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Sample records for intramuscularly administered cyanide

  1. Effectiveness of intramuscularly administered cyanide antidotes on methemoglobin formation and survival.

    PubMed

    Vick, J A; Von Bredow, J D

    1996-01-01

    Successful first aid therapy for cyanide intoxication is dependent upon immediate administration of antidotes which directly or indirectly interact with the cyanide ion to remove it from circulation. Owing to the severe respiratory, cardiovascular and convulsive episodes following acute cyanide intoxication, the most practical approach is to administer antidotes by intramuscular injection. Exceptionally rapid methemoglobin formers-hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH) and dimethylaminophenol (DMAP)-are usually able to prevent the lethal effect of cyanide following intramuscular injections in doses sufficient to induce 20% methemoglobin (HH = 20 mg kg-1 and DMAP = 2 mg kg-1). Sodium nitrite, the methemoglobin inducer approved for military use, must be administered by intravenous infusion because it is not an effective cyanide antidote by the intramuscular route. In the normal unintoxicated animal an intramuscular injection of 20 mg kg-1 sodium nitrite will form 20% methemoglobin; however, in acute cyanide intoxication the associated severe bradycardia appears to limit the rate of absorption and thus the rapid formation of methemoglobin. If the bradycardia is prevented or reversed by atropine, the rate of absorption of sodium nitrite and the formation of methemoglobin is able to reverse the otherwise lethal effects of cyanide. Thus, an intramuscularly administered combination of 20 mg kg-1 sodium nitrite and 1 mg kg-1 atropine sulfate, rapidly absorbed from the intramuscular site, appears to achieve the same degree of effectiveness against acute cyanide intoxication as intramuscularly administered HH or DMAP. It would appear from these studies that HH, DMAP and sodium nitrite with atropine are all potentially effective intramuscular antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

  2. Nitrocobinamide, a new cyanide antidote that can be administered by intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T; Shelton, G Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J; Patel, Hemal H; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B; Boss, Gerry R

    2015-02-26

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5-10 min, making them ill-suited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure.

  3. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0114 TITLE: Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties... Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery 5a...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Current antidotes for cyanide poisoning must be administered by

  4. Cyanide antidotes for mass casualties: water-soluble salts of the dithiane (sulfanegen) from 3-mercaptopyruvate for intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Monteil, Alexandre R; Cohen, Jonathan F; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Nagasawa, Herbert T

    2013-02-14

    Current cyanide antidotes are administered by IV infusion, which is suboptimal for mass casualties. Therefore, in a cyanide disaster, intramuscular (IM) injectable antidotes would be more appropriate. We report the discovery of the highly water-soluble sulfanegen triethanolamine as a promising lead for development as an IM injectable cyanide antidote.

  5. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    page), we show the results for cobinamide (formulated with four moles of sodium nitrite) in an inhalational mouse model. As can be seen...nitrocobinamide fully rescued animals from a lethal exposure of cyanide gas. Sodium nitrite, at a dose corresponding to the amount of nitrite in the...removed from the chamber, and injected intramuscularly with either 1.5 µmol nitrocobinamide (red circles), 6.0 µmol sodium nitrite (green squares

  6. A Lipid Base Formulation for Intramuscular Administration of a Novel Sulfur Donor for Cyanide Antagonism.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kristof; Jayanna, Prashanth K; Duke, Anna; Winner, Brittany; Negrito, Melaeni; Angalakurthi, Siva; Yu, Jorn C C; Füredi, Petra; Ludányi, Krisztina; Sipos, Peter; Rockwood, Gary A; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a new formulation of the novel Cyanide (CN) antidote, Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), for intramuscular administration. This is a naturally occurring organosulfur molecule with the capability of reacting with CN more efficiently than the present sulfur donor type CN therapy of Thiosulfate (TS). Two types of micelles (PEG2000-DSPE and PEG2000-DSPE/TPGS) were prepared and tested for their ability to encapsulate the liquid, highly lipophilic and volatile drug, DMTS. The micellar encapsulation for DMTS does not only eliminate the possible muscle necrosis at the injection sites, but the rate of evaporation within the micelles is suppressed, that can provide a level of stability for the formulation. The method of micelle preparation was optimized and it was demonstrated that the PEG2000-DSPE preparation can dissolve up to 2.0 mg/ml of the antidote candidate. Keeping the injection volume minimized this could provide a maximum DMTS dose of 12.5 mg/kg. However, even this low dose of DMTS showed a remarkable in vivo therapeutic efficacy (2 X LD50 protection) in a mice model when injected intramuscularly. These in vitro and in vivo findings proved the efficacy of DMTS in combating CN intoxication, and the presented work gives valuable insight to micelle preparation and sets the bases for a more advanced future formulation of DMTS.

  7. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    held high- throughput ultrasonic monodisperse aerosol inhalers for detoxification of massive CN poisoning. IV. CONCLUSIONS Significant effect of...Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerry R...Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Local effects and mechanism of absorption of iron preparations administered intramuscularly

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, C. R.; Golberg, L.; Smith, J. P.

    1957-01-01

    An attempt has been made to correlate factors involved in the absorption of iron-polysaccharide complexes administered intramuscularly. Different complexes varied greatly in degree of retention in muscle and in diffusibility in agar; these two characteristics were not closely related. The local changes in the muscle produced by the iron complexes consisted of an acute inflammatory reaction at the site of injection, with degenerative changes. Subsequent regeneration was rapid and complete. The major proportion of the absorption occurred during the initial 72 hr. and appeared to be mediated partly by the inflammatory reaction evoked, with enhancement of lymphatic transport of the iron complex. Rapid fixation by tissue macrophages impeded absorption and, with some complexes, this factor may make much of the injection inaccessible. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:13413161

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin/sulbactam combination administered intramuscularly in lactating sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, M S; Cárceles, C M

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of an ampicillin/sulbactam (2:1) combination was studied after intramuscular administration of a single dose (20 mg/kg body weight: 13.33 mg/kg of ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sulbactam) to six sheep and six goats. The objective was to determine whether there were differences between sheep and goats in the disposition profiles of ampicillin and sulbactam. The disposition curves for both drugs were best described by a biexponential equation (one-compartment open model with first order absorption) in both sheep and goats. The maximum plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were similar in both sheep (10.61 +/- 6.36 and 9.17 +/- 3.82 mg/L respectively) and goats (11.02 +/- 2.69 and 9.25 +/- 0.85 mg/L respectively), in spite of the fact that the ampicillin dose was twice that of sulbactam. The time of the peak plasma concentration for both drugs was also similar in both sheep and goats. The elimination half-life of ampicillin was 0.81 +/- 0.17 h in sheep and 0.71 +/- 0.12 h in goats, and that of sulbactam was 1.02 +/- 0.36 h in sheep and 1.13 +/- 0.18 h in goats. The rate of drug removal from the body was faster in sheep than in goats and consequently the area under the curve was greater for goats. It was concluded that the similarity in the disposition and elimination of both drugs in sheep and goats indicated that the combination preparation could be administered at the same dosing rate in both species.

  10. [Pharmacokinetics of colistin sulfate administered by intravenous and intramuscular routes in the calf].

    PubMed

    Renard, L; Sanders, P; Laurentie, M

    1991-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characteristics of an extemporaneous form of colistin sulfate in young calves were studied for a dosage of 25,000 IU.kg-1. The intravenous route (IV) is characterized by a 3-compartment model whose main parameters are: volume of distribution (1.02 l.kg), body clearance (0.15 l.h-1 kg-1) and mean residence time (3.87 h). By intramuscular route (IM), a mean serum peak of 37 IU.ml-1 was reached at a mean time of 0.5 h. The mean half-time of terminal phase (6.47 h) does not differ significantly from that of the intramuscular route (4.52 h). Absolute bioavailability calculated based on 4 calves was 109 +/- 28%. Repeated IM administrations seem to be adapted to maintain a bactericidal activity and to reduce risks of toxicity and neurological disorders (25,000 IU.kg-1) every 12 h over 3d.

  11. Preclinical advantages of intramuscularly administered peptide A3-APO over existing therapies in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections

    PubMed Central

    Ostorhazi, Eszter; Rozgonyi, Ferenc; Sztodola, Andras; Harmos, Ferenc; Kovalszky, Ilona; Szabo, Dora; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Cassone, Marco; Wade, John D.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Otvos, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The designer antibacterial peptide A3-APO is efficacious in mouse models of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii systemic infections. Here we compare the efficacy of the peptide with that of imipenem and colistin in A. baumannii wound infections after burn injury. Methods CD-1 mice were inflicted with burn wounds and different inocula of A. baumannii, isolated from an injured soldier, were placed into the wound sites. The antibiotics were given intramuscularly (im) one to five times. Available free peptide in the blood and the systemic toxicity of colistin and A3-APO were studied in healthy mice. Results While toxicity of colistin was observed at 25 mg/kg bolus drug administration, the lowest toxic dose of A3-APO was 75 mg/kg. In the A. baumannii blast injury models, 5 mg/kg A3-APO improved survival and reduced bacterial counts in the blood as well as in the wounds and improved wound appearance significantly better than any other antibiotic treatment. The free peptide concentration in the blood did not reach 1 µg/mL. Conclusions Peptide A3-APO, with an intramuscular therapeutic index of 15, is more efficacious and less toxic than any existing burn injury infection therapy modality against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. A3-APO administered by the im route probably binds to a biopolymer that promotes the peptide's biodistribution. PMID:20810424

  12. Cellular distribution of orally and intramuscularly administered iron dextran in newborn piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Thorén-Tolling, K; Jönsson, L

    1977-01-01

    Histochemical studies were performed on tissues from piglets of different ages treated orally with iron dextran soon after birth. The mucosal cells in the distal region of the small intestine were heavily laden with stainable iron granules during the first three days after the iron administration. The absorptive epithelial cells are desquamated within seven to ten days after birth. Consequently, the number of iron granules gradually diminishes during the first seven days after treatment and no iron granules are demonstrated 12 days after the administration of iron. The iron dextran complex is pinocytosed in newborn piglets and then transported via the lymphatic system. Thus the sinusoidal lining cells of the body and mesenteric lymph nodes are already heavily laden with iron granules 24 hours after oral treatment. This iron store is released only slowing during the first weeks of life. Great amounts of iron granules are demonstrated in the liver and spleen macrophages during the first week after the administration of iron. Due to the rapid utilization of iron in growing piglets these iron stores diminish sharply during the weeks following birth. The distribution of stainable iron in the lymph nodes, liver and spleen seven days after intramuscular injection of iron dextran in newborn piglets was comparable to that for oral administration at that stage of the experiment. Images Fig. 1a-e. Fig. 2a-e. Fig. 3a-d. Fig. 4a-d. Fig. 5a-d. PMID:907907

  13. Pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered biperiden in guinea pigs challenged with soman.

    PubMed

    Capacio, B R; Byers, C E; Caro, S T; McDonough, J H

    2003-02-01

    Biperiden is an anticholinergic compound that has demonstrated effectiveness for treating organophosphate-induced seizure/convulsions. The plasma levels of biperiden associated with this efficacy have not yet been defined. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of biperiden after intramuscular administration of 0.5 mg/kg were conducted while monitoring pharmacodynamic (electroencephalographic) data in soman-exposed guinea pigs. Overall, 59% of the animals had seizures terminated within 30 min of the biperiden administration. The mean time to seizure termination was 15.9 min. The pharmacokinetics of biperiden after i.m. administration to guinea pigs were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The maximal plasma biperiden concentration (34.4 ng/mL) in seizure-terminated animals occurred at 26.3 min. Extensive partitioning into peripheral tissues was noted supporting the relatively large volume of distribution observed. Maximal biperiden concentrations in the cortex and brain stem were found at 30 min and were 2.3 and 1.7 times greater, respectively, than that in plasma. The time for maximal plasma concentration was found to corresponded well with the mean time to seizure termination following drug administration.

  14. Intramuscularly administered dexmedetomidine attenuates hemodynamic and stress hormone responses to gynecologic laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Aho, M; Scheinin, M; Lehtinen, A M; Erkola, O; Vuorinen, J; Korttila, K

    1992-12-01

    The hemodynamic and endocrine effects of three different doses of dexmedetomidine (0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 micrograms/kg), oxycodone (0.13 mg/kg), and saline solution, injected intramuscularly 45-60 min before induction of general anesthesia, were compared in a double-blind, randomized study involving 100 women undergoing gynecologic diagnostic laparoscopy. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental (4.5 mg/kg) and maintained with 0.3% end-tidal isoflurane and 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate increased after endotracheal intubation and during laparoscopy in all groups, but the maximal mean arterial pressure after tracheal intubation was lower in the dexmedetomidine 2.4-micrograms/kg group (104 mm Hg [SD 19]) than in the saline solution group (130 mm Hg [SD 12]). Dexmedetomidine (2.4 and 1.2 micrograms/kg) attenuated the maximal heart rate after intubation (84 [SD 11] and 101 beats/min [SD 15], respectively) compared with saline solution (116 beats/min [SD 19]). On the other hand, 40% of the patients in the dexmedetomidine 2.4-micrograms/kg group received atropine in the postanesthesia care unit for bradycardia (heart rate < or = 40 beats/min). Preoperative anxiety and sedation before and after preanesthetic medication were evaluated by the patients with the aid of a profile of mood-state questionnaire; only dexmedetomidine 2.4 micrograms/kg produced significant anxiolysis and sedation. Plasma concentrations of norepinephrine, epinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, cortisol, and beta-endorphin increased less in the dexmedetomidine 2.4-micrograms/kg group in response to tracheal intubation and surgery than in the saline solution group.

  15. Neurobehavioral and Cardiovascular Effects of Potassium Cyanide Administered Orally to Mice.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Michael A; Ritchie, Glenn D; Henderson, Kim A; Knostman, Katherine A B; Roche, Brian M; Ma, Zhenxu J; Matthews, Claire M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edward J; Sabourin, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule requires evaluation of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) effects of new therapeutics. To characterize an adult and juvenile mouse model, neurobehavioral and cardiovascular effects and pathology of a single sublethal but toxic, 8 mg/kg, oral dose of potassium cyanide (KCN) for up to 41 days postdosing were investigated. This study describes the short- and long-term sensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes associated with oral dosing of a sublethal but toxic dose of KCN utilizing functional observation battery and Tier II CNS testing in adult and juvenile mice of both sexes. Selected tissues (histopathology) were evaluated for changes associated with KCN exposure with special attention to brain regions. Telemetry (adult mice only) was used to evaluate cardiovascular and temperature changes. Neurobehavioral capacity, sensorimotor responsivity or spontaneous locomotor activity, and rectal temperature were significantly reduced in adult and juvenile mice at 30 minutes post-8 mg/kg KCN dose. Immediate effects of cyanide included bradycardia, adverse electrocardiogram arrhythmic events, hypotension, and hypothermia with recovery by approximately 1 hour for blood pressure and heart rate effects and by 2 hours for body temperature. Lesions consistent with hypoxia, such as mild acute tubular necrosis in the kidneys corticomedullary junction, were the only histopathological findings and occurred at a very low incidence. The mouse KCN intoxication model indicates rapid and completely reversible effects in adult and juvenile mice following a single oral 8 mg/kg dose. Neurobehavioral and cardiovascular measurements can be used in this animal model as a trigger for treatment.

  16. Potentiation of epidural lidocaine by co-administering tramadol by either intramuscular or epidural route in cats.

    PubMed

    Hermeto, Larissa C; DeRossi, Rafael; Marques, Beatriz C; Jardim, Paulo H A

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the analgesic and systemic effects of intramuscular (IM) versus epidural (EP) administration of tramadol as an adjunct to EP injection of lidocaine in cats. Six healthy, domestic, shorthair female cats underwent general anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, crossover trial was then conducted with each cat receiving the following 3 treatments: EP injection of 2% lidocaine [LEP; 3.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)]; EP injection of a combination of lidocaine and 5% tramadol (LTEP; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively); or EP injection of lidocaine and IM injection of tramadol (LEPTIM; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively). Systemic effects, spread and duration of analgesia, behavior, and motor blockade were determined before treatment and at predetermined intervals afterwards. The duration of analgesia was 120 ± 31 min for LTEP, 71 ± 17 min for LEPTIM, and 53 ± 6 min for LEP (P < 0.05; mean ± SD). The cranial spread of analgesia obtained with LTEP was similar to that with LEP or LEPTIM, extending to dermatomic region T13-L1. Complete motor blockade was similar for the 3 treatments. It was concluded that tramadol produces similar side effects in cats after either EP or IM administration. Our findings indicate that EP and IM tramadol (2 mg/kg BW) with EP lidocaine produce satisfactory analgesia in cats. As an adjunct to lidocaine, EP tramadol provides a longer duration of analgesia than IM administration. The adverse effects produced by EP and IM administration of tramadol were not different. Further studies are needed to determine whether EP administration of tramadol could play a role in managing postoperative pain in cats when co-administered with lidocaine after painful surgical procedures.

  17. Potentiation of epidural lidocaine by co-administering tramadol by either intramuscular or epidural route in cats

    PubMed Central

    Hermeto, Larissa C.; DeRossi, Rafael; Marques, Beatriz C.; Jardim, Paulo H.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the analgesic and systemic effects of intramuscular (IM) versus epidural (EP) administration of tramadol as an adjunct to EP injection of lidocaine in cats. Six healthy, domestic, shorthair female cats underwent general anesthesia. A prospective, randomized, crossover trial was then conducted with each cat receiving the following 3 treatments: EP injection of 2% lidocaine [LEP; 3.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)]; EP injection of a combination of lidocaine and 5% tramadol (LTEP; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively); or EP injection of lidocaine and IM injection of tramadol (LEPTIM; 3.0 and 2.0 mg/kg BW, respectively). Systemic effects, spread and duration of analgesia, behavior, and motor blockade were determined before treatment and at predetermined intervals afterwards. The duration of analgesia was 120 ± 31 min for LTEP, 71 ± 17 min for LEPTIM, and 53 ± 6 min for LEP (P < 0.05; mean ± SD). The cranial spread of analgesia obtained with LTEP was similar to that with LEP or LEPTIM, extending to dermatomic region T13–L1. Complete motor blockade was similar for the 3 treatments. It was concluded that tramadol produces similar side effects in cats after either EP or IM administration. Our findings indicate that EP and IM tramadol (2 mg/kg BW) with EP lidocaine produce satisfactory analgesia in cats. As an adjunct to lidocaine, EP tramadol provides a longer duration of analgesia than IM administration. The adverse effects produced by EP and IM administration of tramadol were not different. Further studies are needed to determine whether EP administration of tramadol could play a role in managing postoperative pain in cats when co-administered with lidocaine after painful surgical procedures. PMID:26130854

  18. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote.

  19. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  20. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Jongsung; SUH, Sangil; CHOI, Ran; HYUN, Changbaig

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  1. The Comparison of Patient-Controlled Remifentanil Administered by Two Different Protocols (Bolus and Bolus+Infusion) and Intramuscular Meperidine for Labor Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Süleyman; Türktan, Mediha; Güleç, Ümran Küçükgöz; Hatipoğlu, Zehra; Ünlügenç, Hakkı; Işık, Geylan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nowadays, there are many pain relief methods for reducing the pain and stress of labor and delivery. In our study, two different remifentanil protocols (bolus and bolus+infusion) administered by patient-controlled analgesia method were compared with intramuscular meperidine for labor analgesia. Methods Ninety parturients who were scheduled for vaginal delivery were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 15 primiparous and 15 multiparous patients in each group. Whenever a patient requested analgesics during the labor, Group M was given 1 mg kg−1 intramuscular meperidine, Group B was given intravenous bolus patient-controlled remifentanil, and Group IB was given intravenous bolus+infusion patient-controlled remifentanil. Patients’ systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, pain-comfort and sedation scores, remifentanil consumption, side effects, and Apgar scores of the newborns were evaluated during the labor and delivery. Results Patients’ mean pain and comfort scores were significantly lower in Groups B and IB than in Group M at all time intervals except the first minute. Compared with Group IB, mean pain and comfort scores at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes were significantly higher in Group B. The mean sedation scores were similar among the groups. Total remifentanil consumption was lower in Group IB than in Group B, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion Patient-controlled intravenous bolus or bolus+infusion remifentanil provided more effective analgesia and patient comfort than intramuscular meperidine for labor analgesia. Especially during labor, bolus+infusion remifentanil administration provided better pain and patient comfort scores than bolus alone, without increasing remifentanil consumption. PMID:27366433

  2. Intravenous and intramuscular pharmacokinetics of a single-daily dose of disodium-fosfomycin in cattle, administered for 3 days.

    PubMed

    Sumano, L H; Ocampo, C L; Gutierrez, O L

    2007-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfomycin in cattle were determined after administration of buffered disodium fosfomycin either intravenously (i.v.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 3 days. Calculated concentrations at time zero and maximum serum concentrations were 34.42 and 10.18 mug/mL, respectively. The variables determined, the elimination half-life of the drug remained unchanged during the 3 days ( = 1.33 +/- 0.3 h for the i.v. route and = 2.17 +/- 0.4 h for the i.m. route). Apparent volumes of distribution suggest moderated distribution out of the central compartment (V(darea) = 673 mL +/- 27 mL/kg and V(dss) = 483 +/- 11 mL/kg). Bioavailability after i.m. administration was 74.52%. Considering fosfomycin as a time-dependent antibacterial drug, plasma concentration vs. time profiles obtained in this study, suggest that clinically effective plasma concentrations of fosfomycin could be obtained for up to 8 h following i.v. administration and approximately 10 h after i.m. injection of 20 mg/kg, for susceptible bacteria. In addition to residue studies in milk and edible tissues, a series of clinical assessments, using fosfomycin at 20 mg/kg b.i.d. or t.i.d. are warranted before this antibacterial drug should be considered for use in cattle.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (EXCEDE sterile suspension) administered via intramuscular injection in wild California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny; Collard, Wendy T; Grover, G Scott; Pussini, Nicola; Van Bonn, William G; Gulland, Frances M D

    2013-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (EXCEDE Sterile Suspension, 200 mg ceftiofur equivalents/ml) were determined for the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). A single dose of EXCEDE was administered intramuscularly at 6.6 mg/kg to 12 wild California sea lions during rehabilitation. The first 10 animals were each assigned to two blood collection time points, with a total of 10 time points at: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after administration of the drug. An additional two animals were sampled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hr postinjection. Plasma was separated within 10 min of blood collection and stored at -20 degrees C until analysis. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur, desfuroylceftiofur, and related metabolites, were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Maximum plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and related metabolites were observed 24 hr postdosing with a mean concentration of 3.6 microg/ml. The half life (60 hr) and area under the curve (270 microg x hr/ml) were also determined. These data indicate that a single dose of EXCEDE at 6.6 mg/kg i.m. would likely maintain a mean plasma drug level >0.6 microg/ml for 5 days and >0.5 microg/ml for 8 days.

  4. Novel, orally effective cyanide antidotes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Herbert T; Goon, David J W; Crankshaw, Daune L; Vince, Robert; Patterson, Steven E

    2007-12-27

    A series of prodrugs of 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP), the substrate for the enzyme 3-mercaptopyruvate/cyanide sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) that converts cyanide to the nontoxic thiocyanate, which are highly effective cyanide antidotes, have been developed. These prodrugs of 3-MP are unique in being not only orally bioavailable, but may be administered up to an hour prior to cyanide as a prophylactic agent and are both rapid- or slow-acting when given parenterally.

  5. Which cyanide antidote?

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan H; Saiers, Jane; Baud, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Cyanide has several antidotes, with differing mechanisms of action and diverse toxicological, clinical, and risk-benefit profiles. The international medical community lacks consensus about the antidote or antidotes with the best risk-benefit ratio. Critical assessment of cyanide antidotes is needed to aid in therapeutic and administrative decisions that will improve care for victims of cyanide poisoning (particularly poisoning from enclosed-space fire-smoke inhalation), and enhance readiness for cyanide toxic terrorism and other mass-casualty incidents. This paper reviews preclinical and clinical data on available cyanide antidotes and considers the profiles of these antidotes relative to properties of a hypothetical ideal cyanide antidote. Each of the antidotes shows evidence of efficacy in animal studies and clinical experience. The data available to date do not suggest obvious differences in efficacy among antidotes, with the exception of a slower onset of action of sodium thiosulfate (administered alone) than of the other antidotes. The potential for serious toxicity limits or prevents the use of the Cyanide Antidote Kit, dicobalt edetate, and 4-dimethylaminophenol in prehospital empiric treatment of suspected cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin differs from these antidotes in that it has not been associated with clinically significant toxicity in antidotal doses. Hydroxocobalamin is an antidote that seems to have many of the characteristics of the ideal cyanide antidote: rapid onset of action, neutralizes cyanide without interfering with cellular oxygen use, tolerability and safety profiles conducive to prehospital use, safe for use with smoke-inhalation victims, not harmful when administered to non-poisoned patients, easy to administer.

  6. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of a split-virion, inactivated, trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) administered by intradermal and intramuscular route in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Frenck, Robert W; Belshe, Robert; Brady, Rebecca C; Winokur, Patricia L; Campbell, James D; Treanor, John; Hay, Christine M; Dekker, Cornelia L; Walter, Emmanuel B; Cate, Thomas R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark; Leduc, Tom; Tornieporth, Nadia

    2011-08-05

    The aim of the study was to determine whether reduced doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) administered by the intradermal (ID) route generated similar immune responses to standard TIV given intramuscularly (IM) with comparable safety profiles. Recent changes in immunization recommendations have increased the number of people for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. Thus, given this increased need and intermittent vaccine shortages, means to rapidly expand the vaccine supply are needed. Previously healthy subjects 18-64 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four TIV vaccine groups: standard 15 μg HA/strain TIV IM, either 9 μg or 6 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given using a new microinjection system (BD Soluvia™ Microinjection System), or 3 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given by Mantoux technique. All vaccines contained A/New Caledonia (H1N1), A/Wyoming (H3N2) and B/Jiangsu strains of influenza. Sera were obtained 21 days after vaccination and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays were performed and geometric mean titers (GMT) were compared among the groups. Participants were queried immediately following vaccination regarding injection pain and quality of the experience. Local and systemic reactions were collected for 7 days following vaccination and compared. Ten study sites enrolled 1592 subjects stratified by age; 18-49 years [N=814] and 50-64 years [N=778]. Among all subjects, for each of the three vaccine strains, the GMTs at 21 days post-vaccination for both the 9 μg and the 6 μg doses of each strain given ID were non inferior to GMTs generated after standard 15 μg doses/strain IM. However, for the 3 μg ID dose, only the A/Wyoming antigen produced a GMT that was non-inferior to the standard IM dose. Additionally, in the subgroup of subjects 50-64 years of age, the 6μg dose given ID induced GMTs that were inferior to the standard IM TIV for the A/H1N1 and B strains. No ID dose produced a GMT superior to that seen after standard

  7. Dimethyl trisulfide: A novel cyanide countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, Gary A; Thompson, David E; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-12-01

    In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7.4, DMTS was observed to convert cyanide to thiocyanate with greater than 40 times higher efficacy than does thiosulfate, the sulfur donor component of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved cyanide countermeasure Nithiodote(®) In the absence of Rh, DMTS was observed to be almost 80 times more efficient than sodium thiosulfate in vitro The fact that DMTS converts cyanide to thiocyanate more efficiently than does thiosulfate both with and without Rh makes it a promising sulfur donor-type cyanide antidote (scavenger) with reduced enzyme dependence in vitro The therapeutic cyanide antidotal efficacies for DMTS versus sodium thiosulfate were measured following intramuscular administration in a mouse model and expressed as antidotal potency ratios (APR = LD50 of cyanide with antidote/LD50 of cyanide without antidote). A dose of 100 mg/kg sodium thiosulfate given intramuscularly showed only slight therapeutic protection (APR = 1.1), whereas the antidotal protection from DMTS given intramuscularly at the same dose was substantial (APR = 3.3). Based on these data, DMTS will be studied further as a promising next-generation countermeasure for cyanide intoxication.

  8. [Cyanide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Møller, Søren; Hemmingsen, Claus

    2003-06-16

    Cyanide is a toxic compound which inhibits the cellular utilization of oxygen. A number of substances can give rise to cyanide intoxication, which in some cases may have a delayed onset. The symptoms are non-specific and reflect cellular hypoxia. Several strategies may be employed in the treatment. Hydroxycobalamine is an effective and non-toxic antidote. On the basis of a case story, the toxicology, symptoms and treatment of cyanide poisoning are discussed.

  9. Combined effect of ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone administered intramuscularly to dairy cows on the clinico-pathological course of E. coli-endotoxin mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ziv, G; Shem-Tov, M; Ascher, F

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a single intramuscular injection of a drug product containing ampicillin, colistin and dexamethasone, as a suspension in a diester of propylene glycol of medium-chain fatty acids, on the clinico-pathological course of experimental Escherichia coli-endotoxin mastitis was examined in 30 dairy cows. Cows were divided into five groups, six cows per group, and 24 of them were infused with E. coli endotoxin into two quarters of their udders. The drug product was injected at 25,000 IU colistin sulphate, 10.0 mg ampicillin anhydrate and 0.025 mg dexamethasone acetate.kg-1 body weight as follows: Group 2 cows, immediately post-endotoxin infusion (PEI); Group 3 cows, 2 h PEI and, Group 4 cows, 4 h PEI. Group 1 cows were not treated with the product and served as a positive (endotoxin only) control while Group 5 cows were not challenged with endotoxin and were not treated with the product. A clinical mastitis score (CMS) was developed to quantitatively assess the degree of inflammation. Blood biochemistry and hematological parameters were used to monitor the immediate effects of treatment on several conventional inflammatory markers. Milk somatic cell counts (MSCC), milk electrical conductivity and daily milk production were among the parameters used to monitor systemic and local inflammatory reactions. Administration of the drug product immediately PEI and 2 h PEI clearly nullified some of the most severe early systemic reactions to inflammation but the effect of therapy on the local inflammatory markers was not as obvious. Notewhorthy, however, were the effects of the treatment on reducing the duration of elevated quarter MSCC and the increase in the speed of return to pre-endotoxin challenge daily milk production levels.

  10. Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 016 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE AND CYANIDE SALTS ( CAS No . various ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This docu

  11. Influence of nutritional state on the disposal of orally and intramuscularly administered iodized oil to iodine repleted older children and adult women.

    PubMed

    Fierro-Benitez, R; Sandoval-Valencia, H; Sevilla-Munoz, B; Rodriguez, E; Gualotuna, E; Fierro-Carrion, G; Pacheco-Bastides, V; Andrade, J; Wang, P H; Stanbury, J B

    1989-06-01

    Iodinated oil (Ethiodol, 1 or 2 ml) was administered po or by im administration to adult women and older children in rural highland Ecuador who were either well nourished or malnourished to determine the effect of nutritional status on the disposal rate of iodine. These subjects resides in a region previously severely deficient in iodine, but this had been corrected in these subjects by prior administration of iodinated oil or by use of iodized salt or both. Malnutrition as determined by the conventional standards of height for age was associated with a significantly shortened retention time of the administered iodine, whether given po or im. The half life of retention was approximately half in the malourished of that in the well nourished. If these findings can be extrapolated to chronically iodine deficient subjects, then malnourished populations in need of iodine supplementation should either receive higher dosages than those conventionally employed or more frequent dosage.

  12. Antagonism of cyanide poisoning by dihydroxyacetone.

    PubMed

    Niknahad, Hossein; Ghelichkhani, Esmaeel

    2002-06-14

    Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) effectively antagonized the lethal effect of cyanide in mice and rabbits, particularly if administered in combination with thiosulfate. Oral DHA (2 and 4 g/kg) given to mice 10 min before injection (i.p.) of cyanide increased the LD50 values of cyanide from 5.7 mg/kg to 12 and 17.6 mg/kg, respectively. DHA prevented cyanide-induced lethality most effectively, if given orally 10-15 min before injection of cyanide. A combination of pretreatment with oral DHA (4 g/kg) and post-treatment with sodium thiosulfate (1 g/kg) increased the LD50 of cyanide by a factor of 9.9. Furthermore, DHA given intravenously to rabbits 5 min after subcutaneous injection of cyanide increased the LD50 of cyanide from 6 mg/kg to more than 11 mg/kg, while thiosulfate (1 g/kg) given intravenously 5 min after cyanide injection increased the LD50 of cyanide only to 8.5 mg/kg. DHA also prevented the convulsions that occurred after cyanide intoxication.

  13. Comparative study on the immunogenicity and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV) administered according to two different simulated post exposure intramuscular regimens (Zagreb versus Essen)

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, BJ; Narayana, DH Ashwath; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Ravish, HS; Harish, BR; Agarkhedkar, Shalaka; Madhusudana, SN; Belludi, Ashwin; Ahmed, Khaleel; Jonnalagedda, Rekha; Vakil, Hoshang; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Arora, Ashwani Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite availability of effective rabies vaccines, India has the highest global mortality rate for rabies. Low socio-economic communities are most affected due to lack of awareness of the disease and poor compliance to post-exposure prophylactic regimens. Currently, the only approved intramuscular regimen for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies in India is the Essen regimen, which consists of 5 injections administered over 5 separate days in a period of one month. The high number of doses and clinical visits, however, are major reasons for non-compliance, and thus a shorter regimen would be beneficial. In a simulated PEP trial in healthy, adult subjects, this study evaluated whether purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV), administered according to the WHO-recommended 4-dose/3 visit Zagreb vaccination regimen is of equal immunogenicity and safety as the standard Essen regimen in Indian subjects. Two hundred and 50 healthy adults were enrolled and randomized into a Zagreb or Essen group, each receiving PCECV according to their respective regimen. Blood samples were collected on Days 0, 7, 14 and 42 and analyzed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). By Day 14, all subjects across both groups attained rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations of ≥ 0.5IU/ml. The Zagreb regimen was then demonstrated to be immunologically non-inferior to the Essen regimen by Day 14, which was the primary endpoint of the study. No safety issues were noted and the occurrence of adverse events was similar in both groups (17% and 15%, respectively). NCT01365494. CTRI No.: CTRI/2011/07/001857 PMID:25692792

  14. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  15. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Barium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium cyanide ; CASRN 542 - 62 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  17. Chlorine cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorine cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 77 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  18. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  19. Zinc cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc cyanide ; CASRN 557 - 21 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  20. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  1. Silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Silver cyanide ; CASRN 506 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Disulfides as Cyanide Antidotes: Evidence for a New In Vivo Oxidative Pathway for Cyanide Detoxification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    defense against cyanide intoxication . The oxidation of disulfides to the corresponding thiosulfinate or thiosulfonate will result in facilitating their...high probability (1). While antidotes for cyanide intoxication exist (2-4), it has yet to be shown that they can be effectively administered in the...garlic] have been found to be effective as in vivo therapeutic agents for cyanide intoxication (10, 11). It is believed that the efficacy of these

  3. Toxicokinetic profiles of α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Bhandari, Raj K; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Boss, Gerry R; Logue, Brian A

    2013-09-12

    Poisoning by cyanide can be verified by analysis of the cyanide detoxification product, α-ketoglutarate cyanohydrin (α-KgCN), which is produced from the reaction of cyanide and endogenous α-ketoglutarate. Although α-KgCN can potentially be used to verify cyanide exposure, limited toxicokinetic data in cyanide-poisoned animals are available. We, therefore, studied the toxicokinetics of α-KgCN and compared its behavior to other cyanide metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), in the plasma of 31 Yorkshire pigs that received KCN (4mg/mL) intravenously (IV) (0.17 mg/kg/min). α-KgCN concentrations rose rapidly during KCN administration until the onset of apnea, and then decreased over time in all groups with a half-life of 15 min. The maximum concentrations of α-KgCN and cyanide were 2.35 and 30.18 μM, respectively, suggesting that only a small fraction of the administered cyanide is converted to α-KgCN. Although this is the case, the α-KgCN concentration increased >100-fold over endogenous concentrations compared to only a three-fold increase for cyanide and ATCA. The plasma profile of α-KgCN was similar to that of cyanide, ATCA, and thiocyanate. The results of this study suggest that the use of α-KgCN as a biomarker for cyanide exposure is best suited immediately following exposure for instances of acute, high-dose cyanide poisoning.

  4. The myth of the 90 degrees-angle intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Katsma, D L; Katsma, R

    2000-01-01

    This article shows that the textbook 90 degrees-angle requirement for intramuscular injections is unrealistic. Trigonometry demonstrates that an injection given at 72 degrees reaches 95% of the depth of an injection given at 90 degrees. This relation between needle angle and needle depth, previous research into the kinematics of hand motion during an intramuscular injection, and other practical considerations support the proposal for a new, relaxed standard: Intramuscular injections administered at a comfortable angle between 72 degrees and 90 degrees.

  5. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sheridan M; Scott, Lesley J; Keating, Gillian M

    2010-03-01

    Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate is a long-acting, atypical antipsychotic that is indicated in the US for the acute and maintenance therapy of adult patients with schizophrenia. Paliperidone is the major active metabolite of risperidone. The noninferiority of flexible doses of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg to flexible doses of intramuscular long-acting risperidone 25-50 mg was not established in an initial 53-week study. However, these data were utilized to optimize the intramuscular paliperidone palmitate dosage regimen. In four randomized, double-blind studies, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally effective in the treatment of adult patients with acute schizophrenia, inducing significantly greater improvements from baseline in the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score than placebo (primary endpoint). In general, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate recipients achieved significantly better outcomes than placebo recipients with regard to the PANSS subscale, PANSS factor, Personal and Social Performance scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale scores. As maintenance therapy, intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-156 mg was significantly more effective than placebo in delaying the time to the first relapse of schizophrenia symptoms in adult patients, according to the results of a randomized, double-blind study. The beneficial effects of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate therapy on the PANSS total score were sustained in a 52-week noncomparative extension phase of the maintenance therapy study. Intramuscular paliperidone palmitate 39-234 mg was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  7. Intraosseous Versus Intravenous Infusion of Hydroxocobalamin for the Treatment Of Acute Severe Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    to smoke inhalation during fires involving many victims. Hydroxocobalamin has proven to be an effective antidote, but cannot be given intramuscularly...car-diac arrest in 50% of cyanide-exposed patients.1,2 In addition, smoke inhalation has produced toxic cyanide levels in over 30% of patients who...died after smoke inhalation .2–4 Hydroxocobalamin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cyanide toxic- ity. We have

  8. Safety and Immunogenicity of EBA-175 RII-NG Malaria Vaccine Administered Intramuscularly in Semi-Immune Adults: A Phase 1, Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Dosage Escalation Study

    PubMed Central

    Koram, Kwadwo A.; Ocran, Josephine; Karikari, Yaa S.; Adu-Amankwah, Susan; Ntiri, Michael; Abuaku, Benjamin; Dodoo, Daniel; Gyan, Ben; Kronmann, Karl C.; Nkrumah, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The erythrocyte binding antigen region II (EBA-175 RII) is a Plasmodium falciparum ligand that mediates erythrocyte invasion and is considered an important malaria vaccine candidate. A phase Ia trial in malaria naïve adults living in the United States found the recombinant non-glycosylated vaccine antigen, EBA-175 RII-NG adjuvanted with aluminium phosphate to be safe, immunogenic and capable of inducing biologically active antibodies that can inhibit parasite growth in vitro. The aim of the current study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine in malaria exposed semi-immune healthy adults living in a malaria endemic country, Ghana. In this double-blinded, placebo controlled, dose escalation phase I trial, eighteen subjects per group received ascending dose concentrations (5 μg, 20 μg or 80 μg) of the vaccine intramuscularly at 0, 1 and 6 months, while 6 subjects received placebo (normal saline). The primary end point was the number of subjects experiencing Grade 3 systemic or local adverse events within 14 days post-vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study period. Blood samples for immunological analyses were collected at days 0, 14, 28, 42, 180 and 194. A total of 52 subjects received three doses of the vaccine in the respective groups. No serious adverse events were reported. The majority of all adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, with local pain and tenderness being the most common. All adverse events, irrespective of severity, resolved without any sequelae. Subjects who received any of the EBA-175 RII-NG doses had high immunoglobulin G levels which moderately inhibited P. falciparum growth in vitro, compared to those in the placebo group. In conclusion, the EBA-175 RII-NG vaccine was safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in malaria semi-immune Ghanaian adults. Its further development is recommended. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01026246 PMID:27644034

  9. Nitryl cyanide, NCNO₂.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Bélanger-Chabot, Guillaume; Haiges, Ralf; Christe, Karl O

    2014-07-01

    The elusive nitryl cyanide, NCNO2, has been synthesized and characterized. It was prepared in good yield, isolated by fractional condensation, characterized by NMR and vibrational spectroscopy, and studied by theoretical calculations. Nitryl cyanide holds promise as a high energy density material (HEDM) and might also prove useful as a HEDM building block. The simplicity and inherent stability of nitryl cyanide, together with the known multitude of nitriles in interstellar space, suggest that the compound might also be a potential candidate for observations in atmospheric and interstellar chemistry.

  10. Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters.

    PubMed

    Sauer, S W; Keim, M E

    2001-06-01

    The United States is under the constant threat of a mass casualty cyanide disaster from industrial accidents, hazardous material transportation incidents, and deliberate terrorist attacks. The current readiness for cyanide disaster by the emergency medical system in the United States is abysmal. We, as a nation, are simply not prepared for a significant cyanide-related event. The standard of care for cyanide intoxication is the cyanide antidote kit, which is based on the use of nitrites to induce methemoglobinemia. This kit is both expensive and ill suited for out-of-hospital use. It also has its own inherent toxicity that prevents rapid administration. Furthermore, our hospitals frequently fail to stock this life-saving antidote or decline to stock more than one. Hydroxocobalamin is well recognized as an efficacious, safe, and easily administered cyanide antidote. Because of its extremely low adverse effect profile, it is ideal for out-of-hospital use in suspected cyanide intoxication. To effectively prepare for a cyanide disaster, the United States must investigate, adopt, manufacture, and stockpile hydroxocobalamin to prevent needless morbidity and mortality.

  11. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  12. Effects of Methemoglobin Versus Potassium Cyanide Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    initial phase, two female dogs were administered a-ketoglutaric acid (800 mg/ml in 0.1 M phosphate buffer) via oral gavage at a dose of 4 g/kg body...the test solution. Two additional female dogs were administered a-ketoglutaric acid (285.7 mg/ml in 0.1 M phosphate buffer) via oral gavage at a dose of...effective as a possible antidote against lethal cyanide intoxication due to vomiting of the test solution. An acidic dosing solution caused gastric

  13. Mass cyanide intoxication in sheep.

    PubMed

    Aslani, M R; Mohri, M; Maleki, M; Sharifi, K; Mohammadi, G R; Chamsaz, M

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cyanide poisoning that killed 56 ewes and 2 goats is reported. Fluid released into a ditch contained 1 g cyanide/L and produced toxicity in 3 ewes experimentally dosed with the liquid waste.

  14. Disposition kinetics of tylosin administered intravenously and intramuscularly to pigs.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-10-01

    The distribution of tylosin was studied using a crossover design, in six pigs following i.v. and i.m. administration of 10 mgkg(-1) b.w. Plasma samples were analysed by HPLC and UV absorbance detection. After i.v. administration, t(1/2beta) was 271.3 min, V(d) 14.6 Lkg(-1), V(ss) 9.7 Lkg(-1) and CL 26.8 mLmin(-1)kg(-1). After i.m. administration, a C(max) of 1 microgmL(-1) was reached at 90 min. Mean absorption time was 1988.7 min and bioavailability was 95%.

  15. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  17. Cyanide Formation by Chromobacterium violaceum

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Ruth; Corpe, W. A.

    1965-01-01

    Michaels, Ruth (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), and W. A. Corpe. Cyanide formation by Chromobacterium violaceum. J. Bacteriol. 89:106–112. 1965.—The formation of cyanide by a Chromobacterium violaceum strain was studied with growing cultures and with nonproliferating cells grown in complex and chemically defined media. Most of the cyanide was produced during the log-phase growth of the organism, and accumulated in the culture supernatant fluid. A synergistic effect of glycine and methionine on cyanide formation in a chemically defined medium was observed, and the amount of cyanide formed was found to be dependent on the concentrations of the two substances. Cyanide formation by nonproliferating cells was stimulated by preincubation with glycine and methionine. Cyanide formation by adapted cells in the presence of glycine and methionine was stimulated by succinate, malate, or fumarate, and depressed by azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Methionine could be replaced by betaine, dimethylglycine, and choline. PMID:14255648

  18. Cyanide toxicity during cardiopulmonary bypass with small dose of nitroprusside: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kum-Hee; Park, Seo Min; Baek, In Chan; Jang, Junheum; Hong, Yong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is an anti-hypertensive drug, commonly used to decrease the systemic vascular resistance and lower the blood pressure. When the amount of cyanide generated by the SNP exceeds the metabolic capacity for detoxification, cyanide toxicity occurs. Under general anesthesia and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), it may be difficult to detect the development of cyanide toxicity. In cardiac surgical patients, hemolysis, hypothermia and decreased organ perfusion, which emphasize the risk of cyanide toxicity, may develop as a consequence of CPB. In particular, hemolysis during CPB may cause an unexpected overproduction of cyanide due to free hemoglobin release. We experienced a patient who demonstrated SNP tachyphylaxis and cyanide toxicity during CPB, even though the total amount of SNP administered was much lower than the recommended dose. We therefore report this case with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:27064896

  19. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    challenging position as professor ordinarius at the Depart- ment of Anaesthesiology . I pioneered from scratch in this position until 2009. My academic... experience in the Paris Fire Brigade. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2006; 44 (Suppl 1):37 44. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Kurt Anseeuwa*, Nicolas Delvaub...hydro- xocobalamin higher than 150 mg/kg. Given the theoretically synergistic action and given the experience in the treatment of the toxicity of

  20. Anti-Cyanide Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    for Metalloporphyrins and Phthalocyanines 13 N- Methyl -Metalloporphyrins 3nd Cyanide .................................................. 14 Table 3...tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine , TMPyP(4,3) are the tetrakis(N- Methyl -4(or 3)pyridyl)porphyrins, TAP is tetrakis(4.NNN.tnmethylanilinium)porphynn...porphyrins. These species have a central porphyrin proton replaced by an N- methyl group , and this group foi" steric reasons raises the metal ion above

  1. Light addressable photoelectrochemical cyanide sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Licht, S.; Myung, N.; Sun, Y.

    1996-03-15

    A sensor is demonstrated that is capable of spatial discrimination of cyanide with use of only a single stationary sensing element. Different spatial regions of the sensing element are light activated to reveal the solution cyanide concentration only at the point of illumination. In this light addressable photoelectrochemical (LAP) sensor the sensing element consists of an n-CdSe electrode immersed in solution, with the open-circuit potential determined under illumination. In alkaline ferro-ferri-cyanide solution, the open-circuit photopotential is highly responsive to cyanide, with a linear response of (120 mV) log [KCN]. LAP detection with a spatial resolution of {+-}1 mm for cyanide detection is demonstrated. The response is almost linear for 0.001-0.100 m cyanide with a resolution of 5 mV. 38 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Treatment efficacy of intramuscular promethazine for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Jennings, Richard T.; Beck, Bradley G.; Bagian, James P.

    1993-01-01

    Intramuscular promethazine and its efficacy in the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) were evaluated using standardized questions administered during postflight debriefings to crewmembers immediately after their first Shuttle flight. The comparison showed that 25 percent of crewmembers treated with IM promethazine were 'sick' on flight day 2, compared to 50 percent of crewmembers who did not receive promethazine, 90 percent reported immediate symptom relief as well. Untreated crewmembers typically have slow symptom resolution over 72-96 h, and those treated with oral scopolamine/dextroamphetamine show delayed symptom development. This study suggests that intramuscular promethazine is an effective treatment for SMS and merits continued use and further controlled investigations.

  3. Cyanide analyses for risk and treatability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, I.D.; Elseroad, H.J.; Pergrin, D.E.; Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-31

    Cyanide, an EPA priority pollutant and target analyte, is typically measured as total. However, cyanide complexation, information which is not acquired through total cyanide analysis, is often a driver of cyanide toxicity and treatability. A case study of a former manufacture gas plant (MGP) is used to demonstrate the usability of various cyanide analytical methods for risk and treatability assessments. Several analytical methods, including cyanide amenable to chlorination and weak acid dissociable cyanide help test the degree of cyanide complexation. Generally, free or uncomplexed cyanide is more biologically available, toxic, and reactive than complexed cyanide. Extensive site testing has shown that free and weakly dissociable cyanide composes only a small fraction of total cyanide as would be expected from the literature, and that risk assessment will be more realistic considering cyanide form. Likewise, aqueous treatment for cyanide can be properly tested if cyanide form is accounted for. Weak acid dissociable cyanide analyses proved to be the most reliable (and potentially acceptable) cyanide method, as well as represent the most toxic and reactive cyanide forms.

  4. Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mégarbane, Bruno; Delahaye, Arnaud; Goldgran-Tolédano, Dany; Baud, Frédéric J

    2003-04-01

    Cyanide poisoning may result from different exposures: residential fires, industrial accidents, drug and plant intoxication. Clinical features include coma, respiratory arrest and cardiovascular collapse. The biological hallmark is lactic acidosis. A plasma lactate concentration > or = 10 mmol/L in fire victims without severe burns and > or = 8 mmol/L in pure cyanide poisoned patients is a sensitive and specific indicator of cyanide intoxication. Many antidotes are available and efficient. However, therapeutic strategies are still debated. Our objective was to compare conventional treatments to hydroxocobalamin. This article reviews the literature on cyanide poisoning treatment. Conventional treatment of cyanide poisoning includes decontamination, supportive and specific treatment. Decontamination should be adapted to the route of poisoning and never postpone supportive treatment. Basic life support includes immediate administration of high flow of oxygen, airway protection and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Advanced life support includes mechanical ventilation, catecholamine and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Supportive treatment is efficient but does not modify the time course or the body burden of cyanide. Numerous antidotes are available. Oxygen counteracts efficiently cyanide action at the mitochondrial level. Sodium thiosulfate, methemoglobin forming agents and cobalt compounds act efficiently by complexing or transforming cyanide into non-toxic stable derivatives. However, regarding the main clinical condition of cyanide poisoning, i.e. smoke inhalation, we should take into account not only the efficiency of antidotes but also their safety. Sodium thiosulfate is both efficient and safe, but acts with delay. Methemoglobin-forming agents are potent, but due to the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, they impair tissue delivery of oxygen. Experimental data showed increased mortality in carbon monoxide- and cyanide-poisoned rats treated with these

  5. The toxicokinetics of cyanide and mandelonitrile in the horse and their relevance to the mare reproductive loss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, Levent; Hughes, Charlie; Harkins, Dan; Boyles, Jeff; Bosken, Jeff; Lehner, Fritz; Troppmann, Amy; McDowell, Karen; Tobin, Thomas; Sebastian, Manu M; Harrison, Lenn; Crutchfield, James; Baskin, Steven I; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiological association between black cherry trees and mare reproductive loss syndrome has focused attention on cyanide and environmental cyanogens. This article describes the toxicokinetics of cyanide in horses and the relationships between blood cyanide concentrations and potentially adverse responses to cyanide. To identify safe and humane blood concentration limits for cyanide experiments, mares were infused with increasing doses (1-12 mg/min) of sodium cyanide for 1 h. Infusion at 12 mg/min produced clinical signs of cyanide toxicity at 38 min; these signs included increased heart rate, weakness, lack of coordination, loss of muscle tone, and respiratory and behavioral distress. Peak blood cyanide concentrations were about 2500 ng/mL; the clinical and biochemical signs of distress reversed when infusion stopped. Four horses were infused with 1 mg/min of sodium cyanide for 1 h to evaluate the distribution and elimination kinetics of cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations peaked at 1160 ng/mL and then declined rapidly, suggesting a two-compartment, open model. The distribution (alpha) phase half-life was 0.74 h, the terminal (beta phase) half-life was 16.16 h. The mean residence time was 12.4 h, the steady-state volume of distribution was 2.21 L/kg, and the mean systemic clearance was 0.182 L/h/kg. Partitioning studies showed that blood cyanide was about 98.5% associated with the red cell fraction. No clinical signs of cyanide intoxication or distress were observed during these infusion experiments. Mandelonitrile was next administered orally at 3 mg/kg to four horses. Cyanide was rapidly available from the orally administered mandelonitrile and the C max blood concentration of 1857 ng/mL was observed at 3 min after dosing; thereafter, blood cyanide again declined rapidly, reaching 100 ng/mL by 4 h postadministration. The mean oral bioavailability of cyanide from mandelonitrile was 57% +/- 6.5 (SEM), and its apparent terminal half-life was 13 h +/- 3 (SEM

  6. Clinical trial of intramuscular injection as contraceptive compound.

    PubMed

    Lay, C L

    1970-01-01

    99 women of proven fertility received 778 intramuscular contraceptive injections. An injectable compound containing 150 mg dihy droxyprogesterone acetophenide and 10 mg of estradiol enanthate (Deladroxate) in castor oil was prepared in a 1-cc disposable syringe. The injections were administered intramuscularly in the upper outer glut eal region on Day 8 of each menstrual cycle. The study was initiated in September 1965 and was completed by February 1969, with all data being recorded on a computer for future analysis. No pregnancies occurred. No serious side effects were noted. There were improvements in cases of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual tension. Minor complaints were not a problem in the use of the contraceptive except for intermenstrual spotting, which prompted 8 patients to discontinue the method. It is concluded that the long-acting intramuscular injection of estrogen-progesterone given once a month is effective and useful in difficult contraceptive patients in a public health clinic.

  7. Studies on solvent extraction of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Dreisinger, David

    2009-09-30

    The recovery of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solution with the guanidine extractant (LIX 7950) and the modified amine extractant (LIX 7820) has been investigated. Copper can be effectively extracted from alkaline cyanide solutions by both extractants. The free cyanide remains in the aqueous phase due to the preferential extraction of Cu(CN)(3)(2-) over Cu(CN)(4)(3-) and CN(-) by the extractants. The selectivity of the metals with the extractants under different cyanide levels has been examined. High cyanide levels tend to depress extraction of copper and silver cyanides, but exhibit insignificant effect on extraction of gold, zinc, nickel and iron cyanides. A possible solution to the separation of copper cyanides and free cyanide in cyanide effluents has been suggested, by which copper can be concentrated into a small volume of solution and the barren cyanide solution recycled to the cyanidation process.

  8. Potential for error when assessing blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims.

    PubMed

    Moriya, F; Hashimoto, Y

    2001-11-01

    The present study explores toxicologic significance of blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims. Headspace gas chromatography was used for cyanide detection. Analysis of blood samples from ten fire victims (postmortem interval = 8 h to 3 to 5 d) detected zero to 11.9 mg/L of cyanide and a large difference in cyanide concentrations among victims. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) saturation was in the range of 24.9 to 84.2%. To examine the effects of methemoglobinemia and postmortem interval on blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims, an experiment was carried out using rabbits as the animal model. The rabbits were sacrificed by intramuscular injection of 1 mL/kg 2% potassium cyanide 5 min after intravenous injection of 0.33 mL/kg of 3% sodium nitrite (Group A, n = 3) or physiological saline (Group B, n = 6). Average methemoglobin contents immediately before potassium cyanide administration were 6.9 and 0.8% in Groups A and B, respectively. Average cyanide concentrations in cardiac blood at the time of death were 47.4 and 3.56 mg/L, respectively. When blood-containing hearts of the rabbits (n = 3 for Group B) were left at 46 degrees C for the first 1 h, at 20 to 25 degrees C for the next 23 h and then at 4 degrees C for 48 h, approximately 85 and 46% of the original amounts of blood cyanide disappeared within 24 h in Groups A and B, respectively. After the 72-h storage period, 37 and 10%, respectively, of the original amounts of cyanide remained in the blood. When the other three hearts in Group B were left at 20 to 25 degrees C for the last 48 h without refrigeration, cyanide had disappeared almost completely by the end of the experiment. The present results and those published in the literature demonstrate that the toxic effects of cyanide on fire victims should not be evaluated based solely on the concentration in blood.

  9. Acute cyanide intoxication treated with a combination of hydroxycobalamin, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Mannaioni, Guido; Vannacci, Alfredo; Marzocca, Cosimo; Zorn, Anna Monica; Peruzzi, Sandro; Moroni, Flavio

    2002-01-01

    An 80-year-old diabetic patient was admitted to the hospital because of sudden unconsciousness and severe metabolic acidosis. His son reported the possibility of cyanide poisoning. Clinical data and the detection of cyanide in blood and gastric material confirmed this possibility. Supportive therapy and the following antidotes--sodium nitrite two doses 300 mg i.v., sodium thiosulfate 3 g i.v., and hydroxocobalamin 4 g in 24 hours--were administered immediately and the patient completely recovered in 48 hours. Our observations suggest that timely and appropriate use of antidotes for cyanide intoxication may prevent death, even in aged diabetic patients.

  10. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released. PMID:26900563

  11. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-10-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released.

  12. Intramuscular administration of morphine reduces mustard-oil-induced craniofacial-muscle pain behavior in lightly anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung R; Lee, Min K; Lim, Koang H; Yang, Gwi Y; Jeon, Hye J; Ju, Jin S; Yoon, Young W; Kim, Sung K; Ahn, Dong K

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the role of peripheral opioid receptors in mustard oil-induced nociceptive behavior and inflammation in the masseter muscles of lightly anesthetized rats. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 400 g. After initial anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.), one femoral vein was cannulated and connected to an infusion pump for the intravenous infusion of sodium pentobarbital. The rate of infusion was adjusted to provide a constant level of anesthesia. Mustard oil (MO, 30 microl) was injected into the mid-region of the left masseter muscle via a 30-gauge needle. Intramuscularly-administered morphine significantly reduced shaking behavior but not MO-induced inflammation. Intramuscular pretreatment with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, reversed antinociception produced by intramuscularly-administered morphine, while intracisternal administration of naloxone did not affect the antinociception of peripheral morphine. Pretreatment with d-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu opioid receptor antagonist, but not naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, nor norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, reversed intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception. These results indicate that intramuscularly-administered morphine produces antinociception in craniofacial muscle nociception and that this intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception is mediated by a peripheral mu opioid receptor. Our observations further support the clinical approach of administering opioids in the periphery for the treatment of craniofacial muscle nociception.

  13. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Ludmila; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Rinágelová, Anna; Chmátal, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize the current knowledge of the enzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of cyanide, i.e., cyanide hydratases (CHTs; EC 4.2.1.66) and cyanide dihydratases (CynD; EC 3.5.5.1). CHTs are probably exclusively produced by filamentous fungi and widely occur in these organisms; in contrast, CynDs were only found in a few bacterial genera. CHTs differ from CynDs in their reaction products (formamide vs. formic acid and ammonia, respectively). Several CHTs were also found to transform nitriles but with lower relative activities compared to HCN. Mutants of CynDs and CHTs were constructed to study the structure-activity relationships in these enzymes or to improve their catalytic properties. The effect of the C-terminal part of the protein on the enzyme activity was determined by constructing the corresponding deletion mutants. CynDs are less active at alkaline pH than CHTs. To improve its bioremediation potential, CynD from Bacillus pumilus was engineered by directed evolution combined with site-directed mutagenesis, and its operation at pH 10 was thus enabled. Some of the enzymes have been tested for their potential to eliminate cyanide from cyanide-containing wastewaters. CynDs were also used to construct cyanide biosensors.

  14. Bioavailability of cyanide and metal-cyanide mixtures to aquatic life.

    PubMed

    Redman, Aaron; Santore, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide can be toxic to aquatic organisms, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed ambient water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life. Recent work suggests that considering free, rather than total, cyanide provides a more accurate measure of the biological effects of cyanides and provides a basis for water-quality criteria. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to free cyanide, although certain metals can form stable complexes and reduce the amount of free cyanide. As a result, total cyanide is less toxic when complexing metals are present. Cyanide is often present in complex effluents, which requires understanding how other components within these complex effluents can affect cyanide speciation and bioavailability. The authors have developed a model to predict the aqueous speciation of cyanide and have shown that this model can predict the toxicity of metal-cyanide complexes in terms of free cyanide in solutions with varying water chemistry. Toxicity endpoints based on total cyanide ranged over several orders of magnitude for various metal-cyanide mixtures. However, predicted free cyanide concentrations among these same tests described the observed toxicity data to within a factor of 2. Aquatic toxicity can be well-described using free cyanide, and under certain conditions the toxicity was jointly described by free cyanide and elevated levels of bioavailable metals.

  15. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-15

    sodium dihydrogen phosphate were products of Fisher Scientific Company (Fairlawn, NJ). Sodium thiosulfate, sodium hydroxide, sodium cyanide, sodium...acetate buffer , 4 4 pH 5.2, and 0.5 ml of a 0.1 mM solution of SDS was added to the outer well of the diffusion cell, and 2.0 ml of 0.1 N sodium...digital pH meter (Orion Research, Inc.) that contained 10 U1 of a silver potassium cyanide indicator- buffer solution (17.69 g Na2 HPO4 , 5.5 ml 10 M NaOH

  16. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  17. Toxicological and clinical aspects of cyanide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, R G; Schievelbein, H; Zickgraf-Rüdel, G

    1975-07-01

    This contribution deals with the occurrence of cyanide and its biological pathways in the body. Especially possibilities of detoxification are pointed out. Intoxications are caused by acute and chronical cyanide uptake. Tobacco amblyopia, retrobulbar neuritis in pernicious anaemia, Leber's optic atrophy, Nigerian nutritional neuropathy, and sterility in female heavy smokers are attributed to cyanide intoxication. Various methods for treating acute and chronic cyanide intoxication are discussed.

  18. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Hydromorphone after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration in Male Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kristi R; Pypendop, Bruno H; Christe, Kari L

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta ). Hydromorphone (0.075 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions to healthy, socially housed, socially reared, adult, intact male rhesus macaques (n = 4). Blood samples were collected prior to and until 10 h after administration. Serum hydromorphone concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fit to time–concentration data. A 3-compartment model with input in and elimination from the central compartment best fit intravenous data, whereas a 1-comparment model best fit intramuscular data. After intravenous administration, the median clearance and terminal half-life were 37.7 (range, 33.7 to 47.1) mL/kg/min and 142 (range, 131 to 218) min, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life after intramuscular administration was 81.5 (77.2 to 92.5) min. Median intramuscular bioavailability was 92% (range, 75% to 104%). Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL for at least 2 h after intravenous and intramuscular administration. The disposition of hydromorphone was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance. Intramuscular administration resulted in rapid and almost complete drug absorption. Whole-body pruritus, sedation, and decreased appetite were observed in all macaques after initial drug administration. PMID:25255074

  20. Solar-Assisted Oxidation of Toxic Cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Miles, A.

    1985-01-01

    In solar-assisted oxidation technique, oxygen-bearing air bubbled through cyanide solution in which platinized powdered TiO2 is suspended. Light from either artifical source or natural Sunlight irradiates. Experiments demonstrated this technique effective in reducing concentration of cyanide to levels well below those achieved by other methods. Results suggest effective and inexpensive method for oxidizing cyanide in industrial wastewaters.

  1. Suicide by cyanide: 17 deaths.

    PubMed

    Gill, James R; Marker, Elizabeth; Stajic, Marina

    2004-07-01

    We reviewed 17 intentional ingestions of cyanide that occurred in New York City over a ten-year interval. The toxicologic and postmortem findings were reviewed. Certain occupations and nationalities of the decedents predominated among this group of suicides. Scientists, jewelers. and metal workers were common occupations among the decedents. In addition, 8 of 17 fatalities were West Indian/Caribbean Island and South American decedents, including three decedents from Guyana. Fourteen of the 17 fatalities were male. Pink lividity, a "bitter-almond" smell. and a hemorrhagic gastric mucosa were not prevailing findings in these decedents. A color test was used for screening for cyanide with confirmation and quantitation using gas chromatography.

  2. Modulating effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis on induced cyanide toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, O M; Olabode, O O

    2011-12-20

    were moderated mildly by Telfairia occidentalis. Group 4, treated with the vegetable alone had none of the observed histopathology in the organs examined. We concluded that lyophilised aqueous extracts of Telfairia occidentalis showed good potential as a safe antidote for cyanide poisoning when administered concomitantly or very shortly after ingestion of sub-lethal dose of cyanide. However, further bioassay guided fractionation and analytical studies are needed to identify the actual chemical compound or molecule in the vegetable responsible for or associated with the observed effects.

  3. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  4. A Disposable Blood Cyanide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Ma, Jian; Brenner, Matthew; Wang, Jian-Hua; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish. The top cover has a diametrically strung porous polypropylene membrane tube filled with aqueous OH(CN)Cbi. One end of the tube terminates in an amber (583 nm) light emitting diode; the other end in a photodiode via an acrylic optical fiber. An aliquot of the blood sample is put in the inner dish, the assembly covered and acid is added through a port in the cover. Evolved HCN diffuses into the OH(CN)Cbi solution and the absorbance in the long path porous membrane tube cell is measured within 160s. The LOD was 0.047, 1.0, 0.15, 5.0 and 2.2 μM, respectively, for water (1 mL), bovine blood (100 μL, 1 mL), and rabbit blood (20μL, 50 μL). RSDs were < 10% in all cases and the linear range extended from 0.5 to 200 μM. The method was validated against a microdiffusion approach and applied to the measurement of cyanide in rabbit and human blood. The disposable device permits field measurement of blood cyanide in < 4 min. PMID:23473259

  5. The clinical experience of acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Yen, D; Tsai, J; Wang, L M; Kao, W F; Hu, S C; Lee, C H; Deng, J F

    1995-09-01

    The authors reviewed the clinical manifestations, complications, and the prognosis affected by Lilly Cyanide Antidote in 21 victims of acute cyanide poisoning over a 10-year period. The clinical signs and symptoms in cyanide poisoning are variable. Among 21 cases, loss of consciousness (15), metabolic acidosis (14), and cardiopulmonary failure (9) were the three leading manifestations of cyanide intoxication. Anoxic encephalopathy (6) was not uncommon in the severely intoxicated victims. Diabetes insipidus (1) or clinical signs and symptoms mimicking diabetes insipidus (3) may be an ominous sign to encephalopathy victims. The major cause of fatal cyanide poisoning is the intentional ingestion of cyanide compounds as part of a suicide attempt. Decrease of arteriovenous difference of O2 partial pressure may be a clue for the suspicion of cyanide intoxication. Although the authors cannot show a statistically significant difference (P = .47) for the Lilly cyanide antidote kit in terms of improving the survival rate for victims of cyanide poisoning, the antidote kit was always mandatory in our study in the cases of severely intoxicated victims who survived. Early diagnosis, prompt, intensive therapy with antidote, and supportive care are still the golden rules for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning, whether in the ED or on the scene.

  6. Metabolism of cyanide by Chinese vegetation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua; Wang, Chang; Zhou, Xishi

    2004-07-01

    Cyanide is a high-volume production chemical and the most commonly used leaching reagent for gold and silver extraction. Its environmental behavior and fate is of significant concern because it is a highly toxic compound. Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. This paper presents an investigation of the potential of Chinese vegetation to degrade cyanide. Detached leaves (1.5 g fresh weight) from 28 species of 23 families were kept in glass vessel with 100 ml of aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 23.5 degrees C for 28 h. Cyanide concentrations ranged from 0.83 to 1.0 CN mg l(-1). The disappearance of cyanide from the aqueous solution was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The fastest cyanide removal was by Chinese elder, Sambucus chinensis, with a removal capacity of 8.8 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1), followed by upright hedge-parsley (Torilis japonica) with a value of 7.5 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1). The lowest removal capacity had the snow-pine tree (Credrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud). Results from this investigation indicated that a wide range of plant species is able to efficiently metabolize cyanide. Therefore, cyanide elimination with plants seems to be a feasible option for cleaning soils and water contaminated by cyanide from gold and silver mines or from other sources.

  7. Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii

    SciTech Connect

    Seefeldt, L.C.; Arp, D.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} for CN{sup {minus}}). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. ({sup 14}C)cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state.

  8. Cyanide inactivation of hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Seefeldt, L C; Arp, D J

    1989-01-01

    The effects of cyanide on membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii were characterized. Inactivation of hydrogenase by cyanide was dependent on the activity (oxidation) state of the enzyme. Active (reduced) hydrogenase showed no inactivation when treated with cyanide over several hours. Treatment of reversibly inactive (oxidized) states of both membrane-associated and purified hydrogenase, however, resulted in a time-dependent, irreversible loss of hydrogenase activity. The rate of cyanide inactivation was dependent on the cyanide concentration and was an apparent first-order process for purified enzyme (bimolecular rate constant, 23.1 M-1 min-1 for CN-). The rate of inactivation decreased with decreasing pH. [14C]cyanide remained associated with cyanide-inactivated hydrogenase after gel filtration chromatography, with a stoichiometry of 1.7 mol of cyanide bound per mol of inactive enzyme. The presence of saturating concentrations of CO had no effect on the rate or extent of cyanide inactivation of hydrogenases. The results indicate that cyanide can cause a time-dependent, irreversible inactivation of hydrogenase in the oxidized, activatable state but has no effect when hydrogenase is in the reduced, active state. PMID:2656648

  9. In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-10-01

    Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater.

  10. The treatment of cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Cummings, T F

    2004-03-01

    Cyanide has gained historical notoriety as a poison used with intent to cause fatality. Its occurrence in industry is confined to a small number of uses in a relatively narrow range of industries, including the manufacture of Perspex and nylon and in electroplating. With proper controls in these settings, episodes of poisoning are extremely rare. However, because of the potential for a fatal outcome, procedures for the treatment of acute poisoning are essential. Antidotes include methaemoglobin generators, direct binding agents and sulphur donors, but there is a lack of international consensus about the treatment of choice. This article reviews the mechanisms and treatment of cyanide intoxication and emphasizes the importance of having agreed local procedures for the emergency treatment of poisoning.

  11. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN{sup {minus}} ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation.

  12. Toxicokinetic Profiles of Alpha-ketoglutarate Cyanohydrin, a Cyanide Detoxification Product, following Exposure to Potassium Cyanide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-15

    tox le t Toxicokinetic profiles of -ketoglutarate cyanohydrin, a cyanide detoxification product, following exposure to potassium cyanide ...KgCN in swine was investigated. • Measuring plasma -KgCN provides definitive confirmation of cyanide exposure. • Treatment of... cyanide poisoning with cobinamide renders -KgCN an ineffective diagnostic marker. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 May

  13. Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival.

    PubMed

    Jethava, Durga; Gupta, Priyamvada; Kothari, Sandeep; Rijhwani, Puneet; Kumar, Ankit

    2014-05-01

    A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour.

  14. Diagnosis and Treatment of Cyanide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    treat toxic amblyopia and optic neuritises caused by the cyanide present in tobacco smoke.64,65 Hydroxycobalamin therapy is usually well tolerated,44,59...JAN 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Diagnosis and treatment of cyanide toxicity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Diagnosis and Treatment of Cyanide Toxicity

  15. Intramuscular haemangioma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Babu, D; Bhamre, R; Katna, R; Pai, P

    2014-09-01

    Haemangiomas are one of the most common benign tumours. Clinicians come across haemangiomas of different subtypes at different locations in the body. They are often faced with the question of whether to treat them or leave it to the natural history of the disease. We present a case of the intramuscular variety of haemangioma found in the unusual location of the tongue in a 60-year-old woman. Fine needle aspiration was inconclusive and on magnetic resonance imaging, it mimicked a malignancy, which prompted treatment. We also review the unique pathology of this variety of haemangioma, which defines their treatment. The radiological attributes of the disease and recurrence rates of surgery are also discussed.

  16. Distribution of cyanide in heart blood, peripheral blood and gastric contents in 21 cyanide related fatalities.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jongsook; Jung, Jinmi; Yeom, Hyesun; Lee, Hansun; Lee, Sangki; Park, Yoosin; Chung, Heesun

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents 21 cases related to cyanide intoxication by oral ingestion. Cyanide concentrations in biological specimens are especially different from the type of postmortem specimens, and very important in interpreting the cause of death in postmortem forensic toxicology. Besides the detection of cyanide in autopsy specimens, the autopsy findings were unremarkable. Biological samples (0.2mL or equal to less than 10μg of cyanide) were analyzed colorimetrically for cyanide. In a series of 21 cyanide fatalities, the concentration ranges (mean±SD) of cyanide in heart blood, peripheral blood and gastric contents were 0.1-248.6mg/L (38.1±56.6mg/L), 0.3-212.4mg/L (17.1±45.1mg/L) and 2.0-6398.0mg/kg (859.0±1486.2mg/kg), respectively. The ranges of the heart/peripheral blood concentration ratio and gastric contents/peripheral blood concentration ratio were 0.3-10.6 (mean 3.4) and 3.4-402.4 (mean 86.0), respectively. From the difference of cyanide concentration and the concentration ratio of cyanide in different types of postmortem specimens, the possibility of the postmortem redistribution of cyanide and death by oral ingestion of cyanide could be confirmed. We reported cyanide fatal cases along with a review of literature.

  17. Cyanide bioremediation: the potential of engineered nitrilases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason M; Trevor Sewell, B; Benedik, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The cyanide-degrading nitrilases are of notable interest for their potential to remediate cyanide contaminated waste streams, especially as generated in the gold mining, pharmaceutical, and electroplating industries. This review provides a brief overview of cyanide remediation in general but with a particular focus on the cyanide-degrading nitrilases. These are of special interest as the hydrolysis reaction does not require secondary substrates or cofactors, making these enzymes particularly good candidates for industrial remediation processes. The genetic approaches that have been used to date for engineering improved enzymes are described; however, recent structural insights provide a promising new approach.

  18. Treatment of acute cyanide intoxication with hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D E; Foley, R; Sabatini, S; Wharton, J; Kapusnik, J; Kurtzman, N A

    1985-01-01

    A dramatic response was noted in a patient at our hospital who received hemodialysis therapy for severe acidosis secondary to an unknown toxin, subsequently identified as cyanide. We were unable to find any information concerning the hemodialysis clearance and extraction ratio of cyanide; thus, we studied the effect of hemodialysis in dogs receiving a constant infusion of cyanide with and without a simultaneous infusion of thiosulfate. The hemodialysis clearance of cyanide in the presence of thiosulfate was 38.3 +/- 5.4 ml/min with an extraction ratio of 0.43 +/- 0.06 (n = 4). Hemodialysis was found to increase the lethal dose of cyanide without thiosulfate infusion, and a further increase was noted with the thiosulfate infusion. Thiosulfate promotes mitochondrial metabolism of cyanide to thiocyanate. The end product, thiocyanate, is quickly removed by hemodialysis. We believe that the demonstrated effectiveness of hemodialysis in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication is related not only to the hemodialysis clearance of cyanide, but also to the removal of its metabolic end product, thiocyanate. Based on our observations, we feel that hemodialysis is an effective adjunct in the treatment of acute cyanide intoxication.

  19. New fungal biomasses for cyanide biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Yasemin Kevser; Gedikli, Serap; Aytar, Pınar; Unal, Arzu; Yamaç, Mustafa; Cabuk, Ahmet; Kolankaya, Nazif

    2010-10-01

    Cyanide, a hazardous substance, is released into the environment as a result of natural processes of various industrial activities which is a toxic pollutant according to Environmental Protection Agency. In nature, some microorganisms are responsible for the degradation of cyanide, but there is only limited information about the degradation characteristics of Basidiomycetes for cyanide. The aim of the present study is to determine cyanide degradation characteristics in some Basidiomycetes strains including Polyporus arcularius (T 438), Schizophyllum commune (T 701), Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Pleurotus eryngii (M 102), Ganoderma applanatum (M 105), Trametes versicolor (D 22), Cerrena unicolor (D 30), Schizophyllum commune (D 35) and Ganoderma lucidum (D 33). The cyanide degradation activities of P. arcularius S. commune and G. lucidum were found to be more than that of the other fungi examined. The parameters including incubation time, amount of biomass, initial cyanide concentration, temperature, pH and agitation rate were optimized for the selected three potential fungal strains. The maximum cyanide degradation was obtained after 48 h of incubation at 30°C by P. arcularius (T 438). The optimum pH and agitation rate were measured as 10.5 and 150 rev/min, respectively. The amount of biomass was found as 3.0 g for the maximum cyanide biodegradation with an initial cyanide concentration of 100mg/L. In this study, agar was chosen entrapment agent for the immobilization of effective biomass. We suggested that P. arcularius (T 438) could be effective in the treatment of contaminated sites with cyanide due to capability of degrading cyanide.

  20. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin Injection

    PubMed Central

    Noaparast, Morteza; Mirsharifi, Rasoul; Elyasinia, Fezzeh; Parsaei, Reza; Kondori, Hessam; Farifteh, Sara

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency department with right lower limb pain, edema, and livedoid discoloration that occurred immediately after intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin. The patient was diagnosed with Nicolau syndrome, a rare complication of intramuscular injection presumed to be related to the inadvertent intravascular injection. It was first reported following intramuscular injection of bismuth salt, but it can occur as a complication of various other drugs. Fasciotomy was carried out due to the resultant compartment syndrome and medical therapy with heparin, corticosteroid, and pentoxifyllin was initiated. PMID:25429182

  1. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  2. Non-cyanide silver plating

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-11-07

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work.

  3. Fiber optic sensing of cyanides in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.S.; Mackenzie, J.D.; Li, C.Y.; Guerreiro, P.; Peyghambarian, N.

    1996-12-31

    A novel sol-gel technique was used to immobilize malachite green ions (MG{sup +}) in stable, optically transparent, porous silica gel films. A simple and sensitive method was developed for the detection of cyanides in solutions using spectrophotometry to measure changes caused by cyanide ions (CN{sup {minus}}) in the absorption spectra of the green-colored silica gel films. After reaction with cyanide ions, the absorption spectra of the films changed with a typical decrease in absorbance at 620 nm. On the basis of the absorption spectra of the films, a portable and easy to use fiber optic cyanide film sensor was fabricated. Decolorization undergone by the green-colored gel films, as they were exposed to cyanide ions, was detected through a fiber. Preliminary results indicate concentrations on the order of a few ppm are detected using the fiber optic sensor.

  4. Determination of cyanide using a microbial sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Keijiro; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Karube, Isao

    1996-08-01

    A microbial cyanide sensor was prepared, consisting of immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an oxygen electrode. When the electrode was inserted into a solution containing glucose, the respiration activity of the microorganisms increased. The change in the respiration activity is monitored with the oxygen electrode. When cyanide is added to the sample solution, the electron transport chain reaction of the respiration system in the mitochondria is inhibited, resulting in a decrease in respiration. The inhibition is caused by cyanide binding with respiration enzymes such as the cytochrome oxidase complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Therefore, the cyanide concentration can be measured from the change in the respiration rate. When the sensor was applied to a batch system at pH 8.0 and 30{degrees}C, the cyanide calibration curve showed linearity in the concentration range between 0.3 pM and 150 {mu}m CN{sup -}. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  6. Acute cyanide intoxication and central transmitter systems.

    PubMed

    Persson, S A; Cassel, G; Sellström, A

    1985-12-01

    In rats treated with sodium cyanide (5-20 mg/kg, ip) dopamine was dose dependently decreased in the striatum within 60 sec. One of the main metabolites of dopamine in the central nervous system, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HVA), was decreased in striatum, olfactory tubercle, and hippocampus. However, the oxidatively deaminated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), was not significantly altered in any of the brain regions studied. Naturally occurring levels of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-dopa), as well as L-dopa accumulated after inhibition of the neuronal L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, increased in cyanide-treated rats. The dopamine receptor antagonist spiperone (0.05 mg/kg, ip) slightly increased the survival in acute cyanide intoxication. Sodium cyanide increased the levels of glutamine in frontal cortex and striatum at all doses studied. Glutamic acid was increased in the cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus after sodium cyanide (5-10 mg/kg, ip). Higher doses decreased glutamic acid in the cerebellum, the frontal cortex, and the striatum. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were diminished at high doses in all regions studied. Cyanide increased the levels of cyclic GMP in the cerebellum. In the striatum cyclic GMP was decreased after sodium cyanide (10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant alterations in the concentrations of acetylcholine or choline were seen in the striatum of cyanide-treated rats. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine and the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine decreased the survival of mice given sodium cyanide. Acute cyanide intoxication thus produces rapid and fairly specific changes in central dopaminergic and GABA-ergic pathways.

  7. Use of cyanide antidotes in burn patients with suspected inhalation injuries in North America: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Dumestre, Danielle; Nickerson, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the use of cyanide antidotes and the determine the opinion on empiric administration of hydroxocobalamin in North American burn patients with suspected smoke inhalation injuries. An online cross-sectional survey was sent to directors of 90 major burn centers in North America, which were listed on the American Burn Association Web site. A multiple-choice format was used to determine the percentage of patients tested for cyanide poisoning on admission, the current administration of a cyanide antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of poisoning, and the antidote used. To ascertain views on immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin before confirmation of cyanide poisoning an option was included to expand the response in written format. Twenty-nine of 90 burn directors (32%) completed the survey. For the population of interest, the majority of burn centers (59%) do not test for cyanide poisoning on admission and do not administer an antidote based solely on clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning (58%). The most commonly available antidote is hydroxocobalamin (50%), followed by the cyanide antidote kit (29%). The opinion regarding instant administration of hydroxocobalamin when inhalation injury is suspected is mixed: 31% support its empiric use, 17% do not, and the remaining 52% have varying degrees of confidence in its utility. In North America, most patients burnt in closed-space fires with inhalation injuries are neither tested for cyanide poisoning in a timely manner nor empirically treated with a cyanide antidote. Although studies have shown the safety and efficacy of empiric and immediate administration of hydroxocobalamin, most centers are not willing to do so.

  8. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  9. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  10. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  11. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  12. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide...

  13. Premedication with midazolam in intellectually disabled dental patients: Intramuscular or oral administration? A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Boku, Aiji; Sugimura, Mitsutaka; Oyamaguchi, Aiko; Inoue, Mika; Niwa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of midazolam for dental care in patients with intellectual disability is poorly documented. The purpose of this study was to determine which method of premedication is more effective for these patients, 0.15 mg/kg of intramuscular midazolam or 0.3 mg/kg of oral midazolam. Material and Methods This study was designed and implemented as a non-randomized retrospective study. The study population was composed of patients with intellectual disability who required dental treatment under ambulatory general anesthesia from August 2009 through April 2013. Patients were administered 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly (Group IM) or 0.3 mg/kg orally (Group PO). The predictor variable was the method of midazolam administration. The outcome variables measured were Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/ Sedation (OAA/S) Scale scores, the level of cooperation when entering the operation room and for venous cannulation, post-anesthetic agitation and recovery time. Results Midazolam was administered intramuscularly in 23 patients and orally in 21 patients. More patients were successfully sedated with no resistance behavior during venous cannulation in Group PO than in Group IM (p=0.034). There were no differences in demographic data and other variables between the groups. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that oral premedication with 0.3 mg/kg of midazolam is more effective than 0.15 mg/kg of midazolam administered intramuscularly, in terms of patient resistance to venous cannulation. If both oral and intramuscular routes of midazolam are acceptable in intellectually disabled patients, the oral route is recommended. Key words:Premedication, midazolam, intellectual disability. PMID:27031068

  14. Cyanide

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & Training Related Bioterrorism Resources Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) Brucella species ( ...

  15. Photochemical destruction of cyanide in landfill leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.R.; Podsiadlik, D.H.; Hartlund, J.L.; Gaines, W.A.; Kalis, E.M.

    1998-11-01

    The Allen Park Clay Mine Landfill, owned by Ford, produces a leachate that occasionally contains cyanide at levels marginally below the discharge limit. The form of the cyanide in the leachate was found to be iron-cyanide complexes that resist oxidation by a conventional treatment method, alkaline oxidation. Furthermore, the leachate also was found to contain a relatively large amount of organics which would exert additional demand for oxidizing agents (e.g., chlorine). A study was performed to determine what treatment technology could be employed in the event treatment becomes necessary because of potential changes in the leachate characteristics and/or discharge limits. In this study, among several chemical oxidation methods, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with or without ozone was investigated as a treatment option. The following are the primary findings: (1) UV irradiation alone was effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex in both the leachate and the clean water; (2) the demand for UV or ozone by chemical oxygen demand was relatively low for this leachate; (3) ozone alone was not effective for removing the iron-cyanide complex; and (4) UV irradiation alone and UV irradiation with ozone resulted in the same removal for total cyanide in clean-water experiments, but the UV irradiation alone left some free cyanide whereas the UV irradiation with ozone did not.

  16. Pharmacokinetic profile of sulphamonomethoxine-trimethoprim in horses after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Carli, S; Sonzogni, O; Villa, R; Bignazzi, R; Montesissa, C

    1993-03-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of a sulphamonomethoxine-trimethoprim (SMM-TMP) combination was investigated in five horses. The combination was administered intravenously, intramuscularly and orally at a constant dose of 20 mg SMM plus 4 mg TMP kg-1 bodyweight. Following intravenous administration both drugs dispersed rapidly with distribution half-lives of about 12 minutes for SMM and about 18 minutes for TMP. Elimination half-lives for intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration were closely similar, indicating that elimination was independent of administration route. Bioavailability of the drugs in aqueous solution was good: about 72 per cent and 84 per cent for SMM and about 84 per cent and 98 per cent for TMP following intramuscular and oral administration, respectively. It is concluded that SMM-TMP administered orally once a day at 20 mg and 4 mg kg-1 bodyweight, respectively, maintains therapeutic concentrations, whereas twice daily intramuscular administration would be more effective for treating systemic infections in the horse than the once a day regimen usually adopted in veterinary practice.

  17. Analgesic studies of codeine and oxycodone in patients with cancer. I. Comparisons of oral with intramuscular codeine and of oral with intramuscular oxycodone.

    PubMed

    Beaver, W T; Wallenstein, S L; Rogers, A; Houde, R W

    1978-10-01

    The relative analgesic potency of oral and intramuscular codeine was evaluated in a double-blind crossover comparison of graded single doses in patients with chronic pain due to cancer. When both duration and intensity of analgesia are considered (total effect), oral codeine was 6/10 as potent as the intramuscular form. This is a high oral/parenteral analgesic relative potency ratio compared with morphine, metopon and oxymorphone and correlates well with the results of recent studies which have determined the oral vs. intramuscular bioavailability of codeine in man. Oral and intramuscular oxycodone were also compared in a similar patient group. Like codeine, oxycodone retained at least 1/2 of its analgesic activity when administered orally. We hypothesize that the high oral/parenteral relative potency ratios of codeine and oxycodone relative to morphine and its congeners are not due to more efficient absorption after oral administration, but rather that methylation at position 3 in codeine and oxycodone protects these drugs from rapid first-pass metabolism.

  18. MR changes after acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Rachinger, Johanna; Fellner, Franz A; Stieglbauer, Karl; Trenkler, Johannes

    2002-09-01

    We describe MR changes that occurred 3 and 6 weeks after a suicide attempt with cyanide. The toxicity of cyanide causes damage, primarily to the basal ganglia, and those changes were visible as altered signal intensity on the first MR images. Extensive areas of hemorrhagic necrosis were seen 6 weeks later. Our case shows pseudolaminar necrosis along the central cerebral cortex 3 weeks after cyanide poisoning, showing that the sensorimotor cortex is also a site for toxic necrosis because of its high oxygen dependency.

  19. Growth and cyanide degradation of Azotobacter vinelandii in cyanide-containing wastewater system.

    PubMed

    Koksunan, Sarawut; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Vichitphan, Kanit; Han, Jaehong

    2013-04-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii, a strict aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, has been extensively studied with regard to the ability of N2-fixation due to its high expression of nitrogenase and fast growth. Because nitrogenase can also reduce cyanide to ammonia and methane, cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii has been studied for the application in the bioremediation of cyanide-contaminated wastewater. Cyanide degradation by A. vinelandii in NFS (nitrogen-free sucrose) medium was examined in terms of cell growth and cyanide reduction, and the results were applied for cyanide-contaminated cassava mill wastewater. From the NFS medium study in the 300 ml flask, it was found that A. vinelandii in the early stationary growth phase could reduce cyanide more rapidly than the cells in the exponential growth phase, and 84.4% of cyanide was degraded in 66 h incubation upon addition of 3.0 mM of NaCN. The resting cells of A. vinelandii could also reduce cyanide concentration by 90.4% with 3.0 mM of NaCN in the large-scale (3 L) fermentation with the same incubation time. Finally, the optimized conditions were applied to the cassava mill wastewater bioremediation, and A. vinelandii was able to reduce the cyanide concentration by 69.7% after 66 h in the cassava mill wastewater containing 4.0 mM of NaCN in the 3 L fermenter. Related to cyanide degradation in the cassava mill wastewater, nitrogenase was the responsible enzyme, which was confirmed by methane production. These findings would be helpful to design a practical bioremediation system for the treatment of cyanide-contaminated wastewater.

  20. Removal of Zn or Cd and cyanide from cyanide electroplating wastes

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Fletcher L.

    1977-05-31

    A method is described for the efficient stripping of stable complexes of a selected quaternary amine and a cyanide of Zn or Cd. An alkali metal hydroxide solution such as NaOH or KOH will quantitatively strip a pregnant extract of the quaternary ammonium complex of its metal and cyanide content and regenerate a quaternary ammonium hydroxide salt which can be used for extracting further metal cyanide values.

  1. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Azari, Omid; Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Emadi, Ladan; Sakhaee, Ehsanollah; Sharifi, Hamid; Mehdizadeh, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline) and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  2. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  3. A novel cyanide ion sensing approach based on Raman scattering for the detection of environmental cyanides.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Gopal Reddy, C V; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a direct optical approach based on Raman scattering for selective and sensitive detection of cyanide ions in aqueous environment without requiring time-consuming sample pretreatment and the formation of hydrogen cyanide. Due to the strong affinity between copper (I) and cyanide ion, evaporated copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin films are shown to be excellent substrates for selective recognition of free cyanide ions in aqueous matrices. The amount of cyanide ion retained by the copper (I) in the CuI thin films reflects its actual concentration in tested samples, and the subsequent Raman measurements of the substrate are shown to be capable of detecting toxic cyanide content at levels under international drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Measurements obtained from the same batch of evaporated CuI thin films (approximately 100-nm thickness) show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 1.5 microM to 0.15 mM. This detection method offers the advantage of selectively detecting cyanides causing a health hazard while avoiding detection of other common interfering anions such as Cl-, Br-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), NO2-, S2- and SCN-. Coupled with portable Raman systems that are commercially available, our detection approach will provide on-site monitoring capability with little sample preparation or instrument supervision, which will greatly expedite the assessment of potential environmental cyanide risks.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) following single intravenous and intramuscular injections.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Allison D; Papich, Mark; Lewbart, Gregory A; Christian, Shane; Gunkel, Conny; Harms, Craig A

    2006-12-01

    The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ketoprofen (KTP) is a commonly used antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in reptile medicine, but no studies documenting its pharmacokinetics in this species have been published. Ketoprofen was administered as a racemic mixture to green iguanas (Iguana iguana) intravenously (i.v.) and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 2 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed and indicated that ketoprofen in iguanas administered by the intravenous route has a classical two-compartmental distribution pattern, a slow clearance (67 ml/ kg/hr) and a long terminal half-life (31 hr) compared to ketoprofen studies reported in mammals. When delivered by the intramuscular route, bioavailability was 78%. These data indicate the daily dosing that is generally recommended for reptile patients, as an extrapolation from mammalian data, may be more frequent than necessary.

  5. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  6. Modeling hydrogen-cyanide absorption in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Islas, A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for predicting blood concentrations of cyanide as functions of exposure time to constant levels of cyanide in the atmosphere. A toxic gas (which may form as a result of decomposition of combustion materials used in transportation vehicles) is breathed into the alveolar space and transferred from the alveolar space to the blood by a first-order process, dependent on the concentration of the toxicant in the alveolar space. The model predicts that blood cyanide levels are more sensitive to the breathing cycle than to blood circulation. A model estimate of the relative effects of CO and HCN atmospheres, generated in an experimental chamber with an epoxy polymer, shows that toxic effects of cyanide occur long before those of carbon monoxide.

  7. Intramuscular ketamine in acute depression: A report on two cases

    PubMed Central

    Harihar, Chilukuri; Dasari, Padmavathy; Srinivas, Jakka Sriramulu

    2013-01-01

    It takes about 2 weeks for the onset of antidepressant action of drugs while electroconvulsive therapy though faster, is a cumbersome procedure requiring an anaesthetist and at least a minor operation theatre. Recent studies have shown that Ketamine, when given to severely depressed patients in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg as a slow intravenous infusion over 40 minutes, brought about acute relief from depression and amelioration of suicidal risk within a few hours. The improvement, however, was transient and lasted for up to a week but could be sustained by further weekly or biweekly injections. As the dose of ketamine administered was found to be safe, it was now tried in the intramuscular route in two severely depressed patients with similar rapid improvement. The cases are reported here which pave way for an easier mode of treating acute depression. PMID:23825857

  8. Metal Complexes for Defense against Cyanide Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    cyanide toxicity might be compared with that of other asphyxiants, particularly carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide forms a complex with hemoglobin... carbon monoxide is present to disrupt the oxygen transport to the tissue. However, cyanide is toxic at much lower concentrations. According to ligand... carbon to an empty d-orbital on the metal, plus a it-bond, which is formed by the back-donation of a filled metal d-orbital to the empty antibonding

  9. Spectroscopic detection of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, M. T.; Mankin, W. G.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A number of features have been identified as absorption lines of hydrogen cyanide in infrared spectra of stratospheric absorption obtained from a high-altitude aircraft. Column amounts of stratospheric hydrogen cyanide have been derived from spectra recorded on eight flights. The average vertical column amount above 12 kilometers is 7.1 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the 14th molecules per square centimeter, corresponding to an average mixing ratio of 170 parts per trillion by volume.

  10. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B.

    1998-09-01

    The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

  11. Cyanides and their toxicity: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Egekeze, J O; Oehme, F W

    1980-04-15

    Cyanide is a potent and rapidly-acting asphyxiant which prevents tissue utilization of oxygen by inhibition of the cellular respiratory enzyme, cytochrome oxidase. Inhalation or ingestion of cyanide produces reactions within a few seconds and death within minutes. Cyanide toxicity of dietary origin has been implicated in acute animal deaths and as major etiologic factors in toxic ataxic neuropathy in man and as a cause of vision failure in humans suffering from tobacco amblyopia and leber's hereditary optic atrophy. Diagnosis of cyanide toxicity may be confirmed by a variety of laboratory procedures, but accurate assay is essential for proper conclusions from analysis of animal tissues several hours after death or from human samples in instances of chronic dietary exposure. Biological detoxification of cyanide is available through several routes, and the application of sodium nitrite with sodium thiosulfate or administration of methylene blue are effective treatment procedure. The environmental availability of cyanide in its various forms necessitates an understanding of its pathophysiology and responsible management of hazardous situations.

  12. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code.

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

  15. MIN-CYANIDE: An expert system for cyanide waste minimization in electroplating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.L.; Sundar, G.; Fan, L.T. )

    1991-05-01

    An expert system, MIN-CYANIDE, has been constructed to assist engineers and technicians in the source reduction of cyanide-waste solutions in an electroplating plant by resorting to these techniques and experience, and to train plant operators in the application of the techniques. MIN-CYANIDE evaluates options, such as drag-out minimization, bath-life extension, rinse-water reduction, replacement with a non-cyanide solution, use of an alternative plating technique, and improvement of the operating procedure; furthermore, it identifies the most effective among them. The knowledge about the cyanide source reduction is acquired from available publications, represented by numerous fuzzy or non-fuzzy heuristic rules, and codified into a commercial export system shell, Personal Consultant Plus, on an IBM PC/AT compatible computer. MIN-CYANIDE provides a user friendly interface; in operating it, the user answers various questions concerning the operational situations of the production and/or current equipment and techniques in the plant. In response, MIN-CYANIDE will present instantaneously a series of options for cyanide minimization and eventually rank them.

  16. Effect of procaine hydrochloride on cyanide intoxication and its effect on neuronal calcium in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Liu, Z; Zhuang, X

    1998-05-01

    Cyanide intoxication in mice can be antagonized by the local anesthetic, procaine HCI, either alone or in combination with sodium nitrite and/or sodium thiosulfate. Antitoxic potency, derived from LD50 values, was compared in groups of mice pretreated with sodium nitrite (43.9 mg/kg i.p.), sodium thiosulfate (1 g/kg i.p.), and procaine HCI (37.0 mg/kg i.p.) either alone or in various combinations. The results of present study indicated that procaine HCI provides a significant protection against the lethal effects of potassium cyanide. Dose-response studies revealed procaine hydrochloride pretreated 3 min before KCN, at doses of 18.48-73.9 mg/kg, produced significant elevation of KCN LD50, moreover it has a good dose-effect relationship, but its antidotal effect was weaker than sodium nitrite or sodium thiosulfate when they were administered alone. The protective effect of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate was enhanced with procaine HCI. When procaine was administered in combination both with sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate, its protective effects were further enhanced. Its antitoxic potency is 6.22. The effects of procaine on antagonizing the cyanide-induced whole-brain total calcium increase were also studied. KCN (7 mg/kg i.p.) significantly increased whole-brain total calcium level from 28.37 +/- 0.75 to 48.05 +/- 1.06 mg/g dry wt within 30 min, which can be prevented by procaine pretreated 15 min before KCN. One of the possible mechanism of procaine on antagonizing cyanide toxicity seems, at least, related to its effect on inhibiting the cyanide-induced neuronal calcium increase and maintaining the homeostasis of neuronal calcium.

  17. C-11 cyanide production system

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-01-13

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2 is provided, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sup.4 , the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900 .degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60%H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  18. Administering Eye Medications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on administering eye medications is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. A brief discussion follows of…

  19. Cyanide phytoremediation by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes).

    PubMed

    Ebel, Mathias; Evangelou, Michael W H; Schaeffer, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Although cyanide is highly toxic, it is economically attractive for extracting gold from ore bodies containing only a few grams per 1000 kg. Most of the cyanide used in industrial mining is handled without observable devastating consequences, but in informal, small-scale mining, the use is poorly regulated and the waste treatment is insufficient. Cyanide in the effluents from the latter mines could possibly be removed by the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes because of its high biomass production, wide distribution, and tolerance to cyanide (CN) and metals. We determined the sodium cyanide phytotoxicity and removal capacity of E. crassipes. Toxicity to 5-50 mg CN L(-1) was quantified by measuring the mean relative transpiration over 96 h. At 5 mgCNL(-1), only a slight reduction in transpiration but no morphological changes were observed. The EC(50) value was calculated by probit analysis to be 13 mgCNL(-1). Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that cyanide at 5.8 and 10 mgL(-1) was completely eliminated after 23-32 h. Metabolism of K(14)CN was measured in batch systems with leaf and root cuttings. Leaf cuttings removed about 40% of the radioactivity from solution after 28 h and 10% was converted to (14)CO(2); root cuttings converted 25% into (14)CO(2) after 48 h but only absorbed 12% in their tissues. The calculated K(m) of the leaf cuttings was 12 mgCNL(-1), and the V(max) was 35 mg CN(kg fresh weight)(-1)h(-1). Our results indicate that E. crassipes could be useful in treating cyanide effluents from small-scale gold mines.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg(-1) b.w.), IM (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg(-1) b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL(-1), 6.3 h × μg mL(-1), and 6.66 h × μg mL(-1), while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Cyadox and Its Main Metabolites in Beagle Dogs Following Oral, Intramuscular, and Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, Adeel; Xie, Shuyu; Huang, Lingli; Iqbal, Zahid; Qu, Wei; Shabbir, Muhammad A.; Pan, Yuanhu; Hussain, Hafiz I.; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Liu, Zhenli; Iqbal, Mujahid; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Cyadox (Cyx) is an antibacterial drug of the quinoxaline group that exerts markedly lower toxicity in animals, compared to its congeners. Here, the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of Cyx after oral (PO), intramuscular (IM), and intravenous (IV) routes of administration were studied to establish safety criteria for the clinical use of Cyx in animals. Six beagle dogs (3 males, 3 females) were administered Cyx through PO (40 mg kg−1 b.w.), IM (10 mg kg−1 b.w.), and IV (10 mg kg−1 b.w.) routes with a washout period of 2 weeks in a crossover design. Highly sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was employed for determination of Cyx and its main metabolites, 1, 4-bisdesoxycyadox (Cy1), cyadox-1-monoxide (Cy2), N-(quinoxaline-2-methyl)-cyanide acetyl hydrazine (Cy4), and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (Cy6) in plasma, urine and feces of dogs. The oral bioavailability of Cyx was 4.75%, suggesting first-pass effect in dogs. The concentration vs. time profile in plasma after PO administration indicates that Cyx is rapidly dissociated into its metabolites and eliminated from plasma earlier, compared to its metabolites. The areas under the curve (AUC) of Cyx after PO, IM and IV administration were 1.22 h × μg mL−1, 6.3 h × μg mL−1, and 6.66 h × μg mL−1, while mean resident times (MRT) were 7.32, 3.58 and 0.556 h, respectively. Total recovery of Cyx and its metabolites was >60% with each administration route. In feces, 48.83% drug was recovered after PO administration, while 18.15% and 17.11% after IM and IV injections, respectively, suggesting renal clearance as the major route of excretion with IM and IV administration and feces as the major route with PO delivery. Our comprehensive evaluation of Cyx has uncovered detailed information that should facilitate its judicious use in animals by improving understanding of its pharmacology. PMID:27536243

  2. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline after intramuscular administration with lidocaine in sheep, comparison with a conventional formulation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, L; Serrano, J M; Guimerá, M E; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of oxytetracycline (OTC) was studied in 11 sheep after intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dosage of 20 mg kg(-1) bodyweight. A conventional formulation was injected by the intravenous route and two different preparations were administered by the intramuscular route: a conventional formulation (T-100) and an aqueous solution of OTC with lidocaine (1 per cent) (OTC-L). The objective was to determine whether there are differences between both formulations in the disposition kinetics of OTC after intramuscular administration to sheep. After intravenous administration of the conventional formulation, plasma oxytetracycline concentrations were best fitted to an open two-compartment model. Mean apparent volume of distribution was 0.77+/-0.02 litre kg(-1) and the harmonic mean half-life was three hours. The OTC transfer process between central and peripheral compartments was fast and that did not influence the elimination process. After intramuscular administrations of both formulations, half-lives were longer than after intravenous administration (mean values of 14.1 and 58.2 hours for T-100 and OTC-L respectively). In both cases, a biphasic absorption, a 'flip-flop' model and a complete bioavailability were found. OTC-L provided therapeutic plasma concentrations over 0.5 microg ml(-1) (the minimum inhibitory concentration for most susceptible pathogens) for a longer period of time than T-100 (72 hours compared with 36 or 48 hours).

  3. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  4. Recent developments in cyanide detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  5. Complex samples cyanide detection with immobilized corrinoids.

    PubMed

    Männel-Croisé, Christine; Zelder, Felix

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetric solid phase with spatially separated extraction and detection zones as a rapid, effective and economic method for the optical detection of cyanide in complex samples is described. The system is seven times more sensitive for the optical detection of cyanide than the same class of chemical sensors used under homogeneous conditions. The application of the method in the detection of (i) endogenous cyanide in colored plant samples and of (ii) hydrogen cyanide in tobacco smoke is shown. The optical detection of multiple anions within a single sample has been demonstrated in principle for the detection of both CN(-) and SCN(-). Immobilized aquacyano-corrinoids and immobilized vitamin B12 are applied as chemical sensors, and cyanide is qualitatively identified by the violet color (λ(max) = 583 nm) of the corresponding dicyano-complex. Quantitative determinations with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRUV-vis) are possible in the linear range up to 0.2 mg/L with a LOD of 1 μg/L. Alkyl-modified silica particles are employed for immobilization of the indicator on the surface of the solid phase (detection zone), and for removal of colored hydrophobic interferents (extraction zone).

  6. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  7. Beyond toxicity: a regulatory role for mitochondrial cyanide.

    PubMed

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide's role in signaling.

  8. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  9. Analysis of hydrogen cyanide in air in a case of attempted cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, R; Nyholm, S; Åstot, C

    2012-10-10

    A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All three independent techniques demonstrated the presence of hydrogen cyanide, at concentrations of 14-20 ppm. Owing to the high volatility of hydrogen cyanide, the temperature and the time since exposure have a substantial effect on the likelihood of detecting hydrogen cyanide at a crime scene. The prevailing conditions (closed space, low temperature) must have supported the preservation of HCN in the car thus enabling the identification even though the analysis was performed several days after the hydrogen cyanide source was removed. This paper demonstrates the applicability of combining on-site FTIR measurements and off-site GC-MS analysis of a crime scene in order to ensure fast detection as well as unambiguous identification for forensic purposes of hydrogen cyanide in air.

  10. Toxicokinetics of cyanide in rats, pigs and goats after oral dosing with potassium cyanide.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Altamir B; Manzano, Helena; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Górniak, Silvana L

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the species on the toxicokinetics of cyanide and its main metabolite, thiocyanate. Forty-two rats, six pigs and six goats were dosed orally with 3.0 mg KCN/kg body weight, and cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations in blood were measured within 24 h. After the single oral dose, KCN was rapidly absorbed by rats and goats, with a time of peak concentration ( T(max)) of 15 min. The maximum plasma concentration ( C(max)) of cyanide was observed in goats (93.5 micro mol/l), whereas the C(max) of thiocyanate was higher in rats (58.1 micro mol/l). The elimination half-life ( t(1/2)) and volume of distribution ( Vd(area)) of both cyanide and thiocyanate were higher in goats (1.28 and 13.9 h, and 0.41 and 1.76 l/kg, respectively). Whereas the area under the curve (AUC) of cyanide was significantly higher in goats (234.6 micro mol.l/h), the AUC of thiocyanate was higher in rats (846.5 micro mol.l/h). In conclusion, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that the metabolism of cyanide and its main metabolite, thiocyanate, is species-linked, with the goat being more sensitive to the toxic effects of cyanide/thiocyanate.

  11. Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions.

  12. Effect of Ascorbate on the Cyanide-Scavenging Capability of Cobalt(III) meso-Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine Pentaiodide: Deactivation by Reduction?

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Cronican, Andrea A; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-03-21

    The Co(III)-containing water-soluble metalloporphyrin cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine pentaiodide (Co(III)TMPyP) is a potential cyanide-scavenging agent. The rate of reduction of Co(III)TMPyP by ascorbate is facile enough that conversion to the Co(II)-containing Co(II)TMPyP should occur within minutes at prevailing in vivo levels of the reductant. It follows that any cyanide-decorporating capability of the metalloporphyrin should depend more on the cyanide-binding characteristics of Co(II)TMPyP than those of the administered form, Co(III)TMPyP. Addition of cyanide to buffered aqueous solutions of Co(II)TMPyP (pH 7.4, 25-37 °C) results in quite rapid (k2 = ∼10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) binding/substitution of cyanide anion in the two available axial positions with high affinity (K'β = 10(10) to 10(11)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements and cyclic voltammetry indicate that cyanide induces oxidation to the Co(III)-containing dicyano species. The constraints that these observations put on plausible mechanisms for the reaction of Co(II)TMPyP with cyanide are discussed. Experiments in which Co(III)TMPyP and cyanide were added to freshly drawn mouse blood showed the same sequence of reactions (metalloporphyrin reduction → cyanide binding/substitution → reoxidation) to occur. Therefore, in cyanide-scavenging applications with this metalloporphyrin, we should be taking advantage of both the improved rate of ligand substitution at Co(II) compared to that at Co(III) and the increased affinity of Co(III) for anionic ligands compared to that of Co(II). Finally, using an established sublethal mouse model for cyanide intoxication, Co(III)TMPyP, administered either 5 min before (prophylaxis) or 1 min after the toxicant, is shown to have very significant antidotal capability. Possible explanations for the results of a previous contradictory study, which failed to find any prophylactic effect of Co(III)TMPyP toward cyanide intoxication, are

  13. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Bteich, S.B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Context More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152 - 308 GHz and analyzed using Watson’s A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. PMID:27738349

  14. Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Freshly Cut Potato Slices.

    PubMed

    Rychter, A; Janes, H W; Frenkel, C

    1978-04-01

    Treating intact white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber with ethylene in air or O(2) made it possible to obtain freshly cut slices which exhibit cyanide-resistant respiration. The cyanide-resistant path requires induction in whole tubers. The data also indicate that high O(2) concentration is necessary for the full development of cyanide-resistant respiration.

  15. Exposure to cyanide following a meal of cassava food.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O S A; Onabolu, A O; Sowunmi, A

    2002-09-05

    Exposure to cyanide from gari, a popular cassava food in West Africa, is implicated in the causation of ataxic polyneuropathy and amblyopia, but this has been questioned because cyanide was not detected in gari in a study. This study was carried out to determine if gari is a source of exposure to cyanide. Gari (150 g) containing cyanohydrin, from which 128 micromol of cyanide ions could be released, was dissolved in 500 ml of cold water for each of the 12 healthy subjects to drink. Concentrations of cyanide in plasma and erythrocytes were determined at baseline and following the meal at 30 min, 1 h, hourly for 4 h and two hourly for 12 h. The mean concentrations of cyanide in the plasma were 6 micromol/l (95% CI 2-10) at baseline, 12 micromol/l (95% CI 6-17) at peak and 6 micromol/l (95% CI 2-10) on return to baseline. The mean amount of cyanide absorbed into the plasma was 13 micromol (S.D. 12), while the transit time of absorbed cyanide was 7.3 h (S.D. 2.1). This study shows that exposure to cyanide follows consumption of gari, but the amount of cyanide absorbed into the plasma from a single meal is small and unlikely to cause acute intoxication. The long transit time of absorbed cyanide in the plasma suggests that frequent intake of gari could cause cyanide to accumulate in the plasma.

  16. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.; Grimes, David J.; Leinz, Reinhard W.; Rye, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most-persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)63- or Fe(CN)64-, but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)63- or its dissociation products (Co(CN)6-x(H2O)x(3-x)-). Supporting evidence for cobalt-cyanide complexation was found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification at four separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  17. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    EVALUATION OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CYANIDE TEST KITS AGAINST VARIOUS MATRICES ECBC-TR-1382 Darren W. Hicklin...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Mar 2015 – Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various...available cyanide -detection test kits or strips were selected for evaluation based upon a premarket survey: Quantofix test strips, Cyantesmo test paper

  18. Health Implications of Beef Intramuscular Fat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Despite several issues in relation to human health, beef is still a most popular meat product among large section of society due to the presence of high quality protein and other nutrients. The current paper reviews numerous studies that provide nutritional profiles and health implications of high marbled beef consumption. In relation to lipid content of beef, intramuscular fat contains high level of PUFA and MUFA compared to other beef fat. Level and composition of intramuscular fat varies depending on breed and feeding regime. Literature suggests that the marbling is more complex than the development of subcutaneous fat and marbling not only provides good fatty acids but also contributes to the higher eating quality of beef. Finally, the current work emphasize that meat plays a pivotal role in nutritious diets, high quality marbled beef is not only of excellent eating quality but also contain more beneficial fatty acids. PMID:27857532

  19. Pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin-sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to sheep.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, S; Cárceles, C M

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a 2:1 ampicillin-sulbactam combination were studied in 6 sheep, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open 2-compartment model after intravenous administration and a one-compartment model with first order absorption after intramuscular administration. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.32+/-0.06 L/kg and 0.42+/-0.04 L/kg, respectively and the total body clearances were 0.69+/-0.07 and 0.38+/-0.03 L/kg x h, respectively. The elimination half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32+/-0.05 h and 0.75+/-0.27 h, respectively, whereas for sulbactam the half-lives were 0.74+/-0.10 h and 0.89+/-0.16 h, respectively. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar in both drugs (72.76+/-9.65% for ampicillin and 85.50+/-8.35% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were reached at similar times (0.25+/-0.10 h and 0.24+/-0.08 h, respectively) and peak concentrations were also similar but nonproportional to the dose of both products administered (13.01+/-7.36 mg/L of ampicillin and 10.39+/-3.95 mg/L of sulbactam). Both drugs had a similar pharmacokinetic behavior after intramuscular administration in sheep. Since the plasma concentrations of sulbactam where consistently higher during the elimination phase of their disposition, consideration could be given to formulating the ampicillin-sulbactam combination in a higher than 2:1 ratio.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of an ampicillin-sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, S; Cárceles, C M

    1999-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a 2:1 ampicillin-sulbactam combination were studied in 6 sheep, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open 2-compartment model after intravenous administration and a one-compartment model with first order absorption after intramuscular administration. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.32+/-0.06 L/kg and 0.42+/-0.04 L/kg, respectively and the total body clearances were 0.69+/-0.07 and 0.38+/-0.03 L/kg x h, respectively. The elimination half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32+/-0.05 h and 0.75+/-0.27 h, respectively, whereas for sulbactam the half-lives were 0.74+/-0.10 h and 0.89+/-0.16 h, respectively. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar in both drugs (72.76+/-9.65% for ampicillin and 85.50+/-8.35% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam were reached at similar times (0.25+/-0.10 h and 0.24+/-0.08 h, respectively) and peak concentrations were also similar but nonproportional to the dose of both products administered (13.01+/-7.36 mg/L of ampicillin and 10.39+/-3.95 mg/L of sulbactam). Both drugs had a similar pharmacokinetic behavior after intramuscular administration in sheep. Since the plasma concentrations of sulbactam where consistently higher during the elimination phase of their disposition, consideration could be given to formulating the ampicillin-sulbactam combination in a higher than 2:1 ratio. PMID:9918330

  1. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to pigeons.

    PubMed

    Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Carceles, C M

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4:1) combination were studied after intravenous and intramuscular administration of single doses (25 mg kg(-1) bodyweight) to 50 pigeons. The plasma concentrations-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. The disposition curves for both drugs after intravenous administration were best described by a two-compartment open model. The apparent volumes of distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were 1.77 litres kg(-1) and 1.30 litres kg(-1) respectively. The body clearances of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were not significantly different. The elimination half-lives of amoxicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 1.22 (0.09) hour and 1.52 (0.09) hour respectively, and those of clavulanic acid were 1.15 (0.08) hour and 1.49 (0.08) hour. After intramuscular administration both drugs had a significantly longer half-life (P<0.05) than that after the intravenous treatment. The bioavailability after the intramuscular injection was high and similar for both drugs (75.98 per cent for amoxicillin and 74.61 per cent for clavulanic acid). The mean peak plasma concentration of clavulanic acid (0.29 hour) was reached earlier than amoxicillin (0.38 hour) and peak concentrations were proportional to the dose of both products administered (5.81 mg litre(-1) of amoxicillin and 1.89 mg litre(-1) of clavulanic acid). From a single administration it is proposed that an intramuscular dosage regimen of 105 mg kg(-1) of the combination (84 mg kg(-1) of amoxicillin and 21 mg kg(-1) of clavulanic acid) every 12 hours will achieve minimum concentrations > or =0.5 mg litre(-1) (minimum inhibitory concentration of most susceptible pathogens).

  2. Intramuscular Contact Lead Filled With Conductive Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Robert M.; Hendrickson, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed sheath for braided-wire intramuscular conductor preserves electrical continuity even if wire breaks. Plastic sheath surrounds conductive solution in which braided wire immersed. At end of cable, wire and sheath crimped together and press-fit in porous titanium electrode. Implanted surgically with aid of device resembling catheter. Used to deliver electrical stimuli to muscles in biomedical research on human and animal physiology, development of prostheses, regeneration of nerves and muscles, and artificial implants.

  3. Biotransformation and metabolic response of cyanide in weeping willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong; Liu, Shuo

    2007-08-25

    Biotransformation and metabolic responses of plants to cyanide were investigated using pre-rooted plants of weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) grown hydroponically in growth chambers and treated with potassium cyanide. Various physiological parameters of the plants were monitored to determine toxicity from exogenous cyanide exposure. Cyanide doses used in this study showed growth-promoting effects on plants, exhibiting higher measured values of transpiration rates, chlorophyll contents and soluble protein contents compared with the non-treated control plants. Superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities in leaves showed a slight change to cyanide application in most treatments. Of all selected parameters, soluble proteins of plants were the most sensitive indicator to cyanide application. Almost all applied cyanide was removed from the hydroponic solution in the presence of plants in all treatment groups. Small amounts of cyanide were detected in the plant tissues. Recovery of cyanide in different compartments of plants varied significantly, root being the dominant sink for cyanide accumulation. Mass balance studies showed that >97% of the applied cyanide was metabolized during transport through weeping willows and the metabolic rates of cyanide by plants were linearly increased with increasing of cyanide applied in the growth media. Results from this study indicated that neither visible toxic symptom nor metabolic lesion was observed for the plants after 192h of exposure, largely due to the well-established detoxification systems in willows. These findings suggest that cyanide has a beneficial role in plants and phytoremediation is a desirable solution of treating environmental sites contaminated with cyanide.

  4. Single-dose bioavailability of oral and intramuscular thiocolchicoside in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sandouk, P; Bouvier d'Yvoire, M; Chretien, P; Tillement, J P; Scherrmann, J M

    1994-01-01

    A single dose of 8 mg of thiocolchicoside was administered to 12 healthy volunteers according to a Latin square design, either as tablets (reference), oral solution, or intramuscular injection. Serum thiocolchicoside concentrations showed an absorption phase followed by a biexponential decay with a terminal half-life (t1/2 beta) of approximately 5 h, similar for the three formulations. The relative bioavailability of both oral formulations was approximately 25%, compared to the intramuscular formulation. There was a trend for the oral solution to have a slightly larger AUC and Cmax, as well as a slightly shorter Tmax, than the tablet formulation. However, the comparison of the two oral forms did not show statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, and AUC, suggesting that the Coltramyl tablets have an adequate in vivo dissolution profile.

  5. Comparison of oral and intramuscular recombinant canine distemper vaccination in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Connolly, Maren; Thomas, Patrick; Woodroffe, Rosie; Raphael, Bonnie L

    2013-12-01

    A series of three doses of recombinant canary-pox-vectored canine distemper virus vaccine was administered at 1-mo intervals, orally (n = 8) or intramuscularly (n = 13), to 21 previously unvaccinated juvenile African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Titers were measured by serum neutralization at each vaccination and at intervals over a period of 3.5-21.5 mo after the initial vaccination. All postvaccination titers were negative for orally vaccinated animals at all sampling time points. Of the animals that received intramuscular vaccinations, 100% had presumed protective titers by the end of the course of vaccination, but only 50% of those sampled at 6.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers. None of the three animals sampled at 21.5 mo postvaccination had positive titers.

  6. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ 1H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N+ CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions.

  7. Cyanide Formation from Oxidation of Glycine by a Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Frode

    1974-01-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent Km (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 × 10−4 M. PMID:4813896

  8. Cyanide formation from oxidation of glycine of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wissing, F

    1974-03-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent K(m) (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 x 10(-4) M.

  9. Disulfides as cyanide antidotes: evidence for a new in vivo oxidative pathway for cyanide detoxification.

    PubMed

    Zottola, Mark A; Beigel, Keith; Soni, Sunil-Datta; Lawrence, Richard

    2009-12-01

    It is known that cyanide is converted to thiocyanate in the presence of the enzyme rhodanese. The enzyme is activated by sulfur transfer from an appropriate sulfur donor. The activated enzyme then binds cyanide and transfers the sulfur atom to cyanide to form thiocyanate. This project began as an exploration of the ability of disulfides to act as sulfur donors in the rhodanese-mediated detoxification of cyanide. To our surprise, and contrary to expectations based on efficacy studies in vivo, our in vitro results showed that disulfides are rather poor sulfur donors. The transfer of a sulfur atom from a disulfide to the enzyme must occur via cleavage of a carbon-sulfur bond either of the original disulfide or in a mixed disulfide arising from the reaction of rhodanese with the original disulfide. Extending the reaction time and addition of chloride anion (a nucleophile) did not significantly change the results of the experiment. Using ultrasound as a means of accelerating bond cleavage also had a minimal effect. Those results ruled out cleavage of the carbon-sulfur bond in the original disulfide but did not preclude formation of a mixed disulfide. S-Methyl methylthiosulfonate (MTSO) was used to determine whether a mixed disulfide, if formed, would result in transfer of a sulfur atom to rhodanese. While no thiocyanate was formed in the reaction between cyanide and rhodanese exposed to MTSO, NMR analysis revealed that MTSO reacted directly with cyanide anion to form methyl thiocyanate. This result reveals the body's possible use of oxidized disulfides as a first line of defense against cyanide intoxication. The oxidation of disulfides to the corresponding thiosulfinate or thiosulfonate will result in facilitating their reaction with other nucleophiles. The reaction of an oxidized disulfide with a sulfur nucleophile from glutathione could be a plausible origin for the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid.

  10. Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender K.; Yngard, Ria A.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Clayton Baum, J.

    2008-06-01

    Cyanide (CN -), thiocyanate (SCN -), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN) 43-) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN -, SCN -, and Cu(CN) 43- by ferrate(VI) (Fe VIO 42-; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe VO 43-; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO 42-, is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO 4-. Cyanides react 10 3-10 5 times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN - proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN - and Cu(CN) 43-. The toxic CN - species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO -). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent.

  11. Copper recovery and cyanide oxidation by electrowinning from a spent copper-cyanide electroplating electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Dutra, A J B; Rocha, G P; Pombo, F R

    2008-04-01

    Copper-cyanide bleed streams arise from contaminated baths from industrial electroplating processes due to the buildup of impurities during continuous operation. These streams present an elevated concentration of carbonate, cyanide and copper, constituting a heavy hazard, which has to be treated for cyanide destruction and heavy metals removal, according to the local environmental laws. In the Brazilian Mint, bleed streams are treated with sodium hypochlorite, to destroy cyanide and precipitate copper hydroxide, a solid hazardous waste that has to be disposed properly in a landfill or treated for metal recovery. In this paper, a laboratory-scale electrolytic cell was developed to remove the copper from the bleed stream of the electroplating unit of the Brazilian Mint, permitting its reutilization in the plant and decreasing the amount of sludge to waste. Under favorable conditions copper recoveries around 99.9% were achieved, with an energy consumption of about 11 kWh/kg, after a 5-h electrolysis of a bath containing copper and total cyanide concentrations of 26 and 27 g/L, respectively. Additionally, a substantial reduction of the cyanide concentration was also achieved, decreasing the pollution load and final treatment costs.

  12. Identification, solubility enhancement and in vivo testing of a cyanide antidote candidate.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kristof; Ancha, Madhuri; Jane, Mario; Lee, Stephen; Angalakurthi, Siva; Negrito, Maelani; Rasheed, Senan; Nwaneri, Assumpta; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2013-06-14

    Present studies focused on the in vitro testing, the solubility enhancement and the in vivo testing of methyl propyl trisulfide (MPTS), a newly identified sulfur donor to treat cyanide (CN) intoxication. To enhance the solubility of the lipophilic MPTS, various FDA approved co-solvents, surfactants and their combinations were applied. The order of MPTS solubility in the given co-solvents was found to be the following: ethanol > PEG 200 ≈ PEG400 ≈ PEG300 > PG. The maximum solubility of MPTS was found at 90% ethanol of 177.11 ± 12.17 mg/ml. The order of MPTS solubility in different surfactants is Cremophor EL>Cremophor RH40>polysorbate 80>sodium deoxycholate>sodium cholate. The maximum solubility of 40.99 mg/ml was achieved with 20% Cremophor EL. A synergistic solubilizing effect encountered with the combination of 20% Cremophor EL+75% ethanol lead to a 2900-fold increase (compared to water solubility) in solubility. The in vivo efficacy using intramuscular administration was determined on a therapeutic mice model and expressed as a ratio of CN LD50 with and without the test antidote(s) (APR). Intramuscular administration was shown to be effective and the therapeutic antidotal protection by MPTS alone and MPTS+thiosulfate (TS) was significantly higher than the present therapy of TS.

  13. Patterns of cyanide antidote use since regulatory approval of hydroxocobalamin in the United States.

    PubMed

    Streitz, Matthew J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Borys, Douglas J; Morgan, David L

    2014-01-01

    Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate are common cyanide antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin was approved for use in the United States in 2006. Our objective was to determine the frequency of antidote use as reported to the US poison centers from 2005 to 2009 and describe which antidotes were used in critically ill cyanide toxic patients. We performed a retrospective review over 5 years (2005-2009) from 61 US poison centers. We identified all cyanide-exposed cases that received a cyanide antidote. Variables collected included demographics, gastric decontamination, antidote used, predefined serious clinical effects (hypotension, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, and coma), and predefined serious therapies (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, vasopressors, atropine, anticonvulsant, antidysrhythmic, and intubation/ventilation). One trained abstractor abstracted each chart to a standardized electronic form. Another investigator audited 20% of the charts. Kappa values were calculated. One hundred sixty-five exposures were identified. Mean age was 42 years (range, 3-93 years). Seventy-one percent were male. Exposures were 27% ingestion and 53% inhalation. Thirty-two percent of the ingestions were suicide attempts. Twenty percent (32 of 157) of all cases died. Over all years reported, hydroxocobalamin was administered to 29% (45 of 157) of patients, sodium nitrite to 25%, and sodium thiosulfate to 46%. Hydroxocobalamin use increased from 24% to 54% from 2007 to 2009, respectively (P = 0.024). Sodium thiosulfate use decreased from 73% to 31% (P = 0.002) and sodium nitrite use decreased from 26% to 14% (P = 0.39). The proportion of cases with serious clinical effects that received hydroxocobalamin increased each year, and the proportion that received other antidotes decreased. Hydroxocobalamin was also administered more often in cases that required serious therapies and increased each year. Hydroxocobalamin use for cyanide toxicity increased each year as reported to the US poison

  14. Influence of cyanide on diauxic oscillations in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hald, Bjørn O; Smrcinova, Miroslava; Sørensen, Preben G

    2012-12-01

    Coherent glycolytic oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a multicellular property induced by addition of glucose to a starved cell population of sufficient density. However, initiation of oscillations requires an additional perturbation, usually addition of cyanide. The fate of cyanide during glycolytic oscillations has not previously been studied, and is the subject of the present paper. Using a cyanide electrode, a substantial decrease in cyanide concentration was observed. In the pH range 6-7, we found experimentally that the electrode behaves reasonably well, provided changes in pH are taken into account. To our knowledge, use of a cyanide electrode to study cyanide dynamics in living biological systems is new. Cyanide was found to enter starving yeast cells in only negligible amounts, and did not react significantly with glucose. Thus, cyanide consumption must be explained by reactions with glycolytic intermediates and evaporation. Evaporation and reaction with the signalling substance, extracellular acetaldehyde (ACA(x)) only explains the observed cyanide removal if [ACA(x)] is improbably high. Furthermore, differences in NADH traces upon cyanide addition before or after glucose addition strongly suggest that cyanide also reacts with intracellular carbonyl-containing metabolites. We show that cyanide reacts with pyruvate (Pyr) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate in addition to ACA, and estimate their rate constants. Our results strongly suggest that the major routes of cyanide removal during glycolysis are reactions with pyruvate and ACA. Cyanide removal by all carbonyl-containing intermediates led to a lower mean [ACA(x) ], thereby increasing the amplitude of [ACA(x) ] oscillations.

  15. Antidotal effect of dihydroxyacetone against cyanide toxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Niknahad, H; O'Brien, P J

    1996-05-01

    Potassium cyanide (CN) intoxication in mice was found to be effectively antagonized by dihydroxyacetone (DHA), particularly if administered in combination with another CN antidote, sodium thiosulfate. Cyanide-induced convulsions were also prevented by DHA treatment, either alone or in combination with thiosulfate. Injection (i.p.) of DHA (2 g/kg) 2 min after or 10 min before CN (s.c.) increased LD50 values of CN(8.7 mg/kg) by factors of 2.1 and 3.0, respectively. Treatment with a combination of DHA and thiosulfate after CN increased the LD50 by a factor of 2.4. Pretreatment with a combination of DHA and thiosulfate (1 g/kg) increased the LD50 of CN to 83 mg/kg. Administration of alpha-ketoglutarate (2.0 g/kg), but not pyruvate, 2 min after CN increased the LD50 of CN by a factor of 1.6. Brain, heart and liver cytochrome oxidase activities were also measured following in vivo CN treatment with and without DHA. Pretreatment with DHA prevented the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase activity by CN and treatment with DHA after CN accelerated the recovery of cytochrome oxidase activity, especially in brain and heart homogenates. DHA is a physiological agent and, therefore, could prove to be a safe and effective antidote for CN, particularly in cases of fire smoke inhalation in which a combination of CN and carbon monoxide is present. In these cases the normally used antidote, sodium nitrite, to induce methemoglobin so as to trap the CN, is contraindicated because some of the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood will have already been diminished by carbon monoxide.

  16. Regional bone change in intramuscular haemangioma mimicking primary bone tumour.

    PubMed

    Shikhare, Sumer; Chacko, Julio K; Chuah, Khoon L

    2015-04-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign soft-tissue tumours, commonly located in the extremities. We present a right-leg intramuscular haemangioma with florid periosteal reaction in adjacent tibia, mimicking a primary bone tumour. Plain radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging features are illustrated with the surgical and histopathological findings. Radiologists need to be familiar with reactive bone changes secondary to deep-seated intramuscular haemangiomas to avoid potential misdiagnosis.

  17. [Intermuscular and intramuscular lipomas of the neck].

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, L; Miglietta, A M; Pulcini, A; Granai, A; Fabrizio, G; Manno, A; Messinetti, S

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of deep lipomas of the neck developed between the skeletal muscles were presented: one intermuscular and the other intramuscular. Taking into consideration the rarity of the case, the authors examined the clinical surgical aspect, paying special attention to the relationship between sonographic and computerized tomographic characteristics and the histological aspects in order to define whether the lipomatous tumors were benign or malignant. They also studied the localization of cervical lipomas, of lipoblastomas of hibernomas and of liposarcomas and defined an anatomo-clinical classification of both superficial and deep cervical lipomas.

  18. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters. PMID:26413045

  19. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  20. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  1. Application of cyanide hydrolase from Klebsiella sp. in a biosensor system for the detection of low-level cyanide.

    PubMed

    Mak, Karen K W; Law, Alex W C; Tokuda, Shinsuke; Yanase, Hideshi; Renneberg, Reinhard

    2005-06-01

    A partially purified preparation of cyanide hydrolase (cyanidase) from a bacterium, Klebsiella sp., was applied as a biocatalyst in a biosensor system for low-level cyanide detection. In the biosensor system cyanide hydrolase converts cyanide into formate and ammonia. The formate produced in the cyanide degradation was detected with a formate biosensor, in which formate dehydrogenase (FDH; E.C. 1.2.1.2) was co-immobilized with salicylate hydroxylase (SHL; E.C. 1.14.13.1) on a Clark electrode. The principle of the formate sensor is that FDH converts formate into carbon dioxide using beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NAD(+)). The corresponding NADH produced is then oxidized to NAD(+) by SHL using salicylate and oxygen. The oxygen consumption is monitored with the Clark electrode. The optimum buffer pH and temperature for the enzymatic hydrolysis of potassium cyanide were studied. The preliminary experiments including the pretreatment of cyanide with cyanide hydrolase and then detection by the formate sensor gave a detection limit at 7.3 micromol l(-1) cyanide. The linear range of the calibration curve was between 30 micromol l(-1) and 300 micromol l(-1) cyanide.

  2. Hydrogen cyanide health effects. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, B.L.; Baker, L.H.; Herndon, B.L.; Ellis, H.V. III; Horn, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Health effects literature primarily related to inhalation exposures to hydrogen cyanide was collected, evaluated, tabulated and summarized. Approximately 170 documents were collected from computerized and manual literature searches covering the period 1899-1981. Pharmacologists and an M.D. epidemiologist rated the documents according to their applicability to the study and their methodology. The approximately 20 documents considered useful for deriving a range of concern for human exposure to hydrogen cyanide from automotive emissions were tabulated. The 25 pages of tables detail the results of acute and repeated dose testing of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, monkeys, dogs, goats, donkeys and humans as well as human occupational studies. Most of the documents evaluated are described in an annotated bibliography.

  3. Acute, sublethal cyanide poisoning in mice is ameliorated by nitrite alone: complications arising from concomitant administration of nitrite and thiosulfate as an antidotal combination.

    PubMed

    Cambal, Leah K; Swanson, Megan R; Yuan, Quan; Weitz, Andrew C; Li, Hui-Hua; Pitt, Bruce R; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2011-07-18

    Sodium nitrite alone is shown to ameliorate sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice when given from ∼1 h before until 20 min after the toxic dose as demonstrated by the recovery of righting ability. An optimum dose (12 mg/kg) was determined to significantly relieve cyanide toxicity (5.0 mg/kg) when administered to mice intraperitoneally. Nitrite so administered was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodsteam as judged by the dose-dependent appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin. It is argued that antagonism of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity rather than the methemoglobin-forming action of nitrite. Concomitant addition of sodium thiosulfate to nitrite-treated blood resulted in the detection of sulfidomethemoblobin by EPR spectroscopy. Sulfide is a product of thiosulfate hydrolysis and, like cyanide, is known to be a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase, the effects of the two inhibitors being essentially additive under standard assay conditions rather than dominated by either one. The findings afford a plausible explanation for an observed detrimental effect in mice associated with the use of the standard nitrite-thiosulfate combination therapy at sublethal levels of cyanide intoxication.

  4. Collisional excitation of interstellar methyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are used to determine the collisional excitation rates of methyl cyanide under interstellar molecular cloud conditions. The required Q(L,M) as a function of kinetic temperature were determined by averaging fixed energy IOS (infinite order sudden) results over appropriate Boltzmann distributions of collision energies. At a kinetic temperature of 40 K, rates within a K ladder were found to be accurate to generally better than about 30 percent.

  5. Survival of fish upon removal of cyanide from water.

    PubMed

    Gacsi, Mariann; Czegeny, Ildiko; Nagy, Gabor; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2005-03-01

    The effects of potassium cyanide and the removal of cyanide from water in vivo on the survival of fish were investigated. This research was initiated because of the catastrophe that took place at the end of January 2000 in the Carpathian basin, when an enormous amount of cyanide pollution swept through the Samos and Tisza rivers, and then to the Danube. Since nothing was done against the disaster, we have suggested a chemical solution to remove cyanide from waterways (Chem. Innovat. 30 (2000b) 53). Based on experiments, we describe that the most effective and harmless way to remove cyanide and to save the lives of fish from 40 to 160 x the lethal doses of cyanide is to use carbogen gas containing 5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen followed by aeration with air.

  6. Whole blood cyanide levels in patients with tobacco amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Jestico, J V; O'Brien, M D; Teoh, R; Toseland, P A; Wong, H C

    1984-06-01

    Three patients presented with painless bilateral visual failure due to tobacco amblyopia. The whole blood cyanide levels were raised above those predicted from their high tobacco consumption, approaching lethal levels reported from acute inhalation of cyanide. Each patient had an excessive alcohol intake with biochemical evidence of hepatic dysfunction, the elevated whole blood cyanide levels being attributed to the associated impairment of cyanide detoxification. In each case the improvement in visual acuities following abstinence and hydroxycobalamin therapy was accompanied by a reduction in the whole blood cyanide level to within the normal range. Serial measurements of whole blood cyanide, serum alcohol, and the detection of urinary nicotine provided valuable indices of the patient's subsequent compliance and clinical progress.

  7. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  8. A novel cyanide-inducible gene cluster helps protect Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cyanide.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Williams, Huw D; Cherbuin, Gaëtan; Haas, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the toxic secondary metabolite hydrogen cyanide (HCN) at high cell population densities and low aeration. Here, we investigated the impact of HCN as a signal in cell-cell communication by comparing the transcriptome of the wild-type strain PAO1 to that of an HCN-negative mutant under cyanogenic conditions. HCN repressed four genes and induced 12 genes. While the individual functions of these genes are unknown, with one exception (i.e. a ferredoxin-dependent reductase), a highly inducible six-gene cluster (PA4129-PA4134) was found to be crucial for protection of P. aeruginosa from external HCN intoxication. A double mutant deleted for PA4129-PA4134 and cioAB (encoding cyanide-insensitive oxidase) did not grow with 100 μM KCN, whereas the corresponding single mutants were essentially unaffected, suggesting a synergistic action of the PA4129-PA4134 gene products and cyanide-insensitive oxidase.

  9. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis after a Suicide Attempt with Cyanide: The Rebirth of Cyanide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Chang, Che-Fu; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Chiang, Wen-Fang; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lin, Shih-Hua; Chen, Jin-Shuen

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department in a state of unconsciousness after attempting suicide with unknown substances. Severe metabolic acidosis (pH: 6.81), with a high anion gap (36.2) and high lactate level (20.2 mmol/L), was observed. After four hours of intensive medical treatment, the patient regained consciousness, with a return of the arterial pH to 7.42. Finally, cyanide intoxication was diagnosed based on the detection of a serum cyanide level of 3.5 mg/L. The presence of a high anion gap associated with severe lactic acidosis is a clue for making a rapid differential diagnosis of acute cyanide intoxication. Providing intensive and immediate supportive management is also crucial, even in cases without obtainable specific antidotes.

  10. Effect of chronic cyanide intoxication on memory in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Namasivayam, A

    2000-01-01

    Cyanide is a chemical widely used in industry, and is a major environmental pollutant. Its toxicity is caused by inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in histotoxic hypoxia. The effect of sublethal doses of cyanide on memory and hippocampal neurotransmitters was studied in male Wistar strain albino rats. Cyanide reduced the memory along with reduction in the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hippocampus. Pre-existing malnutrition in the animals exaggerated these effects.

  11. Laboratory interferences with the newer cyanide antidote: hydroxocobalamin.

    PubMed

    Beckerman, Nathan; Leikin, Scott M; Aitchinson, Robert; Yen, May; Wills, Brandon K

    2009-02-01

    Cyanide poisoning occurs in many smoke inhalation victims. The newest FDA-approved treatment for acute cyanide intoxication is hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit). However, hydroxocobalamin exhibits chemical properties that can disrupt several clinical laboratory tests. Knowledge of these effects on laboratory tests can be useful in assisting laboratory technicians and clinicians in managing these patients. This article briefly discusses acute cyanide poisoning and treatment, and summarizes laboratory interferences that have been reported with the use of hydroxocobalamin.

  12. Pseudolaminar necrosis in cyanide intoxication: a neuropathology case report.

    PubMed

    Riudavets, Miguel Angel; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Troncoso, Juan C

    2005-06-01

    We describe the gross and microscopic neuropathological changes in the brain of a 17-year-old male who died 4 days after being poisoned with cyanide. Previous reports indicate that following cyanide intoxication, the brain develops diffuse hypoxic/ischemic changes, predominantly of the basal ganglia. The case we describe here had similar features but in addition showed striking laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex. This finding in cyanide poisoning has been previously demonstrated by neuroimaging, but not pathologically.

  13. Analysis of cyanide in whole blood of dosed cathartids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krynitsky, A.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    A gas-liquid chromatographic method was modified to quantify both unmetabolized ('free') and metabolized ('bound', i.e., thiocyanates) cyanides. The methods for both are efficient and sensitive to 0.05 ppm. Repeated freezing and thawing of whole blood from treated cathartids caused an initial increase in free cyanide concentrations, followed by a gradual decline to a plateau. Bound cyanide concentrations declined after repeated freezing and thawing.

  14. Comparisons of Cubed Ice, Crushed Ice, and Wetted Ice on Intramuscular and Surface Temperature Changes

    PubMed Central

    Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Intervention(s): Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Results: Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. Conclusions: As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures. PMID:19295957

  15. Quantification of β-Cell Mass in Intramuscular Islet Grafts Using Radiolabeled Exendin-4

    PubMed Central

    Espes, Daniel; Selvaraju, Ramkumar; Velikyan, Irina; Krajcovic, Martin; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Eriksson, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in alternative implantation sites to the liver for islet transplantation. Intramuscular implantation has even been tested clinically. Possibilities to monitor β-cell mass would be of huge importance not only for the understanding of islet engraftment but also for the decision of changing the immunosuppressive regime. We have therefore evaluated the feasibility of quantifying intramuscular β-cell mass using the radiolabeled glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4. Methods One hundred to 400 islets were transplanted to the abdominal muscle of nondiabetic mice. After 3 to 4 weeks, 0.2 to 0.5 MBq [177Lu]DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 was administered intravenously. Sixty minutes postinjection abdominal organs and graft bearing muscle were retrieved, and the radioactive uptake measured in a well counter within 10 minutes. The specific uptake in native and transplanted islets was assessed by autoradiography. The total insulin-positive area of the islet grafts was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Intramuscular islet grafts could easily be visualized by this tracer, and the background uptake was very low. There was a linear correlation between the radioactivity uptake and the number of transplanted islets, both for standardized uptake values and the total radiotracer uptake in each graft (percentage of injected dose). The quantified total insulin area of surviving β cells showed an even stronger correlation to both standardized uptake values (R = 0.96, P = 0.0002) and percentage of injected dose (R = 0.88, P = 0.0095). There was no correlation to estimated α cell mass. Conclusions [177Lu]DO3A-VS-Cys40-Exendin-4 could be used to quantify β-cell mass after experimental intramuscular islet transplantation. This technique may well be transferred to the clinical setting by exchanging Lutetium-177 radionuclide to a positron emitting Gallium-68. PMID:27819034

  16. Giant intramuscular haemangioma of the chest wall with osteolytic change.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2012-05-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma of the chest wall is very rare, and only few cases associated with rib destruction has been reported. Here, we describe a 37-year old woman with a giant intramuscular haemangioma arising in the left back and associated with rib destruction.

  17. [Cyanides--treatment beneath the shade of terror].

    PubMed

    Krivoy, Amir; Finkelstein, Arseny; Rotman, Eran; Layish, Ido; Tashma, Zeev; Hoffman, Azik; Schein, Ophir; Yehezkelli, Yoav; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2007-03-01

    Although the use of cyanides as warfare agents has not been documented since the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, there are rising fears of cyanide being used by terrorists. An Al-Qaeda terror plot to use cyanide gas in the London Underground was foiled in 2002. The threat of similar events becomes more imminent in light of the terror attacks in our country and worldwide, accompanied by statements and threats by fundamentalist leaders to employ chemical weapons. Therefore, mass-intoxication with cyanides is not merely a hypothetical scenario. The treatment of cyanide poisoning is under constant evaluation and there is no international consensus on the subject. The medical treatment of victims at the scene and in hospitals should be rapid and efficient. Current treatment dictates establishing an intravenous line and a slow rate of administration of antidotes. Both demands are not feasible in this specific mass casualty event. The clinical signs of cyanide poisoning are complex, variable and not necessarily obvious for the medical team. There is great interest in reconsidering the existing treatment protocols for cyanide intoxication in light of current research. This review describes the mechanisms of cyanide toxicity, clinical signs of exposure, and current treatment protocols in use worldwide. On the basis of this evidence we suggest a medical treatment protocol for a mass casualty event caused by cyanide.

  18. Continuous real-time measurement of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Rosentreter, Jeffrey J.; Gering, Kevin L.

    2007-03-06

    This invention provides a method and system capable of the continuous, real-time measurement of low concentrations of aqueous free cyanide (CN) using an on-line, flow through system. The system is based on the selective reactivity of cyanide anions and the characteristically nonreactive nature of metallic gold films, wherein this selective reactivity is exploited as an indirect measurement for aqueous cyanide. In the present invention the dissolution of gold, due to the solubilization reaction with the analyte cyanide anion, is monitored using a piezoelectric microbalance contained within a flow cell.

  19. Removal of cyanides by complexation with ferrous compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Varuntanya, C.P.; Zabban, W.

    1995-12-31

    Alkaline chlorination, an oxidation process with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) or hypochlorite (ClO{sup {minus}}), is the most widely accepted method of cyanide treatment. However, removal of cyanide from wastewater to the extent required by the effluent limits imposed by Federal and State regulatory authorities is practically impossible, especially when the majority of the cyanide is present as an iron-cyanide complex. One potential treatment method being further investigated uses ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) compounds to react with free and complex cyanide ions and produce insoluble iron-cyanide complexes. However, sludges generated by this treatment method contain cyanide wastes which may be considered a hazardous waste by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The studies reported in this paper demonstrate that ferrous (Fe{sup 2+}) precipitation can remove cyanide ions (both free and complex) to a concentration within the range of 1 to 2 mg/L. The wastewaters utilized in these tests were collected from a coke plant facility. Synthetic cyanide solutions were used in the studied as well. Ferrous compounds used in the studies included commercial-grade ferrous sulfate, commercial-grade ferrous chloride, and spent pickle liquor (containing ferrous ion). The desired effluent quality was successfully attained in the treatment of the above-mentioned wastewaters by using ferrous compounds as well as spent pickle liquor.

  20. Basic principles for measurement of intramuscular pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    We review historical and methodological approaches to measurements of intramuscular pressure (IMP) in humans. These techniques provide valuable measures of muscle tone and activity as well as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of exertional compartment syndrome. Although the wick and catheter techniques provide accurate measurements of IMP at rest, their value for exercise studies and diagnosis of exertional compartment syndrome is limited because of low frequency response and hydrostatic (static and inertial) pressure artifacts. Presently, most information on diagnosis of exertional compartment syndromes during dynamic exercise is available using the Myopress catheter. However, future research and clinical diagnosis using IMP can be optimized by the use of a miniature transducer-tipped catheter such as the Millar Mikro-tip.

  1. Bioactivation of cyanide to cyanate in sulfur amino acid deficiency: relevance to neurological disease in humans subsisting on cassava.

    PubMed

    Tor-Agbidye, J; Palmer, V S; Lasarev, M R; Craig, A M; Blythe, L L; Sabri, M I; Spencer, P S

    1999-08-01

    Neurological disorders have been reported from parts of Africa with protein-deficient populations and attributed to cyanide (CN-) exposure from prolonged dietary use of cassava, a cyanophoric plant. Cyanide is normally metabolized to thiocyanate (SCN-) by the sulfur-dependent enzyme rhodanese. However, in protein-deficient subjects where sulfur amino acids (SAA) are low, CN may conceivably be converted to cyanate (OCN-), which is known to cause neurodegenerative disease in humans and animals. This study investigates the fate of potassium cyanide administered orally to rats maintained for up to 4 weeks on either a balanced diet (BD) or a diet lacking the SAAs, L-cystine and L-methionine. In both groups, there was a time-dependent increase in plasma cyanate, with exponential OCN- increases in SAA-deficient rats. A strongly positive linear relationship between blood CN- and plasma OCN- concentrations was observed in these animals. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that cyanate is an important mediator of chronic cyanide neurotoxicity during protein-calorie deficiency. The potential role of thiocyanate in cassava-associated konzo is discussed in relationship to the etiology of the comparable pattern of motor-system disease (spastic paraparesis) seen in lathyrism.

  2. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of zinc-cyanide complex.

    PubMed

    Yngard, Ria; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Osathaphan, Khemarath; Sharma, Virender K

    2007-10-01

    Zinc-cyanide complexes are found in gold mining effluents and in metal finishing rinse water. The effect of Zn(II) on the oxidation of cyanide by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O(4)(2-), Fe(VI)) was thus investigated by studying the kinetics of the reaction of Fe(VI) with cyanide present in a potassium salt of a zinc cyanide complex (K(2)Zn(CN)(4)) and in a mixture of Zn(II) and cyanide solutions as a function of pH (9.0-11.0). The rate-law for the oxidation of Zn(CN)(4)(2-) by Fe(VI) was found to be -d[Fe(VI)]/dt=k[Fe(VI)][Zn(CN)(4)(2-)](0.5). The rate constant, k, decreased with an increase in pH. The effect of temperature (15-45 degrees C) on the oxidation was studied at pH 9.0, which gave an activation energy of 45.7+/-1.5kJmol(-1). The cyanide oxidation rate decreased in the presence of the Zn(II) ions. However, Zn(II) ions had no effect on the cyanide removal efficiency by Fe(VI) and the stoichiometry of Fe(VI) to cyanide was approximately 1:1; similar to the stoichiometry in absence of Zn(II) ions. The destruction of cyanide by Fe(VI) resulted in cyanate. The experiments on removal of cyanide from rinse water using Fe(VI) demonstrated complete conversion of cyanide to cyanate.

  3. Delayed intramuscular human neurotrophin-3 improves recovery in adult and elderly rats after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Duricki, Denise A.; Hutson, Thomas H.; Kathe, Claudia; Soleman, Sara; Gonzalez-Carter, Daniel; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Shine, H. David; Chen, Qin; Wood, Tobias C.; Bernanos, Michel; Cash, Diana; Williams, Steven C. R.; Gage, Fred H.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for a therapy that reverses disability after stroke when initiated in a time frame suitable for the majority of new victims. We show here that intramuscular delivery of neurotrophin-3 (NT3, encoded by NTF3) can induce sensorimotor recovery when treatment is initiated 24 h after stroke. Specifically, in two randomized, blinded preclinical trials, we show improved sensory and locomotor function in adult (6 months) and elderly (18 months) rats treated 24 h following cortical ischaemic stroke with human NT3 delivered using a clinically approved serotype of adeno-associated viral vector (AAV1). Importantly, AAV1-hNT3 was given in a clinically-feasible timeframe using a straightforward, targeted route (injections into disabled forelimb muscles). Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed that recovery was not due to neuroprotection, as expected given the delayed treatment. Rather, treatment caused corticospinal axons from the less affected hemisphere to sprout in the spinal cord. This treatment is the first gene therapy that reverses disability after stroke when administered intramuscularly in an elderly body. Importantly, phase I and II clinical trials by others show that repeated, peripherally administered high doses of recombinant NT3 are safe and well tolerated in humans with other conditions. This paves the way for NT3 as a therapy for stroke. PMID:26614754

  4. Acute cyanide poisoning: clinical spectrum, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Borron, S W; Baud, F J

    1996-09-01

    Cyanide poisoning presents in many forms. Industrial intoxications occur due to extensive use of cyanide compounds as reaction products. Smoke inhalation, a polyintoxication, is most often responsible for domestic cyanide poisonings. Suicidal poisonings are rare. Cyanogenic compounds may produce acute or subacute toxicity. Signs of cyanide poisoning include headache, vertigo, agitation, confusion, coma, convulsions and death. Definitive laboratory confirmation is generally delayed. Elevated plasma lactate, associated with cardiovascular collapse, should suggest cyanide intoxication. Immediate treatment includes 100% oxygen, assisted ventilation, decontamination, correction of acidosis and blood pressure support. Antidotes include oxygen, hydroxocobalamin, di-cobalt EDTA and methaemoglobin-inducers. Hydroxocobalamin is an attractive antidote due to its rapid cyanide binding and its lack of serious side-effects, even in the absence of cyanide intoxication. Sodium thiosulphate acts more slowly than other antidotes and is indicated in subacute cyanogen poisoning and as an adjunct to acute cyanide poisoning. Initial evaluation of antidotal efficacy is based on correction of hypotension and lactic acidosis; the final analysis rests on the degree of permanent central nervous system injury.

  5. New spot-test for cyanide ion and cyanogen gas.

    PubMed

    Tobia, S K; Gawargious, Y A; El-Shahat, M F

    1973-05-01

    A new, rapid and simple spot test has been developed for detection of both cyanide ion and cyanogen gas. The cyanogen gas must first be converted into cyanide ion by reaction with sodium hydroxide. On addition of a Cu(II) solution the cyanocuprate(I) complex formed reduces the molybdate solution to molybdenum blue.

  6. Cyanide toxicity in hepatocytes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Aw, T Y; Jones, D P

    1989-09-01

    The effect of cyanide on cell viability and mitochondrial function was studied in hepatocytes exposed to air or argon. Cells were more susceptible to cyanide toxicity under air than under argon. Analysis of the disposition of cyanide showed that the difference in susceptibility to KCN was not due to O2-dependent differences in cyanide metabolism or elimination. Studies of mitochondrial function revealed that cyanide under aerobic conditions resulted in substantial swelling of the mitochondria, which corresponded to a matrix loading of phosphate. In addition, cyanide caused a loss of the mitochondrial protonmotive force. This was in contrast to the results for cells exposed to 30 min of anoxia alone in which there was no loss of mitochondrial delta pH, no detectable change in mitochondrial volume, and little matrix loading of phosphate. These results show that at least some of the protective mechanisms elicited by anoxia (B. S. Andersson, T. Y. Aw, and D. P. Jones. Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Cell Physiol. 21): C349-C355, 1987) are not elicited by cyanide alone. Thus cyanide under aerobic conditions does not provide a completely valid model for simple anoxia. Moreover, the results suggest that the molecular sensor necessary to signal suppression of metabolic and transport functions during neahypoxia is dependent on O2 and is neither stimulated nor antagonized by KCN.

  7. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Hill, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife ( gt 9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  8. 38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF RUINS OF CYANIDE MIXING AND EXTRACTION SHED, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PREPARED HERE AND PUMPED UP INTO THE PROCESSING TANKS, AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS ALSO EXTRACTED HERE AFTER THE LEACHING PROCESS WAS COMPLETE - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzarello, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  10. Foray of Cytologically Diagnosed Intramuscular Sarcocystosis- A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Anoosha; Puttaveerachary, Ashok Kagathur; Govindashetty, Abhishek Mandya; Sahni, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Sarcocystosis is an uncommonly encountered zoonotic coccidial protozoal infestation of human beings. The sarcocystis species is known to produce intestinal and muscular infestations in humans. We report a rare case of a 35-year-old female with an intramuscular swelling in the lumbar region diagnosed cytologically as “Intramuscular Sarcocystosis” and subsequently confirmed on histopathology. This case highlights the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the identification of Sarcocystis and its role in differentiating it from other intramuscular parasites which is of immense value in precise diagnosis and appropriate patient management. PMID:26155487

  11. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels in fire survivors.

    PubMed

    Clark, C J; Campbell, D; Reid, W H

    1981-06-20

    Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide concentrations were measured in 53 fire survivors, 36 of whom had clinical evidence of smoke inhalation. Carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels were raised only in patients with smoke inhalation. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin measurement can be used to confirm the diagnosis of severe smoke inhalation in cases in which the clinical data are inconclusive, provided that the time of sampling after exposure is taken into account. A nomogram has been constructed for this purpose. There is no quick method of measuring blood cyanide levels, but the close relation between cyanide and carboxyhaemoglobin levels suggests that carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations, which can be rapidly and easily measured, could be used to identify those who might benefit from treatment with cyanide antidotes.

  12. Cyanide poisoning by fire smoke inhalation: a European expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Anseeuw, Kurt; Delvau, Nicolas; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; De Iaco, Fabio; Geldner, Götz; Holmström, Peter; Lambert, Yves; Sabbe, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Smoke inhalation is a common cause of cyanide poisoning during fires, resulting in injury and even death. In many cases of smoke inhalation, cyanide has increasingly been recognized as a significant toxicant. The diagnosis of cyanide poisoning remains very difficult, and failure to recognize it may result in inadequate or inappropriate treatment. Findings suggesting cyanide toxicity include the following: (a) a history of enclosed-space fire; (b) any alteration in the level of consciousness; (c) any cardiovascular changes (particularly inexplicable hypotension); and (d) elevated plasma lactate. The feasibility and safety of empiric treatment with hydroxocobalamin for fire smoke victims have been reported in the literature. On the basis of a literature review and a panel discussion, a group of European experts has proposed emergency management protocols for cyanide toxicity in fire smoke victims.

  13. Biodegradation of cyanide wastes from mining and jewellery industries.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, María Dolores

    2016-04-01

    Cyanide, one of the known most toxic chemicals, is widely used in mining and jewellery industries for gold extraction and recovery from crushed ores or electroplating residues. Cyanide toxicity occurs because this compound strongly binds to metals, inactivating metalloenzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase. Despite the toxicity of cyanide, cyanotrophic microorganisms such as the alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 may use cyanide and its derivatives as a nitrogen source for growth, making biodegradation of cyanurated industrial waste possible. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques applied to cyanide biodegradation ('cyan-omics') provide a holistic view that increases the global insights into the genetic background of cyanotrophic microorganisms that could be used for biodegradation of industrial cyanurated wastes and other biotechnological applications.

  14. Role and characterization of a cyanide induced 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase in the cyanide assimilating bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344.

    PubMed

    Acera, Felipe; Carmona, María Isabel; Castillo, Francisco; Quesada, Alberto; Blasco, Rafael

    2017-02-24

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterium able to assimilate cyanide as the sole nitrogen source. Under this growth conditions, a 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase enzymatic activity was induced. This activity was coded by nit4, one of the four nitrilases detected in the genome of this bacterium, and its expression in E. coli enabled the recombinant strain to fully assimilate 3-cyanoalanine. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 showed a weak growth level with 3-cyanoalanine as N-source, unless KCN was also added. Moreover, a knockout mutant of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in the nit4 gene became severely impaired to grow with 3-cyanoalanine and cyanide as nitrogen sources. The native enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified up to electrophoretic homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Nit4 seems to be specific for 3-cyanoalanine and the amount of ammonium derived from the enzymatic activity doubled in the presence of exogenously added asparaginase activity, which demonstrated that Nit4 enzyme had both 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase and hydratase activity. nit4 gene is located downstream the cyanide-resistance transcriptional unit encoding cio1 genes, whose expression is under the positive control of cyanide. Real time PCR experiments revealed that nit4 expression was also positively regulated by cyanide, both in minimal and LB medium. These results suggest that this gene cluster including cio1 and nit4 could be involved both in cyanide resistance and its assimilation by P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344.IMPORTANCE Cyanide is a highly toxic molecule present in some industrial wastes due to its application in several manufacturing processes, such as gold-mining and electroplating industry. The biodegradation of cyanide from contaminated wastes could be an attractive alternative to their physicochemical treatments. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterial strain able to assimilate cyanide under alkaline conditions, thus avoiding its volatilization as HCN. This

  15. Bioanalytical Method to Determine the Effects of Cyanide, Cyanide Metabolites and Cyanide Antidotes on the Activity of Cytochrome C Oxidase Immobilized in an Electrode Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    relation to their toxicity and antidotal activity against hydrocyanic acid . Archs. int. Pharmacodyn. 1962, 139, 99-108. 42. Evans, C. L., Cobalt...compounds as antidotes for hydrocyanic acid . Brit. J. Pharmac. Chemother. 1964, 23, 455-475. 43. Friedberg, K. D.; Shukla, U. R., The efficiency of...affected by cyanide,9, 19, 20 and there is recent evidence that the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is also toxic. ATCA is

  16. Intramuscular Pressure Measurement During Locomotion in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Ricard E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of ten volunteers during, treadmill walking, and running using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking (181 +/- 69 mmHg, mean +/- S.E.) and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer in two subjects produced linear relationships (r = 0.97). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-165 Nm/Kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 Nm/Kg during running. IMP results from local muscle tissue deformations caused by muscle force development and thus, provides a direct, practical index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  17. [Intramuscular hemangioma of the forearm: seven cases].

    PubMed

    Fnini, S; Messoudi, A; Benjeddi, Y; Elandaloussi, Y; Hassoun, J; Garche, A; Ouarab, M; Largab, A

    2013-06-01

    The authors reexamined the files of seven patients dealt with for intramuscular hemangioma of forearm. It concerns five women and two men, between 16 and 39 years old. The average time of consultation was 13 months. The clinical signs were dominated by the development of a generally painless soft mass over the anterior compartment of the forearm and/or the elbow. Two patients presented nervous lesions signs of the ulnar or median nerves. The feeder pedicle was the ulnar artery in five cases and radial artery in two cases. The excision was incomplete in two cases because of the invasion of the ulnar nerve by the hemangioma. With four years average follow-up, the five patients having undergone a complete excision do not present a recurrence and the hand function is excellent. The authors insist on the interest of a preoperative diagnosis with the IRM, which permits to envisage surgical difficulties due to the proximity of vascular and nervous pedicles.

  18. Aggressive intramuscular hemangiomas in the upper extremity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Hu; Shen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Intramuscular hemangioma (IMH) is a rare congenital soft tissue tumor. Here, we report a case of IMH patient who had undergone several surgeries and other treatments that were all ineffective before he visited us. Clinical Findings: This IMH patient was a 16-yearold male who was born with a tumor of unknown size in his right hand and forearm. On physical examination, the tumor and skin flap complex was seen with a size of 14 cm_12 cm in his right hand, and the multiple postoperative scars were shown on his right hand and forearm. The patient was not able to raise his right shoulder, and the ranges of motion of his right elbow, wrist, and finger were almost zero degrees. Interventions: Considering that the tumor had been surgically excised for several times and the multiple recurrences had affected adversely his daily life, an amputation of his right hand, forearm, and the part of his right arm was performed. Diagnoses: The pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of IMH. Outcomes: After the amputation surgery, the patient gained a functional recovery and the tumor did not recur during the 2 years after the surgery. Conclusion: A treatment of choice should be personalized according to an IMH patient's overall situation. For an IMH patient like our case with a history of multiple tumor recurrences, we suggest that an amputation surgery should be performed as early as possible to avoid the repeated, but ineffective surgical excisions and the unnecessary sufferings. PMID:28099360

  19. Leg intramuscular pressures during locomotion in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Murthy, G.; Holley, D. C.; Hargens, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of intramuscular pressure (IMP) measurement for studying muscle function during gait, IMP was recorded in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of 10 volunteers during treadmill walking and running by using transducer-tipped catheters. Soleus IMP exhibited single peaks during late-stance phase of walking [181 +/- 69 (SE) mmHg] and running (269 +/- 95 mmHg). Tibialis anterior IMP showed a biphasic response, with the largest peak (90 +/- 15 mmHg during walking and 151 +/- 25 mmHg during running) occurring shortly after heel strike. IMP magnitude increased with gait speed in both muscles. Linear regression of soleus IMP against ankle joint torque obtained by a dynamometer produced linear relationships (n = 2, r = 0.97 for both). Application of these relationships to IMP data yielded estimated peak soleus moment contributions of 0.95-1.65 N . m/kg during walking, and 1.43-2.70 N . m/kg during running. Phasic elevations of IMP during exercise are probably generated by local muscle tissue deformations due to muscle force development. Thus profiles of IMP provide a direct, reproducible index of muscle function during locomotion in humans.

  20. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Intramuscular haemangioma of the levator anguli oris: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Koltsidopoulos, P; Tsea, M; Kafki, S; Skoulakis, C

    2013-10-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign malformations of blood vessels occurring in skeletal muscles. Because of the rarity of these lesions, their deep location and variable clinical presentation, they often pose diagnostic difficulties. We herein present the first reported case of intramuscular haemangioma occurring in the levator anguli oris muscle. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Department for evaluation and management of a progressive swelling of the right cheek. Based mainly on the imaging findings, a preoperative diagnosis of intramuscular haemangioma was made and surgery was performed. During intervention, a highly vascular soft tissue mass was identified within the levator anguli oris muscle. The lesion was completely removed via an intraoral approach, and histopathological examination showed an intramuscular haemangioma.

  2. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  3. The mechanism of cyanide intoxication and its antagonism.

    PubMed

    Way, J L; Leung, P; Cannon, E; Morgan, R; Tamulinas, C; Leong-Way, J; Baxter, L; Nagi, A; Chui, C

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of cyanide intoxication has been attributed to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase, thereby decreasing the tissue utilization of oxygen. One mechanism of cyanide antagonism is by sequestering cyanide with methaemoglobin to form cyanmethaemoglobin and another mechanism is detoxifying with a sulphur donor to thiocyanate. Questions have been raised with regard to these classical mechanisms. Oxygen with nitrite-thiosulphate antagonizes the lethal effects of cyanide. Theoretically, increased oxygen should serve no useful purpose, as it is the tissue utilization of oxygen which is inhibited. In the nitrite-thiosulphate antidotal combination, the proposal is made that the predominate antidotal action of nitrite is a vasogenic action, rather than methaemoglobin formation, because when methaemoglobin formation is inhibited by methylene blue the protective action of sodium nitrite persists. This suggests that methaemoglobin formation plays only a small part, if any, in the therapeutic antagonism of the lethal effects of cyanide. The roles and implications of sodium thiosulphate and non-rhodanese substrates in the detoxification mechanism are compared. Lastly, a new approach to cyanide antagonism has been initiated which involves the erythrocyte encapsulation of thiosulphate and sulphurtransferase as an antidote and prophylaxis against cyanide.

  4. Cyanide-induced injury to the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Strubelt, O

    1988-11-01

    In order to study the events that follow cyanide-induced inhibition of oxidative metabolism and produce cellular injury, isolated, haemoglobin-free perfused rat livers from fasted rats were exposed to KCN (100 mg/l). KCN reduced the oxygen consumption of the livers by about 80%. Hepatotoxicity was evident by a marked release of enzymes (LDH, SDH) and of glutathione (mainly GSSG) into the perfusate, by a depletion of hepatic glutathione and by an accumulation of calcium in the liver. Cyanide-induced hepatotoxicity could be prevented completely by feeding the rats before preparing the liver as well as by addition of fructose to the perfusate of fasted livers. Both treatments resulted in an increased energy supply from anaerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a large release of lactate + pyruvate into the perfusate. The toxic actions of cyanide were markedly attenuated by deferrioxamine as well as by allopurinol. These antitoxic actions occurred without changes in anaerobic glycolysis. Omission of calcium from the perfusate, however, did not influence cyanide toxicity. Thus, energy supply from anaerobic glycolysis seems to be sufficient for the basic functions of the liver to occur, when oxidative metabolism is inhibited by cyanide. The effects of deferrioxamine and allopurinol indicate the involvement of radical intermediates and/or Fe2+ in cyanide-induced cellular toxicity. An influx of calcium from the extracellular to the intracellular space is not involved in cyanide-induced hepatocellular injury.

  5. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of cyanide in water.

    PubMed

    Costarramone, N; Kneip, A; Castetbon, A

    2004-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test removal of cyanide (free cyanide and several cyanide complexes) in water, under alkaline medium (pH > or = 11), by a new potassium ferrate salt. The removal rate of free cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was greater at pH 11.0 than at pH 12.0. A complete oxidation was obtained with a 2.67 Fe(VI)/CN ratio at pH 11.0. In these conditions, the rate of cyanide oxidation by Fe(VI) was slow, with a reaction rate constant estimated at 0.95 +/- 0.10 s(-1) l mol(-1) at pH 11.0 and 19.6 degrees C in this study. This study revealed that Fe(VI) did not decompose all cyanide complexes. Copper, cadmium and zinc complexes were removed efficiently by Fe(VI). Moreover, these metals were also removed from the solution by coagulation effect of Fe(OH)3, the Fe(VI) product of reaction. A particular behaviour was reported with copper, as a rapid oxidation of cyanide was observed in the presence of this metal. On the contrary, oxidation of nickel and silver complexes was incomplete.

  6. Enrichment of copper and recycling of cyanide from copper-cyanide waste by solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Teng-yue; Liu, Kui-ren; Han, Qing; Xu, Bin-shi

    2016-11-01

    The enrichment of copper from copper-cyanide wastewater by solvent extraction was investigated using a quaternary ammonium salt as an extractant. The influences of important parameters, e.g., organic-phase components, aqueous pH values, temperature, inorganic anion impurities, CN/Cu molar ratio, and stripping reagents, were examined systematically, and the optimal conditions were determined. The results indicated that copper was effectively concentrated from low-concentration solutions using Aliquat 336 and that the extraction efficiency increased linearly with increasing temperature. The aqueous pH value and concentrations of inorganic anion impurities only weakly affected the extraction process when varied in appropriate ranges. The CN/Cu molar ratio affected the extraction efficiency by changing the distribution of copper-cyanide complexes. The difference in gold leaching efficiency between using raffinate and fresh water was negligible.

  7. Isotopic Fingerprints of Iron-Cyanide Complexes in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Mansfeldt, Tim; Höhener, Patrick

    2016-07-19

    Tracing the origin of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is important because these compounds are potentially toxic. We determined the stable isotopic compositions of cyanide-carbon (CCN) and cyanide-nitrogen (NCN) in 127 contaminated solids and 11 samples of contaminated groundwater from coal carbonization sites, blast furnace operations, and commercial cyanide applications. Coal-carbonization-related cyanides had unique high mean δ(13)CCN values of -10.5 ± 3.5‰ for the solids and -16.1 ± 1.2‰ for the groundwater samples, while the values for blast furnace sludge (-26.9 ± 1.5‰), commercial cyanides (-26.0 ± 3.0‰), and their corresponding groundwaters were significantly lower. Determination of δ(13)CCN is a promising tool for identifying the source of cyanide contamination. However, for coal carbonization sites, historical research into the manufacturing process is necessary because a nonconventional gas works site exhibited exceptionally low δ(13)CCN values of -22.7 ± 1.7‰. The δ(15)NCN values for samples related to coal carbonization and blast furnaces overlapped within a range of +0.1 to +10.3‰, but very high δ(15)NCN values seemed to be indicative for a cyanide source in the blast furnace. In contrast, commercial cyanides tend to have lower δ(15)NCN values of -5.6 to +1.9‰ in solids and -0.5 to +3.0‰ in the groundwater.

  8. Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Zelder, Felix H.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Diaquacobinamide (H2O)2Cbi2+ or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H2O)Cbi+)) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H2O)Cbi+ is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H2O)Cbi+ should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H2O)Cbi+ is virtually the same as that of OH(H2O)Cbi+. It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H2O)Cbi+, (CN)2Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H2O)Cbi+. This understanding implies that CN(H2O)Cbi+ will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic - charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 μM, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h−1. The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds. PMID:22769008

  9. Cobinamide chemistries for photometric cyanide determination. A merging zone liquid core waveguide cyanide analyzer using cyanoaquacobinamide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Zelder, Felix H; Boss, Gerry R

    2012-07-29

    Diaquacobinamide (H(2)O)(2)Cbi(2+) or its conjugate base hydroxyaquacobinamide (OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+))) can bind up to two cyanide ions, making dicyanocobinamide. This transition is accompanied by a significant change in color, previously exploited for cyanide determination. The reagent OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+) is used in excess; when trace amounts of cyanide are added, CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) should be formed. But the spectral absorption of CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) is virtually the same as that of OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+). It has been inexplicable how trace amounts of cyanide are sensitively measured by this reaction. It is shown here that even with excess OH(H(2)O)Cbi(+), (CN)(2)Cbi is formed first due to kinetic reasons; this only slowly forms CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+). This understanding implies that CN(H(2)O)Cbi(+) will itself be a better reagent. We describe a single valve merging zone flow analyzer that allows both sample and reagent economy. With a 50 cm liquid core waveguide (LCW) flow cell and an inexpensive fiber optic-charge coupled device array spectrometer, a S/N=3 limit of detection of 8 nM, a linear dynamic range to 6 μM, and excellent precision (RSD 0.49% and 1.07% at 50 and 100 nM, respectively, n=5 each) are formed. At 1% carryover, sample throughput is 40 h(-1). The setup is readily used to measure thiocyanate with different reagents. We demonstrate applicability to real samples by analyzing human saliva samples and hydrolyzed extracts of apple seeds, peach pits, and almonds.

  10. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  11. Some pharmacokinetic parameters of ampicillin/sulbactam combination after intravenous and intramuscular administration to goats.

    PubMed

    Espuny, A; Carceles, C M; Vicente, M S; Escudero, E

    1996-12-01

    Some pharmacokinetic parameters of an ampicillin/sulbactam (2:1) combination were studied in six goats, after intravenous and intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 20 mg/kg bodyweight (13.33 mg/kg of sodium ampicillin and 6.67 mg/kg of sodium sulbactam). The drugs were distributed according to an open two-compartment model. The apparent volumes of distribution calculated by the area method of ampicillin and sulbactam were 0.34 +/- 0.04 l/kg and 0.45 +/- 0.15 l/kg, respectively, and the total body clearances were 0.72 +/- 0.11 and 0.38 +/- 0.07 l/kg.h. The half-lives of ampicillin after intravenous and intramuscular administration were 0.32 +/- 0.04 h and 0.71 +/- 0.14 h, respectively. For sulbactam the half-lives were 0.79 +/- 0.18 h and 1.13 +/- 0.21 h after administration by the same routes. The bioavailability after intramuscular injection was high and similar for both drugs (98.29% for ampicillin and 101.84% for sulbactam). The mean peak plasma levels of ampicillin (0.43 +/- 0.27 h) and sulbactam (0.34 +/- 0.14 h) were reached at a similar time, and peak concentrations were also similar and non-proportional to the dose of the products administered (11.02 +/- 3.11 mg/l of ampicillin and 9.5 +/- 0.98 mg/l of sulbactam).

  12. Weeding the Astrophysical Garden: Ethyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, F. C.; Fortman, S. M.; Medvedev, I. R.; Neese, C. F.

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that many, if not most, of the unidentified features in astrophysical spectra arise from relatively low lying excited vibrational and torsional states of a relatively small number of molecular species— the astrophysical weeds. It is also well known that the traditional quantum mechanical assignment and fitting of these excited state spectra is a formidable task, one that is made harder by the expected perturbations and interactions among these states. We have previously proposed an alternative fitting and analysis approach based on experimental, intensity calibrated spectra taken at many temperatures. In this paper we discuss the implementation of this approach and provide details in the context of one of these weeds, ethyl cyanide.

  13. Cyanide Soap? Dissolved material in Titan's Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Neish, C. D.

    2011-10-01

    Although it is evident that Titan's lakes and seas are dominated by ethane, methane, nitrogen, and (in some models) propane, there is divergence on the predicted relative abundance of minor constituents such as nitriles and C-4 alkanes. Nitriles such as hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile, which have a significant dipole moment, may have a disproportionate influence on the dielectric properties of Titan seas and may act to solvate polar molecules such as water ice. The hypothesis is offered that such salvation may act to enhance the otherwise negligible solubility of water ice bedrock in liquid hydrocarbons. Such enhanced solubility may permit solution erosion as a formation mechanism for the widespread pits and apparently karstic lakes on Titan. Prospects for testing this hypothesis in the laboratory, and with measurements on Titan, will be discussed.

  14. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  15. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-12-31

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.

  16. In vivo screening of candidate pretreatment compounds against cyanide using mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, R.C.; Olson, C.T.; Menton, R.G.; Hobson, D.W.; Moore, D.M.

    1993-05-13

    An in vivo screening procedure was established at Battelle's Medical Research and Evaluation Facility (MREF) to evaluate the efficacy of candidate pretreatment compounds in mice challenged with the blood agent, sodium cyanide (NaCN). Male albino mice of ICR outbred stock weighing between 22.5 and 27.5 g are challenged by intramuscular (i.m.) injection, at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg, of a dose of NaCN twice the LD50 of untreated mice as determined on that day of testing. Candidate drugs are tested at fractions of their LD50 or their limit of solubility in the most optimum vehicle and given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to separate groups of mice at either 60 or 15 min prior to NaCN challenge. Sodium thiosulfate (1000 mg/kg)/sodium nitrite (100 mg/kg) controls are injected i.p. only at 60 min prior to challenge. A test compound is deemed effective if, at any of three concentrations tested, or at either pretreatment time, it is statistically more efficacious in preventing lethality than is a negative control substance (candidate compound vehicle).

  17. Inflammatory responses following intramuscular and subcutaneous immunization with aluminum-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Maeda, Mika; Kawashima, Hisashi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-06-05

    Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines are administered through an intramuscular injection (IM) in the US and EU, however, a subcutaneous injection (SC) has been recommended in Japan because of serious muscle contracture previously reported following multiple IMs of antibiotics. Newly introduced adjuvanted vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, have been recommended through IM. In the present study, currently available vaccines were evaluated through IM in mice. Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induced inflammatory nodules at the injection site, which expanded into the intra-muscular space without any muscle degeneration or necrosis, whereas non-adjuvanted vaccines did not. These nodules consisted of polymorph nuclear neutrophils with some eosinophils within the initial 48h, then monocytes/macrophages 1 month later. Inflammatory nodules were observed 6 months after IM, had decreased in size, and were absorbed 12 months after IM, which was earlier than that after SC. Cytokine production was examined in the injected muscular tissues and AS04 adjuvanted HPV induced higher IL-1β, IL-6, KC, MIP-1, and G-CSF levels in muscle tissues than any other vaccine, but similar serum cytokine profiles were observed to those induced by the other vaccines. Currently available vaccines did not induce muscular degeneration or fibrotic scar as observed with muscle contracture caused by multiple IMs of antibiotics in the past.

  18. The restorative effect of intramuscular injection of tetanus toxin C-fragment in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-González, Alejandra; Mendieta, Liliana; Palafox, Victoria; Candalija, Anna; Luna, Félix; Aguilera, José; Limón, Ilhuicamina Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The C-terminal domain of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin (Hc-TeTx) is a peptide that has a neuroprotective action against dopaminergic damage by MPP(+), both in vitro and in vivo. The trophic effects of Hc-TeTx have been related to its ability to activate the pathways of the tropomyosin receptor kinase, which are crucial for survival process. Our group had previously shown neuroprotective effect of intramuscular Hc-TeTx treatment on animals with a dopaminergic lesion; however, there is no evidence indicating its restorative effects on advanced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The aim of our study was to examine the restorative effects of an intramuscular injection of the Hc-TeTx fragment on the nigrostriatal system of hemiparkinsonian rats. The animals were administered with a vehicle or Hc-TeTx (20μg/kg) in the gastrocnemius muscle for three consecutive days post-dopaminergic lesion, which was made using 6-hydroxydopamine. Post-Hc-TeTx treatment, the hemiparkinsonian rats showed constant motor asymmetry. Moreover, the ipsilateral striatum of the post-Hc-TeTx group had a lower number of argyrophilic structures and a major immunorreactivity to Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the striatum and the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to the 6-OHDA group. Our results show the restorative effect of the Hc-TeTx fragment during the dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by 6-OHDA.

  19. Cyanide poisoning, 2 cases report and treatment review.

    PubMed

    Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Wananukul, V; Suwanjutha, S

    1999-11-01

    Two patients, a 4-year-old girl and her brother 1 1/2 year-old, with cyanide poisoning are reported. They vomited and became comatose 9 hours after ingestion of boiled cassava. At a community hospital, they were intubated and given ventilatory support. The girl was transferred to Ramathibodi Intensive Care Unit. At 19 hours after ingestion, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate were given as well as other supportive treatment. She recovered with normal breathing on the next day. The boy was referred to Ramathibodi 4 hours later. On arrival, he appeared normal except for the bitter almond breathe. Only supportive treatment was given. Their blood cyanide levels on arrival were 0.56 and 0.32 microgram/ml (normal value < 0.3 microgram/ml) respectively confirming the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning. Other abnormal laboratory findings included metabolic acidosis and lactic acidemia. The pathogenesis and management of cyanide poisoning are reviewed.

  20. Aquatic ecological risks due to cyanide releases from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Timothy R; Lutes, Christopher C; Doorn, Michiel R J; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Timmenga, Hubert J; Crouch, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity due to the creation and mobilization of chemical constituents by fire has been little studied, despite reports of post-fire fish kills attributed to unspecified pyrogenic toxicants. We examined releases of cyanides from biomass burning and their effect on surface runoff water. In laboratory test burns, available cyanide concentrations in leachate from residual ash were much higher than in leachate from partially burned and unburned fuel and were similar to or higher than the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for rainbow trout (45 microg/l). Free cyanide concentrations in stormwater runoff collected after a wildfire in North Carolina averaged 49 microg/l, again similar to the rainbow trout LC50 and an order of magnitude higher than in samples from an adjacent unburned area. Pyrogenic cyanide inputs, together with other fire-related stressors, may contribute to post-fire fish mortalities, particularly those affecting salmonids.

  1. Cyanide Suicide After Deep Web Shopping: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Le Garff, Erwan; Delannoy, Yann; Mesli, Vadim; Allorge, Delphine; Hédouin, Valéry; Tournel, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Cyanide is a product that is known for its use in industrial or laboratory processes, as well as for intentional intoxication. The toxicity of cyanide is well described in humans with rapid inhibition of cellular aerobic metabolism after ingestion or inhalation, leading to severe clinical effects that are frequently lethal. We report the case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after self-poisoning with cyanide ordered in the deep Web. This case shows a probable complex suicide kit use including cyanide, as a lethal tool, and dextromethorphan, as a sedative and anxiolytic substance. This case is an original example of the emerging deep Web shopping in illegal drug procurement.

  2. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  3. Management of cyanide toxicity in patients with burns.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Louise; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-02-01

    The importance of cyanide toxicity as a component of inhalational injury in patients with burns is increasingly being recognised, and its prompt recognition and management is vital for optimising burns survival. The evidence base for the use of cyanide antidotes is limited by a lack of randomised controlled trials in humans, and in addition consideration must be given to the concomitant pathophysiological processes in patients with burns when interpreting the literature. We present a literature review of the evidence base for cyanide antidotes with interpretation in the context of patients with burns. We conclude that hydroxycobalamin should be utilised as the first-line antidote of choice in patients with burns with inhalational injury where features consistent with cyanide toxicity are present.

  4. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.

    2009-09-01

    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  5. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  6. Sulfurtransferases and cyanide detoxification in mouse liver, kidney, and brain.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, M; Jurkowska, H; Sliwa, L; Srebro, Z

    2004-01-01

    The activity of rhodanese, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST) and cystathionase in mouse liver, kidney, and four brain regions: tele-, meso-, di- and rhombencephalon was studied 30 min and 2 h following a sublethal dose of cyanide (4 mg/ kg body weight) intraperitoneal injection. Simultaneously, sulfane sulfur levels and total sulfur content, a direct or indirect source of sulfur for CN(-) conversion to SCN(-), were also investigated in these tissues. In the liver this dose of cyanide seemed to impair the process of cyanide detoxification by MPST, as well as rhodanese inhibition. The effects of cyanide administration to mice proved to be totally different in the liver and kidney. In the kidney, a significant increase in the rhodanese activity was observed as early as 30 min following cyanide intoxication, and an elevated cystathionase activity after 2 h was detected. This suggests the involvement of cystathionase in cyanide detoxification in the kidney. The activity of MPST remained at the same level as in the control group. In the rhombencephalon, similarly as in the kidney, L-cysteine desulfuration pathways, which generate sulfane sulfur and sulfurtransferases that transfer sulfane sulfur atoms to CN(-), seemed to play an important role as a defense system against cyanide. The stable level of sulfane sulfur and total sulfur content was accompanied in the rhombencephalon by an increased activity of MPST, cystathionase and rhodanese. In other brain regions the role of these three sulfurtransferases was not so clear and it seemed that in the telencephalon, where the total sulfur content, but not the sulfane sulfur level, was significantly increased, some sulfur-containing compounds, such as GSH and/or cysteine, appeared in response to cyanide.

  7. Is Hydrogen Cyanide a Marker of Burkholderia cepacia Complex?

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Hayley; Alcock, Alice; Jones, Andrew M.; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J.; Smith, David; Španĕl, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm cultures of Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) infection have been found to generate the nonvolatile cyanide ion. We investigated if gaseous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was a marker of BCC infection. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry analysis showed HCN was not elevated in the headspace of planktonic or biofilm cultures or in the exhaled breath of adult cystic fibrosis patients with chronic BCC infection. HCN is therefore not an in vitro or in vivo marker of BCC. PMID:23966502

  8. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    PubMed

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  9. Single Intramuscular-dose Toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-geol; Kim, Sungchul; Jung, Da-jung; Choi, Yoo-min; Sin, Min-seop; Choi, Seok-Woo; Song, Beom-yong; Kim, Jong-uk; Hong, Seung-won; Yook, Tae-han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This experiment was conducted to examine the toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF) by administering a single intramuscular dose of WCF in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethality dose for WCF. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices under a request by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. This experiment was performed based on the testing standards of “Toxicity Test Standards for Drugs” by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: 1 control group in which normal saline was administered and 3 test groups in which 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mL of WCF was administered; a single intramuscular dose was injected into 5 males and 5 females in each group. General symptoms and body weights were observed/measured for 14 days after injection. At the end of the observation period, hematological and clinical chemistry tests were performed, followed by necropsy and histopathological examinations of the injected sections. Results: No mortalities were observed in any group. Also, symptoms, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry and necropsy were not affected. However, histopathological examination of the injected part in one female in the 1.0-mL group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells and a multi-nucleated giant cell around eosinophilic material. Conclusion: Administration of single intramuscular doses of WCF in 3 groups of rats showed that the approximate lethal dose of WCF for all rats was in excess of 1.0 mL, as no mortalities were observed for injections up to and including 1.0 mL. PMID:25780687

  10. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes.

  11. Cyanide intoxication induced exocytotic epinephrine release in rabbit myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kawada, T; Yamazaki, T; Akiyama, T; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Inagaki, M; Tatewaki, T; Yanagiya, Y; Sugimachi, M; Sunagawa, K

    2000-05-12

    Cyanide intoxication, which has been used as a model of energy depletion at cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, causes non-exocytotic release of norepinephrine (NE). However, the effect of cyanide intoxication on cardiac epinephrine (Epi) release remains unknown. Using cardiac microdialysis in the rabbit, we measured dialysate Epi and NE concentrations as indices of myocardial interstitial Epi and NE levels, respectively. Local administration of sodium cyanide (30 mM) through the dialysis probe increased both Epi and NE levels (from 11.3+/-2.3 to 32.3+/-4.4 pg/ml and from 33.6+/-6.1 to 389.0+/-71.8 pg/ml, respectively, mean+/-S.E., P<0.01). Local desipramine (100 microM) administration suppressed the cyanide induced NE response without affecting the Epi response. In contrast, local omega-conotoxin GVIA (10 microM) administration partially suppressed the cyanide induced NE response and totally abolished the Epi response. In conclusion, cyanide intoxication causes N-type Ca(2+) channel dependent exocytotic Epi release as well as inducing N-type Ca(2+) channel independent non-exocytotic NE release.

  12. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in Willow trees.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed S; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to < 20% of the initial transpiration within 96 h. Accumulation of cyanide in plant tissue was observed at 40 and 50 mg/L. The kinetics of metabolism of cyanide by roots, stems and leaves of willows was determined by the closed-bottle metabolism test. The Michaelis-Menten parameters v(max) and K(M)(maximal metabolic velocity and half-saturation constant, respectively) were determined by nonlinear regression. Estimates of uptake and metabolism were balanced using a nonlinear mathematical model. The model predicted that at low doses (<10 mg/L), the cyanide would be rapidly metabolized. At higher doses, uptake would be faster than metabolism and consequently cyanide would accumulate in the plant tissue. This relation between external dose and internal accumulation is nonlinear and explains the toxic effects observed.

  13. Biological Treatment of Cyanide by Using
Klebsiella pneumoniae Species

    PubMed Central

    Bilkay, Isil Seyis

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study, optimization conditions for cyanide biodegradation by Klebsiella pneumoniae strain were determined to be 25 °C, pH=7 and 150 rpm at the concentration of 0.5 mM potassium cyanide in the medium. Additionally, it was found that K. pneumoniae strain is not only able to degrade potassium cyanide, but also to degrade potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate and sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate with the efficiencies of 85 and 87.5%, respectively. Furthermore, this strain degraded potassium cyanide in the presence of different ions such as magnesium, nickel, cobalt, iron, chromium, arsenic and zinc, in variable concentrations (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mM) and as a result the amount of the bacteria in the biodegradation media decreased with the increase of ion concentration. Lastly, it was also observed that sterile crude extract of K. pneumoniae strain degraded potassium cyanide on the fifth day of incubation. Based on these results, it is concluded that both culture and sterile crude extract of K. pnemoniae will be used in cyanide removal from different wastes. PMID:28115902

  14. Proteomic analysis of the effect of cyanide on Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Tang, Petrus; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chou, Hui-Hsuan; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Chen, Ssu Ching

    2010-03-01

    Cyanide has been proved to be degraded by Klebsiella oxytoca. In order to examine the physiological responses of cyanide degradation by this bacterium, two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis approach and MALDI-TOF-MS allow us to identify 106 proteins spots that were significantly altered in the presence of 1 mM cyanide in relative to that in 1 mM ammonia when K. oxytoca grown at the late-log phase. Among them, 27 proteins were successfully identified. These proteins were involved in carbohydrate metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, amino acid metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, oxidation-reduction reactions, transporters, and miscellaneous function. Some proteins related with regulation of nitrogen assimilation pathways (glutamine synthetase), oxidative stress repairing (catalase), and protection (neutral trehalase and glycosyltransferase) could improve the effectiveness of cyanide biodegradation. Although the nitrogenase was suggested to participate in cyanide degradation in our previous study, this enzyme induction was not observed as expected. These findings could provide new insights into the inducible mechanisms underlying the capacity of K. oxytoca to tolerate cyanide stress.

  15. Adsorption of copper cyanide on chemically active adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.S.; Deorkar, N.V.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-07-01

    An inorganic chemically active adsorbent (ICAA), SG(1)-TEPA (tetraethylenepentaamine)-propyl, is developed for removal, recovery, and recycling of copper cyanide from industrial waste streams. Equilibrium studies are executed to determine and model adsorption of the copper cyanide complex from aqueous solutions in a batch and packed column. It appears that adsorption is dependent on anionic copper cyanide species and the basicity of the ligand. Aqueous-phase equilibrium modeling shows that monovalent (Cu(CN){sub 2}{sup {minus}}), divalent (Cu(CN){sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), and trivalent (Cu(CN){sub 4}{sup 3{minus}}) species of copper cyanide exist in the solution, depending on the pH and the concentration of total cyanide ions. Batch adsorption data are modeled using a modified multicomponent Langmuir isotherm which includes aqueous-phase speciation and basicity of the SG(1)-TEPA-propyl. This developed model is applied with a mass balance equation to describe the adsorption of copper cyanide complexes in a packed column.

  16. A review of rapid and field-portable analytical techniques for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Logue, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Another relatively common, but consistently overlooked, mode of cyanide exposure is inhalation of fire smoke. Both civilians and fire rescue personnel risk exposure during the unfortunate event of a structure fire. Additionally, fire rescue personnel risk long-term effects of habitual exposure throughout their careers in fire rescue. The relatively rapid onset of cyanide toxicity and the fact that cyanide exposure symptoms mimic other medical conditions necessitate a rapid, sensitive, portable, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure. This review focuses on the important issues concerning accurate point-of-care diagnosis of cyanide exposure and cyanide detection technologies that may allow a commercial cyanide exposure diagnostic to become a reality.

  17. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, L; Johnsen, A H; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide and carbon monoxide, which are often found in fire victims, are toxic gases emitted from fires. Cyanide and carbon monoxide have similar molecular structure. Cyanide binds to the enzyme cytochrome oxidase a, a3 similar to carbon monoxide, thus blocking the mitochondrial respiration chain causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive mechanism forcing cyanide out of cellular tissues. A rat model was developed to study this effect. Female Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with a fentanyl + fluanizone combination and midazolam given subcutaneously (s.c.). Rats were poisoned with 5.4 mg/kg KCN injected intra-peritoneally in Group 1 and intra-arterially in Group 2. Blood samples were taken immediately after poisoning, and at one and a half, three and five hours. Blood was drawn from a jugular vein in Group 1 and from a femoral artery in Group 2. Group 1 rats were divided into a control group of 12 rats without HBO2, 10 rats had acute HBO2 immediately after poisoning and a group of 10 rats had HBO2 one and a half hours after poisoning. Group 2 rats were divided into a control group and an acute HBO2 group, with 10 rats in both groups. Whole-blood-cyanide concentrations were measured using the Conway method based on diffusion and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly less as compared to controls and acute HBO2-treated rats. Group 2 controls whole-blood-cyanide concentration decreased towards zero throughout the observation period. However

  18. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Nath, Anjali K; Roberts, Lee D; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L; Boss, Gerry R; Rockwood, Gary A; MacRae, Calum A; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E; Peterson, Randall T

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.

  19. Toxicity of Carbon Monoxide-Hydrogen Cyanide Gas Mixtures: Expose Concentration, Time-to-Incapacitation, Carboxyhemoglobin, and Blood Cyanide Parameters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    demonstrated that these gases have additive effects (producing shorter times to incapacitation), but the resulting concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin ( COHb ...Incapacitation (Q1 , Carboxyhemoglobin ( COHb ), and Blood Cyanide (CN*) Values for Rats Exposed to Two Carbon Monoxide (CO)-Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) Gas Mixtures...Inc., Evanston, IL. 9 APPENDIX TIME-TO-INCAPACITATION (ti) VALUES AND CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN ( COHb ) AND BLOOD (CN) LEVELS AT INCAPACITATION FOR RATS

  20. Intramuscular and topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions in mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis using coumarin (-) mammea A/BB.

    PubMed

    Tiuman, Tatiana Shioji; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2012-10-15

    Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis remains limited to a few available options. Recent studies showed in vitro antileishmanial activity of (-) mammea A/BB, a coumarin isolated from leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense. Moreover, the dichloromethane crude extract and hexane fraction from this plant demonstrated in vivo activity in mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis. We evaluated the antileishmanial activity of (-) mammea A/BB in the L. amazonensis BALB/c mice model. The animals were given intramuscular and topical treatment with (-) mammea A/BB for 30 consecutive days. The results demonstrated that 18mg/kg/d intramuscularly or 0.2% topically of (-) mammea A/BB significantly reduced the size of skin lesions in footpads of mice compared with those in the control group (p<0.05). The activity of Glucantime(®) (corresponding to 27mg/kg/d of pentavalent antimony) administered intramuscularly was similar to that of (-) mammea A/BB (p<0.05) by both routes of administration. The histopathological evaluation showed no changes in the organs analyzed. These results indicate that the coumarin obtained from C. brasiliense is the antileishmanially active compound and can be used to control the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions caused by L. amazonensis.

  1. Infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajni V; Duncan, Lyn M; Austen, William G; Nielsen, G Petur

    2009-10-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life. We report herein an unusual infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising in the nose of a 53-year-old man. The patient presented with a 0.5-cm 'cyst' of the nose, just above the right alar crease, which was removed. Four years later, the lesion recurred and was re-excised. Histologically, a proliferation of mature adipocytes, ropey collagen fibers and spindle cells within a myxoid stroma was present in the subcutaneous tissue and infiltrated between skeletal muscle fibers. Nine cases of intramuscular spindle cell lipoma with histological examination have previously been reported and have involved the oral cavity and muscles of the extremities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising on the face.

  2. Sepsis requiring intensive care following intramuscular injections: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Matzaroglou, Charis; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Filos, Kriton

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Intramuscular injections can rarely result in serious infectious complications such as abscesses which may progress to bacteraemia and generalized sepsis. These complications are rare, but can be life threatening, as they can lead to multi-organ failure associated with high morbidity and mortality. Case presentation In this report we present two patients who developed life-threatening infections after intramuscular injections. They were admitted to the hospital, had prompt surgical drainage, required ICU admission for severe sepsis, were treated with an early goal-directed therapy protocol and had a good outcome. Conclusion Sepsis is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication after intramuscular injections. Timely surgical drainage followed by appropriate ICU care and early goal directed therapy is crucial and may contribute to a good outcome in these rare cases. PMID:19918523

  3. Exuberant local tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin)--a steroid compound in a sesame seed oil base--mimicking soft tissue malignant tumors: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khankhanian, N K; Hammers, Y A; Kowalski, P

    1992-12-01

    We present an unusual pseudotumor that formed in reaction to self-administered intramuscular injections of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) in a young soldier. The histopathologic features which closely mimicked several malignant neoplasms could have led to an incorrect diagnosis of malignancy and unnecessary extensive surgery. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been previously reported.

  4. Determination of the Cyanide Metabolite 2-Aminothiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Urine and Plasma by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    plasma, or human plasma) then elevated at a rate of 15 °C/min up to 230 ’C. The gra- was diluted with 900 jiL of 0. 1 M HC 1 to ensure the ATCA dient was...Logue et al. / J. Cviomatogr. B 819 (2005) 237-244 administered by Battelle (Delivery Order 399, Contract No. [71 F. Moriya, Y. Hashimoto, J. Forensic ...Department of Defense through the Cyanide Medi- Pharmacol. 24 (1981) 135.[9] Y. Seto, J. Forensic Sci. 41 (1996) 465. cal Countermeasures and the

  5. Intramuscular Sparganosis in the Gastrocnemius Muscle: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeung Il; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Sung Min; Moon, Tae Yong; Lee, In Sook; Choi, Kyung Un

    2014-01-01

    Sparganosis is a parasitic infection caused by the plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Although the destination of the larva is often a tissue or muscle in the chest, abdominal wall, extremities, eyes, brain, urinary tract, spinal canal, and scrotum, intramuscular sparganosis is uncommon and therefore is difficult to distinguish from a soft tissue tumor. We report a case of intramuscular sparganosis involving the gastrocnemius muscle in an elderly patient who was diagnosed using ultrasonography and MRI and treated by surgical excision. At approximately 1 cm near the schwannoma at the right distal sciatic nerve, several spargana worms were detected and removed. PMID:24623885

  6. Zagreb Regimen, an Abbreviated Intramuscular Schedule for Rabies Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangping; Yao, Linong; Sun, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    The Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, was developed by I. Vodopija and colleagues of the Zagreb Institute of Public Health in Croatia in the 1980s. It was recommended by WHO as one of the intramuscular (IM) schedules for rabies vaccination in 2010. We reviewed the literature on the immunogenicity, safety, economic burden, and compliance of the Zagreb 2-1-1 regimen. Compared to Essen, another IM schedule recommended by WHO, Zagreb has higher compliance, lower medical cost, and better immunogenicity at an early stage. PMID:25392012

  7. Intractable pain due to rectus abdominis intramuscular haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Scozzari, G; Reddavid, R; Conti, L; Trombetta, F; Toppino, M; Sandrucci, S

    2014-08-01

    Haemangiomas are tumours of vascular origin accounting for approximately 7 % of all benign tumours. Three types of haemangioma have been described according to the vessel type involved: capillary, cavernous and mixed. Intramuscular haemangiomas (IMHs) are infrequent, accounting for less than 1 % of all haemangiomas and are mostly located in the extremities and the trunk. Intramuscular haemangiomas of the rectus abdominis muscle are extremely rare, with only one previous case reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge. In this report, we present the case of a patient with intractable pain related to IMHs of the rectus abdominis and we analyse diagnostic assessment and surgical management of the condition.

  8. Incident, accident, catastrophe: cyanide on the Danube.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu

    2005-06-01

    It has been described as the worst disaster since Chernobyl. In January 2000, a retaining wall failed at the Aurul gold processing plant in Romania, releasing a wave of cyanide and heavy metals that moved quickly from one river to the next through Romania, Hungary, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, killing tens of thousands of fish and other forms of wildlife and poisoning drinking-water supplies. This paper examines how and why the chemical spill at Baia Mare occurred and how responses to it emerged from circumstances at the global, local and immediate levels. The spill demonstrates the importance of the flow of information in framing and interpreting disasters, suggesting that such an event can go unnoticed or be viewed as catastrophic, depending on the political, historical and personal struggles that lead to its publicity. The paper offers a framework for understanding why the spill was alternately perceived as an incident, an accident and a catastrophe based on changing perceptions of culpability.

  9. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Single Intramuscular High Dose versus an Oral Long-Term Supplementation of Cholecalciferol

    PubMed Central

    Krannich, Alexander; Heine, Guido; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals. Research design and methods Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies. Results The mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l). In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OH)D serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The increase of 25(OH)D serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264). Conclusions Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:28114352

  10. Ecotoxicity of cyanide complexes in industrially contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Manar, Rachid; Bonnard, Marc; Rast, Claudine; Veber, Anne-Marie; Vasseur, Paule

    2011-12-15

    This study deals with acute and chronic ecotoxicity of leachates from industrially contaminated soils. Analyses focused on cyanides (complex and free forms) to study their possible involvement in leachates toxicity. No acute toxicity on the Microtox and 48 h-Daphnia magna tests was found in leachates collected over 18 months, but a high chronic toxicity was recorded on the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50-7d=0.31±0.07%) and on the algal growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (EC50-72 h=0.27±0.09%). Ceriodaphnids were as sensitive to free cyanide as to complex forms (EC50-7d as CN(-)=98 μg/L, 194 μg/L and 216 μg/L for KCN, Fe(CN)(6)K(3) and Fe(CN)(6)K(4), respectively). The EC50-72 h of KCN to P. subcapitata (116 μg/L) as CN(-) was also of the same level as the EC50-72 h of potassium ferricyanide (127 μg/L) and ferrocyanide (267 μg/L). Complex cyanides explained a major part of the toxicity of leachates of the soil. On the other hand, cyanide complexes had no effect on survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida up to 131 mg CN(-)/kg, while potassium cyanide was highly toxic [EC50-14 d as CN(-)=74 μg/kg soil]. Thermodesorption treatment eliminated a majority of cyanides from the soil and generated much less toxic leachates. Complex cyanides must be integrated into environmental studies to assess the impact of multi-contaminated soils.

  11. Application of immobilized cells to the treatment of cyanide wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Kao, C M; Chen, S C; Chien, H Y; Lin, C E

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic to living organisms, particularly in inactivating the respiration system by tightly binding to terminal oxidase. To protect the environment and water bodies, wastewater containing cyanide must be treated before discharging into the environment. Biological treatment is a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for cyanide removal compared with the other techniques currently in use. Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca), isolated from cyanide-containing industrial wastewater, has been shown to be able to biodegrade cyanide to non-toxic end products. The technology of immobilized cells can be applied in biological treatment to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of biodegradation. In this study, potassium cyanide (KCN) was used as the target compound and both alginate (AL) and cellulose triacetate (CTA) techniques were applied for the preparation of immobilized cells. Results from this study show that KCN can be utilized as the sole nitrogen source by K. oxytoca. The free suspension systems reveal that the cell viability was highly affected by initial KCN concentration, pH, and temperature. Results show that immobilized cell systems could tolerate a higher level of KCN concentration and wider ranges of pH and temperature, especially in the system with CTA gel beads. Results show that a longer incubation period was required for KCN degradation using immobilized cells compared to the free suspended systems. This might be due to internal mass transfer limitations. Results also indicate that immobilized systems can support a higher biomass concentration. Complete KCN degradation was observed after the operation of four consecutive degradation experiments with the same batch of immobilized cells. This suggests that the activity of the immobilized cells can be maintained and KCN can be used as the nitrogen source throughout KCN degradation experiments. Results reveal that the application of immobilized cells of K. oxytoca is advantageous

  12. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril

    2008-04-15

    Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d(Fe(VI))/dt = k (Fe(VI))(M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}){sup n} where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO{sub 4}{sup -} + M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} + 6H{sub 2}O {yields} 4Fe(OH){sub 3} + M{sup 2+} + 4NCO{sup -} + O{sub 2} + 4OH{sup -}. Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Temperature dependence of Henry's law constant for hydrogen cyanide. Generation of trace standard gaseous hydrogen cyanide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R

    2010-04-15

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry's Law constant (K(H), M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00 +/- 0.03 at 296.6 +/- 0.1 K) from 287-311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The K(H) of HCN may be expressed as ln K(H) (M/atm) = (8205.7 +/- 341.9)/T - (25.323 +/- 1.144); r(2) = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 degrees C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 degrees C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted.

  14. Remediation of manufactured gas plant soils contaminated with free and complex cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Maka, A.; Aronstein, B.N.; Srivastava, V.J.; Theis, T.L.; Young, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Cyanide is one of the main contaminants present in soil from manufactured gas plants (MGP) . Several treatment methods including thermal treatment, chemical treatment, ultraviolet irradiation, and biological treatment were evaluated for their ability to degrade the cyanide present in these soils. In the thermal treatment, raising the temperature of the purified waste to 2000--3000C resulted in complete removal of complex cyanide from the soil; however, the cyanide emitted was in a the toxic gaseous HCN form. Chemical treatment, using the oxidant Fenton`s reagent in a 10% soil slurry, resulted in the destruction of 80% of the free cyanide but little, if any, complex cyanide. Ultraviolet irradiation of the basic leachate from MGP wastes in the presence of the chelating agent EDTA yielded 90% degradation of the complex cyanide. For biological treatment, using an aerobic mixed culture, almost 60% of the free cyanide disappeared from the system with minimal degradation of the complex cyanide. Each treatment has its limitations. Thus, a combined physical-chemical-biological treatment in which the complex cyanide is degraded to free cyanide by photodegradation under alkaline conditions, the free cyanide then chemically (by Fenton`s reagent) or biologically converted to NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, is proposed for the removal of cyanide from MGP sites.

  15. Precious metal recovery from waste printed circuit boards using cyanide and non-cyanide lixiviants--A review.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata; Erust, Ceren; Gahan, Chandra Sekhar; Ozgun, Mehmet; Sahin, Merve; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2015-11-01

    Waste generated by the electrical and electronic devices is huge concern worldwide. With decreasing life cycle of most electronic devices and unavailability of the suitable recycling technologies it is expected to have huge electronic and electrical wastes to be generated in the coming years. The environmental threats caused by the disposal and incineration of electronic waste starting from the atmosphere to the aquatic and terrestrial living system have raised high alerts and concerns on the gases produced (dioxins, furans, polybrominated organic pollutants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) by thermal treatments and can cause serious health problems if the flue gas cleaning systems are not developed and implemented. Apart from that there can be also dissolution of heavy metals released to the ground water from the landfill sites. As all these electronic and electrical waste do posses richness in the metal values it would be worth recovering the metal content and protect the environmental from the pollution. Cyanide leaching has been a successful technology worldwide for the recovery of precious metals (especially Au and Ag) from ores/concentrates/waste materials. Nevertheless, cyanide is always preferred over others because of its potential to deliver high recovery with a cheaper cost. Cyanidation process also increases the additional work of effluent treatment prior to disposal. Several non-cyanide leaching processes have been developed considering toxic nature and handling problems of cyanide with non-toxic lixiviants such as thiourea, thiosulphate, aqua regia and iodine. Therefore, several recycling technologies have been developed using cyanide or non-cyanide leaching methods to recover precious and valuable metals.

  16. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored.

  17. Decreased intramuscular blood flow in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, E; Gustafsson, B-E; Pettersson, K; Aulin, K Piehl

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate intramuscular microcirculation in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis, mean duration of symptoms of 39 (12-96) months participated. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and none was under treatment for the last 6 months. Isometric handgrip strength, 2-pinch grip strength and muscle strength during radial deviation and dorsal extension were determined. Functional perceived pain was evaluated by a modified behaviour rating scale and perceived pain during contraction by visual analogue scale. Intramuscular and skin blood flow was recorded by a laser-Doppler flowmetry system technique (LDF) during stable temperature condition. Intramuscular blood flow was significantly lower in the affected side, 22.7+/-9.8 perfusion units (PU), as compared with 35.2+/-11.9 PU in the control side (P=0.01). There was no difference in skin blood flow or temperature between the affected and the control side. A positive correlation was found between the duration of symptoms and the difference in intramuscular blood flow between the affected and the control arm (r=0.65, P=0.06). The present data indicate that decreased microcirculation and anaerobic metabolism in ECRB may contribute to the lateral epicondylitis symptoms.

  18. Effectiveness and duration of intramuscular antimotion sickness medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Stewart, J. J.; Wood, M. J.; Mims, M.

    1992-01-01

    Motion sickness inhibits gastric motility, making the oral route ineffective for medications. The intramuscular route is an effective alternative. The rotating chair was used to produce the M 111 level of motion sickness on the Graybiel Symptom Scale. The intramuscular medications given 30 minutes before rotation were compared with placebo (saline, 1 mL) for effectiveness and duration in increasing the number of tolerated head movements. Average placebo number of head movements was 294. Promethazine 25 mg increased head movements by 78% (P < .05), with a duration of 12 hours. Scopolamine 0.2 mg increased head movements by 91% (P < .05), with a duration of 4 hours. The effect of caffeine 250 mg and ephedrine 25 mg was not significant. When combined with scopolamine, ephedrine produced an 32% additive effect. Scopolamine 0.08 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg and also promethazine 12.5 mg and 25 mg were significant (P < .05). Promethazine appears to be the drug of choice for intramuscular use because of a longer duration and a high level of effectiveness. Scopolamine was of high effectiveness, but had a duration of 4 hours. It was eight times as potent by the intramuscular as by the oral route.

  19. An Interesting Case of Intramuscular Myxoma with Scapular Bone Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Tirefort, Jérôme; Kolo, Frank C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign primitive tumor of the mesenchyme founded at the skeletal muscle level; it presents itself like an unpainful, slow-growing mass. Myxomas with bone lysis are even more rare; only 7 cases have been reported in the English literature, but never at the shoulder level. Case Presentation. We describe an 83-year-old patient with a growing mass in the deltoid muscle with unique scapular lysis, without any symptom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a biopsy were performed and the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma has been retained. In front of this diagnosis of nonmalignant lesion, the decision of a simple follow-up was taken. One year after this decision, the patient was still asymptomatic. Conclusion. In the presence of an intramuscular growing mass with associated bone lysis, intramuscular myxoma as well as malignant tumor should be evoked. MRI has to be part of the initial radiologic appraisal but biopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis. By consensus, the standard treatment is surgical excision but conservative treatment with simple follow-up can be an option. PMID:28194289

  20. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-01-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium. PMID:6410989

  1. Cyanide production by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Askeland, R A; Morrison, S M

    1983-06-01

    Of 200 water isolates screened, five strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cyanogenic. Maximum cyanogenesis by two strains of P. fluorescens in a defined growth medium occurred at 25 to 30 degrees C over a pH range of 6.6 to 8.9. Cyanide production per cell was optimum at 300 mM phosphate. A linear relationship was observed between cyanogenesis and the log of iron concentration over a range of 3 to 300 microM. The maximum rate of cyanide production occurred during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. Radioactive tracer experiments with [1-14C]glycine and [2-14C]glycine demonstrated that the cyanide carbon originates from the number 2 carbon of glycine for both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa. Cyanide production was not observed in raw industrial wastewater or in sterile wastewater inoculated with pure cultures of cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains. Cyanide was produced when wastewater was amended by the addition of components of the defined growth medium.

  2. Sources and geochemical evolution of cyanide and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of cyanide has, in current paleoatmospheric models, been assumed to be the reaction of photodissociated thermospheric nitrogen with a limiting supply of stratospheric methane. Formaldehyde may be produced with more ease from an atmosphere of carbon dioxide as the dominant carbon species, and from carbonate in solution or sorbed in double layer hydroxide minerals. Potentially more important sources for cyanide and other carbon containing molecules are the partially photoprotected northern and southern auroral ovals where continuous currents reaching several mega-amperes induce ion-molecule reactions, extending into the lower stratosphere. In simulated environments of this kind, the cyanide ion is known to be produced from oxidized carbon species potentially more abundant than methane. Rainout of cyanide and formaldehyde place them in two different geochemical reaction reservoirs. In the anoxic Archean hydrosphere, about 1mM in Fe2(+), the cyanide ion would have been efficiently converted to the stable ferrocyanide complex Fe(CN) sub 6(4-), protecting it from the commonly considered fate of decomposition by hydrolysis, and eventually incorporating it in pyroaurite type minerals, most efficiently in green rust where it converts to insoluble ferriferrocyanide, prussian blue.

  3. Acute oral toxicity of sodium cyanide in birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Hill, E.F.; Carpenter, J.W.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Sensitivities of six avian species, black vulture (Coragyps atratus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), eastern screech-owl (Otus asio), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), to acute poisoning by sodium cyanide (NaCN) were compared by single dose LD50's. Three species, domestic chickens, black vultures, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), were dosed with NaCN to determine cyanide residues in those that died and also in survivors, in addition to postmortem fate. Three flesh-eating species (black vulture, American kestrel, and eastern screech-owl; LD50's 4.0-8.6 mg/kg) were more sensitive to NaCN than three species (Japanese quail, domestic chicken, and European starling; LD50's 9.4-21 mg/kg) that fed predominantly on plant material. Elevated concentrations of cyanide were found in the blood of birds that died of cyanide poisoning; however, concentrations in birds that died overlapped those in survivors. Blood was superior to liver as the tissue of choice for detecting cyanide exposure. No gross pathological changes related to dosing were observed at necropsy.

  4. COMPUTER ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION, ECONOMICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOPSTEIN, FELIX F.; SEIDEL, ROBERT J.

    AN ATTEMPT IS MADE TO ASSESS THE ECONOMICS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) VERSUS TRADITIONALLY ADMINISTERED INSTRUCTION (TAI) IN CONTROLLING THE STRUCTURE OF THE LEARNER'S STIMULUS ENVIRONMENT IN TEACHING AND TRAINING SITUATIONS. THERE IS A DISCUSSION OF THE NEED FOR A SOUND, OBJECTIVE ECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF THE VALUE TO SOCIETY OF…

  5. Tissue distribution of a plasmid DNA encoding Hsp65 gene is dependent on the dose administered through intramuscular delivery

    PubMed Central

    Coelho-Castelo, AAM; Trombone, AP; Rosada, RS; Santos, RR; Bonato, VLD; Sartori, A; Silva, CL

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess a new strategy of DNA vaccine for a more complete understanding of its action in immune response, it is important to determine the in vivo biodistribution fate and antigen expression. In previous studies, our group focused on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of a plasmid DNA encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and achieved an efficient immune response induction as well as protection against virulent M. tuberculosis challenge. In the present study, we examined in vivo tissue distribution of naked DNA-Hsp65 vaccine, the Hsp65 message, genome integration and methylation status of plasmid DNA. The DNA-Hsp65 was detectable in several tissue types, indicating that DNA-Hsp65 disseminates widely throughout the body. The biodistribution was dose-dependent. In contrast, RT-PCR detected the Hsp65 message for at least 15 days in muscle or liver tissue from immunized mice. We also analyzed the methylation status and integration of the injected plasmid DNA into the host cellular genome. The bacterial methylation pattern persisted for at least 6 months, indicating that the plasmid DNA-Hsp65 does not replicate in mammalian tissue, and Southern blot analysis showed that plasmid DNA was not integrated. These results have important implications for the use of DNA-Hsp65 vaccine in a clinical setting and open new perspectives for DNA vaccines and new considerations about the inoculation site and delivery system. PMID:16445866

  6. Diagnosis of cyanide intoxication by measurement of cytochrome c oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, H; Iwase, H; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Yoshida, K; Takatori, T

    2001-02-28

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), a mitochondrial enzyme, is inactivated by cyanide or carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. We measured CCO activity, in the major organs of the rat at various times after death caused by cyanide intoxication. Tissue samples were homogenized, and the CCO activity in the mitochondrial fraction was measured using ferrous cytochrome c as the substrate. The CCO activity inhibition was highest in the brain, although the cyanide concentration was lowest level. As a result of this and the clinical symptoms displayed, we consider the brain to be the primary organ of cyanide intoxication. As cyanide is highly toxic to humans, in small amounts and many patients and victims have already had some medical care, it is difficult to detect cyanide in criminal investigations. The CCO activities in various organs remained significantly low for 2 days after the cyanide intoxication, suggesting that the diagnosis may be possible by measuring not only the cyanide concentration but also the CCO activity.

  7. Oxidative removal of cyanide from aqueous streams abetted by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, R.R.; Kalnes, T.N.; Moser, M.D.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described of reducing the concentration of complexed cyanide in an aqueous stream containing at least one complexed cyanide which dissociates to afford less than 10% of the total cyanide present in the complexed cyanide as free cyanide ions. The method comprises the following: irradiating the aqueous stream with light of a wavelength effective to dissociate the complexed cyanide and afford free cyanide ions, and oxidizing the cyanide to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and isocyanate with an oxidizing agent selected from the group consisting of oxygen ozone, and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a metal chelate at oxidation conditions. The metal chelate is selected from the group consisting of metal compounds of tetrapyridinoporphyrazine, porphyrin, corrinoid materials, and the phthalocyanines.

  8. Hydrogen peroxide as a new defensive compound in "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Ichiki, Yayoi; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was newly and simultaneously demonstrated with well-known hydrogen cyanide as a component of defensive secretions of "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes. Presence of hydrogen peroxide was successively evidenced by Trinder reagent's spray with colorless as well as oily smears of defensive secretions containing benzoyl cyanide and hydrogen cyanide by alkaline picrate paper treatment. Linear correlation was demonstrated between quantities of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl cyanide. By qualitative assay, seven benzoyl cyanide containing polydesmidans (six species of adults and one species of a nymph at stadium I) tested positive to Trinder reagent, indicative of the presence of hydrogen peroxide (together with hydrogen cyanide), while two cyanogenic species without benzoyl cyanide exhibited negative responses to the reagent. Two types of millipedes were elucidated as species of cyanogenic Polydesmida.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide as a new defensive compound in "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Ichiki, Yayoi; Tanabe, Tsutomu; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was newly and simultaneously demonstrated with well-known hydrogen cyanide as a component of defensive secretions of "benzoyl cyanide" producing polydesmid millipedes. Presence of hydrogen peroxide was successively evidenced by Trinder reagent's spray with colorless as well as oily smears of defensive secretions containing benzoyl cyanide and hydrogen cyanide by alkaline picrate paper treatment. Linear correlation was demonstrated between quantities of hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl cyanide. By qualitative assay, seven benzoyl cyanide containing polydesmidans (six species of adults and one species of a nymph at stadium I) tested positive to Trinder reagent, indicative of the presence of hydrogen peroxide (together with hydrogen cyanide), while two cyanogenic species without benzoyl cyanide exhibited negative responses to the reagent. Two types of millipedes were elucidated as species of cyanogenic Polydesmida.

  10. Spectroscopic study of acetylene and hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozario, Hoimonti Immaculata

    High-resolution molecular spectroscopy has been used to study acetylene line parameters and emission spectra of hydrogen cyanide. All acetylene spectra were recorded in our laboratory at the University of Lethbridge using a 3-channel tuneable diode laser spectrometer. N2-broadened line widths and N2-pressure induced line shifts have been measured for transitions in the v1+v3 band of acetylene at seven temperatures in the range 213-333K to obtain the temperature dependences of broadening and shift coefficients. The Voigt and hard-collision line profile models were used to retrieve the line parameters. The line-broadening and line-shift coefficients as well as their temperature-dependent parameters have been also evaluated theoretically, in the frame work of a semi-classical approach based on an exponential representation of the scattering operator, an intermolecular potential composed of electrostatic quadrupole--quadrupole and pairwise atom--atom interactions as well as on exact trajectories driven by an effective isotropic potential. The experimental results for both N2-broadening and shifting show good agreement with the theoretical results. We have studied the line intensities of the 1vl 20←0v120 band system from the HCN emission spectrum. The infrared emission spectrum of H12C 14N was measured at the Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany. The emission spectrum was analyzed with the spectrum analysis software Symath running using Mathematica as a platform. This approach allowed us to retrieve information on band intensity parameters.

  11. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario-Alberto; Martinez-Rider, Ricardo; Perez-Urizar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. Material and Methods A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Results Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. Conclusions According to the VAS and AUC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery. Key words:Ketorolac, tramadol, third molar surgery, pain, preemptive analgesia. PMID:27475688

  12. Differential gene expression profile in the liver of the marine puffer fish Takifugu rubripes induced by intramuscular administration of tetrodotoxin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2011-02-01

    Marine puffer fish accumulate a high level of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the liver and ovary, but the underlying mechanism of this toxification is unclear. To elucidate the genes related to toxification of the marine puffer fish, we examined the hepatic gene expression profile of the marine puffer fish Takifugu rubripes by suppression subtractive hybridization in response to the intramuscular administration of 0.50 mg TTX/kg body weight into the caudal muscle. The accumulation of TTX in the liver reached 68 ± 4% that of the administered dose within 12 h of administration. A total of 1048 clones from the subtracted cDNA libraries were successfully sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of 92 of the 1048 clones was identified as a hepcidin precursor. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed that hepcidin precursors were highly expressed in the TTX-administered group. In addition, complement C3 (31 clones), serotransferrin (30 clones), apolipoprotein A-1 (14 clones), high temperature adaptation protein Wap65-2 (14 clones), complement C7 (12 clones), fibrinogen beta chain (12 clones), and 70 kDa heat-shock protein 4 (11 clones) were obtained. This study confirmed that the intramuscular administration of TTX increases the gene expression of the acute-phase response proteins in the liver of puffer fish T. rubripes.

  13. Application of 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic Acid as a Forensic Marker of Cyanide Exposure.

    PubMed

    Rużycka, Monika; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Fudalej, Marcin; Krajewski, Paweł; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2017-02-20

    Cyanides are infamous for their highly poisonous properties. Accidental cyanide poisoning occurs frequently, but occasionally, intentional poisonings also occur. Inhalation of fumes generated by fire may also cause cyanide poisoning. There are many limitations in direct analysis of cyanide. 2-Aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), a cyanide metabolite, seems to be the only surrogate that is being used in the detection of cyanide because of its stability and its cyanide-dependent quality in a biological matrix. Unfortunately, toxicokinetic studies on diverse animal models suggest significant interspecies differences; therefore, the attempt to extrapolate animal models to human models may be unsuccessful. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of ATCA as a forensic marker of cyanide exposure. For this purpose, post-mortem materials (blood and organs) from fire victims (n = 32) and cyanide-poisoned persons (n = 3) were collected. The distribution of ATCA in organs and its thermal stability were evaluated. The variability of cyanides in a putrid sample and in the context of their long-term and higher temperature stability was established. The presence of ATCA was detected by using an LC-MS/MS method and that of cyanide was detected spectrofluorimetrically. This is the first report on the endogenous ATCA concentrations and the determination of ATCA distribution in tissues of fire victims and cyanide-poisoned persons. It was found that blood and heart had the highest ATCA concentrations. ATCA was observed to be thermally stable even at 90 °C. Even though the cyanide concentration was not elevated in putrid samples, it was unstable during long-term storage and at higher temperature, as expected. The relationship between ATCA and cyanides was also observed. Higher ATCA concentrations were related to increased levels of cyanide in blood and organs (less prominent). ATCA seems to be a reliable forensic marker of exposure to lethal doses of cyanide.

  14. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 188 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Reversal of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by the auxiliary substrate nitric oxide: an endogenous antidote to cyanide poisoning?

    PubMed

    Pearce, Linda L; Bominaar, Emile L; Hill, Bruce C; Peterson, Jim

    2003-12-26

    Nitric oxide (NO) is shown to overcome the cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of excess ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. Addition of NO to the partially reduced cyanide-inhibited form of the bovine enzyme is shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to result in substitution of cyanide at ferriheme a3 by NO with reduction of the heme. The resulting nitrosylferroheme a3 is a 5-coordinate structure, the proximal bond to histidine having been broken. NO does not simply act as a reversibly bound competitive inhibitor but is an auxiliary substrate consumed in a catalytic cycle along with ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. The implications of this observation with regard to estimates of steady-state NO levels in vivo is discussed. Given the multiple sources of NO available to mitochondria, the present results appear to explain in part some of the curious biomedical observations reported by other laboratories; for example, the kidneys of cyanide poisoning victims surprisingly exhibit no significant irreversible damage, and lethal doses of potassium cyanide are able to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase activity by only approximately 50% in brain mitochondria.

  16. Cyanide complexes of Ti(IV): a computational study.

    PubMed

    Rayón, Víctor M; Redondo, Pilar; Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio

    2009-09-07

    Density functional theory (B3LYP) and coupled-cluster techniques [CCSD(T)] including solvent effects have been used to study the homoleptic and mixed cyanide/isocyanide complexes of Ti(IV), [Ti(CN)(n)](4-n) (n=1-6). The most stable isomer is found to be the isocyanide form except for n=6 where the cyanide isomer is preferred. Calculations accounting for solvent effects show that, irrespective of the solvent employed, the hexacyanocomplex should be formed. We have additionally analyzed the bonding situation in these complexes in order to shed some light on the reasons for the predicted cyano-/isocyano preference. We have found that the more advantageous sigma-bonding capabilities of the cyanide form become increasingly important for larger n eventually favoring the cyanoisomer for n=6. We finally compare the bonding situation in hexacyanotitanate(IV) with that of hexacyanoferrate(II).

  17. Chronic cyanide exposure: a clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study.

    PubMed Central

    El Ghawabi, S H; Gaafar, M A; El-Saharti, A A; Ahmed, S H; Malash, K K; Fares, R

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chronic cyanide exposure in the electroplating sections of three factories employing 36 workers was studied and compared with a control group. The concentration of cyanides to which the workers were exposed was measured. The regression line showing the relationship between thiocyanates in urine and the concentration of cyanides in the air was plotted. Increased percentages of haemoglobin and lymphocyte count were present in all exposed workers, in addition to punctate basophilia in 28 workers. Cyanmethaemoglobin was found to be characteristic. Apart from other complaints, two men with psychosis similar to one case reported in therapeutic thiocyanate intoxication were found. Twenty of the workers had thyroid enlargements to a variable degree and consistency, in two of whom it resembled lymphadenoid goitre. Thyroid 131I uptakes at 4 and 24 hours were significantly higher than in the controls, while 131PBI was unchanged. The reason for this iodine deficiency-like action is discussed. PMID:1156569

  18. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS, ZINC BOXES, TANKS, AND TAILINGS PILES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LOWER TRAM TERMINAL AND MILL SITE IS AT TOP CENTER IN THE DISTANCE. THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE TRAM TERMINAL ARE REMAINS OF THE DEWATERING BUILDING. THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE FOUNDATIONS AT CENTER SUPPORTED SIX 25 FT. OR GREATER DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS WHERE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL SETTLED IN A CYANIDE SOLUTION IN ORDER TO RECLAIM ANY GOLD CONTENT. THE PREGNANT SOLUTION WAS THEN RUN THROUGH THE ZINC BOXES ON THE GROUND AT CENTER RIGHT, WHERE ZINC SHAVINGS WERE INTRODUCED, CAUSING THE GOLD TO PRECIPITATE OUT OF THE CYANIDE SOLUTION, WHICH COULD BE USED AGAIN. THE FLAT AREA IN THE FOREGROUND WITH THE TANK AND TANK HOOPS IS THE FOOTPRINT OF A LARGE BUILDING WHERE THE PRECIPITATION AND FURTHER FILTERING AND FINAL CASTING TOOK PLACE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. NEW GROUND-STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.; Yu, Shanshan

    2009-09-01

    The spectrum of ethyl cyanide, or propionitrile (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN), has been repeatedly observed in the interstellar medium with large column densities and surprisingly high temperatures in hot core sources. The construction of new, more sensitive, observatories accessing higher frequencies such as Herschel, ALMA, and SOFIA have made it important to extend the laboratory data for ethyl cyanide to coincide with the capabilities of the new instruments. We report extensions of the laboratory measurements of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide in its ground vibrational state to 1.6 THz. A global analysis of the ground state, which includes all of the previous data and 3356 newly assigned transitions, has been fitted to within experimental error to J = 132, K = 36, using both Watson A-reduced and Watson S-reduced Hamiltonians.

  20. Administering the Individualized Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James, Jr.

    This book provides discussion and guidelines for administering an individualized instruction program; it is stated, however, that the book is not confined to individualized study units alone but brings in the creation of any educational instrument, a variety of which are illustrated in the appendixes. The following topics are considered in this…

  1. The origin of proteins: Heteropolypeptides from hydrogen cyanide and water.

    PubMed

    Matthews, C N

    1975-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and extraterrestrial chemistry is presented consistent with the hypothesis that the original heteropolypeptides on Earth were synthesized spontaneously from hydrogen cyanide and water without the intervening formation of chi-amino acids, a key step being the direct polymerization of atmospheric hydrogen cyanide to polyaminomalononitrile (IV) via dimeric HCN. Molecular orbital calculations (INDO) show that the most probable structure for (HCN)2 is azacyclopropenylidenimine. Successive reactions of hydrogen cyanide with the reactive nitrile side chains of IV then yield heteropolyamidines which are converted by water to heteropolypeptides. To study this postulated modification of a homopolymer to a heteropolymer, poly-chi-cyanoglycine (IX) was prepared from the N-carboxyanhydride of chi-cyanoglycine. Hydrolysis of IX, a polyamide analog of the polyamidine IV, yielded glycine. However, when IX was hydrolysed after being treated with hydrogen cyanide, other chi-amino acids were also obtained including alanine, serine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, suggesting that the nitrile groups of IX (and therfore of IV) are indeed readily attacked by hydrogen cyanide as predicted. Further theoretical and experimental studies support the view that hydrogen cyanide polymerization along these lines is a universal process that accounts not only for the past formation of primitive proteins on Earth, but also for the yellow-brown-orange colors of Jupiter today and for the presence of water-soluble compounds hydrolyzable to chi-amino acids in materials obtained from environments as diverse as the moon, carbonaceous chondrites and the reaction chambers used to simulate organic synthesis in planetary atmospheres.

  2. Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment Elevation May Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-21

    induced shock, 30 swine were anesthetized and monitored and then intoxicated with a continuous cyanide infusion until severe hypotension (50 % of...TOXICOLOGY INVESTIGATION Acute Electrocardiographic ST Segment ElevationMay Predict Hypotension in a Swine Model of Severe Cyanide Toxicity Tylan A...Toxicology 2012 Abstract Cyanide causes severe cardiac toxicity resulting in tachycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest; however, the clinical diagnosis can

  3. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  4. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  5. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  6. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  7. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  8. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  9. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  10. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  11. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  12. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United...

  13. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed...

  14. Rapid tranquillisation in psychiatric emergency settings in Brazil: pragmatic randomised controlled trial of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular haloperidol plus promethazine

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, E S F; Adams, C E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether haloperidol alone results in swifter and safer tranquillisation and sedation than haloperidol plus promethazine. Design Pragmatic randomised open trial (January-July 2004). Setting Psychiatric emergency room, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Participants 316 patients who needed urgent intramuscular sedation because of agitation, dangerous behaviour, or both. Interventions Open treatment with intramuscular haloperidol 5-10 mg or intramuscular haloperidol 5-10 mg plus intramuscular promethazine up to 50 mg; doses were at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was proportion tranquil or asleep by 20 minutes. Secondary outcomes were asleep by 20 minutes; tranquil or asleep by 40, 60, and 120 minutes; physically restrained or given additional drugs within 2 hours; severe adverse events; another episode of agitation or aggression; additional visit from the doctor during the subsequent 24 hours; overall antipsychotic load in the first 24 hours; and still in hospital after 2 weeks. Results Primary outcome data were available for 311 (98.4%) people, 77% of whom were thought to have a psychotic illness. Patients allocated haloperidol plus promethazine were more likely to be tranquil or asleep by 20 minutes than those who received intramuscular haloperidol alone (relative risk 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.55; number needed to treat 6, 95% confidence interval 4 to 16; P=0.002). No differences were found after 20 minutes. However, 10 cases of acute dystonia occurred, all in the haloperidol alone group. Conclusions Haloperidol plus promethazine is a better option than haloperidol alone in terms of speed of onset of action and safety. Enough data are now available to change guidelines that continue to recommend treatments that leave people exposed to longer periods of aggression than necessary and patients vulnerable to distressing and unsafe adverse effects. Trial registration Current Controlled

  15. 37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. DETAIL OF CYANIDE LEACHING TANK DRAIN DOOR AND PIPING SYSTEM. NOTE SPIGOT UNDER BOARD AT UPPER LEFT INSERTS INTO HOLE IN PIPE AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. CYANIDE SOLUTION WAS PUMPED INTO THE TANKS AND THE PREGNANT SOLUTION DRAINED OUT OF THE TANKS THROUGH THIS PIPE, AND BACK INTO A SEPARATE HOLDING TANK ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL. TAILINGS WERE REMOVED FROM THE TANKS THROUGH THE ROUND DRAIN DOOR IN THE BOTTOM OF THE TANK (MISSING) SEEN AT TOP CENTER. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. On OMC-1 temperatures determined from methyl cyanide observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the J(k) = 12(k)-11(k) and 13(k)-12(k) transitions of methyl cyanide detected by other investigators in the direction of OMC-1. The original interpretation of those observations argues for the presence of two distinct temperature regions or possibly a temperature gradient within the cloud. The analysis presented here demonstrates that the observations of these particular molecular transitions are consistent with a single methyl cyanide emission region with a source kinetic temperature of 121.2 + or - 8.2 K and a molecular rotational temperature of 16.6 + or - 1.8 K.

  17. Postmortem redistribution of olanzapine following intramuscular administration of olanzapine pamoate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jason T; Everly, Amy G; Kpakima, Felicia E Frazier; Detke, Holland C

    2015-12-01

    The potential for postmortem redistribution of olanzapine was investigated in beagle dogs. Olanzapine pamoate monohydrate was administered once every 14 days by intramuscular injection for 3 months to fed male dogs (n=15) at a dose of 20 mg/kg olanzapine (equivalent to 46 mg/kg olanzapine pamoate monohydrate). Blood samples were collected after the fifth (Day 57) and sixth (Day 71) doses to determine olanzapine and N-oxide olanzapine concentrations. On Day 71 at 72 h postdose, dogs were euthanized and placed on their backs without additional manipulation and held for postmortem blood, urine, and tissue collection at room temperature for up to 168 h postdose (96 h after euthanasia). Concentrations of olanzapine and N-oxide olanzapine were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Postmortem olanzapine concentrations in blood increased up to seven-fold compared to the last quantified antemortem blood concentration. Olanzapine concentrations in vein tissue samples (surrogates for peripheral blood) also increased, whereas other tissue concentrations, such as myocardium, lung, liver, and kidney decreased over the postmortem period. An increase in blood concentration of olanzapine after death was observed in all but one animal, suggesting that postmortem redistribution may occur in dogs following biweekly intramuscular administration of olanzapine pamoate monohydrate. The rise in olanzapine concentrations in blood after death in this study may potentially be attributed to diffusion from multiple tissues to blood and, to a lesser extent, reduction of the N-oxide olanzapine metabolite back to olanzapine. However, the generalizability of these results to humans cannot be confirmed by the present study.

  18. Factors Influencing the Development of Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Potato Tissue.

    PubMed

    Janes, H W; Rychter, A; Frenkel, C

    1979-05-01

    Ethylene, cyanide gas, and volatalized ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid were applied in a continuous flow to whole potato tubers. Freshly cut slices were obtained periodically during the treatment, and showed a progressive development of a cyanide-resistant respiration. The application of the employed volatiles in 100% O(2) accelerated the onset and the magnitude of the cyanide-resistant respiration.These results show that, similar to ethylene and cyanide, the application of ethanol, acetaldehyde, or acetic acid can also lead to the development of cyanide-resistant respiration in whole potato tubers, and that this type of respiration is retained in freshly cut slices.

  19. Intramuscular pressures for monitoring different tasks and muscle conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sejersted, O. M.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular fluid pressure (IMP) can easily be measured in man and animals. It follows the law of Laplace which means that it is determined by the tension of the muscle fibers, the recording depth and by fiber geometry (fiber curvature or pennation angle). Thick, bulging muscles create high IMPs (up to 1000 mmHg) and force transmission to tendons becomes inefficient. High resting or postexercise IMPs are indicative of a compartment syndrome due to muscle swelling within a low-compliance osseofascial boundary. IMP increases linearly with force (torque) independent of the mode or speed of contraction (isometric, eccentric, concentric). IMP is also a much better predictor of muscle force than the EMG signal. During prolonged low-force isometric contractions, cyclic variations in IMP are seen. Since IMP influences muscle blood flow through the muscle pump, autoregulating vascular elements, and compression of the intramuscular vasculature, alterations in IMP have important implications for muscle function.

  20. Measurement of Intramuscular Fat by Muscle Echo Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Hui-Ju; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Zhao, Qun; McCully, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare ultrasound echo intensity (EI) to high-resolution T1-weighted MRI and to establish calibration equations to estimate percent intramuscular fat from EI. Methods Thirty-one participants underwent both ultrasound and MRI testing of 4 muscles: rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG). Results Strong correlations were found between MRI percent fat and muscle EI after correcting for subcutaneous fat thickness (r = 0.91 in RF, r = 0.80 in BF, r = 0.80 in TA, r = 0.76 in MG). Three types of calibration equations were established. Conclusion Muscle ultrasound is a practical and reproducible method that can be used as an imaging technique for examination of percent intramuscular fat. Future ultrasound studies are needed to establish equations for other muscle groups to enhance its use in both research and clinical settings. PMID:25787260

  1. Intramuscular injection of "site enhancement oil": forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maria Louise; Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Jensen, Thomas Hartvig Lindkær; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2015-06-01

    The use of intramuscular injection of foreign substances for aesthetic purposes is well known. Complications are usually local to the site of injection but can be potentially lethal. Here, we present a case of "site enhancement oil" use in a 42-year-old man who died from asphyxia due to hanging. Macroscopic and microscopic changes as well as computed tomographic changes in injected musculature are described and the potentially lethal adverse effects after site enhancement oil use are warranted.

  2. Intramuscular calcium movements: Experiments from the Soviet Biosatellite Biocosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goblet, C.; Holy, X.; Mounier, Y.

    Experiments have been performed in skeletal muscle fibres from the lateral head of gastrocnemius muscle of female rats. Changes in intramuscular calcium movements due to microgravity conditions have been tested by tension measurements in chemically skinned muscle fibres. Our results show that microgravity induces i) a decrease in maximal muscle strength developped by contractile proteins ii) a decrease of intensity and rate of both Ca release and Ca uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  3. Structural biomechanics modulate intramuscular distribution of locally delivered drugs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peter I-Kung; Edelman, Elazer R

    2008-09-18

    As local drug delivery continues to emerge as a clinical force, so does understanding of its potentially narrow therapeutic window. Classic molecular transport studies are of value but do not typically account for the local nature of drug transport or the effects of regional dynamic function in target tissues like muscle that may undergo cyclical and variable mechanical motion and loading. We examined the impact of dynamic architecture on intramuscular drug distribution. We designed a tissue mounting technique and mechanical loading system that uniquely enables pharmacokinetics investigations in association with control of muscle biomechanics while preserving physiologic tissue architecture. The system was validated and used to elucidate the influence of architecture and controlled cyclic strain on intramuscular drug distribution. Rat soleus muscles underwent controlled deformations within a drug delivery chamber that preserved in vivo physiology. Penetration of 1mM 20 kDa FITC-dextran at planar surfaces of the soleus axial cross-section increased significantly from 0.52+/-0.09 mm under 80 min of static (0%) strain to 0.81+/-0.09 mm under cyclic (3 Hz, 0-20% peak-to-peak) strain, demonstrating the driving effect of cyclic loading on transport. Penetration at curved margins was 1.57- and 2.53-fold greater than at planar surfaces under static and cyclic strain, respectively, and was enhanced 1.6-fold more by cyclic strain, revealing architecturally dictated spatial heterogeneity in transport and modulation of motion dynamics. Architectural geometry and dynamics modulate the impact of mechanical loading on local drug penetration and intramuscular distribution. Future work will use the biomechanical test system to investigate mechanisms underlying transport effects of specific loading regimens. It is hoped that this work will initiate a broader understanding of intramuscular pharmacokinetics and guide local drug delivery strategies.

  4. Current evidence on intradermal influenza vaccines administered by Soluvia™ licensed micro injection system

    PubMed Central

    Icardi, Giancarlo; Orsi, Andrea; Ceravolo, Antonella; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Among the several strategies explored for (1) the enhancement of the immune response to influenza immunization, (2) the improvement of the vaccine acceptability and (3) the overcoming of the egg-dependency for vaccine production, intradermal administration of influenza vaccine emerges as a promising alternative to conventional intramuscular route, thanks to the recent availability of new delivery devices and the perception of advantages in terms of immunogenicity, safety, reduction of antigen content and acceptability.   Data from clinical trials performed in children, adults <60 y and elderly people and post-marketing surveillance demonstrate that actually, licensed intradermal influenza vaccines, Intanza™ 9 and 15 µg and Fluzone™ Intradermal, administered by the microinjection system Soluvia™, show an excellent acceptability, tolerability and safety profile. Formulations containing 9 and 15 μg per strain demonstrate, respectively, comparable and superior immunogenicity than conventional intramuscular vaccines. Licensed intradermal influenza vaccines can be considered a valid alternative to standard intramuscular vaccination offering significant advantages in low-responder populations and helping to increase influenza vaccination coverage rates especially in people with fear of needles or high apprehension associated with annual vaccination. PMID:22293531

  5. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, André T; Hueza, Isis M; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M; Maiorka, Paulo C; Górniak, Silvana L

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis.

  6. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-02-06

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  7. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  8. Animal Models for Testing Antidotes Against an Oral Cyanide Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    ingestion and metabolism of these materials. The most commonly available forms of CN are the solid salts of sodium , potassium, and calcium cyanide (NaCN...The salts of sodium , KCN and CaCN, are quite toxic and highly soluble in water, and they hydrolyze readily in moist conditions yielding CN- and

  9. Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-15

    In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide.

  10. Intoxication by Cyanide in Pregnant Sows: Prenatal and Postnatal Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Gotardo, André T.; Hueza, Isis M.; Manzano, Helena; Maruo, Viviane M.; Maiorka, Paulo C.; Górniak, Silvana L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment and has been associated with many intoxication episodes; however, little is known about its potentially toxic effects on development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during pregnancy on both sows and their offspring. Twenty-four pregnant sows were allocated into four groups that orally received different doses of KCN (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg of body weight) from day 21 of pregnancy to term. The KCN-treated sows showed histological lesions in the CNS, thyroid follicle enlargement, thyroid epithelial thickening, colloid reabsorption changes, and vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium. Sows treated with 4.0 mg/kg KCN showed an increase in the number of dead piglets at birth. Weaned piglets from all KCN-treated groups showed histological lesions in the thyroid glands with features similar to those found in their mothers. The exposure of pregnant sows to cyanide thus caused toxic effects in both mothers and piglets. We suggest that swine can serve as a useful animal model to assess the neurological, goitrogenic, and reproductive effects of cyanide toxicosis. PMID:26101526

  11. 90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  12. 169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. PORTLAND FILTER FLOOR FROM SOUTHEAST. CYANIDE FEED TOWER TO SUMP, LOWER RIGHT QUADRANT. DIAGONAL PIPE IN UPPER RIGHT IS AIR LINE TO AGITATORS. LAUNDER PARALLEL TO LEFT EDGE (FILLED WITH DEBRIS) RUNS FROM PRIMARY THICKENER No. 2 TO GOLD TANK No. 2 - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. Thermodeformational Behavior of Cubic Crystals of Sodium Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesleva, E. P.; Gil, L. B.; Solovyan, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper the authors provide results of the study of anisotropic and isotropic acoustic (elastic waves propagation velocities), dimensional (elastic moduli) and nondimensional (Poisson's ratios) elastic characteristics of mono- and polycrystals of sodium cyanide within the temperature range 283.7÷473 K.

  14. Synthesis of Potential Prophylactic Agents against Cyanide Intoxication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-10

    and a-ketoulutarte, whichcan bind cyanide throull cyanohydrin formation; and ( 3 ) explokuio of additional cla of compoundswhich can directly react with... 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES...of 4-Pheoayl-2,4-dioxobutyW. Acid ........................... 9 B. Derivatives of 3 -Phoayl-2-oxopropionic Acid ............................. 10 IV

  15. Interlaboratory study of free cyanide methods compared to total cyanide measurements and the effect of preservation with sodium hydroxide for secondary- and tertiary-treated waste water samples.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Brett J; Antonio, Karen

    2012-11-01

    Several methods exist for the measurement of cyanide levels in treated wastewater,typically requiring preservation of the sample with sodium hydroxide to minimize loss of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN). Recent reports have shown that cyanide levels may increase with chlorination or preservation. In this study, three flow injection analysis methods involving colorimetric and amperometric detection were compared within one laboratory, as well as across separate laboratories and equipment. Split wastewater samples from eight facilities and three different sampling periods were tested. An interlaboratory confidence interval of 3.5 ppb was calculated compared with the intralaboratory reporting limit of 2 ppb. The results show that free cyanide measurements are not statistically different than total cyanide levels. An artificial increase in cyanide level is observed with all methods for preserved samples relative to nonpreserved samples, with an average increase of 2.3 ppb. The possible loss of cyanide without preservation is shown to be statistically insignificant if properly stored up to 48 hours. The cyanide increase with preservation is further substantiated with the method of standard additions and is not a matrix interference. The increase appears to be correlated with the amount of cyanide observed without preservation, which appears to be greater in those facilities that disinfect their wastewater with chlorine, followed by dechlorination with sodium bisulfite.

  16. A Direct and Rapid Method to Determine Cyanide in Urine by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-01-01

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4 minutes, and the separation was observed in 25 s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0 nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. PMID:26342870

  17. Development of a Fluorescence-Based Sensor for Rapid Diagnosis of Cyanide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The “heavy” use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture “apparatus”, consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13–200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits. PMID:24383576

  18. Identification of a crystalline cyanide-containing compound in blast furnace sludge deposits.

    PubMed

    Mansfeldt, T; Dohrmann, R

    2001-01-01

    During blast furnace operation, a cyanide-containing muddy waste referred to as blast furnace sludge is generated in large amounts. In Germany it was and is still common practice to pump this sludge into surface deposits. Depending on species, cyanide has very different toxicity. To this day there is no information about the type of cyanide occurring in blast furnace sludge deposits. In order to identify the type of cyanide we investigated by means of wet chemical and powder X-ray diffraction analyses 37 samples of three blast furnace deposits. Wet chemical results indicate that both the extremely toxic free cyanide (HCN and CN ) and toxic weak metal-cyanide complexes, for example [Zn(CN)4]2-, are not present in the sludge. By powder X-ray diffraction we identified the crystalline cyanide-containing compound potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) nonahydrate, K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2 x 9H2O, as the cyanide-bearing compound. Our study is the first that identifies potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) nonahydrate in the environment. As the iron-cyanide complex [Fe(CN)6] is not acutely toxic, any direct hazard comes from cyanide occurring in the investigated wastes. Under the predominant pH milieu of the sludge (pH about 8) the solubility of potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate(II) nonahydrate is low, thus minimizing the mobility of cyanide.

  19. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was <3 min, the linear range was 3.13-200 μM, and the limit of detection was 0.78 μM. None of the potential interferents investigated (NaHS, NH4OH, NaSCN, and human serum albumin) produced a signal that could be interpreted as a false positive or a false negative for cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  20. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification.

  1. Novel actinomycete and a cyanide-degrading pseudomonad isolated from industrial sludge

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A novel actinomycete was the predominant filamentous microorganism in bulking activated sludge in a bench-scale reactor treating coke plant wastewater. The bacterium was isolated and identified as an actinomycete that is biochemically and morphologically similar to Amycolatopsis orientalis; however, a lack of DNA homology excludes true relatedness. At present, the isolate (NRRL B 16216) cannot be assigned to the recognized taxa of actinomycetes. Cyanide-degrading microorganisms were selected in chemostats maintained at a low dilution rate for several weeks. Cyanide alone or cyanide plus phenol were fully degraded when equilibrium was achieved, and increasing concentrations of cyanide were degraded until inhibition of cell division resulted in cell washout. An isolated non-fluorescent pseudomonad could be adapted to degrade high concentrations of cyanide and to utilize cyanide-nitrogen when phenol or lactate was the carbon source. Although one-carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine were growth substrates, cyanide was not utilized as a carbon source. In the absence of cyanide, adaptation was gradually lost. Oxygen consumption of adapted cells was stimulated in the presence of cyanide whereas that of unadapted cells was depressed. Cyanide was degraded by growing or resting cells and by cell-free extracts. Cyanide degrading activity of cell-free extracts, lost upon dialysis, was fully restored with NAD(P)H.

  2. Distribution of Flunixin Residues in Muscles of Dairy Cattle Dosed with Lipopolysaccharide or Saline and Treated with Flunixin by Intravenous or Intramuscular Injection.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Schneider, Marilyn J; Smith, David J

    2016-12-28

    Twenty dairy cows received flunixin meglumine at 2.2 mg/kg bw, administered once daily by either the intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) route for three consecutive days with either intravenous normal saline (NS) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) providing a balanced design with five animals per group. Cows were sacrificed after a 4 day withdrawal period, and 13 muscle types were collected and assayed for flunixin by LC-MS/MS. After elimination of sample outliers, the main effects of route of administration (IV or IM), treatment (NS or LPS), and tissue type significantly (P < 0.05) affected flunixin residues, with no interaction (P > 0.05). Intramuscular (nonlabel) flunixin administration produced greater (P < 0.05) flunixin residues in muscle than the IV (label) administration, whereas LPS resulted in lower flunixin levels. Differences among the tissue levels indicate it is necessary to specify the tissue to be used for any monitoring of drug levels for consumer protection.

  3. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol.

    PubMed

    Parga, J R; Shukla, S S; Carrillo-Pedroza, F R

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O(3)) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  4. An enzymatic method for determination of azide and cyanide in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nan-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Feng; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-11-20

    A halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH-PL) from Parvibaculum lavamentivorans DS-1 was characterized and applied to determine azide and cyanide in the water. In this methodology, HHDH-PL catalysed azide and cyanide to react with butylene oxide and form corresponding β-substituted alcohols 1-azidobutan-2-ol (ABO) and 3-hydroxypentanenitrile (HPN) that could be quantitatively detected by gas chromatograph. The detection calibration curves for azide (R(2)=0.997) and cyanide (R(2)=0.995) were linear and the lower limits of detection for azide and cyanide were 0.1 and 0.3mM, respectively. Several other nucleophiles were identified having no effect on the analysis of azide and cyanide, excepting nitrite which influenced the detection of cyanide. This was the first report of a biological method to determine the inorganic azide and cyanide by converting them to the measurable organics.

  5. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found for thiocyanate in plasma and urine, and ATCA showed significant differences in plasma and saliva. Additionally, biomarker concentration ratios, correlations between markers of cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  6. Destruction of cyanide waste solutions using chlorine dioxide, ozone and titania sol

    SciTech Connect

    Parga, J.R.; Shukla, S.S.; Carrillo-Pedroza, F.R

    2003-07-01

    Increasingly, there are severe environmental controls in the mining industry. Because of lack of technological advances, waste management practices are severely limited. Most of the wastes in the milling industrial effluents are known to contain cyanides and it is recognized that after extraction and recovery of precious metals, substantial amounts of cyanide are delivered to tailings ponds. The toxicity of cyanide creates serious environmental problems. In this paper we describe several methods for the treatment of cyanide solutions. These include: (1) cyanide destruction by oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) in a Gas-Sparged Hydrocyclone (GSH) reactor; (2) destruction of cyanide by ozone (O{sub 3}) using a stirred batch reactor, and finally, (3) the photolysis of cyanide with UV light in presence of titania sol. In all cases excellent performance were observed as measured by the extent and of the destruction.

  7. The effect of cyanide on the uptake of gold by red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, G G; Haavisto, T M; Jones, H M; Champion, G D

    1984-04-15

    Cyanide markedly increased the rate of uptake of gold by red blood cells when incubated with sodium aurothiomalate, a polymeric gold complex. Thiocyanate had no significant effect on gold uptake. The effect of cyanide was demonstrated to be due to the conversion of aurothiomalate to the complexion, aurocyanide, which is rapidly taken up by red blood cells. At a low ratio (1:20) of cyanide to aurothiomalate, cyanide appeared to act as a shuttle to carry gold into red blood cells. Tobacco smoking is known to increase the concentrations of gold in red blood cells in patients treated with aurothiomalate. The present data indicate that this effect of smoking is most likely due to cyanide inhaled in tobacco smoke and not to thiocyanate, a circulating metabolite of cyanide. An effect of cyanide on the uptake of polymeric gold complexes to target cells such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes is suggested.

  8. Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous lorazepam for the prehospital treatment of status epilepticus in the pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Robert D.; Nicholas, Katherine; Durkalski-Mauldin, Valerie L.; Lowenstein, Daniel H.; Conwit, Robin; Mahajan, Prashant V.; Lewandowski, Christopher; Silbergleit, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective To examine the effectiveness of intramuscular (IM) midazolam versus intravenous (IV) lorazepam for the treatment of pediatric patients with status epilepticus (SE) in the prehospital care setting. Methods This multicenter clinical trial randomized patients diagnosed with SE to receive either IM midazolam or IV lorazepam administered by paramedics in the prehospital care setting. Included in this secondary analysis were only patients younger than 18 years of age. Evaluated were the associations of the treatment group (IM vs. IV) with the primary outcome, defined as seizure cessation prior to emergency department (ED) arrival, and with patient characteristics, time to important events, and adverse events. Descriptive statistics and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for the analysis. Results Of 893 primary study subjects, 120 met criteria for this study (60 in each treatment group). There were no differences in important baseline characteristics or seizure etiologies between groups. The primary outcome was met in 41 (68.3%) and 43 (71.7%) of subjects in the IM and IV groups, respectively (risk difference [RD] −3.3%, 99% CI −24.9% to 18.2%). Similar results were noted for those younger than 11 years (RD −1.3%, 99% CI −25.7% to 23.1%). Time from initiating the treatment protocol was shorter for children who received IM midazolam, mainly due to the shorter time to administer the active treatment. Safety profiles were similar. Significance IM midazolam can be rapidly administered and appears to be safe and effective for the management of children with SE treated in the prehospital setting. The results must be interpreted in the context of the secondary analysis design and sample size of the study. PMID:25597369

  9. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    SciTech Connect

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-12-31

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide.

  10. In vitro and in vivo comparison of sulfur donors as antidotes to acute cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Baskin, S I; Porter, D W; Rockwood, G A; Romano, J A; Patel, H C; Kiser, R C; Cook, C M; Ternay, A L

    1999-01-01

    Antidotes for cyanide (CN) intoxication include the use of sulfane sulfur donors (SSDs), such as thiosulfate, which increase the conversion of CN to thiocyanate by the enzyme rhodanese. To develop pretreatments that might be useful against CN, SSDs with greater lipophilicity than thiosulfate were synthesized and assessed. The ability of SSDs to protect mice against 2LD50 of sodium cyanide (NaCN) administered either 15 or 60 min following administration of an SSD was assessed. To study the mechanism of action of the SSD, the candidate compounds were examined in vitro for their effect on rhodanese and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST) activity under increasing SSD concentrations. Tests were conducted on nine candidate SSDs: ICD1021 (3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl N-[(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)]-2-aminoethyl disulfide dihydrochloride), ICD1022, (3-hydroxypyridin-2-yl N-[(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)]-2-aminoethyl disulfide trihydrochloride), ICD1584 (diethyl tetrasulfide), ICD1585 (diallyl tetrasulfide), ICD1587 (diisopropyl tetrasulfide); ICD1738 (N-(3-aminopropyl)-2-aminoethyl 2-oxopropyl disulfide dihydrochloride), ICD1816 (3,3'-tetrathiobis-N-acctyl-L-alanine), ICD2214 (2-aminoethyl 4-methoxyphenyl disulfide hydrochloride) and ICD2467 (bis(4-methoxyphenyl) disulfide). These tests demonstrated that altering the chemical substituent of the longer chain sulfide modified the ability of the candidate SSD to protect against CN toxicity. At least two of the SSDs at selected doses provided 100% protection against 2LD50 of NaCN, normally an LD99. All compounds were evaluated using locomotor activity as a measure of potential adverse behavioral effects. Positive hypoactivity relationships were found with several disulfides but none was found with ICD1584, a tetrasulfide. Separate studies suggest that the chemical reaction of potassium cyanide (KCN) and cystine forms the toxic metabolite 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. An alternative detoxification pathway, one not primarily

  11. Whole-genome transcriptional and physiological responses of Nitrosomonas europaea to cyanide: identification of cyanide stress response genes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhwa; Ely, Roger L

    2009-04-15

    Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) is one of several nitrifying species that participate in the biological removal of nitrogen from wastewater by oxidizing ammonia to nitrite, the first step in nitrification. Because nitrification is quite sensitive to cyanide, a compound often encountered in wastewater treatment plants, we characterized the physiological and transcriptional responses of N. europaea cells to cyanide. The cells were extremely sensitive to low concentrations of cyanide, with NO-(2)production and ammonia-dependent oxygen uptake rates decreasing by 50% within 30 min of exposure to 1 microM NaCN. Whole-genome transcriptional responses of cells exposed to 1 microM NaCN were examined using Affymetrix microarrays to identify stress-induced genes. The transcript levels of 35 genes increased more than 2-fold while transcript levels of 29 genes decreased more than 20-fold. A gene cluster that included moeZ (NE2353), encoding a rhodanese homologue and thought to be involved in detoxification of cyanide, showed the highest up-regulation (7-fold). The down-regulated genes included genes encoding proteins involved in the sulfate reduction pathway, signal transduction mechanisms, carbohydrate transport, energy production, coenzyme metabolism, and amino acid transport.

  12. Parenteral dosage form development and testing of dimethyl trisulfide, as an antidote candidate to combat cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Kristof; Duke, Anna C; Shifflet, Marla; Winner, Brittany; Lee, Stephen A; Rockwood, Gary A; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-01-07

    This study focused on the solubility enhancement and the in vivo antidotal efficacy testing of a new potential cyanide (CN) countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). Various FDA approved cyclodextrins (HPβCD, RMβCD, HPγCD), cosolvents (ethanol, polyethylene glycols, propylene glycol), surfactants (cremophor EL, cremophor RH 40, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, polysorbate 80) and their combinations were applied. Based on the solubility enhancing potential of the tested systems, polysorbate 80 was chosen for further in vivo efficacy studies. A composition comprising 15% polysorbate 80 and 50 mg/ml DMTS with the applied DMTS dose of 100 mg/kg provided a therapeutic antidotal protection of 3.4 × LD50. For comparison, the present therapy of sodium thiosulfate (TS) with the dose of 100 mg/kg provided only 1.1 × LD50 protection, and at the dose of 200 mg/kg, the LD50 was enhanced by 1.3 times. No difference in the therapeutic protection by DMTS was detected when the concentration of polysorbate 80 was increased to 20% (3.2 × LD50 protection). These data demonstrate the potential importance of DMTS as a CN countermeasure, and the formulation comprising polysorbate 80 provides the base of an injectable intramuscular dosage form that can later serve as a CN antidotal kit suitable for mass scenario.

  13. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  14. On the role of β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) in metabolism of free cyanide and ferri-cyanide by rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Lu, Peng-Cheng; Yu, Zhen

    2012-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the contribution of β-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) to the botanical metabolism of free cyanide and iron cyanides. Seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown hydroponically and then amended with free cyanide (KCN) or ferri-cyanide [K(3)Fe(CN)(6)] into the growth media. Total cyanide, free cyanide, and Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) in aqueous solution were analyzed to identify the speciation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Activity of CAS in different parts of the rice seedlings was also assayed in vivo and results indicated that dissociation of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) to free cyanide in solution was negligible. Almost all of the applied KCN was removed by rice seedlings and the metabolic rates were concentration dependent. Phyto-transport of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was apparent, but appreciable amounts of cyanide were recovered in plant tissues. The metabolic rates of K(3)Fe(CN)(6) were also positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. Rice seedlings exposed to KCN showed a considerable increase in the CAS activity and roots had higher CAS activity than shoots, indicating that CAS plays an important role in the botanical assimilation of KCN. However, no measurable change of CAS activity in different parts of rice seedlings exposed to K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was detected, suggesting that K(3)Fe(CN)(6) is likely metabolized by rice directly through an unknown pathway rather than the β-cyanoalanine pathway.

  15. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    PubMed

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) greater in June (0.87 μg L(-1)) and May (0.77 μg L(-1)) months of 2012 and 2013, respectively, than the rest of the months. However, free cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ∼3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution.

  16. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments.

  17. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P < 0.05. The VO2 at which ventilatory threshold occurred was significantly reduced from CON (2.17+/-0.28 L x min(-1)) to 1.60+/-0.19 L x min(-1), 1.45+/-0.15 L x min(-1), and 1.15+/-0.11 L x min(-1) during CUFF, PP, and CUFF+PP, respectively. The slope of the linear regression describing the VE/CO2 output relationship was increased from CON by approximately 22% during CUFF, 40% during PP, and 41% during CUFF+PP. CONCLUSIONS: As intramuscular pressure was significantly elevated immediately upon application of LBPP during PP and CUFF+PP without a concomitant increase in VE, it seems unlikely that LBPP-induced increases in VE can be attributed to activation of the mechanoreflex. These findings suggest that LBPP-induced reductions in perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  18. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species. PMID:26317048

  19. A comparison of serum antivenom concentrations after intravenous and intramuscular administration of redback (widow) spider antivenom

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; O'Leary, Margaret; Miller, Mark; Brown, Simon G A; Ramasamy, Sharmaine; James, Rosemary; Schneider, Jennifer S

    2008-01-01

    AIMS There are no studies measuring antivenom concentrations following intramuscular administration. This study aimed to compare antivenom concentrations following intravenous and intramuscular administration of redback spider antivenom (RBSAV). METHODS Twenty patients recruited to a controlled trial comparing intramuscular and intravenous administration of antivenom had serial blood samples collected at 30 min intervals for 2 h after the administration of one or two doses of antivenom. Antivenom concentration was measured using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS Ten patients received intramuscular antivenom but antivenom could not be detected in serum after either one or two vials, at any time point. The median time of the final sample after commencement of antivenom treatment in these patients was 3.2 h (1.8–5 h). Ten patients received intravenous antivenom (three one vial and seven two or more vials) and antivenom was detected in all patients. CONCLUSIONS RBS AV given by the intramuscular route is unlikely to be effective in the treatment of redback (widow) spider bite. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Widow spider antivenoms, including redback spider antivenom, are often given by the intramuscular route. No studies have measured widow spider antivenom following intramuscular or intravenous antivenom. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Intramuscular redback spider antivenom is not detectable in serum for at least 3–5 h after treatment. Intravenous antivenom is detectable 30 min after intravenous infusion. Intramuscular antivenom may not be an effective administration route. PMID:18171334

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of cyanide in the hydrocyclone cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dhamo, N.

    1996-12-31

    A diluted electroplating cyanide rinse water has been used to test the use of the hydrocyclone cell (HCC) in batch recycle mode of operation for the simultaneous oxidation of cyanide during the electrodeposition of silver. The results obtained in this work with regard to the final products, current efficiency and the number of transferred electrons per CN{sup {minus}} helped to establish a probable reaction scheme. According to this, the process occurs mainly with one-electron transfer, through cyanate and cyanogen as intermediate species. Meanwhile, under conditions where the electrolyte circulates in an open bath and flows successively through the cathodic and the anodic compartments, as in the case of the HCC system, the cyanate could be produced by the direct oxidation through air and/or generated peroxide and CN could be lost as HCN (g).

  1. Doping potassium ions in silver cyanide complexes for green luminescence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Li, Lin; Yang, Yun-Zhi; Huang, Kun-Lin

    2014-03-14

    Doping potassium ions in silver cyanide complexes leads to two heterometallic silver-potassium cyanide complexes, namely, [Me4N]2[KAg3(CN)6] (1) with a typical NaCl-type framework containing distinct ligand-unsupported argentophilic interactions, and [Ag3(H2O)3][K(CN)2]3 (2) with an unprecedented 3-D (4,4,6,6)-connected framework formed by unique [Ag3(H2O)3] clusters connecting concave-convex [K(CN)2] layers. The two complexes exhibit green luminescence, and the relationships between their structures and photoluminescence, as well as the regulating effect on the luminescence by doping of potassium ions are well investigated via density functional theory analysis.

  2. Method comparison study for weak acid dissociation cyanide analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Joseph D; Thompson, Leslie; Clark, Patrick J; Beckman, Scott W

    2003-02-01

    Method comparison studies of two different methods for the analysis of weak acid dissociable (WAD) cyanide revealed analytical flaws and/or matrix interference problems with both procedures. EPA "draft" method 1677 using a Perstorp 3202 CN analyzer was compared to Standard Method 4500 CN I. It was discovered that the Perstorp analyzer produced more precise and more accurate results once appropriate and necessary procedural steps from the EPA draft method were modified. Comparison of these two methods, was based on "real world" samples collected from a mine-tailing solution. The mine-tailing solution contained high concentrations of cyanide and metals. Inconsistencies in method procedures were traced to sulfide interferences and high concentrations of WAD metals. Conclusions were based upon a large sample base collected from a mine site over a 90-day period.

  3. Cyanide effluent control by freeze/thaw processing.

    PubMed

    Meech, J A

    1985-06-01

    With many northern gold mining operations the disposal of waste water from the process presents some unique problems. The level of heavy metals and cyanide is generally too high to allow discharge to the environment. Total impoundment of the effluent in tailing dams or the use of expensive treatment plants is necessary to ensure protection of the environment. The costs and dangers of these treatment methods cannot always be justified in the remote locations of these mines and alternatives must be explored.In this paper, experiments have been performed to determine the partial freezing and melting characteristics of cyanide solutions as well as the rates of natural degradation. These studies could result in a novel method to protect our northern environments and ensure the continued operation of gold mines in these regions in a safe and economic manner. A multi-pond containment system has been proposed which may be feasible in certain circumstances.

  4. Recovery of Copper from Cyanidation Tailing by Flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tingsheng; Huang, Xiong; Yang, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium metabisulfite and copper sulfate as activators were investigated to lessen the depression effect of cyanide for deep-depressing chalcopyrite. The experimental results indicate that the copper recovery exceeded 94%, 84% and 97% at the dosage: sodium hypochlorite 3 mL/L, hydrogen peroxide 2 mL/L, sodium metabisulfite 2 × 10-3 mol/L and copper sulfate 1.67 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. According to the results of zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum, it is suggested that chalcopyrite was depressed because of the chemical adsorption of cyanide on the chalcopyrite surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and sodium metabisulfite can destroy Cu-C bond on the deep-depressing chalcopyrite surface by chemical reaction. Copper sulfate can activate deep-depressing chalcopyrite by copper ion adsorption.

  5. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  6. Catalytic Antibodies for Prophylaxis/Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-28

    resulting methe- moglobin binding cyanide, and * Administration of drugs that augment endogenous enzymatic detoxification. An extension of the last method...0.025 M1 h -1 for the reaction In buffer containing a small amount of acetonitrile. Compi ter simulation studies indicated that an overall rate...fragments given intravenously to rats over a 1 h peiod *ithout apparent toxicity (Pentel et al., 1988). Several enone/TSA combinations were

  7. The Millimeterwave Spectrum of n-BUTYL Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordu, Matthias H.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan; Nez, Marc Nu; Walters, Adam

    2011-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of n-butyl cyanide (C_4H_9CN) was measured between 75 and 130 GHz using a novel all-solid-state spectrometer with a total absorption path of 44 m. In the course of the analysis of the spectrum, about 3000 transitions were assigned and a full set of quartic centrifugal distortion parameters with some sextic and octic terms could be determined for each of the three known conformers (anti-anti, anti-gauche(methyl end) and gauche(CN end)-anti). The work was motivated by the fact that n-butyl cyanide is likely to be found in interstellar hot core environments. This is indicated by the discovery of n-propyl cyanide (C_3H_7CN), the next smaller alkyl cyanide, in the ISM. The increased accuracy of the model, which will be additionally extended by future laboratory measurements around 200 GHz, may now be employed for a prediction of the spectrum up to 300 GHz with a feasible uncertainty for astronomic line surveys. Furthermore, there are two less abundant conformers, cis-gauche-gauche and trans-gauche-gauche, which have not yet been detected in the rotational spectrum. Due to the increased sensitivity of the new spectrometer, it seems possible now for the first time to identify their sectroscopic fingerprints in the recorded data. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P.Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, and P. Schilke, Astronomy & Astrophysics 499, 215 (2009) R. K. Bohn, J. L. Pardus, J. August, T. Brupbacher, W. Jäger, J. Mol. Struct. 413-414, 293 (1997)

  8. An Infrared Spectroelectrochemical Study of Cyanide Adsorption on Palladium Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    NUMBER(s) Kevin Ashley, Frederick Weinert, Mahesh G. Samant, H. Seki and M. R. Philpott N00014-82-C-0583 ) PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...8217TROELECTROCHEMICAL STUD 01)’ OCY(ANID)E ADSORPTION ON PAL.LADIUMN SUJRFACES hy Kevin Ashley, Frederick WVeinert, Mahiesh C. Simint, Ff. Seki. NI. R...SPECTROELECTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF CYANIDE ADSORPTION ON PALLADIUM SURFACES Kevin Ashley* and Frederick Weinert Department of Chemistry San Jose State

  9. 50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S. THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-36 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. 36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CYANIDE TANKS, LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, SHOWING TANK SUPPORTS AND MASONRY FOUNDATIONS. THE SUPPORTING TIMBERS WERE ADDED DURING THE MILL STABILIZATION EFFORT IN THE 1990'S THE TANKS ARE HANGING OVER THE FOUNDATIONS TO GIVE ACCESS TO THE TRAP DOOR IN THEIR BOTTOMS FOR EMPTYING THE SANDS AFTER PROCESSING (SEE CA-290-37). SEE CA-290-50 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  11. The effects of cyanide on the growth and respiration of Enterobacter aerogenes in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Porter, N; Drozd, J W; Linton, J D

    1983-01-01

    The effect of cyanide on the physiology of lactate- and oxygen-limited Enterobacter aerogenes NCTC 10336 was studied in chemostat culture (D = 0.1 h-1). In the absence of cyanide, the molar growth yield from oxygen (YO2) under oxygen limitation was 60% of the carbon-limited value. A similar decrease in yield was observed in a lactate-limited culture (excess oxygen) which was continuously fed low concentrations of potassium cyanide. The cultures with the lower growth yields possessed respiratory systems less sensitive to inhibition by cyanide. This was particularly marked in cultures grown in the presence of cyanide. Increased cyanide resistance was associated with an increase in the concentration of a cytochrome oxidase tentatively identified as a d-type and the appearance of additional cytochromes tentatively identified as b-type.

  12. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  13. Stable Carbon and Nitrogen Isotope Ratios of Sodium and Potassium Cyanide as a Forensic Signature

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J.; Tomkins, Bruce; Janszen, Derek B.; Carman, April J.

    2012-01-03

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a future chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. A few of these samples displayed non-homogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of these, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples.

  14. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration of moxifloxacin in rabbits after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Varón, E; Bovaira, M J; Espuny, A; Escudero, E; Vancraeynest, D; Cárceles, C M

    2005-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics of moxifloxacin was studied following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral dose of 5 mg/kg to healthy white New Zealand rabbits (n = 6). Moxifloxacin concentrations were determined by HPLC assay with fluorescence detection. The moxifloxacin plasma concentration vs. time data after i.v. administration could best be described by a two-compartment open model. The disposition of i.m. and orally administered moxifloxacin was best described by a one-compartment model. The plasma moxifloxacin clearance (Cl) for the i.v route was (mean +/- SD) 0.80 +/- 0.02 L/h.kg. The steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) was 1.95 +/- 0.18 L/kg. The terminal half-life (t(1/2lambdaz)) was (mean +/- SD) 1.84 +/- 0.12, 2.09 +/- 0.05 and 2.15 +/- 0.07 h after i.v., i.m. and oral, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays of moxifloxacin against different strains of S. aureus were performed in order to compute pharmacodynamic surrogate markers. From these data, it is concluded that a 5 mg/kg dose moxifloxacin would be effective by i.m. and oral routes in rabbits against bacterial isolates with MIC < or = 0.06 microg/mL and possibly for MIC < or = 0.12 microg/mL, but in the latter case a higher dose would be required.

  15. Extreme subcutaneous, intramuscular and inhaled insulin resistance treated by pancreas transplantation alone.

    PubMed

    Sa, J R; Alvarenga, M A; Rangel, E B; Melaragno, C S; Gonzalez, A M; Linhares, M M; Salzedas, A; Carmona, A K; Tonetto-Fernandes, V; Gabbay, M A; Medina Pestana, J O; Dib, S A

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus with resistance to insulin administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly (DRIASM) is a rare syndrome and is usually treated with continuous intravenous insulin infusion. We present here two cases of DRIASM in 16 and 18 years female patients that were submitted to pancreas transplantation alone (PTA). Both were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes as young children and had labile glycemic control with recurrent episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. They had prolonged periods of hospitalization and complications related to their central venous access. Exocrine and endocrine drainages were in the bladder and systemic, respectively. Both presented immediate graft function. In patient 1, enteric conversion was necessary due to reflux pancreatitis. Patient 2 developed mild postoperative hyperglycemia in spite of having normal pancreas allograft biopsy and that was attributed to her immunosuppressive regimen. Patient 1 died 9 months after PTA from septic shock related to pneumonia. In 8 months of follow-up, Patient 2 presented optimal glycemic control without the use of antidiabetic agents. In conclusion, PTA may be an alternative treatment for DRIASM patients.

  16. Detection and identification of flunixin after multiple intravenous and intramuscular doses to horses.

    PubMed

    Sams, R A; Gerken, D F; Ashcraft, S M

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare various methods to determine flunixin in test samples collected periodically from horses after intramuscular (IM) and intravenous (IV) dosing at the maximum recommended dosage and to document detection times for this drug in test samples. Flunixin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug approved for use in horses, was administered to eight mares in five consecutive daily doses of 1.1 mg per kilogram of body weight by the IM or IV route. Flunixin was detected in urine samples collected at various times after drug administration by flunixin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods. Detection time was defined as the time period over which flunixin was detected and was dependent on the method used. The shortest detection times were 24 to 48 h and were observed when the TLC method was used. On the other hand, detection times were as long as 15 days when HPLC, GC-MS, and flunixin ELISA methods were used. The use of these more sensitive tests to monitor official samples collected from racehorses could result in positive tests for flunixin when it is exerting no detectable clinical effects because it produces clinical effects lasting only 24-36 h in horses.

  17. Evaluation of effectiveness, safety and reliability of intramuscular medetomidine-ketamine for captive great apes.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Bergadano, A

    2012-08-25

    Twenty great apes (six orangutans, eight chimpanzees and six gorillas) were anaesthetised prior to being transported for undergoing diagnostic and interventional procedures. Anaesthesia was induced with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine administered intramuscularly through a dart syringe. The onset of anaesthesia varied among apes: the mean (±sd) time from darting to recumbency was 12.13 (±1.9), 18.5 (±8.7) and 22.2 (±9.2) minutes in chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas, respectively. The depth of anaesthesia was sufficient to allow safe removal of the animals from the enclosure, intravenous catheter placement and manipulation; however, the anaesthetic effect was short-acting (20 (±7) minutes in orangutans, 16 (±14) in gorillas, and 10 (±4) minutes in chimpanzees, respectively) and isoflurane administration was necessary in the majority of the apes to prolong the duration of anaesthesia, especially when lengthier procedures were performed. The sedative effect of medetomidine was reversed at the end of each procedure with atipamezole, and recovery was smooth and uneventful for all animals.

  18. The Interaction of Intramuscular Ketorolac (Toradol) and Concussion in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Amanda O; Sherman, Sarah S; Bir, Cynthia A; Lemos, Stephen E

    2017-02-13

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of a single dose of Toradol and head impact in an in vivo rat model for sport-related concussion using a validated rat concussion model. Thirty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were placed into one of four groups: (1) Control, (2) Impact Only, (3) Toradol Only, (4) Impact and Toradol. Animals in the impact groups were subjected to a single head impact. Animals in the Toradol group received a single intramuscular injection of Toradol prior to impact. We examined magnetic resonance imaging, serum S100-B and cognitive function using a Morris Water Maze. In the control group, latency decreased significantly from day 0 (74.9 s) to 24 h (57.4 s) after anesthesia. There was no statistically significant difference between time zero and 24 h after impact in the Impact only or Impact and Toradol group. Our findings indicate that there were no differences between cognitive ability, MRI findings or S100B in rats that were administered a single dose of Toradol and subjected to a single impact and rats that were subjected to a single impact only. In both impact groups there were transient changes in cognitive ability as measured by the Morris Water Maze.

  19. Factors influencing time course of pain after depot oil intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Gideon; Fennell, Carolyn; Spasevska, Sasa; Turner, Leo; Conway, Ann J; Handelsman, David J

    2010-03-01

    Pain following depot intramuscular (IM) injection of oil vehicle-based drugs has been little studied. This study aimed to determine prospectively the prevalence, determinants, severity and functional consequences of pain during the week after IM injection of 1 000 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU) in a 4-mL castor oil vehicle. Androgen-deficient men receiving regular T replacement therapy at an academic andrology clinic were recruited to report pain scores using a coloured visual linear analogue scale at seven times over the first day and daily for a week after a deep IM gluteal injection. The time course and covariables influencing pain scores were analysed by mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA). Following 168 injections in 125 men, pain was reported by 80% of men, peaking immediately after injection, reaching only moderate severity, lasting 1-2 days and returning to baseline by day 4. The pain required little analgesic use and produced minimal interference in daily activities. The time course of pain scores was reproducible in the 43 men who underwent two consecutive injections. Pain was more severe in men who had an earlier painful injection, but less severe in older and more obese men. There were negligible differences in post-injection pain experience between experienced nurses administering injections. Deep IM gluteal injection of depot TU in 4-mL castor oil is well tolerated and post-injection pain is influenced by earlier painful injection experience, as well as age and obesity.

  20. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-05

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  1. Physiology and pathophysiology of respiratory arrest by cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Klimmek, R.

    1993-05-13

    Respiratory arrest, preceded by hyperventilation, is the primary cause of death in acute cyanide poisoning. Hyperventilation followed by apnea is also observed without intoxication. Hyperventilation and apnea in untoxicated subjects and animals are analyzed for the underlying physiological and biochemical changes and compared with those found during cyanide poisoning. The study reveals that the respiratory autoregulation appears to be the same under both conditions. Respiratory arrest is controlled by cerebral PCO2 and can occur without hypoxia or inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. It is postulated that respiratory arrest is a 'desperate act' thrust on the respiratory neurons by a critical exhaustion of their energy store (ATP) due to the rapid firing in the period of hyperventilation. The point of no return may be reached when anoxia and/or partial inhibition of cytochrome oxidase prevent the neurons from replenishing the ATP store. The formation of Fe3+ cyanide complexes. exemplified by the metHb producer DMAP, appears to give the best results with regard to the restoration of spontaneous respiration. The study of respiratory autoregulation may also be helpful in developing and understanding other therapeutic approaches.

  2. Calcium antagonists. A role in the management of cyanide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Maduh, E.U.; Porter, D.W.; Baskin, S.I.

    1993-12-31

    The physiological role of calcium was demonstrated by Ringer (1883) when he linked the omission of calcium (Ca++) from the bathing medium to the induction of cardiac arrest in the isolated frog heart. This observation established that Ca++ controlled muscle contraction but it was not until the autumn of 1963 that the specific pharmacological significance of this contribution was realised by Fleckenstein (1964), leading to the development of Ca++ antagonism as a concept in drug action (Fleckenstein 1977). Identifying the precise role of Ca++ ions in toxic cell injury and tissue death attributable to drug and chemical intoxication has lagged behind developments in Ca++ physiology and pharmacology and to date, much remains to be learned, although studies aimed at characterising the role of Ca++ in cytotoxic cell injury are receiving intense attention (Bondy Komulainen 1988; Maduh et al. l988a, l99Oa,b; Orrenius et al. 1989; Trump et al. 1989). On the other hand, the importance of cyanide as a poison has been known from antiquity (for references to earlier literature see Baskin Fricke 1992; Solomonson 1981). In experimental cyanide poisoning, recent studies have examined alterations in cell Ca++ and the influence of Ca++ antagonists in the management of this chemical toxicological emergency. These efforts have principally focused on the cellular Ca++ homeostasis system, its interrelationship with cellular components, and its susceptibility to cyanide action.

  3. Bacillus pumilus Cyanide Dihydratase Mutants with Higher Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Mary A.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Benedik, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide degrading nitrilases are noted for their potential to detoxify industrial wastewater contaminated with cyanide. However, such application would benefit from an improvement to characteristics such as their catalytic activity and stability. Following error-prone PCR for random mutagenesis, several cyanide dihydratase mutants from Bacillus pumilus were isolated based on improved catalysis. Four point mutations, K93R, D172N, A202T, and E327K were characterized and their effects on kinetics, thermostability and pH tolerance were studied. K93R and D172N increased the enzyme’s thermostability whereas E327K mutation had a less pronounced effect on stability. The D172N mutation also increased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate at pH 7.7 but lowered its kcat. However, the A202T mutation, located in the dimerization or the A surface, destabilized the protein and abolished its activity. No significant effect on activity at alkaline pH was observed for any of the purified mutants. These mutations help confirm the model of CynD and are discussed in the context of the protein–protein interfaces leading to the protein quaternary structure. PMID:27570524

  4. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  5. Increased intramuscular nerve branching and inhibition of programmed cell death of chick embryo motoneurons by immunoglobulins from patients with motoneuron disease.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sara; Texidó, Laura; Calderó, Jordi; Ciutat, Dolors; Piedrafita, Lídia; Casanovas, Anna; Blasi, Joan; Solsona, Carles; Povedano, Mònica; Rojas, Ricardo; Illa, Isabel; Caress, James; Prevette, David; Oppenheim, Ronald W; Milligan, Carol; Esquerda, Josep E

    2010-12-15

    Massive programmed cell death (PCD) of developing chick embryo motoneurons (MNs) occurs in a well defined temporal and spatial sequence between embryonic day (E) 6 and E10. We have found that, when administered in ovo, either circulating immunoglobulins G (IgGs) or cerebrospinal fluid from patients with MN disease can rescue a significant number of chick embryo MNs from normally occurring PCD. An increase of branching of intramuscular nerves was also observed that may account for the rescuing effects of pathologic IgGs. Proteomic analysis and further analysis by ELISA indicated that these effects may be mediated by the interaction of circulating human immunoglobulins with proteins of the semaphorin family.

  6. Test and Evaluation of a Pilot System for Ion Exchange Treatment of Cadmium Cyanide Wastes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    regenerated with sodium hydroxide , producing a concen- trated sodium cyanide solution. NAVAL CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY PORT HUENEME CALIFORNIA 93043-4328...regenerated with sodium hydroxide , producing a concentrated sodium cyanide solution. 14. SIuJECT TEMS I& NMBER OF PAGES Ion exchange, cadmium, cyanide...materials, the four month period for a total of 7 weeks. ability to reuse the treated water, and the elimination of metal hydroxide sludges. The columns

  7. Spectrophotometric Analysis of the Cyanide Metabolite 1-Aminothiazoline-6-Carboxylic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    besides the possibility of using ATCA as an improved REFERENCES marker of cyanide intoxication , if ATCA is found to play a Ballantyne, B. 1977. In...Open Literature 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Spectrophotometric analysis of the cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid 5b...See reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyanide metabolite, 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid, ATCA, 2-Iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, ITCA

  8. Detoxification of cyanide in wastewater from the manufacture of nitron fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanovich, V.A.; Svyataya, A.S.

    1985-07-01

    Methods for freeing industrial wastewaters from cyanide are discussed. The authors investigate the method of oxidizing cyanides with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of copper sulfate as applicable to real wastes from the manufacture of Nitron fibre. The reaction between cyanides and hydrogen peroxide takes place with formation of nontoxic cyanates. An equation is presented that illustrates the reaction. Optimum proportions of hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate have been found.

  9. Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor Development for Blood and Saliva

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0123 TITLE: Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor...ANNUAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 26 2012 25 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rapid Field-Usable Cyanide Sensor Development for Blood and...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cyanide is a deadly poison which may be ingested or inhaled

  10. The Analysis of Cyanide and Its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Literature 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Analysis of Cyanide and Its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples 5a. CONTRACT... cyanide , thiocyanate, 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), chemical warfare agent, exposure, toxicology, analytical methods 16. SECURITY...ISSN: 1040-8347 print / 1547-6510 online DOI: 10.1080/10408340903535315 The Analysis of Cyanide and its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples Brian A

  11. A double-blind controlled study of intramuscular zuclopenthixol acetate and liquid oral haloperidol in the treatment of schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, G; Safadi, G; Beauclair, L

    1994-12-01

    We carried out a 9-day double-blind clinical trial comparing intramuscular zuclopenthixol acetate with liquid oral haloperidol in the treatment of 40 newly admitted schizophrenic patients with acute exacerbation. A parallel-group design was used with stratification by sex. Zuclopenthixol acetate (50 to 150 mg) was given intramuscularly every 3 days, whereas liquid haloperidol (10 to 30 mg daily) was given orally three times a day, with supplementary doses of each medication given under double-blind conditions when needed for agitation. No other sedative drugs, including benzodiazepines, were administered. The mean daily dose was 18.9 mg for haloperidol as compared with a mean dose per 3 days of 117.6 mg for zuclopenthixol. The two treatments were found to be equally efficacious on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and Clinical Global Impression Scale. Both drugs induced similar extrapyramidal side effects. However, more tremors were associated with zuclopenthixol as was a tendency for tardive dyskinesia to be unmasked at the end of the injection interval. Sedation was higher with zuclopenthixol acetate than with haloperidol. Serum creatinine phosphokinase levels were not significantly increased after zuclopenthixol injections. The results of this trial suggest that zuclopenthixol acetate given intramuscularly every second to third day offers an alternative to conventional liquid oral haloperidol in the management of acute schizophrenia.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Preemptive Analgesic Effect of Injected Intramuscular Diclofenac and Ketorolac after Third Molar Surgery- A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Deepthi; Kulkarni, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Analgesia pre-emptively administered effect-ively aid in management of pain. Pre-emptive analgesia is anti-nociceptive treatment which prevents altered central sensitization of afferent inputs. Aim To compare and evaluate the pre-emptive analgesic efficacy of preoperatively administered ketorolac and diclofenac for controlling postoperative pain after third molar surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 50 patients with symmetrically impacted third molars were divided into two groups, 30mg intramuscular injection of ketorolac and 75 mg diclofenac sodium were used in the respective groups. The visual analogue scale was used to assess post operative pain for three days and the patients were also evaluated for the number of rescue analgesia. Results The data was statistically evaluated with paired t- test. The maximum time taken for pain perception for Group A Ketoralac was 5.48 hrs and Group B Diclofenac sodium was 4.9 hrs and p=0.235 which was not significant. The mean number of tablets taken by the patients in the first three post operative days was 3.24 in Group A i.e., Ketorolac and 4.04 in Group B i.e., Diclofenac sodium. The values were compared using the paired t test. The p value = 0.004, which was significant. Conclusion Ketoralac showed better pre-emptive analgesic effect for post-operative pain management after third molar extraction. The immediate post-operative pain free period provided by both ketorolac and diclofenac by intramuscular route was same. PMID:27504398

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Oral Dexamethasone and Intramuscular Dexamethasone in Mandibular Third Molar Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Kenjale, Prachi; Mony, Deepthi; Khatri, Isha; Kumar, Pratiksha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Surgical removal of impacted third molar is the most commonly performed dento-alveolar procedure and is associated with post-operative pain, swelling and trismus. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of dexamethasone administered orally with that of dexamethasone administered as an intra-masseteric injection in surgical removal of mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods Sixty patients with impacted mandibular third molars were selected to undergo surgical removal of mandibular third molars. They were divided into three groups of twenty each, viz., Control Group, Group taking Oral dexamethasone and Group taking Intra-masseteric dexamethasone. Evaluation was done over a period of seven days postoperatively to study the effects of the drug in terms of swelling, trismus and pain. Results ANOVA test was done and comparisons were made. It was found that there was a statistically significant difference with respect to the group taking oral dexamethasone in terms of resolution of trismus. It was also found that there was no statistical significance with respect to reduction in swelling in either of the groups. Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded that the oral route is superior compared to the intramuscular route when administering dexamethasone in surgical removal of mandibular third molars, with respect to drug dosage, bio-availability and resolution of trismus. PMID:26675081

  14. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  15. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide

    DOE PAGES

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Dohyun; ...

    2015-04-25

    In this study, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([11C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [11C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of 12C-cyanide (12CN¯). The [11C]CN¯ is produced from [11C]CO2, which is generated by the 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [11C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to 12CN¯ mass.more » It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33 µA for 1 and 10 min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [11C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [11C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.« less

  16. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    PubMed

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose.

  17. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas...

  18. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  19. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  20. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  1. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  2. 16 CFR 1000.2 - Laws administered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Laws administered. 1000.2 Section 1000.2 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.2 Laws administered. The Commission administers five acts: (a) The Consumer Product Safety Act...

  3. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Clifford N.; Minard, Robert D.

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers - heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black - could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types

  4. Hydrogen cyanide polymers, comets and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Clifford N; Minard, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide polymers--heterogeneous solids ranging in colour from yellow to orange to brown to black--could be major components of the dark matter observed on many bodies of the outer solar system including asteroids, moons, planets and, especially, comets. The presence on cometary nuclei of frozen volatiles such as methane, ammonia and water subjected to high energy sources makes them attractive sites for the ready formation and condensed-phase polymerization of hydrogen cyanide. This could account for the dark crust observed on Comet Halley in 1986 by the Vega and Giotto missions. Dust emanating from its nucleus would arise partly from HCN polymers as suggested by the Giotto detection of free hydrogen cyanide, CN radicals, solid particles consisting only of H, C and N, or only of H, C, N, O, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. Further evidence for cometary HCN polymers could be expected from in situ analysis of the ejected material from Comet Tempel 1 after collision with the impactor probe from the two-stage Deep Impact mission on July 4, 2005. Even more revealing will be actual samples of dust collected from the coma of Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust mission, due to return to Earth in January 2006 for analyses which we have predicted will detect these polymers and related compounds. In situ results have already shown that nitriles and polymers of hydrogen cyanide are probable components of the cometary dust that struck the Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer of the Stardust spacecraft as it approached Comet Wild 2 on January 2, 2004. Preliminary evidence (January 2005) obtained by the Huygens probe of the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its satellites indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in the refractory organic cores of the aerosols that give rise to the orange haze high in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Our continuing investigations suggest that HCN polymers are basically of two types

  5. Liver and kidney lesions and associated enzyme changes induced in rabbits by chronic cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Okolie, N P; Osagie, A U

    1999-07-01

    The effect of prolonged chronic cyanide exposure on liver and kidney integrity, as well as some associated enzyme and metabolite changes, were investigated in New Zealand white rabbits (initial mean weight 1.52 kg) using a combination of colorimetric, spectrophotometric, enzymatic, gravimetric and histological procedures. Two groups of rabbits were fed for 40 weeks on either pure growers' mash or growers' mash containing 702 ppm inorganic cyanide. Results obtained indicate that the cyanide-fed rabbits had significantly decreased liver activities of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and sorbitol dehydrogenase relative to controls (P<0.05). On the other hand, there were significant increases (P<0.05) in the serum activities of these enzymes in the cyanide-treated group. Kidney alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly decreased (P<0.05), while serum urea and creatinine were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the cyanide group relative to controls. The cyanide treatment led to significant increases in both tissue and serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase. In addition, liver and kidney rhodanese activities were significantly raised in the cyanide-fed group. There were marked degenerative changes in the liver and kidney sections from the cyanide-treated rabbits. These results suggest that chronic cyanide exposure may be deleterious to liver and kidney functions.

  6. Activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in rice seedlings during cyanide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Fu-Zhong

    2012-07-30

    A study was conducted to investigate activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in plants during cyanide metabolism. Young rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX 45) were grown in the nutrient solutions containing KNO(3) or NH(4)Cl and treated with free cyanide (KCN). Cyanide in solutions and in plant materials was analyzed to estimate the phyto-assimilation potential. Activities of NR and GS in different parts of rice seedlings were assayed in vivo. Seedlings grown on NH(4)(+) showed significantly higher relative growth rate than those on NO(3)(-) (p<0.05) in the presence of exogenous cyanide. The metabolic rates of cyanide by seedlings were all positively correlated to the concentrations supplied. A negligible difference was observed between the two treatments with nitrate and ammonium (p>0.05). Enzymatic assays showed that cyanide (≥0.97mg CN L(-1)) impaired NR activity significantly in both roots and shoots (p<0.05). The effect of cyanide on GS activity in roots was more evident at 1.93mg CN L(-1), suggesting that NR activity was more susceptible to change from cyanide application than GS activity. The results observed here suggest that the exogenous cyanide, which to a certain level has a beneficial role in plant nutrition.

  7. Subsurface fate and transport of cyanide species at a manufactured-gas plant site

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Nakles, D.V.

    1999-10-01

    Cyanide is present at manufactured-gas plant (MGP) sites in oxide-box residuals, which were often managed on-site as fill during active operations. Cyanide can leach from these materials, causing groundwater contamination. Speciation, fate, and transport of cyanide in a sand-gravel aquifer underlying an MGP site in the upper Midwest region of the US were studied through characterization, monitoring, and modeling of a plume of cyanide-contaminated groundwater emanating from the site. Results indicate that cyanide in the groundwater is primarily in the form of iron-cyanide complexes (>98%), that these complexes are stable under the conditions of the aquifer, and that they are transported as nonreactive solutes in the sand-gravel aquifer material. Weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, which represents a minute fraction of total cyanide in the site groundwater, may undergo chemical-biological degradation in the sand-gravel aquifer. It seems that dilution may be the only natural attenuation mechanism for iron-cyanide complexes in sand-gravel aquifers at MGP sites.

  8. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: an environmental perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species are subject to attenuation mechanisms that lead to dispersal to the atmosphere, chemical transformation to other carbon and nitrogen species, or sequestration as cyanometallic precipitates or adsorbed species on mineral surfaces. Dispersal to the atmosphere and chemical transformation amount to permanent elimination of cyanide, whereas sequestration amounts to storage of cyanide in locations from which it can potentially be remobilized by infiltrating waters if conditions change. From an environmental perspective, the most significant cyanide releases from gold leach operations involve catastrophic spills of process solutions or leakage of effluent to the unsaturated or saturated zones. These release pathways are unfavorable for two important cyanide attenuation mechanisms that tend to occur naturally: dispersal of free cyanide to the atmosphere and sunlight-catalyzed dissociation of strong cyanometallic complexes, which produces free cyanide that can then disperse to the atmosphere. The widest margins of environmental safety will be achieved where mineral processing operations are designed so that time for offgassing, aeration, and sunlight exposure are maximized in the event that cyanide-bearing solutions are released inadvertently.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of tobramycin following intravenous, intramuscular, and intra-articular administration in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Newman, J C; Prange, T; Jennings, S; Barlow, B M; Davis, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the pharmacokinetics of tobramycin in the horse following intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and intra-articular (IA) administration. Six mares received 4 mg/kg tobramycin IV, IM, and IV with concurrent IA administration (IV+IA) in a randomized 3-way crossover design. A washout period of at least 7 days was allotted between experiments. After IV administration, the volume of distribution, clearance, and half-life were 0.18 ± 0.04 L/kg, 1.18 ± 0.32 mL·kg/min, and 4.61 ± 1.10 h, respectively. Concurrent IA administration could not be demonstrated to influence IV pharmacokinetics. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) after IM administration was 18.24 ± 9.23 μg/mL at 1.0 h (range 1.0-2.0 h), with a mean bioavailability of 81.22 ± 44.05%. Intramuscular administration was well tolerated, despite the high volume of drug administered (50 mL per 500 kg horse). Trough concentrations at 24 h were below 2 μg/mL in all horses after all routes of administration. Specifically, trough concentrations at 24 h were 0.04 ± 0.01 μg/mL for the IV route, 0.04 ± 0.02 μg/mL for the IV/IA route, and 0.02 ± 0.02 for the IM route. An additional six mares received IA administration of 240 mg tobramycin. Synovial fluid concentrations were 3056.47 ± 1310.89 μg/mL at 30 min after administration, and they persisted for up to 48 h with concentrations of 14.80 ± 7.47 μg/mL. Tobramycin IA resulted in a mild chemical synovitis as evidenced by an increase in synovial fluid cell count and total protein, but appeared to be safe for administration. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that tobramycin would be effective against bacteria with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL for IV administration and 1 μg/mL for IM administration based on Cmax :MIC of 10.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin in pigs and broilers following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral single-dose applications.

    PubMed

    Ding, H Z; Yang, G X; Huang, X H; Chen, Z L; Zeng, Z L

    2008-06-01

    Pharmacokinetics of difloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in pigs and broilers after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), or oral (p.o.) administration at a single dose of five (pigs) or 10 mg/kg (broilers). Plasma concentration profiles were analyzed by a compartmental pharmacokinetic method. Following i.v., i.m. and p.o. doses, the elimination half-lives (t(1/2beta)) were 17.14 +/- 4.14, 25.79 +/- 8.10, 16.67 +/- 4.04 (pigs) and 6.11 +/- 1.50, 5.64 +/- 0.74, 8.20 +/- 3.12 h (broilers), respectively. After single i.m. and p.o. administration, difloxacin was rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 1.77 +/- 0.66, 2.29 +/- 0.85 (pigs) and 2.51 +/- 0.36, 1.00 +/- 0.21 microg/mL (broilers) attained at t(max) of 1.29 +/- 0.26, 1.41 +/- 0.88 (pigs) and 0.86 +/- 0.4, 4.34 +/- 2.40 h (broilers), respectively. Bioavailabilities (F) were (95.3 +/- 28.9)% and (105.7 +/- 37.1)% (pigs) and (77.0 +/- 11.8)% and (54.2 +/- 12.6)% (broilers) after i.m. and p.o. doses, respectively. Apparent distribution volumes(V(d(area))) of 4.91 +/- 1.88 and 3.10 +/- 0.67 L/kg and total body clearances(Cl(B)) of 0.20 +/- 0.06 and 0.37 +/- 0.10 L/kg/h were determined in pigs and broilers, respectively. Areas under the curve (AUC), the half-lives of both absorption and distribution(t(1/2ka), t(1/2alpha)) were also determined. Based on the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters determined, multiple dosage regimens were recommended as: a dosage of 5 mg/kg given intramuscularly every 24 h in pigs, or administered orally every 24 h at the dosage of 10 mg/kg in broilers, can maintain effective plasma concentrations with bacteria infections, in which MIC(90) are <0.25 microg/mL and <0.1 microg/mL respectively.

  11. Determination of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the genes expression involved in phyto-degradation of cyanide and ferri-cyanide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with different species of plants (rice, maize, soybean and willow) exposed to ferri-cyanide to investigate the half-saturation constant (K M ) and the maximal metabolic capacity (v max ) involved in phyto-assimilation. Three varieties for each testing species were collected from different origins. Measured concentrations show that the uptake rates responded biphasically to ferri-cyanide treatments by showing increases linearly at low and almost constant at high concentrations from all treatments, indicating that phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using non-linear regression, the highest v max was by rice, followed by willows. The lowest v max was found for soybean. All plants, except maize (DY26) and rice (XJ12), had a similar K M value, suggesting the same enzyme was active in phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of enzymes involved in degradation of cyanides showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different cyanides exposure. The expression of CAS and ST genes responded positively to KCN exposure, suggesting that β-CAS and ST pathways were two possible pathways for cyanide detoxification in rice. The transcript level of NIT and ASPNASE genes also showed a remarkable up-regulation to KCN, implying the contribution to the pool of amino acid aspartate, which is an end product of CN metabolism. Up-regulation of GS genes suggests that acquisition of ammonium released from cyanide degradation may be an additional nitrogen source for plant nutrition. Results also revealed that the expressions of these genes, except for GS, were relatively constant during iron cyanide exposure, suggesting that they are likely metabolized by plants through a non-defined pathway rather than the β-CAS pathway.

  12. Phosphorylation of CREB and mechanical hyperalgesia is reversed by blockade of the cAMP pathway in a time-dependent manner after repeated intramuscular acid injections.

    PubMed

    Hoeger-Bement, Marie K; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2003-07-02

    Spinal activation of the cAMP pathway produces mechanical hyperalgesia, sensitizes nociceptive spinal neurons, and phosphorylates the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which initiates gene transcription. This study examined the role of the cAMP pathway in a model of chronic muscle pain by assessing associated behavioral changes and phosphorylation of CREB. Bilateral mechanical hyperalgesia of the paw was induced by administering two injections of acidic saline, 5 d apart, into the gastrocnemius muscle of male Sprague Dawley rats. Interestingly, the increases in immunoreactivity for CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn occur 24 hr, but not 1 week, after the second injection of acidic saline compared with pH 7.2 intramuscular injections. Spinal blockade of adenylate cyclase prevents the expected increase in p-CREB that occurs after intramuscular acid injection. The reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia by adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A inhibitors spinally follows a similar pattern with reversal at 24 hr, but not 1 week, compared with the vehicle controls. The p-CREB immunoreactivity in the superficial dorsal horn correlates with the mechanical withdrawal threshold such that increases in p-CREB are associated with decreases in threshold. Therefore, activation of the cAMP pathway in the spinal cord phosphorylates CREB and produces mechanical hyperalgesia associated with intramuscular acid injections. The mechanical hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of CREB depend on early activation of the cAMP pathway during the first 24 hr but are independent of the cAMP pathway by 1 week after intramuscular injection of acid.

  13. Chemical factors affecting the interpretation of blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Fumio; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of methemoglobinemia caused by fire gases on blood cyanide concentrations in fire victims. Twenty-two fire victims with postmortem intervals of 8-48 h were involved. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death (C(0)) were estimated using the formula: C(0)=Ce(0.046 t) (C=blood cyanide concentration detected at autopsy, 0.046=first-order rate constant of cyanide disappearing from blood in corpses, and t=postmortem interval). Total (free and combined with cyanide) methemoglobin (MetHb) content was used to estimate the maximum capacity of MetHb for combining cyanide. Blood cyanide concentrations at the time of death were very high (5.32-6.47 mg/l) in five victims. Three showed high saturation (54.7-63.0%) of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) and elevated total MetHb contents (2.6-5.0%). MetHb at these levels is capable of scavenging up to 8.6-11.4 mg/l of blood cyanide. Thus, blood cyanide might have been completely combined with MetHb at the time of their death. In the remaining two victims, CO-Hb saturation was not high (30.9 and 37.9%) and no free MetHb was detected. As a result they may have exhibited severe toxic effects of cyanide at the time of their death. Our results indicate that MetHb contents and CO-Hb saturation should be determined to evaluate the toxic effects of cyanide in fire victims.

  14. Degradation of soil cyanide by single and mixed cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Nwokoro, Ogbonnaya; Dibua, Marie Esther Uju

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study whether certain bacteria could be used for cyanide degradation in soil. The bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis were selected based on their good growth in a minimal medium containing 0.8 mg mL-1 potassium cyanide (KCN). In this study we tested their ability to reduce cyanide levels in a medium containing 1.5 mg mL-1 of KCN. Although both microorganisms reduced cyanide levels, Pseudomonas stutzeri was the more effective test organism. Later on, the selected cultures were grown, diluted and their various cell concentrations were used individually and in combination to test their ability of cyanide degradation in soil samples collected around a cassava processing mill. Bacillus subtilis caused degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil immediately with an inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) to 0.072 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) implying a 66.9 % reduction. Pseudomonas stutzeri cell concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) decreased soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil initially to 0.061 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) (72 % reduction). The mixed culture of the two bacteria produced the best degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil sample with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) initially to 0.025 mg g-1 soil with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) after 10 days incubation resulting in an 88.5 % degradation of soil cyanide. The analysed bacteria displayed high cyanide degradation potential and may be useful for efficient decontamination of cyanide contaminated sites.

  15. Citrus peel extract attenuates acute cyanide poisoning-induced seizures and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The primary aimed of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of methanolic extract of citrus peel (MECP) on acute cyanide (KCN) poisoning-induced seizures and oxidative stress in rats. The intraperitoneal LD50 value of KCN (6.3 mg/Kg bwt), based on 24 hrs mortality, was significantly increased by 9, 52 or 113% by oral administration of MECP (500 mg/Kg bwt) pre-administered for 1, 2 and 3 days, respectively, in rats in a time-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injection of the sublethal dose of KCN (3 mg/Kg bwt) into rats increased, 24 hrs later, lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), glutamate levels and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex. KCN also decreased brain glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in these animals. Pre-treatment of rats with MECP inhibited KCN-induced increases in LPO, NO, and glutamate levels and AChE activity as well as decreases in brain GSH level and SOD and CAT activities. In addition, KCN significantly decreased norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin levels in different brain regions which were resolved by MECP. From the present results, it can be concluded that the neuroprotective effects of MECP against KCN-induced seizures and oxidative stress may be due to the inhibition of oxidative stress overproduction and maintenance of antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  16. Altered biodistribution of Ga-67 by intramuscular gold salts

    SciTech Connect

    Moult, R.G.; Bekerman, C. )

    1989-11-01

    The authors observed a deviation from the normal scintigraphic pattern of Ga-67 citrate biodistribution. An 8-year-old black girl with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, who had been treated with intramuscular injections of gold salts, had a Ga-67 study as part of her workup. The study demonstrated no hepatic uptake, but showed elevated skeletal and renal activity. This characteristic biodistribution of Ga-67 may be due to inhibition of lysosomal enzymes by gold and/or to accumulation of gold in lysosomes. To study these possibilities, the authors reviewed the mechanisms of Ga-67 localization and gold metabolism. Alteration of the Ga-67 citrate scintigraphic pattern due to earlier treatment with gold salts has not been reported previously.

  17. Flexible intramuscular micro tube electrode combining electrical and chemical interface.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Chang; Liu, Jing-Quan; Du, Jing-Cheng; Kang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Chuan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chun-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly developed micromachining technology, various kinds of sophisticated microelectrodes integrated with micro fluidic channels are design and fabricated for not only electrophysiological recording and stimulation, but also chemical drug delivery. As many efforts have been devoted to develop rigid microprobes for neural research of brain, few researchers concentrate on fabrication of flexible microelectrodes for intramuscular electrophysiology and chemical interfacing. Since crude wire electrodes still prevail in functional electrical stimulation (FES) and electromyography (EMG) recording of muscle, here we introduce a flexible micro tube electrode combining electrical and chemical pathway. The proposed micro tube electrode is manufactured based on polymer capillary, which provide circumferential electrode site contacting with electro-active tissue and is easy to manufactured with low cost.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of intramuscular ketamine in young ostriches premedicated with romifidine.

    PubMed

    De Lucas, J J; Rodríguez, C; Marín, M; González, F; Ballesteros, C; San Andrés, M I

    2007-02-01

    Ketamine is a short-acting dissociative anaesthetic for chemical restraint and surgical anaesthesia in domestic and non-domestic animals. The present study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg) after intramuscular (i.m.) administration to young ostriches premedicated with romifidine. Ketamine was rapidly absorbed after i.m. administration. Maximal ketamine concentration (C(max)) of 2.93 +/- 0.61 microg/ml was reached at 12.5 +/- 2.50 min and thereafter ketamine concentrations decreased rapidly. The elimination half-life (t(1/2 z)) obtained was 62.37 +/- 17.37 min and mean residence time (MRT) was 77.33 +/- 19.12 min. The area under the curve (AUC) was 114.19 +/- 15.76 microg x min/ml.

  19. Severe serum sickness reaction to oral and intramuscular penicillin.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G

    2006-05-01

    Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery

  20. Putative Regulatory Factors Associated with Intramuscular Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Aline S. M.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Koltes, James E.; Fritz-Waters, Eric R.; Lanna, Dante P. D.; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mourão, Gerson B.; Oliveira, Priscila S. N.; Reecy, James M.; Coutinho, Luiz L.

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is related to insulin resistance, which is an important prediction factor for disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. At the same time, it is an economically important trait, which influences the sensorial and nutritional value of meat. The deposition of IMF is influenced by many factors such as sex, age, nutrition, and genetics. In this study Nellore steers (Bos taurus indicus subspecies) were used to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IMF content. This was accomplished by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEG), biological pathways and putative regulatory factors. Animals included in this study had extreme genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for IMF. RNA-seq analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and co-expression network methods, such as partial correlation coefficient with information theory (PCIT), regulatory impact factor (RIF) and phenotypic impact factor (PIF) were utilized to better understand intramuscular adipogenesis. A total of 16,101 genes were analyzed in both groups (high (H) and low (L) GEBV) and 77 DEG (FDR 10%) were identified between the two groups. Pathway Studio software identified 13 significantly over-represented pathways, functional classes and small molecule signaling pathways within the DEG list. PCIT analyses identified genes with a difference in the number of gene-gene correlations between H and L group and detected putative regulatory factors involved in IMF content. Candidate genes identified by PCIT include: ANKRD26, HOXC5 and PPAPDC2. RIF and PIF analyses identified several candidate genes: GLI2 and IGF2 (RIF1), MPC1 and UBL5 (RIF2) and a host of small RNAs, including miR-1281 (PIF). These findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fat content and energy balance in muscle and provide important information for the production of healthier beef for human consumption. PMID:26042666

  1. Structural factors governing azide and cyanide binding to mammalian metmyoglobins.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, A; Cutruzzolá, F; Allocatelli, C T; Brunori, M; Smerdon, S J; Wilkinson, A J; Dou, Y; Keenan, D; Ikeda-Saito, M; Brantley, R E

    1994-05-13

    The structural factors governing azide and cyanide binding have been examined by measuring the effects of 46 mutations at key topological positions in the distal pocket in sperm whale, pig, and human myoglobin. Replacement of His64 (E7) with smaller amino acids results in dramatic increases in the association rate constant for azide binding primarily due to relief of steric hindrance imposed by the imidazole side chain. Gln64 and His64 (native) metmyoglobins have abnormally low rate constants for azide dissociation (0.1-0.3 s-1) due to direct hydrogen bonding between the N epsilon atoms of these residues and the bound ligand. Mutations at positions 67(E10) and 68(E11) produce large but complex changes in the azide binding parameters as a result of both steric and electrostatic effects, which alter water coordination, influence the rate of anion movement into the distal pocket, and affect the stability of the Fe-N3 bond. Replacement of Phe46 with Leu or Val and substitution of Arg(Lys)45 with Glu and Ser cause disorder in the position of the distal histidine side chain and result in 4-700-fold increases in both k'N3 and kN3 but produce little change in overall azide affinity. All of these results suggest strongly that azide enters the distal pocket of native myoglobin through a polar channel that is regulated by a His64 "gate." In contrast to azide binding, the rate constant for cyanide association decreases 4-300-fold when the distal histidine is replaced with apolar residues. His64, Gln64, and distal pocket water molecules appear to facilitate deprotonation of HCN, which is the major kinetic barrier to cyanide binding at neutral pH.

  2. Long-term suppression of experimental arthritis following intramuscular administration of a pseudotyped AAV2/1-TNFR:Fc Vector.

    PubMed

    Sandalon, Ziv; Bruckheimer, Elizabeth M; Lustig, Kurt H; Burstein, Haim

    2007-02-01

    We previously reported that administration of an adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector encoding a rat tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-immunoglobulin Fc (TNFR:Fc) fusion gene to rats with streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis resulted in suppression of joint inflammation and cartilage and bone destruction, as well as expression of joint proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we used an alternate rat model of arthritis to compare the serum levels and duration of TNFR:Fc protein expression following intramuscular administration of pseudotyped AAV-TNFR:Fc vectors based on serotypes 1, 2, and 5. All three pseudotyped AAV-TNFR:Fc vectors led to sustained expression of serum TNFR:Fc protein for at least one year. Serum TNFR:Fc protein levels in rats administered intramuscularly with AAV2/1-TNFR:Fc vector were up to 100- and 10-fold higher than in rats administered the AAV2-TNFR:Fc or AAV2/5-TNFR:Fc vectors, respectively. A single intramuscular administration of AAV2/1-TNFR:Fc vector at vector doses ranging from 10(10) to 10(12) DNase-resistant particles (DRP) per animal, resulted in complete and long-term suppression of recurrent joint inflammation for at least 150 days. Our results establish a proof of concept for administration of an AAV2/1-TNFR:Fc vector to the muscle to achieve long-term, sustained and therapeutically relevant levels of TNFR:Fc protein to treat chronic systemic inflammatory joint diseases.

  3. Study of Potential Prophylactic and Antidotal Use of Scavenging Agents in Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-15

    oxaloacetic cyanohydrins. Biochem. J. 31, 617-618, 1937. 9 13. Cittadini, A., Caprino , L. and Terronova, T. Effect of pyruvate on the acute cyanide...Boston, Mass. p. 173, 1973. 3. Cittadini, A., Caprino , L. and Ternanova, T. Effect of pyruvate on the acute cyanide poisoning in mice. Experientia

  4. Simultaneous degradation of cyanide and phenol in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Mishra, Ram Sushil; Jadhav, Shilpa V; Vaidya, A N; Chakrabarti, T

    2011-07-01

    Coal coking, precious metals mining and nitrile polymer industries generate over several billion liters of cyanide-containing waste annually. Economic and environmental considerations make biological technologies attractive for treatment of wastes containing high organic content, in which the microbial cultures can remove concentrations of organics and cyanide simultaneously. For cyanide and phenol bearing waste treatment, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor has been developed, which successfully removed free cyanide 98% (with feed concentration of 20 mg 1(-1)) in presence of phenol. The effect of cyanide on phenol degradation was studied with varying concentrations of phenol as well as cyanide under anaerobic conditions. This study revealed that the methanogenic degradation of phenol can occur in the presence of cyanide concentration 30-38 mg 1(-1). Higher cyanide concentration inhibited the phenol degradation rate. The inhibition constant Ki was found to be 38 mg 1(-1) with phenol removal rate of 9.09 mg 1(-1.) x h.

  5. Cyanide and the human brain: perspectives from a model of food (cassava) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tshala-Katumbay, Desire D; Ngombe, Nadege N; Okitundu, Daniel; David, Larry; Westaway, Shawn K; Boivin, Michael J; Mumba, Ngoyi D; Banea, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Threats by fundamentalist leaders to use chemical weapons have resulted in renewed interest in cyanide toxicity. Relevant insights may be gained from studies on cyanide mass intoxication in populations relying on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food. In these populations, sublethal concentrations (up to 80 μmol/l) of cyanide in the blood are commonplace and lead to signs of acute toxicity. Long-term toxicity signs include a distinct and irreversible spastic paralysis, known as konzo, and cognition deficits, mainly in sequential processing (visual-spatial analysis) domains. Toxic culprits include cyanide (mitochondrial toxicant), thiocyanate (AMPA-receptor chaotropic cyanide metabolite), cyanate (protein-carbamoylating cyanide metabolite), and 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (seizure inducer). Factors of susceptibility include younger age, female gender, protein-deficient diet, and, possibly, the gut functional metagenome. The existence of uniquely exposed and neurologically affected populations offers invaluable research opportunities to develop a comprehensive understanding of cyanide toxicity and test or validate point-of-care diagnostic tools and treatment options to be included in preparedness kits in response to cyanide-related threats.

  6. Aqueous phase sensing of cyanide ions using a hydrolytically stable metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Avishek; Joarder, Biplab; Mallick, Abhik; Samanta, Partha; Desai, Aamod V; Basu, Sudipta; Ghosh, Sujit K

    2017-01-19

    A pure aqueous phase recognition and corresponding detoxification of highly toxic cyanide ions has been achieved by a fluorescent metal-organic framework (MOF). The cyanide detoxification has been shown to be effective even in in vitro studies and the MOF could be recycled to show the same efficiency of detoxification.

  7. Effect of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Pu-Hua; Chen, Liang

    2007-01-01

    Plants' uptake and metabolism of cyanide in response to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with potassium cyanide for 2-3 d. Ten different temperatures were used, ranging from 11 degrees C to 32 degrees C. Cyanide in water, plant tissue, and air was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The results revealed that significant amounts of the applied cyanide were removed from the aqueous solutions in the presence of plants. Small amounts of free cyanide were detected in plant materials in all treatments, but there was no clear trend that showed an increase or decrease in the accumulation in plant material with temperature. The highest cyanide metabolism rate for weeping willows was found at 32 degrees C with a value of 2.78 mg CN/(kg x d), whereas the lowest value was 1.20 mg CN/(kg x d) at ll degrees C. The temperature coefficient, Q10, which is the ratio of metabolism rates at a 10 degrees C difference, was determined for weeping willows to be 1.46. In conclusion, changes in temperature have a substantial influence on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by plants, but cyanide accumulation does not increase with temperature.

  8. Development of biochemical and transformation cyanide antidotes. Final report, 13 January 1993-12 January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Isom, G.E.

    1996-02-01

    Work for this contract involved both cyanide (Part 1) and sulfur mustard vesicants (Part 2). Part (1) To develop an in vitro screen for cyanide antidotes, compounds were tested empirically for ability to block the biochemical effects of cyanide in isolated rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells. Effects in vitro were then compared to ability to block cyanide toxicity in mice. Of the five biochemical actions of cyanide tested, blockade of catalase activity was the one most correlated with in vivo protection. Overall, significant correlations were found between catalase protection in vitro and cyanide antidotal effects in vivo. Data involving 40 different chemical compounds showed that approximately 75% of the time, the in vitro assay was predictive of effectiveness in vivo. The results indicate that the ability of a compound to protect catalase in cultured PC 12 cells against cyanide is a useful screen for cyanide antidotal action in mice. Part (2) To develop an in vitro screen for antivesicant compounds. Mechanisms by which sulfur mustards cause cell death were studied in differentiated PC 12 cells. Both the `Apotag` method and electron microscopy indicated that apoptosis occurred after sulfur mustard exposure. A necrotic mechanism was also evident at higher concentrations (>10-4M). It may be possible to identify sulfur mustard antidotes by their ability to block each of these mechanisms in differentiated PC12 cells.

  9. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    2004-01-01

    Highly toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN) is used by the international mining community to extract gold and other precious metals through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores (Korte et al. 2000). The process to concentrate gold using cyanide was developed in Scotland in 1887 and was used almost immediately in the Witwatersrand gold fields of the Republic of South Africa. Heap leaching with cyanide was proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in 1969 as a means of extracting gold from low-grade ores. The gold industry adopted the technique in the 1970s, soon making heap leaching the dominant technology in gold extraction (Da Rosa and Lyon 1997). The heap leach and milling processes, which involve dewatering of gold-bearing ores, spraying of dilute cyanide solutions on extremely large heaps of ores containing low concentrations of gold, or the milling of ores with the use of cyanide and subsequent recovery of the gold-cyanide complex, have created a number of serious environmental problems affecting wildlife and water management. In this account, we review the history of cyanide use in gold mining with emphasis on heap leach gold mining, cyanide hazards to plants and animals, water management issues associated with gold mining, and proposed mitigation and research needs.

  10. Development of a site-specific marine water quality standard for cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Arredondo, L.A.; Brix, K.V.; Cardwell, R.D.; Marsden, A.

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to develop a site-specific marine standard for cyanide. The generic cyanide standard of 1 {micro}g/L is ``driven`` by toxicity data for eastern rock crab (Cancer irroratus) zoeae. The reported LC50 for C. irroratus is 4.9 {micro}g/L cyanide and is six times more sensitive that any other marine species tested. In order to develop a site-specific standard for Washington state, cyanide toxicity tests were conducted using the first stage zoeae of Cancer magister and Cancer oregonensis, two Cancer resident to Puget Sound, in accordance with standard ASTM test methods. Testing with C. magister and C. oregonensis resulted in Species Mean Acute Values (SMAVS) of 68 and 131 {micro}g/L cyanide based on measured test concentrations. This is considerably higher than that reported for C. irroratus, is more consistent with cyanide toxicity values for other species tested, and results in a water quality criterion of 9.85 {micro}g/L cyanide with inclusion of these values in the data set. This paper presents the test methods used and the potential effects the test results may have on the marine water quality criterion for cyanide.

  11. Salicylic Acid induces cyanide-resistant respiration in tobacco cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Kapulnik, Y; Yalpani, N; Raskin, I

    1992-12-01

    Cyanide-resistant, alternative respiration in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi-nc was analyzed in liquid suspension cultures using O(2) uptake and calorimetric measurements. In young cultures (4-8 d after transfer), cyanide inhibited O(2) uptake by up to 40% as compared to controls. Application of 20 mum salicylic acid (SA) to young cells increased cyanide-resistant O(2) uptake within 2 h. Development of KCN resistance did not affect total O(2) uptake, but was accompanied by a 60% increase in the rate of heat evolution from cells as measured by calorimetry. This stimulation of heat evolution by SA was not significantly affected by 1 mm cyanide, but was reduced by 10 mm salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), an inhibitor of cyanide-resistant respiration. Treatment of SA-induced or uninduced cells with a combination of cyanide and SHAM blocked most of the O(2) consumption and heat evolution. Fifty percent of the applied SA was taken up within 10 min, with most of the intracellular SA metabolized in 2 h. 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids also induced cyanide-resistant respiration. These data indicate that in tobacco cell-suspension culture, SA induces the activity and the capacity of cyanide-resistant respiration without affecting the capacity of the cytochrome c respiration pathway.

  12. Valence-differential spectroscopy of Co-Fe cyanide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritomo, Y.; Nakada, F.; Kurihara, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Electrochromism is extensively investigated for practical application of display and memory devices. To develop the material, reliable information on the optical and electronic properties of the solid film is indispensable. Here, we propose valence-differential spectroscopy that can selectively extract the spectral components related to the oxidized/reduced metal site. We applied the spectroscopy to Co2+-Fe2+δ and Co2+δ-Fe2+ cyanide films with finely control of averaged valence (δ) of the transition metal by external electric pulses. The spectroscopy revealed transition energy E, width Γ, and oscillator strength f of the spectral components related to the transition metal.

  13. Cyanide-induced death of cells in plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, L A; Vorobyov, A A; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Nesov, A V; Shestak, A A; Samuilov, V D

    2007-05-01

    Destruction of guard cell nuclei in epidermis isolated from leaves of pea, maize, sunflower, and haricot bean, as well as destruction of cell nuclei in leaves of the aquatic plants waterweed and eelgrass were induced by cyanide. Destruction of nuclei was strengthened by illumination, prevented by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and an electron acceptor N,N,N ,N -tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, and removed by quinacrine. Photosynthetic O2 evolution by the leaf slices of a C3 plant (pea), or a C4 plant (maize) was inhibited by CN- inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and was renewed by subsequent addition of the electron acceptor p-benzoquinone.

  14. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER CYANIDE PROCESSING WORKS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE REMAINS OF THREE TEN FOOT DIAMETER SETTLING TANKS ARE AT CENTER. THE SCATTER IN THE CENTER FOREGROUND IS THE REMAINS OF A LARGE RECTANGULAR HOLDING TANK POSSIBLY A SETTLING TANK. THIS AREA WAS MOST LIKELY CONSTRUCTED LATER IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY AFTER MINING HAD CEASED AND ONLY TAILINGS WERE BEING RECLAIMED. AN EXACT DATE CANNOT BE DETERMINED HOWEVER THESE WORKS ARE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT THAN THE ORIGINAL LAYOUT. THE SANDY AREA THAT OCCUPIES THE FOREGROUND AND THE CENTER ARE TAILINGS. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J Christian

    2017-01-01

    A Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper’s hawk.

  17. An open-label, multi-dose efficacy and safety study of intramuscular tetrodotoxin in patients with severe cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Neil A; Fisher, Kim M; Lapointe, Bernard; du Souich, Patrick; Chary, Srini; Moulin, Dwight; Sellers, Ed; Ngoc, Anh Ho

    2007-08-01

    Cancer pain is a prevalent and serious public health issue, and more effective treatments are needed. This study evaluates the analgesic activity of tetrodotoxin, a highly selective sodium channel blocker, in cancer pain. A Phase IIa, open-label, multicenter, dose-escalation study of intramuscular tetrodotoxin was conducted in patients with severe, unrelieved cancer pain. The study design called for six ascending dose levels of intramuscular tetrodotoxin, administered over a four-day treatment period in hospitalized patients, with six patients to be enrolled within each successive dose level. Twenty-four patients underwent 31 courses of treatment at doses ranging from 15 to 90 microg daily, administered in divided doses, over four days. Most patients described transient perioral tingling or other mild sensory phenomena within about an hour of each treatment. Nausea and other toxicities were generally mild, but two patients experienced a serious adverse event, truncal and gait ataxia, that resolved over days. Seventeen of 31 treatments resulted in clinically meaningful reductions in pain intensity, and relief of pain persisted for up to two weeks or longer. Two patients had opioids held due to narcosis concurrent with relief of pain. Somatic, visceral, or neuropathic pain could all respond, but it was not possible to predict which patients were more likely to have an analgesic effect. Tetrodotoxin was overall safe. It effectively relieved severe, treatment-resistant cancer pain in the majority of patients and often for prolonged periods after treatment. It may have a novel mechanism of analgesic effect. Further study is warranted.

  18. Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

    2012-09-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 μg cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 μg cyanide/g and 200 μg amygdalin/g.

  19. Aerobic degradation of phenolics and aromatic hydrocarbons in presence of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy; Murty Bhallamudi, S

    2012-10-01

    Present study focused on the degradation of a mixture of phenol, cresol, xylenol, quinoline, and indole along with cyanide, commonly found in coke oven wastewater, using aerobic mixed culture. It was found that xylenol and indole were difficult to degrade, when the concentrations were above 250 mg/L. It was observed that free cyanide (2.5mg/L and above) has the potency to holdup the oxidation of organics (250 mg/L) until the cyanide concentration drops to a minimum level. Final TOC in the mixed pollutant system was less than 4 mg/L, indicating the absence of other organic byproducts. Experimental results highlight effect of free cyanide on removal of organics and the combined toxic influence of cyanide and organics on the microbes treating coking wastewater. The proposed mathematical model was able to predict the biodegradation of mixed pollutant system satisfactorily.

  20. Bioconversion of cyanide and acetonitrile by a municipal-sewage-derived anaerobic consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, N.J.; Rivard, C.J.; Mohagheghi, A.; Philippidis, G.

    1995-12-31

    In this study, an anaerobic consortium was examined for its ability to adapt to and degrade the representative organonitriles, cyanide and acetonitrile. Adaptation to cyanide and acetonitrile was achieved by adding increasing levels of cyanide and acetonitrile to the anaerobic consortium, followed by extensive incubation over a 90-day period. The anaerobic consortium adapted most rapidly to the lower concentrations of each substrate and resulted in reductions of 85% and 83% of the cyanide and acetonitrile, respectively, at the 50 mg/L addition level. Increasing the concentration of both cyanide and acetonitrile resulted in reduced bioconversion. Two continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were set up to examine the potential for continuous bioconversion of organonitriles. The anaerobic consortium was adapted to continuous infusion of acetonitrile at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L{center_dot}day in phosphate buffer.

  1. Photobiomodulation partially rescues visual cortical neurons from cyanide-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, H L; Whelan, H T; Eells, J T; Meng, H; Buchmann, E; Lerch-Gaggl, A; Wong-Riley, M

    2006-05-12

    Near-infrared light via light-emitting diode treatment has documented therapeutic effects on neurons functionally inactivated by tetrodotoxin or methanol intoxication. Light-emitting diode pretreatment also reduced potassium cyanide-induced cell death, but the mode of death via the apoptotic or necrotic pathway was unclear. The current study tested our hypothesis that light-emitting diode rescues neurons from apoptotic cell death. Primary neuronal cultures from postnatal rat visual cortex were pretreated with light-emitting diode for 10 min at a total energy density of 30 J/cm2 before exposing to potassium cyanide for 28 h. With 100 or 300 microM potassium cyanide, neurons died mainly via the apoptotic pathway, as confirmed by electron microscopy, Hoechst 33258, single-stranded DNA, Bax, and active caspase-3. In the presence of caspase inhibitor I, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 300microM potassium cyanide was significantly decreased. Light-emitting diode pretreatment reduced apoptosis from 36% to 17.9% (100 microM potassium cyanide) and from 58.9% to 39.6% (300 microM potassium cyanide), representing a 50.3% and 32.8% reduction, respectively. Light-emitting diode pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 elicited by potassium cyanide. It also reversed the potassium cyanide-induced increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 to control levels. Moreover, light-emitting diode decreased the intensity of 5-(and -6) chloromethy-2', 7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester, a marker of reactive oxygen species, in neurons exposed to 300 microM potassium cyanide. These results indicate that light-emitting diode pretreatment partially protects neurons against cyanide-induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, most likely by decreasing reactive oxygen species production, down-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins and activating anti-apoptotic proteins, as well as increasing energy metabolism in neurons as reported previously.

  2. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2).

  3. Biodegradation of cyanide by acetonitrile-induced cells of Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M.

    PubMed

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Ibrahim, Abdul Latif; Cass, Anthony E G

    2013-01-01

    A Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M isolate was shown to detoxify cyanide successfully, suggesting the presence of an intrinsic property in the bacterium which required no prior cyanide exposure for induction of this property. However, in order to promote growth, Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M was fully acclimatized to cyanide after 7 successive subcultures in 0.1 mM KCN for 30 days. To further shorten the lag phase and simultaneously increase the tolerance towards higher cyanide concentrations, the bacterium was induced with various nitrile compounds sharing a similar degradatory pathway to cyanide. Acetonitrile emerged as the most favored inducer and the induced cells were able to degrade 0.1 mM KCN almost completely within 18 h. With the addition of subsequent aliquots of 0.1 mM KCN a shorter period for complete removal of cyanide was required, which proved to be advantageous economically. Both resting cells and crude enzyme of Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M were able to biodegrade cyanide to ammonia and formate without the formation of formamide, implying the identification of a simple hydrolytic cyanide degradation pathway involving the enzyme cyanidase. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Since the recent advancement in the application of biological methods in treating cyanide-bearing wastewater has been promising, the discovery of this new bacterium will add value by diversifying the existing microbial populations capable of cyanide detoxification.

  4. Packed cage rotating biological contactor system for treatment of cyanide wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chuamkaew, Chollada

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of the packed cage rotating biological contactor (RBC) system with synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing 800 mg/l BOD(5) with various cyanide residue concentrations and hydraulic loading time. The results showed that cyanide had a negative effect to both the system's efficiency and bio-film quality. An increase in cyanide concentration led to a decrease in bio-film growth and the consequent reduction in the removal efficiency of the system. Also, the effluent suspended solids (SS) of the system was increased with increasing cyanide concentrations because the bio-film detached from the media due to the toxicity of the cyanide residue. The system showed the highest COD, BOD(5), TKN and cyanide removal efficiencies of 94.0 +/- 1.6%, 94.8 +/- 0.9%, 59.1 +/- 2.8% and 95.5 +/- 0.6%, respectively, with SWW containing 5 mg/l cyanide under HRT of 8 days, while they were only 88.8 +/- 0.7%, 89.5 +/- 0.5%, 40.3 +/- 1.1% and 93.60 +/- 0.09%, respectively, with SWW containing 40 mg/l cyanide. In addition, the effluent ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were increased with increases in cyanide concentration or loading. However, the system with SWW containing the highest cyanide concentration of 40 mg/l showed almost constant COD and BOD(5) removal efficiencies of 89% and 90%, even when the system was controlled under the lowest HRT of 8 h.

  5. Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in the victims of house fire.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Moriya, Fumio; Nakanishi, Akinori

    2003-03-01

    Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue is frequently observed in autopsy cases of house fire victims. The meaning of this finding has not yet been fully discussed. We examined 69 autopsy cases of house fire victims and investigated several factors contributing to intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Victims comprised 45 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 1 to 95 years old. Sixty-four cases (93%) involved severely charred bodies, while the remaining five bodies displayed slight burns. Factors studied were age, sex, posture of the body at the scene of the fire, degree of burn injury and carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels in blood. CO-Hb level proved to be the only factor relevant to intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Of 69 autopsy cases, 23 (33%) demonstrated intramuscular bleeding of the tongue (13 cases of slight bleeding, ten cases of severe bleeding). Low concentrations of CO-Hb (intramuscular bleeding. Of 46 cases without intramuscular bleeding, ten (22%) displayed low concentrations of CO-Hb. These results may indicate that severe burn injuries occurring before inhaling air containing high levels of carbon monoxide represent the cause of intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in fire victims. The burned regions of the body in the early stage of the fire process were unclear due to severe charring in most victims. However, asphyxiation due to neck compression is known to often induce intramuscular bleeding of the tongue. Lack of skin elasticity following burns, particularly in the neck, might act in a similar manner to asphyxial neck compression. In conclusion, intramuscular bleeding of the tongue in fire victims may occur as a vital reaction to burns.

  6. Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

    2014-12-10

    A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN(-) anion over other anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), HSO4(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-) by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN(-) in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN(-) is down to 8.8×10(-8)M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9×10(-6)M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN(-) test kit to detect CN(-) in pure water for "in-the-field" measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

  7. Washout kinetics of inhaled hydrogen cyanide in breath.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Nord, Pierre; Johanson, Gunnar

    2008-06-10

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) intoxication causes or contributes significantly to many of the fatalities among fire victims. To enable fast treatment of HCN poisoning, a more rapid diagnostic method than currently available is required. One possibility would be measurement in exhaled air. However, as HCN is highly water soluble, it may be absorbed during inhalation and reabsorbed during exhalation. If this, so-called, washin-washout effect is substantial it may interfere with the diagnosis, as a major part of breath HCN may originate from the respiratory tract, due to recent exposure, and not from systemic exposure. The aim of this study was to estimate the importance of the washin-washout effect of HCN. The time-course of cyanide in exhaled air was measured with an electrochemical detector in 10 volunteers during and after a 1 min x 10 ppm exposure to HCN. The experiment revealed an average half-life of 16s (range 10-24s) in breath. Extrapolating the results to higher exposures suggests that the contribution from washin-washout from the airways will be negligible even at fatal exposures. The results support the use of breath HCN as a potential indicator of systemic intoxication.

  8. Konzo and continuing cyanide intoxication from cassava in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cliff, J; Muquingue, H; Nhassico, D; Nzwalo, H; Bradbury, J H

    2011-03-01

    In Mozambique, epidemics of the cassava-associated paralytic disease, konzo, have been reported in association with drought or war: over 1100 cases in 1981, over 600 cases in 1992-1993, and over 100 cases in 2005. Smaller epidemics and sporadic cases have also been reported. Large epidemics have occurred at times of agricultural crisis, during the cassava harvest, when the population has been dependent on a diet of insufficiently processed bitter cassava. Konzo mostly affects women of child-bearing age and children over 2 years of age. When measured, serum or urinary thiocyanate concentrations, indicative of cyanide poisoning, have been high in konzo patients during epidemics and in succeeding years. Monitoring of urinary thiocyanate concentrations in schoolchildren in konzo areas has shown persistently high concentrations at the time of the cassava harvest. Inorganic sulphate concentrations have been low during and soon after epidemics. Programmes to prevent konzo have focused on distributing less toxic varieties of cassava and disseminating new processing methods, such as grating and the flour wetting method. Attention should be given to the wider question of agricultural development and food security in the regions of Africa where dependence on bitter cassava results in chronic cyanide intoxication and persistent and emerging konzo.

  9. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN).

  10. Cyanide detection using a benzimidazole derivative in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Hu, Jing-Han; Chen, Juan-Juan; Qi, Jing

    2014-12-01

    A novel cyanide selective fluorescent chemosensor S1 based on benzimidazole group and naphthalene group as the fluorescence signal group had been designed and synthesized. The receptor could instantly detect CN- anion over other anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, H2PO4-, HSO4-, SCN- and ClO4- by fluorescence spectroscopy changes in aqueous solution (H2O/DMSO, 8:2, v/v) with specific selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescence color of the solution containing sensor S1 induced a remarkable color change from pale blue to mazarine only after the addition of CN- in aqueous solution while other anions did not cause obvious color change. Moreover, further study demonstrates the detection limit on fluorescence response of the sensor to CN- is down to 8.8 × 10-8 M, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of 1.9 × 10-6 M. Test strips based on S1 were fabricated, which could act as a convenient and efficient CN- test kit to detect CN- in pure water for “in-the-field” measurement. Thus, the probe should be potential applications in an aqueous environment for the monitoring of cyanide.

  11. Treatment of cyanide containing wastewater using cavitation based approach.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Rajashree H; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2014-07-01

    Industrial wastewater streams containing high concentrations of biorefractory materials like cyanides should ideally be treated at source. In the present work, degradation of potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) as a model pollutant has been investigated using cavitational reactors with possible intensification studies using different approaches. Effect of different operating parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH on the extent of degradation using acoustic cavitation has been investigated. For the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, flow characteristics of cavitating device (venturi) have been established initially followed by the effect of inlet pressure and pH on the extent of degradation. Under the optimized set of operating parameters, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (ratio of K4Fe(CN)6:H2O2 varied from 1:1 to 1:30 mol basis) as process intensifying approach has been investigated. The present work has conclusively established that under the set of optimized operating parameters, cavitation can be effectively used for degradation of potassium ferrocyanide. The comparative study of hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation suggested that hydrodynamic cavitation is more energy efficient and gives higher degradation as compared to acoustic cavitation for equivalent power/energy dissipation. The present work is the first one to report comparison of cavitation based treatment schemes for degradation of cyanide containing wastewaters.

  12. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Pharmacokinetics and penetration into synovial fluid of systemical and electroporation administered sinomenine to rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huan; Yan, Miao; Li, Huan-De; Jiang, Pei; Deng, Yang; Cai, Hua-Lin

    2015-06-01

    Sinomenine is an anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drug derived from the Sinomenium acutum. The major site of RA treatment is within the synovial compartment. However, the pharmacokinetic and penetration into synovial fluid (SF) of sinomenine have not been reported. In our study, the pharmacokinetics and penetration into SF of systemic and electroporation administered sinomenine were investigated by microdialysis incorporated with HPLC-MS/MS. Sinomenine went into plasma and SF more rapidly with higher peak concentration (Cmax ) by intramuscular injection compared with oral administration. The area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-∞ ) of intramuscularly injected sinomenine was 1,403,294.75 ± 125,534.567 ng min/mL in plasma and 456,116.37 ± 62,648.36 ng min/mL in SF, which were equivalent with those for an oral dose. These results indicated that equal amounts of sinomenine could penetrate into SF by the two administration routes, and the permeation ratios were approximately 1:3. The AUC0-∞ and Cmax were lower with electroporation compared with systemic administration, but the CSF /CPlasma (concentration of sinomenine in SF vs that of plasma) at 90, 120, 150, 180, 240 and 480 min by electroporation was 3- to 10-fold higher relative to systemic administration. This illustrated that sinomenine can be targeted into joints by electroporation, and electroporation is a potential technique for sinomenine's transdermal delivery.

  14. Biotic and abiotic processes contribute to successful anaerobic degradation of cyanide by UASB reactor biomass treating brewery waste water.

    PubMed

    Novak, Domen; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Pirc, Elizabeta Tratar; Jerman, Vesna; Insam, Heribert; Logar, Romana Marinšek; Stres, Blaž

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to the general aerobic detoxification of industrial effluents containing cyanide, anaerobic cyanide degradation is not well understood, including the microbial communities involved. To address this knowledge gap, this study measured anaerobic cyanide degradation and the rearrangements in bacterial and archaeal microbial communities in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor biomass treating brewery waste water using bio-methane potential assays, molecular profiling, sequencing and microarray approaches. Successful biogas formation and cyanide removal without inhibition were observed at cyanide concentrations up to 5 mg l(-1). At 8.5 mg l(-1) cyanide, there was a 22 day lag phase in microbial activity, but subsequent methane production rates were equivalent to when 5 mg l(-1) was used. The higher cumulative methane production in cyanide-amended samples indicated that part of the biogas was derived from cyanide degradation. Anaerobic degradation of cyanide using autoclaved UASB biomass proceeded at a rate more than two times lower than when UASB biomass was not autoclaved, indicating that anaerobic cyanide degradation was in fact a combination of simultaneous abiotic and biotic processes. Phylogenetic analyses of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes for the first time identified and linked the bacterial phylum Firmicutes and the archaeal genus Methanosarcina sp. as important microbial groups involved in cyanide degradation. Methanogenic activity of unadapted granulated biomass was detected at higher cyanide concentrations than reported previously for the unadapted suspended biomass, making the aggregated structure and predominantly hydrogenotrophic nature of methanogenic community important features in cyanide degradation. The combination of brewery waste water and cyanide substrate was thus shown to be of high interest for industrial level anaerobic cyanide degradation.

  15. Chemistry, toxicology, and human health risk of cyanide compounds in soils at former manufactured gas plant sites.

    PubMed

    Shifrin, N S; Beck, B D; Gauthier, T D; Chapnick, S D; Goodman, G

    1996-04-01

    Cyanide-containing wastes are commonly found in soils at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, also known as town gas sites. The complex forms of cyanide are responsible for the blue-stained soils and rocks found at these sites. Most concentrations of cyanide at MGP sites are below 2000 ppm, although concentrations greater than 20,000 ppm have been observed. An understanding of the chemistry of the MGP cyanide-containing compounds, their fate, and transport as well as their toxicology is critical to accurately assessing potential human health risks from these compounds. In this paper, the authors demonstrate that the most prevalent types of cyanide compounds found at former MGP sites are the relatively nontoxic iron-complexed forms, such as ferric ferrocyanide, rather than the highly toxic free cyanide forms. Moreover, the chemical conditions at most former MGP sites limit the extent to which free cyanide may be released into air and water from complex cyanides. Using a screening analysis, the authors estimate potential risks from a multiroute exposure to complex and free cyanides in soil, air, and groundwater at former MGP sites and demonstrate that such risks are likely to be insignificant. Unfortunately, the lack of readily available measurement techniques to characterize cyanides in soil can result in erroneous conclusions about potential risks from cyanide compounds in soils at former MGP sites, particularly if health-based soil criteria for free cyanide (e.g., the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection criterion for free cyanide is 100 ppm (MA. DEP, 1995)) are applied. The authors recommend development of routine methods for field sampling and laboratory testing techniques to demonstrate that cyanides in soil at former MGP sites are predominated by iron-complexed species and that free cyanide is less than levels of concern.

  16. Relaxation processes in administered-rate pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.; Arnold, Michael R.

    2000-10-01

    We show how the theory of anelasticity unifies the observed dynamics and proposed models of administered-rate products. This theory yields a straightforward approach to rate model construction that we illustrate by simulating the observed relaxation dynamics of two administered rate products. We also demonstrate how the use of this formalism leads to a natural definition of market friction.

  17. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration of danofloxacin after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration to rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Varón, E; Marin, P; Escudero, E; Vancraeynest, D; Cárceles, C M

    2007-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin was studied following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of 6 mg/kg to healthy rabbits. Danofloxacin concentration were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography assay with fluorescence detection. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay of danofloxacin against 30 strains of Staphylococcus aureus from several European countries was performed in order to compute pharmacodynamic surrogate markers. The danofloxacin plasma concentration versus time data after i.v. administration could best be described by a two-compartment open model. The disposition of i.m. and subcutaneously administered danofloxacin was best described by a one-compartment model. The terminal half-life for i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was 4.88, 6.70 and 8.20 h, respectively. Clearance value after i.v. dosing was 0.76 L/kg.h. After i.m. administration, the absolute bioavailability was mean (+/-SD) 102.34 +/- 5.17% and the Cmax was 1.87 mg/L. After s.c. administration, the absolute bioavailability was mean (+/-SD) 96.44 +/- 5.95% and the Cmax was 1.79 mg/L. Danofloxacin shows a favourable pharmacokinetics profile in rabbits reflected by parameters such as a long half-life and a high bioavailability. However, in consideration of the low AUC/MIC indices obtained, its use by i.m. and s.c. route against the S. aureus strains assayed in this study cannot be recommended given the risk for selection of first mutant subpopulations.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of a single bolus intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dose of disodium fosfomycin in horses.

    PubMed

    Zozaya, D H; Gutiérrez, O L; Ocampo, C L; Sumano, L H

    2008-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters of fosfomycin were determined in horses after the administration of disodium fosfomycin at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg intravenously (IV), intramuscularly (IM) and subcutaneously (SC) each. Serum concentration at time zero (C(S0)) was 112.21 +/- 1.27 microg/mL and 201.43 +/- 1.56 microg/mL for each dose level. Bioavailability after the SC administration was 84 and 86% for the 10 mg/kg and the 20 mg/kg dose respectively. Considering the documented minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC(90)) range of sensitive bacteria to fosfomycin, the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) obtained (56.14 +/- 2.26 microg/mL with 10 mg/kg SC and 72.14 +/- 3.04 microg/mL with 20 mg/kg SC) and that fosfomycin is considered a time-dependant antimicrobial, it can be concluded that clinically effective plasma concentrations might be obtained for up to 10 h administering 20 mg/kg SC. An additional predictor of efficacy for this latter dose and route, and considering a 12 h dosing interval, could be area under the curve AUC(0-12)/MIC(90) ratio which in this case was calculated as 996 for the 10 mg/kg dose and 1260 for the 20 mg/kg dose if dealing with sensitive bacteria. If a more resistant strain is considered, the AUC(0-12)/MIC(90) ratio was calculated as 15 for the 10 mg/kg dose and 19 for the 20 mg/kg dose.

  19. Intramuscular administration of AAV overcomes pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Greig, Jenny A; Calcedo, Roberto; Grant, Rebecca L; Peng, Hui; Medina-Jaszek, C Angelica; Ahonkhai, Omua; Qin, Qiuyue; Roy, Soumitra; Tretiakova, Anna P; Wilson, James M

    2016-12-07

    The seroprevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector capsids may preclude a percentage of the population from receiving gene therapy, particularly following systemic vector administration. We hypothesized that the use of intramuscular (IM) administration of AAV vectors might circumvent this issue. IM injections were used to administer AAV8 vectors expressing either secreted or non-secreted transgenes into mice and the influence of NAbs supplied by pre-administration of pooled human IgG on transgene expression was evaluated. We then studied the impact of naturally occurring pre-existing AAV8 NAbs on expression of a secreted transgene following IM vector delivery in rhesus macaques. Finally, we evaluated the ability to readminister AAV vectors via IM injections in rhesus macaques. In mice, the presence of AAV8 NAbs had no effect on gene expression in the injected skeletal muscle. However, liver transgene expression following hepatic distribution of the vector was ablated. In rhesus macaques, naturally occurring pre-existing AAV8 NAb titers of ⩽1:160 had no effect on expression levels of a secreted transgene after IM delivery of the vector. Additionally, readministration of AAV vectors was possible by IM injection into the previously injected muscle groups, with no effect on transgene expression by the original vector. Therefore, the presence of pre-existing NAbs in the human population should not preclude subjects from receiving gene therapy by IM administration of the vector so long as sufficient levels of secreted transgene expression can be produced without the involvement of liver.

  20. Intramuscular AAV delivery of NT-3 alters synaptic transmission to motoneurons in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Kitay, Brandon; Boyce, Vanessa S.; Kaspar, Brian; Pearse, Damien; Gage, Fred H.; Mendell, Lorne M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether elevating levels of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) would alter connections made by muscle spindle afferent fibers on motoneurons. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes AAV1, AAV2 and AAV5, selected for their tropism profile, were engineered with the NT-3 gene and administered to the medial gastrocnemius muscle in adult rats. ELISA studies in muscle, DRG and spinal cord revealed that NT-3 concentration in all tissues peaked about 3 months after a single viral injection; after 6 months NT-3 concentration returned to normal values. Intracellular recording in triceps surae motoneurons revealed complex electrophysiological changes. Moderate elevation in cord NT-3 resulted in diminished segmental excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude, perhaps as a result of the observed decrease in motoneuron input resistance. With further elevation in NT-3 expression, the decline in EPSP amplitude was reversed indicating that NT-3 at higher concentration could increase EPSP amplitude. No correlation was observed between EPSP amplitude and NT-3 concentration in the DRG. Treatment with control viruses could elevate NT-3 levels minimally resulting in measurable electrophysiological effects, perhaps as a result of inflammation associated with injection. EPSPs elicited by stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus underwent a consistent decline in amplitude independent of NT-3 level. These novel correlations between modified NT-3 expression and single-cell electrophysiological parameters indicate that intramuscular administration of AAV(NT-3) can exert long lasting effects on synaptic transmission to motoneurons. This approach to neurotrophin delivery could be useful in modifying spinal function after injury. PMID:20849530

  1. Intramuscular challenge of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with two Norwegian field strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, Børge N; Furevik, Anette; Gauthier, David; Egenberg, Marie; Paulsen, Erik D; Brudeseth, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing occurrence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum infections in farmed salmonids in Norway. The current study describes two field isolates of F. psychrophilum collected from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings and post smolts in Norway. Virulence of the two isolates was tested in vivo by intramuscular (IM) and/or intraperitoneal (IP) challenge of disease free, un-vaccinated rainbow trout. The isolates were concluded to be highly virulent compared to a reference isolate as they yielded high mortality after IM challenge even at low challenge doses. The more virulent of the two isolates was further used to establish a challenge model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines against infections with F. psychrophilum. Three groups were included in the vaccination-challenge study; a vaccinated group given a 6 antigen (Ag) component vaccine containing F. psychrophilum antigens (6 Ag/F.psy(+)), a control vaccinated group administered a similar 5 antigen component vaccine without F. psychrophilum antigens (5 Ag/F.psy(-)), and a non-injected negative control group. Results from the IM challenge demonstrated that 1) our challenge model is able to discriminate between protected and unprotected experimental groups and 2) that the vaccine induced protection is specific against F. psychrophilum as mortality in the 5 Ag/F.psy(-) group was equally high as in the negative control, while the 6 Ag/F.psy(+) induced a high level of protection (RPS60 = 86.7%). The present study is one of the first to describe protection against F. psychrophilum infections induced by a multicomponent injection vaccine.

  2. LH release and ovulatory response after intramuscular, intravenous, and intrauterine administration of β-nerve growth factor of seminal plasma origin in female llamas.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Adams, G P; Berland, M A; Ratto, M H

    2015-10-15

    that ovulated, nor did CL diameter, CL vascularization, or plasma progesterone concentration profiles. We conclude that β-NGF from llama seminal plasma origin elicits a preovulatory LH surge, followed by ovulation and the development of a functional CL, regardless of the route of administration. However, the dose required to elicit pituitary and ovarian responses is higher when administered by intrauterine infusion than by intramuscular or intravenous routes.

  3. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Intramuscular Piroxicam and Tramadol for Post-operative Pain in Patients Undergoing Caesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, Tejashree; Bengalorkar, Girish M; Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-caesarean section pain can be both stressful and unfavourable. Effective and rapid reduction of pain facilitates early ambulation and care of the new born. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids are used for pain relief but they are associated with adverse effects both in the mother and the child. Aim To evaluate efficacy and safety of piroxicam and tramadol in post-caesarean section pain. Materials and Methods Primigravidae who underwent elective caesarean section received either piroxicam 20mg or tramadol 100mg intra-muscularly, following recovery from anaesthesia. Severity of pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and side-effects to study drugs were noted. Rescue analgesic butorphanol 2mg was administered if VAS score was more than four. Patient’s satisfaction score was assessed at 12 hours post-operatively. Results Mean age in piroxicam and tramadol groups were 23.32±3.43 and 22.03±2.0 years respectively. Significant reduction in pain was observed at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours in both groups (p<0.001). Pain relief was significant at 2, 4 and 8 hours in piroxicam group compared to tramadol. Twenty-one and 12 patients in tramadol and piroxicam groups received rescue analgesic respectively. Sedation and nausea was significantly higher in tramadol group (p<0.001), 46.66% of patients graded their satisfaction score as good and 15% as excellent in piroxicam group. Conclusion Intra-muscular piroxicam was effective in reducing post-caesarean section pain for 24 hours with minimal side-effects compared to tramadol. PMID:28050391

  4. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. January 1980-March 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains 119 citations with title list and subject index.)

  5. Cyanide toxicity and exposure risk. January 1970-November 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-November 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the biological hazards associated with exposure to cyanide. Cyanide poisoning and antidotes, combustion products containing cyanide, clinical toxicology, environmental effects, exposure hazards, occupational safety, and other topics relating to the health hazards of cyanide compounds are discussed. Methods of analysis and monitoring are also considered. (Contains 126 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Temperature Dependence of Henry’s Law Constant for Hydrogen Cyanide. Generation of Trace Standard Gaseous Hydrogen Cyanide

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary data for the temperature dependent solubility of HCN in water do not presently exist for low concentrations of HCN at environmentally or physiologically relevant temperatures. Henry’s Law constant (KH, M/atm) for the vapor-solution equilibrium of HCN was determined in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (adjusted to pH 9.00±0.03 at 296.6±0.1 K) from 287–311 K. Stable gas phase concentrations of HCN are generated by established techniques, via air equilibration of aqueous cyanide partitioned by a microporous membrane. The effluent gaseous HCN, in equilibrium with the constant temperature aqueous cyanide, was collected in dilute NaOH and determined by a spectrophotometrically using cobinamide. The KH of HCN may be expressed as ln KH (M/atm) = (8205.7±341.9)/T − (25.323±1.144); r2 = 0.9914) where T is the absolute temperature in K. This corresponds to 9.02 and 3.00 M/atm at 25 and 37.4 °C, respectively, compared to actual measurements of 9.86 and 3.22 at 25.0 and 37.8 °C, respectively. The technique also allows for convenient generation of trace levels of HCN at ppbv-ppmv levels that can be further diluted. PMID:20302333

  7. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification process and its eliminating method in a suspended activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Yongdi; Chen, Xiurong

    2014-02-01

    Inhibition of nitrification by four typical pollutants (acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, acetonitrile and cyanide) in acrylonitrile wastewater was investigated. The inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification was strongest, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.218 mg·gVSS-1 being observed in a municipal activated sludge system. However, the performance of nitrification was recovered when cyanide was completely degraded. The nitrification, which had been inhibited by 4.17 mg·gVSS-1 of free cyanide for 24 h, was recovered to greater than 95% of that without cyanide after 10 days of recovery. To overcome cyanide inhibition, cyanide-degrading bacteria were cultivated in a batch reactor by increasing the influent cyanide concentration in a stepwise manner, which resulted in an increase in the average cyanide degradation rate from 0.14 to 1.01 mg CN-·gVSS-1·h-1 over 20 days. The cultured cyanide-degrading bacteria were shaped like short rods, and the dominant cyanide-degrading bacteria strain was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB by PCR.

  8. In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun-A; Lee, Young-Ran; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Myung-Koo; Park, Young In; Lee, Sungwon; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2010-03-01

    The gels of Aloe species contain immunomodulatory components such as aloctin A and acemannan. Most studies on these gels were performed in in vitro cell culture systems. Although several studies examined their immunomodulatory activity in vivo, the route of administration was intraperitoneal or intramuscular. Here, we evaluated the in vivo immunomodulatory activity of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) in mice. Oral administration of PAG significantly reduced the growth of C. albicans in the spleen and kidney following intravenous injection of C. albicans in normal mice. PAG administration also reduced the growth of C. albicans in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PAG administration did not increase ovalbumin (OVA)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in normal mice, but did increase it in high-fat-diet induced diabetic mice. These findings provide the first clear evidence for the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.

  9. Cyanide hazards to plants and animals from gold mining and related water issues.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N

    2004-01-01

    Cyanide extraction of gold through milling of high-grade ores and heap leaching of low-grade ores requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide (NaCN), free cyanide, and metal-cyanide complexes. Some milling operations result in tailings ponds of 150 ha and larger. Heap leach operations that spray or drip cyanide onto the flattened top of the ore heap require solution processing ponds of about 1 ha in surface area. Puddles of various sizes may occur on the top of heaps, where the highest concentrations of NaCN are found. Solution recovery channels are usually constructed at the base of leach heaps, some of which may be exposed. All these cyanide-containing water bodies are hazardous to wildlife, especially migratory waterfowl and bats, if not properly managed. Accidental spills of cyanide solutions into rivers and streams have produced massive kills of fish and other aquatic biota. Freshwater fish are the most cyanide-sensitive group of aquatic organisms tested, with high mortality documented at free cyanide concentrations >20 microg/L and adverse effects on swimming and reproduction at >5 microg/L. Exclusion from cyanide solutions or reductions of cyanide concentrations to nontoxic levels are the only certain methods of protecting terrestrial vertebrate wildlife from cyanide poisoning; a variety of exclusion/cyanide reduction techniques are presented and discussed. Additional research is recommended on (1) effects of low-level, long-term, cyanide intoxication in birds and mammals by oral and inhalation routes in the vicinity of high cyanide concentrations; (2) long-term effects of low concentrations of cyanide on aquatic biota; (3) adaptive resistance to cyanide; and (4) usefulness of various biochemical indicators of cyanide poisoning. To prevent flooding in mine open pits, and to enable earth moving on a large scale, it is often necessary to withdraw groundwater and use it for

  10. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis.

  11. Effect of organic matter on cyanide removal by illuminated titanium dioxide or zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Effect of different type of organic compounds (humic acid, oxalate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, phenol) on the photocatalytic removal of cyanide with TiO2 or ZnO was studied in this work with variation of the solution pH, contact time, initial cyanide concentration and type of organic compounds. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of cyanide with TiO2 was greatly affected by the solution pH. It increased as the solution pH decreased. Also maximum removal of cyanide by ZnO was observed near at neutral pH because of the reduced photocatalytic activity of ZnO at exceedingly low and high pH values originated from either acidic/photochemical corrosion of the catalyst and/or surface passivation with Zn(OH)2. Removal efficiency of cyanide greatly decreased in the presence of humic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid compared to that without presence of organic compound because of the competitive oxidation as well as surface blocking by relatively large organic compounds. The oxidation pattern of cyanide was better described by first-order kinetic model. Finally photocatalytic reaction with TiO2 or ZnO can be effectively applied to treat synthetic wastewater contaminated with cyanide. PMID:24499704

  12. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R.; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a life threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain-barrier to upregulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino (NSA) mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. PMID:25692407

  13. Changes of Cyanide Content and Linamarase Activity in Wounded Cassava Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Mineo; Iwatsuki, Norio; Data, Emma S.; Villegas, Cynthia Dolores V.; Uritani, Ikuzo

    1983-01-01

    When cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root was cut into blocks and incubated under laboratory conditions, the blocks showed more widespread and more even symptoms of physiological deterioration than those under natural conditions. Thus, the tissue block system has potential for biochemical studies of natural deterioration of cassava root. The changes in cyanide content and linamarase (linamarin β-d-glucoside glucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.21) activity in various tissues during physiological deterioration were investigated. Total cyanide content increased in all parts of block tissue after 3-day incubation. The degree of increase in cyanide was most pronounced in white parenchymal tissue, 2 to 3 millimeters thick, next to the cortex (A-part tissue), where no physiological symptoms appeared. On the other hand, linamarase activity was decreased in all parts of block tissue after a 3-day incubation. A time course analysis of A-part tissue indicated a clear reciprocal relationship between changes in total cyanide and linamarase activity; total cyanide increased, while linamarase activity decreased. Free cyanide constituted a very small portion of the total cyanide and did not change markedly. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16662957

  14. Differential effects of chronic cyanide intoxication on heart, lung and pancreatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Okolie, N P; Osagie, A U

    2000-06-01

    The histotoxic effects of chronic cyanide insult on heart, lung and pancreatic tissues, and some corroborative enzyme and metabolite changes were studied in New Zealand White rabbits using colorimetric, enzymatic and histochemical methods. Two groups of rabbits were fed for 10 months on either pure growers mash or grower mash +702 ppm inorganic cyanide. There were no significant differences in time-course profiles of serum amylase and fasting blood glucose between the cyanide-fed group and control. Pancreatic islet and heart histologies showed no pathological changes, and there were no significant differences in both serum and heart aspartate transaminase activities between the two groups. However, there were significant decreases (P<0.01) in alkaline phosphatase activity in the lungs of the cyanide-fed group, with corresponding significant (P<0.05) increases in the serum activity of the enzyme. Histological examination of lung tissue of the cyanide-treated rabbits revealed focal areas of pulmonary oedema and necrosis. These results suggest the existence of variabilities in tissue susceptibilities to the toxic effect of chronic cyanide exposure. It would appear that chronic cyanide exposure may not predispose to diabetes in the presence of adequate protein intake.

  15. Cyanide and sulfide interact with nitrogenous compounds to influence the relaxation of various smooth muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Kruszyna, H.; Kruszyna, R.; Smith, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    Sodium nitroprusside relaxed guinea pig ileum after the segment had been submaximally contracted by either histamine or acetylcholine, intact isolated rabbit gall bladder after submaximal contraction by either acetylcholine or cholecystokinin octapeptide, and rat pulmonary artery helical strips after submaximal contraction with norepinephrine. In each of these cases the relaxation produced by nitroprusside was at least partially reversed by the subsequent addition of excess sodium cyanide. Cyanide, however, in nontoxic concentrations did not reverse the spasmolytic effects of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium azide, nitroglycerin, sodium nitrite, or nitric oxide hemoglobin on guinea pig ileum, nor did cyanide alone in the same concentrations have any effect. The similar interaction between nitroprusside and cyanide on rabbit aortic strips is not dependent on the presence of an intact endothelia cell layer. Also, on rabbit aortic strips and like cyanide, sodium sulfide reversed the spasmolytic effects of azide and hydroxylamine, but it had little or no effect on the relaxation induced by papaverine. Unlike cyanide, however, sulfide augmented the relaxation induced by nitroprusside, and it reversed the effects of nitric oxide hemoglobin, nitroglycerin, and nitrite. A direct chemical reaction between sulfide and nitroprusside may account for the difference between it and cyanide. Although evidence was obtained also for a direct chemical reaction between sulfide and norepinephrine, that reaction does not seem to have played a role in these results.

  16. Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

    1994-02-01

    The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

  17. The effect of temperature on the rate of cyanide metabolism of two woody plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaozhang; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, Puhua; Hu, Hao

    2005-05-01

    The response of cyanide metabolism rates of two woody plants to changes in temperature is investigated. Detached leaves (1.0 g fresh weight) from weeping willow (Salix babylonica L.) and Chinese elder (Sambucus chinensis Lindl.) were kept in glass vessels with 100ml of aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide for a maximum of 28 h. Ten different temperatures were used ranging from 11 degrees C to 32 degrees C. The disappearance of aqueous cyanide was analyzed spectrophotometrically. The cyanide removal rate of Chinese elder was higher than that of weeping willow at all temperatures. The highest cyanide removal rate for Chinese elder was found at 30 degrees C with a value of 12.6 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1), whereas the highest value of the weeping willow was 9.72 mg CN kg(-1) h(-1) at 32 degrees C. The temperature coefficient values, Q10, which are the ratio of removal rates at a 10 degree difference, were determined for Chinese elder and weeping willow to 1.84 and 2.09, respectively, indicating that the cyanide removal rate of weeping willow was much more susceptible to changes in temperature than that of the Chinese elder. In conclusion, changes in temperature have a substantial influence on the removal rate of cyanide by plants.

  18. Depletion of host-derived cyanide in the gut of the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Jeffers, P M; Mantella, D

    2002-02-01

    Using a colorimetric procedure, we assessed the HCN-p of black cherry leaves (Prunus serotina) ingested by the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum, and the cyanide content of the bolus as it passed thorough the caterpillar's digestive tract and into the detritus pool. The mean HCN-p of leaves in our study area was 1902 +/- 174 (SE) ppm. Young leaves found at the tips of growing branches, which the caterpillars preferred, had a significantly higher HCN-p (3032 +/- 258 ppm) than older leaves found at the middle (1542 +/- 243 ppm) or base of the shoot (1131 +/- 159 ppm). Following a bout of overnight feeding on young leaves, the cyanide content of the foregut and midgut boluses of early sixth-instar caterpillars averaged 631 +/- 161 ppm, and 14 +/- 3 ppm, respectively, indicating that host-derived cyanide is rapidly depleted as the bolus transits the gut. Some cyanide, however, remains. In three studies, the mean cyanide content of fresh fecal pellets ranged from approximately 20 to 38 ppm, while the dried, compacted pellets ranged from 63 to 85 ppm. Food in the foreguts of mature caterpillars dispersing over the ground in search of pupation sites had 417 +/- 99 ppm cyanide. The potential impact of this egested and caterpillar-transported cyanide on the consumer and detritivore communities is discussed.

  19. Correlation of atmospheric and inhaled blood cyanide levels in miniature pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Stemler, F.W.; Kaminskis, A.; Tezak-Reid, T.M.; Stotts, R.R.; Moran, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    The LCT5O (exposure time and atmospheric concentration needed to produce 50% lethality) has been commonly used to quantify the toxicity of a gas such as hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Few studies have been performed in which blood cyanide concentrations were measured simultaneously in animals at Imown exposure concentrations and time. This study was an attempt to correlate which blood cyanide levels would cause lethality in miniature pigs when exposed to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for a fixed time. An automated microdistillation assay (1) was used to continuously monitor arterial blood cyanide before, during and after the exposures to a HCN/air mixture. Seven animals were exposed to a HCN/air mixture for two minutes each, four to 1176 + or - SD 70 mg/m3, and three animals to 2125 + or - SD 91 mg/m3. Two of the three animals exposed to the high HCN/air mixture died with a peak blood cyanide concentration of about 4.1 + or - SD 0.38 ug/mL. Four animals exposed to the low HCN/air mixture had a peak blood cyanide concentration of 2.94 i SD 0.71 ug/mL. All four survived for a 24-bour post-exposure observation period before they were sacrificed. Several physiological parameters were also monitored.

  20. Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt

    SciTech Connect

    Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

    1999-10-01

    Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

  1. Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total cyanide was determined using the silver nitrate titration method. Regression analysis and optimization of the conditions were conducted using the Design-Expert software and response surface methodology (RSM). The actual cyanide removals and the removals predicted using RSM analysis were in close agreement, and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: the volume fraction of Span-80, 4% (v/v); the volume fraction of TOA, 4% (v/v); the concentration of NaOH, 1% (w/v); and the emulsion-to-external-phase volume ratio, 1:7. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of total cyanide was 95.07%, and the RSM predicted removal was 94.90%, with a small exception. The treatment of cyanide wastewater using an ELM is an effective technique for application in industry.

  2. Archean geochemistry of formaldehyde and cyanide and the oligomerization of cyanohydrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, T.; Arrhenius, G.; Paplawsky, W.

    1994-01-01

    The sources and speciation of reduced carbon and nitrogen inferred for the early Archean are reviewed in terms of current observations and models, and known chemical reactions. Within this framework hydrogen cyanide and cyanide ion in significant concentration would have been eliminated by reaction with excess formaldehyde to form cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile), and with ferrous ion to formferrocyanide. Natural reactions of these molecules would under such conditions deserve special consideration in modeling of primordial organochemical processes. As a step in this direction, transformation reactions have been investigated involving glycolonitrile in the presence of water. We find that glycolonitrile, formed from formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide or cyanide ion, spontaneously cyclodimerizes to 4-amino-2-hydroxymethyloxazole. The crystalline dimer is the major product at low temperatue (approximately 0 C); the yield diminishes with increasing temperature at the expense of polymerization and hydrolysis products. Hydrolysis of glycolamide and of oxazole yields a number of simpler organic molecules, including ammonia and glycolamide. The spontaneous polymerization of glycolonitrile and its dimer gives rise to soluble, cationic oligomers of as yet unknown structure, and, unless arrested, to a viscous liquid, insoluble in water. A loss of cyanide by reaction with formaldehyde, inferred for the early terrestrial hydrosphere and cryosphere would present a dilemma for hypotheses invoking cyanide and related compounds as concentrated reactants capable of forming biomolecular precursor species. Attempts to escape from its horns may take advantage of the efficient concentration and separation of cyanide as solid ferriferrocyanide, and most directly of reactions of glycolonitrile and its derivatives.

  3. Cyanide in human disease: a review of clinical and laboratory evidence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    1983-01-01

    Experimental cyanide exposure in animals causes demyelination and circumstantial clinical and laboratory evidence suggest that there are human parallels. In Leber's hereditary optic atrophy there appears to be a defect in the conversion of cyanide to thiocyanate because of deficient rhodanese activity. For transmitters of the disease smoking carries the risk of blindness and in the most severely affected patients, there is diffuse neurological disease. It is possible that other hereditary optic atrophies (dominant and recessive) may also reflect inborn errors of cyanide metabolism. In the retrobulbar neuritis and optic atrophy of vitamin B12 deficiency there may be a conditional abnormality of cyanide metabolism in smokers, and likewise in so-called tobacco-alcohol amblyopia in which there are more complex nutritional deficiencies. Epidemiological evidence (differing sex ratios, excess of smokers) indicates that defective cyanide metabolism may contribute to the development of sub-acute combined degeneration of the cord in vitamin B12 deficiency. In protein-malnourished populations consuming large amounts of cyanide or cyanogens, viz. in tropical Africa where the staple diet includes cassava containing large amounts of linamarin, similar maladies occur as acquired disorders. There may be a similar explanation for lathyrism. The known pathways of human cyanide metabolism are reviewed and evidence supporting the clinical data is presented.

  4. Cyanide concentrations in blood after cigarette smoking, as determined by a sensitive fluorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, P; Rosling, H; Sörbo, B; Tibbling, L

    1987-07-01

    Using the sensitive fluorimetric method described here, we evaluated the determination of blood cyanide as a method for monitoring exposure to tobacco smoke. The mean concentration of cyanide in blood from eight nonsmokers was 0.098 (SD 0.036) mumol/L. The concentration of cyanide in blood of smokers who had refrained from smoking for at least 2 h before sampling peaked immediately after the subjects smoked a cigarette, then rapidly declined, with a half-life of about 4 min. Its rapid disappearance from blood makes cyanide an unsuitable marker of exposure to tobacco smoke. Because the ability of patients with hepatic dysfunction to detoxify cyanide has been presumed to be impaired, we monitored the concentrations of cyanide in the blood of four patients with severe hepatic insufficiency who smoked a cigarette. The rate of elimination of cyanide from blood after smoking was only slightly less in these patients than in the controls, and the difference was not statistically significant.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (< 10%), thus

  6. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in mature swine after intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) FM PK in mature swine. Appropriate pain management for lameness in swine is a critical control point for veterinarians and producers, but science-based guidance on optimal housing, management and treatment of lameness is deficient. Six mature swine (121–168 kg) were administered an IV, IM, or PO dose of flunixin meglumine at a target dose of 2.2 mg/kg in a cross-over design with a 10 day washout period between treatments. Plasma samples collected up to 48 hours post-administration were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Results No adverse effects were observed with flunixin meglumine administration for all routes. Flunixin meglumine was administered at an actual mean dose of 2.21 mg/kg (range: 2.05-2.48 mg/kg) IV, IM and PO. A mean peak plasma concentration (CMAX) for IM and PO administration was 3748 ng/ml (range: 2749–6004 ng/ml) and 946 ng/ml (range: 554–1593 ng/ml), respectively. TMAX was recorded at 1.00 hour (range: 0.50-2.00 hours) and 0.61 hours (range: 0.17-2.00 hours) after PO and IM administration. Half-life (T ½ λz) for IV, IM and PO administration was 6.29 hours (range: 4.84-8.34 hours), 7.49 hours (range: 5.55-12.98 hours) and 7.08 hours (range: 5.29-9.15 hours) respectively. In comparison, bioavailability (F) for PO administration was 22% (range: 11-44%) compared to IM F at 76% (range: 54-92%). Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that FM oral administration is not the most effective administration route for mature swine when compared to IV and IM. Lower F and Cmax of PO-FM in comparison to IM-FM suggest that PO-FM is less likely to be an effective therapeutic administration route. PMID:23941181

  7. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol after intravenous and intramuscular dosing in llamas.

    PubMed

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Werle, Nick A; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Florfenicol, is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent with wide tissue distribution commonly used to treat camelids. To address the lack of drug disposition data for florfenicol in llamas, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics after 20mg/kg intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) dosing. Serum concentrations were determined using a HPLC-UV assay and pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using non-compartmental analysis. Following i.v. injection, systemic clearance and Vdss in llamas were 4.6 mL/min/kg and 737 mL/kg, respectively. Mean residence time after i.v. dosing was 3h. After i.m. injection, florfenicol was rapidly absorbed, with Cmax concentrations being 3.2 μg/mL at 0.5h, mean residence time was 15 h, mean absorption time was 12h and absolute bioavailability of florfenicol after i.m. injection was 63%. The prolonged absorption of florfenicol after i.m. administration suggests the apparent HL_λz reflects the absorption process rather than elimination of the drug. Florfenicol administration was not associated with adverse reactions after dosing by either route. Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 μg/mL for 12h after i.m. administration. For susceptible pathogens, once daily dosing of 20mg/kg body weight appears appropriate.

  8. A laboratory efficient method for intramuscular fat analysis.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Lopez-Bote, C J

    2014-02-15

    A new procedure to extract intramuscular fat (IMF) was developed to minimize sample amount, solvent use and time of analysis. Lyophilised samples (200mg) were accurately weighed in a safe-lock micro test tube, homogenized in 1.5 mL dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and mixed in a mixer mill (MM400, Retsch technology). The final biphasic system was separated by centrifugation (8 min, 10,000 rpm). The extraction was repeated three times. Solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Results from 64 determinations were compared to those obtained with other referred method and showed a linear response over the whole range of IMF content (1.6-6.9 g/100 g sample). Moreover, the analysis with different methodology of six replica from the same sample showed lowest variability (standard deviation intra-method) for the new methodology proposed over a wide range of IMF content. A cost and time efficient lipid extraction procedure was developed without loss of precision and accuracy and with a fatty acid profile comparable to other protocols.

  9. Autoinjectors Preferred for Intramuscular Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis and Allergic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ronna L.; Bellolio, M. Fernanda; Motosue, Megan S.; Sunga, Kharmene L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Rudis, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. We surveyed emergency department (ED) healthcare providers regarding two methods of intramuscular (IM) epinephrine administration (autoinjector and manual injection) for the management of anaphylaxis and allergic reactions and identified provider perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery. Methods This observational study adhered to survey reporting guidelines. It was performed through a Web-based survey completed by healthcare providers at an academic ED. The primary outcomes were assessment of provider perceptions and identification of the preferred IM epinephrine administration method by ED healthcare providers. Results Of 217 ED healthcare providers invited to participate, 172 (79%) completed the survey. Overall, 82% of respondents preferred the autoinjector method of epinephrine administration. Providers rated the autoinjector method more favorably for time required for training, ease of use, convenience, satisfaction with weight-based dosing, risk of dosing errors, and speed of administration (p<0.001 for all comparisons). However, manual injection use was rated more favorably for risk of provider self-injury and patient cost (p<0.001 for both comparisons). Three participants (2%) reported a finger stick injury from an epinephrine autoinjector. Conclusion ED healthcare providers preferred the autoinjector method of IM epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis or allergic reactions. Epinephrine autoinjector use may reduce barriers to epinephrine administration for the management of anaphylaxis in the ED. PMID:27833688

  10. Fatty acid composition of goat diets vs intramuscular fat.

    PubMed

    Rhee, K S; Waldron, D F; Ziprin, Y A; Rhee, K C

    2000-04-01

    Twenty Boer x Spanish goats, at the age range of 90-118 days, were assigned to two dietary treatments, with 10 animals fed a grain ration (G) and the other 10 grazed in rangeland. The grain ration contained sorghum grain (67.5%), cottonseed hulls, dehydrated alfalfa meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, molasses, and mineral and vitamin supplements. Animals were slaughtered at the age range of 206-234 days. Intramuscular fat (IF) and the diet specimens - representative samples of G and the parts of range plants (RPs) that goats were expected to have consumed - were analyzed for fatty acid composition. The percentage of 16:0 was higher in RPs than in G, but not different between IF from range goats and that from grain-fed goats. Total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) percentage was higher in G than in RPs. The major UFAs were 18:2 and 18:3 in RPs, and 18:1 and 18:2 in G. In IF, 18:1 constituted more than two-thirds of UFAs, regardless of diet type.

  11. Intramuscular EMG from the hip flexor muscles during human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Andersson, E A; Nilsson, J; Thorstensson, A

    1997-11-01

    The purpose was to investigate the activation pattern of five major hip flexor muscles and its adaptation to changing speed and mode of progression. A total of 11 healthy subjects performed walking and running on a motor-driven treadmill at speeds ranging from 1.0 to 6.0 m s-1. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were used to record myoelectric signals from the iliacus, psoas, sartorius, rectus femoris and tensor fascia latae muscles. The basic pattern, with respect to number of activation periods, remained the same irrespective of speed and mode of progression. However, differences in the relative duration and timing of onset of activation occurred between individual muscles. Over the speed range in walking, a progressively earlier onset was generally seen for the activation period related to hip flexion. Changes in EMG amplitude were measured in the iliacus and psoas muscles and showed a marked increase and difference between walking and running at speeds above 2.0 m s-1. Thus, the alternating flexion-extension movements at the hip during locomotion appear to be governed by a rather fixed 'neural program' which normally only needs minor modulations to accomplish the adjustments accompanying an increase in speed of progression as well as a change from walking to running.

  12. Paliperidone Palmitate Intramuscular 3-Monthly Formulation: A Review in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Keating, Gillian M

    2016-10-01

    A 3-monthly formulation of intramuscular paliperidone palmitate (3-monthly paliperidone palmitate) has recently been approved for the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients in the EU (Trevicta(®)), following earlier approval in the USA (Invega Trinza(®)). This narrative review discusses the clinical use of 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients and summarizes its pharmacological properties. The efficacy of the 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate formulation as a maintenance treatment for schizophrenia has been demonstrated in well designed, phase III trials. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was more effective than placebo in delaying time to relapse and reducing relapse rates, and was noninferior to 1-monthly paliperidone palmitate in the proportion of patients that remained relapse-free. The 3-monthly formulation was also more effective than placebo in controlling the symptoms of schizophrenia, whilst not differing significantly from the 1-monthly formulation in terms of symptomatic control. Three-monthly paliperidone palmitate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with a tolerability profile consistent with that of the 1-monthly formulation. In conclusion, 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate is a useful treatment option for adult patients with schizophrenia who are adequately treated with the 1-monthly formulation, particularly for those who would prefer, or may benefit from, longer dosing intervals.

  13. Development and assessment of learning objects about intramuscular medication administration

    PubMed Central

    Tamashiro, Lilian Mayumi Chinen; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to develop and assess a learning object about intramuscular medication administration for nursing undergraduates and nurses. METHOD: a random, intentional and non-probabilistic sample was selected of nurses from a Brazilian social network of nursing and students from the Undergraduate Program at the University of São Paulo School of Nursing to serve as research subjects and assess the object. RESULTS: the participants, 8 nurses and 8 students, studied the object and answered an assessment instrument that included the following criteria: educational aspects (relevance of the theme, objectives and texts/hypertexts), interface of the environment (navigation, accessibility and screen design) and didactic resources (interactivity and presentation of resources). In total, 128 significant answers were obtained, 124 (97%) of which were positive, assessed as excellent and satisfactory, considered as a flexible, dynamic, objective resources that is appropriate to the nursing learning process. CONCLUSION: the educational technology shows a clear and easily understandable language and the teaching method could be applied in other themes, contributing to the education and training of nursing professionals, positively affecting nursing teaching, stimulating the knowledge, autonomous and independent learning, aligned with the new professional education requirements. PMID:25493665

  14. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    PubMed

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  15. Effect of Growth on Fatty Acid Composition of Total Intramuscular Lipid and Phospholipids in Ira Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan; He, Zhifei; Lu, Jingzhi; Tao, Xiaoqi; Zheng, Li; Xie, Yuejie; Xiao, Xia; Peng, Rong; Li, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid composition of total intramuscular lipid and phospholipids were investigated in the longissimus dorsi, left-hind leg muscle, and abdominal muscle of male Ira rabbits. Changes were monitored at 35, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d. Analysis using gas chromatography identified 21 types of fatty acids. Results showed that the intramuscular lipid increased and the intramuscular phospholipids (total intramuscular lipid %) decreased in all muscles with increasing age (p<0.05). An abundant amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, was distributed in male Ira rabbits at different ages and muscles. Palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and arachidonic acid (C20:4) were the major fatty acids, which account to the dynamic changes of the n-6/n-3 value in Ira rabbit meat.

  16. Intramuscular responses with muscle damaging exercise and the interplay between multiple intracellular networks: a human perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerksick, Chad M; Willoughby, Darryn; Kouretas, Demetrios; Tsatsakis, Aristides

    2013-11-01

    Damaging exercise invokes a series of widespread changes that impact many aspects of skeletal muscle physiology. When examining candidate intramuscular mechanisms, those associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, proteolysis and apoptosis appear to have garnered the most interest in the literature, but many aspects of these pathways remain in question. Due to the vast integrated network of signaling activities as well as the many known areas (and likely many unknown areas) of crosstalk throughout these mechanisms, in vivo research can be challenging. Currently, a relatively small number of studies have examined time-course related changes to blood-based markers of oxidative stress and even fewer have examined intramuscular changes using in vivo models. An equally small number of studies have examined intramuscular changes in apoptotic activity. While changes in other tissues hold importance, intramuscular adaptations and the mechanisms involved are of the highest importance for determining how skeletal muscle adapts and respond to stressful, damaging stimuli.

  17. Heterogeneous catalytic degradation of cyanide using copper-impregnated pumice and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kitis, Mehmet; Karakaya, Emine; Yigit, Nevzat O; Civelekoglu, Gokhan; Akcil, Ata

    2005-04-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the oxidative destruction of free cyanide with hydrogen peroxide and copper-impregnated pumice as a heterogeneous catalyst. Original or copper-impregnated pumices added alone were not effective adsorbents of negatively charged cyanide ions due to incompatible surface interactions. Peroxide and original pumices added together were also ineffective in removing cyanide. However, for all of the three natural pumices tested with various particle size fractions, the use of copper-impregnated pumices and peroxide together significantly enhanced both the initial rate and extent of cyanide removal. Although copper-impregnated specific surface area was the major factor affecting the rate and extent of cyanide destruction for a particular pumice source with similar surface chemistries, the type of surface chemistry (i.e., specific functional groups) within different pumice sources also appears to be a very important factor. Lower rates and extents of cyanide removals were observed at pH 11 compared to pH 8 probably because of the negative impacts of alkaline conditions in terms of scavenging peroxide and forming more negatively charged pumice surfaces. Both the initial rate and ultimate extent of cyanide removals were generally higher at a temperature of 20 degrees C compared with those found at 10 degrees C. The use of copper-impregnated pumice as a light, cheap, readily available, natural, and porous heterogeneous catalyst either in completely mixed/suspended or fixed-bed reactor configurations may be an effective treatment technology for cyanide removal from solution. This new approach may minimize downstream metal removal problems experienced in conventional cyanide oxidation technologies.

  18. Enzymatic cyanide degradation by cell-free extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M.

    PubMed

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Latif Ibrahim, Abdul; Cass, Anthony E G

    2015-01-01

    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant.

  19. Intramuscular Capillary Haemangioma of the Temporalis Muscle: A Rare Case with A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Nikhil; Nambillath, Arif Kavungal; Meher, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    An Intramuscular Haemangioma (IMH) is a benign mesenchymal tumour of the endothelial cells that accounts for less than 1% of all haemangiomas. Here we report the case of a capillary type intramuscular haemangioma in a five-year-old boy, only the fourth such case reported in literature, along with a relevant review of the literature. The lesion was surgically managed, with no recurrence in the follow up period till date. PMID:28384897

  20. Protection by exogenous glutathione against hypoxic and cyanide-induced damage to isolated perfused rat livers.

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Strubelt, O

    1990-02-01

    In experiments with isolated perfused livers from fasted rats, addition of 2 mmol/l glutathione (GSH) to the perfusion medium protected against hepatic damage induced by cyanide or hypoxia and reoxygenation as evidenced by leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic calcium accumulation. In control experiments as well as in experiments with cyanide or hypoxia and reoxygenation, exogenous glutathione resulted in an augmentation of cellular glutathione content, indicating either direct uptake of GSH or stimulation of its intracellular synthesis. The protective effects of glutathione against hypoxic and cyanide-induced hepatotoxicity substantiate the role of oxidative stress in both types of injury.