery oxygen partial pressure, PaCO2, pulmonary mixed venous carbon dioxide partial pressure, LA hemoglobin saturation, LA transport index, and body temperature. Pulmonary and systemic mixed venous carbon dioxide and oxygen contents were significantly decreased at some dosages. Intramuscularly administered etorphine and carfentanil induce hypertension, bradycardia, and bradypnea in goats

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin/sulbactam combination administered intramuscularly in lactating sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, M S; Cárceles, C M

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an ampicillin/sulbactam (2:1) combination was studied after intramuscular administration of a single dose (20 mg/kg body weight: 13.33 mg/kg of ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sulbactam) to six sheep and six goats. The objective was to determine whether there were differences between sheep and goats in the disposition profiles of ampicillin and sulbactam. The disposition curves for both drugs were best described by a biexponential equation (one-compartment open model with first order absorption) in both sheep and goats. The maximum plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were similar in both sheep (10.61 +/- 6.36 and 9.17 +/- 3.82 mg/L respectively) and goats (11.02 +/- 2.69 and 9.25 +/- 0.85 mg/L respectively), in spite of the fact that the ampicillin dose was twice that of sulbactam. The time of the peak plasma concentration for both drugs was also similar in both sheep and goats. The elimination half-life of ampicillin was 0.81 +/- 0.17 h in sheep and 0.71 +/- 0.12 h in goats, and that of sulbactam was 1.02 +/- 0.36 h in sheep and 1.13 +/- 0.18 h in goats. The rate of drug removal from the body was faster in sheep than in goats and consequently the area under the curve was greater for goats. It was concluded that the similarity in the disposition and elimination of both drugs in sheep and goats indicated that the combination preparation could be administered at the same dosing rate in both species.

  18. Administering intramuscular injections: how does research translate into practice over time in the mental health setting?

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Al Omari, Omar; Happell, Brenda; Heslop, Karen; Barr, Lesley; Sourinathan, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly, mental health nurses are expected to base their clinical practice on evidence based knowledge and many of the practice traditions that have passed between generations of nurses must now be examined within this scientific context. Since 2000, there has been an increasing debate on what is best practice for the administration of intramuscular injections particularly in relation to site selection, needle size and technique. Weight gain associated with second generation long acting antipsychotics influences the site and needle size for effective medication delivery. To determine intramuscular injecting practice choices made by nurses working in the mental health setting in 2006 compared to those made by a similar group of nurses in 2012. A descriptive cross sectional study conducted across two time points: 2006 (93 participants) and 2012 (245 participants) utilising the same questionnaire designed to measure nurses' intramuscular injecting practice choices. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20 package. Six statistically significant practice changes were recorded related to needle size, site selection and the use of the Z-tracking technique. A continued higher usage of the dorsogluteal site was also reported in 2012 contrary to the recommendations in the current research for the ventrogluteal site. Whilst some practice changes occurred, translation of research into evidenced based practice is challenging and definitive best practice in the administration of intramuscular injections remains unclear. Education and randomised controlled trials are needed to provide the evidence to ensure the delivery of safe and effective intramuscular injecting practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Pharmacokinetics of colistin sulfate administered by intravenous and intramuscular routes in the calf].

    PubMed

    Renard, L; Sanders, P; Laurentie, M

    1991-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characteristics of an extemporaneous form of colistin sulfate in young calves were studied for a dosage of 25,000 IU.kg-1. The intravenous route (IV) is characterized by a 3-compartment model whose main parameters are: volume of distribution (1.02 l.kg), body clearance (0.15 l.h-1 kg-1) and mean residence time (3.87 h). By intramuscular route (IM), a mean serum peak of 37 IU.ml-1 was reached at a mean time of 0.5 h. The mean half-time of terminal phase (6.47 h) does not differ significantly from that of the intramuscular route (4.52 h). Absolute bioavailability calculated based on 4 calves was 109 +/- 28%. Repeated IM administrations seem to be adapted to maintain a bactericidal activity and to reduce risks of toxicity and neurological disorders (25,000 IU.kg-1) every 12 h over 3d.

  20. Preclinical advantages of intramuscularly administered peptide A3-APO over existing therapies in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections

    PubMed Central

    Ostorhazi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Sztodola, Andras; Harmos, Ferenc; Kovalszky, Ilona; Szabo, Dora; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Cassone, Marco; Wade, John D.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Otvos, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The designer antibacterial peptide A3-APO is efficacious in mouse models of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii systemic infections. Here we compare the efficacy of the peptide with that of imipenem and colistin in A. baumannii wound infections after burn injury. Methods CD-1 mice were inflicted with burn wounds and different inocula of A. baumannii, isolated from an injured soldier, were placed into the wound sites. The antibiotics were given intramuscularly (im) one to five times. Available free peptide in the blood and the systemic toxicity of colistin and A3-APO were studied in healthy mice. Results While toxicity of colistin was observed at 25 mg/kg bolus drug administration, the lowest toxic dose of A3-APO was 75 mg/kg. In the A. baumannii blast injury models, 5 mg/kg A3-APO improved survival and reduced bacterial counts in the blood as well as in the wounds and improved wound appearance significantly better than any other antibiotic treatment. The free peptide concentration in the blood did not reach 1 µg/mL. Conclusions Peptide A3-APO, with an intramuscular therapeutic index of 15, is more efficacious and less toxic than any existing burn injury infection therapy modality against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. A3-APO administered by the im route probably binds to a biopolymer that promotes the peptide's biodistribution. PMID:20810424

  1. Cellular distribution of orally and intramuscularly administered iron dextran in newborn piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Thorén-Tolling, K; Jönsson, L

    1977-01-01

    Histochemical studies were performed on tissues from piglets of different ages treated orally with iron dextran soon after birth. The mucosal cells in the distal region of the small intestine were heavily laden with stainable iron granules during the first three days after the iron administration. The absorptive epithelial cells are desquamated within seven to ten days after birth. Consequently, the number of iron granules gradually diminishes during the first seven days after treatment and no iron granules are demonstrated 12 days after the administration of iron. The iron dextran complex is pinocytosed in newborn piglets and then transported via the lymphatic system. Thus the sinusoidal lining cells of the body and mesenteric lymph nodes are already heavily laden with iron granules 24 hours after oral treatment. This iron store is released only slowing during the first weeks of life. Great amounts of iron granules are demonstrated in the liver and spleen macrophages during the first week after the administration of iron. Due to the rapid utilization of iron in growing piglets these iron stores diminish sharply during the weeks following birth. The distribution of stainable iron in the lymph nodes, liver and spleen seven days after intramuscular injection of iron dextran in newborn piglets was comparable to that for oral administration at that stage of the experiment. Images Fig. 1a-e. Fig. 2a-e. Fig. 3a-d. Fig. 4a-d. Fig. 5a-d. PMID:907907

  2. Pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered biperiden in guinea pigs challenged with soman.

    PubMed

    Capacio, B R; Byers, C E; Caro, S T; McDonough, J H

    2003-02-01

    Biperiden is an anticholinergic compound that has demonstrated effectiveness for treating organophosphate-induced seizure/convulsions. The plasma levels of biperiden associated with this efficacy have not yet been defined. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of biperiden after intramuscular administration of 0.5 mg/kg were conducted while monitoring pharmacodynamic (electroencephalographic) data in soman-exposed guinea pigs. Overall, 59% of the animals had seizures terminated within 30 min of the biperiden administration. The mean time to seizure termination was 15.9 min. The pharmacokinetics of biperiden after i.m. administration to guinea pigs were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The maximal plasma biperiden concentration (34.4 ng/mL) in seizure-terminated animals occurred at 26.3 min. Extensive partitioning into peripheral tissues was noted supporting the relatively large volume of distribution observed. Maximal biperiden concentrations in the cortex and brain stem were found at 30 min and were 2.3 and 1.7 times greater, respectively, than that in plasma. The time for maximal plasma concentration was found to corresponded well with the mean time to seizure termination following drug administration.

  3. Neurobehavioral and Cardiovascular Effects of Potassium Cyanide Administered Orally to Mice.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Michael A; Ritchie, Glenn D; Henderson, Kim A; Knostman, Katherine A B; Roche, Brian M; Ma, Zhenxu J; Matthews, Claire M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edward J; Sabourin, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule requires evaluation of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) effects of new therapeutics. To characterize an adult and juvenile mouse model, neurobehavioral and cardiovascular effects and pathology of a single sublethal but toxic, 8 mg/kg, oral dose of potassium cyanide (KCN) for up to 41 days postdosing were investigated. This study describes the short- and long-term sensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes associated with oral dosing of a sublethal but toxic dose of KCN utilizing functional observation battery and Tier II CNS testing in adult and juvenile mice of both sexes. Selected tissues (histopathology) were evaluated for changes associated with KCN exposure with special attention to brain regions. Telemetry (adult mice only) was used to evaluate cardiovascular and temperature changes. Neurobehavioral capacity, sensorimotor responsivity or spontaneous locomotor activity, and rectal temperature were significantly reduced in adult and juvenile mice at 30 minutes post-8 mg/kg KCN dose. Immediate effects of cyanide included bradycardia, adverse electrocardiogram arrhythmic events, hypotension, and hypothermia with recovery by approximately 1 hour for blood pressure and heart rate effects and by 2 hours for body temperature. Lesions consistent with hypoxia, such as mild acute tubular necrosis in the kidneys corticomedullary junction, were the only histopathological findings and occurred at a very low incidence. The mouse KCN intoxication model indicates rapid and completely reversible effects in adult and juvenile mice following a single oral 8 mg/kg dose. Neurobehavioral and cardiovascular measurements can be used in this animal model as a trigger for treatment.

  4. Intramuscularly administered dexmedetomidine attenuates hemodynamic and stress hormone responses to gynecologic laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Aho, M; Scheinin, M; Lehtinen, A M; Erkola, O; Vuorinen, J; Korttila, K

    1992-12-01

    The hemodynamic and endocrine effects of three different doses of dexmedetomidine (0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 micrograms/kg), oxycodone (0.13 mg/kg), and saline solution, injected intramuscularly 45-60 min before induction of general anesthesia, were compared in a double-blind, randomized study involving 100 women undergoing gynecologic diagnostic laparoscopy. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental (4.5 mg/kg) and maintained with 0.3% end-tidal isoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate increased after endotracheal intubation and during laparoscopy in all groups, but the maximal mean arterial pressure after tracheal intubation was lower in the dexmedetomidine 2.4-micrograms/kg group (104 mm Hg [SD 19]) than in the saline solution group (130 mm Hg [SD 12]). Dexmedetomidine (2.4 and 1.2 micrograms/kg) attenuated the maximal heart rate after intubation (84 [SD 11] and 101 beats/min [SD 15], respectively) compared with saline solution (116 beats/min [SD 19]). On the other hand, 40% of the patients in the dexmedetomidine 2.4-micrograms/kg group received atropine in the postanesthesia care unit for bradycardia (heart rate < or = 40 beats/min). Preoperative anxiety and sedation before and after preanesthetic medication were evaluated by the patients with the aid of a profile of mood-state questionnaire; only dexmedetomidine 2.4 micrograms/kg produced significant anxiolysis and sedation. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, cortisol, and beta-endorphin increased less in the dexmedetomidine 2.4-micrograms/kg group in response to tracheal intubation and surgery than in the saline solution group.

  5. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote.

  6. Potentiation of epidural lidocaine by co-administering tramadol by either intramuscular or epidural route in cats

    PubMed Central

    Hermeto, Larissa C.; DeRossi, Rafael; Marques, Beatriz C.; Jardim, Paulo H.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the analgesic and systemic effects of intramuscular (IM) versus epidural (EP) administration of tramadol as an adjunct to EP injection of lidocaine in cats. Six healthy, domestic, shorthair female cats underwent general anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, crossover trial was then conducted with each cat receiving the following 3 treatments: EP injection of 2% lidocaine [LEP; 3.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)]; EP injection of a combination of lidocaine and 5% tramadol (LTEP; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively); or EP injection of lidocaine and IM injection of tramadol (LEPTIM; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively). Systemic effects, spread and duration of analgesia, behavior, and motor blockade were determined before treatment and at predetermined intervals afterwards. The duration of analgesia was 120 ± 31 min for LTEP, 71 ± 17 min for LEPTIM, and 53 ± 6 min for LEP (P < 0.05; mean ± SD). The cranial spread of analgesia obtained with LTEP was similar to that with LEP or LEPTIM, extending to dermatomic region T13–L1. Complete motor blockade was similar for the 3 treatments. It was concluded that tramadol produces similar side effects in cats after either EP or IM administration. Our findings indicate that EP and IM tramadol (2 mg/kg BW) with EP lidocaine produce satisfactory analgesia in cats. As an adjunct to lidocaine, EP tramadol provides a longer duration of analgesia than IM administration. The adverse effects produced by EP and IM administration of tramadol were not different. Further studies are needed to determine whether EP administration of tramadol could play a role in managing postoperative pain in cats when co-administered with lidocaine after painful surgical procedures. PMID:26130854

  7. Comparison of the effects of carbamyl-beta-methylcholine chloride administered by intravenous, intramuscular and intra-acupuncture point injections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Min; Gao, Jun-Hong; Lu, Bo; Peng, Juan; Bin, Fan; Cui, Jing-Jing; Wang, Hong-Xin; Ma, Yan-Yan; Yu, Xiao-Chun

    2012-03-01

    To compare the effects of carbamyl-beta-methylcholine chloride (CMCC) administered by intra-acupuncture point injection (IAI), intramuscular injection (IMI), and intravenous injection (IVI), and to analyze the mechanisms. In the IAI group, CMCC was injected into the Zusanli acupoint (ST 36) immediately after 30-min stimulation by electro-acupuncture (EA) at the acupoints, and into the femoral vein and skeletal muscle in IVI and IMI groups, respectively. Intra-gastric pressure was detected. The plasma concentration of CMCC was measured at various times. The gastric effect of CMCC in the IVI group was enhanced and attenuated more rapidly than in the other groups. In the IAI group, this effect was significantly stronger than that in the IMI group at 2 min and 15 min, but not significantly different between the two groups at 5 min and 30 min. Plasma concentration of CMCC in the IAI group was similar to that in the IVI group at 2 min, but higher than that in the IMI group. The concentration in the IAI group was higher than that in the IV group and similar to that in the IMI group at 5, 15 and 30 min, indicating rapid increase and slower reduction of the plasma concentration of the drug in the IAI group. There was a positive correlation between the plasma concentration of CMCC and intragastric pressure in all groups. The effect of IAI with CMCC was stronger than that of IMI and longer-lasting than that of IVI, which correlated with the blood concentration of CMCC.

  8. Potentiation of epidural lidocaine by co-administering tramadol by either intramuscular or epidural route in cats.

    PubMed

    Hermeto, Larissa C; DeRossi, Rafael; Marques, Beatriz C; Jardim, Paulo H A

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the analgesic and systemic effects of intramuscular (IM) versus epidural (EP) administration of tramadol as an adjunct to EP injection of lidocaine in cats. Six healthy, domestic, shorthair female cats underwent general anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, crossover trial was then conducted with each cat receiving the following 3 treatments: EP injection of 2% lidocaine [LEP; 3.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)]; EP injection of a combination of lidocaine and 5% tramadol (LTEP; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively); or EP injection of lidocaine and IM injection of tramadol (LEPTIM; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively). Systemic effects, spread and duration of analgesia, behavior, and motor blockade were determined before treatment and at predetermined intervals afterwards. The duration of analgesia was 120 ± 31 min for LTEP, 71 ± 17 min for LEPTIM, and 53 ± 6 min for LEP (P < 0.05; mean ± SD). The cranial spread of analgesia obtained with LTEP was similar to that with LEP or LEPTIM, extending to dermatomic region T13-L1. Complete motor blockade was similar for the 3 treatments. It was concluded that tramadol produces similar side effects in cats after either EP or IM administration. Our findings indicate that EP and IM tramadol (2 mg/kg BW) with EP lidocaine produce satisfactory analgesia in cats. As an adjunct to lidocaine, EP tramadol provides a longer duration of analgesia than IM administration. The adverse effects produced by EP and IM administration of tramadol were not different. Further studies are needed to determine whether EP administration of tramadol could play a role in managing postoperative pain in cats when co-administered with lidocaine after painful surgical procedures.

  9. Effects of age on the pharmacokinetics of single dose ceftiofur sodium administered intramuscularly or intravenously to cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Chester, S T; Robb, E J

    1996-02-01

    The effects of maturation on the intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium following a dose of 2.2 mg ceftiofur equivalents/kg body weight were evaluated in 16 one-day-old Holstein bull calves (33-53 kg body weight initially; Group 1) and 14 six-month-old Holstein steers (217-276 kg body weight initially; Group 2). Group 1 calves were fed unmedicated milk replacer until 30 days of age and were then converted to the same roughag/concentrate diet as Group 2. Groups 1-IV and 2-IV received ceftiofur sodium IV, and Groups 1-IM and 2-IM received ceftiofur sodium IM. Group 1 calves were dosed at 7 days of age and at 1 and 3 months of age; group 2 calves were dosed at 6 and 9 months of age. Blood samples were obtained serially from each calf, and plasma samples were analysed using an HPLC assay that converts ceftiofur and all desfuroylceftiofur metabolites to desfuroylceftiofur acetamide. Cmax values were similar in all calves, and were no higher in younger calves than in older calves. Plasma concentrations remained above 0.150 microgram ceftiofur free acid equivalents/mliter for 72 h in 7-day-old calves, but were less than 0.150 microgram/mliter within 48 h following IV or IM injection for 6- and 9-month-old calves. Intramuscular bioavailability, assessed by comparing the model-derived area under the curve (AUCmod) from IM and IV injection at each age, appeared to be complete. After IV administration, the AUCmod in 7-day-old and 1-month-old calves (126.92 +/- 21.1 micrograms.h/mliter and 135.0 +/- 21.6 micrograms.h/mliter, respectively) was significantly larger than in 3-, 6- and 9-month-old calves (74.0 +/- 10.7 micrograms.h/mliter, 61.0 +/- 17.7 micrograms.h/mliter and 68.5 +/- 12.8 micrograms.h/mliter, respectively; P < 0.0001). The Vd(ss) decreased linearly within the first 3 months of life in cattle (0.345 +/- 0.0616 L/kg, 0.335 +/- 0.919 L/kg and 0.284 +/- 0.0490 L/kg, respectively; P = 0.031), indicative of the decreasing

  10. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  11. Sulfanegen Sodium Treatment in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment. PMID:20705081

  12. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Jongsung; SUH, Sangil; CHOI, Ran; HYUN, Changbaig

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  13. The Comparison of Patient-Controlled Remifentanil Administered by Two Different Protocols (Bolus and Bolus+Infusion) and Intramuscular Meperidine for Labor Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Süleyman; Türktan, Mediha; Güleç, Ümran Küçükgöz; Hatipoğlu, Zehra; Ünlügenç, Hakkı; Işık, Geylan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nowadays, there are many pain relief methods for reducing the pain and stress of labor and delivery. In our study, two different remifentanil protocols (bolus and bolus+infusion) administered by patient-controlled analgesia method were compared with intramuscular meperidine for labor analgesia. Methods Ninety parturients who were scheduled for vaginal delivery were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 15 primiparous and 15 multiparous patients in each group. Whenever a patient requested analgesics during the labor, Group M was given 1 mg kg−1 intramuscular meperidine, Group B was given intravenous bolus patient-controlled remifentanil, and Group IB was given intravenous bolus+infusion patient-controlled remifentanil. Patients’ systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, pain-comfort and sedation scores, remifentanil consumption, side effects, and Apgar scores of the newborns were evaluated during the labor and delivery. Results Patients’ mean pain and comfort scores were significantly lower in Groups B and IB than in Group M at all time intervals except the first minute. Compared with Group IB, mean pain and comfort scores at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes were significantly higher in Group B. The mean sedation scores were similar among the groups. Total remifentanil consumption was lower in Group IB than in Group B, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion Patient-controlled intravenous bolus or bolus+infusion remifentanil provided more effective analgesia and patient comfort than intramuscular meperidine for labor analgesia. Especially during labor, bolus+infusion remifentanil administration provided better pain and patient comfort scores than bolus alone, without increasing remifentanil consumption. PMID:27366433

  14. A pilot randomized study to assess immunogenicity, reactogenicity, safety and tolerability of two human papillomavirus vaccines administered intramuscularly and intradermally to females aged 18-26 years.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E Anthony S; Lam, Hugh Simon; Choi, Kai C; Ho, Wendy C S; Fung, L W Eva; Cheng, Frankie W T; Sung, Rita Y T; Royals, Michael; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-07-25

    Intradermal administration of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines could be dose-sparing and cost-saving. This pilot randomized study assessed Cervarix(®) and Gardasil(®) administered either intramuscularly or intradermally, in different doses (full-dose or reduced to 20%) by different methods (needle and syringe or PharmaJet needle-free jet injection device). Following an initial reactogenicity study of 10 male subjects, sexually naïve women aged 18-26 years were randomized to the eight study groups to receive vaccine at 0, 2 and 6 months. 42 female subjects were enrolled and complete data were available for 40 subjects. Intradermal administration of either vaccine raised no safety concerns but was more reactogenic than intramuscular administration, although still tolerable. All subjects demonstrated a seroconversion (titre≥1:320) by Day 95. Further evaluation of intradermal HPV vaccination and its potential for cost reduction in resource poor settings is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intravenous and intramuscular pharmacokinetics of a single-daily dose of disodium-fosfomycin in cattle, administered for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Ocampo, C L; Gutierrez, O L

    2007-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfomycin in cattle were determined after administration of buffered disodium fosfomycin either intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Calculated concentrations at time zero and maximum serum concentrations were 34.42 and 10.18 mug/mL, respectively. The variables determined, the elimination half-life of the drug remained unchanged during the 3 days ( = 1.33 +/- 0.3 h for the i.v. route and = 2.17 +/- 0.4 h for the i.m. route). Apparent volumes of distribution suggest moderated distribution out of the central compartment (V(darea) = 673 mL +/- 27 mL/kg and V(dss) = 483 +/- 11 mL/kg). Bioavailability after i.m. administration was 74.52%. Considering fosfomycin as a time-dependent antibacterial drug, plasma concentration vs. time profiles obtained in this study, suggest that clinically effective plasma concentrations of fosfomycin could be obtained for up to 8 h following i.v. administration and approximately 10 h after i.m. injection of 20 mg/kg, for susceptible bacteria. In addition to residue studies in milk and edible tissues, a series of clinical assessments, using fosfomycin at 20 mg/kg b.i.d. or t.i.d. are warranted before this antibacterial drug should be considered for use in cattle.

  16. Cobinamide is superior to other treatments in a mouse model of cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Balasubramanian, Maheswari; Blackledge, William; Mohammad, Othman M.; Alvarez, Luis; Boss, Gerry R.; Bigby, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    Context Cyanide is a rapidly acting cellular poison, primarily targeting cytochrome c oxidase, and is a common occupational and residential toxin, mostly via smoke inhalation. Cyanide is also a potential weapon of mass destruction, with recent credible threats of attacks focusing the need for better treatments, since current cyanide antidotes are limited and impractical for rapid deployment in mass casualty settings. Objective We have used mouse models of cyanide poisoning to compare the efficacy of cobinamide, the precursor to cobalamin (vitamin B12), to currently approved cyanide antidotes. Cobinamide has extremely high affinity for cyanide and substantial solubility in water. Materials and Methods We studied cobinamide in both an inhaled and intraperitoneal model of cyanide poisoning in mice. Results We found cobinamide more effective than hydroxocobalamin, sodium thiosulfate, sodium nitrite, and the combination of sodium thiosulfate-sodium nitrite in treating cyanide poisoning. Compared to hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide was 3 and 11 times more potent in the intraperitoneal and inhalation models, respectively. Cobinamide sulfite was rapidly absorbed after intramuscular injection, and mice recovered from a lethal dose of cyanide even when given at a time when they had been apneic for over two minutes. In range finding studies, cobinamide sulfite at doses up to 2000 mg/kg exhibited no clinical toxicity. Discussion and Conclusion These studies demonstrate that cobinamide is a highly effective cyanide antidote in mouse models, and suggest it could be used in a mass casualty setting, because it can be given rapidly as an intramuscular injection when administered as cobinamide sulfite. Based on these animal data cobinamide sulfite appears to be an antidote worthy of further testing as a therapy for mass casualties. PMID:20704457

  17. Novel, orally effective cyanide antidotes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Herbert T; Goon, David J W; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Patterson, Steven E

    2007-12-27

    A series of prodrugs of 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), the substrate for the enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate/cyanide sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) that converts cyanide to the nontoxic thiocyanate, which are highly effective cyanide antidotes, have been developed. These prodrugs of 3-MP are unique in being not only orally bioavailable, but may be administered up to an hour prior to cyanide as a prophylactic agent and are both rapid- or slow-acting when given parenterally.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (EXCEDE sterile suspension) administered via intramuscular injection in wild California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Collard, Wendy T; Grover, G Scott; Pussini, Nicola; Van Bonn, William G; Gulland, Frances M D

    2013-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (EXCEDE Sterile Suspension, 200 mg ceftiofur equivalents/ml) were determined for the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). A single dose of EXCEDE was administered intramuscularly at 6.6 mg/kg to 12 wild California sea lions during rehabilitation. The first 10 animals were each assigned to two blood collection time points, with a total of 10 time points at: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after administration of the drug. An additional two animals were sampled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hr postinjection. Plasma was separated within 10 min of blood collection and stored at -20 degrees C until analysis. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur, desfuroylceftiofur, and related metabolites, were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Maximum plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and related metabolites were observed 24 hr postdosing with a mean concentration of 3.6 microg/ml. The half life (60 hr) and area under the curve (270 microg x hr/ml) were also determined. These data indicate that a single dose of EXCEDE at 6.6 mg/kg i.m. would likely maintain a mean plasma drug level >0.6 microg/ml for 5 days and >0.5 microg/ml for 8 days.

  19. Which cyanide antidote?

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan H; Saiers, Jane; Baud, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Cyanide has several antidotes, with differing mechanisms of action and diverse toxicological, clinical, and risk-benefit profiles. The international medical community lacks consensus about the antidote or antidotes with the best risk-benefit ratio. Critical assessment of cyanide antidotes is needed to aid in therapeutic and administrative decisions that will improve care for victims of cyanide poisoning (particularly poisoning from enclosed-space fire-smoke inhalation), and enhance readiness for cyanide toxic terrorism and other mass-casualty incidents. This paper reviews preclinical and clinical data on available cyanide antidotes and considers the profiles of these antidotes relative to properties of a hypothetical ideal cyanide antidote. Each of the antidotes shows evidence of efficacy in animal studies and clinical experience. The data available to date do not suggest obvious differences in efficacy among antidotes, with the exception of a slower onset of action of sodium thiosulfate (administered alone) than of the other antidotes. The potential for serious toxicity limits or prevents the use of the Cyanide Antidote Kit, dicobalt edetate, and 4-dimethylaminophenol in prehospital empiric treatment of suspected cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin differs from these antidotes in that it has not been associated with clinically significant toxicity in antidotal doses. Hydroxocobalamin is an antidote that seems to have many of the characteristics of the ideal cyanide antidote: rapid onset of action, neutralizes cyanide without interfering with cellular oxygen use, tolerability and safety profiles conducive to prehospital use, safe for use with smoke-inhalation victims, not harmful when administered to non-poisoned patients, easy to administer.

  20. The RESPITE trial: remifentanil intravenously administered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) versus pethidine intramuscular injection for pain relief in labour: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew; MacArthur, Christine; Gao Smith, Fang; Homer, Leanne; Handley, Kelly; Daniels, Jane

    2016-12-12

    The commonest opioid used for pain relief in labour is pethidine (meperidine); however, its effectiveness has long been challenged and the drug has known side effects including maternal sedation, nausea and potential transfer across the placenta to the foetus. Over a third of women receiving pethidine require an epidural due to inadequate pain relief. Epidural analgesia increases the risk of an instrumental vaginal delivery and its associated effects. Therefore, there is a clear need for a safe, effective, alternative analgesic to pethidine. Evidence suggests that remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) reduces epidural conversion rates compared to pethidine; however, no trial has yet investigated this as a primary endpoint. We are, therefore, comparing pethidine intramuscular injection to remifentanil PCA in a randomised controlled trial. Women in established labour, requesting systemic opioid pain relief, will be randomised to either intravenously administered remifentanil PCA (intervention) or pethidine intramuscular injection (control) in an unblinded, 1:1 individual randomised trial. Following informed consent, 400 women in established labour, who request systemic opioid pain relief, from NHS Trusts across England will undergo a minimised randomisation by a computer or automated telephone system to either pethidine or remifentanil. In order to balance the groups this minimisation is based on four parameters; parity (nulliparous versus multiparous), maternal age (<20, 20 < 30, 30 < 40, 40+ years), ethnicity (South Asian (Pakistani/Indian/Bangladeshi) versus Other) and induced versus spontaneous labour. The effectiveness of pain relief provided by each technique will be recorded every 30 min after time zero, until epidural placement, delivery or transfer to theatre, quantified by Visual Analogue Scale. Incidence of maternal side effects including sedation, delivery mode, foetal distress requiring delivery, neonatal status at delivery and rate of

  1. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of a split-virion, inactivated, trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) administered by intradermal and intramuscular route in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Frenck, Robert W; Belshe, Robert; Brady, Rebecca C; Winokur, Patricia L; Campbell, James D; Treanor, John; Hay, Christine M; Dekker, Cornelia L; Walter, Emmanuel B; Cate, Thomas R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark; Leduc, Tom; Tornieporth, Nadia

    2011-08-05

    The aim of the study was to determine whether reduced doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) administered by the intradermal (ID) route generated similar immune responses to standard TIV given intramuscularly (IM) with comparable safety profiles. Recent changes in immunization recommendations have increased the number of people for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. Thus, given this increased need and intermittent vaccine shortages, means to rapidly expand the vaccine supply are needed. Previously healthy subjects 18-64 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four TIV vaccine groups: standard 15 μg HA/strain TIV IM, either 9 μg or 6 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given using a new microinjection system (BD Soluvia™ Microinjection System), or 3 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given by Mantoux technique. All vaccines contained A/New Caledonia (H1N1), A/Wyoming (H3N2) and B/Jiangsu strains of influenza. Sera were obtained 21 days after vaccination and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays were performed and geometric mean titers (GMT) were compared among the groups. Participants were queried immediately following vaccination regarding injection pain and quality of the experience. Local and systemic reactions were collected for 7 days following vaccination and compared. Ten study sites enrolled 1592 subjects stratified by age; 18-49 years [N=814] and 50-64 years [N=778]. Among all subjects, for each of the three vaccine strains, the GMTs at 21 days post-vaccination for both the 9 μg and the 6 μg doses of each strain given ID were non inferior to GMTs generated after standard 15 μg doses/strain IM. However, for the 3 μg ID dose, only the A/Wyoming antigen produced a GMT that was non-inferior to the standard IM dose. Additionally, in the subgroup of subjects 50-64 years of age, the 6μg dose given ID induced GMTs that were inferior to the standard IM TIV for the A/H1N1 and B strains. No ID dose produced a GMT superior to that seen after standard

  2. Cholinergic aspects of cyanide intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Von Bredow, J.D.; Vick, J.A.

    1993-05-13

    The acute exposure of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs to cyanide leads to a rapid increase and sudden halt in respiration accompanied by cardiovascular irregularities and extreme bradycardia which ultimately lead to cardiac arrest and death. Cardiac irregularities and cardiac arrest in the presence of cyanide induced respiratory arrest are assumed to be due to anoxia and therefore unresponsive to cardiotonic agents. Pretreatment or treatment with atropine sulfate or methyl atropine nitrate provides a marked reduction in the cardiovascular irregularities, bradycardia and hypotension. The cyanide induced cardiovascular effect can also be prevented by bilateral vagotomy. An intramuscularly injected combination of 20 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 1 mg/kg of atropine sulfate ensured recovery of pentobarbital anesthetized dogs exposed to lethal concentrations (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) of sodium cyanide.

  3. Dimethyl trisulfide: A novel cyanide countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, Gary A; Thompson, David E; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-12-01

    In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7.4, DMTS was observed to convert cyanide to thiocyanate with greater than 40 times higher efficacy than does thiosulfate, the sulfur donor component of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved cyanide countermeasure Nithiodote(®) In the absence of Rh, DMTS was observed to be almost 80 times more efficient than sodium thiosulfate in vitro The fact that DMTS converts cyanide to thiocyanate more efficiently than does thiosulfate both with and without Rh makes it a promising sulfur donor-type cyanide antidote (scavenger) with reduced enzyme dependence in vitro The therapeutic cyanide antidotal efficacies for DMTS versus sodium thiosulfate were measured following intramuscular administration in a mouse model and expressed as antidotal potency ratios (APR = LD50 of cyanide with antidote/LD50 of cyanide without antidote). A dose of 100 mg/kg sodium thiosulfate given intramuscularly showed only slight therapeutic protection (APR = 1.1), whereas the antidotal protection from DMTS given intramuscularly at the same dose was substantial (APR = 3.3). Based on these data, DMTS will be studied further as a promising next-generation countermeasure for cyanide intoxication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. [Cyanide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Møller, Søren; Hemmingsen, Claus

    2003-06-16

    Cyanide is a toxic compound which inhibits the cellular utilization of oxygen. A number of substances can give rise to cyanide intoxication, which in some cases may have a delayed onset. The symptoms are non-specific and reflect cellular hypoxia. Several strategies may be employed in the treatment. Hydroxycobalamine is an effective and non-toxic antidote. On the basis of a case story, the toxicology, symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning are discussed.

  5. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 016 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND CYANIDE SALTS ( CAS No . various ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  6. Combined effect of ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone administered intramuscularly to dairy cows on the clinico-pathological course of E. coli-endotoxin mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Shem-Tov, M; Ascher, F

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a single intramuscular injection of a drug product containing ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone, as a suspension in a diester of propylene glycol of medium-chain fatty acids, on the clinico-pathological course of experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis was examined in 30 dairy cows. Cows were divided into five groups, six cows per group, and 24 of them were infused with E. coli endotoxin into two quarters of their udders. The drug product was injected at 25,000 IU colistin sulphate, 10.0 mg ampicillin anhydrate and 0.025 mg dexamethasone acetate.kg-1 body weight as follows: Group 2 cows, immediately post-endotoxin infusion (PEI); Group 3 cows, 2 h PEI and, Group 4 cows, 4 h PEI. Group 1 cows were not treated with the product and served as a positive (endotoxin only) control while Group 5 cows were not challenged with endotoxin and were not treated with the product. A clinical mastitis score (CMS) was developed to quantitatively assess the degree of inflammation. Blood biochemistry and hematological parameters were used to monitor the immediate effects of treatment on several conventional inflammatory markers. Milk somatic cell counts (MSCC), milk electrical conductivity and daily milk production were among the parameters used to monitor systemic and local inflammatory reactions. Administration of the drug product immediately PEI and 2 h PEI clearly nullified some of the most severe early systemic reactions to inflammation but the effect of therapy on the local inflammatory markers was not as obvious. Notewhorthy, however, were the effects of the treatment on reducing the duration of elevated quarter MSCC and the increase in the speed of return to pre-endotoxin challenge daily milk production levels.

  7. Comparison of Adeno-Associated Virus Pseudotype 1, 2, and 8 Vectors Administered by Intramuscular Injection in the Treatment of Murine Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Rebuffat, Alexandre; Harding, Cary O.; Ding, Zhaobing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency and is associated with systemic accumulation of phenylalanine (Phe). Previously we demonstrated correction of murine PKU after intravenous injection of a recombinant type 2 adeno-associated viral vector pseudotyped with type 8 capsid (rAAV2/8), which successfully directed hepatic transduction and Pah gene expression. Here, we report that liver PAH activity and phenylalanine clearance were also restored in PAH-deficient mice after simple intramuscular injection of either AAV2 pseudotype 1 (rAAV2/1) or rAAV2/8 vectors. Serotype 2 AAV vector (rAAV2/2) was also investigated, but long-term phenylalanine clearance has been observed only for pseudotypes 1 and 8. Therapeutic correction was shown in both male and female mice, albeit more effectively in males, in which correction lasted for the entire period of the experiment (>1 year). Although phenylalanine levels began to rise in female mice at about 8–10 months after rAAV2/8 injection they remained only mildly hyperphenylalaninemic thereafter and subsequent supplementation with synthetic tetrahydrobiopterin resulted in a transient decrease in blood phenylalanine. Alternatively, subsequent administration of a second vector with a different AAV pseudotype to avoid immunity against the previously administrated vector was also successful for long-term treatment of female PKU mice. Overall, this relatively less invasive gene transfer approach completes our previous studies and allows comparison of complementary strategies in the development of efficient PKU gene therapy protocols. PMID:19916803

  8. Influence of nutritional state on the disposal of orally and intramuscularly administered iodized oil to iodine repleted older children and adult women.

    PubMed

    Fierro-Benitez, R; Sandoval-Valencia, H; Sevilla-Munoz, B; Rodriguez, E; Gualotuna, E; Fierro-Carrion, G; Pacheco-Bastides, V; Andrade, J; Wang, P H; Stanbury, J B

    1989-06-01

    Iodinated oil (Ethiodol, 1 or 2 ml) was administered po or by im administration to adult women and older children in rural highland Ecuador who were either well nourished or malnourished to determine the effect of nutritional status on the disposal rate of iodine. These subjects resides in a region previously severely deficient in iodine, but this had been corrected in these subjects by prior administration of iodinated oil or by use of iodized salt or both. Malnutrition as determined by the conventional standards of height for age was associated with a significantly shortened retention time of the administered iodine, whether given po or im. The half life of retention was approximately half in the malourished of that in the well nourished. If these findings can be extrapolated to chronically iodine deficient subjects, then malnourished populations in need of iodine supplementation should either receive higher dosages than those conventionally employed or more frequent dosage.

  9. Antagonism of cyanide poisoning by dihydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    Niknahad, Hossein; Ghelichkhani, Esmaeel

    2002-06-14

    Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) effectively antagonized the lethal effect of cyanide in mice and rabbits, particularly if administered in combination with thiosulfate. Oral DHA (2 and 4 g/kg) given to mice 10 min before injection (i.p.) of cyanide increased the LD50 values of cyanide from 5.7 mg/kg to 12 and 17.6 mg/kg, respectively. DHA prevented cyanide-induced lethality most effectively, if given orally 10-15 min before injection of cyanide. A combination of pretreatment with oral DHA (4 g/kg) and post-treatment with sodium thiosulfate (1 g/kg) increased the LD50 of cyanide by a factor of 9.9. Furthermore, DHA given intravenously to rabbits 5 min after subcutaneous injection of cyanide increased the LD50 of cyanide from 6 mg/kg to more than 11 mg/kg, while thiosulfate (1 g/kg) given intravenously 5 min after cyanide injection increased the LD50 of cyanide only to 8.5 mg/kg. DHA also prevented the convulsions that occurred after cyanide intoxication.

  10. Cyanide and arsenic poisoning by intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, J; Hall, A H; Drake, R; Rumack, B H

    1989-03-01

    A 29-year-old man was found unresponsive a few minutes after self-injecting undetermined amounts of potassium cyanide and sodium arsenite intravenously in a suicide attempt. Treatment with the Lilly Cyanide Antidote kit rapidly resolved the initial coma, despite a whole blood cyanide level of 4.4 micrograms/mL. A 12-hour urine arsenic collection begun on admission showed 10,065 micrograms arsenic/12 hr. The patient received intramuscular BAL initially, which was followed by two ten-day courses of oral D-penicillamine. Complications included upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding requiring transfusion, transient elevations of liver function tests, self-limited complaints of decreased vision with conjunctival hyperemia and photophobia, and an abscess at the injection site. Although specific antidote therapy completely resolved the cyanide toxicity, early and prolonged arsenic chelation did not prevent a mild sensory peripheral neuropathy from developing with onset about 17 days after self-injection.

  11. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  13. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. Chlorine cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 77 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  17. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  18. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  19. Disulfides as Cyanide Antidotes: Evidence for a New In Vivo Oxidative Pathway for Cyanide Detoxification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    defense against cyanide intoxication . The oxidation of disulfides to the corresponding thiosulfinate or thiosulfonate will result in facilitating their...high probability (1). While antidotes for cyanide intoxication exist (2-4), it has yet to be shown that they can be effectively administered in the...garlic] have been found to be effective as in vivo therapeutic agents for cyanide intoxication (10, 11). It is believed that the efficacy of these

  20. Comparative study on the immunogenicity and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) administered according to two different simulated post exposure intramuscular regimens (Zagreb versus Essen)

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, BJ; Narayana, DH Ashwath; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Ravish, HS; Harish, BR; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Madhusudana, SN; Belludi, Ashwin; Ahmed, Khaleel; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Vakil, Hoshang; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite availability of effective rabies vaccines, India has the highest global mortality rate for rabies. Low socio-economic communities are most affected due to lack of awareness of the disease and poor compliance to post-exposure prophylactic regimens. Currently, the only approved intramuscular regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies in India is the Essen regimen, which consists of 5 injections administered over 5 separate days in a period of one month. The high number of doses and clinical visits, however, are major reasons for non-compliance, and thus a shorter regimen would be beneficial. In a simulated PEP trial in healthy, adult subjects, this study evaluated whether purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV), administered according to the WHO-recommended 4-dose/3 visit Zagreb vaccination regimen is of equal immunogenicity and safety as the standard Essen regimen in Indian subjects. Two hundred and 50 healthy adults were enrolled and randomized into a Zagreb or Essen group, each receiving PCECV according to their respective regimen. Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7, 14 and 42 and analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). By Day 14, all subjects across both groups attained rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations of ≥ 0.5IU/ml. The Zagreb regimen was then demonstrated to be immunologically non-inferior to the Essen regimen by Day 14, which was the primary endpoint of the study. No safety issues were noted and the occurrence of adverse events was similar in both groups (17% and 15%, respectively). NCT01365494. CTRI No.: CTRI/2011/07/001857 PMID:25692792

  1. Toxicokinetic profiles of α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Bhandari, Raj K; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Boss, Gerry R; Logue, Brian A

    2013-09-12

    Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product, α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin (α-KgCN), which is produced from the reaction of cyanide and endogenous α-ketoglutarate. Although α-KgCN can potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide-poisoned animals are available. We, therefore, studied the toxicokinetics of α-KgCN and compared its behavior to other cyanide metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), in the plasma of 31 Yorkshire pigs that received KCN (4mg/mL) intravenously (IV) (0.17 mg/kg/min). α-KgCN concentrations rose rapidly during KCN administration until the onset of apnea, and then decreased over time in all groups with a half-life of 15 min. The maximum concentrations of α-KgCN and cyanide were 2.35 and 30.18 μM, respectively, suggesting that only a small fraction of the administered cyanide is converted to α-KgCN. Although this is the case, the α-KgCN concentration increased >100-fold over endogenous concentrations compared to only a three-fold increase for cyanide and ATCA. The plasma profile of α-KgCN was similar to that of cyanide, ATCA, and thiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that the use of α-KgCN as a biomarker for cyanide exposure is best suited immediately following exposure for instances of acute, high-dose cyanide poisoning.

  2. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  3. Cyanide Toxicokinetics: The Behavior of Cyanide, Thiocyanate and 2-Amino-2-Thiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Multiple Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Raj K.; Oda, Robert P.; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E.; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B.; Bebarta, Vikhyat S.; Rockwood, Gary A.; Logue, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN−) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250–300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5–4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47–54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN−. Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN− t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN− concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN− in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant. PMID:24711295

  4. The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

  5. The myth of the 90 degrees-angle intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Katsma, D L; Katsma, R

    2000-01-01

    This article shows that the textbook 90 degrees-angle requirement for intramuscular injections is unrealistic. Trigonometry demonstrates that an injection given at 72 degrees reaches 95% of the depth of an injection given at 90 degrees. This relation between needle angle and needle depth, previous research into the kinematics of hand motion during an intramuscular injection, and other practical considerations support the proposal for a new, relaxed standard: Intramuscular injections administered at a comfortable angle between 72 degrees and 90 degrees.

  6. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-03-01

    Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting, atypical antipsychotic that is indicated in the US for the acute and maintenance therapy of adult patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone. The noninferiority of flexible doses of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg to flexible doses of intramuscular long-acting risperidone 25-50 mg was not established in an initial 53-week study. However, these data were utilized to optimize the intramuscular paliperidone palmitate dosage regimen. In four randomized, double-blind studies, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally effective in the treatment of adult patients with acute schizophrenia, inducing significantly greater improvements from baseline in the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score than placebo (primary endpoint). In general, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate recipients achieved significantly better outcomes than placebo recipients with regard to the PANSS subscale, PANSS factor, Personal and Social Performance scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale scores. As maintenance therapy, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg was significantly more effective than placebo in delaying the time to the first relapse of schizophrenia symptoms in adult patients, according to the results of a randomized, double-blind study. The beneficial effects of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate therapy on the PANSS total score were sustained in a 52-week noncomparative extension phase of the maintenance therapy study. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Anti-Cyanide Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    dissociative process. Nickel(1l) cyclams ra~idly bound one cyanide, and three more at later times. -# * < U-’/C 20. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF...only in the presence of a certain external tension of cyanide. In this direction, a nickel(ii)- cyclam -14 will bind one cyanide ligand with a...a macrocyclic ring of four nitrogen atoms in the cyclam . We have found a Schiff base nickel derivative that has the metal attached to nitrogen and

  8. Hydroxocobalamin in cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John P; Marrs, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    On theoretical grounds, hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote for cyanide poisoning as cobalt compounds have the ability to bind and detoxify cyanide. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of hydroxocobalamin, its efficacy in human cyanide poisoning and its adverse effects. PubMed was searched for the period 1952 to April 2012. A total of 71 papers were identified in this way; and none was excluded. PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS: Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs and humans suggest a two-compartment model, with first order elimination kinetics. Pharmacodynamic studies in animals suggest that hydroxocobalamin would be a satisfactory antidote for human cyanide poisoning. EFFICACY IN HUMAN POISONING: There is limited evidence that hydroxocobalamin alone is effective in severe poisoning by cyanide salts. The evidence for the efficacy of hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation is complicated by lack of evidence for the importance of cyanide exposure in fires and the effects of other chemicals as well as confounding effects of other therapeutic measures, including hyperbaric oxygen. Evidence that hydroxocobalamin is effective in poisoning due to hydrogen cyanide alone is lacking; extrapolation of efficacy from poisoning by ingested cyanide salts may not be valid. The rate of absorption may be greater with inhaled hydrogen cyanide and the recommended slow intravenous administration of hydroxocobalamin may severely limit its clinical effectiveness in these circumstances. Both animal and human data suggest that hydroxocobalamin is lacking in clinically significant adverse effects. However, in one human volunteer study, delayed but prolonged rashes were observed in one-sixth of subjects, appearing 7 to 25 days after administration of 5 g or more of hydroxocobalamin. Rare adverse effects have included dyspnoea, facial oedema, and urticaria. Limited data on human poisonings with cyanide salts suggest that hydroxocobalamin is an effective

  9. Nitryl cyanide, NCNO₂.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Bélanger-Chabot, Guillaume; Haiges, Ralf; Christe, Karl O

    2014-07-01

    The elusive nitryl cyanide, NCNO2, has been synthesized and characterized. It was prepared in good yield, isolated by fractional condensation, characterized by NMR and vibrational spectroscopy, and studied by theoretical calculations. Nitryl cyanide holds promise as a high energy density material (HEDM) and might also prove useful as a HEDM building block. The simplicity and inherent stability of nitryl cyanide, together with the known multitude of nitriles in interstellar space, suggest that the compound might also be a potential candidate for observations in atmospheric and interstellar chemistry.

  10. Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters.

    PubMed

    Sauer, S W; Keim, M E

    2001-06-01

    The United States is under the constant threat of a mass casualty cyanide disaster from industrial accidents, hazardous material transportation incidents, and deliberate terrorist attacks. The current readiness for cyanide disaster by the emergency medical system in the United States is abysmal. We, as a nation, are simply not prepared for a significant cyanide-related event. The standard of care for cyanide intoxication is the cyanide antidote kit, which is based on the use of nitrites to induce methemoglobinemia. This kit is both expensive and ill suited for out-of-hospital use. It also has its own inherent toxicity that prevents rapid administration. Furthermore, our hospitals frequently fail to stock this life-saving antidote or decline to stock more than one. Hydroxocobalamin is well recognized as an efficacious, safe, and easily administered cyanide antidote. Because of its extremely low adverse effect profile, it is ideal for out-of-hospital use in suspected cyanide intoxication. To effectively prepare for a cyanide disaster, the United States must investigate, adopt, manufacture, and stockpile hydroxocobalamin to prevent needless morbidity and mortality.

  11. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study

    PubMed Central

    Koram, Kwadwo A.; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S.; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C.; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246 PMID:27644034

  12. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  13. Mass cyanide intoxication in sheep.

    PubMed

    Aslani, M R; Mohri, M; Maleki, M; Sharifi, K; Mohammadi, G R; Chamsaz, M

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cyanide poisoning that killed 56 ewes and 2 goats is reported. Fluid released into a ditch contained 1 g cyanide/L and produced toxicity in 3 ewes experimentally dosed with the liquid waste.

  14. Development of Biochemical Cyanide Antidotes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    to cyanide : 1. Inhibition of antioxidant defense enzymes: a) catalase b) superoxide dismutase c) glutathione reductase 2. Rise in intracellular free...ENZYMES Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD, CuZn form) are very susceptible to the action of cyanide . However, none of the 24 compounds screened in...vitro prevented catalase inhibition by cyanide and only pyruvate blocked the inhibitory effect of cyanide on SOD. It should also be noted that

  15. Effects of Methemoglobin Versus Potassium Cyanide Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    initial phase, two female dogs were administered a-ketoglutaric acid (800 mg/ml in 0.1 M phosphate buffer) via oral gavage at a dose of 4 g/kg body...the test solution. Two additional female dogs were administered a-ketoglutaric acid (285.7 mg/ml in 0.1 M phosphate buffer) via oral gavage at a dose of...effective as a possible antidote against lethal cyanide intoxication due to vomiting of the test solution. An acidic dosing solution caused gastric

  16. Cyanide Formation by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Ruth; Corpe, W. A.

    1965-01-01

    Michaels, Ruth (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), and W. A. Corpe. Cyanide formation by Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 89:106–112. 1965.—The formation of cyanide by a Chromobacterium violaceum strain was studied with growing cultures and with nonproliferating cells grown in complex and chemically defined media. Most of the cyanide was produced during the log-phase growth of the organism, and accumulated in the culture supernatant fluid. A synergistic effect of glycine and methionine on cyanide formation in a chemically defined medium was observed, and the amount of cyanide formed was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the two substances. Cyanide formation by nonproliferating cells was stimulated by preincubation with glycine and methionine. Cyanide formation by adapted cells in the presence of glycine and methionine was stimulated by succinate, malate, or fumarate, and depressed by azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Methionine could be replaced by betaine, dimethylglycine, and choline. PMID:14255648

  17. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  20. Cyanide toxicity during cardiopulmonary bypass with small dose of nitroprusside: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kum-Hee; Park, Seo Min; Baek, In Chan; Jang, Junheum; Hong, Yong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is an anti-hypertensive drug, commonly used to decrease the systemic vascular resistance and lower the blood pressure. When the amount of cyanide generated by the SNP exceeds the metabolic capacity for detoxification, cyanide toxicity occurs. Under general anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), it may be difficult to detect the development of cyanide toxicity. In cardiac surgical patients, hemolysis, hypothermia and decreased organ perfusion, which emphasize the risk of cyanide toxicity, may develop as a consequence of CPB. In particular, hemolysis during CPB may cause an unexpected overproduction of cyanide due to free hemoglobin release. We experienced a patient who demonstrated SNP tachyphylaxis and cyanide toxicity during CPB, even though the total amount of SNP administered was much lower than the recommended dose. We therefore report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:27064896

  1. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Anti-Cyanide Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    for Metalloporphyrins and Phthalocyanines 13 N- Methyl -Metalloporphyrins 3nd Cyanide .................................................. 14 Table 3...tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine , TMPyP(4,3) are the tetrakis(N- Methyl -4(or 3)pyridyl)porphyrins, TAP is tetrakis(4.NNN.tnmethylanilinium)porphynn...porphyrins. These species have a central porphyrin proton replaced by an N- methyl group , and this group foi" steric reasons raises the metal ion above

  3. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    challenging position as professor ordinarius at the Depart- ment of Anaesthesiology . I pioneered from scratch in this position until 2009. My academic... experience in the Paris Fire Brigade. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006; 44 (Suppl 1):37 44. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Kurt Anseeuwa*, Nicolas Delvaub...hydro- xocobalamin higher than 150 mg/kg. Given the theoretically synergistic action and given the experience in the treatment of the toxicity of

  4. Disposition kinetics of tylosin administered intravenously and intramuscularly to pigs.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-10-01

    The distribution of tylosin was studied using a crossover design, in six pigs following i.v. and i.m. administration of 10 mgkg(-1) b.w. Plasma samples were analysed by HPLC and UV absorbance detection. After i.v. administration, t(1/2beta) was 271.3 min, V(d) 14.6 Lkg(-1), V(ss) 9.7 Lkg(-1) and CL 26.8 mLmin(-1)kg(-1). After i.m. administration, a C(max) of 1 microgmL(-1) was reached at 90 min. Mean absorption time was 1988.7 min and bioavailability was 95%.

  5. Cyanide analyses for risk and treatability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, I.D.; Elseroad, H.J.; Pergrin, D.E.; Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    Cyanide, an EPA priority pollutant and target analyte, is typically measured as total. However, cyanide complexation, information which is not acquired through total cyanide analysis, is often a driver of cyanide toxicity and treatability. A case study of a former manufacture gas plant (MGP) is used to demonstrate the usability of various cyanide analytical methods for risk and treatability assessments. Several analytical methods, including cyanide amenable to chlorination and weak acid dissociable cyanide help test the degree of cyanide complexation. Generally, free or uncomplexed cyanide is more biologically available, toxic, and reactive than complexed cyanide. Extensive site testing has shown that free and weakly dissociable cyanide composes only a small fraction of total cyanide as would be expected from the literature, and that risk assessment will be more realistic considering cyanide form. Likewise, aqueous treatment for cyanide can be properly tested if cyanide form is accounted for. Weak acid dissociable cyanide analyses proved to be the most reliable (and potentially acceptable) cyanide method, as well as represent the most toxic and reactive cyanide forms.

  6. Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Delahaye, Arnaud; Goldgran-Tolédano, Dany; Baud, Frédéric J

    2003-04-01

    Cyanide poisoning may result from different exposures: residential fires, industrial accidents, drug and plant intoxication. Clinical features include coma, respiratory arrest and cardiovascular collapse. The biological hallmark is lactic acidosis. A plasma lactate concentration > or = 10 mmol/L in fire victims without severe burns and > or = 8 mmol/L in pure cyanide poisoned patients is a sensitive and specific indicator of cyanide intoxication. Many antidotes are available and efficient. However, therapeutic strategies are still debated. Our objective was to compare conventional treatments to hydroxocobalamin. This article reviews the literature on cyanide poisoning treatment. Conventional treatment of cyanide poisoning includes decontamination, supportive and specific treatment. Decontamination should be adapted to the route of poisoning and never postpone supportive treatment. Basic life support includes immediate administration of high flow of oxygen, airway protection and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Advanced life support includes mechanical ventilation, catecholamine and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Supportive treatment is efficient but does not modify the time course or the body burden of cyanide. Numerous antidotes are available. Oxygen counteracts efficiently cyanide action at the mitochondrial level. Sodium thiosulfate, methemoglobin forming agents and cobalt compounds act efficiently by complexing or transforming cyanide into non-toxic stable derivatives. However, regarding the main clinical condition of cyanide poisoning, i.e. smoke inhalation, we should take into account not only the efficiency of antidotes but also their safety. Sodium thiosulfate is both efficient and safe, but acts with delay. Methemoglobin-forming agents are potent, but due to the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, they impair tissue delivery of oxygen. Experimental data showed increased mortality in carbon monoxide- and cyanide-poisoned rats treated with these

  7. The toxicokinetics of cyanide and mandelonitrile in the horse and their relevance to the mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, Levent; Hughes, Charlie; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; Bosken, Jeff; Lehner, Fritz; Troppmann, Amy; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Sebastian, Manu M; Harrison, Lenn; Crutchfield, James; Baskin, Steven I; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiological association between black cherry trees and mare reproductive loss syndrome has focused attention on cyanide and environmental cyanogens. This article describes the toxicokinetics of cyanide in horses and the relationships between blood cyanide concentrations and potentially adverse responses to cyanide. To identify safe and humane blood concentration limits for cyanide experiments, mares were infused with increasing doses (1-12 mg/min) of sodium cyanide for 1 h. Infusion at 12 mg/min produced clinical signs of cyanide toxicity at 38 min; these signs included increased heart rate, weakness, lack of coordination, loss of muscle tone, and respiratory and behavioral distress. Peak blood cyanide concentrations were about 2500 ng/mL; the clinical and biochemical signs of distress reversed when infusion stopped. Four horses were infused with 1 mg/min of sodium cyanide for 1 h to evaluate the distribution and elimination kinetics of cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations peaked at 1160 ng/mL and then declined rapidly, suggesting a two-compartment, open model. The distribution (alpha) phase half-life was 0.74 h, the terminal (beta phase) half-life was 16.16 h. The mean residence time was 12.4 h, the steady-state volume of distribution was 2.21 L/kg, and the mean systemic clearance was 0.182 L/h/kg. Partitioning studies showed that blood cyanide was about 98.5% associated with the red cell fraction. No clinical signs of cyanide intoxication or distress were observed during these infusion experiments. Mandelonitrile was next administered orally at 3 mg/kg to four horses. Cyanide was rapidly available from the orally administered mandelonitrile and the C max blood concentration of 1857 ng/mL was observed at 3 min after dosing; thereafter, blood cyanide again declined rapidly, reaching 100 ng/mL by 4 h postadministration. The mean oral bioavailability of cyanide from mandelonitrile was 57% +/- 6.5 (SEM), and its apparent terminal half-life was 13 h +/- 3 (SEM

  8. Studies on solvent extraction of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Dreisinger, David

    2009-09-30

    The recovery of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solution with the guanidine extractant (LIX 7950) and the modified amine extractant (LIX 7820) has been investigated. Copper can be effectively extracted from alkaline cyanide solutions by both extractants. The free cyanide remains in the aqueous phase due to the preferential extraction of Cu(CN)(3)(2-) over Cu(CN)(4)(3-) and CN(-) by the extractants. The selectivity of the metals with the extractants under different cyanide levels has been examined. High cyanide levels tend to depress extraction of copper and silver cyanides, but exhibit insignificant effect on extraction of gold, zinc, nickel and iron cyanides. A possible solution to the separation of copper cyanides and free cyanide in cyanide effluents has been suggested, by which copper can be concentrated into a small volume of solution and the barren cyanide solution recycled to the cyanidation process.

  9. Cyanide evolution from a potassium gold cyanide plating bath

    SciTech Connect

    Antepenko, R.J.

    1980-02-12

    When a gold plating console was installed in a production area at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND), the console was placed adjacent to a 10% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ activation bath. An experiment was made to measure the amount of hydrogen cyanide gas released as a result of the accidental addition of sulfuric acid to the gold bath. Similar hydrogen cyanide gas evolution data were obtained from the addition of either dilute sulfuric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid. Results show hydrogen cyanide gas release was a function of the plating bath pH. Air samples collected over a portion of the gold bath at pH 5.6 and at either room temperature or at a 70/sup 0/C operating temperature were found to contain 2 ..mu..g/1 hydrogen cyanide. Air samples collected over the bath sample at pH 4.1 to 4.3 contained 40 ..mu..g/1 hydrogen cyanide. A rapid increase in hydrogen cyanide was found in air samples collected over plating bath samples below pH 2.5. A quantity of reagent grade concentrated sulfuric acid was added to the test bath, which was equivalent to the addition of a 9-pound bottle of the acid to the 30-gallon production bath. Air samples were found to contain 1400 ..mu..g/1 of hydrogen cyanide.

  10. Treatment efficacy of intramuscular promethazine for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Jennings, Richard T.; Beck, Bradley G.; Bagian, James P.

    1993-01-01

    Intramuscular promethazine and its efficacy in the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) were evaluated using standardized questions administered during postflight debriefings to crewmembers immediately after their first Shuttle flight. The comparison showed that 25 percent of crewmembers treated with IM promethazine were 'sick' on flight day 2, compared to 50 percent of crewmembers who did not receive promethazine, 90 percent reported immediate symptom relief as well. Untreated crewmembers typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h, and those treated with oral scopolamine/dextroamphetamine show delayed symptom development. This study suggests that intramuscular promethazine is an effective treatment for SMS and merits continued use and further controlled investigations.

  11. Treatment efficacy of intramuscular promethazine for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Jennings, Richard T.; Beck, Bradley G.; Bagian, James P.

    1993-01-01

    Intramuscular promethazine and its efficacy in the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) were evaluated using standardized questions administered during postflight debriefings to crewmembers immediately after their first Shuttle flight. The comparison showed that 25 percent of crewmembers treated with IM promethazine were 'sick' on flight day 2, compared to 50 percent of crewmembers who did not receive promethazine, 90 percent reported immediate symptom relief as well. Untreated crewmembers typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h, and those treated with oral scopolamine/dextroamphetamine show delayed symptom development. This study suggests that intramuscular promethazine is an effective treatment for SMS and merits continued use and further controlled investigations.

  12. Potential for error when assessing blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

    2001-11-01

    The present study explores toxicologic significance of blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims. Headspace gas chromatography was used for cyanide detection. Analysis of blood samples from ten fire victims (postmortem interval = 8 h to 3 to 5 d) detected zero to 11.9 mg/L of cyanide and a large difference in cyanide concentrations among victims. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) saturation was in the range of 24.9 to 84.2%. To examine the effects of methemoglobinemia and postmortem interval on blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims, an experiment was carried out using rabbits as the animal model. The rabbits were sacrificed by intramuscular injection of 1 mL/kg 2% potassium cyanide 5 min after intravenous injection of 0.33 mL/kg of 3% sodium nitrite (Group A, n = 3) or physiological saline (Group B, n = 6). Average methemoglobin contents immediately before potassium cyanide administration were 6.9 and 0.8% in Groups A and B, respectively. Average cyanide concentrations in cardiac blood at the time of death were 47.4 and 3.56 mg/L, respectively. When blood-containing hearts of the rabbits (n = 3 for Group B) were left at 46 degrees C for the first 1 h, at 20 to 25 degrees C for the next 23 h and then at 4 degrees C for 48 h, approximately 85 and 46% of the original amounts of blood cyanide disappeared within 24 h in Groups A and B, respectively. After the 72-h storage period, 37 and 10%, respectively, of the original amounts of cyanide remained in the blood. When the other three hearts in Group B were left at 20 to 25 degrees C for the last 48 h without refrigeration, cyanide had disappeared almost completely by the end of the experiment. The present results and those published in the literature demonstrate that the toxic effects of cyanide on fire victims should not be evaluated based solely on the concentration in blood.

  13. Clinical trial of intramuscular injection as contraceptive compound.

    PubMed

    Lay, C L

    1970-01-01

    99 women of proven fertility received 778 intramuscular contraceptive injections. An injectable compound containing 150 mg dihy droxyprogesterone acetophenide and 10 mg of estradiol enanthate (Deladroxate) in castor oil was prepared in a 1-cc disposable syringe. The injections were administered intramuscularly in the upper outer glut eal region on Day 8 of each menstrual cycle. The study was initiated in September 1965 and was completed by February 1969, with all data being recorded on a computer for future analysis. No pregnancies occurred. No serious side effects were noted. There were improvements in cases of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual tension. Minor complaints were not a problem in the use of the contraceptive except for intermenstrual spotting, which prompted 8 patients to discontinue the method. It is concluded that the long-acting intramuscular injection of estrogen-progesterone given once a month is effective and useful in difficult contraceptive patients in a public health clinic.

  14. Acute cyanide intoxication treated with a combination of hydroxycobalamin, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Mannaioni, Guido; Vannacci, Alfredo; Marzocca, Cosimo; Zorn, Anna Monica; Peruzzi, Sandro; Moroni, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    An 80-year-old diabetic patient was admitted to the hospital because of sudden unconsciousness and severe metabolic acidosis. His son reported the possibility of cyanide poisoning. Clinical data and the detection of cyanide in blood and gastric material confirmed this possibility. Supportive therapy and the following antidotes--sodium nitrite two doses 300 mg i.v., sodium thiosulfate 3 g i.v., and hydroxocobalamin 4 g in 24 hours--were administered immediately and the patient completely recovered in 48 hours. Our observations suggest that timely and appropriate use of antidotes for cyanide intoxication may prevent death, even in aged diabetic patients.

  15. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Rinágelová, Anna; Chmátal, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize the current knowledge of the enzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of cyanide, i.e., cyanide hydratases (CHTs; EC 4.2.1.66) and cyanide dihydratases (CynD; EC 3.5.5.1). CHTs are probably exclusively produced by filamentous fungi and widely occur in these organisms; in contrast, CynDs were only found in a few bacterial genera. CHTs differ from CynDs in their reaction products (formamide vs. formic acid and ammonia, respectively). Several CHTs were also found to transform nitriles but with lower relative activities compared to HCN. Mutants of CynDs and CHTs were constructed to study the structure-activity relationships in these enzymes or to improve their catalytic properties. The effect of the C-terminal part of the protein on the enzyme activity was determined by constructing the corresponding deletion mutants. CynDs are less active at alkaline pH than CHTs. To improve its bioremediation potential, CynD from Bacillus pumilus was engineered by directed evolution combined with site-directed mutagenesis, and its operation at pH 10 was thus enabled. Some of the enzymes have been tested for their potential to eliminate cyanide from cyanide-containing wastewaters. CynDs were also used to construct cyanide biosensors.

  16. Catalytic Antibodies for Prophylaxis/Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-09

    administration of both a drug that reacts with cyanide and an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction . The enzyme could be replaced with a catalytic antibody...administered prophylactically as long as the threat existed. The concept of catalytic antibodies is that an antibody to the transition state of a reaction would... Catalytic groups (for example, acid-base catalysts) can also play a role. To develop an antibody against the transition state of a reaction , one must

  17. Bioavailability of cyanide and metal-cyanide mixtures to aquatic life.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron; Santore, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide can be toxic to aquatic organisms, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed ambient water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life. Recent work suggests that considering free, rather than total, cyanide provides a more accurate measure of the biological effects of cyanides and provides a basis for water-quality criteria. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to free cyanide, although certain metals can form stable complexes and reduce the amount of free cyanide. As a result, total cyanide is less toxic when complexing metals are present. Cyanide is often present in complex effluents, which requires understanding how other components within these complex effluents can affect cyanide speciation and bioavailability. The authors have developed a model to predict the aqueous speciation of cyanide and have shown that this model can predict the toxicity of metal-cyanide complexes in terms of free cyanide in solutions with varying water chemistry. Toxicity endpoints based on total cyanide ranged over several orders of magnitude for various metal-cyanide mixtures. However, predicted free cyanide concentrations among these same tests described the observed toxicity data to within a factor of 2. Aquatic toxicity can be well-described using free cyanide, and under certain conditions the toxicity was jointly described by free cyanide and elevated levels of bioavailable metals.

  18. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  19. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  20. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-15

    sodium dihydrogen phosphate were products of Fisher Scientific Company (Fairlawn, NJ). Sodium thiosulfate, sodium hydroxide, sodium cyanide, sodium...acetate buffer , 4 4 pH 5.2, and 0.5 ml of a 0.1 mM solution of SDS was added to the outer well of the diffusion cell, and 2.0 ml of 0.1 N sodium...digital pH meter (Orion Research, Inc.) that contained 10 U1 of a silver potassium cyanide indicator- buffer solution (17.69 g Na2 HPO4 , 5.5 ml 10 M NaOH

  1. Toxicological and clinical aspects of cyanide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, R G; Schievelbein, H; Zickgraf-Rüdel, G

    1975-07-01

    This contribution deals with the occurrence of cyanide and its biological pathways in the body. Especially possibilities of detoxification are pointed out. Intoxications are caused by acute and chronical cyanide uptake. Tobacco amblyopia, retrobulbar neuritis in pernicious anaemia, Leber's optic atrophy, Nigerian nutritional neuropathy, and sterility in female heavy smokers are attributed to cyanide intoxication. Various methods for treating acute and chronic cyanide intoxication are discussed.

  2. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  3. Solar-Assisted Oxidation of Toxic Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Miles, A.

    1985-01-01

    In solar-assisted oxidation technique, oxygen-bearing air bubbled through cyanide solution in which platinized powdered TiO2 is suspended. Light from either artifical source or natural Sunlight irradiates. Experiments demonstrated this technique effective in reducing concentration of cyanide to levels well below those achieved by other methods. Results suggest effective and inexpensive method for oxidizing cyanide in industrial wastewaters.

  4. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released. PMID:26900563

  5. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-10-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released.

  6. Suicide by cyanide: 17 deaths.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Marker, Elizabeth; Stajic, Marina

    2004-07-01

    We reviewed 17 intentional ingestions of cyanide that occurred in New York City over a ten-year interval. The toxicologic and postmortem findings were reviewed. Certain occupations and nationalities of the decedents predominated among this group of suicides. Scientists, jewelers. and metal workers were common occupations among the decedents. In addition, 8 of 17 fatalities were West Indian/Caribbean Island and South American decedents, including three decedents from Guyana. Fourteen of the 17 fatalities were male. Pink lividity, a "bitter-almond" smell. and a hemorrhagic gastric mucosa were not prevailing findings in these decedents. A color test was used for screening for cyanide with confirmation and quantitation using gas chromatography.

  7. Modulating effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis on induced cyanide toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, O M; Olabode, O O

    2011-12-20

    were moderated mildly by Telfairia occidentalis. Group 4, treated with the vegetable alone had none of the observed histopathology in the organs examined. We concluded that lyophilised aqueous extracts of Telfairia occidentalis showed good potential as a safe antidote for cyanide poisoning when administered concomitantly or very shortly after ingestion of sub-lethal dose of cyanide. However, further bioassay guided fractionation and analytical studies are needed to identify the actual chemical compound or molecule in the vegetable responsible for or associated with the observed effects.

  8. Microbes and microbial enzymes for cyanide degradation.

    PubMed

    Raybuck, S A

    1992-01-01

    Cyanide is an important industrial chemical produced on a grand scale each year. Although extremely toxic to mammalian life, cyanide is a natural product generated by fungi and bacteria, and as a result microbial systems have evolved for the degradation of cyanide to less toxic compounds. The enzymes which utilize cyanide as a substrate can be categorized into the following reaction types: substitution/addition, hydrolysis, oxidation, and reduction. Each of these categories is reviewed with respect to the known biochemistry and feasibility for use in treatment of cyanide containing wastes.

  9. Intramuscular administration of morphine reduces mustard-oil-induced craniofacial-muscle pain behavior in lightly anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung R; Lee, Min K; Lim, Koang H; Yang, Gwi Y; Jeon, Hye J; Ju, Jin S; Yoon, Young W; Kim, Sung K; Ahn, Dong K

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the role of peripheral opioid receptors in mustard oil-induced nociceptive behavior and inflammation in the masseter muscles of lightly anesthetized rats. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 400 g. After initial anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.), one femoral vein was cannulated and connected to an infusion pump for the intravenous infusion of sodium pentobarbital. The rate of infusion was adjusted to provide a constant level of anesthesia. Mustard oil (MO, 30 microl) was injected into the mid-region of the left masseter muscle via a 30-gauge needle. Intramuscularly-administered morphine significantly reduced shaking behavior but not MO-induced inflammation. Intramuscular pretreatment with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, reversed antinociception produced by intramuscularly-administered morphine, while intracisternal administration of naloxone did not affect the antinociception of peripheral morphine. Pretreatment with d-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu opioid receptor antagonist, but not naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, nor norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, reversed intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception. These results indicate that intramuscularly-administered morphine produces antinociception in craniofacial muscle nociception and that this intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception is mediated by a peripheral mu opioid receptor. Our observations further support the clinical approach of administering opioids in the periphery for the treatment of craniofacial muscle nociception.

  10. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  11. A disposable blood cyanide sensor.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Mahon, Sari B; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R

    2013-03-20

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160 s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20 μL, 50 μL). RSDs were<10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in <4 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Hydromorphone after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Christe, Kari L

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta ). Hydromorphone (0.075 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions to healthy, socially housed, socially reared, adult, intact male rhesus macaques (n = 4). Blood samples were collected prior to and until 10 h after administration. Serum hydromorphone concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fit to time–concentration data. A 3-compartment model with input in and elimination from the central compartment best fit intravenous data, whereas a 1-comparment model best fit intramuscular data. After intravenous administration, the median clearance and terminal half-life were 37.7 (range, 33.7 to 47.1) mL/kg/min and 142 (range, 131 to 218) min, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life after intramuscular administration was 81.5 (77.2 to 92.5) min. Median intramuscular bioavailability was 92% (range, 75% to 104%). Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL for at least 2 h after intravenous and intramuscular administration. The disposition of hydromorphone was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance. Intramuscular administration resulted in rapid and almost complete drug absorption. Whole-body pruritus, sedation, and decreased appetite were observed in all macaques after initial drug administration. PMID:25255074

  14. Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Seefeldt, L C; Arp, D J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M-1 min-1 for CN-). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. [14C]cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state. PMID:2656648

  15. Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii

    SciTech Connect

    Seefeldt, L.C.; Arp, D.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state.

  16. The clinical experience of acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Yen, D; Tsai, J; Wang, L M; Kao, W F; Hu, S C; Lee, C H; Deng, J F

    1995-09-01

    The authors reviewed the clinical manifestations, complications, and the prognosis affected by Lilly Cyanide Antidote in 21 victims of acute cyanide poisoning over a 10-year period. The clinical signs and symptoms in cyanide poisoning are variable. Among 21 cases, loss of consciousness (15), metabolic acidosis (14), and cardiopulmonary failure (9) were the three leading manifestations of cyanide intoxication. Anoxic encephalopathy (6) was not uncommon in the severely intoxicated victims. Diabetes insipidus (1) or clinical signs and symptoms mimicking diabetes insipidus (3) may be an ominous sign to encephalopathy victims. The major cause of fatal cyanide poisoning is the intentional ingestion of cyanide compounds as part of a suicide attempt. Decrease of arteriovenous difference of O2 partial pressure may be a clue for the suspicion of cyanide intoxication. Although the authors cannot show a statistically significant difference (P = .47) for the Lilly cyanide antidote kit in terms of improving the survival rate for victims of cyanide poisoning, the antidote kit was always mandatory in our study in the cases of severely intoxicated victims who survived. Early diagnosis, prompt, intensive therapy with antidote, and supportive care are still the golden rules for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning, whether in the ED or on the scene.

  17. Metabolism of cyanide by Chinese vegetation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua; Wang, Chang; Zhou, Xishi

    2004-07-01

    Cyanide is a high-volume production chemical and the most commonly used leaching reagent for gold and silver extraction. Its environmental behavior and fate is of significant concern because it is a highly toxic compound. Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. This paper presents an investigation of the potential of Chinese vegetation to degrade cyanide. Detached leaves (1.5 g fresh weight) from 28 species of 23 families were kept in glass vessel with 100 ml of aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 23.5 degrees C for 28 h. Cyanide concentrations ranged from 0.83 to 1.0 CN mg l(-1). The disappearance of cyanide from the aqueous solution was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The fastest cyanide removal was by Chinese elder, Sambucus chinensis, with a removal capacity of 8.8 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1), followed by upright hedge-parsley (Torilis japonica) with a value of 7.5 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1). The lowest removal capacity had the snow-pine tree (Credrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud). Results from this investigation indicated that a wide range of plant species is able to efficiently metabolize cyanide. Therefore, cyanide elimination with plants seems to be a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated by cyanide from gold and silver mines or from other sources.

  18. In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-10-01

    Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater.

  19. Intramuscular preparations of antipsychotics: uses and relevance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Cario; Sassella, Francesca; Santini, Annalisa; Montresor, Clauno; Fumagalli, Sara; Mundo, Emanuela

    2003-01-01

    Intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics can be sub-divided into two groups on the basis of their pharmacokinetic features: short-acting preparations and long-acting or depot preparations. Short-acting intramuscular formulations are used to manage acute psychotic episodes. On the other hand, long-acting compounds, also called "depot", are administered as antipsychotic maintenance treatment to ensure compliance and to eliminate bioavailability problems related to absorption and first pass metabolism. Adverse effects of antipsychotics have been studied with particular respect to oral versus short- and long-acting intramuscular formulations of the different compounds. For short-term intramuscular preparations the main risk with classical compounds are hypotension and extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). Data on the incidence of EPS with depot formulations are controversial: some studies point out that the incidence of EPS is significantly higher in patients receiving depot preparations, whereas others show no difference between oral and depot antipsychotics. Studies on the strategies for switching patients from oral to depot treatment suggest that this procedure is reasonably well tolerated, so that in clinical practice depot antipsychotic therapy is usually begun while the oral treatment is still being administered, with gradual tapering of the oral dose. Efficacy, pharmacodynamics and clinical pharmacokinetics of haloperidol decanoate, fluphenazine enanthate and decanoate, clopenthixol decanoate, zuclopenthixol decanoate and acutard, flupenthixol decanoate, perphenazine enanthate, pipothiazine palmitate and undecylenate, and fluspirilene are reviewed. In addition, the intramuscular preparations of atypical antipsychotics and clinical uses are reviewed. Olanzapine and ziprasidone are available only as short-acting preparations, while risperidone is to date the only novel antipsychotic available as depot formulation. To date, acutely ill, agitated psychotic patients

  20. The treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T F

    2004-03-01

    Cyanide has gained historical notoriety as a poison used with intent to cause fatality. Its occurrence in industry is confined to a small number of uses in a relatively narrow range of industries, including the manufacture of Perspex and nylon and in electroplating. With proper controls in these settings, episodes of poisoning are extremely rare. However, because of the potential for a fatal outcome, procedures for the treatment of acute poisoning are essential. Antidotes include methaemoglobin generators, direct binding agents and sulphur donors, but there is a lack of international consensus about the treatment of choice. This article reviews the mechanisms and treatment of cyanide intoxication and emphasizes the importance of having agreed local procedures for the emergency treatment of poisoning.

  1. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  2. Bats, cyanide, and gold mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Although the boom days of prospectors and gold nuggets are long gone, modern technology enables gold to continue to be extracted from ore. Unfortunately, the extraction method has often been disastrous for bats and other wildlife, an issue I first became aware of in early 1989. Phone calls from Drs. Merlin Tuttle and Elizabeth Pierson, a BCI member and bat researcher from Berkeley, California, alerted me that bats were dying from apparent cyanide poisoning at gold mines in the western United States.

  3. Toxicokinetic Profiles of Alpha-ketoglutarate Cyanohydrin, a Cyanide Detoxification Product, following Exposure to Potassium Cyanide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-15

    tox le t Toxicokinetic profiles of -ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide ...KgCN in swine was investigated. • Measuring plasma -KgCN provides definitive confirmation of cyanide exposure. • Treatment of... cyanide poisoning with cobinamide renders -KgCN an ineffective diagnostic marker. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 May

  4. Diagnosis and Treatment of Cyanide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    treat toxic amblyopia and optic neuritises caused by the cyanide present in tobacco smoke.64,65 Hydroxycobalamin therapy is usually well tolerated,44,59...JAN 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Diagnosis and Treatment of Cyanide Toxicity

  5. Distribution of cyanide in heart blood, peripheral blood and gastric contents in 21 cyanide related fatalities.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jongsook; Jung, Jinmi; Yeom, Hyesun; Lee, Hansun; Lee, Sangki; Park, Yoosin; Chung, Heesun

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents 21 cases related to cyanide intoxication by oral ingestion. Cyanide concentrations in biological specimens are especially different from the type of postmortem specimens, and very important in interpreting the cause of death in postmortem forensic toxicology. Besides the detection of cyanide in autopsy specimens, the autopsy findings were unremarkable. Biological samples (0.2mL or equal to less than 10μg of cyanide) were analyzed colorimetrically for cyanide. In a series of 21 cyanide fatalities, the concentration ranges (mean±SD) of cyanide in heart blood, peripheral blood and gastric contents were 0.1-248.6mg/L (38.1±56.6mg/L), 0.3-212.4mg/L (17.1±45.1mg/L) and 2.0-6398.0mg/kg (859.0±1486.2mg/kg), respectively. The ranges of the heart/peripheral blood concentration ratio and gastric contents/peripheral blood concentration ratio were 0.3-10.6 (mean 3.4) and 3.4-402.4 (mean 86.0), respectively. From the difference of cyanide concentration and the concentration ratio of cyanide in different types of postmortem specimens, the possibility of the postmortem redistribution of cyanide and death by oral ingestion of cyanide could be confirmed. We reported cyanide fatal cases along with a review of literature.

  6. The efficacy and adverse effects of dicobalt edetate in cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Timothy Clive; Thompson, John Paul

    2016-09-01

    : Adverse effects reported have included hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, retrosternal pain, sweating, palpebral, facial and laryngeal oedema, vomiting, urticaria and/or a feeling of impending doom. Such effects appear to be more prevalent where the antidote has been administered without evidence of substantial systemic poisoning or where other antidotes have been used which might have been expected also to combine with cyanide. Although the adverse effects observed were doubtless unpleasant, and some were severe, no fatal reactions were found. Dicobalt edetate is an effective cyanide antidote when given to patients with systemic cyanide poisoning, but it has the potential to give rise to adverse reactions, particularly when administered in the absence of intoxication.

  7. Detoxification of cyanide by woody plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Zhou, Puhua; Liu, Yunda; Hu, Hao

    2005-08-01

    Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. This paper examines the potential of three woody plants from the Salicaceae family to degrade cyanide. Pre-rooted trees were grown in carefully designed bioreactors with aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 23.0 +/- 1 degree C for a maximum of 144 h. Cyanide concentrations ranged from 0.95 to 1.15 CN mg/L. Cyanide in water and in plant tissues was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Results from the investigation indicated that significant reduction of aqueous cyanide was found during the presence of plants in all treatments. Little amounts of applied cyanide were detected in the tissues of plants, mainly in roots and bottom stem. Cyanide remaining in tissues varied with the species of plants, despite similar periods of exposure. The data also indicated that photolysis, hydrolysis, and microbial degradation were not occurring and that volatilization was minimal. In conclusion, transport and metabolism of cyanide in plants is most likely.

  8. Separation of cyanide ions by foam fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Moussavi, Mohsen )

    1992-05-01

    The technique of adsorption of cyanide ions on foam bubbles was studied as an alternative to chemical oxidation which is practiced in cyanide waste treatment. The technique of foam fractionation was previously applied to the removal of heavy metals and proved to be successful. The free cyanide ions and complex species both responded positively to the formation of a separate foam phase. The results obtained so far show that satisfactory separation of cyanide compounds is possible if certain parameters are properly selected. There are other factors which have not been investigated before, and they seem to have a major role in the performance of this operation.

  9. Cyanide bioremediation: the potential of engineered nitrilases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason M; Trevor Sewell, B; Benedik, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The cyanide-degrading nitrilases are of notable interest for their potential to remediate cyanide contaminated waste streams, especially as generated in the gold mining, pharmaceutical, and electroplating industries. This review provides a brief overview of cyanide remediation in general but with a particular focus on the cyanide-degrading nitrilases. These are of special interest as the hydrolysis reaction does not require secondary substrates or cofactors, making these enzymes particularly good candidates for industrial remediation processes. The genetic approaches that have been used to date for engineering improved enzymes are described; however, recent structural insights provide a promising new approach.

  10. Treatment of acute cyanide intoxication with hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D E; Foley, R; Sabatini, S; Wharton, J; Kapusnik, J; Kurtzman, N A

    1985-01-01

    A dramatic response was noted in a patient at our hospital who received hemodialysis therapy for severe acidosis secondary to an unknown toxin, subsequently identified as cyanide. We were unable to find any information concerning the hemodialysis clearance and extraction ratio of cyanide; thus, we studied the effect of hemodialysis in dogs receiving a constant infusion of cyanide with and without a simultaneous infusion of thiosulfate. The hemodialysis clearance of cyanide in the presence of thiosulfate was 38.3 +/- 5.4 ml/min with an extraction ratio of 0.43 +/- 0.06 (n = 4). Hemodialysis was found to increase the lethal dose of cyanide without thiosulfate infusion, and a further increase was noted with the thiosulfate infusion. Thiosulfate promotes mitochondrial metabolism of cyanide to thiocyanate. The end product, thiocyanate, is quickly removed by hemodialysis. We believe that the demonstrated effectiveness of hemodialysis in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication is related not only to the hemodialysis clearance of cyanide, but also to the removal of its metabolic end product, thiocyanate. Based on our observations, we feel that hemodialysis is an effective adjunct in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication.

  11. Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival.

    PubMed

    Jethava, Durga; Gupta, Priyamvada; Kothari, Sandeep; Rijhwani, Puneet; Kumar, Ankit

    2014-05-01

    A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour.

  12. Intramuscular triamcinolone for difficult asthma.

    PubMed

    Panickar, Jayachandran R; Kenia, Priti; Silverman, Michael; Grigg, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    We treated a selected group of children attending a difficult asthma clinic with intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide. This study retrospectively reviews markers of asthma severity in those who received one or more monthly doses for three periods: 1) 3 months preceding the first injection (pretreatment), 2) from the first injection to 1 month after the last injection (treatment period), and 3) 3 months after the treatment period (follow-up period). Severity markers during the treatment and follow-up periods were compared with the pretreatment period by paired t-test. Five children (5-13 years old) received a single dose, and 8 children (12-15 years old) received multiple doses. Multiple doses of triamcinolone (n = 3-5) were associated with a fall in the number of asthma exacerbations (P < 0.01) and hospital admissions (P < 0.01) in both the treatment and follow-up periods. A single dose reduced exacerbations (P < 0.05, treatment vs. pretreatment) but not hospital admissions. We conclude that intramuscular triamcinolone is a useful short-term therapy in difficult asthma. Whether its efficacy is due to improved compliance, or an improved anti-inflammatory profile compared with oral steroids, remains unclear. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  13. New fungal biomasses for cyanide biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Yasemin Kevser; Gedikli, Serap; Aytar, Pınar; Unal, Arzu; Yamaç, Mustafa; Cabuk, Ahmet; Kolankaya, Nazif

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide, a hazardous substance, is released into the environment as a result of natural processes of various industrial activities which is a toxic pollutant according to Environmental Protection Agency. In nature, some microorganisms are responsible for the degradation of cyanide, but there is only limited information about the degradation characteristics of Basidiomycetes for cyanide. The aim of the present study is to determine cyanide degradation characteristics in some Basidiomycetes strains including Polyporus arcularius (T 438), Schizophyllum commune (T 701), Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Pleurotus eryngii (M 102), Ganoderma applanatum (M 105), Trametes versicolor (D 22), Cerrena unicolor (D 30), Schizophyllum commune (D 35) and Ganoderma lucidum (D 33). The cyanide degradation activities of P. arcularius S. commune and G. lucidum were found to be more than that of the other fungi examined. The parameters including incubation time, amount of biomass, initial cyanide concentration, temperature, pH and agitation rate were optimized for the selected three potential fungal strains. The maximum cyanide degradation was obtained after 48 h of incubation at 30°C by P. arcularius (T 438). The optimum pH and agitation rate were measured as 10.5 and 150 rev/min, respectively. The amount of biomass was found as 3.0 g for the maximum cyanide biodegradation with an initial cyanide concentration of 100mg/L. In this study, agar was chosen entrapment agent for the immobilization of effective biomass. We suggested that P. arcularius (T 438) could be effective in the treatment of contaminated sites with cyanide due to capability of degrading cyanide. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  15. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  16. Non-cyanide silver plating

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-11-07

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work.

  17. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    1.7, 1.7, 1.8, 1.7 mcg/ml) and lactate concentrations (3.5, 3.5, 3.1, 3.3 mmol/L), and reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) from baseline (29...Monitoring of blood pressure and blood gas sampling were accomplished through femoral arterial and venous lines. Respiratory challenges, with intermittent...Mean arterial pressure (mAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial and venous blood gas mea- surements (PO2, partial pressure of O2; BE, base excess; pH) at

  18. Determination of cyanide using a microbial sensor.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, K; Ikebukuro, K; Karube, I

    1996-08-01

    A microbial cyanide sensor was prepared, consisting of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an oxygen electrode. When the electrode was inserted into a solution containing glucose, the respiration activity of the microorganisms increased. The change in the respiration activity is monitored with the oxygen electrode. When cyanide is added to the sample solution, the electron transport chain reaction of the respiration system in the mitochondria is inhibited, resulting in a decrease in respiration. The inhibition is caused by cyanide binding with respiration enzymes such as the cytochrome oxidase complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Therefore, the cyanide concentration can be measured from the change in the respiration rate. When the sensor was applied to a batch system at pH 8.0 and 30 degrees C, the cyanide calibration curve showed linearity in the concentration range between 0.3 microM and 150 microM CN-.

  19. Determination of cyanide using a microbial sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Keijiro; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Karube, Isao

    1996-08-01

    A microbial cyanide sensor was prepared, consisting of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an oxygen electrode. When the electrode was inserted into a solution containing glucose, the respiration activity of the microorganisms increased. The change in the respiration activity is monitored with the oxygen electrode. When cyanide is added to the sample solution, the electron transport chain reaction of the respiration system in the mitochondria is inhibited, resulting in a decrease in respiration. The inhibition is caused by cyanide binding with respiration enzymes such as the cytochrome oxidase complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Therefore, the cyanide concentration can be measured from the change in the respiration rate. When the sensor was applied to a batch system at pH 8.0 and 30{degrees}C, the cyanide calibration curve showed linearity in the concentration range between 0.3 pM and 150 {mu}m CN{sup -}. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, R.D.; Cooper, D.A.; Henson, M. ); Speece, R. )

    1991-06-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of {gt}100 mg liter{sup {minus}1} with a hydraulic retention time of {lt}48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, {gt}70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, ({sup 14}C) bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of ({sup 14}C) cyanide transformation.

  1. Catalytic oxidation of cyanide-contaminated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Cyanide-contaminated wastewaters are commonly generated in the chemical, mining, electroplating, and hydrogen cyanide production industries. Although alkaline chlorination and a number of other techniques are currently used to treat such waste streams, researchers at the UOP Research Center in Des Plains, Illinois are developing a catalytic oxidation process that may result in favorable economics and more environmentally benign end products. Laboratory and pilot-scale test results indicate that cyanide conversions of up to 99.9% are possible with less than 0.1 ppmw cyanide remaining in the effluent. Metal-complexed cyanides, which are the most difficult to treat, are also amendable to treatment in this process. Finally, organic constituents in the wastewaters are oxidized by the process before they have a chance to foul or poison the catalyst. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  3. Fiber optic sensing of cyanides in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.S.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Li, C.Y.; Guerreiro, P.; Peyghambarian, N.

    1996-12-31

    A novel sol-gel technique was used to immobilize malachite green ions (MG{sup +}) in stable, optically transparent, porous silica gel films. A simple and sensitive method was developed for the detection of cyanides in solutions using spectrophotometry to measure changes caused by cyanide ions (CN{sup {minus}}) in the absorption spectra of the green-colored silica gel films. After reaction with cyanide ions, the absorption spectra of the films changed with a typical decrease in absorbance at 620 nm. On the basis of the absorption spectra of the films, a portable and easy to use fiber optic cyanide film sensor was fabricated. Decolorization undergone by the green-colored gel films, as they were exposed to cyanide ions, was detected through a fiber. Preliminary results indicate concentrations on the order of a few ppm are detected using the fiber optic sensor.

  4. Intramuscular haemangioma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Babu, D; Bhamre, R; Katna, R; Pai, P

    2014-09-01

    Haemangiomas are one of the most common benign tumours. Clinicians come across haemangiomas of different subtypes at different locations in the body. They are often faced with the question of whether to treat them or leave it to the natural history of the disease. We present a case of the intramuscular variety of haemangioma found in the unusual location of the tongue in a 60-year-old woman. Fine needle aspiration was inconclusive and on magnetic resonance imaging, it mimicked a malignancy, which prompted treatment. We also review the unique pathology of this variety of haemangioma, which defines their treatment. The radiological attributes of the disease and recurrence rates of surgery are also discussed.

  5. Acute cyanide intoxication and central transmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Persson, S A; Cassel, G; Sellström, A

    1985-12-01

    In rats treated with sodium cyanide (5-20 mg/kg, ip) dopamine was dose dependently decreased in the striatum within 60 sec. One of the main metabolites of dopamine in the central nervous system, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), was decreased in striatum, olfactory tubercle, and hippocampus. However, the oxidatively deaminated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), was not significantly altered in any of the brain regions studied. Naturally occurring levels of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-dopa), as well as L-dopa accumulated after inhibition of the neuronal L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, increased in cyanide-treated rats. The dopamine receptor antagonist spiperone (0.05 mg/kg, ip) slightly increased the survival in acute cyanide intoxication. Sodium cyanide increased the levels of glutamine in frontal cortex and striatum at all doses studied. Glutamic acid was increased in the cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus after sodium cyanide (5-10 mg/kg, ip). Higher doses decreased glutamic acid in the cerebellum, the frontal cortex, and the striatum. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were diminished at high doses in all regions studied. Cyanide increased the levels of cyclic GMP in the cerebellum. In the striatum cyclic GMP was decreased after sodium cyanide (10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant alterations in the concentrations of acetylcholine or choline were seen in the striatum of cyanide-treated rats. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine decreased the survival of mice given sodium cyanide. Acute cyanide intoxication thus produces rapid and fairly specific changes in central dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways.

  6. Use of cyanide antidotes in burn patients with suspected inhalation injuries in North America: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Dumestre, Danielle; Nickerson, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the use of cyanide antidotes and the determine the opinion on empiric administration of hydroxocobalamin in North American burn patients with suspected smoke inhalation injuries. An online cross-sectional survey was sent to directors of 90 major burn centers in North America, which were listed on the American Burn Association Web site. A multiple-choice format was used to determine the percentage of patients tested for cyanide poisoning on admission, the current administration of a cyanide antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of poisoning, and the antidote used. To ascertain views on immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin before confirmation of cyanide poisoning an option was included to expand the response in written format. Twenty-nine of 90 burn directors (32%) completed the survey. For the population of interest, the majority of burn centers (59%) do not test for cyanide poisoning on admission and do not administer an antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning (58%). The most commonly available antidote is hydroxocobalamin (50%), followed by the cyanide antidote kit (29%). The opinion regarding instant administration of hydroxocobalamin when inhalation injury is suspected is mixed: 31% support its empiric use, 17% do not, and the remaining 52% have varying degrees of confidence in its utility. In North America, most patients burnt in closed-space fires with inhalation injuries are neither tested for cyanide poisoning in a timely manner nor empirically treated with a cyanide antidote. Although studies have shown the safety and efficacy of empiric and immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin, most centers are not willing to do so.

  7. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  8. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  9. Photochemical destruction of cyanide in landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Podsiadlik, D.H.; Hartlund, J.L.; Gaines, W.A.; Kalis, E.M.

    1998-11-01

    The Allen Park Clay Mine Landfill, owned by Ford, produces a leachate that occasionally contains cyanide at levels marginally below the discharge limit. The form of the cyanide in the leachate was found to be iron-cyanide complexes that resist oxidation by a conventional treatment method, alkaline oxidation. Furthermore, the leachate also was found to contain a relatively large amount of organics which would exert additional demand for oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine). A study was performed to determine what treatment technology could be employed in the event treatment becomes necessary because of potential changes in the leachate characteristics and/or discharge limits. In this study, among several chemical oxidation methods, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with or without ozone was investigated as a treatment option. The following are the primary findings: (1) UV irradiation alone was effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex in both the leachate and the clean water; (2) the demand for UV or ozone by chemical oxygen demand was relatively low for this leachate; (3) ozone alone was not effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex; and (4) UV irradiation alone and UV irradiation with ozone resulted in the same removal for total cyanide in clean-water experiments, but the UV irradiation alone left some free cyanide whereas the UV irradiation with ozone did not.

  10. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Noaparast, Morteza; Mirsharifi, Rasoul; Elyasinia, Fezzeh; Parsaei, Reza; Kondori, Hessam; Farifteh, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated. PMID:25429182

  11. Cyanide detoxification by recombinant bacterial rhodanese.

    PubMed

    Cipollone, Rita; Ascenzi, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Visca, Paolo

    2006-05-01

    Cyanide is a major environmental pollutant of the chemical and metallurgical industries. Although extremely toxic, cyanide can enzymatically be converted to the less toxic thiocyanate by rhodaneses (thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferases, EC 2.8.1.1). We engineered a genetic system to express high levels of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa rhodanese (r-RhdA) in Escherichia coli, and used this organism to test the role of r-RhdA in cyanide detoxification. Inducible expression of the rhdA gene under the control of the hybrid T7-lacO promoter yielded active r-RhdA over a 4-h period, though r-RhdA-expressing E. coli showed decreased viability starting from 1 h post-induction. At this time, Western blot analysis and enzymatic assay showed r-RhdA partition between the cytoplasm (95%) and the periplasm (5%). The accessibility of thiosulfate to r-RhdA was a limiting step for the sulfur transfer reaction in the cellular system, but cyanide conversion to thiocyanate could be increased upon permeabilization of the bacterial membrane. Specific r-RhdA activity was higher in the whole-cell assay than in the in vitro assay with pure enzyme (2154 vs. 816 micromol min-1 mg-1 r-RhdA, respectively), likely reflecting enzyme stability. The r-RhdA-dependent cyanide detoxification resulted in increased resistance of r-RhdA overexpressing E. coli to 5 mM cyanide. Bacterial survival was paralleled by release of thiocyanate into the medium. Our results indicate that cyanide detoxification by engineered E. coli cells is feasible under laboratory conditions, and suggest that microbial rhodaneses may contribute to cyanide transformation in natural environments.

  12. Cyanide

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurring disease) CDC Plague Home Page (naturally occurring disease) Diagnosis & Evaluation Infection Control Laboratory Testing Case Definitions and ... Clinicians Health Officials People Selected for Response Teams Diagnosis/Evaluation Lab ... Vibrio cholerae (cholera) Viral hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] ...

  13. MR changes after acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Rachinger, Johanna; Fellner, Franz A; Stieglbauer, Karl; Trenkler, Johannes

    2002-09-01

    We describe MR changes that occurred 3 and 6 weeks after a suicide attempt with cyanide. The toxicity of cyanide causes damage, primarily to the basal ganglia, and those changes were visible as altered signal intensity on the first MR images. Extensive areas of hemorrhagic necrosis were seen 6 weeks later. Our case shows pseudolaminar necrosis along the central cerebral cortex 3 weeks after cyanide poisoning, showing that the sensorimotor cortex is also a site for toxic necrosis because of its high oxygen dependency.

  14. Growth and cyanide degradation of Azotobacter vinelandii in cyanide-containing wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Koksunan, Sarawut; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Vichitphan, Kanit; Han, Jaehong

    2013-04-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, has been extensively studied with regard to the ability of N2-fixation due to its high expression of nitrogenase and fast growth. Because nitrogenase can also reduce cyanide to ammonia and methane, cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii has been studied for the application in the bioremediation of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. Cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii in NFS (nitrogen-free sucrose) medium was examined in terms of cell growth and cyanide reduction, and the results were applied for cyanide-contaminated cassava mill wastewater. From the NFS medium study in the 300 ml flask, it was found that A. vinelandii in the early stationary growth phase could reduce cyanide more rapidly than the cells in the exponential growth phase, and 84.4% of cyanide was degraded in 66 h incubation upon addition of 3.0 mM of NaCN. The resting cells of A. vinelandii could also reduce cyanide concentration by 90.4% with 3.0 mM of NaCN in the large-scale (3 L) fermentation with the same incubation time. Finally, the optimized conditions were applied to the cassava mill wastewater bioremediation, and A. vinelandii was able to reduce the cyanide concentration by 69.7% after 66 h in the cassava mill wastewater containing 4.0 mM of NaCN in the 3 L fermenter. Related to cyanide degradation in the cassava mill wastewater, nitrogenase was the responsible enzyme, which was confirmed by methane production. These findings would be helpful to design a practical bioremediation system for the treatment of cyanide-contaminated wastewater.

  15. Removal of Zn or Cd and cyanide from cyanide electroplating wastes

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Fletcher L.

    1977-05-31

    A method is described for the efficient stripping of stable complexes of a selected quaternary amine and a cyanide of Zn or Cd. An alkali metal hydroxide solution such as NaOH or KOH will quantitatively strip a pregnant extract of the quaternary ammonium complex of its metal and cyanide content and regenerate a quaternary ammonium hydroxide salt which can be used for extracting further metal cyanide values.

  16. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  17. A novel cyanide ion sensing approach based on Raman scattering for the detection of environmental cyanides.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Gopal Reddy, C V; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a direct optical approach based on Raman scattering for selective and sensitive detection of cyanide ions in aqueous environment without requiring time-consuming sample pretreatment and the formation of hydrogen cyanide. Due to the strong affinity between copper (I) and cyanide ion, evaporated copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin films are shown to be excellent substrates for selective recognition of free cyanide ions in aqueous matrices. The amount of cyanide ion retained by the copper (I) in the CuI thin films reflects its actual concentration in tested samples, and the subsequent Raman measurements of the substrate are shown to be capable of detecting toxic cyanide content at levels under international drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Measurements obtained from the same batch of evaporated CuI thin films (approximately 100-nm thickness) show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 1.5 microM to 0.15 mM. This detection method offers the advantage of selectively detecting cyanides causing a health hazard while avoiding detection of other common interfering anions such as Cl-, Br-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), NO2-, S2- and SCN-. Coupled with portable Raman systems that are commercially available, our detection approach will provide on-site monitoring capability with little sample preparation or instrument supervision, which will greatly expedite the assessment of potential environmental cyanide risks.

  18. Serum creatine kinase after intramuscular injections.

    PubMed Central

    Konikoff, F.; Halevy, J.; Theodor, E.

    1985-01-01

    Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured after intramuscular injections in 44 patients hospitalized for non-cardiac reasons. The drugs injected were: diazepam, dipyrone, metoclopramide, meperidine, pentazocine and procaine penicillin. Only 3 out of 44 patients (7%) demonstrated significant elevation of CK levels following the intramuscular injections. In these 3 patients the elevation was mainly due to a rise of the MM-isoenzyme fraction with MB levels increased in one patient. These findings do not justify the common clinical notion of regarding intramuscular injections as a frequent cause of serum CK elevation. It is concluded that high CK serum values in a patient with chest pain should always be considered with utmost suspicion, disregarding the possible effects of a previous intramuscular injection. PMID:4022892

  19. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications ...

  20. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  1. Modeling hydrogen-cyanide absorption in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Islas, A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for predicting blood concentrations of cyanide as functions of exposure time to constant levels of cyanide in the atmosphere. A toxic gas (which may form as a result of decomposition of combustion materials used in transportation vehicles) is breathed into the alveolar space and transferred from the alveolar space to the blood by a first-order process, dependent on the concentration of the toxicant in the alveolar space. The model predicts that blood cyanide levels are more sensitive to the breathing cycle than to blood circulation. A model estimate of the relative effects of CO and HCN atmospheres, generated in an experimental chamber with an epoxy polymer, shows that toxic effects of cyanide occur long before those of carbon monoxide.

  2. Process for the production of hydrogen cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwin, M.B.; Su, J.L.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of hydrogen cyanide. It comprises passing a gaseous reaction mixture of methanol or formaldehyde or a mixture thereof, formamide, ammonia and oxygen under reactive conditions over a metal oxide catalyst.

  3. Reductive Elimination from Arylpalladium Cyanide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.; Hartwig, John F.

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of arylpalladium cyanide complexes that undergo reductive elimination to form arylnitriles. The rates of reductive elimination from a series of arylpalladium cyanide complexes reveal that the electronic effects on the reductive elimination from arylpalladium cyanide complexes are distinct from those on reductive reductive eliminations from arylpalladium alkoxo, amido, thiolate, and enolate complexes. Arylpalladium cyanide complexes containing aryl ligands with electron-donating substituents undergo faster reductive elimination of aromatic nitriles than complexes containing aryl ligands with electron-withdrawing substituents. In addition, the transition state for the reductive elimination of the aromatic nitrile is much different from that for reductive eliminations that occur from most other arylpalladium complexes. Computational studies indicate that the reductive elimination of an arylnitrile from Pd(II) occurs through a transition state more closely related in structure and electronic distribution to that for the insertion of CO into a palladiumaryl bond. PMID:22352451

  4. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  5. A Prospective Observational Study of Patients Receiving Intravenous and Intramuscular Olanzapine in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon B; Moore, Johanna C; Dolan, Benjamin J; O'Brien-Lambert, Alex; Fryza, Brandon J; Miner, James R; Martel, Marc L

    2017-03-01

    Parenteral olanzapine is an emerging therapy for a variety of conditions in the emergency department (ED). Intramuscular administration is standard; however, intravenous administration has been proposed as a safe alternative route. We investigate the safety and efficacy of both intramuscular and intravenous olanzapine in the ED when used for a variety of indications. This was a prospective observational study of patients presenting to an urban Level I trauma center ED. Trained research associates screened the ED for patients receiving parenteral olanzapine. The primary outcome of the study was incidence of respiratory depression measured with standard markers. Secondary outcomes included use of additional doses or sedatives, corrected QT interval (QTc) data, time to nadir sedation, adverse events, and physician assessment of efficacy. There were 784 patients included in the final analysis. Intravenous olanzapine was administered to 295 patients; 489 received intramuscular olanzapine. Respiratory depression occurred in 11 of 295 patients (3.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6% to 5.9%) receiving intravenous olanzapine and 10 of 489 (2.0%; 95% CI 0.8% to 3.3%) receiving intramuscular olanzapine. Seven patients required intubation, 2 in the intravenous group and 5 in the intramuscular group. Nonrespiratory complications occurred in 8 patients, 6 of 295 (2.0%; 95% CI 0.4% to 3.6%) in the intravenous group and 2 of 489 (0.4%; 95% CI 0% to 0.96%) in the intramuscular group. Dysrhythmias were isolated to 2 episodes of bradycardia requiring only supportive care. These data suggest that, with proper monitoring, administration of olanzapine, both intramuscular and intravenous, is safe for several indications in the ED. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metal Complexes for Defense against Cyanide Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    cyanide toxicity might be compared with that of other asphyxiants, particularly carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide forms a complex with hemoglobin... carbon monoxide is present to disrupt the oxygen transport to the tissue. However, cyanide is toxic at much lower concentrations. According to ligand... carbon to an empty d-orbital on the metal, plus a it-bond, which is formed by the back-donation of a filled metal d-orbital to the empty antibonding

  7. Spectroscopic detection of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of features have been identified as absorption lines of hydrogen cyanide in infrared spectra of stratospheric absorption obtained from a high-altitude aircraft. Column amounts of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide have been derived from spectra recorded on eight flights. The average vertical column amount above 12 kilometers is 7.1 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the 14th molecules per square centimeter, corresponding to an average mixing ratio of 170 parts per trillion by volume.

  8. Examination of Treatment Methods for Cyanide Wastes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-15

    1. Acidification 62 2. Activated Carbon Absorption 62 3. Biodestruction 64 4. Dilution and Ponding 65 5. Electrodialysis 66 6. High Pressure and...economics, included acidification, activated carbon absorption, biodestruction, dilution and ponding, electrodialysis , high pressure and temperature...Cyanides, U. S. Patent 4,024,037, May 17, 1977. 12. Bodamer, George W., Electrodialysis for Closed Loop Control of Cyanide Rinse Waters, National

  9. Mammalian cyanide detoxification with sulphane sulphur.

    PubMed

    Westley, J

    1988-01-01

    It has been understood for nearly a century that most of the cyanide entering mammals by either ingestion or inhalation of sublethal quantities is detoxified by combination with cyanide-reactive sulphur. The detoxifying reaction is primarily enzymic, and the enzymes that catalyse it, as well as those that catalyse reactions which generate the cyanide-reactive sulphane sulphur, have been isolated and studied extensively. However, analytical methods suitable for quantitative characterization of the physiological pool of sulphur available for this detoxification have only recently come under development. A new method is based on the evaluation of cyanide depletion under controlled, mild reaction conditions in the presence of a sulphurtransferase and cofactor. The use of differential pulse polarography with nested internal standards makes this a practical procedure for samples containing as little as a few nanomoles of cyanide-reactive material. As measured by this method, the sulphane sulphur concentration in mammalian liver tissue is in the fractional millimolar range, with even less in the bloodstream. Nevertheless, the specific binding of sulphane sulphur by serum albumin, and the rapid cyanolysis of the albumin-bound sulphur, may yet indicate a significant role for the sulphurtransferase capability of serum albumin in cyanide detoxification.

  10. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B.

    1998-09-01

    The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

  11. Cyanides and their toxicity: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Egekeze, J O; Oehme, F W

    1980-04-15

    Cyanide is a potent and rapidly-acting asphyxiant which prevents tissue utilization of oxygen by inhibition of the cellular respiratory enzyme, cytochrome oxidase. Inhalation or ingestion of cyanide produces reactions within a few seconds and death within minutes. Cyanide toxicity of dietary origin has been implicated in acute animal deaths and as major etiologic factors in toxic ataxic neuropathy in man and as a cause of vision failure in humans suffering from tobacco amblyopia and leber's hereditary optic atrophy. Diagnosis of cyanide toxicity may be confirmed by a variety of laboratory procedures, but accurate assay is essential for proper conclusions from analysis of animal tissues several hours after death or from human samples in instances of chronic dietary exposure. Biological detoxification of cyanide is available through several routes, and the application of sodium nitrite with sodium thiosulfate or administration of methylene blue are effective treatment procedure. The environmental availability of cyanide in its various forms necessitates an understanding of its pathophysiology and responsible management of hazardous situations.

  12. Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Lambowitz, Alan M.; Slayman, Carolyn W.

    1971-01-01

    Cell respiration in wild type and poky was studied as part of a long-term investigation of cyanide-resistant respiration in Neurospora. Respiration in wild type proceeds via a cytochrome chain which is similar to that of higher organisms; it is sensitive to antimycin A or cyanide. Poky, on the other hand, respires by means of two alternative oxidase systems. One of these is analogous to the wild-type cytochrome chain in that it can be inhibited by antimycin A or cyanide; this system accounts for as much as 15% of the respiration of poky f− and 34% of the respiration of poky f+. The second oxidase system is unaffected by antimycin A or cyanide at concentrations which inhibit the cytochrome chain maximally. It can, however, be specifically inhibited by salicyl hydroxamic acid. The cyanide-resistant oxidase is not exclusive to poky, but is also present in small quantities in wild type grown under ordinary circumstances. These quantities may be greatly increased (as much as 20-fold) by growing wild type in the presence of antimycin A, cyanide, or chloramphenicol. PMID:4333318

  13. Effects of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis on the distribution of cyanide into the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Djerad, A; Monier, C; Houzé, P; Borron, S W; Lefauconnier, J M; Baud, F J

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether respiratory acidosis favors the cerebral distribution of cyanide, and conversely, if respiratory alkalosis limits its distribution. The pharmacokinetics of a nontoxic dose of cyanide were first studied in a group of 7 rats in order to determine the distribution phase. The pharmacokinetics were found to best fit a 3-compartment model with very rapid distribution (whole blood T(1/2)alpha = 21.6 +/- 3.3 s). Then the effects of the modulation of arterial pH on the distribution of a nontoxic dose of intravenously administered cyanide into the brains of rats were studied by means of the determination of the permeability-area product (PA). The modulation of arterial blood pH was performed by variation of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) in 3 groups of 8 anesthetized mechanically ventilated rats. The mean arterial pH measured 20 min after the start of mechanical ventilation in the acidotic, physiologic, and alkalotic groups were 7.07 +/- 0.03, 7.41 +/- 0.01, and 7.58 +/- 0.01, respectively. The mean PAs in the acidotic, physiologic, and alkalotic groups, determined 30 s after the intravenous administration of cyanide, were 0.015 +/- 0.002, 0.011 +/- 0.001, and 0.008 +/- 0.001 s(-1), respectively (one-way ANOVA; p < 0.0087). At alkalotic pH the mean permeability-area product was 43% of that measured at acidotic pH. This effect of pH on the rapidity of cyanide distribution does not appear to be limited to specific areas of the brain. We conclude that modulation of arterial pH by altering PaCO2 may induce significant effects on the brain uptake of cyanide.

  14. Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-15

    Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed.

  15. MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

  18. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

  1. Cyanide intoxication--I. An oral chronic animal model.

    PubMed

    Buzaleh, A M; Vazquez, E S; Batlle, A M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of oral chronic cyanide administration to mice were studied. Cyanide intoxication was confirmed by the increased levels of this poison and the concomitant inhibition of cytochrome oxidase activity in liver, brain, heart and blood. The detoxifying enzyme rhodanese was measured. The state of the sulfane sulfur pool was investigated by determination of the cyanide labile-sulfur levels. A clear correlation between rhodanese activity and sulfur content was obtained as a consequence of cyanide action. These results support the belief that rhodanese plays a fundamental role in the detoxification process of cyanide, in preventing cyanide reaching the target tissues.

  2. Premedication with midazolam in intellectually disabled dental patients: Intramuscular or oral administration? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068

  3. Depletion of intramuscularly and subcutaneously injected procaine penicillin G from tissues and plasma of yearling beef steers.

    PubMed Central

    Korsrud, G O; Boison, J O; Papich, M G; Yates, W D; MacNeil, J D; Janzen, E D; Cohen, R D; Landry, D A; Lambert, G; Yong, M S

    1993-01-01

    Withdrawal periods required when doses of 24,000 IU and 66,000 IU of procaine penicillin G/kg body weight were administered to yearling beef steers by intramuscular injection daily for five consecutive days were investigated. These dosages are in excess of product label recommendations, but are in the range of procaine penicillin G dosages that have been administered for the treatment of some feedlot bacterial diseases. The approved dose in Canada is 7,500 IU/kg body weight intramuscularly, once daily, with a withdrawal period of five days. Based on the tissue residue data from this study, the appropriate withdrawal period is ten days for the 24,000 IU/kg body weight dose and 21 days for the 66,000 IU/kg body weight dose when administered intramuscularly to yearling beef steers. In a related study, 18 yearling beef steers received 66,000 IU of procaine penicillin G/kg body weight administered by subcutaneous injection, an extra-label treatment in terms of both dose and route of administration, typical of current practice in some circumstances. Deposits of the drug were visible at subcutaneous injection sites up to ten days after injection, with more inflammation and hemorrhage observed than for intramuscular injections of the same dose. These results suggest that procaine penicillin G should not be administered subcutaneously at high doses; and therefore a withdrawal period was not established for subcutaneous injection. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:8269359

  4. Analgesic studies of codeine and oxycodone in patients with cancer. I. Comparisons of oral with intramuscular codeine and of oral with intramuscular oxycodone.

    PubMed

    Beaver, W T; Wallenstein, S L; Rogers, A; Houde, R W

    1978-10-01

    The relative analgesic potency of oral and intramuscular codeine was evaluated in a double-blind crossover comparison of graded single doses in patients with chronic pain due to cancer. When both duration and intensity of analgesia are considered (total effect), oral codeine was 6/10 as potent as the intramuscular form. This is a high oral/parenteral analgesic relative potency ratio compared with morphine, metopon and oxymorphone and correlates well with the results of recent studies which have determined the oral vs. intramuscular bioavailability of codeine in man. Oral and intramuscular oxycodone were also compared in a similar patient group. Like codeine, oxycodone retained at least 1/2 of its analgesic activity when administered orally. We hypothesize that the high oral/parenteral relative potency ratios of codeine and oxycodone relative to morphine and its congeners are not due to more efficient absorption after oral administration, but rather that methylation at position 3 in codeine and oxycodone protects these drugs from rapid first-pass metabolism.

  5. Effect of procaine hydrochloride on cyanide intoxication and its effect on neuronal calcium in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Liu, Z; Zhuang, X

    1998-05-01

    Cyanide intoxication in mice can be antagonized by the local anesthetic, procaine HCI, either alone or in combination with sodium nitrite and/or sodium thiosulfate. Antitoxic potency, derived from LD50 values, was compared in groups of mice pretreated with sodium nitrite (43.9 mg/kg i.p.), sodium thiosulfate (1 g/kg i.p.), and procaine HCI (37.0 mg/kg i.p.) either alone or in various combinations. The results of present study indicated that procaine HCI provides a significant protection against the lethal effects of potassium cyanide. Dose-response studies revealed procaine hydrochloride pretreated 3 min before KCN, at doses of 18.48-73.9 mg/kg, produced significant elevation of KCN LD50, moreover it has a good dose-effect relationship, but its antidotal effect was weaker than sodium nitrite or sodium thiosulfate when they were administered alone. The protective effect of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate was enhanced with procaine HCI. When procaine was administered in combination both with sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate, its protective effects were further enhanced. Its antitoxic potency is 6.22. The effects of procaine on antagonizing the cyanide-induced whole-brain total calcium increase were also studied. KCN (7 mg/kg i.p.) significantly increased whole-brain total calcium level from 28.37 +/- 0.75 to 48.05 +/- 1.06 mg/g dry wt within 30 min, which can be prevented by procaine pretreated 15 min before KCN. One of the possible mechanism of procaine on antagonizing cyanide toxicity seems, at least, related to its effect on inhibiting the cyanide-induced neuronal calcium increase and maintaining the homeostasis of neuronal calcium.

  6. Cyanide phytoremediation by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Ebel, Mathias; Evangelou, Michael W H; Schaeffer, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Although cyanide is highly toxic, it is economically attractive for extracting gold from ore bodies containing only a few grams per 1000 kg. Most of the cyanide used in industrial mining is handled without observable devastating consequences, but in informal, small-scale mining, the use is poorly regulated and the waste treatment is insufficient. Cyanide in the effluents from the latter mines could possibly be removed by the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes because of its high biomass production, wide distribution, and tolerance to cyanide (CN) and metals. We determined the sodium cyanide phytotoxicity and removal capacity of E. crassipes. Toxicity to 5-50 mg CN L(-1) was quantified by measuring the mean relative transpiration over 96 h. At 5 mgCNL(-1), only a slight reduction in transpiration but no morphological changes were observed. The EC(50) value was calculated by probit analysis to be 13 mgCNL(-1). Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that cyanide at 5.8 and 10 mgL(-1) was completely eliminated after 23-32 h. Metabolism of K(14)CN was measured in batch systems with leaf and root cuttings. Leaf cuttings removed about 40% of the radioactivity from solution after 28 h and 10% was converted to (14)CO(2); root cuttings converted 25% into (14)CO(2) after 48 h but only absorbed 12% in their tissues. The calculated K(m) of the leaf cuttings was 12 mgCNL(-1), and the V(max) was 35 mg CN(kg fresh weight)(-1)h(-1). Our results indicate that E. crassipes could be useful in treating cyanide effluents from small-scale gold mines.

  7. C-11 cyanide production system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  8. Pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular versus oral syrup paracetamol in Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Wattanakul, Thanaporn; Teerapong, Pramote; Plewes, Katherine; Newton, Paul N; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Silamut, Kamolrat; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Tarning, Joel

    2016-04-27

    Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with acute falciparum malaria and high body temperature was performed. A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, crossover, pharmacokinetic study of paracetamol dosed orally and intramuscularly was conducted. Twenty-one adult patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to receive a single 600 mg dose of paracetamol either as syrup or intramuscular injection on day 0 followed by a single dose administered by the alternative route on day 1. Paracetamol plasma concentrations were quantified frequently and modelled simultaneously using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. The final population pharmacokinetic model was used for dose optimization simulations. Relationships between paracetamol concentrations with temperature and parasite half-life were investigated using linear and non-linear regression analyses. The population pharmacokinetic properties of paracetamol were best described by a two-compartment disposition model, with zero-order and first-order absorption for intramuscular and oral syrup administration, respectively. The relative bioavailability of oral syrup was 84.4 % (95 % CI 68.2-95.1 %) compared to intramuscular administration. Dosing simulations showed that 1000 mg of intramuscular or oral syrup administered six-hourly reached therapeutic steady state concentrations for antipyresis, but more favourable concentration-time profiles were achieved with a loading dose of 1500 mg, followed by a 1000 mg maintenance dose. This ensured that maximum therapeutic concentrations were reached rapidly during the first 6 h. No significant relationships between paracetamol concentrations

  9. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Emadi, Ladan; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Sharifi, Hamid; Mehdizadeh, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  10. Cyanide Scavenging by a Cobalt Schiff-Base Macrocycle: A Cost-Effective Alternative to Corrinoids.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Manzano, Elisenda; Cronican, Andrea A; Frawley, Kristin L; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-06-20

    The complex of cobalt(II) with the ligand 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo-[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17)2,11,13,15-pentaene (CoN4[11.3.1]) has been shown to bind two molecules of cyanide in a cooperative fashion with an association constant of 2.7 (±0.2) × 10(5). In vivo, irrespective of whether it is initially administered as the Co(II) or Co(III) cation, EPR spectroscopic measurements on blood samples show that at physiological levels of reductant (principally ascorbate) CoN4[11.3.1] becomes quantitatively reduced to the Co(II) form. However, following addition of sodium cyanide, a dicyano Co(III) species is formed, both in blood and in buffered aqueous solution at neutral pH. In keeping with other cobalt-containing cyanide-scavenging macrocycles like cobinamide and cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine, we found that CoN4[11.3.1] exhibits rapid oxygen turnover in the presence of the physiological reductant ascorbate. This behavior could potentially render CoN4[11.3.1] cytotoxic and/or interfere with evaluations of the antidotal capability of the complex toward cyanide through respirometric measurements, particularly since cyanide rapidly inhibits this process, adding further complexity. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of CoN4[11.3.1] as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of CoN4[11.3.1] prophylactically to sodium cyanide-intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving animals to recover from "knockdown" (unconsciousness) being significantly decreased (3 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (22 ± 5 min). All observations are consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of CoN4[11.3.1] operating through a cyanide-scavenging mechanism, which is associated with a Co(II) → Co(III) oxidation of the cation. To test for postintoxication neuromuscular sequelae, the ability of mice to remain in position on a rotating cylinder (RotaRod test) was assessed during and after recovery

  11. Complex samples cyanide detection with immobilized corrinoids.

    PubMed

    Männel-Croisé, Christine; Zelder, Felix

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetric solid phase with spatially separated extraction and detection zones as a rapid, effective and economic method for the optical detection of cyanide in complex samples is described. The system is seven times more sensitive for the optical detection of cyanide than the same class of chemical sensors used under homogeneous conditions. The application of the method in the detection of (i) endogenous cyanide in colored plant samples and of (ii) hydrogen cyanide in tobacco smoke is shown. The optical detection of multiple anions within a single sample has been demonstrated in principle for the detection of both CN(-) and SCN(-). Immobilized aquacyano-corrinoids and immobilized vitamin B12 are applied as chemical sensors, and cyanide is qualitatively identified by the violet color (λ(max) = 583 nm) of the corresponding dicyano-complex. Quantitative determinations with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRUV-vis) are possible in the linear range up to 0.2 mg/L with a LOD of 1 μg/L. Alkyl-modified silica particles are employed for immobilization of the indicator on the surface of the solid phase (detection zone), and for removal of colored hydrophobic interferents (extraction zone).

  12. Cisplatin Analogs Confer Protection against Cyanide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nath, Anjali K; Shi, Xu; Harrison, Devin L; Morningstar, Jordan E; Mahon, Sari; Chan, Adriano; Sips, Patrick; Lee, Jangwoen; MacRae, Calum A; Boss, Gerry R; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

    2017-05-18

    Cisplatin holds an illustrious position in the history of chemistry most notably for its role in the virtual cure of testicular cancer. Here we describe a role for this small molecule in cyanide detoxification in vivo. Cyanide kills organisms as diverse as insects, fish, and humans within seconds to hours. Current antidotes exhibit limited efficacy and are not amenable to mass distribution requiring the development of new classes of antidotes. The binding affinity of the cyanide anion for the positively charged metal platinum is known to create an extremely stable complex in vitro. We therefore screened a panel of diverse cisplatin analogs and identified compounds that conferred protection from cyanide poisoning in zebrafish, mice, and rabbits. Cumulatively, this discovery pipeline begins to establish the characteristics of platinum ligands that influence their solubility, toxicity, and efficacy, and provides proof of concept that platinum-based complexes are effective antidotes for cyanide poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  14. Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  15. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  16. Beyond toxicity: a regulatory role for mitochondrial cyanide.

    PubMed

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide's role in signaling.

  17. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  18. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) following single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Papich, Mark; Lewbart, Gregory A; Christian, Shane; Gunkel, Conny; Harms, Craig A

    2006-12-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketoprofen (KTP) is a commonly used antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in reptile medicine, but no studies documenting its pharmacokinetics in this species have been published. Ketoprofen was administered as a racemic mixture to green iguanas (Iguana iguana) intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 2 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed and indicated that ketoprofen in iguanas administered by the intravenous route has a classical two-compartmental distribution pattern, a slow clearance (67 ml/ kg/hr) and a long terminal half-life (31 hr) compared to ketoprofen studies reported in mammals. When delivered by the intramuscular route, bioavailability was 78%. These data indicate the daily dosing that is generally recommended for reptile patients, as an extrapolation from mammalian data, may be more frequent than necessary.

  1. Intramuscular ketamine in acute depression: A report on two cases

    PubMed Central

    Harihar, Chilukuri; Dasari, Padmavathy; Srinivas, Jakka Sriramulu

    2013-01-01

    It takes about 2 weeks for the onset of antidepressant action of drugs while electroconvulsive therapy though faster, is a cumbersome procedure requiring an anaesthetist and at least a minor operation theatre. Recent studies have shown that Ketamine, when given to severely depressed patients in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg as a slow intravenous infusion over 40 minutes, brought about acute relief from depression and amelioration of suicidal risk within a few hours. The improvement, however, was transient and lasted for up to a week but could be sustained by further weekly or biweekly injections. As the dose of ketamine administered was found to be safe, it was now tried in the intramuscular route in two severely depressed patients with similar rapid improvement. The cases are reported here which pave way for an easier mode of treating acute depression. PMID:23825857

  2. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air.

  3. Toxicokinetics of cyanide in rats, pigs and goats after oral dosing with potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Altamir B; Manzano, Helena; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana L

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the species on the toxicokinetics of cyanide and its main metabolite, thiocyanate. Forty-two rats, six pigs and six goats were dosed orally with 3.0 mg KCN/kg body weight, and cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations in blood were measured within 24 h. After the single oral dose, KCN was rapidly absorbed by rats and goats, with a time of peak concentration ( T(max)) of 15 min. The maximum plasma concentration ( C(max)) of cyanide was observed in goats (93.5 micro mol/l), whereas the C(max) of thiocyanate was higher in rats (58.1 micro mol/l). The elimination half-life ( t(1/2)) and volume of distribution ( Vd(area)) of both cyanide and thiocyanate were higher in goats (1.28 and 13.9 h, and 0.41 and 1.76 l/kg, respectively). Whereas the area under the curve (AUC) of cyanide was significantly higher in goats (234.6 micro mol.l/h), the AUC of thiocyanate was higher in rats (846.5 micro mol.l/h). In conclusion, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that the metabolism of cyanide and its main metabolite, thiocyanate, is species-linked, with the goat being more sensitive to the toxic effects of cyanide/thiocyanate.

  4. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Rye, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most-persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)63- or Fe(CN)64-, but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)63- or its dissociation products (Co(CN)6-x(H2O)x(3-x)-). Supporting evidence for cobalt-cyanide complexation was found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification at four separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  5. Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Freshly Cut Potato Slices.

    PubMed

    Rychter, A; Janes, H W; Frenkel, C

    1978-04-01

    Treating intact white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber with ethylene in air or O(2) made it possible to obtain freshly cut slices which exhibit cyanide-resistant respiration. The cyanide-resistant path requires induction in whole tubers. The data also indicate that high O(2) concentration is necessary for the full development of cyanide-resistant respiration.

  6. Exposure to cyanide following a meal of cassava food.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A; Onabolu, A O; Sowunmi, A

    2002-09-05

    Exposure to cyanide from gari, a popular cassava food in West Africa, is implicated in the causation of ataxic polyneuropathy and amblyopia, but this has been questioned because cyanide was not detected in gari in a study. This study was carried out to determine if gari is a source of exposure to cyanide. Gari (150 g) containing cyanohydrin, from which 128 micromol of cyanide ions could be released, was dissolved in 500 ml of cold water for each of the 12 healthy subjects to drink. Concentrations of cyanide in plasma and erythrocytes were determined at baseline and following the meal at 30 min, 1 h, hourly for 4 h and two hourly for 12 h. The mean concentrations of cyanide in the plasma were 6 micromol/l (95% CI 2-10) at baseline, 12 micromol/l (95% CI 6-17) at peak and 6 micromol/l (95% CI 2-10) on return to baseline. The mean amount of cyanide absorbed into the plasma was 13 micromol (S.D. 12), while the transit time of absorbed cyanide was 7.3 h (S.D. 2.1). This study shows that exposure to cyanide follows consumption of gari, but the amount of cyanide absorbed into the plasma from a single meal is small and unlikely to cause acute intoxication. The long transit time of absorbed cyanide in the plasma suggests that frequent intake of gari could cause cyanide to accumulate in the plasma.

  7. Effect of Ascorbate on the Cyanide-Scavenging Capability of Cobalt(III) meso-Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine Pentaiodide: Deactivation by Reduction?

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Cronican, Andrea A; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-03-21

    The Co(III)-containing water-soluble metalloporphyrin cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine pentaiodide (Co(III)TMPyP) is a potential cyanide-scavenging agent. The rate of reduction of Co(III)TMPyP by ascorbate is facile enough that conversion to the Co(II)-containing Co(II)TMPyP should occur within minutes at prevailing in vivo levels of the reductant. It follows that any cyanide-decorporating capability of the metalloporphyrin should depend more on the cyanide-binding characteristics of Co(II)TMPyP than those of the administered form, Co(III)TMPyP. Addition of cyanide to buffered aqueous solutions of Co(II)TMPyP (pH 7.4, 25-37 °C) results in quite rapid (k2 = ∼10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) binding/substitution of cyanide anion in the two available axial positions with high affinity (K'β = 10(10) to 10(11)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements and cyclic voltammetry indicate that cyanide induces oxidation to the Co(III)-containing dicyano species. The constraints that these observations put on plausible mechanisms for the reaction of Co(II)TMPyP with cyanide are discussed. Experiments in which Co(III)TMPyP and cyanide were added to freshly drawn mouse blood showed the same sequence of reactions (metalloporphyrin reduction → cyanide binding/substitution → reoxidation) to occur. Therefore, in cyanide-scavenging applications with this metalloporphyrin, we should be taking advantage of both the improved rate of ligand substitution at Co(II) compared to that at Co(III) and the increased affinity of Co(III) for anionic ligands compared to that of Co(II). Finally, using an established sublethal mouse model for cyanide intoxication, Co(III)TMPyP, administered either 5 min before (prophylaxis) or 1 min after the toxicant, is shown to have very significant antidotal capability. Possible explanations for the results of a previous contradictory study, which failed to find any prophylactic effect of Co(III)TMPyP toward cyanide intoxication, are

  8. Investigation of Turkish nurses frequency and knowledge of administration of intramuscular injections to the ventrogluteal site: Results from questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Sari, Dilek; Şahin, Melek; Yaşar, Eda; Taşkiran, Nihal; Telli, Sevil

    2017-09-01

    Intramuscular injection is important in the administration of parenteral medication and is a frequently-performed nursing responsibility. The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of use of the ventrogluteal site and the level of nurses' knowledge of administering an intramuscular injection to this site. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of nurses working in four hospitals (n=362). Data collection tools included a 12 item sociodemographic questionnaire and a 24 item questionnaire on knowledge of the ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injection. 17.1% of participants reported using the VG site frequently in intramuscular injections. On the other hand, 35.9% reported that they do not use the VG site in intramuscular injections just because they are not used to giving injections on this site. Level of knowledge of ventrogluteal site was also limited with the mean score of correct answers from 24 questions being 14.37. It was found in the study that nurses' knowledge of the ventrogluteal site was limited, and they are not preferentially using the ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injections to adults even though it is recommended in recent nursing literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Bteich, S.B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Context More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152 - 308 GHz and analyzed using Watson’s A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. PMID:27738349

  10. Monoclonal antibodies as catalysts for cyanide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.E.; Whisnant, C.C.; Miller, D.B.; Allen, D.A.; Basta, P.V.

    1993-05-13

    We have shown that hydrogen cyanide reacts with alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones to form stable compounds under physiological conditions (temperature, pH). Although spontaneous reaction is too slow for protection against cyanide intoxication, rate enhancement in the presence of a suitable catalyst would permit the use of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones (enones) as prophylactics for cyanide exposure. Based on the accepted mechanism for this 1,4-addition reaction, we have designed and synthesized sized a transition state analog (TSA), conjugated it to protein and used the conjugate to produce more than 300 monoclonal antibodies which bind the TSA. Approximately 10% of these antibodies have been purified from ascites and tested for catalysis of the addition reaction of cyanide to enone. Product formation was measured by HPLC. Four antibodies have been found which significantly enhance the initial velocity of the reaction. The TSA markedly diminishes the reaction velocity, indicating the involvement of the antibody binding site in the observed enhancement. Preliminary kinetic analysis on one antibody gave values of K sub (enone) and K sub KCN 51 uM and 9.6 mM, respectively. The value of k sub (cat) was 2.33 hr-1. The data suggest a rate enhancement of 2 x 10 to the 4th power for the encounter of the enone with the antibody-cyanide complex, whereas the rate enhancement for encounter of cyanide with the antibody-enone complex is 70. To utilize the potential of genetic engineering for modifying the proper-lies of anti-TSA monoclonal antibodies, we are cloning heavy and light chain genes for sequencing and subsequent site-specific mutagenesis.

  11. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide.

    PubMed

    Bteich, S B; Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Guillemin, J-C

    2016-08-01

    More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152 - 308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources.

  12. Microbial cyanide sensor for monitoring river water.

    PubMed

    Ikebukuro, K; Miyata, A; Cho, S J; Nomura, Y; Chang, S M; Yamauchi, Y; Hasebe, Y; Uchiyama, S; Karube, I

    1996-07-18

    A microbial cyanide sensor using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for monitoring a river water is described. This sensor is based on the inhibition of S. cerevisiae's respiration by cyanide. This sensor is a reactor type flow system and composed of two oxygen electrodes and a reactor which contains S. cerevisiae immobilized beads. The S. cerevisiae's respiration activity is measured using the oxygen electrodes. The sensor showed a linear response in the range from 0 to 15 microM and maintained stable response for 9 days at ambient temperature. The sensor was optimized for the monitoring of river water and was applied to river water analysis.

  13. Cyanide recovery across hollow fiber gas membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kenfield, C.F.; Qin, R.; Semmens, M.J.; Cussler, E.L.

    1988-10-01

    Solutions of certain metal cyanides can be treated with a new, four-step process described here. First, the cyanide complexes are concentrated by anion exchange. Second, they are eluted with acid to release small amounts of prussic acid (HCN). Third, the prussic acid is removed with a hollow fiber gas membrane. Fourth, the metal ions released in this way are removed by cation exchange. The prussic acid removal is rapid, so the amount of acid present at any given time can be small while the amount of solution treated per time can be large. Data given here show how the process works and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A.; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I.; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg−1 b.w.), IM (10 mg kg−1 b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg−1 b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL−1, 6.3 h × μg mL−1, and 6.66 h × μg mL−1, while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology. PMID:27536243

  15. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg(-1) b.w.), IM (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL(-1), 6.3 h × μg mL(-1), and 6.66 h × μg mL(-1), while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology.

  16. Severe cyanide poisoning from an alternative medicine treatment with amygdalin and apricot kernels in a 4-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Harald; Wollny, Caroline; Oster, Isabel; Tutdibi, Erol; Gortner, Ludwig; Gottschling, Sven; Meyer, Sascha

    2015-05-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread in children with cancer and is poorly regulated. Case report. We describe a case of severe cyanide poisoning arising from CAM use. A severely agitated, encephalopathic, unresponsive 4-year-old boy (initial Glasgow Coma Scale of 3) with a history of metastatic ependymoma was brought to our emergency department by ambulance services. Initial blood gas analysis demonstrated severe metabolic/lactic acidosis. On detailed questioning of the parents, the use of CAM including intravenous and oral "vitamin B 17" (amygdalin) and oral apricot kernel was reported. After administering sodium thiosulfate, rapid improvement in his medical condition with complete recovery without need for further intensive care treatment was seen. Serum cyanide level was markedly elevated. Cyanide poisoning can be the cause of severe encephalopathy in children receiving CAM treatment with substances containing cyanogenic glycosides.

  17. Intramuscular cysticercosis--the solitary reaper.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raman Pratap

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis without involvement of the central nervous system is rare. We report a case of solitary cysticercosis of the brachioradialis muscle in a 35-year-old woman who presented with discomfort and pain in the right elbow and arm after trivial trauma. There were no systemic or neurological features.

  18. Biotransformation and metabolic response of cyanide in weeping willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Liu, Shuo

    2007-08-25

    Biotransformation and metabolic responses of plants to cyanide were investigated using pre-rooted plants of weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) grown hydroponically in growth chambers and treated with potassium cyanide. Various physiological parameters of the plants were monitored to determine toxicity from exogenous cyanide exposure. Cyanide doses used in this study showed growth-promoting effects on plants, exhibiting higher measured values of transpiration rates, chlorophyll contents and soluble protein contents compared with the non-treated control plants. Superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities in leaves showed a slight change to cyanide application in most treatments. Of all selected parameters, soluble proteins of plants were the most sensitive indicator to cyanide application. Almost all applied cyanide was removed from the hydroponic solution in the presence of plants in all treatment groups. Small amounts of cyanide were detected in the plant tissues. Recovery of cyanide in different compartments of plants varied significantly, root being the dominant sink for cyanide accumulation. Mass balance studies showed that >97% of the applied cyanide was metabolized during transport through weeping willows and the metabolic rates of cyanide by plants were linearly increased with increasing of cyanide applied in the growth media. Results from this study indicated that neither visible toxic symptom nor metabolic lesion was observed for the plants after 192h of exposure, largely due to the well-established detoxification systems in willows. These findings suggest that cyanide has a beneficial role in plants and phytoremediation is a desirable solution of treating environmental sites contaminated with cyanide.

  19. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ 1H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N+ CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions.

  20. Cyanide formation from oxidation of glycine of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wissing, F

    1974-03-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent K(m) (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 x 10(-4) M.

  1. Cyanide Formation from Oxidation of Glycine by a Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Frode

    1974-01-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent Km (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 × 10−4 M. PMID:4813896

  2. Disulfides as cyanide antidotes: evidence for a new in vivo oxidative pathway for cyanide detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zottola, Mark A; Beigel, Keith; Soni, Sunil-Datta; Lawrence, Richard

    2009-12-01

    It is known that cyanide is converted to thiocyanate in the presence of the enzyme rhodanese. The enzyme is activated by sulfur transfer from an appropriate sulfur donor. The activated enzyme then binds cyanide and transfers the sulfur atom to cyanide to form thiocyanate. This project began as an exploration of the ability of disulfides to act as sulfur donors in the rhodanese-mediated detoxification of cyanide. To our surprise, and contrary to expectations based on efficacy studies in vivo, our in vitro results showed that disulfides are rather poor sulfur donors. The transfer of a sulfur atom from a disulfide to the enzyme must occur via cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond either of the original disulfide or in a mixed disulfide arising from the reaction of rhodanese with the original disulfide. Extending the reaction time and addition of chloride anion (a nucleophile) did not significantly change the results of the experiment. Using ultrasound as a means of accelerating bond cleavage also had a minimal effect. Those results ruled out cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond in the original disulfide but did not preclude formation of a mixed disulfide. S-Methyl methylthiosulfonate (MTSO) was used to determine whether a mixed disulfide, if formed, would result in transfer of a sulfur atom to rhodanese. While no thiocyanate was formed in the reaction between cyanide and rhodanese exposed to MTSO, NMR analysis revealed that MTSO reacted directly with cyanide anion to form methyl thiocyanate. This result reveals the body's possible use of oxidized disulfides as a first line of defense against cyanide intoxication. The oxidation of disulfides to the corresponding thiosulfinate or thiosulfonate will result in facilitating their reaction with other nucleophiles. The reaction of an oxidized disulfide with a sulfur nucleophile from glutathione could be a plausible origin for the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline after intramuscular administration with lidocaine in sheep, comparison with a conventional formulation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L; Serrano, J M; Guimerá, M E; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in 11 sheep after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dosage of 20 mg kg(-1) bodyweight. A conventional formulation was injected by the intravenous route and two different preparations were administered by the intramuscular route: a conventional formulation (T-100) and an aqueous solution of OTC with lidocaine (1 per cent) (OTC-L). The objective was to determine whether there are differences between both formulations in the disposition kinetics of OTC after intramuscular administration to sheep. After intravenous administration of the conventional formulation, plasma oxytetracycline concentrations were best fitted to an open two-compartment model. Mean apparent volume of distribution was 0.77+/-0.02 litre kg(-1) and the harmonic mean half-life was three hours. The OTC transfer process between central and peripheral compartments was fast and that did not influence the elimination process. After intramuscular administrations of both formulations, half-lives were longer than after intravenous administration (mean values of 14.1 and 58.2 hours for T-100 and OTC-L respectively). In both cases, a biphasic absorption, a 'flip-flop' model and a complete bioavailability were found. OTC-L provided therapeutic plasma concentrations over 0.5 microg ml(-1) (the minimum inhibitory concentration for most susceptible pathogens) for a longer period of time than T-100 (72 hours compared with 36 or 48 hours).

  4. Biodegradation of cyanide containing effluents by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ciftci, Hasan; Akcil, Ata

    2009-02-15

    Biological degradation of cyanide has been shown a viable and robust process for degrading cyanide in mining process wastewaters. Several algal cultures can effectively degrade cyanide as carbon and/or nitrogen source for their growth. In this study, cyanide effluent degradation by Scenedesmus obliquus was examined. Gold mill effluents containing WAD cyanide concentration of 77.9mg/L was fed to batch unit to examine the ability of S. obliquus for degrading cyanide. Cyanide was reduced down to 6mg/L in 77h. Microbial growth and metal uptake of Zn, Fe and Cu was examined during cyanide degradation. The cells well adapted to high pH and the effluent contained cyanide and the metals. It is important that Zn level reduced down 50%, of the starting concentration. pH was kept at 10.3 to prevent loss of cyanide as HCN, due its volatile nature. The bio treatment process was considered to be successful in degrading cyanide in the mine process water.

  5. Copper recovery and cyanide oxidation by electrowinning from a spent copper-cyanide electroplating electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Dutra, A J B; Rocha, G P; Pombo, F R

    2008-04-01

    Copper-cyanide bleed streams arise from contaminated baths from industrial electroplating processes due to the buildup of impurities during continuous operation. These streams present an elevated concentration of carbonate, cyanide and copper, constituting a heavy hazard, which has to be treated for cyanide destruction and heavy metals removal, according to the local environmental laws. In the Brazilian Mint, bleed streams are treated with sodium hypochlorite, to destroy cyanide and precipitate copper hydroxide, a solid hazardous waste that has to be disposed properly in a landfill or treated for metal recovery. In this paper, a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell was developed to remove the copper from the bleed stream of the electroplating unit of the Brazilian Mint, permitting its reutilization in the plant and decreasing the amount of sludge to waste. Under favorable conditions copper recoveries around 99.9% were achieved, with an energy consumption of about 11 kWh/kg, after a 5-h electrolysis of a bath containing copper and total cyanide concentrations of 26 and 27 g/L, respectively. Additionally, a substantial reduction of the cyanide concentration was also achieved, decreasing the pollution load and final treatment costs.

  6. Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender K.; Yngard, Ria A.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Clayton Baum, J.

    2008-06-01

    Cyanide (CN -), thiocyanate (SCN -), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN) 43-) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN -, SCN -, and Cu(CN) 43- by ferrate(VI) (Fe VIO 42-; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe VO 43-; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO 42-, is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO 4-. Cyanides react 10 3-10 5 times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN - proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN - and Cu(CN) 43-. The toxic CN - species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO -). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent.

  7. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  8. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  9. Influence of cyanide on diauxic oscillations in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hald, Bjørn O; Smrcinova, Miroslava; Sørensen, Preben G

    2012-12-01

    Coherent glycolytic oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a multicellular property induced by addition of glucose to a starved cell population of sufficient density. However, initiation of oscillations requires an additional perturbation, usually addition of cyanide. The fate of cyanide during glycolytic oscillations has not previously been studied, and is the subject of the present paper. Using a cyanide electrode, a substantial decrease in cyanide concentration was observed. In the pH range 6-7, we found experimentally that the electrode behaves reasonably well, provided changes in pH are taken into account. To our knowledge, use of a cyanide electrode to study cyanide dynamics in living biological systems is new. Cyanide was found to enter starving yeast cells in only negligible amounts, and did not react significantly with glucose. Thus, cyanide consumption must be explained by reactions with glycolytic intermediates and evaporation. Evaporation and reaction with the signalling substance, extracellular acetaldehyde (ACA(x)) only explains the observed cyanide removal if [ACA(x)] is improbably high. Furthermore, differences in NADH traces upon cyanide addition before or after glucose addition strongly suggest that cyanide also reacts with intracellular carbonyl-containing metabolites. We show that cyanide reacts with pyruvate (Pyr) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate in addition to ACA, and estimate their rate constants. Our results strongly suggest that the major routes of cyanide removal during glycolysis are reactions with pyruvate and ACA. Cyanide removal by all carbonyl-containing intermediates led to a lower mean [ACA(x) ], thereby increasing the amplitude of [ACA(x) ] oscillations.

  10. Promotion of seed germination by cyanide.

    PubMed

    Taylorson, R B; Hendricks, S B

    1973-07-01

    Potassium cyanide at 3 mum to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form beta-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. beta-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 alpha-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from beta-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-(14)C is much lower than of cyanide.Radioactive tracer in K(14)CN shows uptake of about 1.5 mumoles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high (14)C activity in beta-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN(3) at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN(3) inhibit O(2) consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form beta-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis.

  11. Identification, solubility enhancement and in vivo testing of a cyanide antidote candidate.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kristof; Ancha, Madhuri; Jane, Mario; Lee, Stephen; Angalakurthi, Siva; Negrito, Maelani; Rasheed, Senan; Nwaneri, Assumpta; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2013-06-14

    Present studies focused on the in vitro testing, the solubility enhancement and the in vivo testing of methyl propyl trisulfide (MPTS), a newly identified sulfur donor to treat cyanide (CN) intoxication. To enhance the solubility of the lipophilic MPTS, various FDA approved co-solvents, surfactants and their combinations were applied. The order of MPTS solubility in the given co-solvents was found to be the following: ethanol > PEG 200 ≈ PEG400 ≈ PEG300 > PG. The maximum solubility of MPTS was found at 90% ethanol of 177.11 ± 12.17 mg/ml. The order of MPTS solubility in different surfactants is Cremophor EL>Cremophor RH40>polysorbate 80>sodium deoxycholate>sodium cholate. The maximum solubility of 40.99 mg/ml was achieved with 20% Cremophor EL. A synergistic solubilizing effect encountered with the combination of 20% Cremophor EL+75% ethanol lead to a 2900-fold increase (compared to water solubility) in solubility. The in vivo efficacy using intramuscular administration was determined on a therapeutic mice model and expressed as a ratio of CN LD50 with and without the test antidote(s) (APR). Intramuscular administration was shown to be effective and the therapeutic antidotal protection by MPTS alone and MPTS+thiosulfate (TS) was significantly higher than the present therapy of TS.

  12. Comparison of the Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac Tromethamine After Continuous Subcutaneous Infusion and Repeat Intramuscular Bolus Injections in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Michael; Mamelok, Richard; Hurliman, Michele; Dupuis, Mariève; Xie, Yuli; Grenier, Julie; Sheldon, Curtis; Gartner, Michael; Noymer, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Ketorolac tromethamine is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that exhibits analgesic activity with no sedative or anxiolytic properties. Twelve healthy male subjects were enrolled in a study to receive either of 2 treatments over 2 periods in an open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover design: (A) 120 mg of ketorolac tromethamine administered as a continuous subcutaneous infusion over a 24-hour period; or (B) an identical total daily dose administered as 4 intramuscular bolus injections of 30 mg each given every 6 hours (current labeled treatment regimen). The pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were evaluated for both treatments. Both modes of administration have similar values for area under the curve (AUC) and half-life (t1/2 ), suggesting that continuous subcutaneous infusion and repeated intramuscular bolus injections have similar bioavailability. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) was 40% lower when ketorolac was administered as a continuous subcutaneous infusion compared with repeat intramuscular bolus injections. The concentration at steady-state (Css ) for continuous subcutaneous infusion was between the Cmax and Ctrough values obtained following the 4 intramuscular injections. Both treatment arms were well tolerated. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Patterns of cyanide antidote use since regulatory approval of hydroxocobalamin in the United States.

    PubMed

    Streitz, Matthew J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Borys, Douglas J; Morgan, David L

    2014-01-01

    Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are common cyanide antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin was approved for use in the United States in 2006. Our objective was to determine the frequency of antidote use as reported to the US poison centers from 2005 to 2009 and describe which antidotes were used in critically ill cyanide toxic patients. We performed a retrospective review over 5 years (2005-2009) from 61 US poison centers. We identified all cyanide-exposed cases that received a cyanide antidote. Variables collected included demographics, gastric decontamination, antidote used, predefined serious clinical effects (hypotension, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and coma), and predefined serious therapies (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vasopressors, atropine, anticonvulsant, antidysrhythmic, and intubation/ventilation). One trained abstractor abstracted each chart to a standardized electronic form. Another investigator audited 20% of the charts. Kappa values were calculated. One hundred sixty-five exposures were identified. Mean age was 42 years (range, 3-93 years). Seventy-one percent were male. Exposures were 27% ingestion and 53% inhalation. Thirty-two percent of the ingestions were suicide attempts. Twenty percent (32 of 157) of all cases died. Over all years reported, hydroxocobalamin was administered to 29% (45 of 157) of patients, sodium nitrite to 25%, and sodium thiosulfate to 46%. Hydroxocobalamin use increased from 24% to 54% from 2007 to 2009, respectively (P = 0.024). Sodium thiosulfate use decreased from 73% to 31% (P = 0.002) and sodium nitrite use decreased from 26% to 14% (P = 0.39). The proportion of cases with serious clinical effects that received hydroxocobalamin increased each year, and the proportion that received other antidotes decreased. Hydroxocobalamin was also administered more often in cases that required serious therapies and increased each year. Hydroxocobalamin use for cyanide toxicity increased each year as reported to the US poison

  14. Antidotal effect of dihydroxyacetone against cyanide toxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Niknahad, H; O'Brien, P J

    1996-05-01

    Potassium cyanide (CN) intoxication in mice was found to be effectively antagonized by dihydroxyacetone (DHA), particularly if administered in combination with another CN antidote, sodium thiosulfate. Cyanide-induced convulsions were also prevented by DHA treatment, either alone or in combination with thiosulfate. Injection (i.p.) of DHA (2 g/kg) 2 min after or 10 min before CN (s.c.) increased LD50 values of CN(8.7 mg/kg) by factors of 2.1 and 3.0, respectively. Treatment with a combination of DHA and thiosulfate after CN increased the LD50 by a factor of 2.4. Pretreatment with a combination of DHA and thiosulfate (1 g/kg) increased the LD50 of CN to 83 mg/kg. Administration of alpha-ketoglutarate (2.0 g/kg), but not pyruvate, 2 min after CN increased the LD50 of CN by a factor of 1.6. Brain, heart and liver cytochrome oxidase activities were also measured following in vivo CN treatment with and without DHA. Pretreatment with DHA prevented the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase activity by CN and treatment with DHA after CN accelerated the recovery of cytochrome oxidase activity, especially in brain and heart homogenates. DHA is a physiological agent and, therefore, could prove to be a safe and effective antidote for CN, particularly in cases of fire smoke inhalation in which a combination of CN and carbon monoxide is present. In these cases the normally used antidote, sodium nitrite, to induce methemoglobin so as to trap the CN, is contraindicated because some of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood will have already been diminished by carbon monoxide.

  15. Intramuscular ketorolac inhibits activation of rat peripheral NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian E; Dong, Xu-Dong; Wong, Hayes; Svensson, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac has local anesthetic-like and peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist characteristics when administered at higher concentrations to masticatory muscle. It is not known if the ability to inhibit NMDA receptors is unique to diclofenac or shared by other NSAIDs. This study was undertaken to determine whether intramuscular injection of ketorolac or naproxen at concentrations that do not induce local anesthetic-like effects could attenuate jaw-closer muscle nociceptor discharge in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. It was found that ketorolac (5 mM) inhibited hypertonic saline-evoked nociceptor discharge, which suggests that at this concentration, ketorolac has local anesthetic-like properties. A lower concentration of ketorolac (0.5 mM), which did not affect hypertonic saline-evoked discharge, did inhibit nociceptor discharge evoked by NMDA. In contrast, naproxen (5 mM) did not alter hypertonic saline- or NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge. Subsequent experiments revealed that ketorolac (0.5 mM) had no effect on nociceptor discharge evoked by αβ-methylene ATP, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or AMPA. The inhibitory effect of ketorolac did not appear to be related to cyclooxygenase inhibition, because the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) in the masticatory muscles 10 min after injection of either NSAID was not significantly decreased. The present study indicates that in vivo, ketorolac, but not naproxen, can antagonize NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge similarly to diclofenac. We speculate that structural similarities between ketorolac and diclofenac could account for the ability of these NSAIDs to inhibit NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge. These properties may partly explain the analgesic effect of intramuscularly injected ketorolac in the clinic.

  16. Health Implications of Beef Intramuscular Fat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Despite several issues in relation to human health, beef is still a most popular meat product among large section of society due to the presence of high quality protein and other nutrients. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide nutritional profiles and health implications of high marbled beef consumption. In relation to lipid content of beef, intramuscular fat contains high level of PUFA and MUFA compared to other beef fat. Level and composition of intramuscular fat varies depending on breed and feeding regime. Literature suggests that the marbling is more complex than the development of subcutaneous fat and marbling not only provides good fatty acids but also contributes to the higher eating quality of beef. Finally, the current work emphasize that meat plays a pivotal role in nutritious diets, high quality marbled beef is not only of excellent eating quality but also contain more beneficial fatty acids. PMID:27857532

  17. Intramuscular Contact Lead Filled With Conductive Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Hendrickson, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed sheath for braided-wire intramuscular conductor preserves electrical continuity even if wire breaks. Plastic sheath surrounds conductive solution in which braided wire immersed. At end of cable, wire and sheath crimped together and press-fit in porous titanium electrode. Implanted surgically with aid of device resembling catheter. Used to deliver electrical stimuli to muscles in biomedical research on human and animal physiology, development of prostheses, regeneration of nerves and muscles, and artificial implants.

  18. Enzymatic detoxification of cyanide: clues from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese.

    PubMed

    Cipollone, Rita; Ascenzi, Paolo; Tomao, Paola; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is a dreaded chemical because of its toxic properties. Although cyanide acts as a general metabolic inhibitor, it is synthesized, excreted and metabolized by hundreds of organisms, including bacteria, algae, fungi, plants, and insects, as a mean to avoid predation or competition. Several cyanide compounds are also produced by industrial activities, resulting in serious environmental pollution. Bioremediation has been exploited as a possible alternative to chemical detoxification of cyanide compounds, and various microbial systems allowing cyanide degradation have been described. Enzymatic pathways involving hydrolytic, oxidative, reductive, and substitution/transfer reactions are implicated in detoxification of cyanide by bacteria and fungi. Amongst enzymes involved in transfer reactions, rhodanese catalyzes sulfane sulfur transfer from thiosulfate to cyanide, leading to the formation of the less toxic thiocyanate. Mitochondrial rhodanese has been associated with protection of aerobic respiration from cyanide poisoning. Here, the biochemical and physiological properties of microbial sulfurtransferases are reviewed in the light of the importance of rhodanese in cyanide detoxification by the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Critical issues limiting the application of a rhodanese-based cellular system to cyanide bioremediation are also discussed. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  20. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  1. Management of pediatric intramuscular venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Wieck, Minna M; Nowicki, Donna; Schall, Kathy A; Zeinati, Chadi; Howell, Lori K; Anselmo, Dean M

    2017-04-01

    Intramuscular venous malformations (VMs) are rare, but can be highly symptomatic. There are few reports on outcomes, particularly pain, functional limitations, and muscle contractures. We aimed to compare results of medical management, sclerotherapy, and surgical resection. We retrospectively reviewed 45 patients with an extremity or truncal intramuscular VM between June 2005 and June 2015 at a single institution. Outcomes were compared between treatment modalities with ANOVA and χ2 tests. Six patients (13%) were treated with medical management, 4 (9%) with surgical resection, 23 (51%) with sclerotherapy, and 12 (27%) with both surgery and sclerotherapy. Sclerotherapy alone decreased pain in 72%. Only 20% of patients presented with muscle contracture. For these patients, 33% resolved with sclerotherapy, physical therapy, and aspirin; 22% resolved with surgery, and 45% had persistent contracture. 40% of patients treated with sclerotherapy then surgery developed new muscle contractures, compared to 4% of sclerotherapy only patients and 0% of surgery only patients (p=0.04). Medical management, surgery and sclerotherapy are effective treatments for intramuscular VMs. Observation and supportive care can be a primary treatment for patients with minimal symptomatology and no functional limitations. Sclerotherapy is more effective for treating pain than contractures and when used alone, rarely causes a new muscle contracture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  3. Pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin-sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, S; Cárceles, C M

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a 2:1 ampicillin-sulbactam combination were studied in 6 sheep, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open 2-compartment model after intravenous administration and a one-compartment model with first order absorption after intramuscular administration. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.32+/-0.06 L/kg and 0.42+/-0.04 L/kg, respectively and the total body clearances were 0.69+/-0.07 and 0.38+/-0.03 L/kg x h, respectively. The elimination half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32+/-0.05 h and 0.75+/-0.27 h, respectively, whereas for sulbactam the half-lives were 0.74+/-0.10 h and 0.89+/-0.16 h, respectively. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar in both drugs (72.76+/-9.65% for ampicillin and 85.50+/-8.35% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were reached at similar times (0.25+/-0.10 h and 0.24+/-0.08 h, respectively) and peak concentrations were also similar but nonproportional to the dose of both products administered (13.01+/-7.36 mg/L of ampicillin and 10.39+/-3.95 mg/L of sulbactam). Both drugs had a similar pharmacokinetic behavior after intramuscular administration in sheep. Since the plasma concentrations of sulbactam where consistently higher during the elimination phase of their disposition, consideration could be given to formulating the ampicillin-sulbactam combination in a higher than 2:1 ratio. PMID:9918330

  4. Pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin-sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to sheep.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, S; Cárceles, C M

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a 2:1 ampicillin-sulbactam combination were studied in 6 sheep, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open 2-compartment model after intravenous administration and a one-compartment model with first order absorption after intramuscular administration. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.32+/-0.06 L/kg and 0.42+/-0.04 L/kg, respectively and the total body clearances were 0.69+/-0.07 and 0.38+/-0.03 L/kg x h, respectively. The elimination half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32+/-0.05 h and 0.75+/-0.27 h, respectively, whereas for sulbactam the half-lives were 0.74+/-0.10 h and 0.89+/-0.16 h, respectively. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar in both drugs (72.76+/-9.65% for ampicillin and 85.50+/-8.35% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were reached at similar times (0.25+/-0.10 h and 0.24+/-0.08 h, respectively) and peak concentrations were also similar but nonproportional to the dose of both products administered (13.01+/-7.36 mg/L of ampicillin and 10.39+/-3.95 mg/L of sulbactam). Both drugs had a similar pharmacokinetic behavior after intramuscular administration in sheep. Since the plasma concentrations of sulbactam where consistently higher during the elimination phase of their disposition, consideration could be given to formulating the ampicillin-sulbactam combination in a higher than 2:1 ratio.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to pigeons.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination were studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg kg(-1) bodyweight) to 50 pigeons. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 1.77 litres kg(-1) and 1.30 litres kg(-1) respectively. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 1.22 (0.09) hour and 1.52 (0.09) hour respectively, and those of clavulanic acid were 1.15 (0.08) hour and 1.49 (0.08) hour. After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P<0.05) than that after the intravenous treatment. The bioavailability after the intramuscular injection was high and similar for both drugs (75.98 per cent for amoxicillin and 74.61 per cent for clavulanic acid). The mean peak plasma concentration of clavulanic acid (0.29 hour) was reached earlier than amoxicillin (0.38 hour) and peak concentrations were proportional to the dose of both products administered (5.81 mg litre(-1) of amoxicillin and 1.89 mg litre(-1) of clavulanic acid). From a single administration it is proposed that an intramuscular dosage regimen of 105 mg kg(-1) of the combination (84 mg kg(-1) of amoxicillin and 21 mg kg(-1) of clavulanic acid) every 12 hours will achieve minimum concentrations > or =0.5 mg litre(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentration of most susceptible pathogens).

  6. Intraosseous versus intravenous infusion of hydroxocobalamin for the treatment of acute severe cyanide toxicity in a Swine model.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Boudreau, Susan; Tanen, David A

    2014-11-01

    Easily administrated cyanide antidotes are needed for first responders, military troops, and emergency department staff after cyanide exposure in mass casualty incidents or due to smoke inhalation during fires involving many victims. Hydroxocobalamin has proven to be an effective antidote, but cannot be given intramuscularly because the volume of diluent needed is too large. Thus, intraosseous (IO) infusion may be an alternative, as it is simple and has been recommended for the administration of other resuscitation drugs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of IO delivery of hydroxocobalamin to intravenous (IV) injection for the management of acute cyanide toxicity in a well-described porcine model. Twenty-four swine (45 to 55 kg) were anesthetized, intubated, and instrumented with continuous mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output monitoring. Cyanide was continuously infused until severe hypotension (50% of baseline MAP), followed by IO or IV hydroxocobalamin treatment. Animals were randomly assigned to receive IV (150 mg/kg) or IO (150 mg/kg) hydroxocobalamin and monitored for 60 minutes after start of antidotal infusion. The primary outcome measure was the change in MAP after antidotal treatment from onset of hypotension (time zero) to 60 minutes. A sample size of 12 animals per group was determined by group size analysis based on power of 80% to detect a one standard deviation of the mean MAP between the groups with an alpha of 0.05. Whole blood cyanide, lactate, pH, nitrotyrosine (nitric oxide marker) levels, cerebral and renal near infrared spectrometry (NIRS) oxygenation, and inflammatory markers were also measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. At baseline and at the point of hypotension, physiologic parameters were similar between groups. At the conclusion of the study, 10 out of 12 animals in the IV group and 10 out of 12 in IO

  7. Single-dose bioavailability of oral and intramuscular thiocolchicoside in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, P; Bouvier d'Yvoire, M; Chretien, P; Tillement, J P; Scherrmann, J M

    1994-01-01

    A single dose of 8 mg of thiocolchicoside was administered to 12 healthy volunteers according to a Latin square design, either as tablets (reference), oral solution, or intramuscular injection. Serum thiocolchicoside concentrations showed an absorption phase followed by a biexponential decay with a terminal half-life (t1/2 beta) of approximately 5 h, similar for the three formulations. The relative bioavailability of both oral formulations was approximately 25%, compared to the intramuscular formulation. There was a trend for the oral solution to have a slightly larger AUC and Cmax, as well as a slightly shorter Tmax, than the tablet formulation. However, the comparison of the two oral forms did not show statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, and AUC, suggesting that the Coltramyl tablets have an adequate in vivo dissolution profile.

  8. Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2013-12-01

    A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers.

  9. Application of cyanide hydrolase from Klebsiella sp. in a biosensor system for the detection of low-level cyanide.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Law, Alex W C; Tokuda, Shinsuke; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-01

    A partially purified preparation of cyanide hydrolase (cyanidase) from a bacterium, Klebsiella sp., was applied as a biocatalyst in a biosensor system for low-level cyanide detection. In the biosensor system cyanide hydrolase converts cyanide into formate and ammonia. The formate produced in the cyanide degradation was detected with a formate biosensor, in which formate dehydrogenase (FDH; E.C. 1.2.1.2) was co-immobilized with salicylate hydroxylase (SHL; E.C. 1.14.13.1) on a Clark electrode. The principle of the formate sensor is that FDH converts formate into carbon dioxide using beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NAD(+)). The corresponding NADH produced is then oxidized to NAD(+) by SHL using salicylate and oxygen. The oxygen consumption is monitored with the Clark electrode. The optimum buffer pH and temperature for the enzymatic hydrolysis of potassium cyanide were studied. The preliminary experiments including the pretreatment of cyanide with cyanide hydrolase and then detection by the formate sensor gave a detection limit at 7.3 micromol l(-1) cyanide. The linear range of the calibration curve was between 30 micromol l(-1) and 300 micromol l(-1) cyanide.

  10. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  11. Diamorphine for pain relief in labour : a randomised controlled trial comparing intramuscular injection and patient-controlled analgesia.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hillan, Edith; Clark, Diana; Gilmour, Harper

    2004-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of diamorphine administered by a patient-controlled pump (patient-controlled analgesia) with intramuscular administration for pain relief in labour. Randomised controlled trial. The South Glasgow University Hospitals NHS Trust. Primigravidae and multigravidae in labour at term (37-42 weeks). Women were randomised in labour to the study (patient-controlled analgesia) or control group (intramuscular). Randomisation was achieved through a random permuted block design stratified by parity. Study group women were given a loading dose of 1.2 mg diamorphine intravenously and then attached to the pump. Control group women received intramuscular diamorphine as per hospital protocol. Participants were also given 3 mg of buccal Stemetil. Data were collected throughout labour and at six postnatal weeks. Analgesia requirements during labour and women's satisfaction with the method of pain relief. Women in the study group (patient-controlled analgesia) used significantly less diamorphine than women in the control group (intramuscular) but were significantly more likely to state that they were very dissatisfied with their use of diamorphine and were significantly more likely to opt out of the trial before the birth of the baby. The majority of women in both groups used other analgesia concurrent with diamorphine such as Entonox, aromatherapy or TENS. Patient-controlled analgesia administration of diamorphine for the relief of pain in labour offers no significant advantages over intramuscular administration. The results also suggest that diamorphine is a poor analgesic for labour pain irrespective of the mode of administration.

  12. Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Jestico, J V; O'Brien, M D; Teoh, R; Toseland, P A; Wong, H C

    1984-06-01

    Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement in visual acuities following abstinence and hydroxycobalamin therapy was accompanied by a reduction in the whole blood cyanide level to within the normal range. Serial measurements of whole blood cyanide, serum alcohol, and the detection of urinary nicotine provided valuable indices of the patient's subsequent compliance and clinical progress.

  13. Survival of fish upon removal of cyanide from water.

    PubMed

    Gacsi, Mariann; Czegeny, Ildiko; Nagy, Gabor; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2005-03-01

    The effects of potassium cyanide and the removal of cyanide from water in vivo on the survival of fish were investigated. This research was initiated because of the catastrophe that took place at the end of January 2000 in the Carpathian basin, when an enormous amount of cyanide pollution swept through the Samos and Tisza rivers, and then to the Danube. Since nothing was done against the disaster, we have suggested a chemical solution to remove cyanide from waterways (Chem. Innovat. 30 (2000b) 53). Based on experiments, we describe that the most effective and harmless way to remove cyanide and to save the lives of fish from 40 to 160 x the lethal doses of cyanide is to use carbogen gas containing 5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen followed by aeration with air.

  14. Cyanides in the environment-analysis-problems and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jaszczak, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-07-01

    Cyanide toxicity and their environmental impact are well known. Nevertheless, they are still used in the mining, galvanic and chemical industries. As a result of industrial activities, cyanides are released in various forms to all elements of the environment. In a natural environment, cyanide exists as cyanogenic glycosides in plants seeds. Too much consumption can cause unpleasant side effects. However, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the most common source of cyanide. Live organisms have the ability to convert cyanide into less toxic compounds excreted with physiological fluids. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of knowledge on the behaviour of cyanide in the environment and its impact on the health and human life.

  15. Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent.

  16. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  17. Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

  18. Effect of chronic cyanide intoxication on memory in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Namasivayam, A

    2000-01-01

    Cyanide is a chemical widely used in industry, and is a major environmental pollutant. Its toxicity is caused by inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in histotoxic hypoxia. The effect of sublethal doses of cyanide on memory and hippocampal neurotransmitters was studied in male Wistar strain albino rats. Cyanide reduced the memory along with reduction in the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hippocampus. Pre-existing malnutrition in the animals exaggerated these effects.

  19. Laboratory interferences with the newer cyanide antidote: hydroxocobalamin.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Nathan; Leikin, Scott M; Aitchinson, Robert; Yen, May; Wills, Brandon K

    2009-02-01

    Cyanide poisoning occurs in many smoke inhalation victims. The newest FDA-approved treatment for acute cyanide intoxication is hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit). However, hydroxocobalamin exhibits chemical properties that can disrupt several clinical laboratory tests. Knowledge of these effects on laboratory tests can be useful in assisting laboratory technicians and clinicians in managing these patients. This article briefly discusses acute cyanide poisoning and treatment, and summarizes laboratory interferences that have been reported with the use of hydroxocobalamin.

  20. Pseudolaminar necrosis in cyanide intoxication: a neuropathology case report.

    PubMed

    Riudavets, Miguel Angel; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Troncoso, Juan C

    2005-06-01

    We describe the gross and microscopic neuropathological changes in the brain of a 17-year-old male who died 4 days after being poisoned with cyanide. Previous reports indicate that following cyanide intoxication, the brain develops diffuse hypoxic/ischemic changes, predominantly of the basal ganglia. The case we describe here had similar features but in addition showed striking laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex. This finding in cyanide poisoning has been previously demonstrated by neuroimaging, but not pathologically.

  1. A novel cyanide-inducible gene cluster helps protect Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cyanide.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Williams, Huw D; Cherbuin, Gaëtan; Haas, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the toxic secondary metabolite hydrogen cyanide (HCN) at high cell population densities and low aeration. Here, we investigated the impact of HCN as a signal in cell-cell communication by comparing the transcriptome of the wild-type strain PAO1 to that of an HCN-negative mutant under cyanogenic conditions. HCN repressed four genes and induced 12 genes. While the individual functions of these genes are unknown, with one exception (i.e. a ferredoxin-dependent reductase), a highly inducible six-gene cluster (PA4129-PA4134) was found to be crucial for protection of P. aeruginosa from external HCN intoxication. A double mutant deleted for PA4129-PA4134 and cioAB (encoding cyanide-insensitive oxidase) did not grow with 100 μM KCN, whereas the corresponding single mutants were essentially unaffected, suggesting a synergistic action of the PA4129-PA4134 gene products and cyanide-insensitive oxidase.

  2. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis after a Suicide Attempt with Cyanide: The Rebirth of Cyanide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chang, Che-Fu; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department in a state of unconsciousness after attempting suicide with unknown substances. Severe metabolic acidosis (pH: 6.81), with a high anion gap (36.2) and high lactate level (20.2 mmol/L), was observed. After four hours of intensive medical treatment, the patient regained consciousness, with a return of the arterial pH to 7.42. Finally, cyanide intoxication was diagnosed based on the detection of a serum cyanide level of 3.5 mg/L. The presence of a high anion gap associated with severe lactic acidosis is a clue for making a rapid differential diagnosis of acute cyanide intoxication. Providing intensive and immediate supportive management is also crucial, even in cases without obtainable specific antidotes.

  3. Acute, Sub-lethal Cyanide Poisoning in Mice is Ameliorated by Nitrite Alone: Complications Arising from Concomitant Administration of Nitrite and Thiosulfate as an Antidotal Combination

    PubMed Central

    Cambal, Leah K.; Swanson, Megan R.; Yuan, Quan; Weitz, Andrew C.; Li, Hui-Hua; Pitt, Bruce R.; Pearce, Linda L.; Peterson, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sub-lethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from ~1 hour before until 20 minutes after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodsteam as judged by the dose dependent appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. It is argued that antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity rather than the methemoglobin-forming action of nitrite. Concomitant addition of sodium thiosulfate to nitrite-treated blood resulted in the detection of sulfidomethemoblobin by EPR spectroscopy. Sulfide is a product of thiosulfate hydrolysis and, like cyanide, is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; the effects of the two inhibitors being essentially additive under standard assay conditions, rather than dominated by either one. The findings afford a plausible explanation for an observed detrimental effect in mice associated with the use of the standard nitrite-thiosulfate combination therapy at sub-lethal levels of cyanide intoxication. PMID:21534623

  4. Acute, sublethal cyanide poisoning in mice is ameliorated by nitrite alone: complications arising from concomitant administration of nitrite and thiosulfate as an antidotal combination.

    PubMed

    Cambal, Leah K; Swanson, Megan R; Yuan, Quan; Weitz, Andrew C; Li, Hui-Hua; Pitt, Bruce R; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2011-07-18

    Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from ∼1 h before until 20 min after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodsteam as judged by the dose-dependent appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. It is argued that antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity rather than the methemoglobin-forming action of nitrite. Concomitant addition of sodium thiosulfate to nitrite-treated blood resulted in the detection of sulfidomethemoblobin by EPR spectroscopy. Sulfide is a product of thiosulfate hydrolysis and, like cyanide, is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase, the effects of the two inhibitors being essentially additive under standard assay conditions rather than dominated by either one. The findings afford a plausible explanation for an observed detrimental effect in mice associated with the use of the standard nitrite-thiosulfate combination therapy at sublethal levels of cyanide intoxication.

  5. Colorimetric detection of cyanide with phenyl thiourea derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Shan; Zheng, Jia-Xing; Tsui, Yao-Kang; Yen, Yao-Pin

    2011-09-01

    Three structurally simple thiourea derivatives 1- 3 were prepared, and their chromogenic behaviors toward various anions were investigated in aqueous solution. Among them 1 showed good sensitivity and selectivity for cyanide ion and also can distinguish it from other anions by different color changes. Besides that, the receptor 1 has a sensitive detection limit (1.27 μM) for cyanide ion accordingly it can be used as a colorimetric sensor for the determination of cyanide ion. The use of the test strip of sensor 1 to detect cyanide ion was also reported.

  6. Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W.

    1995-12-31

    Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

  7. Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Cyanides--treatment beneath the shade of terror].

    PubMed

    Krivoy, Amir; Finkelstein, Arseny; Rotman, Eran; Layish, Ido; Tashma, Zeev; Hoffman, Azik; Schein, Ophir; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2007-03-01

    Although the use of cyanides as warfare agents has not been documented since the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, there are rising fears of cyanide being used by terrorists. An Al-Qaeda terror plot to use cyanide gas in the London Underground was foiled in 2002. The threat of similar events becomes more imminent in light of the terror attacks in our country and worldwide, accompanied by statements and threats by fundamentalist leaders to employ chemical weapons. Therefore, mass-intoxication with cyanides is not merely a hypothetical scenario. The treatment of cyanide poisoning is under constant evaluation and there is no international consensus on the subject. The medical treatment of victims at the scene and in hospitals should be rapid and efficient. Current treatment dictates establishing an intravenous line and a slow rate of administration of antidotes. Both demands are not feasible in this specific mass casualty event. The clinical signs of cyanide poisoning are complex, variable and not necessarily obvious for the medical team. There is great interest in reconsidering the existing treatment protocols for cyanide intoxication in light of current research. This review describes the mechanisms of cyanide toxicity, clinical signs of exposure, and current treatment protocols in use worldwide. On the basis of this evidence we suggest a medical treatment protocol for a mass casualty event caused by cyanide.

  9. Continuous real-time measurement of aqueous cyanide

    DOEpatents

    Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2007-03-06

    This invention provides a method and system capable of the continuous, real-time measurement of low concentrations of aqueous free cyanide (CN) using an on-line, flow through system. The system is based on the selective reactivity of cyanide anions and the characteristically nonreactive nature of metallic gold films, wherein this selective reactivity is exploited as an indirect measurement for aqueous cyanide. In the present invention the dissolution of gold, due to the solubilization reaction with the analyte cyanide anion, is monitored using a piezoelectric microbalance contained within a flow cell.

  10. Regional bone change in intramuscular haemangioma mimicking primary bone tumour.

    PubMed

    Shikhare, Sumer; Chacko, Julio K; Chuah, Khoon L

    2015-04-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign soft-tissue tumours, commonly located in the extremities. We present a right-leg intramuscular haemangioma with florid periosteal reaction in adjacent tibia, mimicking a primary bone tumour. Plain radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging features are illustrated with the surgical and histopathological findings. Radiologists need to be familiar with reactive bone changes secondary to deep-seated intramuscular haemangiomas to avoid potential misdiagnosis.

  11. Can intramuscular glucose levels diagnose compartment syndrome?

    PubMed

    Doro, Christopher J; Sitzman, Thomas J; O'Toole, Robert V

    2014-02-01

    Compartment syndrome is difficult to diagnose, particularly in patients who are not able to undergo adequate clinical examination. Current methods rely on pressure measurements within the compartment, have high false-positive rates, and do not reliably indicate presence of muscle ischemia. We hypothesized that measurement of intramuscular glucose and oxygen can identify compartment syndrome with high sensitivity and specificity. Compartment syndrome was created in 12 anesthetized adult mixed-sex beagles, in the craniolateral compartment of a lower leg, by infusion of lactated Ringer's solution with normal serum concentration of glucose. The contralateral leg served as a control. Hydrostatic pressure, oxygen tension, and glucose concentration were recorded with commercially available probes. Compartment syndrome was maintained for 8 hours, and the animals were recovered. Two weeks later, compartment and control legs underwent muscle biopsy. Specimens were reviewed by a blinded pathologist. Within 15 minutes of creating compartment syndrome, glucose concentration and oxygen tension in the experimental limb were significantly lower than in the control limb (glucose, p = 0.02; oxygen, p = 0.007; two-tailed t test). Intramuscular glucose concentration of less than 97 mg/dL was 100% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 73-100%) and 75% specific (95% CI, 40-94%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Partial pressure of oxygen less than 30 mm Hg was 100% sensitive (95% CI, 72-100%) and 100% specific (95% CI, 69-100%) for the presence of compartment syndrome. Pathology confirmed compartment syndrome in all experimental limbs. Our results show that intramuscular glucose concentration and partial pressure of oxygen rapidly identify muscle ischemia with high sensitivity and specificity after experimentally created compartment syndrome in this animal model.

  12. [Intermuscular and intramuscular lipomas of the neck].

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, L; Miglietta, A M; Pulcini, A; Granai, A; Fabrizio, G; Manno, A; Messinetti, S

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of deep lipomas of the neck developed between the skeletal muscles were presented: one intermuscular and the other intramuscular. Taking into consideration the rarity of the case, the authors examined the clinical surgical aspect, paying special attention to the relationship between sonographic and computerized tomographic characteristics and the histological aspects in order to define whether the lipomatous tumors were benign or malignant. They also studied the localization of cervical lipomas, of lipoblastomas of hibernomas and of liposarcomas and defined an anatomo-clinical classification of both superficial and deep cervical lipomas.

  13. An interlaboratory study of the pharmacokinetics of testosterone following intramuscular administration to Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Moeller, B C; Sams, R A; Guinjab-Cagmat, J; Szabo, N J; Colahan, P; Stanley, S D

    2011-12-01

    Testosterone is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) that is endogenously produced by both male and female horses that also has the potential for abuse when administered exogenously to race horses. To recommend appropriate withdrawal guidelines so that veterinarians can discontinue therapeutic use prior to competition, the pharmacokinetics and elimination of testosterone were investigated. An aqueous testosterone suspension was administered intramuscularly in the neck of Thoroughbred horses (n = 20). The disposition of testosterone from this formulation was characterized by an initial, rapid absorption phase followed by a much more variable secondary absorption phase. The median terminal half-life was 39 h. A second focus of this study was to compare the testosterone concentrations determined by two different laboratories using a percentage similarity model with a coefficient of variation of 16.5% showing good agreement between the two laboratories results. Based on the results of this study, a withdrawal period of 30 days for aqueous testosterone administered IM is recommended.

  14. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of zinc-cyanide complex.

    PubMed

    Yngard, Ria; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Osathaphan, Khemarath; Sharma, Virender K

    2007-10-01

    Zinc-cyanide complexes are found in gold mining effluents and in metal finishing rinse water. The effect of Zn(II) on the oxidation of cyanide by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O(4)(2-), Fe(VI)) was thus investigated by studying the kinetics of the reaction of Fe(VI) with cyanide present in a potassium salt of a zinc cyanide complex (K(2)Zn(CN)(4)) and in a mixture of Zn(II) and cyanide solutions as a function of pH (9.0-11.0). The rate-law for the oxidation of Zn(CN)(4)(2-) by Fe(VI) was found to be -d[Fe(VI)]/dt=k[Fe(VI)][Zn(CN)(4)(2-)](0.5). The rate constant, k, decreased with an increase in pH. The effect of temperature (15-45 degrees C) on the oxidation was studied at pH 9.0, which gave an activation energy of 45.7+/-1.5kJmol(-1). The cyanide oxidation rate decreased in the presence of the Zn(II) ions. However, Zn(II) ions had no effect on the cyanide removal efficiency by Fe(VI) and the stoichiometry of Fe(VI) to cyanide was approximately 1:1; similar to the stoichiometry in absence of Zn(II) ions. The destruction of cyanide by Fe(VI) resulted in cyanate. The experiments on removal of cyanide from rinse water using Fe(VI) demonstrated complete conversion of cyanide to cyanate.

  15. A reproducible nonlethal animal model for studying cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Vick, J; Marino, M T; von Bredow, J D; Kaminskis, A; Brewer, T

    2000-12-01

    Previous studies using bolus intravenous injections of sodium cyanide have been used to model the sudden exposure to high concentrations of cyanide that could occur on the battlefield. This study was designed to develop a model that would simulate the type of exposure to cyanide gas that could happen during actual low-level continuous types of exposure and then compare it with the bolus model. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings taken from anesthetized dogs have been used previously to characterize the lethal effects of cyanide. The intravenous, bolus injection of 2.5 mg/kg sodium cyanide provides a model in which a greater than lethal concentration is attained. In contrast, our model uses a slow, intravenous infusion of cyanide to titrate each animal to its own inherent end point, which coincides with the amount of cyanide needed to induce death through respiratory arrest. In this model, therapeutic intervention can be used to restore respiration and allow for the complete recovery of the animals. After recovery, the same animal can be given a second infusion of cyanide, followed again by treatment and recovery, providing a reproducible end point. This end point can then be expressed as the total amount of cyanide per body weight (mg/kg) required to kill. In this study, the average dose of sodium cyanide among 12 animals was 1.21 mg/kg, which is approximately half the cyanide used in the bolus model. Thus, titration to respiratory arrest followed by resuscitation provides a repetitive-use animal model that can be used to test the efficacy of various forms of pretreatment and/or therapy without the loss of a single animal.

  16. Bioactivation of cyanide to cyanate in sulfur amino acid deficiency: relevance to neurological disease in humans subsisting on cassava.

    PubMed

    Tor-Agbidye, J; Palmer, V S; Lasarev, M R; Craig, A M; Blythe, L L; Sabri, M I; Spencer, P S

    1999-08-01

    Neurological disorders have been reported from parts of Africa with protein-deficient populations and attributed to cyanide (CN-) exposure from prolonged dietary use of cassava, a cyanophoric plant. Cyanide is normally metabolized to thiocyanate (SCN-) by the sulfur-dependent enzyme rhodanese. However, in protein-deficient subjects where sulfur amino acids (SAA) are low, CN may conceivably be converted to cyanate (OCN-), which is known to cause neurodegenerative disease in humans and animals. This study investigates the fate of potassium cyanide administered orally to rats maintained for up to 4 weeks on either a balanced diet (BD) or a diet lacking the SAAs, L-cystine and L-methionine. In both groups, there was a time-dependent increase in plasma cyanate, with exponential OCN- increases in SAA-deficient rats. A strongly positive linear relationship between blood CN- and plasma OCN- concentrations was observed in these animals. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cyanate is an important mediator of chronic cyanide neurotoxicity during protein-calorie deficiency. The potential role of thiocyanate in cassava-associated konzo is discussed in relationship to the etiology of the comparable pattern of motor-system disease (spastic paraparesis) seen in lathyrism.

  17. Photo/photochemical oxidation of cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes: ultraviolet A versus ultraviolet C.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ercan; Gok, Zehra; Yel, Esra

    2012-09-01

    Degradation of free cyanide (CN(-)), weak-acid dissociable (WAD) (Zn(CN)4(2-), Cu(CN)3(2-)) and strong-acid dissociable (SAD) (Fe(CN)6(4-) cyanide complexes by photo and photochemical oxidation with ultraviolet (UV) light and H2O2 was investigated. The experiments were performed in batch reactors under ultraviolet A (UVA; 395 nm) and ultraviolet C (UVC; 254 nm) light; the degradation efficiency was followed in terms of free cyanide, complex and metal concentrations. UVC and UVA photo-oxidations were found to be equally effective in CN(-) and WAD degradation, while the degradation of the SAD complex was more difficult for both UV wavelengths, and UVC was more effective. The initial pH of the solution has influenced the degradation of all cyanide species and the optimum initial pH was evaluated as 10.5 for CN(-) and Cu(CN)3(2-); 12.0 for Zn(CN)4(2-) and 9.0 for Fe(CN)6(4-) degradation. Photochemical oxidation using H202 provided higher degradation at shorter durations with both UVA and UVC. Time-dependent variations in free cyanide and metal concentrations have indicated that metal-cyanide complexes are firstly degraded into metal and CN(-) ions, followed by oxidation of CN(-) ions, while metals in the system were partially removed as hydroxide precipitates. Therefore, depending upon the effluent requirements, the studied UV photo/photochemical oxidations were offered as either a pre-treatment method for the separation of metal and the cyanide, or as an oxidation technology to degrade especially WAD complexes and CN(-). Estimated operational cost of photo-oxidation by UVC was 1.6-2.5-fold higher than UVA degradation, although degradation times were close. In the photochemical oxidation with H2O2, the operational costs of UVC and UVA degradation were closer, owing to peroxide costs, but UVC was still more expensive.

  18. Evidence of hydrolytic route for anaerobic cyanide degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, R D

    1992-01-01

    Products observed during anaerobic cyanide transformation are consistent with a hydrolytic pathway (HCN + H2O <--> HCONH2 + H2O <--> HCOOH + NH3). Formate, the most frequently observed product, was generally converted to bicarbonate. Formamide was rapidly hydrolyzed to formate upon exposure to the anaerobic consortium but was not detected as an intermediate of cyanide transformation. PMID:1444430

  19. Cyanide toxicity in hepatocytes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aw, T Y; Jones, D P

    1989-09-01

    The effect of cyanide on cell viability and mitochondrial function was studied in hepatocytes exposed to air or argon. Cells were more susceptible to cyanide toxicity under air than under argon. Analysis of the disposition of cyanide showed that the difference in susceptibility to KCN was not due to O2-dependent differences in cyanide metabolism or elimination. Studies of mitochondrial function revealed that cyanide under aerobic conditions resulted in substantial swelling of the mitochondria, which corresponded to a matrix loading of phosphate. In addition, cyanide caused a loss of the mitochondrial protonmotive force. This was in contrast to the results for cells exposed to 30 min of anoxia alone in which there was no loss of mitochondrial delta pH, no detectable change in mitochondrial volume, and little matrix loading of phosphate. These results show that at least some of the protective mechanisms elicited by anoxia (B. S. Andersson, T. Y. Aw, and D. P. Jones. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Cell Physiol. 21): C349-C355, 1987) are not elicited by cyanide alone. Thus cyanide under aerobic conditions does not provide a completely valid model for simple anoxia. Moreover, the results suggest that the molecular sensor necessary to signal suppression of metabolic and transport functions during neahypoxia is dependent on O2 and is neither stimulated nor antagonized by KCN.

  20. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Hill, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife ( gt 9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  1. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. New spot-test for cyanide ion and cyanogen gas.

    PubMed

    Tobia, S K; Gawargious, Y A; El-Shahat, M F

    1973-05-01

    A new, rapid and simple spot test has been developed for detection of both cyanide ion and cyanogen gas. The cyanogen gas must first be converted into cyanide ion by reaction with sodium hydroxide. On addition of a Cu(II) solution the cyanocuprate(I) complex formed reduces the molybdate solution to molybdenum blue.

  3. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans

    SciTech Connect

    Ingvorsen, K.; Hojer-Pederson, B.; Godtfredsen, S.E. )

    1991-06-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H{sub 2}O {r arrow} HCOOH + NH{sub 3}) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, {gt}97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be {gt}300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles.

  4. Acute cyanide poisoning: clinical spectrum, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Borron, S W; Baud, F J

    1996-09-01

    Cyanide poisoning presents in many forms. Industrial intoxications occur due to extensive use of cyanide compounds as reaction products. Smoke inhalation, a polyintoxication, is most often responsible for domestic cyanide poisonings. Suicidal poisonings are rare. Cyanogenic compounds may produce acute or subacute toxicity. Signs of cyanide poisoning include headache, vertigo, agitation, confusion, coma, convulsions and death. Definitive laboratory confirmation is generally delayed. Elevated plasma lactate, associated with cardiovascular collapse, should suggest cyanide intoxication. Immediate treatment includes 100% oxygen, assisted ventilation, decontamination, correction of acidosis and blood pressure support. Antidotes include oxygen, hydroxocobalamin, di-cobalt EDTA and methaemoglobin-inducers. Hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote due to its rapid cyanide binding and its lack of serious side-effects, even in the absence of cyanide intoxication. Sodium thiosulphate acts more slowly than other antidotes and is indicated in subacute cyanogen poisoning and as an adjunct to acute cyanide poisoning. Initial evaluation of antidotal efficacy is based on correction of hypotension and lactic acidosis; the final analysis rests on the degree of permanent central nervous system injury.

  5. Novel cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Ingvorsen, K; Højer-Pedersen, B; Godtfredsen, S E

    1991-01-01

    A cyanide-metabolizing bacterium, strain DF3, isolated from soil was identified as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans. Whole cells and cell extracts of strain DF3 catalyzed hydrolysis of cyanide to formate and ammonia (HCN + 2H2O----HCOOH + NH3) without forming formamide as a free intermediate. The cyanide-hydrolyzing activity was inducibly produced in cells during growth in cyanide-containing media. Cyanate (OCN-) and a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles were not hydrolyzed by intact cells of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3. Strain DF3 hydrolyzed cyanide with great efficacy. Thus, by using resting induced cells at a concentration of 11.3 mg (dry weight) per ml, the cyanide concentration could be reduced from 0.97 M (approximately 25,220 ppm) to less than 77 nM (approximately 0.002 ppm) in 55 h. Enzyme purification established that cyanide hydrolysis by A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was due to a single intracellular enzyme. The soluble enzyme was purified approximately 160-fold, and the first 25 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by automated Edman degradation. The molecular mass of the active enzyme (purity, greater than 97% as determined by amino acid sequencing) was estimated to be greater than 300,000 Da. The cyanide-hydrolyzing enzyme of A. xylosoxidans subsp. denitrificans DF3 was tentatively named cyanidase to distinguish it from known nitrilases (EC 3.5.5.1) which act on organic nitriles. Images PMID:1872607

  6. Involvement of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rhodanese in Protection from Cyanide Toxicity▿

    PubMed Central

    Cipollone, Rita; Frangipani, Emanuela; Tiburzi, Federica; Imperi, Francesco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Visca, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is a serious environmental pollutant and a biocontrol metabolite in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas species. Here we report on the presence of multiple sulfurtransferases in the cyanogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and investigate in detail RhdA, a thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese) which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate. RhdA is a cytoplasmic enzyme acting as the principal rhodanese in P. aeruginosa. The rhdA gene forms a transcriptional unit with the PA4955 and psd genes and is controlled by two promoters located upstream of PA4955 and rhdA. Both promoters direct constitutive RhdA expression and show similar patterns of activity, involving moderate down-regulation at the stationary phase or in the presence of exogenous cyanide. We previously observed that RhdA overproduction protects Escherichia coli against cyanide toxicity, and here we show that physiological RhdA levels contribute to P. aeruginosa survival under cyanogenic conditions. The growth of a ΔrhdA mutant is impaired under cyanogenic conditions and fully restored upon complementation with rhdA. Wild-type P. aeruginosa outcompetes the ΔrhdA mutant in cyanogenic coculture assays. Hence, RhdA could be regarded as an effector of P. aeruginosa intrinsic resistance to cyanide, insofar as it provides the bacterium with a defense mechanism against endogenous cyanide toxicity, in addition to cyanide-resistant respiration. PMID:17098912

  7. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  8. Competing hydrostatic compression mechanisms in nickel cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, J.; Lucas, T. C.; Cairns, A. B.; Funnell, N. P.; Tucker, M. G.; Kleppe, A. K.; Hriljac, J. A.; Goodwin, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    We use variable-pressure neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements to determine the uniaxial and bulk compressibilities of nickel(II) cyanide, Ni(CN)2. Whereas other layered molecular framework materials are known to exhibit negative area compressibility, we find that Ni(CN)2 does not. We attribute this difference to the existence of low-energy in-plane tilt modes that provide a pressure-activated mechanism for layer contraction. The experimental bulk modulus we measure is about four times lower than that reported elsewhere on the basis of density functional theory methods [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 024301].

  9. Microbial destruction of cyanide wastes in gold mining: process review.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata; Mudder, Terry

    2003-03-01

    Microbial destruction of cyanide and its related compounds is one of the most important biotechnologies to emerge in the last two decades for treating process and tailings solutions at precious metals mining operations. Hundreds of plant and microbial species (bacteria, fungi and algae) can detoxify cyanide quickly to environmentally acceptable levels and into less harmful by-products. Full-scale bacterial processes have been used effectively for many years in commercial applications in North America. Several species of bacteria can convert cyanide under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using it as a primary source of nitrogen and carbon. Other organisms are capable of oxidizing the cyanide related compounds of thiocyanate and ammonia under varying conditions of pH, temperature, nutrient levels, oxygen, and metal concentrations. This paper presents an overview of the destruction of cyanide in mining related solutions by microbial processes.

  10. Biodegradation of cyanide wastes from mining and jewellery industries.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, María Dolores

    2016-04-01

    Cyanide, one of the known most toxic chemicals, is widely used in mining and jewellery industries for gold extraction and recovery from crushed ores or electroplating residues. Cyanide toxicity occurs because this compound strongly binds to metals, inactivating metalloenzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase. Despite the toxicity of cyanide, cyanotrophic microorganisms such as the alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 may use cyanide and its derivatives as a nitrogen source for growth, making biodegradation of cyanurated industrial waste possible. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques applied to cyanide biodegradation ('cyan-omics') provide a holistic view that increases the global insights into the genetic background of cyanotrophic microorganisms that could be used for biodegradation of industrial cyanurated wastes and other biotechnological applications.

  11. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Delvau, Nicolas; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; De Iaco, Fabio; Geldner, Götz; Holmström, Peter; Lambert, Yves; Sabbe, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Smoke inhalation is a common cause of cyanide poisoning during fires, resulting in injury and even death. In many cases of smoke inhalation, cyanide has increasingly been recognized as a significant toxicant. The diagnosis of cyanide poisoning remains very difficult, and failure to recognize it may result in inadequate or inappropriate treatment. Findings suggesting cyanide toxicity include the following: (a) a history of enclosed-space fire; (b) any alteration in the level of consciousness; (c) any cardiovascular changes (particularly inexplicable hypotension); and (d) elevated plasma lactate. The feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for fire smoke victims have been reported in the literature. On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims.

  12. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels in fire survivors.

    PubMed

    Clark, C J; Campbell, D; Reid, W H

    1981-06-20

    Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide concentrations were measured in 53 fire survivors, 36 of whom had clinical evidence of smoke inhalation. Carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels were raised only in patients with smoke inhalation. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin measurement can be used to confirm the diagnosis of severe smoke inhalation in cases in which the clinical data are inconclusive, provided that the time of sampling after exposure is taken into account. A nomogram has been constructed for this purpose. There is no quick method of measuring blood cyanide levels, but the close relation between cyanide and carboxyhaemoglobin levels suggests that carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations, which can be rapidly and easily measured, could be used to identify those who might benefit from treatment with cyanide antidotes.

  13. Two benzoyl coumarin amide fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zian; Wu, Qianqian; Li, Jiale; Qiu, Shuang; Cao, Duxia; Xu, Yongxiao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yu, Xueying; Sun, Yatong

    2017-08-01

    Two new benzoyl coumarin amide derivatives with ortho hydroxyl benzoyl as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile have also been examined. The influence of electron donating diethylamino group in coumarin ring and hydroxyl in benzoyl group on recognition properties was explored. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectral change and high sensitivity. The import of diethylamine group increases smartly the absorption ability and fluorescence intensity of the compound, which allows the recognition for cyanide anions can be observed by naked eyes. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra combining photophysical properties change and job's plot data confirm that Michael addition between the chemosensors and cyanide anions occurs. Molecular conjugation is interrupted, which leads to fluorescence quenching. At the same time, there is a certain extent hydrogen bond reaction between cyanide and hydroxyl group in the compounds, which is beneficial to the recognition.

  14. Intramuscular myxoma of the deltoid muscle: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Daniela; Erra, Stefania; Durando, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma is a rare, benign lesion of mesenchymal origin, affecting the skeletal muscles. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with a mass of the right deltoid region. On the MRI examination it was interpreted as a lipomatous lesion. She underwent marginal excision. The pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma. PMID:21686685

  15. Intramuscular myxoma of the deltoid muscle: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Daniela; Erra, Stefania; Durando, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma is a rare, benign lesion of mesenchymal origin, affecting the skeletal muscles. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman presenting with a mass of the right deltoid region. On the MRI examination it was interpreted as a lipomatous lesion. She underwent marginal excision. The pathological examination revealed the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma.

  16. Giant intramuscular haemangioma of the chest wall with osteolytic change.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2012-05-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma of the chest wall is very rare, and only few cases associated with rib destruction has been reported. Here, we describe a 37-year old woman with a giant intramuscular haemangioma arising in the left back and associated with rib destruction.

  17. Quantification of β-Cell Mass in Intramuscular Islet Grafts Using Radiolabeled Exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Espes, Daniel; Selvaraju, Ramkumar; Velikyan, Irina; Krajcovic, Martin; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Eriksson, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in alternative implantation sites to the liver for islet transplantation. Intramuscular implantation has even been tested clinically. Possibilities to monitor β-cell mass would be of huge importance not only for the understanding of islet engraftment but also for the decision of changing the immunosuppressive regime. We have therefore evaluated the feasibility of quantifying intramuscular β-cell mass using the radiolabeled glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4. Methods One hundred to 400 islets were transplanted to the abdominal muscle of nondiabetic mice. After 3 to 4 weeks, 0.2 to 0.5 MBq [177Lu]DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 was administered intravenously. Sixty minutes postinjection abdominal organs and graft bearing muscle were retrieved, and the radioactive uptake measured in a well counter within 10 minutes. The specific uptake in native and transplanted islets was assessed by autoradiography. The total insulin-positive area of the islet grafts was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Intramuscular islet grafts could easily be visualized by this tracer, and the background uptake was very low. There was a linear correlation between the radioactivity uptake and the number of transplanted islets, both for standardized uptake values and the total radiotracer uptake in each graft (percentage of injected dose). The quantified total insulin area of surviving β cells showed an even stronger correlation to both standardized uptake values (R = 0.96, P = 0.0002) and percentage of injected dose (R = 0.88, P = 0.0095). There was no correlation to estimated α cell mass. Conclusions [177Lu]DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 could be used to quantify β-cell mass after experimental intramuscular islet transplantation. This technique may well be transferred to the clinical setting by exchanging Lutetium-177 radionuclide to a positron emitting Gallium-68. PMID:27819034

  18. Comparisons of cubed ice, crushed ice, and wetted ice on intramuscular and surface temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Human performance research laboratory. Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures.

  19. Comparisons of Cubed Ice, Crushed Ice, and Wetted Ice on Intramuscular and Surface Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Intervention(s): Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Results: Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. Conclusions: As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures. PMID:19295957

  20. Acute effects of intramuscular and sublingual buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone in non-dependent opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Duke, AN; Correia, CJ; Walsh, SL; Bigelow, GE; Strain, EC

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Buprenorphine is a partial mu opioid receptor agonist with clinical efficacy as a pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence. A sublingual combination formulation was developed containing buprenorphine and naloxone with the intent of decreasing abuse liability in opioid dependent individuals. However, the addition of naloxone may not limit abuse potential of this medication when taken by individuals without opioid physical dependence. Objectives The present study investigated the effects of buprenorphine alone and in combination with naloxone administered intramuscularly and sublingually to non-dependent opioid abusers. Methods In a within-subject crossover design, non-dependent opioid-experienced volunteers (N=8) were administered acute doses of buprenorphine (4, 8, 16 mg) and buprenorphine/naloxone (4/1, 8/2, 16/4 mg) via both intramuscular and sublingual routes, intramuscular hydromorphone (2, 4 mg as an opioid agonist control), and placebo, for a total of 15 drug conditions. Laboratory sessions were conducted twice per week using a double blind, double-dummy design. Results Buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone engendered effects similar to hydromorphone. Intramuscular administration produced a greater magnitude of effects compared to the sublingual route at the intermediate dose of buprenorphine and at both the low and high doses of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination. The addition of naloxone did not significantly alter the effects of buprenorphine. Conclusions These results suggest that buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone have similar abuse potential in non-dependent opioid abusers, and that the addition of naloxone at these doses and in this dose ratio confers no evident advantage for decreasing the abuse potential of intramuscular or sublingual buprenorphine in this population. PMID:20577717

  1. Role and characterization of a cyanide induced 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase in the cyanide assimilating bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344.

    PubMed

    Acera, Felipe; Carmona, María Isabel; Castillo, Francisco; Quesada, Alberto; Blasco, Rafael

    2017-02-24

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterium able to assimilate cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Under this growth conditions, a 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase enzymatic activity was induced. This activity was coded by nit4, one of the four nitrilases detected in the genome of this bacterium, and its expression in E. coli enabled the recombinant strain to fully assimilate 3-cyanoalanine. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 showed a weak growth level with 3-cyanoalanine as N-source, unless KCN was also added. Moreover, a knockout mutant of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in the nit4 gene became severely impaired to grow with 3-cyanoalanine and cyanide as nitrogen sources. The native enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified up to electrophoretic homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Nit4 seems to be specific for 3-cyanoalanine and the amount of ammonium derived from the enzymatic activity doubled in the presence of exogenously added asparaginase activity, which demonstrated that Nit4 enzyme had both 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase and hydratase activity. nit4 gene is located downstream the cyanide-resistance transcriptional unit encoding cio1 genes, whose expression is under the positive control of cyanide. Real time PCR experiments revealed that nit4 expression was also positively regulated by cyanide, both in minimal and LB medium. These results suggest that this gene cluster including cio1 and nit4 could be involved both in cyanide resistance and its assimilation by P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344.IMPORTANCE Cyanide is a highly toxic molecule present in some industrial wastes due to its application in several manufacturing processes, such as gold-mining and electroplating industry. The biodegradation of cyanide from contaminated wastes could be an attractive alternative to their physicochemical treatments. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterial strain able to assimilate cyanide under alkaline conditions, thus avoiding its volatilization as HCN. This

  2. Bioanalytical Method to Determine the Effects of Cyanide, Cyanide Metabolites and Cyanide Antidotes on the Activity of Cytochrome C Oxidase Immobilized in an Electrode Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    relation to their toxicity and antidotal activity against hydrocyanic acid . Archs. int. Pharmacodyn. 1962, 139, 99-108. 42. Evans, C. L., Cobalt...compounds as antidotes for hydrocyanic acid . Brit. J. Pharmac. Chemother. 1964, 23, 455-475. 43. Friedberg, K. D.; Shukla, U. R., The efficiency of...affected by cyanide,9, 19, 20 and there is recent evidence that the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is also toxic. ATCA is

  3. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure.

    PubMed

    Hargens, A R; Ballard, R E

    1995-10-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  4. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  5. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  6. Investigation of the physiological relationship between the cyanide-insensitive oxidase and cyanide production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zlosnik, James E A; Tavankar, Gholam Reza; Bundy, Jacob G; Mossialos, Dimitris; O'Toole, Ronan; Williams, Huw D

    2006-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which demonstrates considerable respiratory versatility, possessing up to five terminal oxidases. One oxidase, the cyanide-insensitive oxidase (CIO), has been previously shown to be resistant to the potent respiratory inhibitor cyanide, a toxin that is synthesized by this bacterium. This study investigated the physiological relationship between hydrogen cyanide production and the CIO. It was found that cyanide is produced in P. aeruginosa at similar levels irrespective of its complement of CIO, indicating that the CIO is not an obligatory electron sink for cyanide synthesis. However, MICs for cyanide and growth in its presence demonstrated that the CIO provides P. aeruginosa with protection against the effects of exogenous cyanide. Nevertheless, the presence of cyanide did not affect the viability of cio mutant strains compared to the wild-type during prolonged incubation in stationary phase. The detection of the fermentation end products acetate and succinate in stationary-phase culture supernatants suggests that P. aeruginosa, irrespective of its CIO complement, may in part rely upon fermentation for energy generation in stationary phase. Furthermore, the decrease in cyanide levels during incubation in sealed flasks suggested that active breakdown of HCN by the culture was taking place. To investigate the possibility that the CIO may play a role in pathogenicity, wild-type and cio mutant strains were tested in the paralytic killing model of Caenorhabditis elegans, a model in which cyanide is the principal toxic agent leading to nematode death. The CIO mutant had delayed killing kinetics, demonstrating that the CIO is required for full pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in this animal model.

  7. Health worker and policy-maker perspectives on use of intramuscular artesunate for pre-referral and definitive treatment of severe malaria at health posts in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kefyalew, Takele; Kebede, Zelalem; Getachew, Dawit; Mukanga, David; Awano, Tessema; Tekalegne, Agonafer; Batisso, Esey; Edossa, Wasihun; Mekonnen, Emebet; Tibenderana, James; Baba, Ebenezer Sheshi; Shumba, Constance; Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-10-18

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate. Although the current malaria treatment guidelines in Ethiopia recommend intra-rectal artesunate or alternatively intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine as pre-referral treatment for severe malaria at the health posts, there are currently no WHO prequalified suppliers of intra-rectal artesunate and when available, its use is limited to children under 6 years of age leaving a gap for the older age groups. Intramuscular artesunate is not part of the drugs recommended for pre-referral treatment in Ethiopia. This study assessed the perspectives of health workers, and policy-makers on the use of intramuscular artesunate as a pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at the health post level. In-depth interviews were held with 101 individuals including health workers, malaria focal persons, and Regional Health Bureaus from Oromia and southern nations, nationalities, and peoples' region, as well as participants from the Federal Ministry of Health and development partners. An interview guide was used in the data collection and thematic content analysis was employed for analysis. Key findings from this study are: (1) provision of intramuscular artesunate as pre-referral and definitive treatment for severe malaria at health posts could be lifesaving; (2) with adequate training, and provision of facilities including beds, health posts can provide definitive treatment for severe malaria using intramuscular artesunate where referral is

  8. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  9. Determination of free cyanide in water by released fluorescence of a dissociated ternary complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Q.; Ho, C.N.

    1988-07-01

    A fluorometric procedure for the analysis of free cyanide is described. The method is based on the dissociation of a ternary complex of silver-1, 10-phenanthroline-tetrabromofluorescein by cyanide to produce a fluorescent product. The fluorescence intensity is found to be directly proportional to the cyanide concentration. The method can reliably detect 0.02 ..mu..g/mL cyanide.

  10. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  11. Photocatalytic removal of cyanide with illuminated TiO(2).

    PubMed

    Siboni, M Shirzad; Samarghandi, M R; Yang, J-K; Lee, S-M

    2011-01-01

    Effects of TiO(2) dosage, pH and initial cyanide concentration on the removal efficiency of cyanide from aqueous solutions with illuminated TiO(2) have been investigated. Adsorption and oxidation were recognized as significant processes for the elimination of cyanide. From the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity was determined as 17.24 mg/g at pH 7. Adsorbed amount of cyanide slightly increased as the TiO(2) dosage increased. However, as no significant increase was observed above 1 g/L TiO(2), an optimum TiO(2) dosage was determined as 1 g/L. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. The photocatalytic oxidation efficiency after 120 min was 80.4% at pH 3 while it was only 20.4% at pH 11. Photocatalytic oxidation of cyanide was well described by the second-order kinetics. Photocatalytic reaction with illuminated TiO(2) can be effectively applied to treat industrial wastewater contaminated with cyanide.

  12. The mechanism of cyanide intoxication and its antagonism.

    PubMed

    Way, J L; Leung, P; Cannon, E; Morgan, R; Tamulinas, C; Leong-Way, J; Baxter, L; Nagi, A; Chui, C

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of cyanide intoxication has been attributed to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase, thereby decreasing the tissue utilization of oxygen. One mechanism of cyanide antagonism is by sequestering cyanide with methaemoglobin to form cyanmethaemoglobin and another mechanism is detoxifying with a sulphur donor to thiocyanate. Questions have been raised with regard to these classical mechanisms. Oxygen with nitrite-thiosulphate antagonizes the lethal effects of cyanide. Theoretically, increased oxygen should serve no useful purpose, as it is the tissue utilization of oxygen which is inhibited. In the nitrite-thiosulphate antidotal combination, the proposal is made that the predominate antidotal action of nitrite is a vasogenic action, rather than methaemoglobin formation, because when methaemoglobin formation is inhibited by methylene blue the protective action of sodium nitrite persists. This suggests that methaemoglobin formation plays only a small part, if any, in the therapeutic antagonism of the lethal effects of cyanide. The roles and implications of sodium thiosulphate and non-rhodanese substrates in the detoxification mechanism are compared. Lastly, a new approach to cyanide antagonism has been initiated which involves the erythrocyte encapsulation of thiosulphate and sulphurtransferase as an antidote and prophylaxis against cyanide.

  13. Cyanide-induced injury to the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Strubelt, O

    1988-11-01

    In order to study the events that follow cyanide-induced inhibition of oxidative metabolism and produce cellular injury, isolated, haemoglobin-free perfused rat livers from fasted rats were exposed to KCN (100 mg/l). KCN reduced the oxygen consumption of the livers by about 80%. Hepatotoxicity was evident by a marked release of enzymes (LDH, SDH) and of glutathione (mainly GSSG) into the perfusate, by a depletion of hepatic glutathione and by an accumulation of calcium in the liver. Cyanide-induced hepatotoxicity could be prevented completely by feeding the rats before preparing the liver as well as by addition of fructose to the perfusate of fasted livers. Both treatments resulted in an increased energy supply from anaerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a large release of lactate + pyruvate into the perfusate. The toxic actions of cyanide were markedly attenuated by deferrioxamine as well as by allopurinol. These antitoxic actions occurred without changes in anaerobic glycolysis. Omission of calcium from the perfusate, however, did not influence cyanide toxicity. Thus, energy supply from anaerobic glycolysis seems to be sufficient for the basic functions of the liver to occur, when oxidative metabolism is inhibited by cyanide. The effects of deferrioxamine and allopurinol indicate the involvement of radical intermediates and/or Fe2+ in cyanide-induced cellular toxicity. An influx of calcium from the extracellular to the intracellular space is not involved in cyanide-induced hepatocellular injury.

  14. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of cyanide in water.

    PubMed

    Costarramone, N; Kneip, A; Castetbon, A

    2004-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test removal of cyanide (free cyanide and several cyanide complexes) in water, under alkaline medium (pH > or = 11), by a new potassium ferrate salt. The removal rate of free cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was greater at pH 11.0 than at pH 12.0. A complete oxidation was obtained with a 2.67 Fe(VI)/CN ratio at pH 11.0. In these conditions, the rate of cyanide oxidation by Fe(VI) was slow, with a reaction rate constant estimated at 0.95 +/- 0.10 s(-1) l mol(-1) at pH 11.0 and 19.6 degrees C in this study. This study revealed that Fe(VI) did not decompose all cyanide complexes. Copper, cadmium and zinc complexes were removed efficiently by Fe(VI). Moreover, these metals were also removed from the solution by coagulation effect of Fe(OH)3, the Fe(VI) product of reaction. A particular behaviour was reported with copper, as a rapid oxidation of cyanide was observed in the presence of this metal. On the contrary, oxidation of nickel and silver complexes was incomplete.

  15. Enrichment of copper and recycling of cyanide from copper-cyanide waste by solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Teng-yue; Liu, Kui-ren; Han, Qing; Xu, Bin-shi

    2016-11-01

    The enrichment of copper from copper-cyanide wastewater by solvent extraction was investigated using a quaternary ammonium salt as an extractant. The influences of important parameters, e.g., organic-phase components, aqueous pH values, temperature, inorganic anion impurities, CN/Cu molar ratio, and stripping reagents, were examined systematically, and the optimal conditions were determined. The results indicated that copper was effectively concentrated from low-concentration solutions using Aliquat 336 and that the extraction efficiency increased linearly with increasing temperature. The aqueous pH value and concentrations of inorganic anion impurities only weakly affected the extraction process when varied in appropriate ranges. The CN/Cu molar ratio affected the extraction efficiency by changing the distribution of copper-cyanide complexes. The difference in gold leaching efficiency between using raffinate and fresh water was negligible.

  16. Isotopic Fingerprints of Iron-Cyanide Complexes in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Mansfeldt, Tim; Höhener, Patrick

    2016-07-19

    Tracing the origin of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is important because these compounds are potentially toxic. We determined the stable isotopic compositions of cyanide-carbon (CCN) and cyanide-nitrogen (NCN) in 127 contaminated solids and 11 samples of contaminated groundwater from coal carbonization sites, blast furnace operations, and commercial cyanide applications. Coal-carbonization-related cyanides had unique high mean δ(13)CCN values of -10.5 ± 3.5‰ for the solids and -16.1 ± 1.2‰ for the groundwater samples, while the values for blast furnace sludge (-26.9 ± 1.5‰), commercial cyanides (-26.0 ± 3.0‰), and their corresponding groundwaters were significantly lower. Determination of δ(13)CCN is a promising tool for identifying the source of cyanide contamination. However, for coal carbonization sites, historical research into the manufacturing process is necessary because a nonconventional gas works site exhibited exceptionally low δ(13)CCN values of -22.7 ± 1.7‰. The δ(15)NCN values for samples related to coal carbonization and blast furnaces overlapped within a range of +0.1 to +10.3‰, but very high δ(15)NCN values seemed to be indicative for a cyanide source in the blast furnace. In contrast, commercial cyanides tend to have lower δ(15)NCN values of -5.6 to +1.9‰ in solids and -0.5 to +3.0‰ in the groundwater.

  17. Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Zelder, Felix H.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Diaquacobinamide (H2O)2Cbi2+ or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H2O)Cbi+)) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H2O)Cbi+ is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H2O)Cbi+ should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H2O)Cbi+ is virtually the same as that of OH(H2O)Cbi+. It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H2O)Cbi+, (CN)2Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H2O)Cbi+. This understanding implies that CN(H2O)Cbi+ will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic - charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 μM, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h−1. The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds. PMID:22769008

  18. Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Zelder, Felix H; Boss, Gerry R

    2012-07-29

    Diaquacobinamide (H(2)O)(2)Cbi(2+) or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+))) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+) is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) is virtually the same as that of OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+). It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+), (CN)(2)Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+). This understanding implies that CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic-charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 μM, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h(-1). The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds.

  19. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duricki, Denise A.; Hutson, Thomas H.; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Shine, H. David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C.; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C. R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. PMID:26614754

  20. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  1. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  2. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-12-31

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.

  3. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  4. Weeding the Astrophysical Garden: Ethyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, F. C.; Fortman, S. M.; Medvedev, I. R.; Neese, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that many, if not most, of the unidentified features in astrophysical spectra arise from relatively low lying excited vibrational and torsional states of a relatively small number of molecular species— the astrophysical weeds. It is also well known that the traditional quantum mechanical assignment and fitting of these excited state spectra is a formidable task, one that is made harder by the expected perturbations and interactions among these states. We have previously proposed an alternative fitting and analysis approach based on experimental, intensity calibrated spectra taken at many temperatures. In this paper we discuss the implementation of this approach and provide details in the context of one of these weeds, ethyl cyanide.

  5. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  6. Cyanide Soap? Dissolved material in Titan's Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Neish, C. D.

    2011-10-01

    Although it is evident that Titan's lakes and seas are dominated by ethane, methane, nitrogen, and (in some models) propane, there is divergence on the predicted relative abundance of minor constituents such as nitriles and C-4 alkanes. Nitriles such as hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile, which have a significant dipole moment, may have a disproportionate influence on the dielectric properties of Titan seas and may act to solvate polar molecules such as water ice. The hypothesis is offered that such salvation may act to enhance the otherwise negligible solubility of water ice bedrock in liquid hydrocarbons. Such enhanced solubility may permit solution erosion as a formation mechanism for the widespread pits and apparently karstic lakes on Titan. Prospects for testing this hypothesis in the laboratory, and with measurements on Titan, will be discussed.

  7. Gold sulfide replacements of cyanide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Worobey, W.; Norwood, D.; Rieger, D.

    1991-01-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories we have introduced a non-cyanide gold electroplating solution in the Solid State Circuit Processing Lab. This commercially available solution is based on gold sulfite salts. An evaluation of the plating bath and the deposited gold for use in microelectronic circuit fabrication was conducted. The tests included selective plating compatability, wire bonding, soldering, gold resistivity, adherence, and step coverage. The results were all favorable. Precision gold patterns with line widths as small as 2{mu}m and gold thickness over 4{mu}m were selectively plated using a positive photoresist as a plating mask. Also the gold sulfite solution was used to fabricate gold air bridge crossovers for GaAs circuits. The introduction of the non-hazardous sulfite solution for plating high purity gold films will lead to manufacturing processes which are safer to work with and less damaging to the environment.

  8. Ebola Vaccination Using a DNA Vaccine Coated on PLGA-PLL/γPGA Nanoparticles Administered Using a Microneedle Patch.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hung-Wei; Ye, Ling; Guo, Xin Dong; Yang, Chinglai; Compans, Richard W; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    Ebola DNA vaccine is incorporated into PLGA-PLL/γPGA nanoparticles and administered to skin using a microneedle (MN) patch. The nanoparticle delivery system increases vaccine thermostability and immunogenicity compared to free vaccine. Vaccination by MN patch produces stronger immune responses than intramuscular administration. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  10. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  11. Biodetoxification of silver-cyanide from electroplating industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Patil, Y B; Paknikar, K M

    2000-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of utilizing metal-cyanides as a source of nitrogen was used to develop a microbiological process for the detoxification of silver-cyanide from electroplating wastewater. When the treatment was carried out in a 27-l rotating biological contactor (R3C) in continuous mode, the system could achieve > 99.5% removal of 0.1 mmol l(-1) silver-cyanide (approximately 5 mg l(-1) cyanide and 10 mg l(-1) silver) in 10 h with sugarcane molasses (0.1 ml l(-1)) as carbon source. The silver ions set free during biodegradation were efficiently adsorbed by the bacterial biomass. The RBC-treated effluent was found to be safe for discharge into the environment, as confirmed by chemical analysis and fish bioassay studies.

  12. Cyanide Suicide After Deep Web Shopping: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Le Garff, Erwan; Delannoy, Yann; Mesli, Vadim; Allorge, Delphine; Hédouin, Valéry; Tournel, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Cyanide is a product that is known for its use in industrial or laboratory processes, as well as for intentional intoxication. The toxicity of cyanide is well described in humans with rapid inhibition of cellular aerobic metabolism after ingestion or inhalation, leading to severe clinical effects that are frequently lethal. We report the case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after self-poisoning with cyanide ordered in the deep Web. This case shows a probable complex suicide kit use including cyanide, as a lethal tool, and dextromethorphan, as a sedative and anxiolytic substance. This case is an original example of the emerging deep Web shopping in illegal drug procurement.

  13. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  14. Management of cyanide toxicity in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Louise; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-02-01

    The importance of cyanide toxicity as a component of inhalational injury in patients with burns is increasingly being recognised, and its prompt recognition and management is vital for optimising burns survival. The evidence base for the use of cyanide antidotes is limited by a lack of randomised controlled trials in humans, and in addition consideration must be given to the concomitant pathophysiological processes in patients with burns when interpreting the literature. We present a literature review of the evidence base for cyanide antidotes with interpretation in the context of patients with burns. We conclude that hydroxycobalamin should be utilised as the first-line antidote of choice in patients with burns with inhalational injury where features consistent with cyanide toxicity are present.

  15. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  16. Cyanide poisoning, 2 cases report and treatment review.

    PubMed

    Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Wananukul, V; Suwanjutha, S

    1999-11-01

    Two patients, a 4-year-old girl and her brother 1 1/2 year-old, with cyanide poisoning are reported. They vomited and became comatose 9 hours after ingestion of boiled cassava. At a community hospital, they were intubated and given ventilatory support. The girl was transferred to Ramathibodi Intensive Care Unit. At 19 hours after ingestion, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate were given as well as other supportive treatment. She recovered with normal breathing on the next day. The boy was referred to Ramathibodi 4 hours later. On arrival, he appeared normal except for the bitter almond breathe. Only supportive treatment was given. Their blood cyanide levels on arrival were 0.56 and 0.32 microgram/ml (normal value < 0.3 microgram/ml) respectively confirming the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning. Other abnormal laboratory findings included metabolic acidosis and lactic acidemia. The pathogenesis and management of cyanide poisoning are reviewed.

  17. Aquatic ecological risks due to cyanide releases from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Timothy R; Lutes, Christopher C; Doorn, Michiel R J; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Timmenga, Hubert J; Crouch, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity due to the creation and mobilization of chemical constituents by fire has been little studied, despite reports of post-fire fish kills attributed to unspecified pyrogenic toxicants. We examined releases of cyanides from biomass burning and their effect on surface runoff water. In laboratory test burns, available cyanide concentrations in leachate from residual ash were much higher than in leachate from partially burned and unburned fuel and were similar to or higher than the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for rainbow trout (45 microg/l). Free cyanide concentrations in stormwater runoff collected after a wildfire in North Carolina averaged 49 microg/l, again similar to the rainbow trout LC50 and an order of magnitude higher than in samples from an adjacent unburned area. Pyrogenic cyanide inputs, together with other fire-related stressors, may contribute to post-fire fish mortalities, particularly those affecting salmonids.

  18. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

    2009-09-01

    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  19. In vivo screening of candidate pretreatment compounds against cyanide using mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, R.C.; Olson, C.T.; Menton, R.G.; Hobson, D.W.; Moore, D.M.

    1993-05-13

    An in vivo screening procedure was established at Battelle's Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) to evaluate the efficacy of candidate pretreatment compounds in mice challenged with the blood agent, sodium cyanide (NaCN). Male albino mice of ICR outbred stock weighing between 22.5 and 27.5 g are challenged by intramuscular (i.m.) injection, at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg, of a dose of NaCN twice the LD50 of untreated mice as determined on that day of testing. Candidate drugs are tested at fractions of their LD50 or their limit of solubility in the most optimum vehicle and given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to separate groups of mice at either 60 or 15 min prior to NaCN challenge. Sodium thiosulfate (1000 mg/kg)/sodium nitrite (100 mg/kg) controls are injected i.p. only at 60 min prior to challenge. A test compound is deemed effective if, at any of three concentrations tested, or at either pretreatment time, it is statistically more efficacious in preventing lethality than is a negative control substance (candidate compound vehicle).

  20. Leg intramuscular pressures during locomotion in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Murthy, G.; Holley, D. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of 10 volunteers during treadmill walking and running by using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking [181 +/- 69 (SE) mmHg] and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer produced linear relationships (n = 2, r = 0.97 for both). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-1.65 N . m/kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 N . m/kg during running. Phasic elevations of IMP during exercise are probably generated by local muscle tissue deformations due to muscle force development. Thus profiles of IMP provide a direct, reproducible index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  1. Intramuscular Pressure Measurement During Locomotion in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Ricard E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of ten volunteers during, treadmill walking, and running using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking (181 +/- 69 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.) and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer in two subjects produced linear relationships (r = 0.97). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-165 Nm/Kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 Nm/Kg during running. IMP results from local muscle tissue deformations caused by muscle force development and thus, provides a direct, practical index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  2. Leg intramuscular pressures during locomotion in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Murthy, G.; Holley, D. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of 10 volunteers during treadmill walking and running by using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking [181 +/- 69 (SE) mmHg] and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer produced linear relationships (n = 2, r = 0.97 for both). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-1.65 N . m/kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 N . m/kg during running. Phasic elevations of IMP during exercise are probably generated by local muscle tissue deformations due to muscle force development. Thus profiles of IMP provide a direct, reproducible index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  3. Aggressive intramuscular hemangiomas in the upper extremity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Hu; Shen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Intramuscular hemangioma (IMH) is a rare congenital soft tissue tumor. Here, we report a case of IMH patient who had undergone several surgeries and other treatments that were all ineffective before he visited us. Clinical Findings: This IMH patient was a 16-yearold male who was born with a tumor of unknown size in his right hand and forearm. On physical examination, the tumor and skin flap complex was seen with a size of 14 cm_12 cm in his right hand, and the multiple postoperative scars were shown on his right hand and forearm. The patient was not able to raise his right shoulder, and the ranges of motion of his right elbow, wrist, and finger were almost zero degrees. Interventions: Considering that the tumor had been surgically excised for several times and the multiple recurrences had affected adversely his daily life, an amputation of his right hand, forearm, and the part of his right arm was performed. Diagnoses: The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of IMH. Outcomes: After the amputation surgery, the patient gained a functional recovery and the tumor did not recur during the 2 years after the surgery. Conclusion: A treatment of choice should be personalized according to an IMH patient's overall situation. For an IMH patient like our case with a history of multiple tumor recurrences, we suggest that an amputation surgery should be performed as early as possible to avoid the repeated, but ineffective surgical excisions and the unnecessary sufferings. PMID:28099360

  4. [Intramuscular hemangioma of the forearm: seven cases].

    PubMed

    Fnini, S; Messoudi, A; Benjeddi, Y; Elandaloussi, Y; Hassoun, J; Garche, A; Ouarab, M; Largab, A

    2013-06-01

    The authors reexamined the files of seven patients dealt with for intramuscular hemangioma of forearm. It concerns five women and two men, between 16 and 39 years old. The average time of consultation was 13 months. The clinical signs were dominated by the development of a generally painless soft mass over the anterior compartment of the forearm and/or the elbow. Two patients presented nervous lesions signs of the ulnar or median nerves. The feeder pedicle was the ulnar artery in five cases and radial artery in two cases. The excision was incomplete in two cases because of the invasion of the ulnar nerve by the hemangioma. With four years average follow-up, the five patients having undergone a complete excision do not present a recurrence and the hand function is excellent. The authors insist on the interest of a preoperative diagnosis with the IRM, which permits to envisage surgical difficulties due to the proximity of vascular and nervous pedicles.

  5. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Intramuscular haemangioma of the levator anguli oris: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Koltsidopoulos, P; Tsea, M; Kafki, S; Skoulakis, C

    2013-10-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign malformations of blood vessels occurring in skeletal muscles. Because of the rarity of these lesions, their deep location and variable clinical presentation, they often pose diagnostic difficulties. We herein present the first reported case of intramuscular haemangioma occurring in the levator anguli oris muscle. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Department for evaluation and management of a progressive swelling of the right cheek. Based mainly on the imaging findings, a preoperative diagnosis of intramuscular haemangioma was made and surgery was performed. During intervention, a highly vascular soft tissue mass was identified within the levator anguli oris muscle. The lesion was completely removed via an intraoral approach, and histopathological examination showed an intramuscular haemangioma.

  7. Is Hydrogen Cyanide a Marker of Burkholderia cepacia Complex?

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Hayley; Alcock, Alice; Jones, Andrew M.; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J.; Smith, David; Španĕl, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm cultures of Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) infection have been found to generate the nonvolatile cyanide ion. We investigated if gaseous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was a marker of BCC infection. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry analysis showed HCN was not elevated in the headspace of planktonic or biofilm cultures or in the exhaled breath of adult cystic fibrosis patients with chronic BCC infection. HCN is therefore not an in vitro or in vivo marker of BCC. PMID:23966502

  8. A mass cyanide poisoning from pickling bamboo shoots.

    PubMed

    Sang-A-Gad, Pensiriwan; Guharat, Suriya; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-11-01

    Bamboo shoots contain cyanogenic glycosides named taxiphyllin. Cyanide poisoning from cyanogenic glycosides commonly occurs following ingestion. However, toxicity caused by inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) produced from pickled shoots has never been reported. To describe cyanide poisoning in eight victims who were exposed to HCN produced in a well containing pickling bamboo shoots. Due to a series of botched rescue attempts, a total of eight patients entered into a 27 m(3) well containing pickled bamboo shoots and immediately lost consciousness. After rescue, two patients developed cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis and died. Four other patients suffered metabolic acidosis, but recovered after supportive care. The remaining two regained consciousness and recovered soon after the event. Ambient air study and cyanide content of bamboo shoots helped confirm the diagnosis. All patients had high anion gap metabolic acidosis with normal oxygenation. Blood cyanide levels ranged from 2.66 to 3.30 mcg/ml (taken after about 18 h of incident). Ambient air study (21 h after incident) revealed oxygen 20.9%, and sulfur dioxide 19.4 ppm. The instrument was unfortunately not equipped to detect HCN. A simulation study revealed HCN and sulfur dioxide in the ambient air at 10 ppm and 7.5 ppm, respectively. Cyanide content in the bamboo shoots ranged from 39 to 434 mg/kg in the wet shoots. This series of patients developed sudden onset of alteration of consciousness and metabolic acidosis upon exposure, and cyanide was confirmed in all victims. The simulation study confirmed the presence of HCN in the ambient air of the well containing bamboo shoots. We have reported mass acute cyanide poisoning with two fatalities. The source of HCN was unusual as it was produced from pickling bamboo shoot.

  9. Sulfurtransferases and cyanide detoxification in mouse liver, kidney, and brain.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, M; Jurkowska, H; Sliwa, L; Srebro, Z

    2004-01-01

    The activity of rhodanese, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) and cystathionase in mouse liver, kidney, and four brain regions: tele-, meso-, di- and rhombencephalon was studied 30 min and 2 h following a sublethal dose of cyanide (4 mg/ kg body weight) intraperitoneal injection. Simultaneously, sulfane sulfur levels and total sulfur content, a direct or indirect source of sulfur for CN(-) conversion to SCN(-), were also investigated in these tissues. In the liver this dose of cyanide seemed to impair the process of cyanide detoxification by MPST, as well as rhodanese inhibition. The effects of cyanide administration to mice proved to be totally different in the liver and kidney. In the kidney, a significant increase in the rhodanese activity was observed as early as 30 min following cyanide intoxication, and an elevated cystathionase activity after 2 h was detected. This suggests the involvement of cystathionase in cyanide detoxification in the kidney. The activity of MPST remained at the same level as in the control group. In the rhombencephalon, similarly as in the kidney, L-cysteine desulfuration pathways, which generate sulfane sulfur and sulfurtransferases that transfer sulfane sulfur atoms to CN(-), seemed to play an important role as a defense system against cyanide. The stable level of sulfane sulfur and total sulfur content was accompanied in the rhombencephalon by an increased activity of MPST, cystathionase and rhodanese. In other brain regions the role of these three sulfurtransferases was not so clear and it seemed that in the telencephalon, where the total sulfur content, but not the sulfane sulfur level, was significantly increased, some sulfur-containing compounds, such as GSH and/or cysteine, appeared in response to cyanide.

  10. Intramuscular ketorolac versus oral ibuprofen for pain relief in first-trimester surgical abortion: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Kari P; Hurwitz, Shelley; Fortin, Jennifer; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2014-02-01

    Oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce pain with first-trimester surgical abortion compared to placebo, but it is unclear if one NSAID is better than another. Some providers administer intramuscular ketorolac, though data regarding its efficacy in abortion are limited. This study was designed to compare oral ibuprofen to intramuscular ketorolac for pain management during first-trimester surgical abortion. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion with local anesthesia were randomized to preprocedural oral ibuprofen, 800 mg given 60-90 min preprocedure, or intramuscular ketorolac, 60 mg given 30-60 min preprocedure. The primary outcome was pain with uterine aspiration on a 21-point, 0-100, numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes included pain with cervical dilation, postoperative pain and patient satisfaction. Ninety-four women were enrolled; 47 were randomized to ibuprofen and 47 to ketorolac. The groups did not differ with regards to demographics, reproductive history or Depression Anxiety Stress Scale scores. Mean pain scores for suction curettage did not differ between groups (52.3 vs. 56.2, p=.53). There was also no difference in pain with cervical dilation (41.6 vs. 45.4, p=0.48) or postoperative pain (22.3 vs. 15.0 p=.076), though patients in the ketorolac group experienced significantly greater arm pain than those who received a placebo injection (30.4 vs. 15.6, p<.001). Satisfaction with pain control did not differ significantly by group. Intramuscular ketorolac does not offer superior pain control compared to oral ibuprofen for first-trimester surgical abortion. Intramuscular ketorolac does not offer superior pain control over oral ibuprofen during first-trimester surgical abortion, is more expensive and causes patients significant arm discomfort. Its use should therefore be reserved for patients who cannot tolerate oral NSAIDs. © 2014.

  11. Biological Treatment of Cyanide by Using
Klebsiella pneumoniae Species

    PubMed Central

    Bilkay, Isil Seyis

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, optimization conditions for cyanide biodegradation by Klebsiella pneumoniae strain were determined to be 25 °C, pH=7 and 150 rpm at the concentration of 0.5 mM potassium cyanide in the medium. Additionally, it was found that K. pneumoniae strain is not only able to degrade potassium cyanide, but also to degrade potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate and sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate with the efficiencies of 85 and 87.5%, respectively. Furthermore, this strain degraded potassium cyanide in the presence of different ions such as magnesium, nickel, cobalt, iron, chromium, arsenic and zinc, in variable concentrations (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mM) and as a result the amount of the bacteria in the biodegradation media decreased with the increase of ion concentration. Lastly, it was also observed that sterile crude extract of K. pneumoniae strain degraded potassium cyanide on the fifth day of incubation. Based on these results, it is concluded that both culture and sterile crude extract of K. pnemoniae will be used in cyanide removal from different wastes. PMID:28115902

  12. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in Willow trees.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed S; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to < 20% of the initial transpiration within 96 h. Accumulation of cyanide in plant tissue was observed at 40 and 50 mg/L. The kinetics of metabolism of cyanide by roots, stems and leaves of willows was determined by the closed-bottle metabolism test. The Michaelis-Menten parameters v(max) and K(M)(maximal metabolic velocity and half-saturation constant, respectively) were determined by nonlinear regression. Estimates of uptake and metabolism were balanced using a nonlinear mathematical model. The model predicted that at low doses (<10 mg/L), the cyanide would be rapidly metabolized. At higher doses, uptake would be faster than metabolism and consequently cyanide would accumulate in the plant tissue. This relation between external dose and internal accumulation is nonlinear and explains the toxic effects observed.

  14. Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-07-01

    An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

  15. Proteomic analysis of the effect of cyanide on Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Tang, Petrus; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chou, Hui-Hsuan; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2010-03-01

    Cyanide has been proved to be degraded by Klebsiella oxytoca. In order to examine the physiological responses of cyanide degradation by this bacterium, two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis approach and MALDI-TOF-MS allow us to identify 106 proteins spots that were significantly altered in the presence of 1 mM cyanide in relative to that in 1 mM ammonia when K. oxytoca grown at the late-log phase. Among them, 27 proteins were successfully identified. These proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, amino acid metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, oxidation-reduction reactions, transporters, and miscellaneous function. Some proteins related with regulation of nitrogen assimilation pathways (glutamine synthetase), oxidative stress repairing (catalase), and protection (neutral trehalase and glycosyltransferase) could improve the effectiveness of cyanide biodegradation. Although the nitrogenase was suggested to participate in cyanide degradation in our previous study, this enzyme induction was not observed as expected. These findings could provide new insights into the inducible mechanisms underlying the capacity of K. oxytoca to tolerate cyanide stress.

  16. Cyanide intoxication induced exocytotic epinephrine release in rabbit myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kawada, T; Yamazaki, T; Akiyama, T; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Inagaki, M; Tatewaki, T; Yanagiya, Y; Sugimachi, M; Sunagawa, K

    2000-05-12

    Cyanide intoxication, which has been used as a model of energy depletion at cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, causes non-exocytotic release of norepinephrine (NE). However, the effect of cyanide intoxication on cardiac epinephrine (Epi) release remains unknown. Using cardiac microdialysis in the rabbit, we measured dialysate Epi and NE concentrations as indices of myocardial interstitial Epi and NE levels, respectively. Local administration of sodium cyanide (30 mM) through the dialysis probe increased both Epi and NE levels (from 11.3+/-2.3 to 32.3+/-4.4 pg/ml and from 33.6+/-6.1 to 389.0+/-71.8 pg/ml, respectively, mean+/-S.E., P<0.01). Local desipramine (100 microM) administration suppressed the cyanide induced NE response without affecting the Epi response. In contrast, local omega-conotoxin GVIA (10 microM) administration partially suppressed the cyanide induced NE response and totally abolished the Epi response. In conclusion, cyanide intoxication causes N-type Ca(2+) channel dependent exocytotic Epi release as well as inducing N-type Ca(2+) channel independent non-exocytotic NE release.

  17. Cyanide: an unreported cause of neurological complications following smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Baud, Frédéric; Boukobza, Monique; Borron, Stephen W

    2011-10-28

    Although the combustion of natural and synthetic products can yield cyanide, its toxic role in residential fires is unclear. This case concerns a woman aged over 50 years who presented comatose, pulseless and apnoeic after a domestic fire. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation and on-site administration of 2.5 g hydroxocobalamin as an antidote to cyanide resulted in a return of spontaneous circulation. On admission to the intensive care unit, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen for suspected carbon monoxide poisoning. In a blood specimen collected at the scene before hydroxocobalamin administration, blood cyanide and carbon monoxide levels were 68 µmol/l and 10.9%. On admission to hospital, plasma lactate was at 4.6 mmol/l. Brain scans revealed lesions which were confirmed 2 months later, consistent with the haemorrhagic necrosis often seen after poisoning by cyanide. These data suggest that smoke inhalation in a residential fire may cause cyanide poisoning. This case provides clinical, biological, analytical and brain imaging data supporting the hypothesis of the toxic role of smoke-induced cyanide poisoning which may result in neurological sequelae.

  18. Bioavailability of oral and intramuscular molindone hydrochloride in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Zetin, M; Cramer, M; Garber, D; Plon, L; Paulshock, M; Hoffman, H E; Schary, W L

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the bioequivalence of intramuscular molindone hydrochloride and marketed oral molindone. Ten schizophrenic patients (mean age, 30.2 years) received oral molindone in single daily doses of 100 or 150 mg for four to eight days followed by intramuscular molindone in single daily doses of 50 or 75 mg for four days. On the last day each molindone formulation was given, plasma samples were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The pharmacokinetic measures of area under the curve and maximum concentration show that intramuscular molindone is 1.49 to 1.67 times more bioavailable than oral molindone. This finding indicates that once a patient's acute psychotic episode has been stabilized with intramuscular molindone, therapy can continue without interruption by substituting 1.5 mg of oral molindone for every 1 mg of intramuscular molindone. The time to maximum concentration occurred significantly earlier (P = 0.05) with intramuscular molindone (0.6 hours) than with oral molindone (1.1 hours). Elimination half-life values were approximately two hours for both formulations.

  19. A review of rapid and field-portable analytical techniques for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Logue, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Another relatively common, but consistently overlooked, mode of cyanide exposure is inhalation of fire smoke. Both civilians and fire rescue personnel risk exposure during the unfortunate event of a structure fire. Additionally, fire rescue personnel risk long-term effects of habitual exposure throughout their careers in fire rescue. The relatively rapid onset of cyanide toxicity and the fact that cyanide exposure symptoms mimic other medical conditions necessitate a rapid, sensitive, portable, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure. This review focuses on the important issues concerning accurate point-of-care diagnosis of cyanide exposure and cyanide detection technologies that may allow a commercial cyanide exposure diagnostic to become a reality.

  20. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Nath, Anjali K; Roberts, Lee D; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L; Boss, Gerry R; Rockwood, Gary A; MacRae, Calum A; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.

  1. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, L; Johnsen, A H; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide and carbon monoxide, which are often found in fire victims, are toxic gases emitted from fires. Cyanide and carbon monoxide have similar molecular structure. Cyanide binds to the enzyme cytochrome oxidase a, a3 similar to carbon monoxide, thus blocking the mitochondrial respiration chain causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive mechanism forcing cyanide out of cellular tissues. A rat model was developed to study this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a fentanyl + fluanizone combination and midazolam given subcutaneously (s.c.). Rats were poisoned with 5.4 mg/kg KCN injected intra-peritoneally in Group 1 and intra-arterially in Group 2. Blood samples were taken immediately after poisoning, and at one and a half, three and five hours. Blood was drawn from a jugular vein in Group 1 and from a femoral artery in Group 2. Group 1 rats were divided into a control group of 12 rats without HBO2, 10 rats had acute HBO2 immediately after poisoning and a group of 10 rats had HBO2 one and a half hours after poisoning. Group 2 rats were divided into a control group and an acute HBO2 group, with 10 rats in both groups. Whole-blood-cyanide concentrations were measured using the Conway method based on diffusion and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly less as compared to controls and acute HBO2-treated rats. Group 2 controls whole-blood-cyanide concentration decreased towards zero throughout the observation period. However

  2. Toxicity of Carbon Monoxide-Hydrogen Cyanide Gas Mixtures: Expose Concentration, Time-to-Incapacitation, Carboxyhemoglobin, and Blood Cyanide Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    demonstrated that these gases have additive effects (producing shorter times to incapacitation), but the resulting concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin ( COHb ...Incapacitation (Q1 , Carboxyhemoglobin ( COHb ), and Blood Cyanide (CN*) Values for Rats Exposed to Two Carbon Monoxide (CO)-Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Gas Mixtures...Inc., Evanston, IL. 9 APPENDIX TIME-TO-INCAPACITATION (ti) VALUES AND CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN ( COHb ) AND BLOOD (CN) LEVELS AT INCAPACITATION FOR RATS

  3. The respiratory responses to cyanide of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca bacterial strain.

    PubMed

    Chena, S C; Liu, J K

    1999-06-01

    The respiratory system of a cyanide-resistant Klebsiella oxytoca was analyzed by monitoring the changes in the cytochrome contents in response to various inhibitors in the presence of various concentrations of cyanide. The cells grown in the medium without cyanide (KCN) have two terminal oxidases, cytochrome d (Ki = 10(-5) M KCN) and o (Ki = 10(-3) M KCN). When cells were grown on medium with 1 mM KCN, the expression of both b-type cytochrome and cytochrome d in the plasma membranes of the cell decreased by more than 50%, while cytochrome o increased by 70%, as compared with the cells grown in the absence of KCN. Two terminal oxidases with Ki values of about 10(-3) M and 1.7 x 10(-2) M KCN were observed in the plasma membrane fractions of the cells growing on KCN enriched medium. 2-n-Heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide markedly inhibited the oxidation of NADH by the plasma membranes from the cells grown in the medium without KCN, but not in those plasma membranes from KCN-grown cells. The NADH oxidases in plasma membranes of K. oxytoca grown with and without KCN were equally sensitive to UV irradiation. Adding freshly isolated quinone to the UV-damaged plasma membranes restored the NADH oxidase activity from both types of plasma membranes. From these results, we propose the presence of a non-heme type of terminal oxidase to account for the KCN resistance in K. oxytoca.

  4. Can Preoperative Intramuscular Single-Dose Dexamethasone Improve Patient-Centered Outcomes Following Third Molar Surgery?

    PubMed

    Al-Dajani, Mahmoud

    2017-08-01

    Because of increased attention focused on administering dexamethasone to treat third molar surgical complications, this study investigated the efficacy of single-dose dexamethasone in managing postoperative complications after impacted third molar surgery. Pain intensity and analgesic intake, patients' discomfort, limitation of oral function, and limitation of daily activities were assessed. This triple-blinded split-mouth randomized controlled clinical trial included patients 18 to 30 years old who underwent randomized bilateral extractions of impacted mandibular third molars during 2 consecutive sessions. Each patient was given a single-dose intramuscular injection of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) preoperatively in 1 session and a placebo in the other session. Data were collected daily for 7 postoperative days, and 14 patient-centered outcomes were interpreted. A 2-tailed P value less than .05 was considered significant. All 32 patients (100%) enrolled completed the study. When administered dexamethasone, patients reported less pain (P ≤ .007), took fewer analgesics (P ≤ .002), reported less swelling (P ≤ .007), had less difficulty in eating (P ≤ .024), had less difficulty in enjoying food (P ≤ .005), had less difficulty in speech (P = .043), had less trismus (P = .005), were absent less from school or work (P ≤ .016), and had less disruption of daily activity (P ≤ .042). The differences between the 2 conditions in bleeding, malaise, and sleep disturbance were not significant (P > .05). Prophylactic dexamethasone administered intramuscularly before third molar surgery should be recommended as a safe and effective strategy for decreasing pain and discomfort and enhancing oral functions and daily activities, unless contraindicated. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Some pharmacokinetic parameters of ampicillin/sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to goats.

    PubMed

    Espuny, A; Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1996-12-01

    Some pharmacokinetic parameters of an ampicillin/sulbactam (2:1) combination were studied in six goats, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open two-compartment model. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.34 +/- 0.04 l/kg and 0.45 +/- 0.15 l/kg, respectively, and the total body clearances were 0.72 +/- 0.11 and 0.38 +/- 0.07 l/kg.h. The half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32 +/- 0.04 h and 0.71 +/- 0.14 h, respectively. For sulbactam the half-lives were 0.79 +/- 0.18 h and 1.13 +/- 0.21 h after administration by the same routes. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar for both drugs (98.29% for ampicillin and 101.84% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma levels of ampicillin (0.43 +/- 0.27 h) and sulbactam (0.34 +/- 0.14 h) were reached at a similar time, and peak concentrations were also similar and non-proportional to the dose of the products administered (11.02 +/- 3.11 mg/l of ampicillin and 9.5 +/- 0.98 mg/l of sulbactam).

  6. Ecotoxicity of cyanide complexes in industrially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Manar, Rachid; Bonnard, Marc; Rast, Claudine; Veber, Anne-Marie; Vasseur, Paule

    2011-12-15

    This study deals with acute and chronic ecotoxicity of leachates from industrially contaminated soils. Analyses focused on cyanides (complex and free forms) to study their possible involvement in leachates toxicity. No acute toxicity on the Microtox and 48 h-Daphnia magna tests was found in leachates collected over 18 months, but a high chronic toxicity was recorded on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50-7d=0.31±0.07%) and on the algal growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (EC50-72 h=0.27±0.09%). Ceriodaphnids were as sensitive to free cyanide as to complex forms (EC50-7d as CN(-)=98 μg/L, 194 μg/L and 216 μg/L for KCN, Fe(CN)(6)K(3) and Fe(CN)(6)K(4), respectively). The EC50-72 h of KCN to P. subcapitata (116 μg/L) as CN(-) was also of the same level as the EC50-72 h of potassium ferricyanide (127 μg/L) and ferrocyanide (267 μg/L). Complex cyanides explained a major part of the toxicity of leachates of the soil. On the other hand, cyanide complexes had no effect on survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida up to 131 mg CN(-)/kg, while potassium cyanide was highly toxic [EC50-14 d as CN(-)=74 μg/kg soil]. Thermodesorption treatment eliminated a majority of cyanides from the soil and generated much less toxic leachates. Complex cyanides must be integrated into environmental studies to assess the impact of multi-contaminated soils.

  7. Application of immobilized cells to the treatment of cyanide wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Chien, H Y; Lin, C E

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic to living organisms, particularly in inactivating the respiration system by tightly binding to terminal oxidase. To protect the environment and water bodies, wastewater containing cyanide must be treated before discharging into the environment. Biological treatment is a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for cyanide removal compared with the other techniques currently in use. Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca), isolated from cyanide-containing industrial wastewater, has been shown to be able to biodegrade cyanide to non-toxic end products. The technology of immobilized cells can be applied in biological treatment to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of biodegradation. In this study, potassium cyanide (KCN) was used as the target compound and both alginate (AL) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) techniques were applied for the preparation of immobilized cells. Results from this study show that KCN can be utilized as the sole nitrogen source by K. oxytoca. The free suspension systems reveal that the cell viability was highly affected by initial KCN concentration, pH, and temperature. Results show that immobilized cell systems could tolerate a higher level of KCN concentration and wider ranges of pH and temperature, especially in the system with CTA gel beads. Results show that a longer incubation period was required for KCN degradation using immobilized cells compared to the free suspended systems. This might be due to internal mass transfer limitations. Results also indicate that immobilized systems can support a higher biomass concentration. Complete KCN degradation was observed after the operation of four consecutive degradation experiments with the same batch of immobilized cells. This suggests that the activity of the immobilized cells can be maintained and KCN can be used as the nitrogen source throughout KCN degradation experiments. Results reveal that the application of immobilized cells of K. oxytoca is advantageous

  8. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril

    2008-04-15

    Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d(Fe(VI))/dt = k (Fe(VI))(M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}){sup n} where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO{sub 4}{sup -} + M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} + 6H{sub 2}O {yields} 4Fe(OH){sub 3} + M{sup 2+} + 4NCO{sup -} + O{sub 2} + 4OH{sup -}. Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Luminescent Triphosphine Cyanide d(10) Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Chakkaradhari, Gomathy; Chen, Yi-Ting; Karttunen, Antti J; Dau, Minh Thuy; Jänis, Janne; Tunik, Sergey P; Chou, Pi-Tai; Ho, Mei-Lin; Koshevoy, Igor O

    2016-03-07

    Coinage metal cyanides efficiently react with a triphosphine. PPh2C6H4-PPh-C6H4PPh2 (P(3)). to give the complexes M(P(3))CN, where M = Cu (1), Ag (2), and Au (3), which can further interact with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers [M(P(3))](+) to give the homobimetallic [(P(3))M-CN-M(P(3))](+)X(-) [M = Cu (4a with X(-) = CF3SO3(-) and 4b with X(-) = BF4(-)), Ag (5)] or heterometallic [(P(3))Au-CN-Ag(P(3))](+) (6) species. Extension of this approach also provided the trinuclear complex [(P(3))Cu-NC-Au-CN-Cu(P(3))](+) (7). Compounds 1-5 were characterized in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. The NMR spectroscopic studies revealed that all of the complexes except 6 retain their structures in solution. The title compounds are luminescent in the solid state, with quantum yields ranging from 8 to 87%. The observed photoemission originates mainly from the metal-to-ligand charge-transfer states according to time-dependent density functional theory computational studies. The crystalline bimetallic Cu complexes 4a/4b demonstrate extremely high sensitivity of the emission intensity to molecular O2 (KSV1 = 639 atm(-1) and LOD = 0.010% for 3 times the signal-to-noise ratio).

  10. Degradation of organic cyanides by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Nawaz, M.S.; Davis, J.W.; Chapatwala, K.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    Most nitriles are health hazard materials. It has been reported that shale oil contains high concentrations of nitriles. Disposal of effluents containing nitriles is therefore of concern. A bacterium capable of utilizing acetonitrile (methyl cyanide) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was isolated from soil and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This bacterium could also utilize and oxidize numerous lower-mol-wt nitrile compounds and their corresponding amides as growth substrates. A metabolite of acetonitrile in the culture medium was determined to be ammonia. The accumulation of ammonia in the culture medium was proportional to the concentration of the substrate and the inoculum. Cell extracts of the bacterium contained activities corresponding to nitrile aminohydrolase (E C 3.5.5.1) and amidase (E C 3.5.1.4), which regulate the degradation of acetonitrile. Both enzymes were inducible and hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates, and it was determined that the specific activity of amidase was far greater than the activity of nitrile aminohydrolase.

  11. Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

    2005-06-01

    It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability.

  12. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  13. Determination of the Cyanide Metabolite 2-Aminothiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Urine and Plasma by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    plasma, or human plasma) then elevated at a rate of 15 °C/min up to 230 ’C. The gra- was diluted with 900 jiL of 0. 1 M HC 1 to ensure the ATCA dient was...Logue et al. / J. Cviomatogr. B 819 (2005) 237-244 administered by Battelle (Delivery Order 399, Contract No. [71 F. Moriya, Y. Hashimoto, J. Forensic ...Department of Defense through the Cyanide Medi- Pharmacol. 24 (1981) 135.[9] Y. Seto, J. Forensic Sci. 41 (1996) 465. cal Countermeasures and the

  14. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constant for hydrogen cyanide. Generation of trace standard gaseous hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R

    2010-04-15

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry's Law constant (K(H), M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00 +/- 0.03 at 296.6 +/- 0.1 K) from 287-311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The K(H) of HCN may be expressed as ln K(H) (M/atm) = (8205.7 +/- 341.9)/T - (25.323 +/- 1.144); r(2) = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 degrees C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 degrees C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted.

  15. Hydroxocobalamin and epinephrine both improve survival in a swine model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Dixon, Patricia S; Valtier, Sandra; Esquivel, Luis; Bush, Anneke; Little, Charles M

    2012-10-01

    To determine whether hydroxocobalamin will improve survival compared with epinephrine and saline solution controls in a model of cyanide-induced cardiac arrest. Forty-five swine (38 to 42 kg) were tracheally intubated, anesthetized, and central venous and arterial continuous cardiovascular monitoring catheters were inserted. Potassium cyanide was infused until cardiac arrest developed, defined as mean arterial pressure less than 30 mm Hg. Animals were treated with standardized mechanical chest compressions and were randomly assigned to receive one of 3 intravenous bolus therapies: hydroxocobalamin, epinephrine, or saline solution (control). All animals were monitored for 60 minutes after cardiac arrest. Additional epinephrine infusions were used in all arms of the study after return of spontaneous circulation for systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg. A sample size of 15 animals per group was determined according to a power of 80%, a survival difference of 0.5, and an α of 0.05. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to determine statistically significant changes between groups over time. Baseline weight, time to arrest, and cyanide dose at cardiac arrest were similar in the 3 groups. Coronary perfusion pressures with chest compressions were greater than 15 mm Hg in both treatment groups indicating sufficient compression depth. Zero of 15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0% to 25%) animals in the control group, 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the hydroxocobalamin group, and 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the epinephrine group survived to the conclusion of the study (P<.001). The proportion of animals with return of spontaneous circulation at 5 minutes was 4 of 15 (27%; 95% CI 10% to 52%), and that of return of spontaneous circulation at 10 minutes was 11 of 15 (73%; 95% CI 48% to 90%) in the 2 treatment groups. Additional epinephrine infusion after return of spontaneous circulation was administered for hypotension in 2 of 11 (18%; 95% CI 4% to 48

  16. The restorative effect of intramuscular injection of tetanus toxin C-fragment in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Alejandra; Mendieta, Liliana; Palafox, Victoria; Candalija, Anna; Luna, Félix; Aguilera, José; Limón, Ilhuicamina Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The C-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) is a peptide that has a neuroprotective action against dopaminergic damage by MPP(+), both in vitro and in vivo. The trophic effects of Hc-TeTx have been related to its ability to activate the pathways of the tropomyosin receptor kinase, which are crucial for survival process. Our group had previously shown neuroprotective effect of intramuscular Hc-TeTx treatment on animals with a dopaminergic lesion; however, there is no evidence indicating its restorative effects on advanced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The aim of our study was to examine the restorative effects of an intramuscular injection of the Hc-TeTx fragment on the nigrostriatal system of hemiparkinsonian rats. The animals were administered with a vehicle or Hc-TeTx (20μg/kg) in the gastrocnemius muscle for three consecutive days post-dopaminergic lesion, which was made using 6-hydroxydopamine. Post-Hc-TeTx treatment, the hemiparkinsonian rats showed constant motor asymmetry. Moreover, the ipsilateral striatum of the post-Hc-TeTx group had a lower number of argyrophilic structures and a major immunorreactivity to Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to the 6-OHDA group. Our results show the restorative effect of the Hc-TeTx fragment during the dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by 6-OHDA.

  17. Inflammatory responses following intramuscular and subcutaneous immunization with aluminum-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Maeda, Mika; Kawashima, Hisashi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-06-05

    Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines are administered through an intramuscular injection (IM) in the US and EU, however, a subcutaneous injection (SC) has been recommended in Japan because of serious muscle contracture previously reported following multiple IMs of antibiotics. Newly introduced adjuvanted vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, have been recommended through IM. In the present study, currently available vaccines were evaluated through IM in mice. Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induced inflammatory nodules at the injection site, which expanded into the intra-muscular space without any muscle degeneration or necrosis, whereas non-adjuvanted vaccines did not. These nodules consisted of polymorph nuclear neutrophils with some eosinophils within the initial 48h, then monocytes/macrophages 1 month later. Inflammatory nodules were observed 6 months after IM, had decreased in size, and were absorbed 12 months after IM, which was earlier than that after SC. Cytokine production was examined in the injected muscular tissues and AS04 adjuvanted HPV induced higher IL-1β, IL-6, KC, MIP-1, and G-CSF levels in muscle tissues than any other vaccine, but similar serum cytokine profiles were observed to those induced by the other vaccines. Currently available vaccines did not induce muscular degeneration or fibrotic scar as observed with muscle contracture caused by multiple IMs of antibiotics in the past.

  18. Early biochemical and hematological response to intramuscular cyanocobalamin therapy in vitamin B(12)-deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, M Azam; Stea, Tonje Holte; Schneede, Jørn; Reine, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Data on early biochemical and hematological responses to cobalamin therapy in vitamin B12-deficient patients are scarce. Therefore, we investigated whether cobalamin injections would include prompt biochemical and hematological responses in vitamin B12-deficient patients. Seven female patients (mean age: 69.4 years, range: 61-78) with a mean serum cobalamin level of 104 ± 38 pmol/l mean ± SD and 7 male patients (mean age: 67.0 years, range: 53-78) with a mean serum cobalamin level of 84 ± 40 (±SD) participated in the study. They were administered 1 mg i.m. cyanocobalamin per week for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after cobalamin injection. The concentrations of plasma aminothiols and serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively, and hematological parameters were determined with a hematological analyzer. Already 1 day after intramuscular Cobalamin injections, the concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and plasma total cysteine were significantly increased while the concentrations of serum folate, plasma total homocysteine and serum MMA were decreased. Mean cell volume was also significantly decreased first after 14 days of therapy. Intramuscular cobalamin administration causes swift and significant changes in plasma aminothiols, whereas the first change in hematological parameters was detected only after 14 days. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    PubMed

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  20. Cyanide binding to ferrous and ferric microperoxidase-11.

    PubMed

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c (cytc). MP11 is characterized by a covalently linked solvent-exposed heme group, the heme-Fe atom being axially coordinated by a histidyl residue. Here, the reactions of ferrous and ferric MP11 (MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III), respectively) with cyanide have been investigated from the kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints, at pH 7.0 and 20.0 °C. Values of the second-order rate constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 4.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 8.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Values of the first-order rate constant for cyanide dissociation from ligated MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 1.8 × 10(-1) s(-1) and 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 3.7 × 10(-2) and 1.7 × 10(-7) M, respectively, matching very well with those calculated from kinetic parameters so that no intermediate species seem to be involved in the ligand-binding process. The pH-dependence of cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(III) indicates that CN(-) is the only binding species. Present results have been analyzed in parallel with those of several heme-proteins, suggesting that (1) the ligand accessibility to the metal center and cyanide ionization may modulate the formation of heme-Fe-cyanide complexes, and (2) the general polarity of the heme pocket and/or hydrogen bonding of the heme-bound ligand may affect cyanide exit from the protein matrix. Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c. Penta-coordinated MP11 displays a very high reactivity towards cyanide, whereas the reactivity of hexa-coordinated horse heart cytochrome c is very low.

  1. Precious metal recovery from waste printed circuit boards using cyanide and non-cyanide lixiviants--A review.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata; Erust, Ceren; Gahan, Chandra Sekhar; Ozgun, Mehmet; Sahin, Merve; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2015-11-01

    Waste generated by the electrical and electronic devices is huge concern worldwide. With decreasing life cycle of most electronic devices and unavailability of the suitable recycling technologies it is expected to have huge electronic and electrical wastes to be generated in the coming years. The environmental threats caused by the disposal and incineration of electronic waste starting from the atmosphere to the aquatic and terrestrial living system have raised high alerts and concerns on the gases produced (dioxins, furans, polybrominated organic pollutants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) by thermal treatments and can cause serious health problems if the flue gas cleaning systems are not developed and implemented. Apart from that there can be also dissolution of heavy metals released to the ground water from the landfill sites. As all these electronic and electrical waste do posses richness in the metal values it would be worth recovering the metal content and protect the environmental from the pollution. Cyanide leaching has been a successful technology worldwide for the recovery of precious metals (especially Au and Ag) from ores/concentrates/waste materials. Nevertheless, cyanide is always preferred over others because of its potential to deliver high recovery with a cheaper cost. Cyanidation process also increases the additional work of effluent treatment prior to disposal. Several non-cyanide leaching processes have been developed considering toxic nature and handling problems of cyanide with non-toxic lixiviants such as thiourea, thiosulphate, aqua regia and iodine. Therefore, several recycling technologies have been developed using cyanide or non-cyanide leaching methods to recover precious and valuable metals.

  2. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored.

  3. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  4. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  5. Sources and geochemical evolution of cyanide and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere of carbon dioxide as the dominant carbon species, and from carbonate in solution or sorbed in double layer hydroxide minerals. Potentially more important sources for cyanide and other carbon containing molecules are the partially photoprotected northern and southern auroral ovals where continuous currents reaching several mega-amperes induce ion-molecule reactions, extending into the lower stratosphere. In simulated environments of this kind, the cyanide ion is known to be produced from oxidized carbon species potentially more abundant than methane. Rainout of cyanide and formaldehyde place them in two different geochemical reaction reservoirs. In the anoxic Archean hydrosphere, about 1mM in Fe2(+), the cyanide ion would have been efficiently converted to the stable ferrocyanide complex Fe(CN) sub 6(4-), protecting it from the commonly considered fate of decomposition by hydrolysis, and eventually incorporating it in pyroaurite type minerals, most efficiently in green rust where it converts to insoluble ferriferrocyanide, prussian blue.

  6. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  7. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds.

    PubMed

    Wiemeyer, S N; Hill, E F; Carpenter, J W; Krynitsky, A J

    1986-10-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  8. Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7 pct Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.OM sodium hydroxide solution was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1 pct sodium cyanide and 0.1M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95 pct Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50 pct. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

  9. Unusual reaction of [NiFe]-hydrogenases with cyanide.

    PubMed

    Hexter, Suzannah V; Chung, Min-Wen; Vincent, Kylie A; Armstrong, Fraser A

    2014-07-23

    Cyanide reacts rapidly with [NiFe]-hydrogenases (hydrogenase-1 and hydrogenase-2 from Escherichia coli) under mild oxidizing conditions, inhibiting the electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen as recorded by protein film electrochemistry. Electrochemical, EPR, and FTIR measurements show that the final enzyme product, formed within a second (even under 100% H2), is the resting state known as Ni-B, which contains a hydroxido-bridged species, Ni(III)-μ(OH)-Fe(II), at the active site. "Cyanide inhibition" is easily reversed because it is simply the reductive activation of Ni-B. This paper brings back into focus an observation originally made in the 1940s that cyanide inhibits microbial H2 oxidation and addresses the interesting mechanism by which cyanide promotes the formation of Ni-B. As a much stronger nucleophile than hydroxide, cyanide binds more rapidly and promotes oxidation of Ni(II) to Ni(III); however, it is quickly replaced by hydroxide which is a far superior bridging ligand.

  10. Leaching of petroleum catalysts with cyanide for palladium recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrell, P.L.; Atkinson, G.B.

    1995-06-01

    The US Bureau of Mines has tested cyanide leaching for recovery of palladium (Pd) from spent petroleum processing catalysts. Three different catalyst samples were supplied by a spent-catalyst processor. These catalysts consisted of a zeolite base and contained 0.4 to 0.7% Pd. During alkaline cyanide leaching, the catalysts exhibited ion-exchange properties due to their zeolite matrices. Hydrogen ions were released from the zeolite in exchange for sodium ions in solution, resulting in a significant decrease in solution pH. This could present a safety hazard because of the potential for release of toxic hydrogen cyanide gas. A pretreatment step where the catalysts were contacted with a 1.0 M sodium hydroxide was found to prevent the pH shift from occurring. Following the sodium hydroxide pretreatment, two stages of leaching at 160 C with solution containing 1% sodium cyanide and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide gave at least 75 and up to 95% Pd recovery. The Pd was quantitatively recovered from the leach solution by thermal decomposition in an autoclave at 250 C for 1 h. The Pd content of the precipitate was over 50%. Thermal decomposition also decreased the total cyanide content of the barren solution to less than 0.2 mg/L. The catalyst leach residues passed the Federal Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and the California Waste Extraction Test, indicating that landfill disposal of the leach residues would be acceptable.

  11. Disulfiram inhibition of cyanide formation after acetonitrile poisoning.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Peter; Colin, Pieter; Depuydt, Pieter; Decavele, An-Sofie; De Smet, Julie; Boussery, Koen; Stove, Christophe; Benoit, Dominique; Verstraete, Alain; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Buylaert, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning may be caused by acetonitrile, a common industrial organic solvent and laboratory agent. To describe the potential use of disulfiram in treating acetonitrile poisoning in a human clinical case and to further study its effect in human liver microsomes in vitro. A 30-year-old man initially presented with a cholinergic toxic syndrome following ingestion of aldicarb. Toxicological analysis revealed coingestion of ethanol. He subsequently developed severe metabolic acidosis caused by the cyanogenic compound acetonitrile which was erroneously interpreted as acetone in the chromatogram. After three treatments with hydroxocobalamin (5 g i.v.) and sodium thiosulfate (12.5 g i.v.) on days 2, 3, and 5, he had transient improvement but recurrent lactic acidosis. Treatment with disulfiram was associated on day 7 with resolution of metabolic acidosis and slowing of the decrease in acetonitrile concentration. He recovered from acetonitrile toxicity completely. The time course of acetonitrile, thiocyanate, and cyanide concentrations suggested that disulfiram inhibited cyanide formation. In vitro experiments with human liver microsomes showed the cyanide concentration was significantly lower after incubation with acetonitrile and disulfiram than acetonitrile alone (a mean 60% reduction in cyanide level). Although disulfiram was given late in the course of the poisoning it is possible that it contributed to the recovery.

  12. Hydrogen peroxide as a new defensive compound in "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Ichiki, Yayoi; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was newly and simultaneously demonstrated with well-known hydrogen cyanide as a component of defensive secretions of "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes. Presence of hydrogen peroxide was successively evidenced by Trinder reagent's spray with colorless as well as oily smears of defensive secretions containing benzoyl cyanide and hydrogen cyanide by alkaline picrate paper treatment. Linear correlation was demonstrated between quantities of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl cyanide. By qualitative assay, seven benzoyl cyanide containing polydesmidans (six species of adults and one species of a nymph at stadium I) tested positive to Trinder reagent, indicative of the presence of hydrogen peroxide (together with hydrogen cyanide), while two cyanogenic species without benzoyl cyanide exhibited negative responses to the reagent. Two types of millipedes were elucidated as species of cyanogenic Polydesmida.

  13. Oxidative removal of cyanide from aqueous streams abetted by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, R.R.; Kalnes, T.N.; Moser, M.D.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described of reducing the concentration of complexed cyanide in an aqueous stream containing at least one complexed cyanide which dissociates to afford less than 10% of the total cyanide present in the complexed cyanide as free cyanide ions. The method comprises the following: irradiating the aqueous stream with light of a wavelength effective to dissociate the complexed cyanide and afford free cyanide ions, and oxidizing the cyanide to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and isocyanate with an oxidizing agent selected from the group consisting of oxygen ozone, and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a metal chelate at oxidation conditions. The metal chelate is selected from the group consisting of metal compounds of tetrapyridinoporphyrazine, porphyrin, corrinoid materials, and the phthalocyanines.

  14. Diagnosis of cyanide intoxication by measurement of cytochrome c oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, H; Iwase, H; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Yoshida, K; Takatori, T

    2001-02-28

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), a mitochondrial enzyme, is inactivated by cyanide or carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. We measured CCO activity, in the major organs of the rat at various times after death caused by cyanide intoxication. Tissue samples were homogenized, and the CCO activity in the mitochondrial fraction was measured using ferrous cytochrome c as the substrate. The CCO activity inhibition was highest in the brain, although the cyanide concentration was lowest level. As a result of this and the clinical symptoms displayed, we consider the brain to be the primary organ of cyanide intoxication. As cyanide is highly toxic to humans, in small amounts and many patients and victims have already had some medical care, it is difficult to detect cyanide in criminal investigations. The CCO activities in various organs remained significantly low for 2 days after the cyanide intoxication, suggesting that the diagnosis may be possible by measuring not only the cyanide concentration but also the CCO activity.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide as a new defensive compound in "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Ichiki, Yayoi; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was newly and simultaneously demonstrated with well-known hydrogen cyanide as a component of defensive secretions of "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes. Presence of hydrogen peroxide was successively evidenced by Trinder reagent's spray with colorless as well as oily smears of defensive secretions containing benzoyl cyanide and hydrogen cyanide by alkaline picrate paper treatment. Linear correlation was demonstrated between quantities of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl cyanide. By qualitative assay, seven benzoyl cyanide containing polydesmidans (six species of adults and one species of a nymph at stadium I) tested positive to Trinder reagent, indicative of the presence of hydrogen peroxide (together with hydrogen cyanide), while two cyanogenic species without benzoyl cyanide exhibited negative responses to the reagent. Two types of millipedes were elucidated as species of cyanogenic Polydesmida.

  16. Cyanide reduction by nitrogenase in intact cells of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinose Molisch.

    PubMed

    Materassi, R; Balloni, W; Florenzano, G

    1977-01-01

    Intact cells of Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa, grown in N-free medium, reduce cyanide to methane and ammonia at a rate 5--8 times lower than acetylene. Cyanide reduction in whole cells is distinctly more sensitive to cyanide inhibition compared with enzyme preparations. These results are discussed in view of the exploitation of nitrogen-fixing photobacteria in the anaerobic detoxification of cyanide-containing wastewaters.

  17. Application of 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic Acid as a Forensic Marker of Cyanide Exposure.

    PubMed

    Rużycka, Monika; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Fudalej, Marcin; Krajewski, Paweł; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2017-02-20

    Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in a biological matrix. Unfortunately, toxicokinetic studies on diverse animal models suggest significant interspecies differences; therefore, the attempt to extrapolate animal models to human models may be unsuccessful. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of ATCA as a forensic marker of cyanide exposure. For this purpose, post-mortem materials (blood and organs) from fire victims (n = 32) and cyanide-poisoned persons (n = 3) were collected. The distribution of ATCA in organs and its thermal stability were evaluated. The variability of cyanides in a putrid sample and in the context of their long-term and higher temperature stability was established. The presence of ATCA was detected by using an LC-MS/MS method and that of cyanide was detected spectrofluorimetrically. This is the first report on the endogenous ATCA concentrations and the determination of ATCA distribution in tissues of fire victims and cyanide-poisoned persons. It was found that blood and heart had the highest ATCA concentrations. ATCA was observed to be thermally stable even at 90 °C. Even though the cyanide concentration was not elevated in putrid samples, it was unstable during long-term storage and at higher temperature, as expected. The relationship between ATCA and cyanides was also observed. Higher ATCA concentrations were related to increased levels of cyanide in blood and organs (less prominent). ATCA seems to be a reliable forensic marker of exposure to lethal doses of cyanide.

  18. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Sepsis requiring intensive care following intramuscular injections: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Matzaroglou, Charis; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Filos, Kriton

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Intramuscular injections can rarely result in serious infectious complications such as abscesses which may progress to bacteraemia and generalized sepsis. These complications are rare, but can be life threatening, as they can lead to multi-organ failure associated with high morbidity and mortality. Case presentation In this report we present two patients who developed life-threatening infections after intramuscular injections. They were admitted to the hospital, had prompt surgical drainage, required ICU admission for severe sepsis, were treated with an early goal-directed therapy protocol and had a good outcome. Conclusion Sepsis is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication after intramuscular injections. Timely surgical drainage followed by appropriate ICU care and early goal directed therapy is crucial and may contribute to a good outcome in these rare cases. PMID:19918523

  20. Infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajni V; Duncan, Lyn M; Austen, William G; Nielsen, G Petur

    2009-10-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life. We report herein an unusual infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising in the nose of a 53-year-old man. The patient presented with a 0.5-cm 'cyst' of the nose, just above the right alar crease, which was removed. Four years later, the lesion recurred and was re-excised. Histologically, a proliferation of mature adipocytes, ropey collagen fibers and spindle cells within a myxoid stroma was present in the subcutaneous tissue and infiltrated between skeletal muscle fibers. Nine cases of intramuscular spindle cell lipoma with histological examination have previously been reported and have involved the oral cavity and muscles of the extremities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising on the face.

  1. Single Intramuscular-dose Toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-geol; Kim, Sungchul; Jung, Da-jung; Choi, Yoo-min; Sin, Min-seop; Choi, Seok-Woo; Song, Beom-yong; Kim, Jong-uk; Hong, Seung-won; Yook, Tae-han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This experiment was conducted to examine the toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF) by administering a single intramuscular dose of WCF in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethality dose for WCF. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices under a request by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. This experiment was performed based on the testing standards of “Toxicity Test Standards for Drugs” by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: 1 control group in which normal saline was administered and 3 test groups in which 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mL of WCF was administered; a single intramuscular dose was injected into 5 males and 5 females in each group. General symptoms and body weights were observed/measured for 14 days after injection. At the end of the observation period, hematological and clinical chemistry tests were performed, followed by necropsy and histopathological examinations of the injected sections. Results: No mortalities were observed in any group. Also, symptoms, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry and necropsy were not affected. However, histopathological examination of the injected part in one female in the 1.0-mL group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells and a multi-nucleated giant cell around eosinophilic material. Conclusion: Administration of single intramuscular doses of WCF in 3 groups of rats showed that the approximate lethal dose of WCF for all rats was in excess of 1.0 mL, as no mortalities were observed for injections up to and including 1.0 mL. PMID:25780687

  2. Randomized trial using ultrasound to assess intramuscular vaccination at a 60° or 90° needle angle.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen Siobhan; Clarke, Michelle Frances; Evans, Susan; Piotto, Lino; Gent, Roger J

    2013-05-28

    Globally, recommendations differ on the ideal angle of needle insertion to ensure vaccinate deposition in muscle for optimal safety and immunogenicity. This study aimed to compare the level of vaccinate deposition during vaccination, using two different needle angles (60° and 90°), in young children, adolescents and adults. In this randomized cross-over study, two doses of a licensed hepatitis vaccine, were administered to study participants, at a 60° or 90° angle using a fixed template. Ultrasonography was performed with a Philips iu22 ultrasound system. Real time clips and hard copies of images were recorded showing the injection and level of deposition of the vaccinate. Reactogenicity at the site of administration was assessed by participants/parents. Nineteen participants were enrolled including children, adolescents and adults. Of the total 38 injections performed, 29 (76%) were confirmed by ultrasound as intramuscular (IM), 3 (8%) as not IM, and 6 (16%) unknown. For vaccinations visualised and administered at 60°, 87% (13/15) were intramuscular vs 94.1% (16/17) for those administered at 90°. A body mass index (BMI)≤25 was associated with a higher likelihood of IM injection compared to BMI>25 (p=0.038). There were no differences in reactogenicity for either 60° or 90° angle of administration. For the majority of vaccinees, a 60-90° angle of vaccine administration is appropriate for IM deposition of vaccinate. The likelihood of intramuscular deposition is reduced for individuals with a BMI>25. The increasing rates of obesity globally highlight the importance of tailoring vaccination procedures accordingly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectroscopic study of acetylene and hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozario, Hoimonti Immaculata

    High-resolution molecular spectroscopy has been used to study acetylene line parameters and emission spectra of hydrogen cyanide. All acetylene spectra were recorded in our laboratory at the University of Lethbridge using a 3-channel tuneable diode laser spectrometer. N2-broadened line widths and N2-pressure induced line shifts have been measured for transitions in the v1+v3 band of acetylene at seven temperatures in the range 213-333K to obtain the temperature dependences of broadening and shift coefficients. The Voigt and hard-collision line profile models were used to retrieve the line parameters. The line-broadening and line-shift coefficients as well as their temperature-dependent parameters have been also evaluated theoretically, in the frame work of a semi-classical approach based on an exponential representation of the scattering operator, an intermolecular potential composed of electrostatic quadrupole--quadrupole and pairwise atom--atom interactions as well as on exact trajectories driven by an effective isotropic potential. The experimental results for both N2-broadening and shifting show good agreement with the theoretical results. We have studied the line intensities of the 1vl 20←0v120 band system from the HCN emission spectrum. The infrared emission spectrum of H12C 14N was measured at the Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. The emission spectrum was analyzed with the spectrum analysis software Symath running using Mathematica as a platform. This approach allowed us to retrieve information on band intensity parameters.

  4. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reversal of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by the auxiliary substrate nitric oxide: an endogenous antidote to cyanide poisoning?

    PubMed

    Pearce, Linda L; Bominaar, Emile L; Hill, Bruce C; Peterson, Jim

    2003-12-26

    Nitric oxide (NO) is shown to overcome the cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of excess ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. Addition of NO to the partially reduced cyanide-inhibited form of the bovine enzyme is shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to result in substitution of cyanide at ferriheme a3 by NO with reduction of the heme. The resulting nitrosylferroheme a3 is a 5-coordinate structure, the proximal bond to histidine having been broken. NO does not simply act as a reversibly bound competitive inhibitor but is an auxiliary substrate consumed in a catalytic cycle along with ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. The implications of this observation with regard to estimates of steady-state NO levels in vivo is discussed. Given the multiple sources of NO available to mitochondria, the present results appear to explain in part some of the curious biomedical observations reported by other laboratories; for example, the kidneys of cyanide poisoning victims surprisingly exhibit no significant irreversible damage, and lethal doses of potassium cyanide are able to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase activity by only approximately 50% in brain mitochondria.

  6. Electrophysiological characterization of the rat trigeminal caudalis (Vc) neurons following intramuscular injection of capsaicin

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Yang H; Ro, Jin Y

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular single unit recording experiments were performed to examine response characteristics of wide dynamic range neurons in the Vc that receive masseter afferent input in Sprague Dawley rats. Capsaicin, or its vehicle, was directly administered into the masseter muscle and changes in resting discharge, responses to mechanical stimulation on the cutaneous receptive field and the electrical threshold for masseter nerve stimulation were assessed. Intramuscular capsaicin induced significant increase in the background discharge and mechanical hypersensitivity to the cutaneous stimulation and lowered the threshold masseter nerve stimulation evoked responses in the majority of neurons. The capsaicin-induced increase in evoked responses, but not the resting discharge, was partially attenuated when the muscle was pretreated with a mGluR antagonist. The present study suggests that injury or inflammation in the masseter muscle induce generalized hyperexcitability of central trigeminal neurons and that the blockade of peripherally localized mGluR5 can effectively attenuate muscular hypersensitivity. PMID:19818833

  7. Flotation purification of industrial wastewater by removing cyanide ions

    SciTech Connect

    Evtyugina, N.M.; Derbysheva, E.K.; Kopktova, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the oldest and most common methods of purifying sewage by removing cyanide ions is binding them to nontoxic compounds of ferrous salts, principally divalent ferrous salts. Research in this direction has also been realized for the sewage of coking plants. One of the reasons why the method has not been introduced is tied to the difficulty of separating the finely-dispersed slime of the divalent ferrous cyanide K/sub 4/(Fe(CN)/sub 6/). This study investigates methods of producing complex compounds of cyanide ions with ferrous salts which have low solubility and, as far as possible, are easily extracted from water. To achieve this, it is suggested that one of the promising methods of water purification - flotation - be used and that the sludge extracted be utilized in accordance with wellknown plans.

  8. Encapsulation of thiosulfate: cyanide sulfurtransferase by mouse erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, P.; Ray, L.E.; Sander, C.; Way, J.L.; Sylvester, D.M.; Way, J.L.

    1986-03-30

    Murine carrier erythrocytes, prepared by hypotonic dialysis, were employed in the encapsulation of several compounds including (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and bovine thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase (rhodanese), a mitochondrial enzyme which converts cyanide to thiocyanate. Approximately 30% of the added (14C)sucrose, (3H)inulin, and rhodanese was encapsulated by predialyzed erythrocytes, and a decrease in the mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin was observed. In the encapsulation of rhodanese a recovery of 95% of the erythrocytes was achieved and an 85% equilibrium was established. The addition of potassium cyanide (50 mM) to intact, rhodanese-loaded erythrocytes containing sodium thiosulfate resulted in its metabolism to thiocyanate. These results establish the potential use of erythrocytes as biodegradable drug carrier in drug antagonism.

  9. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan

    2009-09-01

    The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

  11. Chronic cyanide exposure: a clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study.

    PubMed Central

    El Ghawabi, S H; Gaafar, M A; El-Saharti, A A; Ahmed, S H; Malash, K K; Fares, R

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chronic cyanide exposure in the electroplating sections of three factories employing 36 workers was studied and compared with a control group. The concentration of cyanides to which the workers were exposed was measured. The regression line showing the relationship between thiocyanates in urine and the concentration of cyanides in the air was plotted. Increased percentages of haemoglobin and lymphocyte count were present in all exposed workers, in addition to punctate basophilia in 28 workers. Cyanmethaemoglobin was found to be characteristic. Apart from other complaints, two men with psychosis similar to one case reported in therapeutic thiocyanate intoxication were found. Twenty of the workers had thyroid enlargements to a variable degree and consistency, in two of whom it resembled lymphadenoid goitre. Thyroid 131I uptakes at 4 and 24 hours were significantly higher than in the controls, while 131PBI was unchanged. The reason for this iodine deficiency-like action is discussed. PMID:1156569

  12. Cyanide complexes of Ti(IV): a computational study.

    PubMed

    Rayón, Víctor M; Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2009-09-07

    Density functional theory (B3LYP) and coupled-cluster techniques [CCSD(T)] including solvent effects have been used to study the homoleptic and mixed cyanide/isocyanide complexes of Ti(IV), [Ti(CN)(n)](4-n) (n=1-6). The most stable isomer is found to be the isocyanide form except for n=6 where the cyanide isomer is preferred. Calculations accounting for solvent effects show that, irrespective of the solvent employed, the hexacyanocomplex should be formed. We have additionally analyzed the bonding situation in these complexes in order to shed some light on the reasons for the predicted cyano-/isocyano preference. We have found that the more advantageous sigma-bonding capabilities of the cyanide form become increasingly important for larger n eventually favoring the cyanoisomer for n=6. We finally compare the bonding situation in hexacyanotitanate(IV) with that of hexacyanoferrate(II).

  13. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  14. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  15. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  16. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  17. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  18. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  19. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  20. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  1. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  2. Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment Elevation May Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    induced shock, 30 swine were anesthetized and monitored and then intoxicated with a continuous cyanide infusion until severe hypotension (50 % of...TOXICOLOGY INVESTIGATION Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment ElevationMay Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity Tylan A...Toxicology 2012 Abstract Cyanide causes severe cardiac toxicity resulting in tachycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest; however, the clinical diagnosis can

  3. Intramuscular and topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis using coumarin (-) mammea A/BB.

    PubMed

    Tiuman, Tatiana Shioji; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2012-10-15

    Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis remains limited to a few available options. Recent studies showed in vitro antileishmanial activity of (-) mammea A/BB, a coumarin isolated from leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense. Moreover, the dichloromethane crude extract and hexane fraction from this plant demonstrated in vivo activity in mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. We evaluated the antileishmanial activity of (-) mammea A/BB in the L. amazonensis BALB/c mice model. The animals were given intramuscular and topical treatment with (-) mammea A/BB for 30 consecutive days. The results demonstrated that 18mg/kg/d intramuscularly or 0.2% topically of (-) mammea A/BB significantly reduced the size of skin lesions in footpads of mice compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). The activity of Glucantime(®) (corresponding to 27mg/kg/d of pentavalent antimony) administered intramuscularly was similar to that of (-) mammea A/BB (p<0.05) by both routes of administration. The histopathological evaluation showed no changes in the organs analyzed. These results indicate that the coumarin obtained from C. brasiliense is the antileishmanially active compound and can be used to control the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions caused by L. amazonensis.

  4. Zagreb Regimen, an Abbreviated Intramuscular Schedule for Rabies Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. PMID:25392012

  5. Intramuscular Sparganosis in the Gastrocnemius Muscle: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeung Il; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Sung Min; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Kyung Un

    2014-01-01

    Sparganosis is a parasitic infection caused by the plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Although the destination of the larva is often a tissue or muscle in the chest, abdominal wall, extremities, eyes, brain, urinary tract, spinal canal, and scrotum, intramuscular sparganosis is uncommon and therefore is difficult to distinguish from a soft tissue tumor. We report a case of intramuscular sparganosis involving the gastrocnemius muscle in an elderly patient who was diagnosed using ultrasonography and MRI and treated by surgical excision. At approximately 1 cm near the schwannoma at the right distal sciatic nerve, several spargana worms were detected and removed. PMID:24623885

  6. Intractable pain due to rectus abdominis intramuscular haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Scozzari, G; Reddavid, R; Conti, L; Trombetta, F; Toppino, M; Sandrucci, S

    2014-08-01

    Haemangiomas are tumours of vascular origin accounting for approximately 7 % of all benign tumours. Three types of haemangioma have been described according to the vessel type involved: capillary, cavernous and mixed. Intramuscular haemangiomas (IMHs) are infrequent, accounting for less than 1 % of all haemangiomas and are mostly located in the extremities and the trunk. Intramuscular haemangiomas of the rectus abdominis muscle are extremely rare, with only one previous case reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we present the case of a patient with intractable pain related to IMHs of the rectus abdominis and we analyse diagnostic assessment and surgical management of the condition.

  7. The origin of proteins: Heteropolypeptides from hydrogen cyanide and water.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C N

    1975-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and extraterrestrial chemistry is presented consistent with the hypothesis that the original heteropolypeptides on Earth were synthesized spontaneously from hydrogen cyanide and water without the intervening formation of chi-amino acids, a key step being the direct polymerization of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide to polyaminomalononitrile (IV) via dimeric HCN. Molecular orbital calculations (INDO) show that the most probable structure for (HCN)2 is azacyclopropenylidenimine. Successive reactions of hydrogen cyanide with the reactive nitrile side chains of IV then yield heteropolyamidines which are converted by water to heteropolypeptides. To study this postulated modification of a homopolymer to a heteropolymer, poly-chi-cyanoglycine (IX) was prepared from the N-carboxyanhydride of chi-cyanoglycine. Hydrolysis of IX, a polyamide analog of the polyamidine IV, yielded glycine. However, when IX was hydrolysed after being treated with hydrogen cyanide, other chi-amino acids were also obtained including alanine, serine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, suggesting that the nitrile groups of IX (and therfore of IV) are indeed readily attacked by hydrogen cyanide as predicted. Further theoretical and experimental studies support the view that hydrogen cyanide polymerization along these lines is a universal process that accounts not only for the past formation of primitive proteins on Earth, but also for the yellow-brown-orange colors of Jupiter today and for the presence of water-soluble compounds hydrolyzable to chi-amino acids in materials obtained from environments as diverse as the moon, carbonaceous chondrites and the reaction chambers used to simulate organic synthesis in planetary atmospheres.

  8. Efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam versus rectal diazepam in controlling status epilepticus in children.

    PubMed

    Momen, Ali Akbar; Azizi Malamiri, Reza; Nikkhah, Ali; Jafari, Maryam; Fayezi, Abbas; Riahi, Kourosh; Maraghi, Elham

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intramuscular midazolam in controlling convulsive status epilepticus in children, by comparing it with rectal diazepam. In this randomized trial, 100 children (50 in each group) with convulsive status epilepticus aged 1 month to 16 years were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 0.3 mg/kg intramuscular midazolam or 0.5 mg/kg rectal diazepam. Main outcome measure was stopping of all motor activity after drug administration. Another measures were times between patient's arrival to emergency department till drug administration, between drug administration to seizure cessation, and between patient's arrival to seizure cessation. Both medication were effective for seizure control and no significant difference was found between successful treatments after administering the medication (P = 0.061). In the midazolam group, in 96% (48/50) of cases treatment was successful and in the diazepam group, in 94% (47/50) of cases treatment was successful. Time from arrival to administering the medication was significantly shorter in midazolam group (P = 0.017). The majority of seizures in midazolam group were stopped in less than 66 s (median) compared to 130 s (median) for diazepam group, (P < 0.001). No serious adverse effects were seen in both groups. IM midazolam is not superior but may be at least as effective as rectal diazepam for controlling of status epilepticus in children. Midazolam via IM route could be one of the choices in children with convulsive status seizures who have difficult IV access. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

  11. Exuberant local tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin)--a steroid compound in a sesame seed oil base--mimicking soft tissue malignant tumors: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khankhanian, N K; Hammers, Y A; Kowalski, P

    1992-12-01

    We present an unusual pseudotumor that formed in reaction to self-administered intramuscular injections of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) in a young soldier. The histopathologic features which closely mimicked several malignant neoplasms could have led to an incorrect diagnosis of malignancy and unnecessary extensive surgery. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Single Intramuscular High Dose versus an Oral Long-Term Supplementation of Cholecalciferol

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Alexander; Heine, Guido; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals. Research design and methods Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies. Results The mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l). In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OH)D serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The increase of 25(OH)D serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264). Conclusions Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:28114352

  13. Efficacy and safety of intranasal lorazepam versus intramuscular paraldehyde for protracted convulsions in children: an open randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shafique; Ellis, Jane C; Kamwendo, Hastings; Molyneux, Elizabeth

    2006-05-13

    In sub-Saharan Africa, rectal diazepam or intramuscular paraldehyde are commonly used as first-line anticonvulsant agents in the emergency treatment of seizures in children. These treatments can be expensive and sometimes toxic. We aimed to assess a drug and delivery system that is potentially more effective, safer, and easier to administer than those presently in use. We did an open randomised trial in a paediatric emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Malawi. 160 children aged over 2 months with seizures persisting for more than 5 min were randomly assigned to receive either intranasal lorazepam (100 microg/kg, n=80) or intramuscular paraldehyde (0.2 mL/kg, n=80). The primary outcome measure was whether the presenting seizure stopped with one dose of assigned anticonvulsant agent within 10 min of administration. The primary analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00116064. Intranasal lorazepam stopped convulsions within 10 min in 60 (75%) episodes treated (absolute risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.64-0.84), and intramuscular paraldehyde in 49 (61.3%; absolute risk 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.72). No clinically important cardiorespiratory events were seen in either group (95% binomial exact CI 0-4.5%), and all children finished the trial. Intranasal lorazepam is effective, safe, and provides a less invasive alternative to intramuscular paraldehyde in children with protracted convulsions. The ease of use of this drug makes it an attractive and preferable prehospital treatment option.

  14. Natural attenuation potential of cyanide via microbial activity in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Oudjehani, K; Zagury, G J; Deschênes, L

    2002-03-01

    Biological removal by indigenous microflora of cyanide, contained in old (6-9 years) and fresh tailings (3 months), was studied in order to assess its natural attenuation potential via biodegradation. To investigate the presence of indigenous microflora in tailings, total heterotrophic and cyanide resistant bacteria were counted using the spread-plate method. The free cyanide mineralization potential was estimated using K14CN in the presence of various unlabeled cyanide concentrations (0, 5, and 10 mg CN/kg). The biodegradation of cyanide contained initially in the samples was also investigated by monitoring formate, formamide, ammonia and total cyanide (CNT) concentrations over 111 days. The enumeration of total heterotrophic and cyanide-resistant bacteria in old tailings showed an average population of 105 cfu/g. However, no growth was detected in fresh tailings. Nevertheless, cyanide mineralization tests indicated the presence, in both old and fresh tailings, of a cyanide-degrading microflora. In old tailings, maximum mineralization percentages of free cyanide ranging from 85% to 100% were obtained after 65 days at all concentrations tested. A mineralization percentage of 83% after 170 days was also observed in fresh tailings. No decrease of total cyanide concentration in old tailings was observed when the biodegradation of endogenous cyanide was tested whereas a significant decrease was recorded in fresh tailings after 96 days. The presence of strong metal-cyanide complexes resistant to biodegradation could explain the absence of biodegradation in old tailings. This study demonstrated the presence of an indigenous free cyanide-degrading microflora in both old and fresh tailings, and suggests that natural attenuation of cyanide in gold mine tailings is likely to occur via microbial activity.

  15. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Anjali K.; Roberts, Lee D.; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B.; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H.; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L.; Boss, Gerry R.; Rockwood, Gary A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.—Nath, A. K., Roberts, L. D., Liu, Y., Mahon, S. B., Kim, S., Ryu, J. H., Werdich, A., Januzzi, J. L., Boss, G. R., Rockwood, G. A., MacRae, C. A., Brenner, M., Gerszten, R. E., Peterson, R. T. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure. PMID:23345455

  16. Comparison of the Immunogenicity of Various Booster Doses of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Delivered Intradermally Versus Intramuscularly to HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Troy, Stephanie B; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Siik, Julia; Kochba, Efrat; Beydoun, Hind; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Levin, Yotam; Khardori, Nancy; Chumakov, Konstantin; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2015-06-15

    Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is necessary for global polio eradication because oral polio vaccine can rarely cause poliomyelitis as it mutates and may fail to provide adequate immunity in immunocompromised populations. However, IPV is unaffordable for many developing countries. Intradermal IPV shows promise as a means to decrease the effective dose and cost of IPV, but prior studies, all using 20% of the standard dose used in intramuscular IPV, resulted in inferior antibody titers. We randomly assigned 231 adults with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus infection at a ratio of 2:2:2:1 to receive 40% of the standard dose of IPV intradermally, 20% of the standard dose intradermally, the full standard dose intramuscularly, or 40% of the standard dose intramuscularly. Intradermal vaccination was done using the NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedle device. Baseline immunity was 87%, 90%, and 66% against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After vaccination, antibody titers increased a median of 64-fold. Vaccine response to 40% of the standard dose administered intradermally was comparable to that of the standard dose of IPV administered intramuscularly and resulted in higher (although not significantly) antibody titers. Intradermal administration had higher a incidence of local side effects (redness and itching) but a similar incidence of systemic side effects and was preferred by study participants over intramuscular administration. A 60% reduction in the standard IPV dose without reduction in antibody titers is possible through intradermal administration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Factors Influencing the Development of Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Potato Tissue.

    PubMed

    Janes, H W; Rychter, A; Frenkel, C

    1979-05-01

    Ethylene, cyanide gas, and volatalized ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid were applied in a continuous flow to whole potato tubers. Freshly cut slices were obtained periodically during the treatment, and showed a progressive development of a cyanide-resistant respiration. The application of the employed volatiles in 100% O(2) accelerated the onset and the magnitude of the cyanide-resistant respiration.These results show that, similar to ethylene and cyanide, the application of ethanol, acetaldehyde, or acetic acid can also lead to the development of cyanide-resistant respiration in whole potato tubers, and that this type of respiration is retained in freshly cut slices.

  18. An Interesting Case of Intramuscular Myxoma with Scapular Bone Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Tirefort, Jérôme; Kolo, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign primitive tumor of the mesenchyme founded at the skeletal muscle level; it presents itself like an unpainful, slow-growing mass. Myxomas with bone lysis are even more rare; only 7 cases have been reported in the English literature, but never at the shoulder level. Case Presentation. We describe an 83-year-old patient with a growing mass in the deltoid muscle with unique scapular lysis, without any symptom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a biopsy were performed and the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma has been retained. In front of this diagnosis of nonmalignant lesion, the decision of a simple follow-up was taken. One year after this decision, the patient was still asymptomatic. Conclusion. In the presence of an intramuscular growing mass with associated bone lysis, intramuscular myxoma as well as malignant tumor should be evoked. MRI has to be part of the initial radiologic appraisal but biopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis. By consensus, the standard treatment is surgical excision but conservative treatment with simple follow-up can be an option. PMID:28194289

  19. Decreased intramuscular blood flow in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, E; Gustafsson, B-E; Pettersson, K; Aulin, K Piehl

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate intramuscular microcirculation in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis, mean duration of symptoms of 39 (12-96) months participated. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and none was under treatment for the last 6 months. Isometric handgrip strength, 2-pinch grip strength and muscle strength during radial deviation and dorsal extension were determined. Functional perceived pain was evaluated by a modified behaviour rating scale and perceived pain during contraction by visual analogue scale. Intramuscular and skin blood flow was recorded by a laser-Doppler flowmetry system technique (LDF) during stable temperature condition. Intramuscular blood flow was significantly lower in the affected side, 22.7+/-9.8 perfusion units (PU), as compared with 35.2+/-11.9 PU in the control side (P=0.01). There was no difference in skin blood flow or temperature between the affected and the control side. A positive correlation was found between the duration of symptoms and the difference in intramuscular blood flow between the affected and the control arm (r=0.65, P=0.06). The present data indicate that decreased microcirculation and anaerobic metabolism in ECRB may contribute to the lateral epicondylitis symptoms.

  20. Effectiveness and duration of intramuscular antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Mims, M.

    1992-01-01

    Motion sickness inhibits gastric motility, making the oral route ineffective for medications. The intramuscular route is an effective alternative. The rotating chair was used to produce the M 111 level of motion sickness on the Graybiel Symptom Scale. The intramuscular medications given 30 minutes before rotation were compared with placebo (saline, 1 mL) for effectiveness and duration in increasing the number of tolerated head movements. Average placebo number of head movements was 294. Promethazine 25 mg increased head movements by 78% (P < .05), with a duration of 12 hours. Scopolamine 0.2 mg increased head movements by 91% (P < .05), with a duration of 4 hours. The effect of caffeine 250 mg and ephedrine 25 mg was not significant. When combined with scopolamine, ephedrine produced an 32% additive effect. Scopolamine 0.08 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg and also promethazine 12.5 mg and 25 mg were significant (P < .05). Promethazine appears to be the drug of choice for intramuscular use because of a longer duration and a high level of effectiveness. Scopolamine was of high effectiveness, but had a duration of 4 hours. It was eight times as potent by the intramuscular as by the oral route.

  1. Effectiveness and duration of intramuscular antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Mims, M.

    1992-01-01

    Motion sickness inhibits gastric motility, making the oral route ineffective for medications. The intramuscular route is an effective alternative. The rotating chair was used to produce the M 111 level of motion sickness on the Graybiel Symptom Scale. The intramuscular medications given 30 minutes before rotation were compared with placebo (saline, 1 mL) for effectiveness and duration in increasing the number of tolerated head movements. Average placebo number of head movements was 294. Promethazine 25 mg increased head movements by 78% (P < .05), with a duration of 12 hours. Scopolamine 0.2 mg increased head movements by 91% (P < .05), with a duration of 4 hours. The effect of caffeine 250 mg and ephedrine 25 mg was not significant. When combined with scopolamine, ephedrine produced an 32% additive effect. Scopolamine 0.08 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg and also promethazine 12.5 mg and 25 mg were significant (P < .05). Promethazine appears to be the drug of choice for intramuscular use because of a longer duration and a high level of effectiveness. Scopolamine was of high effectiveness, but had a duration of 4 hours. It was eight times as potent by the intramuscular as by the oral route.

  2. Karyotyping and analysis of GNAS locus in intramuscular myxomas.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Lobmaier, Ingvild; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Heim, Sverre

    2017-03-28

    Intramuscular myxoma is a benign soft tissue tumor about which very limited genetic information exists. We studied 68 intramuscular myxomas by means of chromosome banding analysis finding abnormal karyotypes in 21 of them. The most clearly nonrandom involvement was of chromosome 8 which was found gained in seven tumors (+8 was the sole change in five myxomas) and structurally rearranged in another two. Since mutation of the gene GNAS (20q13) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both solitary and hereditary multiple myxomas, we assessed the transcription and mutation status of this gene in five tumors from which we had suitable RNA. All five intramuscular myxomas expressed biallelic transcripts. The mutated GNAS allele found in one tumor was also biallelically transcribed. In none of the five myxomas were maternally expressed transcripts detected. Collectively, the data suggest that intramuscular myxomas have acquired genetic abnormalities that often include chromosome 8 changes but may also involve alterations of GNAS. To what extent these aberrations are pathogenetically important, remains uncertain.

  3. Karyotyping and analysis of GNAS locus in intramuscular myxomas

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Lobmaier, Ingvild; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Heim, Sverre

    2017-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma is a benign soft tissue tumor about which very limited genetic information exists. We studied 68 intramuscular myxomas by means of chromosome banding analysis finding abnormal karyotypes in 21 of them. The most clearly nonrandom involvement was of chromosome 8 which was found gained in seven tumors (+8 was the sole change in five myxomas) and structurally rearranged in another two. Since mutation of the gene GNAS (20q13) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both solitary and hereditary multiple myxomas, we assessed the transcription and mutation status of this gene in five tumors from which we had suitable RNA. All five intramuscular myxomas expressed biallelic transcripts. The mutated GNAS allele found in one tumor was also biallelically transcribed. In none of the five myxomas were maternally expressed transcripts detected. Collectively, the data suggest that intramuscular myxomas have acquired genetic abnormalities that often include chromosome 8 changes but may also involve alterations of GNAS. To what extent these aberrations are pathogenetically important, remains uncertain. PMID:28160572

  4. Interlaboratory study of free cyanide methods compared to total cyanide measurements and the effect of preservation with sodium hydroxide for secondary- and tertiary-treated waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Brett J; Antonio, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Several methods exist for the measurement of cyanide levels in treated wastewater,typically requiring preservation of the sample with sodium hydroxide to minimize loss of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Recent reports have shown that cyanide levels may increase with chlorination or preservation. In this study, three flow injection analysis methods involving colorimetric and amperometric detection were compared within one laboratory, as well as across separate laboratories and equipment. Split wastewater samples from eight facilities and three different sampling periods were tested. An interlaboratory confidence interval of 3.5 ppb was calculated compared with the intralaboratory reporting limit of 2 ppb. The results show that free cyanide measurements are not statistically different than total cyanide levels. An artificial increase in cyanide level is observed with all methods for preserved samples relative to nonpreserved samples, with an average increase of 2.3 ppb. The possible loss of cyanide without preservation is shown to be statistically insignificant if properly stored up to 48 hours. The cyanide increase with preservation is further substantiated with the method of standard additions and is not a matrix interference. The increase appears to be correlated with the amount of cyanide observed without preservation, which appears to be greater in those facilities that disinfect their wastewater with chlorine, followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulfite.

  5. The current and future applications of microorganism in the bioremediation of cyanide contamination.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Joanne; Cummings, Stephen P

    2006-07-01

    Inorganic cyanide and nitrile compounds are distributed widely in the environment, chiefly as a result of anthropogenic activity but also through cyanide synthesis by a range of organisms including higher plants, fungi and bacteria. The major source of cyanide in soil and water is through the discharge of effluents containing a variety of inorganic cyanide and nitriles. Here the fate of cyanide compounds in soil and water is reviewed, identifying those factors that affect their persistence and which determine whether they are amenable to biological degradation. The exploitation of cyanides by a variety of taxa, as a mechanism to avoid predation or to inhibit competitors has led to the evolution in many organisms of enzymes that catalyse degradation of a range of cyanide compounds. Microorganisms expressing pathways involved in cyanide degradation are briefly reviewed and the current applications of bacteria and fungi in the biodegradation of cyanide contamination in the field are discussed. Finally, recent advances that offer an insight into the potential of microbial systems for the bioremediation of cyanide compounds under a range of environmental conditions are identified, and the future potential of these technologies for the treatment of cyanide pollution is discussed.

  6. Factors affecting the biodegradation of cyanide by Burkholderia cepacia strain C-3.

    PubMed

    Adjei, M D; Ohta, Y

    2000-01-01

    The utilization of cyanide as a nitrogen source for growth in a liquid minimal medium by Burkholderia cepacia strain C-3 isolated from soil was demonstrated. The effects of various parameters on the biodegradation of cyanide by the strain were investigated. Growth at the expense of cyanide occurred over a pH range from 8 to 10, and was optimal at pH 10. Growth and cyanide biodegradation were optimal at 30 degrees C. The presence of Cu2+ or Fe2+ in the liquid medium at a concentration of 1 mM inhibited both the growth of the bacterium and its cyanide degradation. The effects of Ni2+ and Co2+, and to a lesser extent Mn2+ and Mo2+, on cyanide degradation rate were concentration dependent. Addition of the cyanide-containing waste contaminants ethanol and methanol reduced the cyanide utilization of the isolate, but phenol was completely inhibitory. Microbial depletion of cyanide occurred even in the presence of other organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. Fructose, glucose, and mannose were the preferred carbon sources for cyanide biodegradation. The highest rate of cyanide degradation by B. cepacia C-3, 1.85 mg CN h(-1), was observed with 0.25% (w/v) fructose; the degradation rate decreased progressively thereafter with increasing fructose concentration.

  7. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13-200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  8. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification.

  9. Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

  10. Identification of a crystalline cyanide-containing compound in blast furnace sludge deposits.

    PubMed

    Mansfeldt, T; Dohrmann, R

    2001-01-01

    During blast furnace operation, a cyanide-containing muddy waste referred to as blast furnace sludge is generated in large amounts. In Germany it was and is still common practice to pump this sludge into surface deposits. Depending on species, cyanide has very different toxicity. To this day there is no information about the type of cyanide occurring in blast furnace sludge deposits. In order to identify the type of cyanide we investigated by means of wet chemical and powder X-ray diffraction analyses 37 samples of three blast furnace deposits. Wet chemical results indicate that both the extremely toxic free cyanide (HCN and CN ) and toxic weak metal-cyanide complexes, for example [Zn(CN)4]2-, are not present in the sludge. By powder X-ray diffraction we identified the crystalline cyanide-containing compound potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) nonahydrate, K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2 x 9H2O, as the cyanide-bearing compound. Our study is the first that identifies potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) nonahydrate in the environment. As the iron-cyanide complex [Fe(CN)6] is not acutely toxic, any direct hazard comes from cyanide occurring in the investigated wastes. Under the predominant pH milieu of the sludge (pH about 8) the solubility of potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) nonahydrate is low, thus minimizing the mobility of cyanide.

  11. A Direct and Rapid Method to Determine Cyanide in Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-01-01

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4 minutes, and the separation was observed in 25 s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. PMID:26342870

  12. Development of a Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Rapid Diagnosis of Cyanide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The “heavy” use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture “apparatus”, consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13–200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  13. Morphological transformation and oxidative stress induced by cyanide in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.

    PubMed

    Kamendulis, Lisa M; Zhang, Haizhou; Wang, Yanhong; Klaunig, James E

    2002-08-01

    Cyanide is a well-established poison known for its rapid lethal action and toxicity. Although long-term mammalian studies examining the carcinogenic potential of cyanide have not been previously reported, cyanide was reported to be positive in Salmonella typhimurium mutagenesis assay and induced aneuploidy in Drosophila. To further evaluate the carcinogenic potential of cyanide, the ability of cyanide to induce morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells was studied. Cyanide induced a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation in SHE cells following a 7-day continuous treatment. A significant increase in transformation was observed at potassium cyanide doses of 200 microM and greater. Transformation induced by cyanide was inhibited in a dose-related manner by vitamin E, suggesting a role of oxidative stress in the induction of morphological transformation by cyanide. Further, it was shown that 500 microM cyanide induced oxidative DNA damage in SHE cells, evidenced by the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (50-66% increase over control). The induction of oxidative stress by cyanide involved an early and temporal inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) as well as an increased production of reactive oxygen species (1.5- to 2.0-fold over control).

  14. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol.

    PubMed

    Parga, J R; Shukla, S S; Carrillo-Pedroza, F R

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O(3)) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  15. An enzymatic method for determination of azide and cyanide in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nan-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Feng; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-11-20

    A halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH-PL) from Parvibaculum lavamentivorans DS-1 was characterized and applied to determine azide and cyanide in the water. In this methodology, HHDH-PL catalysed azide and cyanide to react with butylene oxide and form corresponding β-substituted alcohols 1-azidobutan-2-ol (ABO) and 3-hydroxypentanenitrile (HPN) that could be quantitatively detected by gas chromatograph. The detection calibration curves for azide (R(2)=0.997) and cyanide (R(2)=0.995) were linear and the lower limits of detection for azide and cyanide were 0.1 and 0.3mM, respectively. Several other nucleophiles were identified having no effect on the analysis of azide and cyanide, excepting nitrite which influenced the detection of cyanide. This was the first report of a biological method to determine the inorganic azide and cyanide by converting them to the measurable organics.

  16. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for thiocyanate in plasma and urine, and ATCA showed significant differences in plasma and saliva. Additionally, biomarker concentration ratios, correlations between markers of cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  17. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol

    SciTech Connect

    Parga, J.R.; Shukla, S.S.; Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R

    2003-07-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O{sub 3}) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  18. The effect of cyanide on the uptake of gold by red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, G G; Haavisto, T M; Jones, H M; Champion, G D

    1984-04-15

    Cyanide markedly increased the rate of uptake of gold by red blood cells when incubated with sodium aurothiomalate, a polymeric gold complex. Thiocyanate had no significant effect on gold uptake. The effect of cyanide was demonstrated to be due to the conversion of aurothiomalate to the complexion, aurocyanide, which is rapidly taken up by red blood cells. At a low ratio (1:20) of cyanide to aurothiomalate, cyanide appeared to act as a shuttle to carry gold into red blood cells. Tobacco smoking is known to increase the concentrations of gold in red blood cells in patients treated with aurothiomalate. The present data indicate that this effect of smoking is most likely due to cyanide inhaled in tobacco smoke and not to thiocyanate, a circulating metabolite of cyanide. An effect of cyanide on the uptake of polymeric gold complexes to target cells such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes is suggested.

  19. Destruction of cyanide in waste waters: review and evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weathington, B.C.

    1988-05-01

    This report presents a review of known cyanide destruction technologies with respect to applicability, feasibility, effectiveness, and cost. Particular emphasis was placed on the destruction of complex cyanides. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate a photocatalytic process to convert simple cyanides, iron cyanides and thiocyanates to cyanate using (TiO/sub 2/) and ultraviolet radiation. The scope of the problem of cyanide in waste water or leachate and the effectiveness of twelve different technologies that have been applied to the destruction of cyanide were assessed by review of available literature and discussions with industry and government authorities. Brief summaries of the problem and the current technologies are contained in the report. In general, the primary concern with cyanide effluent is its propensity to form complexes difficult to remove and that can later break down to highly toxic forms.

  20. Cyanide and Copper Recovery from Barren Solution of the Merrill Crowe Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesús L.; Díaz, J. A.

    This paper is a brief overview of the role of inducing the nucleated precipitation of copper and cyanide in a flashtube serpentine reactor, using sodium sulfide as the precipitate and sulfuric acid as pH control. The results showed that pH had a great effect on copper cyanide removal efficiency and the optimum pH was about 3 to 3.5. At this pH value copper cyanide removal efficiency could be achieved above 97 and 99 %, when influent copper concentration ions were 650 and 900 ppm respectively. In this process the cyanide associated with the copper, zinc, iron cyanide complexes are released as HCN gas under strong acidic conditions, allowing it to be recycled back to the cyanidation process as free cyanide.

  1. Non-classical inhibition of uricase by cyanide.

    PubMed Central

    Conley, T G; Priest, D G

    1980-01-01

    The interactions of Aspergillus flavus uricase with the substrates O2 and urate and the inhibitors xanthine, cyanide, periodate and hydroxylamine were investigated. Under equilibrium conditions O2 does not bind directly to the enzyme, and the absence of O2 had no effect on either the binding stoicheiometry or binding constant for xanthine, as measured by equilibrium dialysis and microcalorimetry. Cyanide, periodate and hydroxylamine inhibit uricase in a non-classical manner. A decrease in initial velocity to a steady-state inhibited velocity can be observed on a time scale of minutes. The time-dependence, which is unaltered by prior incubation with the inhibitors, is consistent with a first-order transition. Rate constants for induction of inhibition are linearly dependent on inhibitor concentration, but independent of urate and O2 concentrations. Radioactively labelled urate forms a stable but reversible complex with uricase in the presence of cyanide and O2. These results were used to deduce the nature of enzyme-bound intermediates and thus for the proposal of a novel mechanism for cyanide inhibition. PMID:6821368

  2. Lewis acid double metal cyanide catalysts for hydroamination of phenylacetylene.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Annelies; Valvekens, Pieterjan; Vermoortele, Frederik; Ameloot, Rob; Kirschhock, Christine; De Vos, Dirk

    2011-04-14

    Double metal cyanides (DMCs) are highly active recyclable heterogeneous catalysts for hydroamination of phenylacetylene with 4-isopropylaniline. The best hydroamination yields are obtained with Zn-Co DMCs, especially if the particle size is decreased by a reverse emulsion synthesis technique.

  3. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. 180.130 Section 180.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  4. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. 180.130 Section 180.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  5. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. 180.130 Section 180.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances...

  6. 90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  7. 169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  8. Thermodeformational Behavior of Cubic Crystals of Sodium Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesleva, E. P.; Gil, L. B.; Solovyan, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper the authors provide results of the study of anisotropic and isotropic acoustic (elastic waves propagation velocities), dimensional (elastic moduli) and nondimensional (Poisson's ratios) elastic characteristics of mono- and polycrystals of sodium cyanide within the temperature range 283.7÷473 K.

  9. Cyanide toxicity from the thermal degradation of rigid polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Bell, R H; Stemmer, K L; Barkley, W; Hollingsworth, L D

    1979-09-01

    Thermal degradation products (tdp) from a model, rigid polyurethane foam were collected in such a manner as to eliminate carbon monoxide and other gases with low boiling points. The effects in rats resulting from intratracheal intubation (I.T.) of the tdp are discussed. Cyanide was found to be a major factor associated with severe toxic responses of the experimental rats.

  10. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis. PMID:26101526

  11. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-02-06

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  12. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  13. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, André T; Hueza, Isis M; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M; Maiorka, Paulo C; Górniak, Silvana L

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis.

  14. Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-15

    In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide.

  15. ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Maureen Y.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent simulations have indicated that vinyl cyanide is the best candidate molecule for the formation of cell membranes/vesicle structures in Titan’s hydrocarbon-rich lakes and seas. Although the existence of vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN) on Titan was previously inferred using Cassini mass spectrometry, a definitive detection has been lacking until now. We report the first spectroscopic detection of vinyl cyanide in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using archival data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), collected from February to May 2014. We detect the three strongest rotational lines of C2H3CN in the frequency range of 230 to 232 GHz, each with >4σ confidence. Radiative transfer modeling suggests that most of the C2H3CN emission originates at altitudes of ≳200 km, in agreement with recent photochemical models. The vertical column densities implied by our best-fitting models lie in the range of 3.7 × 1013 to 1.4 × 1014 cm−2. The corresponding production rate of vinyl cyanide and its saturation mole fraction imply the availability of sufficient dissolved material to form ~107 cell membranes/cm3 in Titan’s sea Ligeia Mare. PMID:28782019

  16. Synthesis of Potential Prophylactic Agents against Cyanide Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-10

    and a-ketoulutarte, whichcan bind cyanide throull cyanohydrin formation; and ( 3 ) explokuio of additional cla of compoundswhich can directly react with... 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES...of 4-Pheoayl-2,4-dioxobutyW. Acid ........................... 9 B. Derivatives of 3 -Phoayl-2-oxopropionic Acid ............................. 10 IV

  17. Tissue distribution of a plasmid DNA encoding Hsp65 gene is dependent on the dose administered through intramuscular delivery

    PubMed Central

    Coelho-Castelo, AAM; Trombone, AP; Rosada, RS; Santos, RR; Bonato, VLD; Sartori, A; Silva, CL

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess a new strategy of DNA vaccine for a more complete understanding of its action in immune response, it is important to determine the in vivo biodistribution fate and antigen expression. In previous studies, our group focused on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of a plasmid DNA encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and achieved an efficient immune response induction as well as protection against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge. In the present study, we examined in vivo tissue distribution of naked DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, the Hsp65 message, genome integration and methylation status of plasmid DNA. The DNA-Hsp65 was detectable in several tissue types, indicating that DNA-Hsp65 disseminates widely throughout the body. The biodistribution was dose-dependent. In contrast, RT-PCR detected the Hsp65 message for at least 15 days in muscle or liver tissue from immunized mice. We also analyzed the methylation status and integration of the injected plasmid DNA into the host cellular genome. The bacterial methylation pattern persisted for at least 6 months, indicating that the plasmid DNA-Hsp65 does not replicate in mammalian tissue, and Southern blot analysis showed that plasmid DNA was not integrated. These results have important implications for the use of DNA-Hsp65 vaccine in a clinical setting and open new perspectives for DNA vaccines and new considerations about the inoculation site and delivery system. PMID:16445866

  18. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  19. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, M-A; Pozos-Guillen, A; Martinez-Rider, R; Perez-Urizar, J

    2016-09-01

    Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. According to the VAS and UAC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery.

  20. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario-Alberto; Martinez-Rider, Ricardo; Perez-Urizar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. Material and Methods A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Results Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. Conclusions According to the VAS and AUC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery. Key words:Ketorolac, tramadol, third molar surgery, pain, preemptive analgesia. PMID:27475688

  1. COMPUTER ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION, ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOPSTEIN, FELIX F.; SEIDEL, ROBERT J.

    AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO ASSESS THE ECONOMICS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION (TAI) IN CONTROLLING THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEARNER'S STIMULUS ENVIRONMENT IN TEACHING AND TRAINING SITUATIONS. THERE IS A DISCUSSION OF THE NEED FOR A SOUND, OBJECTIVE ECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF THE VALUE TO SOCIETY OF…

  2. Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in Brazil: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, E S F; Adams, C E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether haloperidol alone results in swifter and safer tranquillisation and sedation than haloperidol plus promethazine. Design Pragmatic randomised open trial (January-July 2004). Setting Psychiatric emergency room, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants 316 patients who needed urgent intramuscular sedation because of agitation, dangerous behaviour, or both. Interventions Open treatment with intramuscular haloperidol 5-10 mg or intramuscular haloperidol 5-10 mg plus intramuscular promethazine up to 50 mg; doses were at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was proportion tranquil or asleep by 20 minutes. Secondary outcomes were asleep by 20 minutes; tranquil or asleep by 40, 60, and 120 minutes; physically restrained or given additional drugs within 2 hours; severe adverse events; another episode of agitation or aggression; additional visit from the doctor during the subsequent 24 hours; overall antipsychotic load in the first 24 hours; and still in hospital after 2 weeks. Results Primary outcome data were available for 311 (98.4%) people, 77% of whom were thought to have a psychotic illness. Patients allocated haloperidol plus promethazine were more likely to be tranquil or asleep by 20 minutes than those who received intramuscular haloperidol alone (relative risk 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.55; number needed to treat 6, 95% confidence interval 4 to 16; P=0.002). No differences were found after 20 minutes. However, 10 cases of acute dystonia occurred, all in the haloperidol alone group. Conclusions Haloperidol plus promethazine is a better option than haloperidol alone in terms of speed of onset of action and safety. Enough data are now available to change guidelines that continue to recommend treatments that leave people exposed to longer periods of aggression than necessary and patients vulnerable to distressing and unsafe adverse effects. Trial registration Current Controlled

  3. Whole-genome transcriptional and physiological responses of Nitrosomonas europaea to cyanide: identification of cyanide stress response genes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhwa; Ely, Roger L

    2009-04-15

    Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) is one of several nitrifying species that participate in the biological removal of nitrogen from wastewater by oxidizing ammonia to nitrite, the first step in nitrification. Because nitrification is quite sensitive to cyanide, a compound often encountered in wastewater treatment plants, we characterized the physiological and transcriptional responses of N. europaea cells to cyanide. The cells were extremely sensitive to low concentrations of cyanide, with NO-(2)production and ammonia-dependent oxygen uptake rates decreasing by 50% within 30 min of exposure to 1 microM NaCN. Whole-genome transcriptional responses of cells exposed to 1 microM NaCN were examined using Affymetrix microarrays to identify stress-induced genes. The transcript levels of 35 genes increased more than 2-fold while transcript levels of 29 genes decreased more than 20-fold. A gene cluster that included moeZ (NE2353), encoding a rhodanese homologue and thought to be involved in detoxification of cyanide, showed the highest up-regulation (7-fold). The down-regulated genes included genes encoding proteins involved in the sulfate reduction pathway, signal transduction mechanisms, carbohydrate transport, energy production, coenzyme metabolism, and amino acid transport.

  4. Differential gene expression profile in the liver of the marine puffer fish Takifugu rubripes induced by intramuscular administration of tetrodotoxin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2011-02-01

    Marine puffer fish accumulate a high level of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the liver and ovary, but the underlying mechanism of this toxification is unclear. To elucidate the genes related to toxification of the marine puffer fish, we examined the hepatic gene expression profile of the marine puffer fish Takifugu rubripes by suppression subtractive hybridization in response to the intramuscular administration of 0.50 mg TTX/kg body weight into the caudal muscle. The accumulation of TTX in the liver reached 68 ± 4% that of the administered dose within 12 h of administration. A total of 1048 clones from the subtracted cDNA libraries were successfully sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of 92 of the 1048 clones was identified as a hepcidin precursor. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed that hepcidin precursors were highly expressed in the TTX-administered group. In addition, complement C3 (31 clones), serotransferrin (30 clones), apolipoprotein A-1 (14 clones), high temperature adaptation protein Wap65-2 (14 clones), complement C7 (12 clones), fibrinogen beta chain (12 clones), and 70 kDa heat-shock protein 4 (11 clones) were obtained. This study confirmed that the intramuscular administration of TTX increases the gene expression of the acute-phase response proteins in the liver of puffer fish T. rubripes.

  5. In vitro and in vivo comparison of sulfur donors as antidotes to acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Baskin, S I; Porter, D W; Rockwood, G A; Romano, J A; Patel, H C; Kiser, R C; Cook, C M; Ternay, A L

    1999-01-01

    Antidotes for cyanide (CN) intoxication include the use of sulfane sulfur donors (SSDs), such as thiosulfate, which increase the conversion of CN to thiocyanate by the enzyme rhodanese. To develop pretreatments that might be useful against CN, SSDs with greater lipophilicity than thiosulfate were synthesized and assessed. The ability of SSDs to protect mice against 2LD50 of sodium cyanide (NaCN) administered either 15 or 60 min following administration of an SSD was assessed. To study the mechanism of action of the SSD, the candidate compounds were examined in vitro for their effect on rhodanese and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) activity under increasing SSD concentrations. Tests were conducted on nine candidate SSDs: ICD1021 (3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl N-[(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)]-2-aminoethyl disulfide dihydrochloride), ICD1022, (3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl N-[(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)]-2-aminoethyl disulfide trihydrochloride), ICD1584 (diethyl tetrasulfide), ICD1585 (diallyl tetrasulfide), ICD1587 (diisopropyl tetrasulfide); ICD1738 (N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-aminoethyl 2-oxopropyl disulfide dihydrochloride), ICD1816 (3,3'-tetrathiobis-N-acctyl-L-alanine), ICD2214 (2-aminoethyl 4-methoxyphenyl disulfide hydrochloride) and ICD2467 (bis(4-methoxyphenyl) disulfide). These tests demonstrated that altering the chemical substituent of the longer chain sulfide modified the ability of the candidate SSD to protect against CN toxicity. At least two of the SSDs at selected doses provided 100% protection against 2LD50 of NaCN, normally an LD99. All compounds were evaluated using locomotor activity as a measure of potential adverse behavioral effects. Positive hypoactivity relationships were found with several disulfides but none was found with ICD1584, a tetrasulfide. Separate studies suggest that the chemical reaction of potassium cyanide (KCN) and cystine forms the toxic metabolite 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. An alternative detoxification pathway, one not primarily

  6. Acute toxicity studies of alpha-ketoglutarate: a promising antidote for cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, D; Sugendran, K; Pant, S C; Tulsawani, R K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2001-01-01

    Recently we have shown that cyanide poisoning by the oral (p.o.) route could be antagonized significantly by pretreatment or simultaneous treatment of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG), administered p.o. in rodents. The protective effect of alpha-KG was dose dependent (0.125-2.0 g kg(-1)) and the effect was significant at a dose above 1.0 g kg(-1). In order to establish the safety of alpha-KG, various haematological, biochemical and histological parameters were studied following p.o. administration of 2.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG in female rats, and various physiological parameters were studied following p.o. administration of 2.0 or 4.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG in anaesthetized male rats. The p.o. LD(50) of alpha-KG in male and female rats was >5.0 g kg(-1) and no toxic signs were observed in the surviving animals. Except for an increase in plasma alkaline phosphatase and urea levels after 1 h and a decrease in inorganic phosphorus levels after 7 days of treatment, no significant change in haematology, biochemistry or histology of the vital organs were observed. Mean arterial pressure and neuromuscular transmission were decreased at 4.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG but other physiological variables such as heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, left ventricular pressure (systolic), arterial pressure (systolic) and arterial pressure (diastolic) were not altered. The changes observed at 4.0 g kg(-1)alpha-KG are unlikely to be of toxicological concern. The results indicate that alpha-KG at 2.0 g kg(-1) (p.o.)-a dose offering maximum antidotal efficacy-is non-toxic and therefore can be considered suitable for cyanide poisoning. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cyanide in industrial wastewaters and its removal: a review on biotreatment.

    PubMed

    Dash, Rajesh Roshan; Gaur, Abhinav; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2009-04-15

    Cyanides are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and algae, and may be found in plants and some foods, such as lima beans and almonds. Although cyanides are present in small concentrations in these plants and microorganisms, their large-scale presence in the environment is attributed to the human activities as cyanide compounds are extensively used in industries. Bulk of cyanide occurrence in environment is mainly due to metal finishing and mining industries. Although cyanide can be removed and recovered by several processes, it is still widely discussed and examined due to its potential toxicity and environmental impact. From an economic standpoint, the biological treatment method is cost-effective as compared to chemical and physical methods for cyanide removal. Several microbial species can effectively degrade cyanide into less toxic products. During metabolism, they use cyanide as a nitrogen and carbon source converting it to ammonia and carbonate, if appropriate conditions are maintained. Biological treatment of cyanide under anaerobic as well as aerobic conditions is possible. The present review describes the mechanism and advances in the use of biological treatment for the removal of cyanide compounds and its advantages over other treatment processes. It also includes various microbial pathways for their removal.

  8. Relative stability and proton transfer reactions of unsaturated isocyanides and cyanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamson, Aiko; Kaljurand, Ivari; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Burk, Peeter

    2016-09-01

    The typical Gibbs free energy difference between hydrocarbon substituted isocyanides and the corresponding cyanides is 25 to 28 kcal/mol in favor of the cyanides and is mostly independent of the substituent. Triple bonded species with a -C ≡ C-RN,C (RN,C = CN, NC) structure can be considered as exceptions. Because isocyanide and cyanide species have very similar structures, the relative energy is independent of the pressure and temperature conditions. Theoretical and experimental gas-phase investigations show that basicity of isocyanides ranges from 182.1 to 198.2 kcal/mol which is 14.0 to 19.7 kcal/mol higher than the basicity of respective cyanides. The most favored protonation centers are located on isocyanide or cyanide group depending on the species. The biggest increase of basicity was caused by bulkier substituents. The substitutions have greater influence on the basicity of cyanides than on the basicity of isocyanides. In regard to deprotonation, the cyanides are more acidic than the corresponding isocyanides. For most of the unsaturated cyanide and isocyanide species the (N,C)-CHR' hydrogen (the one connected to the carbon next to cyanide/isocyanide group) is the most acidic. Our work suggests that for derivatives bearing unsaturated substituent the favored deprotonation center may be different and some cyanides and isocyanides are unstable towards gas-phase deprotonation equilibrium as the formed anion tends to isomerize.

  9. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) after intravenous and intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Poapolathep, S; Giorgi, M; Hantrakul, S; Klangkaew, N; Sanyathitiseree, P; Poapolathep, A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the fate and disposition of marbofloxacin (MBF) in freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis), MBF was administered either intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dosage of 2.0 mg/kg body weight. The concentrations of MBF in plasma were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The concentrations of MBF in the plasma were measurable up to 144 h after i.v. and i.m. administration. After the first 45 min, the mean pharmacokinetic profiles produced by the two administration routes were almost identical. No statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters between the groups were observed. The half-life was long (about 2.5 days), the volume of distribution was large (about 1.44 L/kg), λz was small (0.01 h(-1) ), and the clearance was slow (22.6 mL/h/kg). The absolute i.m. bioavailability (F%) was 105.36%. The dose of MBF administered in this study seems to produce appropriate PK-PD parameters that predict antibacterial success for disease caused by susceptible bacteria. More studies are warranted to evaluate the likely residues after administration of multiple doses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. INTRAMUSCULAR EPINEPHRINE RESULTS IN REDUCED ANESTHETIC RECOVERY TIME IN AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) UNDERGOING ISOFLURANE ANESTHESIA.

    PubMed

    Gatson, Bonnie J; Goe, Alexandra; Granone, Tiffany D; Wellehan, James F X

    2017-03-01

    Inhalants are commonly used to anesthetize reptiles, but volatile anesthetics have been associated with prolonged recovery times. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of intramuscular (IM) epinephrine on anesthetic recovery times following isoflurane anesthesia in a population of subadult American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ). In this prospective randomized crossover study, five clinically healthy alligators were anesthetized for 90 min with the use of isoflurane. Alligators were randomly assigned into one of two treatment groups: Group E received IM epinephrine (0.1 mg/kg), and Group S received an equal volume of 0.9% saline administered after isoflurane was discontinued. Time from the end of inhalant administration to return of spontaneous ventilation, return of the palpebral reflex, movement in response to a standardized toe pinch, and spontaneous movement was recorded. The time of extubation was noted and occurred following the return of spontaneous ventilation and movement. Pulse rate, surface body temperature, and airway gases including expiratory and inspiratory isoflurane concentrations and end-tidal carbon dioxide were measured every 5 min throughout the study. The time from the end of anesthesia to extubation was significantly faster in Group E (51.2 ± 16.7 min) compared to Group S (107.4 ± 43.7 min). Pulse rate was significantly higher within the first 15 min following epinephrine injection compared to the saline group at these time points. Therefore, IM epinephrine administered at the end of general anesthesia can significantly hasten anesthetic recovery from isoflurane in alligators.

  12. Bacterial Degradation of Cyanide and Its Metal Complexes under Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M.; Huertas, María-J.; Martínez-Luque, Manuel; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, M. Dolores; García-Gil, L. Jesús; Castillo, Francisco; Blasco, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    A bacterial strain able to use cyanide as the sole nitrogen source under alkaline conditions has been isolated. The bacterium was classified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes by comparison of its 16S RNA gene sequence to those of existing strains and deposited in the Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (Spanish Type Culture Collection) as strain CECT5344. Cyanide consumption is an assimilative process, since (i) bacterial growth was concomitant and proportional to cyanide degradation and (ii) the bacterium stoichiometrically converted cyanide into ammonium in the presence of l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, a glutamine synthetase inhibitor. The bacterium was able to grow in alkaline media, up to an initial pH of 11.5, and tolerated free cyanide in concentrations of up to 30 mM, which makes it a good candidate for the biological treatment of cyanide-contaminated residues. Both acetate and d,l-malate were suitable carbon sources for cyanotrophic growth, but no growth was detected in media with cyanide as the sole carbon source. In addition to cyanide, P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 used other nitrogen sources, namely ammonium, nitrate, cyanate, cyanoacetamide, nitroferricyanide (nitroprusside), and a variety of cyanide-metal complexes. Cyanide and ammonium were assimilated simultaneously, whereas cyanide strongly inhibited nitrate and nitrite assimilation. Cyanase activity was induced during growth with cyanide or cyanate, but not with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source. This result suggests that cyanate could be an intermediate in the cyanide degradation pathway, but alternative routes cannot be excluded. PMID:15691951

  13. Reaction of E. coli catalase HPII with cyanide as ligand and as inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Maj, M; Nicholls, P; Obinger, C; Hillar, A; Loewen, P C

    1996-12-05

    Cyanide forms an inhibitory complex with the haem d-containing E. coli catalase HPII, spectrally similar to the cyanide complex of beef liver enzyme but with absorption bands shifted 90 nm towards the red end of the spectrum. Both the Kd and Ki values are approximately 7 microM in the wild-type enzyme. The cyanide reaction is slow, with a bimolecular 'on' constant approx. 2000 x smaller than that of eukaryotic enzyme, and an 'off' constant diminished by a similar amount. Catalases with a mutated distal histidine (H128) fail to bind cyanide at cyanide concentrations below 50 mM. Catalases with a mutated distal asparagine (N201) show only small changes in cyanide affinity from the wild type. The major fraction of HPII N201A has a Kd approximately 40 microM, and a minor fraction has a lower cyanide affinity; the major fraction of HPII N201Q has a Kd approximately 15 microM. The Kd and Ki for HPII N201D is approximately 8 microM, essentially identical with that of the wild type but N201D appears to bind cyanide somewhat more rapidly than does wild-type enzyme. The HPII mutant N201H can be obtained in both haem d and protohaem forms; it exhibits two types of cyanide binding behaviour. In its protohaem form it binds cyanide poorly (Kd > or = 0.25 mM). After peroxide treatment converts t into haem d or a closely related species it binds cyanide with a much higher affinity (Kd approximately 15 microM). Cyanide binding to HPII requires a distal histidine to provide hydrogen-bonding stability, but not a distal asparagine. Rates of cyanide binding and release are controlled by haem group accessibility through the channel leading to the outside. In HPII N201H channel opening may depend upon oxidation of the haem from the starting protohaem to the final haem d form.

  14. Parenteral dosage form development and testing of dimethyl trisulfide, as an antidote candidate to combat cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kristof; Duke, Anna C; Shifflet, Marla; Winner, Brittany; Lee, Stephen A; Rockwood, Gary A; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-01-07

    This study focused on the solubility enhancement and the in vivo antidotal efficacy testing of a new potential cyanide (CN) countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Various FDA approved cyclodextrins (HPβCD, RMβCD, HPγCD), cosolvents (ethanol, polyethylene glycols, propylene glycol), surfactants (cremophor EL, cremophor RH 40, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, polysorbate 80) and their combinations were applied. Based on the solubility enhancing potential of the tested systems, polysorbate 80 was chosen for further in vivo efficacy studies. A composition comprising 15% polysorbate 80 and 50 mg/ml DMTS with the applied DMTS dose of 100 mg/kg provided a therapeutic antidotal protection of 3.4 × LD50. For comparison, the present therapy of sodium thiosulfate (TS) with the dose of 100 mg/kg provided only 1.1 × LD50 protection, and at the dose of 200 mg/kg, the LD50 was enhanced by 1.3 times. No difference in the therapeutic protection by DMTS was detected when the concentration of polysorbate 80 was increased to 20% (3.2 × LD50 protection). These data demonstrate the potential importance of DMTS as a CN countermeasure, and the formulation comprising polysorbate 80 provides the base of an injectable intramuscular dosage form that can later serve as a CN antidotal kit suitable for mass scenario.

  15. On the role of β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) in metabolism of free cyanide and ferri-cyanide by rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Lu, Peng-Cheng; Yu, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the contribution of β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) to the botanical metabolism of free cyanide and iron cyanides. Seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown hydroponically and then amended with free cyanide (KCN) or ferri-cyanide [K(3)Fe(CN)(6)] into the growth media. Total cyanide, free cyanide, and Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) in aqueous solution were analyzed to identify the speciation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Activity of CAS in different parts of the rice seedlings was also assayed in vivo and results indicated that dissociation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) to free cyanide in solution was negligible. Almost all of the applied KCN was removed by rice seedlings and the metabolic rates were concentration dependent. Phyto-transport of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was apparent, but appreciable amounts of cyanide were recovered in plant tissues. The metabolic rates of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) were also positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. Rice seedlings exposed to KCN showed a considerable increase in the CAS activity and roots had higher CAS activity than shoots, indicating that CAS plays an important role in the botanical assimilation of KCN. However, no measurable change of CAS activity in different parts of rice seedlings exposed to K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was detected, suggesting that K(3)Fe(CN)(6) is likely metabolized by rice directly through an unknown pathway rather than the β-cyanoalanine pathway.

  16. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    PubMed

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in June (0.87 μg L(-1)) and May (0.77 μg L(-1)) months of 2012 and 2013, respectively, than the rest of the months. However, free cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ∼3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution.

  17. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments.

  18. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, Kwangho; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-06-01

    Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP.

  19. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, Kwangho; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP. PMID:26120491

  20. Postmortem redistribution of olanzapine following intramuscular administration of olanzapine pamoate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jason T; Everly, Amy G; Kpakima, Felicia E Frazier; Detke, Holland C

    2015-12-01

    The potential for postmortem redistribution of olanzapine was investigated in beagle dogs. Olanzapine pamoate monohydrate was administered once every 14 days by intramuscular injection for 3 months to fed male dogs (n=15) at a dose of 20 mg/kg olanzapine (equivalent to 46 mg/kg olanzapine pamoate monohydrate). Blood samples were collected after the fifth (Day 57) and sixth (Day 71) doses to determine olanzapine and N-oxide olanzapine concentrations. On Day 71 at 72 h postdose, dogs were euthanized and placed on their backs without additional manipulation and held for postmortem blood, urine, and tissue collection at room temperature for up to 168 h postdose (96 h after euthanasia). Concentrations of olanzapine and N-oxide olanzapine were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Postmortem olanzapine concentrations in blood increased up to seven-fold compared to the last quantified antemortem blood concentration. Olanzapine concentrations in vein tissue samples (surrogates for peripheral blood) also increased, whereas other tissue concentrations, such as myocardium, lung, liver, and kidney decreased over the postmortem period. An increase in blood concentration of olanzapine after death was observed in all but one animal, suggesting that postmortem redistribution may occur in dogs following biweekly intramuscular administration of olanzapine pamoate monohydrate. The rise in olanzapine concentrations in blood after death in this study may potentially be attributed to diffusion from multiple tissues to blood and, to a lesser extent, reduction of the N-oxide olanzapine metabolite back to olanzapine. However, the generalizability of these results to humans cannot be confirmed by the present study. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.