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Sample records for intraoperative radioguidance technique

  1. Radioguided surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism: Results and correlation with intraoperative histopathologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Juan P; Domínguez, María L; de Santos, Francisco J; González, José M; Fernández, Nuria; Enciso, Fidel J

    2017-08-11

    Radioguided surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. The goals of our study were to evaluate the rate of success and compare the results with intraoperative histological analysis. We retrospectively studied 84 patients with primary parathyroidism who had undergone radioguided surgery. All the patients had a positive parathyroid scintigraphy prior to surgery. An intravenous injection of Tc-99m sestamibi was administered before surgery, and radioguided location of the pathologic parathyroid tissue was performed using an intraoperative gamma probe, applying the "20% rule". All resected specimens underwent intraoperative histologic analysis. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months. Positive predictive values of both parathyroid scintigraphy and cervical ultrasonography were also compared. Radioguided surgery success rate was 99%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for gamma probe were 99, 73, 97 and 89%, respectively. After surgery, 83 of 84 patients were eucalcaemic (99%) and parathyroid hormone normalised in 77 of 84 patients (92%). Ultrasonography showed low positive predictive value (41%) when compared with scintigraphy. Radioguided surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique with excellent results for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism and could replace both intraoperative histological analysis and intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraoperative β{sup -} detecting probe for radio-guided surgery in tumour resection

    SciTech Connect

    Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Bellini, Fabio; Bocciy, Valerio; Collamatiyz, Francesco; Faccini, Riccardo; Paramattiy, Riccardo; Paterayz, Vincenzo; Pinciy, Davide; Recchiay, Luigi; Sciubbayz, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Voenay, Cecilia; Morgantiy, Silvio; De Luciax, Erika; Matteixk, Ilaria; Sartizx, Alessio; Russomando, Aandrea; Marafiniy, Michela

    2015-07-01

    The development of the β{sup -} based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma and gliomas already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, a prototype of the intraoperative probe detecting β{sup -} decays and specific phantoms simulating tumour remnant patterns embedded in healthy tissue have been realized. The response of the probe in this simulated environment is tested with dedicated procedures. This document discusses the innovative aspects of the method, the status of the developed intraoperative β{sup -} detecting probe and the results of the preclinical tests. (authors)

  3. Intraoperative probe detecting β- decays in brain tumour radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bocci, V.; Chiodi, G.; Collamati, F.; Donnarumma, R.; Faccini, R.; Mancini Terracciano, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Muraro, S.; Recchia, L.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Morganti, S.

    2017-02-01

    Radio-guided surgery (RGS) is a technique to intraoperatively detect tumour remnants, favouring a radical resection. Exploiting β- emitting tracers provides a higher signal to background ratio compared to the established technique with γ radiation, allowing the extension of the RGS applicability range. We developed and tested a detector based on para-terphenyl scintillator with high sensitivity to low energy electrons and almost transparent to γs to be used as intraoperative probe for RGS with β- emitting tracer. Portable read out electronics was customised to match the surgeon needs. This probe was used for preclinical test on specific phantoms and a test on ;ex vivo; specimens from patients affected by meningioma showing very promising results for the application of this new technique on brain tumours. In this paper, the prototype of the intraoperative probe and the tests are discussed; then, the results on meningioma are used to make predictions on the performance of the probe detecting residuals of a more challenging and more interesting brain tumour: the glioma.

  4. Radioguided surgery and the GOSTT concept: From pre-operative image and intraoperative navigation to image-assisted excision.

    PubMed

    Bowles, H; Sánchez, N; Tapias, A; Paredes, P; Campos, F; Bluemel, C; Valdés Olmos, R A; Vidal-Sicart, S

    Radio-guided surgery has been developed for application in those disease scheduled for surgical management, particularly in areas of complex anatomy. This is based on the use of pre-operative scintigraphic planar, tomographic and fused SPECT/CT images, and the possibility of 3D reconstruction for the subsequent intraoperative locating of active lesions using handheld devices (detection probes, gamma cameras, etc.). New tracers and technologies have also been incorporated into these surgical procedures. The combination of visual and acoustic signals during the intraoperative procedure has become possible with new portable imaging modalities. In daily practice, the images offered by these techniques and devices combine perioperative nuclear medicine imaging with the superior resolution of additional optical guidance in the operating room. In many ways they provide real-time images, allowing accurate guidance during surgery, a reduction in the time required for tissue location and an anatomical environment for surgical recognition. All these approaches have been included in the concept known as (radio) Guided intraOperative Scintigraphic Tumour Targeting (GOSTT). This article offers a general view of different nuclear medicine and allied technologies used for several GOSTT procedures, and illustrates the crossing of technological frontiers in radio-guided surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. An Intraoperative β- Detecting Probe for Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomando, Andrea; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Chiodi, Giacomo; Patera, Vincenzo; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Paramatti, Riccardo; Voena, Cecilia; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Morganti, Silvio

    2016-10-01

    The development of the β- based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative β- probe have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of one of the prototypes and its tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The tests showed that the prototype under study has 70% efficiency on electrons with an energy threshold at 540 keV, a point-like resolution of 2.8±0.1 mm, and a sensitivity to photons lower than 1%. The tests also demonstrated, with an innovative technique to produce specific phantoms, that 0.5 ml residuals can be safely identified in 1 s with tumor-non-tumor ratio equal to 10.

  6. Design optimization and performances of an intraoperative positron imaging probe for radioguided cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadola, S.; Verdier, M.-A.; Pinot, L.; Esnault, C.; Dinu, N.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M.-A.; Ménard, L.

    2016-12-01

    Extent and accuracy of surgical resection is a crucial step in operable tumor therapy. Emergence of promising specific tumor-seeking agents labeled with positron emitters is giving rise to a renewed interest for radioguided surgery using beta probes. Beta detection, due to the particle short range, allows a more sensitive and accurate tumor localization compared to gamma radiotracers. In that context, we are currently developing an intraoperative positron imaging probe using SiPM photosensors to perform tumor localization and post-operative control of the surgical cavity. Because compactness is a key feature when trying to detect positron emitters with high sensitivity in small surgical cavities, we chose to study the simplest detector design based on the use of a very thin organic scintillator coupled to the photosensor. Different designs of the positron imaging probe, including scintillator material and thickness, light spreading window and optical reflector, were investigated with Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. Their impact on the probe performances were optimized in terms of positron sensitivity, gamma rays background noise contamination, spatial resolution and bias and uniformity. The ability of the probes to detect small radiolabeled tumors was also investigated by simulating different phantom uptake configurations.

  7. A novel radioguided surgery technique exploiting β− decays

    PubMed Central

    Camillocci, E. Solfaroli; Baroni, G.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; Cremonesi, M.; De Lucia, E.; Ferroli, P.; Fiore, S.; Grana, C. M.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paganelli, G.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Schiariti, M.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Voena, C.; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    The background induced by the high penetration power of the radiation is the main limiting factor of the current radio-guided surgery (RGS). To partially mitigate it, a RGS with β+-emitting radio-tracers has been suggested in literature. Here we propose the use of β−-emitting radio-tracers and β− probes and discuss the advantage of this method with respect to the previously explored ones: the electron low penetration power allows for simple and versatile probes and could extend RGS to tumours for which background originating from nearby healthy tissue makes probes less effective. We developed a β− probe prototype and studied its performances on phantoms. By means of a detailed simulation we have also extrapolated the results to estimate the performances in a realistic case of meningioma, pathology which is going to be our first in-vivo test case. A good sensitivity to residuals down to 0.1 ml can be reached within 1 s with an administered activity smaller than those for PET-scans thus making the radiation exposure to medical personnel negligible. PMID:24646766

  8. A novel radioguided surgery technique exploiting β- decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camillocci, E. Solfaroli; Baroni, G.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; Cremonesi, M.; De Lucia, E.; Ferroli, P.; Fiore, S.; Grana, C. M.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paganelli, G.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Schiariti, M.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Voena, C.; Faccini, R.

    2014-03-01

    The background induced by the high penetration power of the radiation is the main limiting factor of the current radio-guided surgery (RGS). To partially mitigate it, a RGS with β+-emitting radio-tracers has been suggested in literature. Here we propose the use of β--emitting radio-tracers and β- probes and discuss the advantage of this method with respect to the previously explored ones: the electron low penetration power allows for simple and versatile probes and could extend RGS to tumours for which background originating from nearby healthy tissue makes probes less effective. We developed a β- probe prototype and studied its performances on phantoms. By means of a detailed simulation we have also extrapolated the results to estimate the performances in a realistic case of meningioma, pathology which is going to be our first in-vivo test case. A good sensitivity to residuals down to 0.1 ml can be reached within 1 s with an administered activity smaller than those for PET-scans thus making the radiation exposure to medical personnel negligible.

  9. A low cost training phantom model for radio-guided localization techniques in occult breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Fatih; Mallory, Melissa Anne; Tukenmez, Mustafa; Sagara, Yasuaki; Ozturk, Erkan; Ince, Yavuz; Celik, Varol; Akca, Tamer; Golshan, Mehra

    2015-09-01

    Radio-guided localization (RGL) for identifying occult breast lesions has been widely accepted as an alternative technique to other localization methods, including those using wire guidance. An appropriate phantom model would be an invaluable tool for practitioners interested in learning the technique of RGL prior to clinical application. The aim of this study was to devise an inexpensive and reproducible training phantom model for RGL. We developed a simple RGL phantom model imitating an occult breast lesion from inexpensive supplies including a pimento olive, a green pea and a turkey breast. The phantom was constructed for a total cost of less than $20 and prepared in approximately 10 min. After the first model's construction, we constructed approximately 25 additional models and demonstrated that the model design was easily reproducible. The RGL phantom is a time- and cost-effective model that accurately simulates the RGL technique for non-palpable breast lesions. Future studies are warranted to further validate this model as an effective teaching tool.

  10. Advances in radioguided surgery in oncology.

    PubMed

    Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Manca, Gianpiero; Mariani, Giuliano; León-Ramírez, Luisa F; Rubello, Domenico; Giammarile, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is probably the most well-known radioguided technique in surgical oncology. Today SLN biopsy reduces the morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy and increases the identification rate of occult lymphatic metastases by offering the pathologist the lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. These advantages may result in a change in clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer patients. The SLN evaluation by pathology currently implies tumor burden stratification for further prognostic information. The concept of SLN biopsy includes pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy as a "roadmap" to guide the surgeon toward the SLNs and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. In addition to planar images, SPECT/CT improves SLN detection, especially in sites closer to the injection site, providing anatomic landmarks which are helpful in localizing SLNs in difficult to interpret studies. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows a better surgical approach and SLN localization. Several studies report the value of such devices for excision of additional sentinel nodes and for monitoring the whole procedure. The combination of preoperative imaging and radioguided localization constitutes the basis for a whole spectrum of basic and advanced nuclear medicine procedures, which recently have been encompassed under the term "guided intraoperative scintigraphic tumor targeting" (GOSTT). Excepting SLN biopsy, GOSTT includes procedures based on the detection of target lesions with visible uptake of tumor-seeking radiotracers on SPECT/CT or PET/CT enabling their subsequent radioguided excisional biopsy for diagnostic of therapeutic purposes. The incorporation of new PET-tracers into nuclear medicine has reinforced this field delineating new strategies for radioguided excision. In cases with insufficient lesion uptake after systemic radiotracer administration, intralesional injection of a tracer

  11. Radioguided localisation of impalpable breast lesions using 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin: Lessons learnt during introduction of a new technique to guide preoperative localisation

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, Joanne; Kulawansa, Sagarika; McCarthy, Michael; Troedson, Russell; Phillips, Michael; Tinning, Jill; Taylor, Donna

    2015-03-15

    Preoperative wire-guided localisation (WGL) of impalpable breast lesions is widely used but can be technically difficult. Risks include wire migration, inaccurate placement, and inadequate surgical margins. Research shows that radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) is quicker, easier, and can improve surgical and cosmetic outcomes. An audited introduction of ROLL was conducted to validate the technique as a feasible alternative to WGL. Fifty patients with single impalpable lesions and biopsy proven malignancy or indeterminate histology underwent WGL followed by intralesional radiopharmaceutical injection of 99m-Technetium macroaggregated albumin. Postprocedural mammography was performed to demonstrate wire position, and scintigraphy to evaluate radiopharmaceutical migration. Lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative sentinel node biopsy were performed if indicated, followed by lesion localisation and excision using a gamma probe. Specimen imaging was performed, with immediate reexcision for visibly inadequate margins. Accurate localisation was achieved in 86% of patients with ROLL compared to 72% with WGL. All lesions were successfully removed, with clear margins in 71.8% of malignant lesions. Reexcision and intraoperative sentinel node localisation rates were equivalent to preaudit figures for WGL. ROLL was easy to perform and problems were infrequent. Inaccurate radiopharmaceutical placement necessitating WGL occurred in four patients. Minor radiopharmaceutical migration was common, but precluded using ROLL in only two cases. ROLL is effective, simple, inexpensive, and easily learnt; however, preoperative confirmation of correct radiopharmaceutical placement using mammography and the gamma probe is important to help ensure successful lesion removal. Insertion of a backup hookwire is recommended during the initial introduction of ROLL.

  12. Association of Parathyroid Gland Biopsy Excision Technique With Ex Vivo Radiation Counts During Radioguided Parathyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Andrew M; Lawson, Bradley R; Franco, Aime T; Stack, Brendan C

    2017-06-01

    Parathyroid biopsy represents a means for normal and hyperfunctional glands to be distinguished intraoperatively. However, no data exist to guide surgeons regarding how much of a parathyroid gland must be biopsied to satisfy the 20% rule. To quantify the relative proportion of a hyperfunctional parathyroid gland that must be evaluated with the gamma probe to satisfy the 20% rule. A retrospective review of surgical data for 24 consecutive patients (16 women, 18 men; mean [SD] age, 66.6 [10] years; range, 51-83 years) who underwent surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism between May and October, 2015, in a tertieary academic medical center. Extirpated parathyroid glands were sectioned into parallel or pie-shaped biopsies and evaluated ex vivo with a gamma probe to determine what percentage of a hyperfunctional gland must be sampled to meet the Norman 20% rule. The hypothesis was formulated during data collection. In total, 253 ex vivo biopsy specimens were obtained from 33 surgically removed parathyroid glands. Parathyroid biopsies satisfied the 20% rule with an accuracy that depended on the relative proportion of the parent gland represented: half or more (96.6%; 95% CI, 91.7%-100.0%), a quarter to one-half (87.0%; 95% CI, 79.3%-94.7%), less than a quarter (63.6%; 95% CI, 54.5%-72.8%). When less than a quarter of the gland was removed, pie-shaped biopsies were more likely to satisfy the 20% rule compared with parallel biopsies of the same weight (78.4% vs 56.2%; absolute difference, 22.2%; 95% CI, 4.7%-39.7%). Unless half of a parathyroid gland is biopsied during radioguided parathyroidectomy, the 20% rule cannot reliably rule out the presence of a hyperfunctional parathyroid lesion. Pie-shaped biopsies originating from the center of the gland are associated with a lower rate of false-negative results compared with peripheral biopsies of similar size. Pie-shaped biopsies and biopsy of half or more of each nonexcised parathyroid gland for ex vivo counts may increase

  13. Comparison of two threshold detection criteria methodologies for determination of probe positivity for intraoperative in situ identification of presumed abnormal 18F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gregg J; Povoski, Stephen P; Hall, Nathan C; Murrey, Douglas A; Lee, Robert; Martin, Edward W

    2014-09-13

    Intraoperative in situ identification of (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery remains a significant challenge for surgeons. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method versus the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method for determination of gamma detection probe positivity for intraoperative in situ identification of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites in a manner that was independent of the specific type of gamma detection probe used. From among 52 patients undergoing appropriate in situ evaluation of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during (18)F-FDG-directed surgery using 6 available gamma detection probe systems, a total of 401 intraoperative gamma detection probe measurement sets of in situ counts per second measurements were cumulatively taken. For the 401 intraoperative gamma detection probe measurement sets, probe positivity was successfully met by the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method in 150/401 instances (37.4%) and by the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method in 259/401 instances (64.6%) (P < 0.001). Likewise, the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method detected true positive results at target-to-background ratios much lower than the 1.5-to-1 target-to-background ratio of the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method. The three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method was significantly better than the 1.5-to-1 ratiometric threshold criteria method for determination of gamma detection probe positivity for intraoperative in situ detection of presumed abnormal (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during radioguided oncologic surgery. This finding may be extremely important for reshaping the ongoing and future research and development of gamma detection probe systems that are necessary for optimizing the in situ detection of radioisotopes of higher-energy gamma photon emissions used during radioguided oncologic surgery.

  14. Characterization of a detector for β^{{-}}_{} radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomando, A.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Voena, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a new device for the radio-guided surgery technique exploiting β^{{-}}_{} emitters. A specific intraoperative β^{{-}}_{} detecting probe based on a low-density organic crystal, the diphenylbutadiene-doped para-therphenyl, coupled by optical fibres to a photomultiplier, was developed. A portable readout electronics was designed to provide the surgeons with multi real-time feedback. The aspects related to the applicability of the device, in particular the perception of the spatial resolution of the probe and the comprehension time necessary to the operator to interpret the system response were investigated. Preliminary promising results support the possibility of using this innovative probe in cancer surgery.

  15. Radio-guided localization of clinically occult breast lesions: current modalities and future directions.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Fatih; Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Kilic, Fahrettin; Yilmaz, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The extensive availability of breast cancer screening programs and improvement in diagnostic imaging have led to more frequent detection of suspicious and clinically occult breast lesions. Early detection of tumor is important for breast-conserving treatment. Incomplete excision is a major risk factor for local recurrence. Following precise localization and removing the entire lesion while achieving adequate clear margins is the key factor for successful management of non-palpable breast lesions. For this purpose, several techniques such as wire-guided localization, intra-operative ultrasound guided resection, radio-guided occult lesion localization and radioactive seed localization have been described and applied. In this article, we overview the two commonly used localization techniques, radio-guided occult lesion localization and wire-guided localization, particularly describing their advantages and drawbacks.

  16. Ex vivo radioactive counts and decay rates of tissues resected during radioguided parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jordan; Repplinger, Dan; Bianco, Jesus; Chen, Herbert

    2006-12-01

    Radioguided parathyroidectomy using TC-99m-sestamibi injection and the handheld gamma probe allows more precise and rapid intraoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands. This technique is based on the principle that hypercellular parathyroid tissues have markedly higher in vivo radiotracer counts than surrounding tissue including thyroid and lymph nodes. While in vivo radioactivity after TC-99m-sestamibi administration in various tissues has been documented, there is a lack of data regarding ex vivo radioactive properties after surgical resection. During a 6-week period in June/July 2005, 21 patients underwent radioguided parathyroidectomy by a single surgeon. Fifty-four tissue samples (39 parathyroid, 15 nonparathyroid) from these patients were collected and analyzed for ex vivo radioactive counts over a 30-min period. These data were then compared with the pathologic results. There is a significant difference in ex vivo counts between parathyroid adenomas, hyperplastic glands, and nonparathyroid tissue immediately after resection. However, radioactive decay/slope rates do not differ between the tissues. Importantly, an ex vivo count of >20% of background is 100% specific for parathyroid tissue. These differences persisted for up to 30 min. This is the first comprehensive study of ex vivo radioactive properties after TC-99m-sestamibi injection during radioguided parathyroidectomy. Parathyroids have a greater rate of uptake compared to nonparathyroid tissue, allowing ex vivo counts to predict tissue type. These tissues have similar decay rates, allowing these predictions to be made anytime up to 30 min after gland resection.

  17. Delivery of stents to target lesions: techniques of intraoperative stent implantation and intraoperative angiograms.

    PubMed

    Ing, F F

    2005-01-01

    Mullins et al. [6] reported the first use of stent implantation to treat stenotic branch pulmonary arteries in 1988. In the early to mid-1990s, numerous reports confirmed its safety and efficacy, but there were limited stent and balloon designs and stent implantations were performed using relatively large delivery systems (10- to 12-Fr sheaths) [7, 8]. The general accepted patient size was limited to those weighing 12 kg or greater. Intraoperative stent implantation for branch pulmonary artery stenosis was reported in the early to mid-1990s [1-3, 5, 9]. Indications in these early reports included small patient size or difficult anatomy or patients who had additional cardiac lesions and needed surgery independent of the branch stenosis. The idea was to take advantage of the open-heart exposure provided in the operating room to permit direct access to the stenotic segment. Hence, all intraoperative stent implants were performed under direct visualization on bypass. There were no discussions on advantages over the routine percutaneous approach. Currently, with advances in stent and balloon technology as well as increased operator experience, many of those reported cases probably would have undergone cardiac catheterization for a percutaneous stent implant rather than open-heart surgery. The purpose of this report is to review the current indications, advantages, and disadvantages of intraoperative stent implantation as well as to discuss the techniques that are helpful to optimize intraoperative stent positioning. The role and advantages of intraoperative angiography will also be presented.

  18. Brain tumors in eloquent areas: A European multicenter survey of intraoperative mapping techniques, intraoperative seizures occurrence, and antiepileptic drug prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Spena, Giannantonio; Schucht, Philippe; Seidel, Kathleen; Rutten, Geert-Jan; Freyschlag, Christian Franz; D'Agata, Federico; Costi, Emanule; Zappa, Francesca; Fontanella, Marco; Fontaine, Denys; Almairac, Fabien; Cavallo, Michele; De Bonis, Pasquale; Conesa, Gerardo; Foroglou, Nicholas; Gil-Robles, Santiago; Mandonnet, Emanuel; Martino, Juan; Picht, Thomas; Viegas, Catarina; Wager, Michel; Pallud, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Intraoperative mapping and monitoring techniques for eloquent area tumors are routinely used world wide. Very few data are available regarding mapping and monitoring methods and preferences, intraoperative seizures occurrence and perioperative antiepileptic drug management. A questionnaire was sent to 20 European centers with experience in intraoperative mapping or neurophysiological monitoring for the treatment of eloquent area tumors. Fifteen centers returned the completed questionnaires. Data was available on 2098 patients. 863 patients (41.1%) were operated on through awake surgery and intraoperative mapping, while 1235 patients (58.8%) received asleep surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring or mapping. There was great heterogeneity between centers with some totally AW oriented (up to 100%) and other almost totally ASL oriented (up to 92%) (31% SD). For awake surgery, 79.9% centers preferred an asleep-awake-asleep anesthesia protocol. Only 53.3% of the centers used ECoG or transcutaneous EEG. The incidence of intraoperative seizures varied significantly between centers, ranging from 2.5% to 54% (p < 0.001). It there appears to be a statistically significant link between the mastery of mapping technique and the risk of intraoperative seizures. Moreover, history of preoperative seizures can significantly increase the risk of intraoperative seizures (p < 0.001). Intraoperative seizures occurrence was similar in patients with or without perioperative drugs (12% vs. 12%, p = 0.2). This is the first European survey to assess intraoperative functional mapping and monitoring protocols and the management of peri- and intraoperative seizures. This data can help identify specific aspects that need to be investigated in prospective and controlled studies.

  19. Effectivity of intraoperative adjustable suture technique in horizontal strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Ayse Gul Kocak; Arifoglu, Hasan Basri; Midillioglu, Inci Kocak; Gungor, Elif Damar; Simsek, Saban

    2013-01-01

    AIM To compare the long-term effectivity of intraoperative adjustable suture technique with traditional non-adjustable strabismus surgery. METHODS Two hundred and thirty-three patients, who underwent strabismus surgery either with traditional procedures or one-stage intraoperative adjustable suture technique, were included in our long-term follow-up study. One hundred and eighteen patients were evaluated in traditional surgery group (TSG) and 115 who underwent adjustable suture were in the one-stage intraoperative adjustable surgery group (ASG). In this group 9 patients had paralytic strabismus and 16 had reoperations, 2 patients had restrictive strabismus related to thyroid eye disease. The mean follow up in the TSG was 26.2 months and it was 24.8 months in the ASG group. RESULTS In patients with exotropia (XT) the mean correction of deviation for near fixation in ASG (32.4±13.2PD) and in TSG (26.4±8.2PD) were similar (P=0.112). The correction for distant fixation in ASG (33.2±11.4PD) and TSG (30.9±7.2PD) were not significantly different (P=0.321). In patients with esotropia (ET) even the mean correction of deviation for both near (31±12PD) and distant (30.6±12.8PD) fixations were higher in ASG than in TSG, for both near (28.27±14.2PD) and distant (28.9±12.9PD) fixations, the differences were not significant (P=0.346, 0.824 respectively). The overall success rate of XT patient was 78.9% in TSG and 78.78% in ASG, the difference was not significant (P=0.629). The success rates were 78.75% in TSG and 75.51% in ASG in ET patient, which was also not significantly different (P=0.821). CONCLUSION Although patients in ASG had more complex deviation such as paralysis, reoperations and restrictive strabismus, success rates of this tecnique was as high as TSG which did not contain complicated deviation. One-stage intraoperative adjustable suture technique is a safe and effective method for cooperative patient who has complex deviation. PMID:23991385

  20. Modified Surgical Techniques for Managing Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Charukamnoetkanok, Puwat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a modified surgical strategy in the management of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome-associated iris prolapse. Methods. Prolapsed iris is left as is and a new corneal incision near the original wound but at a different site is created. Depending on the location of the original incision and the surgeon's preference, this additional incision can be used as a new port for phacoemulsification tip or can be the new site for the iris to securely prolapse, allowing for the surgery to proceed safely. Results. We present 2 cases of iris prolapse and inadequate pupil dilation in patients with IFIS. Along with our modified technique, additional iris retractors were placed to increase the workspace for the phacoemulsification tip. The cataract surgery was performed successfully without further complications in both cases. Conclusion. This surgical technique could be an adjunct to allow the surgeons to expand the armamentarium for the management of IFIS-associated iris prolapse. PMID:27999697

  1. Radioguided surgery in brain tumors with thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Justo; Rayo, Juan I; Infante, Jose R; Domínguez, Luz; García-Bernardo, Lucía; Durán, Carmen; Fernández Portales, Ignacio; Cabezudo, José M

    2008-12-01

    Malignant astrocytomas show thallium uptake with a high target-to-background ratio, allowing the use of radioguided surgery. We report on 6 patients (3 men) diagnosed with malignant astrocytoma. All patients signed informed consent documents. Previous thallium-201 SPECT was performed, showing uptake in tumors. In the operating room we injected 37 MBq (1 mCi) of thallium-201 at the same time the craniotomy was performed. With the gamma probe we confirmed the tumor uptake, and a biopsy sample was taken. After conventional tumor resection, we scanned the surgical bed with the gamma probe. All areas of abnormal uptake were evaluated by the surgeon and, if possible, removed. In all patients the biopsy confirmed a high-grade astrocytoma. In all cases we found residual uptake in the surgical bed that was confirmed as residual tumor by pathologic examination. In 3 cases it was not possible to remove all the sites of pathologic uptake because critical areas were involved. In the other 3 patients, only background activity was found after the procedure. Radioguided surgery in brain tumors with thallium-201 is a complex technique and expertise in radioguided surgery and neuroimaging is needed, but we think that it is promising.

  2. A comprehensive overview of radioguided surgery using gamma detection probe technology

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P; Neff, Ryan L; Mojzisik, Cathy M; O'Malley, David M; Hinkle, George H; Hall, Nathan C; Murrey, Douglas A; Knopp, Michael V; Martin, Edward W

    2009-01-01

    The concept of radioguided surgery, which was first developed some 60 years ago, involves the use of a radiation detection probe system for the intraoperative detection of radionuclides. The use of gamma detection probe technology in radioguided surgery has tremendously expanded and has evolved into what is now considered an established discipline within the practice of surgery, revolutionizing the surgical management of many malignancies, including breast cancer, melanoma, and colorectal cancer, as well as the surgical management of parathyroid disease. The impact of radioguided surgery on the surgical management of cancer patients includes providing vital and real-time information to the surgeon regarding the location and extent of disease, as well as regarding the assessment of surgical resection margins. Additionally, it has allowed the surgeon to minimize the surgical invasiveness of many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, while still maintaining maximum benefit to the cancer patient. In the current review, we have attempted to comprehensively evaluate the history, technical aspects, and clinical applications of radioguided surgery using gamma detection probe technology. PMID:19173715

  3. Polycrystalline para-terphenyl scintillator adopted in a β- detecting probe for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; Collamati, F.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Paramatti, R.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Russomando, A.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Voena, C.

    2015-06-01

    A radio-guided surgery technique exploiting β- emitters is under development. It aims at a higher target-to-background activity ratio implying both a smaller radiopharmaceutical activity and the possibility of extending the technique to cases with a large uptake of surrounding healthy organs. Such technique requires a dedicated intraoperative probe detecting β- radiation. A first prototype has been developed relying on the low density and high light yield of the diphenylbutadiene doped para-therphenyl organic scintillator. The scintillation light produced in a cylindrical crystal, 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height, is guided to a photo-multiplier tube by optical fibres. The custom readout electronics is designed to optimize its usage in terms of feedback to the surgeon, portability and remote monitoring of the signal. Tests show that with a radiotracer activity comparable to those administered for diagnostic purposes the developed probe can detect a 0.1 ml cancerous residual of meningioma in a few seconds.

  4. Intraoperative Localisation of Impalpable Breast Lesions Utilising the ROLLIS Technique Following Peritumoral 99mTc-colloid Sentinel Node Lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hung, Te-Jui; Burrage, John; Bourke, Anita; Taylor, Donna

    2017-08-24

    Ultrasound or stereotactic guided hook-wire localisation has been the standard-of-care for the pre-surgical localisation of impalpable breast lesions, which account for approximately a third of all breast cancer. Radioguided occult lesion localisation using I-125 seeds (ROLLIS) is a relatively new technique for guiding surgical excision of impalpable breast lesions, and is a promising alternative to the traditional hook-wire method. When combined with Tc-99m labelled colloid for sentinel node mapping in clinically indicated cases, there has been uncertainty regarding whether the downscatter of Tc-99m into the I-125 energy spectrum could adversely affect the intra-operative detection of the I-125 seed, especially pertaining to a peritumoral injection. To evaluate the percentage contribution of downscattered activity from Tc-99m into the I-125 energy spectrum in simulated intra-operative resections of an I-125 seed following different sentinel node injection techniques. Two scenarios were simulated using breast phantoms with lean chicken breast. The first scenario, with a 2cm distance between the Tc-99m injection site and the I-125 seed, simulated a periareolar ipsiquadrant injection with the subdermal or intradermal technique. The second scenario simulated a peritumoral injection technique with the Tc-99m bolus and an I-125 seed at the same site. Count rates were acquired with a hand-held gamma probe, and the percentage contribution of downscattered Tc-99m gamma photons to the I-125 energy window was calculated. In scenarios one and two, downscattered Tc-99m activity contributed 0.5% and 33% respectively to the detected count rate in the I-125 energy window. In both scenarios, the I-125 seed was successfully localised and removed using the gamma probe. There is no significant contribution of downscattered activity associated with a peritumoral injection of Tc-99m to adversely affect the accurate intra-operative localisation of an I- 125 seed. Copyright© Bentham

  5. Tc-99m radio-guided completion thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karyağar, Savaş; Karatepe, Oğuzhan; Bender, Ömer; Mulazımoğlu, Mehmet; Özpaçaci, Tevfik; Uyanık, Ercan; Karyağar, Sevda S; Yalçın, Orhan; Özdenkaya, Yaşar

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not radio-guided surgery has any beneficial effects on completion thyroidectomy (CT) and the associated complication rates. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven patients were scheduled for CT, for thyroid carcinoma, from December 2004 to June 2005, and were included in the study. All the patients had had initial thyroid surgery in other centers and been referred to our clinic for CT. Operation findings and the effectiveness of Tc-99m radio-guided CT were analyzed. Results: The intraoperative mean ratio of thyroid activity to background activity counted with a gamma probe was 1.3 ± 0.3. Average operation timing was 74 ± 9 minutes. Postoperatively, no residual tissue was detected in any of the patients with ultrasonography and thyroid scintigraphy. In the first postoperative month, serum TSH level was 61 ± 16.4 mIU / L, when preoperatively it was 7.3 ± 3.1 mIU / L (P < 0.001). In the postoperative period, one patient experienced temporary hypoparathyroidism (3.9%). Permanent hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage was not detected in any patient. Conclusion: Tc-99 radio-guided CT is a reliable surgical method, which provides the detection and removal of residual thyroid tissues with minimal complications. PMID:20844663

  6. Prostate-specific membrane antigen-radioguided surgery for metastatic lymph nodes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Tobias; Weirich, Gregor; Schottelius, Margret; Weineisen, Martina; Frisch, Benjamin; Okur, Asli; Kübler, Hubert; Thalgott, Mark; Navab, Nassir; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Gschwend, Jürgen E; Eiber, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of (68)Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen-N,N'-bis[2-hydroxy-5-(carboxyethyl)benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid ((68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC) positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging in prostate cancer (PCa), even small metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) can be visualized. However, intraoperative detection of such LNs may not be easy owing to their inconspicuous morphology and/or atypical localization. The aim of our feasibility study was to evaluate PSMA-radioguided surgery for detection of metastatic LNs. One patient with primary PCa and evidence of LN metastases and four PCa patients with evidence of recurrent disease to regional LNs on (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET hybrid imaging received an intravenous injection of an (111)In-PSMA investigation and therapy agent 24h before surgery. Metastatic LNs were tracked intraoperatively using a gamma probe with acoustic and visual feedback. All radioactive-positive LN specimens detected in vivo were confirmed by ex vivo measurements and corresponded to PSMA-avid metastatic disease according to histopathology analysis. Intraoperative use of the gamma probe detected all PSMA-positive lesions identified on preoperative (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. Detection of small subcentimeter metastatic LNs was facilitated, and PSMA-radioguided surgery in two patients revealed additional lesions close to known tumor deposits that were not detected by preoperative (68)Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC PET. However, greater patient numbers and long-term follow-up data are needed to determine the future role of PSMA-radioguided surgery.

  7. Intraoperative spinal digital subtraction angiography: technique and results.

    PubMed

    Benes, Ludwig; Wakat, Jörg-Peter; Sure, Ulrich; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate technical and methodological aspects of intraoperative spinal digital subtraction angiography (ISDSA) in our clinical practice and to assess its practicability, safety, and accuracy for the surgical treatment of spinal vascular malformations. Between August 1997 and February 2002, a total of 30 patients were treated either surgically (n = 18) or endovascularly (n = 12) for spinal vascular lesions at our institution. The clinical records of five patients who underwent ISDSA were analyzed retrospectively. The thoracic segment was involved in three patients and the medullary cone in two. ISDSA could be performed in four cases. In one patient, the segmental artery could not be probed sufficiently while the patient was prone. No complications occurred from the application of ISDSA. The method was beneficial for the neurosurgeon in all but one patient because the vascular anatomy of the malformation was shown with respect to the surgical approach, including the nidus, and immediate resection control could be performed before wound closure. The duration of the procedure was prolonged by 45 minutes on average. ISDSA is safe and effective, especially in surgery for complex vascular and recurrent malformations. Benefits to the patient outweigh the additional expense and prolongation of the surgical procedure.

  8. Rescue Radioguided Laparoscopy Surgery for Meckel's Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Suarez, Manuel; Gil, Ismael; Salcini, José Luis; Lahoz, Manuel; De Gregorio, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The extirpation of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) via conventional or laparoscopic surgery is the definitive treatment. However, certain circumstances may modify or alter this situation and require the application of exceptional measures. We report a case under our observation who previously had an exploratory abdominal laparotomy for a suspected MD; however, the findings were negative. At that time, the diagnosis was established based on low-level gastrointestinal bleeding and isotopic tests that confirmed the existence of the diverticulum. Given the findings of gamma-graphic exploration and the previous negative surgical exploration, a decision was made to remove the lesion by laparoscopic radioguided surgery. The patient underwent bilateral laparoscopic radioguided surgery using a gamma radiation detection probe. The exploration of the abdominal cavity noted the existence of the diverticulum about 60 to 70 cm from the ileocecal valve. In this way, it was possible to proceed with the resection of the bowel loop and perform an intracorporeal anastomosis termino lateral. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the fifth postoperative day. We believe that the combination of radioguided surgery and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography could be useful for treating lesions in locations that are surgically difficult because of the characteristics of the lesion itself or the peculiarities of an individual patient. PMID:26107668

  9. Feasibility of a wireless gamma probe in radioguided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hye Min; Joo, Koan Sik

    2016-06-01

    Radioguided surgery through the use of a gamma probe is an established practice, and has been widely applied in the case of sentinel lymph node biopsies. A wide range of intraoperative gamma probes is commercially available. The primary characteristics of the gamma probes include their sensitivity, spatial resolution, and energy resolution. We present the results obtained from a prototype of a new wireless gamma probe. This prototype is composed of a 20 mm thick cerium-doped gadolinium aluminum gallium garnet (Ce:GAGG) inorganic scintillation crystal from Furukawa Denshi and a Hamamatsu S12572-100C multi-pixel photon counter equipped with a designed electronics. The measured performance characteristics include the energy resolution, energy linearity, angular aperture, spatial resolution and sensitivity. Measurements were carried out using 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, and 137Cs sources. The energy resolutions for 0.122 and 0.511 MeV were 17.2% and 6.9%, respectively. The designed prototype consumes an energy of approximately 4.4 W, weighs about 310 g (including battery) having a dimension of 20 mm (D)  ×  130 mm (L).

  10. Intraoperative monitoring by imaging and electrophysiological techniques during giant intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Durand, A; Penchet, G; Thines, L

    2016-02-01

    Difficulties in giant intracranial aneurysm surgery are the consequence of aneurysmal wall histology and the complex angioarchitecture of the vascular tree. In order to reduce complications and risks of those procedures, various imaging and electrophysiological techniques can be implemented perioperatively. The authors review the principles, goals and main results in this context of micro-Doppler and flowmeter techniques, near-infrared spectroscopy, operative microscope-integrated indocyanine green video-angiography, neuro-endoscopy, selective intraoperative angiography and electrophysiological monitoring.

  11. Real-time Intraoperative Fluorescent Lymphography: A New Technique for Lymphatic Sparing Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ietto, G; Amico, F; Soldini, G; Chiappa, C; Franchin, M; Iovino, D; Romanzi, A; Saredi, G; Cassinotti, E; Boni, L; Tozzi, M; Carcano, G

    2016-11-01

    Many surgical procedures can produce persistent lymphorrhea, lymphoceles, and lymphedema after lymph node and lymph vessel damage. Appropriate visualization of the lymphatic system is challenging. Indocyanine green (ICG) is a well-known nontoxic dye for lymphatic flow evaluation. ICG fluorescence-guided lymphography has emerged as a promising technique for intraoperative lymphatic mapping. Our goal was to develop a high spatial resolution, real-time intraoperative imaging technique to avoid or recognize early deep lymphatic vessel damage. We intraoperatively performed ICG fluorescence-guided lymphography during a kidney transplant. ICG was injected in the subcutaneous tissue of the patient's groin in the Scarpa's triangle. A dedicated laparoscopic high-definition camera system was used. Soon after ICG injection, the lymphatic vessels were identified in the abdominal retroperitoneal compartment as fluorescent linear structures running side by side to the iliac vessels. Surgical dissection was therefore performed, avoiding iatrogenic damage to major lymphatic structures. Another ICG injection at the end of the procedure confirmed that the lymphatic vessels were intact without lymph spread. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping with an ICG fluorescence-sensitive camera system is a safe and feasible procedure. ICG real-time fluorescence lymphography can be used to avoid or recognize early deep lymphatic vessel damage and reduce postoperative complications related to the lymphatic system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [INVASIVE TECHNIQUES AND INTRAOPERATIVE ECHOGRAPHY IN THE LOCALIZATION OF INSULINOMAS; A CASE REPORT].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Padillo-Cuenca, José C; Calañas Continente, Alfonso; Bahamondes-Opazo, Rodrigo; Muñoz-Jiménez, Concepción; Gálvez Moreno, María A

    2015-07-01

    The insulinoma is the most common pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. Surgery is curative in most cases, an appropriate preoperative localization allows a minimal invasive surgical technique for keeping the exo and endocrine function of the pancreas. Some authors suggest the use of invasive localization techniques just in cases with non-identified tumor lesion, others recommend their routinely use. We describe a case with clinical and biochemical diagnosis of insulinoma, conventional image studies revealed a tumor image in the pancreas which corresponded to a lipoma, the intraoperative ultrasound allowed the localization of the real tumor, but body-tail pancreatectomy was performed due to pancreatic necrosis in relation with the duration of the surgery. The systematic use of invasive localization techniques as the intra-arterial calcium stimulation and the pancreatic intraoperative ultrasound would allow a better localization of insulinoma for avoiding complications and associated morbidity.

  13. New stroboscopic light source and technique for intraoperative retinal fluorescein angiography during penetrating keratoplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; Morales, Ronald B.; Chong, Lawrence P.; Smith, Ronald E.

    1994-06-01

    We report the development of a new stroboscopic light source system and technique for performing intraoperative fluorescein angiography during penetrating keratoplasty for aphakic or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. A controllable pulse xenon light source system with a fiber optic endoilluminator probe is used to perform high-quality intraoperative fluorescein angiography during penetrating keratoplasty in pigmented rabbits and human subjects. Following corneal trephination and extraction of the intraocular lens, a temporary Cobo keratoprosthesis is secured while a 20-gauge endoilluminator is inserted into the vitreous cavity through a limbal incision. The endoilluminator is advanced to a retinal illumination area of approximately 3 DD and 10% fluorescein is injected intravenously. A microscope camera coupled to a 50:50 beamsplitter photographs the passage of fluorescein dye while the surgeon maintains an unaltered view through the operating microscope. Angiograms through a keratoprosthesis show excellent contrast and resolution, comparable to standard fluorescein angiography. Fine peripapillary vessels are seen reproducibly and with great detail in the rabbits. All the phases of retinal angiography can be seen, including arteriolar constriction and capillary nonperfusion in one of four human subjects examined. High quality intraoperative fluorescein angiography can be performed in patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for aphakic/ pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. With this technology, preexisting retinal disorders such as cystoid macular edema might be identified in the perioperative setting allowing for important management decisions to be made intraoperatively.

  14. Comparison of Intraoperatively Built Custom Linked Seeds Versus Loose Seed Gun Applicator Technique Using Real-Time Intraoperative Planning for Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zauls, A. Jason; Ashenafi, Michael S.; Onicescu, Georgiana; Clarke, Harry S.; Marshall, David T.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report our dosimetric results using a novel push-button seed delivery system that constructs custom links of seeds intraoperatively. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2007, 43 patients underwent implantation using a gun applicator (GA), and from 2007 to 2008, 48 patientsunderwent implantation with a novel technique allowing creation of intraoperatively built custom links of seeds (IBCL). Specific endpoint analyses were prostate D90% (pD90%), rV100% > 1.3 cc, and overall time under anesthesia. Results: Final analyses included 91 patients, 43 GA and 48 IBCL. Absolute change in pD90% ({Delta}pD90%) between intraoperative and postoperative plans was evaluated. Using GA method, the {Delta}pD90% was -8.1Gy and -12.8Gy for I-125 and Pd-103 implants, respectively. Similarly, the IBCL technique resulted in a {Delta}pD90% of -8.7Gy and -9.8Gy for I-125 and Pd-103 implants, respectively. No statistically significant difference in {Delta}pD90% was found comparing methods. The GA method had two intraoperative and 10 postoperative rV100% >1.3 cc. For IBCL, five intraoperative and eight postoperative plans had rV100% >1.3 cc. For GA, the mean time under anesthesia was 75 min and 87 min for Pd-103 and I-125 implants, respectively. For IBCL, the mean time was 86 and 98 min for Pd-103 and I-125. There was a statistical difference between the methods when comparing mean time under anesthesia. Conclusions: Dosimetrically relevant endpoints were equivalent between the two methods. Currently, time under anesthesia is longer using the IBCL technique but has decreased over time. IBCL is a straightforward brachytherapy technique that can be implemented into clinical practice as an alternative to gun applicators.

  15. Augmented reality-guided neurosurgery: accuracy and intraoperative application of an image projection technique.

    PubMed

    Besharati Tabrizi, Leila; Mahvash, Mehran

    2015-07-01

    An augmented reality system has been developed for image-guided neurosurgery to project images with regions of interest onto the patient's head, skull, or brain surface in real time. The aim of this study was to evaluate system accuracy and to perform the first intraoperative application. Images of segmented brain tumors in different localizations and sizes were created in 10 cases and were projected to a head phantom using a video projector. Registration was performed using 5 fiducial markers. After each registration, the distance of the 5 fiducial markers from the visualized tumor borders was measured on the virtual image and on the phantom. The difference was considered a projection error. Moreover, the image projection technique was intraoperatively applied in 5 patients and was compared with a standard navigation system. Augmented reality visualization of the tumors succeeded in all cases. The mean time for registration was 3.8 minutes (range 2-7 minutes). The mean projection error was 0.8 ± 0.25 mm. There were no significant differences in accuracy according to the localization and size of the tumor. Clinical feasibility and reliability of the augmented reality system could be proved intraoperatively in 5 patients (projection error 1.2 ± 0.54 mm). The augmented reality system is accurate and reliable for the intraoperative projection of images to the head, skull, and brain surface. The ergonomic advantage of this technique improves the planning of neurosurgical procedures and enables the surgeon to use direct visualization for image-guided neurosurgery.

  16. An accurate maxillary superior repositioning technique without intraoperative measurement in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Kimizuka, S; Iwai, T; Tohnai, I

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a simple and accurate technique for maxillary superior repositioning without any intraoperative measurement using reference points that can be the source of error in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. A bilateral straight locking miniplates (SLMs)/screw system secured to the maxilla and mandible maintains the three-dimensional relationship between the mandible and the skull base precisely like the incisor pin of an articulator in model surgery. The maxilla can then be accurately moved into the planned position identical to that in model surgery by the SLMs technique. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intraoperative Vagus Nerve Monitoring: A Transnasal Technique during Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, Christopher A.; Paskhover, Boris; Judson, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intraoperative vagus nerve monitoring during skull base surgery has been reported with the use of an oral nerve monitoring endotracheal tube. However, the intraoral presence of an endotracheal tube can limit exposure by its location in the operative field during transfacial approaches and by limiting superior mobilization of the mandible during transcervical approaches. We describe a transnasal vagus nerve monitoring technique. Design and Participants Ten patients underwent open skull base surgery. Surgical approaches included transcervical (five), transfacial/maxillary swing (three), and double mandibular osteotomy (two). The vagus nerve was identified, stimulated, and monitored in all cases. Main Outcome Measures Intraoperative nerve stimulation, pre- and postoperative vagus nerve function through the use of flexible laryngoscopy in conjunction with assessment of subjective symptoms of hoarseness, voice change, and swallowing difficulty. Results Three patients had extensive involvement of the nerve by tumor with complete postoperative nerve deficit, one patient had a transient deficit following dissection of tumor off of nerve with resolution, and the remaining patients had nerve preservation. One patient experienced minor epistaxis during monitor tube placement that was managed conservatively. Conclusions Transnasal vagal nerve monitoring is a simple method that allows for intraoperative monitoring during nerve preservation surgery without limiting surgical exposure. PMID:25844292

  18. A technique for intraoperative creation of patient-specific titanium mesh implants.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Ian Rp; Edwards, Glenn; Mainprize, James; Antonyshyn, Oleh

    2015-01-01

    Prefabricated, patient-specific alloplastic implants for cranioplasty reduce surgical complexity, decrease operative times, minimize exposure and risk of contamination, and have resulted in improved aesthetic results. However, in creating a prefabricated custom implant using a patient's computed tomography data, a stable, unalterable defect must be clearly defined before surgery. In the event that an intraoperative modification of an exiting skull defect is required, or in cases of tumour resection in which the size of the skull defect is unknown preoperatively, these prefabricated implants cannot be used. The ideal method for alloplastic cranioplasty would enable cost-effective creation of a patient-specific implant with the capacity for intraoperative modification. The present article describes a novel technique of cranioplasty that uses a patient's computed tomography data to create a custom forming tool (ie, mold), enabling intraoperative creation of a patient-specific titanium mesh implant. The utility of these implants in creating a custom reconstructive solution in cases in which the size of the skull defect is unknown preoperatively will be demonstrated using two case presentations.

  19. Intraoperative Vagus Nerve Monitoring: A Transnasal Technique during Skull Base Surgery.

    PubMed

    Schutt, Christopher A; Paskhover, Boris; Judson, Benjamin L

    2015-03-01

    Objectives Intraoperative vagus nerve monitoring during skull base surgery has been reported with the use of an oral nerve monitoring endotracheal tube. However, the intraoral presence of an endotracheal tube can limit exposure by its location in the operative field during transfacial approaches and by limiting superior mobilization of the mandible during transcervical approaches. We describe a transnasal vagus nerve monitoring technique. Design and Participants Ten patients underwent open skull base surgery. Surgical approaches included transcervical (five), transfacial/maxillary swing (three), and double mandibular osteotomy (two). The vagus nerve was identified, stimulated, and monitored in all cases. Main Outcome Measures Intraoperative nerve stimulation, pre- and postoperative vagus nerve function through the use of flexible laryngoscopy in conjunction with assessment of subjective symptoms of hoarseness, voice change, and swallowing difficulty. Results Three patients had extensive involvement of the nerve by tumor with complete postoperative nerve deficit, one patient had a transient deficit following dissection of tumor off of nerve with resolution, and the remaining patients had nerve preservation. One patient experienced minor epistaxis during monitor tube placement that was managed conservatively. Conclusions Transnasal vagal nerve monitoring is a simple method that allows for intraoperative monitoring during nerve preservation surgery without limiting surgical exposure.

  20. Radioguided surgery of parathyroid adenomas and recurrent thyroid cancer using the "low sestamibi dose" protocol.

    PubMed

    Rubello, Domenico; Fig, Lorraine M; Casara, Dario; Piotto, Andrea; Boni, Giuseppe; Pelizzo, Maria R; Shapiro, Brahm; Sandrucci, Sergio; Gross, Milton D; Mariani, Giuliano

    2006-06-01

    acquiring and interpreting preoperative imaging (planar scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], US); (2) an accurate selection of patients to whom MIRS is offered, especially in countries where the prevalence of nodular goiter with sestamibi-avid thyroid nodules (exclusion criteria for MIRS) is relatively high, as in mid-south-European countries; (3) it facilitates the work planning in the operating theater (bilateral neck exploration requires an operating time of at least double to that of MIRS); and (4) the radiation exposure dose to operating theater personnel is very low-substantially negligible, using the LSD protocol: This aspect assumes great importance in countries where radioproteximetric rules are stringent, as in Europe. PHPT patients. MIRS was successfully performed by a 1.5-2-cm skin incision in 287 of 298 PHPT patients (96.3%) in whom such an approach was scheduled on the basis of preoperative imaging, including 41 of 57 patients (71.9%) who had previously received thyroid or unsuccessful parathyroid surgery in another center. No case of major intraoperative complication was recorded. No case of persistent or recurrent PHPT was observed during postsurgical follow-up. DTC patients. A total of 79 metastatic lesions were intraoperatively detected by the gamma probe and successfully removed (68 of them had been correctly visualized at preoperative sestamibi scintigraphy). During subsequent follow-up, 18 patients (72%) were considered disease-free, whereas 7 had persistent disease (increased serum thyroglobulin levels). The radiation exposure dose to the surgeon using the LSD protocol was 1.2 uSi/hour, that is, 20-30-fold lower than that delivered with the HSD protocol used for PHPT patients and with the 131I protocol used for DTC patients with recurrence. On the basis of our data, it can be concluded that the LSD protocol is a safe and effective protocol to perform in both MIRS in PHPT patients and radioguided reoperation in DTC patients

  1. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    SciTech Connect

    Denmeade, Kristie A; Constable, Chris; Reed, Warren M

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  2. Innovation in early breast cancer surgery: radio-guided occult lesion localization and sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, G; Veronesi, U

    2002-07-01

    The surgical management of non-palpable breast lesions remains controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology we have introduced a new technique, radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL) to replace standard methods and overcome their disadvantages. Regarding axillary dissection, probe-guided biopsy of the sentinel node (SN) is easy to apply, and the whole procedure is associated to a low risk of false negatives. We suggest that the SN technique should be widely adopted to stage the axilla in patients with breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. Large-scale implementation of the sentinel node technique will reduce the cost of treatment as a result of shorter hospitalization times.

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Intraoperative Techniques for Margin Assessment in Breast Cancer Surgery: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    St John, Edward Robert; Al-Khudairi, Rashed; Ashrafian, Hutan; Athanasiou, Thanos; Takats, Zoltan; Hadjiminas, Dimitri John; Darzi, Ara; Leff, Daniel Richard

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative breast margin assessment (IMA) techniques against which the performance of emerging IMA technologies may be compared. IMA techniques have failed to penetrate routine practice due to limitations, including slow reporting times, technical demands, and logistics. Emerging IMA technologies are being developed to reduce positive margin and re-excision rates and will be compared with the diagnostic accuracy of existing techniques. Studies were identified using electronic bibliographic searches up to January 2016. MESH terms and all-field search terms included "Breast Cancer" AND "Intraoperative" AND "Margin." Only clinical studies with raw diagnostic accuracy data as compared with final permanent section histopathology were included. A bivariate model for diagnostic meta-analysis was used to attain overall pooled sensitivity and specificity. Eight hundred thirty-eight unique studies revealed 35 studies for meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity (Sens), specificity (Spec), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values were calculated per group (Sens, Spec, AUROC): frozen section = 86%, 96%, 0.96 (n = 9); cytology = 91%, 95%, 0.98 (n = 11); intraoperative ultrasound = 59%, 81%, 0.78 (n = 4); specimen radiography = 53%, 84%, 0.73 (n = 9); optical spectroscopy = 85%, 87%, 0.88 (n = 3). Pooled data suggest that frozen section and cytology have the greatest diagnostic accuracy. However, these methods are resource intensive and turnaround times for results have prevented widespread international adoption. Emerging technologies need to compete with the diagnostic accuracy of existing techniques while offering advantages in terms of speed, cost, and reliability.

  4. Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carcoforo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The ATA guidelines do not recommend prophylactic central compartment neck dissection in patients with T1–T2 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with no clinical evidence of lymph node metastasis, however patients’ staging is recommended. Lymph node metastasis may be present also in small PTC, but preoperative ultrasound identifies suspicious cervical lymphadenopathy in 20–30% of patients. The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remain open to debate. It has been shown that the identification rate of SLN in PTC patients is improved using a radiotracer compared to a dye technique. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the role of radioguided SLNB (rSLNB) in the treatment of PTC patients. Methods A systematic search was performed in the PubMed and Embase database to identify all original articles regarding the application of rSLNB in PTC patients. The primary outcome was false negative rate (FNR) of the rSLNB; the secondary outcomes were SLN intraoperative identification rate (IIR), site of lymph node metastasis, and persistent disease during follow up. Results Twelve studies were included. Most of PTC patients were T1–T2. The overall SLN IIR, SLN metastatic rate, and FNR were 92.1%, 33.6%, and 25.4%, respectively. Overall, lymph node metastasis were found in the central compartment (23.0%) and in the lateral compartments (10.6%). The persistent disease in patients who underwent SLNB associated to lymph node dissection (LND) in the same compartment of the SLN regardless of the SLN status was 0.6%. Conclusions In all PTC patients, also in T1–T2 stage, due to the high FNR the SLNB performed alone should be abandoned and converted into a technique to guide the lymphadenectomy in a specific neck compartment (i.e., central or lateral) based on the radioactivity, regardless of the SLN status, for better lymph node staging and selection of patients for postoperative radioiodine ablation. PMID:28149805

  5. A Modified Ogata-Goldsand Technique for Simplified Intraoperative Measurement of Femoral Version.

    PubMed

    Morris, William Z; Henry, Havalee; Liu, Raymond W; Streit, Jonathan J; Grant, Richard E; Cooperman, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    Femoral anteversion can be difficult to determine intraoperatively, particularly in cases with complicated deformity. Although biplanar methodology exists for measuring femoral anteversion, the measurements are generally based on the proximal femur, without consideration for the femoral bow. We directly measured femoral version in 70 mature cadaveric femora. Using the standard Ogata-Goldsand approach, femoral version was geometrically calculated after measuring apparent neck-shaft angle and the β-angle, which is the angle between the femoral neck and proximal femoral shaft on a direct lateral view. We then used a modified β-angle, measured between the femoral neck and a line representing the entire femur. Mean anatomic femoral anteversion was 20±11 degrees. Mean calculated femoral version using the standard Ogata-Goldsand technique was 32±13 degrees, whereas mean calculated femoral version using the modified Ogata-Goldsand technique was 22±12 degrees. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis found an overall statistically significant difference between the 3 groups (P<0.0001). Pairwise comparisons revealed a significant difference between directly measured version and the standard Ogata-Goldsand technique (P<0.0001) but not between directly measured version and the modified Ogata-Goldsand technique (P=0.76). Standard biplanar imaging techniques do not account for the femoral bow and can significantly overestimate femoral anteversion. If a line is drawn from the posterior femoral condyles to the posterior aspect of the greater trochanter, femoral anteversion is better approximated. Intraoperatively, we obtain this line by positioning a marker over the skin under fluoroscopy. Clinically, if one aims for a modified β-angle of 5 degrees, a postosteotomy anteroposterior radiograph is no longer necessary, given the knowledge that with apparent neck-shaft angles ranging from 115 to 155 degrees, version will lie within a generally accepted range between 2 and 11 degrees. In

  6. Clinical impact of intraoperative navigation using a Doppler ultrasonographic guided vessel tracking technique for pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Maemura, Kosei; Mataki, Yuko; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Iino, Satoshi; Sakoda, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinichi; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Takao, Sonshin; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    During pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), early ligation of critical vessels such as the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) has been reported to reduce blood loss. Color Doppler flow imaging has become the useful diagnostic methods for the delineation of the anatomy. In this study, we assessed the utility of the intraoperative Doppler ultrasonography (Dop-US) guided vessel detection and tracking technique (Dop-Navi) for identifying critical arteries in order to reduce operative bleeding. Ninety patients who received PD for periampullary or pancreatic disease were enrolled. After 14 patients were excluded because of combined resection of portal vein or other organs, the remaining were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: patients for whom Dop-Navi was used (n = 37) and those for whom Dop-Navi was not used (n = 39; controls). We compared the ability of Dop-Navi to identify critical vessels to that of preoperative multi-detector computed tomography (MD-CT), using MD-CT data, as well as compared the perioperative status and postoperative outcome between the 2 patient groups. Intraoperative Dop-US was significantly superior to MD-CT in terms of identifying number of vessels and the ability to discriminate the IPDA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) based on blood flow velocity. The Dop-Navi patients had shorter operation times (531 min versus 577 min; no significance) and smaller bleeding volumes (1120 mL versus 1590 mL; P < 0.01) than the control patients without increasing postoperative complications. Intraoperative Dop-Navi method allows surgeons to clearly identify the IPDA during PD and to avoid injuries to major arteries.

  7. Clinical Impact of Intraoperative Navigation Using a Doppler Ultrasonographic Guided Vessel Tracking Technique for Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Maemura, Kosei; Mataki, Yuko; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Iino, Satoshi; Sakoda, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinichi; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Takao, Sonshin; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    During pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), early ligation of critical vessels such as the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) has been reported to reduce blood loss. Color Doppler flow imaging has become the useful diagnostic methods for the delineation of the anatomy. In this study, we assessed the utility of the intraoperative Doppler ultrasonography (Dop-US) guided vessel detection and tracking technique (Dop-Navi) for identifying critical arteries in order to reduce operative bleeding. Ninety patients who received PD for periampullary or pancreatic disease were enrolled. After 14 patients were excluded because of combined resection of portal vein or other organs, the remaining were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: patients for whom Dop-Navi was used (n = 37) and those for whom Dop-Navi was not used (n = 39; controls). We compared the ability of Dop-Navi to identify critical vessels to that of preoperative multi-detector computed tomography (MD-CT), using MD-CT data, as well as compared the perioperative status and postoperative outcome between the 2 patient groups. Intraoperative Dop-US was significantly superior to MD-CT in terms of identifying number of vessels and the ability to discriminate the IPDA from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) based on blood flow velocity. The Dop-Navi patients had shorter operation times (531 min versus 577 min; no significance) and smaller bleeding volumes (1120 mL versus 1590 mL; P < 0.01) than the control patients without increasing postoperative complications. Intraoperative Dop-Navi method allows surgeons to clearly identify the IPDA during PD and to avoid injuries to major arteries. PMID:25437586

  8. Radio-guided Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy: A Descriptive Report of the Experience from Tertiary Center in Bangalore.

    PubMed

    Vidya, Bhushan; Chauhan, Shubhra; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Sunil, H V; Pillai, Vijay; Shetty, Vivek; Vijayaraghavan, R L; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Kannan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is an accepted surgical procedure for parathyroid adenomas. In the patients with parathyroid adenoma localized by dual phase (99m)Tc-Sestamibi scan, a focused approach utilizing the gamma probe intra-operatively helps in ensuring complete resection and avoiding exploration of the other parathyroid glands. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of radio-guided MIP for parathyroid adenomas detected by dual phase (99m)Tc-MIBI preoperatively, without intra-operative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) monitoring for patients who had evidence of single-gland disease. A retrospective dataset of 30 patients diagnosed with solitary parathyroid adenoma operated between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. All of the patients underwent radio-guided MIP and were followed up for at least 6 months post-operatively. The biochemical parameters (serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone levels), imaging parameters (ultrasonography and (99m)Tc-MIBI), and operative times were analyzed. Our study consisted of 30 patients with 50% females, with a mean age of 42.5 + 12 years. The mean surgical duration was 20 + 12 min. All of the patients achieved biochemical cure (normalization of serum calcium) and remained eucalcemic at follow-up. No major surgical complications were noted. Focused parathyroidectomy using the gamma probe localization could be a potential alternative for ioPTH assay in ensuring the completeness of surgical resection of parathyroid adenoma. It is also likely to shorten operative time.

  9. Charcoal Suspension Tattoo: A New Technique for Intraoperative Detection of Small Tumors of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, Giancarlo; Cova, Maria Assunta; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Da Mosto, Maria Cristina; Makuc, Elisa; Gardenal, Nicoletta

    2016-07-01

    The current surgical trend in the treatment of pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland is to limit the extent of resection. This raises the need to correctly identify the mass within the normal parenchyma so as to avoid dissecting the entire superficial lobe of the gland. We describe ultrasound-guided tattooing as a technique to facilitate identification and excision of parotid pleomorphic adenomas. We reviewed 23 consecutive patients with pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland. All patients underwent ultrasound-guided tattooing of the lesions with a charcoal suspension. Baseline tumor and patients' characteristics, major and minor complications, and subjective tolerance to the procedure were recorded. We assessed the number of intralesionally marked masses and the percentage of intraoperatively detected marked lesions. The injection was well tolerated. No major complications were recorded. In 2 cases (9%), a transient increase in lesion size was observed. No other minor complications were encountered. Charcoal was found inside the tumor in 19 cases (83%). In 4 cases (17%), it was found in the tissues above the lesion. Twenty-three lesions were intraoperatively detected (100%) and dissected. Charcoal suspension tattooing is safe and well tolerated for the detection of small pleomorphic adenomas during parotid surgery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Intraoperative technique to define the safe lateral limits of anterior cervical corpectomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Friess, Darin M; Yoo, Jung U

    2006-08-01

    We describe a surgical radiographic technique during anterior cervical corpectomy to define the safe lateral limit of dissection. To assess the radiographic technique accuracy using computed tomography (CT) measurements on cadaveric specimens. Two clinical cases are presented. During anterior cervical surgery loss of orientation can lead to eccentric decompression and vertebral artery injury. A two-level corpectomy on 4 cadaveric samples was filled with radioopaque dye. An "introperative" antero-posterior x-ray was used to measure the narrowest distance from dye column to uncovertebral joints. A CT scan confirmed the distance from corpectomy to vertebral arteries. The distance between the x-ray dye column and uncovertebral joints averaged 2.7 mm (range, 0 to 7+/-2.2 mm). A CT scan demonstrated the distance from corpectomy to vertebral artery averaged 4.5 mm (range, 0 to 10+/-4.4 mm). The measured distance underestimated the true distance by an average of 1.8 mm (range, 0 to 8+/-2.2 mm). An intraoperative radiographic technique can estimate the lateral distance between the corpectomy and vertebral arteries by measuring the distance from the dye column to uncovertebral joints. The dye radiographic technique provides the surgeon an additional margin of safety.

  11. Intraoperative hemodilution and autologous platelet rich plasma collection: two techniques for collecting fresh autologous blood.

    PubMed

    Triulzi, D J; Ness, P M

    1995-03-01

    Intraoperative hemodilution (IH) and autologous platelet rich plasma (APRP) collection are two techniques used to obtain autologous blood in the operating room. They have been used to reduce allogeneic blood exposure in patients undergoing both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Both components have the advantage of providing fresh blood not subject to the storage lesion. Whole blood (IH) or platelet rich plasma is removed from the patient as anesthesia is induced and replaced with acellular fluid. The blood is transfused back after bypass or major bleeding has ceased. Although used commonly, the data supporting the use of either technique are controversial. Methodologic problems which have confounded studies evaluating their utility include: poorly defined transfusion criteria, concommitant use of other blood conservation techniques (i.e. cell salvage, pharmacologic agents, hypothermia, controlled hypotension) and changing transfusion practices with greater tolerance of normovolemic anemia. Randomized controlled studies with well defined up to date transfusion criteria are needed to identify patients likely to benefit from these techniques.

  12. [Occult breast cancer. Detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTc-MIBI].

    PubMed

    Barberá, L; Illanes, L; Terrier, F; Dopta, G

    2003-01-01

    We include those patients who present with an isolated metastasis of axillary adenopathy in the occult primary breast cancer group. Presumably, the primary tumor is a primitive breast carcinoma, unsuspected until this moment and not clinically demonstrable by mammography or ultrasonography. When no method succeeds in confirming the primary breast lesion, the patients are usually treated assuming the existing of breast cancer. Several diagnostic methods have been used to find the primary breast lesion. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI), Positron Emission (PET) and Doppler sonography have been used in this way and several papers present the results reached with them. Our group incorporates detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTechnetium (99mTc) methoxyisobutil isonitrile into the study of these patients. We perform a planar scintimammography and SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) with 99mTc-MIBI. If the radioisotopic method shows a functional image compatible with a carcinoma, a gamma detecting probe is then used to locate the lesion and guide its surgical removal. In this paper, we present the application of the technique in 5 cases and describe the technique and its possibilities. Its advantages are explained in comparison with other methods. The dosimetric values found in the performance of the technique are reported. We consider that detection and radioguided surgery with 99mTc-MIBI in the diagnosis and treatment of occult breast cancer adds an effective tool and means progress in the approach to this disease.

  13. Preoperative incisional and intraoperative frozen section biopsy techniques have comparable accuracy in the diagnosis of benign intraosseous jaw pathology.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, David; Peacock, Zachary S; Sadow, Peter; Dodson, Thomas B; August, Meredith

    2012-11-01

    To compare the accuracy of intraoperative frozen section (FS) and preoperative incisional biopsy (IB) techniques to diagnose benign intraosseous jaw lesions. This is a retrospective cohort study composed of subjects with benign intraosseous jaw lesions. The predictor variable was the technique for establishing a preliminary diagnosis of the lesion, preoperative IB or intraoperative FS. The outcome variable was the accuracy of the biopsy technique when compared with the final histologic diagnosis and was classified as concordant or discordant. The comparative diagnostic accuracy of the techniques was assessed with the χ(2) test. A total of 71 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 39 years (range, 5 to 85 years), and 58% (41) were male patients. Of the subjects, 20 (28%) underwent IB. In 14 (70%) of these, the results of biopsy agreed with the final diagnosis. 51 (72%) underwent intraoperative FS and in 31 (62%) of these, the results of biopsy agreed with the final diagnosis. The difference in diagnostic accuracy between IB (70%) and FS (61%) was statistically insignificant (P = .48). Sources of biopsy error included sampling error (46%), insufficient epithelial tissue (15%), inflammation (15%), pathologist's experience (8%), and artifact (4%). Preoperative IB and intraoperative FS provide comparable accuracy of diagnosis in patients with benign intraosseous jaw pathology. Sampling error was the most common reason for discordant results. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous Intraoperative Neuromonitoring (C-IONM) Technique with the Automatic Periodic Stimulating (APS) Accessory for Conventional and Endoscopic Thyroid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Hui, Sun; Wu, Chei-Wei; Xiaoli, Liu; Ferrari, Cesare Carlo; Mangano, Alberto; Lianos, Georgios D; Leotta, Andrea; Lavazza, Matteo; Frattini, Francesco; Annoni, Matteo; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important trends in intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) in thyroid surgery is currently the real-time monitoring of the vagus nerve (VN) in order to prevent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) iatrogenic damages. Notably, continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (C-IONM) seems to be superior to intermitted intraoperative neural monitoring (I-IONM) because it enhances standardization by permanent vagus nerve (VN) stimulation, and it provides entire and constant RLN function monitoring as the surgeon dissects and removes the thyroid gland. It also has to be highlighted that the surgical maneuvers for the automatic periodic stimulating (APS) placement must be accurate and standardized in order to avoid a potential iatrogenic morbidity on the VN function. We recommend the experienced surgeon be very careful in each step, with cautious dissection. With this review article we provide a comprehensive analyses of C-IONM technique with the APS accessory for conventional and endoscopic thyroid surgery.

  15. Influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain during endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martín-González, Jenifer; Echevarría-Pérez, Marta; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Tarilonte-Delgado, Maria L.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; López-Frías, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain experienced by patients during endodontic therapy. Method and Materials: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Ponferrada and Sevilla, Spain, including 80 patients (46 men and 34 women), with ages ranged from 10 to 74 years, randomly recruited. Patient gender and age, affected tooth, pulpal diagnosis, periapical status, previous NSAID or antibiotic (AB) treatment, and root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques were recorded. After root canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain. Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square and ANOVA tests and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean pain level during root canal treatment was 2.9 ± 3.0 (median = 2) in a VAS between 0 and 10. Forty percent of patients experienced no pain. Gender, age, arch, previous NSAIDs or AB treatment and anaesthetic type did not influence significantly the pain level (p > 0.05). Pain during root canal treatment was significantly greater in molar teeth (OR = 10.1; 95% C.I. = 1.6 - 63.5; p = 0.013). Root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques did not affect significantly patient’s pain during root canal treatment (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Patients feel more pain when RCT is carried out on molar teeth. The root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques do not affect significantly the patients’ pain during RCT. Key words:Anaesthesia, endodontic pain, pulpitis, root canal instrumentation, root canal obturation, rotary files. PMID:22549694

  16. First Experiences with Navigated Radio-Guided Surgery Using Freehand SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, A.; Saeckl, J.; Belloni, B.; Hein, R.; Okur, A.; Scheidhauer, K.; Wendler, T.; Traub, J.; Friess, H.; Martignoni, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma using one-dimensional gamma probes is a standard of care worldwide. Reports on the performance are claimed by most groups to successfully detect the SLNs during the surgical procedure in almost 100% of the patients. In clinical practice, however, several issues remain which are usually not addressed: the difficulty of intraoperative detection of deeply located nodes, SLN detection in obese patients or in the groin and the impossibility to make a scan of the entire wound after SLN resection to avoid false negative testing for eventually remaining SLNs. Materials and Methods The concept behind freehand SPECT is to combine a gamma probe as used for conventional radio-guided surgery with a tracking system as used in neurosurgical navigation. From this combination and a proper algorithm framework the 3D reconstruction of radioactivity distributions and displaying these intraoperatively is possible. Conclusion In summary, the feasibility of freehand SPECT could be shown and provides an image-guided SLNB and a truly minimally invasive and optimized surgical procedure. PMID:21941492

  17. Use of radioguided surgery with [111In]-pentetreotide in the management of an ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid causing ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grossrubatscher, E; Vignati, F; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Belloni, P A; Vanzulli, A; Bramerio, M; Marocchi, A; Rossetti, O; Zurleni, F; Loli, P

    2005-01-01

    Intraoperative [111In]-pentetreotide scintigraphy with a hand-held gamma detector probe has recently been proposed to increase the intraoperative detection rate of small neuroendocrine tumors and their metastases. We report a case of a 28-yr-old woman with ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to an ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid, in whom the use of radioguided surgery improved disease management. At presentation, radiolabeled pentetreotide scintigraphy was the only procedure able to detect the ectopic source of ACTH. After radiologic confirmation, the patient underwent removal of a bronchial carcinoid, with disease persistence. After surgery, pentetreotide scintigraphy showed pathologic uptake in the mediastinum not previously detected at surgery and only subsequently confirmed by radiologic studies. Despite a second thoracic exploration, hormonal, scintigraphic, and radiological evidence of residual disease persisted. Radioguided surgery was then performed using a hand-held gamma probe 48 h after iv administration of a tracer dose of radiolabeled [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]-pentetreotide, which permitted detection and removal of multiple residual mediastinal lymph node metastases. Clinical and radiologic cure, with no evidence of tracer uptake at pentetreotide scintigraphy, was subsequently observed. The use of an intraoperative gamma counter appears a promising procedure in the management of metastatic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids.

  18. Original technique for preoperative preparation of patients and intraoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas

    PubMed Central

    PASTA, V.; MONTELEONE, F.; DEL VECCHIO, L.; IACOBELLI, S.; URCIUOLI, P.; D’ORAZI, V.

    2015-01-01

    Surgical approach of single parathyroid adenoma treatment is turning to a less invasive surgery, allowing us to obtain better aesthetic results, reduction of duration of surgical operation, reduction of post-operative morbidity and hospital stay. Tc99m-sestaMIBI scintigraphy is mainly performed for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. Our technique is instead based on the possibility to inhibit the interference of Tc99m-sestaMIBI uptake of the thyroid gland by means of the administration of Lugol’s solution. Indeed, to confirm the identification and removal of the hyperfunctional parathyroid, it is accepted as adequate an ex vivo radioactivity count of the adenoma 20% or 40% greater than the value of the post-excisional background radioactivity, in association or not with intraoperative measurement of PTH. This method allows us to perform surgery with no timetable restriction, and to clearly distinguish the radioactivity of parathyroid adenoma from that of the surrounding tissues and thyroid gland. PMID:26188752

  19. The GOSTT concept and hybrid mixed/virtual/augmented reality environment radioguided surgery.

    PubMed

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Vidal-Sicart, S; Giammarile, F; Zaknun, J J; Van Leeuwen, F W; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    The popularity gained by the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in the last two decades did increase the interest of the surgical disciplines for other applications of radioguided surgery. An example is the gamma-probe guided localization of occult or difficult to locate neoplastic lesions. Such guidance can be achieved by intralesional delivery (ultrasound, stereotaxis or CT) of a radiolabelled agent that remains accumulated at the site of the injection. Another possibility rested on the use of systemic administration of a tumour-seeking radiopharmaceutical with favourable tumour accumulation and retention. On the other hand, new intraoperative imaging devices for radioguided surgery in complex anatomical areas became available. All this a few years ago led to the delineation of the concept Guided intraOperative Scintigraphic Tumour Targeting (GOSTT) to include the whole spectrum of basic and advanced nuclear medicine procedures required for providing a roadmap that would optimise surgery. The introduction of allied signatures using, e.g. hybrid tracers for simultaneous detection of the radioactive and fluorescent signals did amply the GOSTT concept. It was now possible to combine perioperative nuclear medicine imaging with the superior resolution of additional optical guidance in the operating room. This hybrid approach is currently in progress and probably will become an important model to follow in the coming years. A cornerstone in the GOSTT concept is constituted by diagnostic imaging technologies like SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT was introduced halfway the past decade and was immediately incorporated into the SLN procedure. Important reasons attributing to the success of SPECT/CT were its combination with lymphoscintigraphy, and the ability to display SLNs in an anatomical environment. This latter aspect has significantly been improved in the new generation of SPECT/CT cameras and provides the base for the novel mixed reality protocols of image-guided surgery. In

  20. Kumar versus Olsen cannulation technique for intraoperative cholangiography: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Buddingh, K Tim; Bosma, Ben M; Samaniego-Cameron, Brenda; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O; Hofker, H Sijbrand; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Ploeg, Rutger J; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B

    2013-03-01

    There is resistance to routine intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during cholecystectomy because it prolongs surgery and may be experienced as cumbersome. An alternative instrument may help to reduce these drawbacks and lower the threshold for IOC. This trial compared the Kumar cannulation technique to the more commonly used Olsen clamp for IOC (KOALA trial; Dutch Trial Register NTR2582). Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized between IOC using the Kumar clamp and the Olsen clamp. Primary end points were the time that the IOC procedure took and its perceived ease as measured on a visual analog scale from 0 (impossible) to 10 (effortless). To detect a difference of 33 % in IOC time, a total sample size of 40 patients was required. Fifty-nine patients were randomized. Nine were excluded because of conversion to open cholecystectomy before the IOC procedure. Twenty-eight patients underwent IOC with the Kumar clamp and 22 with the Olsen clamp. The success rate was 23 (82.1 %) of 28 for the Kumar clamp and 19 (86.4 %) of 22 for the Olsen clamp (p > 0.999). The mean IOC time was 10 min 27 s ± 6 min 17 s using the Kumar clamp and 11 min 34 s ± 7 min 27 s using the Olsen clamp (p = 0.537). Surgeons graded the ease of the Kumar clamp as 6.8 ± 2.7 and the Olsen clamp as 6.8 ± 2.1 (p = 0.977). IOC using the Kumar clamp was neither faster nor easier than using the Olsen clamp. Both clamps facilitated IOC in just over 10 min. Individual surgeon preference should dictate which clamp is used.

  1. Application of Rapid Prototyping Technique and Intraoperative Navigation System for the Repair and Reconstruction of Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Lee, Yong Hae; Ruy, Wan Chul; Roe, Young; Moon, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Restoring the orbital cavity in large blow out fractures is a challenge for surgeons due to the anatomical complexity. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes and orbital volume after orbital wall fracture repair using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique and intraoperative navigation system. Methods This prospective study was conducted on the medical records and radiology records of 12 patients who had undergone a unilateral blow out fracture reconstruction using a RP technique and an intraoperative navigation system from November 2014 to March 2015. The surgical results were assessed by an ophthalmic examination and a comparison of the preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. Results All patients had a successful treatment outcome without complications. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant decrease in the mean OVR from 1.0952±0.0662 (ranging from 0.9917 to 1.2509) preoperatively to 0.9942±0.0427 (ranging from 0.9394 to 1.0680) postoperatively. Conclusion The application of a RP technique for the repair of orbital wall fractures is a useful tool that may help improve the clinical outcomes by understanding the individual anatomy, determining the operability, and restoring the orbital cavity volume through optimal implant positioning along with an intraoperative navigation system. PMID:28913272

  2. Application of Rapid Prototyping Technique and Intraoperative Navigation System for the Repair and Reconstruction of Orbital Wall Fractures.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Lee, Yong Hae; Ruy, Wan Chul; Roe, Young; Moon, Myung Ho; Jung, Sung Gyun

    2016-09-01

    Restoring the orbital cavity in large blow out fractures is a challenge for surgeons due to the anatomical complexity. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes and orbital volume after orbital wall fracture repair using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique and intraoperative navigation system. This prospective study was conducted on the medical records and radiology records of 12 patients who had undergone a unilateral blow out fracture reconstruction using a RP technique and an intraoperative navigation system from November 2014 to March 2015. The surgical results were assessed by an ophthalmic examination and a comparison of the preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. All patients had a successful treatment outcome without complications. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant decrease in the mean OVR from 1.0952±0.0662 (ranging from 0.9917 to 1.2509) preoperatively to 0.9942±0.0427 (ranging from 0.9394 to 1.0680) postoperatively. The application of a RP technique for the repair of orbital wall fractures is a useful tool that may help improve the clinical outcomes by understanding the individual anatomy, determining the operability, and restoring the orbital cavity volume through optimal implant positioning along with an intraoperative navigation system.

  3. Three core techniques in surgery of neuroepithelial tumors in eloquent areas: awake anaesthesia, intraoperative direct electrical stimulation and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hong-Min; Wang, Wei-Min; Li, Tian-Dong; He, Huan; Shi, Chong; Guo, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Yan; Wang, Li-Min; Wang, Sha-Sha

    2011-10-01

    The goal of surgery in the treatment of intrinsic cerebral tumors is to resect the maximum tumor volume, and to spare the eloquent areas. However, it is difficult to discover the eloquent areas intraoperatively due to individual anatomo-functional variability both for sensori-motor and language functions. Consequently, the surgery of intrinsic cerebral tumors frequently results in poor extent of resection or permanent postoperative deficits, or both, and remains a difficult problem for neurosurgeons. From January 2003 to January 2010, 112 patients with neuroepithelial tumors in/close to the eloquent areas were operated on under awake anesthesia with the intraoperative direct electrical stimulation for functional mapping of the eloquent areas. The extent of the tumors was verified by intraoperative ultrasonography. The maximal resection of the tumors and minimal damage of the eloquent areas were the surgical goal of all patients. Totally 356 cortical sites in 99 patients were detected for motor response by intraoperative direct electrical stimulation, 50 sites in 16 patients for sensory, 72 sites in 48 patients for language. Sixty-six patients (58.9%) achieved total resection, 34 (30.4%) subtotal and 12 (10.7%) partial. Fifty-eight patients (51.8%) had no postoperative deficit, while 37 patients (33.0%) had transitory postoperative paralysis, 26 patients (23.2%) with transitory postoperative language disturbance and 3 patients (2.7%) with permanent neurological deficits. No patient complained of pain recollection following operation. Awake anesthesia, intraoperative direct electrical stimulation and ultrasonography are three core techniques for the resection of intrinsic cerebral tumors near the eloquent areas. This new concept allows an improvement in the quality of surgery for neuroepithelial tumors in/adjacent to eloquent areas.

  4. Radio-guided Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy: A Descriptive Report of the Experience from Tertiary Center in Bangalore

    PubMed Central

    Vidya, Bhushan; Chauhan, Shubhra; Chandrasekhar, Naveen Hedne; Sunil, HV; Pillai, Vijay; Shetty, Vivek; Vijayaraghavan, RL; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Kannan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Overview: Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is an accepted surgical procedure for parathyroid adenomas. In the patients with parathyroid adenoma localized by dual phase 99mTc-Sestamibi scan, a focused approach utilizing the gamma probe intra-operatively helps in ensuring complete resection and avoiding exploration of the other parathyroid glands. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of radio-guided MIP for parathyroid adenomas detected by dual phase 99mTc-MIBI preoperatively, without intra-operative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) monitoring for patients who had evidence of single-gland disease. Patients and Methods: A retrospective dataset of 30 patients diagnosed with solitary parathyroid adenoma operated between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. All of the patients underwent radio-guided MIP and were followed up for at least 6 months post-operatively. The biochemical parameters (serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone levels), imaging parameters (ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI), and operative times were analyzed. Results: Our study consisted of 30 patients with 50% females, with a mean age of 42.5 + 12 years. The mean surgical duration was 20 + 12 min. All of the patients achieved biochemical cure (normalization of serum calcium) and remained eucalcemic at follow-up. No major surgical complications were noted. Conclusions: Focused parathyroidectomy using the gamma probe localization could be a potential alternative for ioPTH assay in ensuring the completeness of surgical resection of parathyroid adenoma. It is also likely to shorten operative time. PMID:28680200

  5. Radioimmunoguided-intraoperative radiation therapy in colorectal carcinoma: a new technique to precisely define the clinical target volume.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Martinez-Monge, R; Nieroda, C; Martin, E

    1999-04-01

    The clinical target volume (CTV) to be irradiated by intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) after resection is generally based on the surgeon's estimation of close margins. We have developed a new technique, radioimmunoguided-intraoperative radiation therapy (RIG-IORT), that uses an intraoperative hand-held gamma-detecting probe to define areas of residual microscopic disease containing radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to tumor associated antigen, to more precisely delineate the CTV for IORT. Patients were injected i.v. with 2 mCi 125I- radiolabeled CC49 antibody approximately 3 weeks before surgery. They then underwent radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS) with maximal resection of tumor. A hand-held gamma-detecting probe (Neoprobe 1000) was used intraoperatively to detect and resect areas of high radioactivity, representing tumor. Areas with persistently high probe counts after resection were the areas of occult residual disease, and represented the CTV to be irradiated. The IORT was given with either 6-9 MeV electron beam from a dedicated linear accelerator, or with high-dose-rate brachytherapy from a remote afterloader. If all RIGS-positive tissue had been resected, or if widely disseminated disease remained, the patient was not considered for IORT. This technique was used in 31 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma recurrent into the pelvis (n = 23) or paraortic nodes (n = 8). The CTV for IORT was delineated by increased RIGS count in 13 of 19 patients (68%) with microscopic residual, and in 11 of 12 patients (92%) with gross residual. In the other 7 patients, the tumor area did not accumulate the radiolabeled antibody; therefore, these tumor beds were irradiated based on the surgeon's estimation of close margins. Hence, overall, the RIG-IORT technique was used to define the tumor bed for IORT in 24 of 31 patients (77%). This technical report focuses on the development of the RIG-IORT technique and does not address the outcome results of the treated patients

  6. Sentinel node detection and radioguided occult lesion localization in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Trifirò, Guiseppe; Lavinia Travaini, Laura; De Cicco, Concetta; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy might replace complete axillary dissection for staging of the axilla in clinically N0 breast cancer patients and represent a significant advantage as a minimally invasive procedure, considering that about 70% of patients are found to be free from metastatic disease, yet axillary node dissection can lead to significant morbidity. In our Institute, Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization is the standard method to locate non-palpable breast lesions and the gamma probes is very effective in assisting intra-operative localization and removal, as in sentinel node biopsy. The rapid spread of sentinel lymph node biopsy has led to its use in clinical settings previously considered contraindications to sentinel lymph node biopsy. In this contest, we evaluated in a large group of patients possible factors affecting sentinel node detection and the reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy carried out after large excisional breast biopsy. Our data confirm that a previous breast surgery does not prohibit efficient sentinel lymph node localization and sentinel lymph node biopsy can correctly stage the axialla in these patients.

  7. Evaluation of a visual matching registration technique for intraoperative surgery support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buck, Stijn; Van Cleynenbreugel, Johan; Marchal, Guy; Suetens, Paul

    2002-05-01

    In the field of image-guided surgery, registration of pre- and intra-operative images is an important, yet sometimes cumbersome procedure. Visual matching, consisting of a manual alignment of such images can improve the efficiency of registration. In this paper we investigate the accuracy of a visual matching system. A number of tests, including mono and stereo visualization of real and virtual objects, was set up. Seven test subjects were asked to register pre- and intra-operative images while accuracy and registration time were measured. The error analysis led to the conclusion that one can accurately match a virtual phantom with a real one in directions perpendicular to the viewing direction. The depth accuracy though is insufficient for registration purposes, even when using stereo perception. We conclude that visual matching can be complementary to more automatic registration methods or even a valuable alternative in applications where the viewing directions are nearly perpendicular as in bi-plane fluoroscopy.

  8. The First Simultaneous Intraoperative Hyperthermia and Radiotherapy Procedure: Dog Experiment and Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ashayeri, Ebrahim; Halyard, Michele; Goldson, Alfred L.; Cruz, Leon; Nibhanupudy, J. Rao; DeWitty, Robert; Galal, Fathy; Marquis, Bernard; Slaughter, Lynnard; Landes, Fred

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Radiation Therapy of Howard University Hospital was the first to revive (1976) the use of intraoperative radiotherapy, or direct view irradiation, using electron beam (IORTe−) in the United States. Since that time, this pioneering effort has gained both national and international acceptance. Now, many leading centers employ this investigational treatment modality. Recently, a new mode of cancer therapy has been gaining acceptance, namely hyperthermia (the treatment of cancer by heat). Hyperthermia has been shown, both experimentally and clinically, to improve the rate of local control (thermal enchancement ratio [TER]) when combined with radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer. Maximal TER has been observed with simultaneous or immediate application of radiation and hyperthermia for both tumor and normal tissues. Therefore, to achieve maximum therapeutic gain, selective, intraoperative, simultaneous heating and irradiation of the tumor with mechanical retraction of the normal and sensitive structures from the treatment field seems a promising alternative. There have been no published reports, to the authors' knowledge, on the combination of simultaneous IORTe− with intraoperative hyperthermia (IOHT). To employ this combination in human subjects, several questions must be answered first using animal models, including the technical and practical feasibility, the toxicity and morbidity, as well as the pathologic changes that may arise. The technical aspects of the first animal case, using a mongrel dog, applying simultaneous IORTe− and IOHT are presented. PMID:3112416

  9. Intraoperative Ultrasonography during Drainage for Chronic Subdural Hematomas: A Technique to Release Isolated Deep-seated Hematomas—Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    SHIMIZU, Satoru; MOCHIZUKI, Takahiro; OSAWA, Shigeyuki; KUMABE, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    After the drainage of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs), residual isolated deep-seated hematomas (IDHs) may recur. We introduce intraoperative ultrasonography to detect and remove such IDHs. Intra-operative ultrasonography is performed with fine transducers introduced via burr holes. Images obtained before dural opening show the CSDHs, hyper- and/or hypoechoic content, and mono- or multilayers. Images are also acquired after irrigation of the hematoma under the dura. Floating hyperechoic spots (cavitations) on the brain cortex created by irrigation confirm the release of all hematoma layers; areas without spots represent IDHs. Their overlying thin membranes are fenestrated with a dural hook for irrigation. Ultrasonographs were evaluated in 43 CSDHs (37 patients); 9 (21%) required IDH fenestration. On computed tomography scans, 17 were homogeneous-, 6 were laminar-, 16 were separated-, and 4 were trabecular type lesions. Of these, 2 (11.8%), 3 (50%), 4 (25%), and 0, respectively, manifested IDHs requiring fenestration. There were no technique-related complications. Patients subjected to IDH fenestration had lower recurrence rates (11.1% vs. 50%, p = 0.095) and required significantly less time for brain re-expansion (mean 3.78 ± 1.62 vs. 18 ± 5.54 weeks, p = 0.0009) than did 6 patients whose IDHs remained after 48 conventional irrigation and drainage procedures. Intraoperative ultrasonography in patients with CSDHs facilitates the safe release of hidden IDHs. It can be expected to reduce the risk of postoperative hematoma recurrence and to shorten the brain re-expansion time. PMID:26345671

  10. The Optical Biopsy: A Novel Technique for Rapid Intraoperative Diagnosis of Primary Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gregory T; Okusanya, Olugbenga T; Keating, Jane J; Heitjan, Daniel F; Deshpande, Charuhas; Litzky, Leslie A; Albelda, Steven M; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Nie, Shuming; Low, Philip S; Singhal, Sunil

    2015-10-01

    With increasing use of chest computed tomography scans, indeterminate pulmonary nodules are frequently detected as an incidental finding and present a diagnostic challenge. Tissue biopsy followed by histological review and immunohistochemistry is the gold standard to obtain a diagnosis and the most common malignant finding is a primary lung adenocarcinoma. Our objective was to determine whether an intraoperative optical biopsy (molecular imaging) may provide an alternative approach for determining if a pulmonary nodule is a primary lung adenocarcinoma. Before surgery, 30 patients with an indeterminate pulmonary nodule were intravenously administered a folate receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agent specific for primary lung adenocarcinomas. During surgery, the nodule was removed and the presence of fluorescence (optical biopsy) was assessed in the operating room to determine if the nodule was a primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Standard-of-care frozen section and immunohistochemical staining on permanent sections were then performed as the gold standard to validate the results of the optical biopsy. Optical biopsies identified 19 of 19 (100%) primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas. There were no false positive or false negative diagnoses. An optical biopsy required 2.4 minutes compared to 26.5 minutes for frozen section (P < 0.001) and it proved more accurate than frozen section in diagnosing lung adenocarcinomas. An optical biopsy has excellent positive predictive value for intraoperative diagnosis of primary lung adenocarcinomas. With refinement, this technology may prove to be an important supplement to standard pathology for examining close surgical margins, identifying lymph node involvement, and determining whether suspicious nodules are malignant.

  11. Filter paper-assisted cell transfer (FaCT) technique: A novel cell-sampling technique for intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Jumpei; Kamoshida, Shingo; Shimakata, Takaaki; Hayashi, Yurie; Sakamaki, Kuniko; Denda, Tamami; Kawai, Kenji; Kuwao, Sadahito

    2017-04-01

    Intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors provides critical guidance to surgeons in the determination of surgical resection margins and treatment. The techniques and preparations used for the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors include frozen sectioning and cytologic methods (squash smear and touch imprint). Cytologic specimens, which do not have freezing artifacts, are important as an adjuvant tool to frozen sections. However, if the amount of submitted tissue samples is limited, then it is difficult to prepare both frozen sections and squash smears or touch imprint specimens from a single sample at the same time. Therefore, the objective of this study was to derive cells directly from filter paper on which tumor samples are placed. The authors established the filter paper-assisted cell transfer (FaCT) smear technique, in which tumor cells are transferred onto a glass slide directly from the filter paper sample spot after the biopsy is removed. Cell yields and diagnostic accuracy of the FaCT smears were assessed in 40 CNS tumors. FaCT smears had ample cell numbers and well preserved cell morphology sufficient for cytologic diagnosis, even if the submitted tissues were minimal. The overall diagnostic concordance rates between frozen sections and FaCT smears were 90% and 87.5%, respectively (no significant differences). When combining FaCT smears with frozen sections, the diagnostic concordance rate rose to 92.5%. The current results suggest that the FaCT smear technique is a simple and effective processing method that has significant value for intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:277-282. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. In Vivo Quantification of Flow Dynamics in Intracranial Aneurysms Using Intra-Operative Contrast-Specific Ultrasound and PIV Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CantÓN, G.Á.}Dor

    2005-11-01

    The goal of this study is to assess in vivo the hemodynamics of intracranial aneurysms using ultrasound and Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) techniques. An ultrasound machine, equipped with an intra-operative transducer, was used to visualize the flow features inside an aneurysm with the aid of microbubbles as ultrasound contrast agent. The ultrasound studies were done using a Phase Inversion technique. Operating in the Doppler mode, the flow velocities in the afferent and the downstream vascular segments as well as inside the aneurysm were recorded and assessed. We analyzed the ultrasound data sets with a DPIV technique using backscattered signals from the microbubbles. The spatial and temporal distribution of velocity, vorticity, and stress fields was measured. These quantities were also measured in an in vitro aneurysmal model using the DPIV system. Our study shows that an advanced contrast-specific ultrasound technique in combination with a DPIV technique can be used to quantify in real time the flow-mechanical patterns inside the aneurysm.

  13. 99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: experience with patients with normal thyroids and nodular goiters.

    PubMed

    Casara, Dario; Rubello, Domenico; Cauzzo, Cristina; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa

    2002-01-01

    The surgical approach to primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is changing. In patients with a high probability to be affected by a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA), a unilateral neck exploration (UNE) or a minimally invasive radio-guided surgery (MIRS) using the intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) technique have recently been proposed. We investigated the role of IGP in a group of 84 patients with primary HPT who were homogeneously evaluated before surgery by a single-day imaging protocol including 99mTcO4/MIBI subtraction scan and neck ultrasound (US) and then operated on by the same surgical team. Quick parathyroid hormone (QPTH) was intraoperatively measured in all cases to confirm successful parathyroidectomy. In 70 patients with scan/US evidence of a single enlarged parathyroid gland (EPG) and with a normal thyroid gland, MIRS was planned. In the other 14 patients, the IGP technique was utilized during a standard bilateral neck exploration (BNE) because of the presence of concomitant nodular goiter (11 cases) or multiglandular disease (MGD) (3 cases). The IGP technique consisted of the following: (1) in the operating room, a low 99mTc-MIBI dose (37 MBq) was injected intravenously during anesthesia induction; (2) subsequently, the patient's neck was scanned with the probe by the surgeon to localize the cutaneous projection of the EPG; (3) in patients who underwent MIRS, the EPG was detected intraoperatively with the probe and removed through a small, 2 to 2.5 cm skin incision; (4) radioactivity was measured on the EPG both in vivo and ex vivo, the thyroid, the background and the parathyroid bed after EPG removal. In patients with concomitant nodular goiter, the radioactivity was also measured on the thyroid nodules. Surgical and pathologic findings were consistent with a single PA in 78 patients, parathyroid carcinoma in 2, and MGD in 4. MIRS was successfully performed in 67 of the 70 patients (97.7%) in whom this approach was planned. It must be pointed out that

  14. Robot-assisted partial cystectomy with intraoperative frozen section examination: Evolution and evaluation of a novel technique

    PubMed Central

    Klett, Dane E.; Abdollah, Firas; Sammon, Jesse D.; Pucheril, Dan; Menon, Mani; Jeong, Wooju; Peabody, James O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe a novel modification to robot-assisted partial cystectomy (RAPC) that allows for intraoperative surgical margin assessment by bimanual-examination and frozen-section analysis. Materials and Methods A total of 7 patients underwent RAPC at a single tertiary-care institution between 2008 and 2013. The technique evolved over the study-period and permitted real-time intraoperative surgical margin evaluation in the last 5 patients via bimanual-examination and frozen-section analysis, utilizing the GelPOINT platform (a hand-assist device). The GelPOINT platform was placed through a 4- to 5-cm vertical supraumbilical incision and allowed for rapid retrieval of the bladder specimen without compromising the pneumoperitoneum or prolonging the operative time. Perioperative, oncological and functional outcomes were evaluated; all patients had a minimum 12-month follow-up. At the time of last follow-up, a cross-sectional survey of patients was performed to evaluate regret/satisfaction utilizing validated questionnaires. Results The mean age was 72.5 years; 71.4% of the patients were men (n=5). All patients underwent RAPC for a malignant indication. The mean operative and console times were 291 and 217 minutes, respectively. No patient had a positive surgical margin. Mean length-of-stay was 1.7 days. At a median follow-up of 38.9 months, 1 patient experienced a local recurrence 6 months postsurgery. The only mortality was secondary to Lewy-body disease, in the same patient, 1 year postoperatively. Patient assessment of regret and satisfaction indicated 0% regret and 0% dissatisfaction. Conclusions The 'modified' technique of RAPC is technically feasible, safe, and reproducible; further, RAPC leads to favorable oncological, functional and quality-of-life outcomes in patients eligible for partial cystectomy. PMID:27195322

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Frame-based, Frameless and Intraoperative MRI Guided Brain Biopsy Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Yeung, Cecil; Radmanesh, Alireza; Wiemann, Robert; Black, Peter M.; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intraoperative MRI (IoMRI) guided brain biopsy provides a real time visual feedback of the lesion that is sampled during surgery. The objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic yield and safety profiles of ioMRI needle brain biopsy with two traditional brain biopsy methods: frame-based and frameless stereotactic brain biopsies. Methods A retrospective analysis from 288 consecutive needle brain biopsies in 277 patients undergoing stereotactic brain biopsy with any of the three biopsy methods at Brigham and Women's Hospital from 2000 to 2008 was performed. Variables such as age, sex, history of radiation and previous surgery, pathology results, complications and postoperative stays were analyzed. Results Over the course of eight years, 288 brain biopsies were performed. 253 (87.8%) biopsies yielded positive diagnostic tissue. Young age (<40 years), history of brain radiation or surgery were significant negative predictors for a positive biopsy diagnostic yield. Excluding patients with prior radiation or surgeries, no significant difference in diagnostic yield was detected among the three groups, with frame-based, frameless and ioMRI guided needle biopsies yield 96.9%, 91.8% and 89.9% positive diagnostic yield, respectively. 19 biopsies (6.6%) were complicated by serious adverse events. The ioMRI-guided brain biopsy was associated with less serious adverse events and the shortest postoperative hospital stay. Conclusions Frame-based, frameless stereotactic and ioMRI guided brain needle biopsy have comparable diagnostic yield for patients with no prior treatments (either radiation or surgery). IoMRI guided brain biopsy is associated with fewer serious adverse events and shorter hospital stay. PMID:25088233

  16. The Métaizeau technique for pediatric radial neck fracture with elbow dislocation: intraoperative pitfalls and associated forearm compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Halanski, Matthew A; Noonan, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    Displaced radial neck fractures in the pediatric population can be treated with retrograde intramedullary nailing of the radius (the Métaizeau technique). This method allows early movement, which may improve functional outcome. Unfortunately, repeated intraoperative attempts with this treatment in challenging fractures can result in compartment syndrome. In this article, we report the cases of 2 patients who underwent the Métaizeau technique for displaced radial neck fractures. In each case, optimal fixation of the radius was impossible because of concurrent elbow instability. Multiple attempts to reduce and stabilize these fractures may cause development or exacerbation of forearm compartment syndrome. The Métaizeau technique has been shown to be an effective method of minimally invasive surgical management of pediatric radial neck fractures. Its success may hinge on the ability of the elbow joint to hold the radial head in position while the implant is driven into the proximal radius in a retrograde fashion. Care should be used when dealing with radial neck fractures associated with elbow dislocation, as they may be difficult to reduce and stabilize. The increased operative time and soft-tissue injury associated with repeated attempts with this method may lead to or worsen compartment syndrome.

  17. Day-care for breast cancer: ambulatory surgery and intra-operative radiation. Techniques and preliminary results of the Centre Val-d'Aurelle--Montpellier.

    PubMed

    Mourregot, A; Lemanski, C; Gutowski, M; Colombo, P-E; Charissoux, M; Dubois, J-B; Azria, D; Saint-Aubert, B; Domergue, J; Mathieu-Daude, H; Rouanet, P

    2014-04-01

    One-day breast carcinoma treatment is defined as association of ambulatory surgery and intra-operative irradiation. Selection and rigorous process of patients is the key to success. The surgical technique is not changed by the radiotherapy. Patient's satisfaction index is very high. Financial loss should not be a hurdle to its implementation.

  18. Intraoperative technique as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S M; Hill, A D K; Humphreys, H

    2011-05-01

    Approximately five percent of patients who undergo surgery develop surgical site infections (SSIs) which are associated with an extra seven days as an inpatient and with increased postoperative mortality. The competence and technique of the surgeon is considered important in preventing SSI. We have reviewed the evidence on different aspects of surgical technique and its role in preventing SSI. The most recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK recommend avoiding diathermy for skin incision even though this reduces incision time and blood loss, both associated with lower infection rates. Studies comparing different closure techniques, i.e. continuous versus interrupted sutures, have not found a statistically significant difference in the SSI rate, but using continuous sutures is quicker. For contaminated wounds, the surgical site should be left open for four days to allow for treatment of local infection before subsequent healing by primary intention. Surgical drains should be placed through separate incisions, closed suction drains are preferable to open drains, and all drains should be removed as soon as possible. There are relatively few large studies on the impact of surgical techniques on SSI rates. Larger multicentre prospective studies are required to define what aspects of surgical technique impact on SSI, to better inform surgical practice and support education programmes for surgical trainees. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of a technique for the intraoperative detection of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody against colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Waddington, W A; Davidson, B R; Todd-Pokropek, A; Boulos, P B; Short, M D

    1991-01-01

    Occult tumour deposits may be localised at operation with a radiation detecting probe following the administration of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognising a tumour-associated antigen. We have recently evaluated the clinical usefulness of this technique in detecting primary colorectal tumours targetted with an indium-111 MoAb. In the present study the physical characteristics of the two detector systems used were investigated; a sodium iodide [NaI(Tl)] scintillation detector and a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor probe. Limitations of the technique in use have been examined by testing the statistical significance of tumour detection using an abdominal phantom based on the currently available clinical biodistribution data for tumour uptake of radiolabelled MoAbs. The effect of tumour volume, antibody uptake, collimation and counting conditions was examined. Results indicate that tumours of 10 ml volume may be detected with the NaI(Tl) probe at the lowest levels of radiolabelled antibody uptake currently reported in the literature but that at higher published levels, lesions as small as 1 ml may be identified with both detector systems. Detector sensitivity and limited antibody specificity restrict the usefulness of the technique, although moderate improvements in tumour uptake may allow the detection of tumour deposits not clinically apparent. The statistical significance criterion used for this study could be an accurate and reliable indicator for tumour detection in vivo.

  20. Laparoendoscopic single-site ureteroureterostomy with intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique for benign proximal and middle ureteral strictures: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Yan; Chen, Zhi; He, Yao; Chen, Xiang; Fang, Xiao-Long; Li, Dong-Jie; Huang, Liang

    2014-07-01

    To report a minimally invasive and reproducible technique that greatly facilitates the identification of the stricture during laparoendoscopic single-site ureteroureterostomy (LESS-UU) for benign proximal and middle ureteral strictures, using the intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique. Between April 2011 and January 2013, 13 patients with a benign proximal or middle ureteral stricture underwent LESS-UU at our institution. A combination of diuretic renal scans, antegrade/retrograde ureteropyelography and/or computed tomography, and stent placement or exchange was preoperatively performed to assess all patients. The intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique was used to identify the exact position of the stricture and place the stenting during LESS-UU. Intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy was successfully performed in all cases. The mean operative time was 156 minutes (range, 125-190 minutes), and the estimated blood loss was 80 mL (range, 20-160 mL). The mean hospital stay was 5 days (range, 4-7 days). One patient required conversion to open surgery because of the severe adhesions surrounding the stricture that resulted in failure to progress. Urine leakage occurred in 1 patient postoperatively and was successfully treated by conservative management. Postoperative fever occurred in another patient, who was treated with a dose of oral antibiotics. No major intraoperative or postoperative complication occurred. Clinical and radiographic success was achieved in 100% (13/13) of patients during a mean follow-up of 13.1 months (range, 9-27 months). LESS-UU is feasible and safe for repairing benign proximal and middle ureteral stricture. The intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique during LESS-UU is useful for localizing the stricture.

  1. Intra-Operatively Obtained Human Tissue: Protocols and Techniques for the Study of Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaichana, Kaisorn; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Zamora-Berridi, Grettel; Achanta, Praganthi; Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar; Jallo, George I.; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    The discoveries of neural (NSCs) and brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) in the adult human brain and in brain tumors, respectively, have led to a new era in neuroscience research. These cells represent novel approaches to studying normal phenomena such as memory and learning, as well as pathological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and brain tumors. This new paradigm stresses the importance of understanding how these cells behave in vitro and in vivo. It also stresses the need to use human-derived tissue to study human disease because animal models may not necessarily accurately replicate the processes that occur in humans. An important, but often underused, source of human tissue and, consequently, both NSCs and BTSCs, is the operating room. This study describes in detail both current and newly developed laboratory techniques, which in our experience are used to process and study human NSCs and BTSCs from tissue obtained directly from the operating room. PMID:19427538

  2. Accuracy of pedicle screw insertion in posterior scoliosis surgery: a comparison between intraoperative navigation and preoperative navigation techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Wu, YongGang; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Masato; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and accuracy of intraoperative navigation (O-arm or Arcadis navigation) and preoperative CT-based navigation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. Sixty-seven patients with scoliosis were grouped according to the method of navigation used in their fixation surgeries. A total of 492 pedicle screws were implanted in 27 patients using intraoperative navigation, and 626 screws were implanted in 40 patients using preoperative navigation. We analyzed the postoperative CT images for pedicle violations using the Gertzbein classification. There was no statistical difference in the accuracy of pedicle screw placement between two groups. However, in the apical region (the apex ± 2 vertebrae), the accuracy of safe pedicle screw placement (grades 0, 1) was significantly higher in the intraoperative navigation group than in the preoperative navigation group (94.8 vs 89.2%, respectively; P = 0.035). Intraoperative navigation significantly diminished medial perforation compared to preoperative navigation (P = 0.027), and the number of screws per vertebra that could be placed in the apical region was significantly higher in intraoperative navigation group (P < 0.001). In addition, the time required for the registration procedure and insertion of one pedicle screw was 11.3 ± 2.1 min in the preoperative group, but significantly decreased to 5.1 ± 1.1 min in the intraoperative group (P < 0.001). Both preoperative CT-based and intraoperative navigation systems provide sufficient accuracy and safety in pedicle screw insertion for AIS surgery. Intraoperative navigation systems facilitate pedicle screw insertion in the apical region and reduce registration time during AIS surgery which improves the efficacy and accuracy of pedicle screw insertion.

  3. Determination of mitral valve area with echocardiography, using intra-operative 3-dimensional versus intra- & post-operative pressure half-time technique in mitral valve repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that mitral valve areas (MVAs) with echocardiography, using 3D planimetry technique (measured at one point at maximal opening of mitral valve) versus pressure half-time technique (PHT, measured during entire diastolic phase) in mitral valve repair surgery (MVR) would be different. Methods Patients who had undergone MVR were retrospectively reviewed, and two different observers measured the MVAs using PHT and 3D planimetry technique. The MVAs derived from recorded medical data, using PHT and 3D planimetry technique were abbreviated to MVA-PHT1 and MVA-3D1, and data from the PHT and 3D planimetry techniques by observer A and observer B were determined as MVA-PHT2 and MVA-3D2, and MVA-PHT3 and MVA-3D3, respectively. The MVA derived by post-operative transthoracic echocardiography using the PHT technique was determined as MVA-TTE. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.90 for the intra-operative PHT technique and 0.78 for the intra-operative 3D planimetry technique. MVA-3D1 (2.91 ± 0.65 cm2), MVA-3D2 (3.00 ± 0.63 cm2) and MVA-3D3 (2.97 ± 0.88 cm2) were significantly larger than MVA-TTE (2.40 ± 0.59 cm2), but intra-operative MVAs-PHT were not. The biases and precisions were larger, and the correlation coefficients were lower in 3D planimetry technique compared with PHT technique. Conclusions MVA measured by 3D planimetry technique with TEE at the intra-operative post-MVR period was seemed to be larger than that measured by the PHT technique with TTE at the post-operative period. However, it did not mean that the 3D planimetry technique was inaccurate but needs cautions at determination of MVA using different techniques. PMID:23594408

  4. An intraoperative technique to reduce superficial surgical site infections in circular stapler-constructed laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Serrano, Oscar K; Scott Melvin, W; Camacho, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has been established as one of the most effective treatments for morbid obesity. Surgical site infections are the most common complication after LRYGB surgery. To compare the superficial surgical site infections (sSSI) rate before and after the implementation of our intraoperative technique. Academic medical center. Our intraoperative technique relies on sterile coverage of the circular stapler, sterile specimen-bag retrieval of the gastrojejunostomy enteric remnant, and port site Penrose drainage. We analyzed our sSSI outcomes before and after implementation of our technique in all LRYGBs performed by a single surgeon from 2009 to 2015. We took into account patient age; sex; baseline body mass index (BMI); smoking status; and co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. χ(2) and multivariate analysis were performed. We performed 486 LRYGBs in 2009-2015. The cohort before implementation of our technique (group 1) included 164 patients (33.7%) and the cohort after implementation (group 2) included 322 patients (66.3%). Both groups were similar in age, sex, smoking status, and rates of diabetes and hyperlipidemia but differed in BMI, operative time, and prevalence of hypertension. Hypertension was not a confounder for sSSI (P = .35). The sSSI rate was 9.15% for group 1 and 3.42% for group 2 (P = .0079). Controlling for BMI and operative time, multivariate analysis revealed a significant reduction in sSSI (odds ratio 2.98 [95% CI 1.33-6.69]) with our technique. We describe a reproducible intraoperative technique that significantly reduces sSSI in LRYGB procedures. Our technique has the potential of hastening postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references.

  6. Use of the Toric Surgical Marker to Aid in Intraoperative Plaque Placement for the USC Eye Physics Plaques to Treat Uveal Melanoma: A New Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jesse L; Kim, Jonathan W; Jennelle, Richard; Astrahan, Melvin

    2015-09-01

    To describe a new surgical technique for intraoperative placement of Eye Physics (EP) plaques for uveal melanoma using a toric marker. A toric marker is designed for cataract surgery to align the axis of astigmatism; its use was modified in this protocol to mark the axis of suture coordinates as calculated by Plaque Simulator (PS) software. The toric marker can be used to localize suture coordinates, in degrees, during intraoperative plaque placement. Linear marking using the toric marker decreases potential inaccuracies associated with the surgeon estimating 'clock-hours' by dot placement. Use of the toric marker aided surgical placement of EP plaques. The EP planning protocol is now designed to display the suture coordinates either by clock-hours or degrees, per surgeon preference. Future research is necessary to determine whether routine use of the toric marker improves operative efficiency. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:866-870.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Single trial somatosensory evoked potential extraction with ARX filtering for a combined spinal cord intraoperative neuromonitoring technique

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Lorenzo; Bianchi, Anna Maria; Merzagora, Anna; Gaggiani, Alberto; Cerutti, Sergio; Bracchi, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Background When spinal cord functional integrity is at risk during surgery, intraoperative neuromonitoring is recommended. Tibial Single Trial Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) and H-reflex are here used in a combined neuromonitoring method: both signals monitor the spinal cord status, though involving different nervous pathways. However, SEPs express a trial-to-trial variability that is difficult to track because of the intrinsic low signal-to-noise ratio. For this reason single trial techniques are needed to extract SEPs from the background EEG. Methods The analysis is performed off line on data recorded in eight scoliosis surgery sessions during which the spinal cord was simultaneously monitored through classical SEPs and H-reflex responses elicited by the same tibial nerve electrical stimulation. The single trial extraction of SEPs from the background EEG is here performed through AutoRegressive filter with eXogenous input (ARX). The electroencephalographic recording can be modeled as the sum of the background EEG, which can be described as an autoregressive process not related to the stimulus, and the evoked potential (EP), which can be viewed as a filtered version of a reference signal related to the stimulus. The choice of the filter optimal orders is based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The reference signal used as exogenous input in the ARX model is a weighted average of the previous SEPs trials with exponential forgetting behavior. Results The moving average exponentially weighted, used as reference signal for the ARX model, shows a better sensibility than the standard moving average in tracking SEPs fast inter-trial changes. The ability to promptly detect changes allows highlighting relations between waveform changes and surgical maneuvers. It also allows a comparative study with H-reflex trends: in particular, the two signals show different fall and recovery dynamics following stressful conditions for the spinal cord. Conclusion The ARX

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of accuracy of patient-matched instrumentation in total knee arthroplasty: Evaluation of intraoperative techniques and postoperative alignment.

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, Umito; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Hamai, Satoshi; Akasaki, Yukio; Murakami, Koji; Nakashima, Yasuharu

    2017-09-06

    It is questionable that the accuracies of patient-matched instrumentation (PMI) have been controversial, even though many surgeons follow manufacturers' recommendations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative procedures and the postoperative alignment of the femoral side using PMI with 3-dimensional (3D) analysis. Eighteen knees that underwent total knee arthroplasty using MRI-based PMI were assessed. Intraoperative alignment and bone resection errors of the femoral side were evaluated with a CT-based navigation system. A conventional adjustable guide was used to compare cartilage data with that derived by PMI intraoperatively. Postoperative alignment was assessed using a 3D coordinate system with a computer-assisted design software. We also measured the postoperative alignments using conventional alignment guides with the 3D evaluation. Intraoperative coronal alignment with PMI was 90.9° ± 1.6°. Seventeen knees (94.4%) were within 3° of the optimal alignment. Intraoperative rotational alignment of the femoral guide position of PMI was 0.2° ± 1.6°compared with the adjustable guide, with 17 knees (94.4%) differing by 3° or less between the two methods. Maximum differences in coronal and rotation alignment before and after bone cutting were 2.0° and 2.8°, respectively. Postoperative coronal and rotational alignments were 89.4° ± 1.8° and -1.1° ± 1.3°, respectively. In both alignments, 94.4% of cases were within 3° of the optimal value. The PMI group had less outliers than conventional group in rotational alignment (p = 0.018). Our 3D analysis provided evidence that PMI system resulted in reasonably satisfactory alignments both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Surgeons should be aware that certain surgical techniques including bone cutting, and the associated errors may affect postoperative alignment despite accurate PMI positioning. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by

  9. Radioguided occult lesion localization: better delineation of the injection site with a high-resolution collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, B.; De Freitas, D.; Cachin, F.; Mestas, D.; Lebouedec, G.; Maublant, J.

    2004-07-01

    Aim: Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization (ROLL) is a method for guiding the excision of occult breast lesions. A radiotracer is injected preoperatively in the tumor. The surgeon can locate the lesion with a gamma probe. It has been recommended that the tissue is resected where the activity falls rapidly. But this cut-off level can fluctuate depending on the user. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two different types of collimation. Materials and methods: To simulate the detection of a radioactive "lesion", 0.2 ml of a solution of 99mTc labeled colloids (4 MBq) were deposited at 3 cm depth in a chunk of cow muscle. Detection was performed with a gamma probe (GammaSup, Clerad, F) equipped either with a regular or with an additional high-resolution collimator. The response curve was drawn moving laterally the probe on the chunk of cow by 5 mm steps. Edges of resection were determined with different cut-off levels (from 5 to 50% of maximum counts by 5% steps). Results: Without additional collimator, the mean distance between injection point and resection edge was 18 mm, standard deviation 7.8 mm with a range between 11 and 18 mm. With additional collimator, the mean distance decreased to 10 mm (-44%), standard deviation 4.2 mm (-46%) with a range between 6 and 10 mm. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the additional collimator provides more precise and reproductive delineation of the injection site. It should be optimal for the ROLL technique.

  10. Radioguided localization of clinically occult breast lesions (ROLL): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Medina-Franco, Heriberto; Abarca-Pérez, Leonardo; Ulloa-Gómez, José L; Romero, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Management of nonpalpable breast lesions requiring pathologic diagnosis has been with wire localization during the last few decades. Recently, radioguided localization (ROLL) became an alternative for this type of lesions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of this technique in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City. Consecutive patients requiring pathologic diagnosis from a nonpalpable breast lesion were included in the present study. On the same day of operation, all patients were injected with particles of human serum albumin. Localization of the lesion was performed in the operation theater with the aid of a hand-held gamma-probe. All lesions were identified in a control x-ray of the surgical specimen. Demographic, clinical, surgical and pathologic data were recorded. Forty patients with a mean age of 56.8 +/- 7.8 years were included. In 39 of the 40 patients (97.5%) the "hot spot" was identified easily. In all patients, the area of maximum radioactivity corresponded to the site of the lesion. Imaging confirmation of the lesion in the surgical specimen was done during the first excision in 37 patients (92.5%). In the remaining cases (7.5%), a wider excision was performed during the same procedure, finding the suspected lesion in all cases. Diagnosis of cancer was made in seven patients, (17.5%). There were no significant surgical complications. Our data suggest that ROLL offer a simple and reliable method to localize occult breast lesions, allowing complete removal of the lesion in 100% of the patients. Because of the small quantity of radioactivity, the procedure is safe for both patients and the medical staff, producing less discomfort in patients than wire localization.

  11. Intraoperative Localization of Tantalum Markers for Proton Beam Radiation of Choroidal Melanoma by an Opto-Electronic Navigation System: A Novel Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Amstutz, Christoph A.; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E.; Foerster, Michael H.; Heufelder, Jens; Kowal, Jens H.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: External beam proton radiation therapy has been used since 1975 to treat choroidal melanoma. For tumor location determination during proton radiation treatment, surgical tantalum clips are registered with image data. This report introduces the intraoperative application of an opto-electronic navigation system to determine with high precision the position of the tantalum markers and their spatial relationship to the tumor and anatomical landmarks. The application of the technique in the first 4 patients is described. Methods and Materials: A navigated reference base was attached noninvasively to the eye, and a navigated pointer device was used to record the spatial position of the tantalum markers, the tumor, and anatomical landmarks. Measurement accuracy was assessed on ex vivo porcine eye specimen by repetitive recording of the tantalum marker positions. The method was applied intraoperatively on 4 patients undergoing routine tantalum clip surgery. The spatial position information delivered by the navigation system was compared to the geometric data generated by the EYEPLAN software. Results: In the ex vivo experiments, the maximum repetition error was 0.34 mm. For the intraoperative application, the root mean square error of paired-points matching of the marker positions from the navigation system and from the EYEPLAN software was 0.701-1.25 mm. Conclusions: Navigation systems are a feasible tool for accurate localization of tantalum markers and anatomic landmarks. They can provide additional geometric information, and therefore have the potential to increase the reliability and accuracy of external beam proton radiation therapy for choroidal melanoma.

  12. Intraoperative fluorescence-guided resection of high-grade gliomas: a comparison of the present techniques and evolution of future strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiping; Rey-Dios, Roberto; Roberts, David W; Valdés, Pablo A; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence guidance has a demonstrated potential in maximizing the extent of high-grade glioma resection. Different fluorophores (fluorescent biomarkers), including 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and fluorescein, have been examined with the use of several imaging techniques. Our goal was to review the state of this technology and discuss strategies for more widespread adoption. We performed a Medline search using the key words "fluorescence," "intraoperative fluorescence-guided resection," "intraoperative image-guided resection," and "brain glioma" for articles from 1960 until the present. This initial search revealed 267 articles. Each abstract and article was reviewed and the reference lists from select articles were further evaluated for relevance. A total of 64 articles included information about the role of fluorescence in resection of high-grade gliomas and therefore were selectively included for our analysis. 5-ALA and fluorescein sodium have shown promise as fluorescent markers in detecting residual tumor intraoperatively. These techniques have demonstrated a significant increase in the extent of tumor resection. Regulatory barriers have limited the use of 5-ALA and technological challenges have restricted the use of fluorescein and its derivatives in the United States. Limitations to this technology currently exist, such as the fact that fluorescence at tumor margins is not always reliable for identification of tumor-brain interface. These techniques are safe and effective for increasing gross total resection. The development of more tumor-specific fluorophores is needed to resolve problems with subjective interpretation of fluorescent signal at tumor margins. Techniques such as quantum dots and polymer or iron oxide-based nanoparticles have shown promise as potential future tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radio-guided surgery improves outcome of therapeutic excision in non-palpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gallegos Hernandez, J F; Tanis, P J; Deurloo, E E; Nieweg, O E; Th Rutgers, E J; Kroon, B B R; Valdés Olmos, R A

    2004-03-01

    Intratumoral injection of a radiocolloid for lymphatic mapping enables the therapeutic excision of clinically occult breast cancer with the aid of a gamma-ray detection probe. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate of radio-guided tumour excision in addition to a guide wire and to identify factors predicting clear margins. Sixty-five consecutive patients underwent radio-guided tumour excision after intratumoral injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid guided by ultrasound or stereotaxis. A localization wire was inserted after scintigraphy had been performed (group 1). The results were compared with retrospective data from 67 consecutive patients who underwent therapeutic wire-directed excision alone (group 2). Factors predicting clear margins (> or = 1 mm) were determined in a logistic regression model. Adequate margins were obtained in 83% of group 1 and in 64% of group 2 (P = 0.014). The invasive component was incompletely excised in two patients in group 1 and in 14 patients in group 2. Further surgery was performed in four patients in group 1 and in 14 patients in group 2. Factors predictive of clear margins were decreasing pathological tumour diameter (P = 0.035), increasing weight of the specimen (P = 0.046), absence of microcalcifications (P = 0.004) and absence of carcinoma in situ component (P = 0.024). Radio-guided excision was an independent predictor of complete excision of the invasive component (P = 0.012). The application of radio-guided surgery combined with wire localization seems to improve the outcome of therapeutic excision of non-palpable invasive breast cancer compared with wire-directed excision alone.

  14. Intraoperative localization of tantalum markers for proton beam radiation of choroidal melanoma by an opto-electronic navigation system: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Amstutz, Christoph A; Bechrakis, Nikolaos E; Foerster, Michael H; Heufelder, Jens; Kowal, Jens H

    2012-03-15

    External beam proton radiation therapy has been used since 1975 to treat choroidal melanoma. For tumor location determination during proton radiation treatment, surgical tantalum clips are registered with image data. This report introduces the intraoperative application of an opto-electronic navigation system to determine with high precision the position of the tantalum markers and their spatial relationship to the tumor and anatomical landmarks. The application of the technique in the first 4 patients is described. A navigated reference base was attached noninvasively to the eye, and a navigated pointer device was used to record the spatial position of the tantalum markers, the tumor, and anatomical landmarks. Measurement accuracy was assessed on ex vivo porcine eye specimen by repetitive recording of the tantalum marker positions. The method was applied intraoperatively on 4 patients undergoing routine tantalum clip surgery. The spatial position information delivered by the navigation system was compared to the geometric data generated by the EYEPLAN software. In the ex vivo experiments, the maximum repetition error was 0.34 mm. For the intraoperative application, the root mean square error of paired-points matching of the marker positions from the navigation system and from the EYEPLAN software was 0.701-1.25 mm. Navigation systems are a feasible tool for accurate localization of tantalum markers and anatomic landmarks. They can provide additional geometric information, and therefore have the potential to increase the reliability and accuracy of external beam proton radiation therapy for choroidal melanoma. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Applicability of quantitative optical imaging techniques for intraoperative perfusion diagnostics: a comparison of laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field microscopy, and optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sanne M; de Bruin, Daniel M; Faber, Dirk J; Dobbe, Iwan J G G; Heeg, Erik; Milstein, Dan M J; Strackee, Simon D; van Leeuwen, Ton G

    2017-08-01

    Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400  μm were constructed in a scattering phantom. Perfusion was simulated by pumping heparinized human whole blood at five velocities (0 to 20  mm/s). Vessel diameter and blood flow velocity were assessed with LSCI, OCT, and SDF. Quantification of vessel diameter was feasible with OCT and SDF. LSCI could only visualize the 400-μm vessel, perfusion units scaled nonlinearly with blood velocity. OCT could assess blood flow velocity in terms of inverse OCT speckle decorrelation time. SDF was not feasible to measure blood flow; however, for diluted blood the measurements were linear with the input velocity up to 1  mm/s. LSCI, OCT, and SDF were feasible to visualize blood flow. Validated blood flow velocity measurements intraoperatively in the desired parameter (mL·min-1·g-1) remain challenging. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  16. Applicability of quantitative optical imaging techniques for intraoperative perfusion diagnostics: a comparison of laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field microscopy, and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Sanne M.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Dobbe, Iwan J. G. G.; Heeg, Erik; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Strackee, Simon D.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-08-01

    Patient morbidity and mortality due to hemodynamic complications are a major problem in surgery. Optical techniques can image blood flow in real-time and high-resolution, thereby enabling perfusion monitoring intraoperatively. We tested the feasibility and validity of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and sidestream dark-field microscopy (SDF) for perfusion diagnostics in a phantom model using whole blood. Microvessels with diameters of 50, 100, and 400 μm were constructed in a scattering phantom. Perfusion was simulated by pumping heparinized human whole blood at five velocities (0 to 20 mm/s). Vessel diameter and blood flow velocity were assessed with LSCI, OCT, and SDF. Quantification of vessel diameter was feasible with OCT and SDF. LSCI could only visualize the 400-μm vessel, perfusion units scaled nonlinearly with blood velocity. OCT could assess blood flow velocity in terms of inverse OCT speckle decorrelation time. SDF was not feasible to measure blood flow; however, for diluted blood the measurements were linear with the input velocity up to 1 mm/s. LSCI, OCT, and SDF were feasible to visualize blood flow. Validated blood flow velocity measurements intraoperatively in the desired parameter (mL·g-1) remain challenging.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in breast cancer using Tc-99m macro-aggregated albumin and distilled water control

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided wire localization presents several challenges apart from the technical difficulties. An alternative to this conventional localization method using a wire is the radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL), more related to safe surgical margins and reductions in excision volume. The purpose of this study was to establish a safe and reliable magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (MRI-ROLL) technique and to report our initial experience with the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions only observed on MRI. Methods Sixteen women (mean age 53.2 years) with 17 occult breast lesions underwent radio-guided localization in a 1.5-T MR system using a grid-localizing system. All patients had a diagnostic MRI performed prior to the procedure. An intralesional injection of Technetium-99m macro-aggregated albumin followed by distilled water was performed. After the procedure, scintigraphy was obtained. Surgical resection was performed with the help of a gamma detector probe. The lesion histopathology and imaging concordance; the procedure’s positive predictive value (PPV), duration time, complications, and accuracy; and the rate of exactly excised lesions evaluated with MRI six months after the surgery were assessed. Results One lesion in one patient had to be excluded because the radioactive substance came back after the injection, requiring a wire placement. Of the remaining cases, there were four malignant lesions, nine benign lesions, and three high-risk lesions. Surgical histopathology and imaging findings were considered concordant in all benign and high-risk cases. The PPV of MRI-ROLL was greater if the indication for the initial MR examination was active breast cancer. The median procedure duration time was 26 minutes, and all included procedures were defined as accurate. The exact and complete lesion removal was confirmed in all (100%) patients who underwent six-month postoperative MRI

  18. Radio-guided occult lesion localisation using iodine 125 Seeds “ROLLIS” to guide surgical removal of an impalpable posterior chest wall melanoma metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Dissanayake, Shashini; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Taylor, Donna B

    2015-09-15

    Cancer screening and surveillance programmes and the use of sophisticated imaging tools such as positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) have increased the detection of impalpable lesions requiring imaging guidance for excision. A new technique involves intra-lesional insertion of a low-activity iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) seed and detection of the radioactive signal in theatre using a hand-held gamma probe to guide surgery. Whilst several studies describe using this method to guide the removal of impalpable breast lesions, only a handful of publications report its use to guide excision of lesions outside the breast. We describe a case in which radio-guided occult lesion localisation using an iodine 125 seed was used to guide excision of an impalpable posterior chest wall metastasis detected on PET-CT.

  19. Laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy with an intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique for distal ureteral injury secondary to gynecological surgery: a retrospective comparison with laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Chen, Zhi; He, Yao; Li, Bingsheng; Wen, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the operative and postoperative outcomes of laparoscopic ureteroureterostomy (LAP-UU) using a retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique with laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy (LAP-UNC) in treating ureteral injury after gynecological surgery. The study analyzed 60 ureteral injury repairs performed between May 2010 and February 2016 in patients who underwent either LAP-UU using the retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique (n = 26) or LAP-UNC (n = 34). Demographic parameters, operative variables and perioperative outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. The chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and Student's t test were used for statistical analyses. Demographic and clinical data revealed no significant differences between patients in each group in terms of age, body mass index, length of obstruction, incidence of postoperative urinary leakage, incidence of urinary tract infection during hospitalization, oral antibiotics, mean hospital stay, incidence of recurrent obstruction, rate of conversion to open surgery and mean operative time. The LAP-UU group had significantly less estimated blood loss (85 ± 40 vs 120 ± 35 ml, p = .0006) and a significantly lower incidence of vesicoureteral reflux (grade I) on cystography (0/26 vs 6/34, p = .031) during a mean follow-up of 36.5 months (range 7-71 months). Compared with LAP-UNC, LAP-UU is also a technically feasible and safe option for repairing distal ureteral injury secondary to gynecological surgery. The intraoperative retrograde ureteroscopy-assisted technique during LAP-UU contributes to precise localization of the lesion, reduces intraoperative bleeding, enables sufficient dissection of the intramural ureter and preserves its natural antireflux mechanism.

  20. Neuronavigated microvascular Doppler sonography for intraoperative monitoring of blood flow velocity changes during aneurysm surgery - a feasible monitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; von Eckardstein, Kajetan; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2015-10-01

    The intraoperative microvascular Doppler sonography (iMDS) is a well-established tool in vascular surgery for blood flow velocity (BFV) monitoring, capable of detecting vessel occlusion. However, identification of subtotal vessel compromise is more difficult, since the measured BFV may substantially vary with changing insonation angles and insonated vessel segments. To keep these parameters constant we combined neuronavigation with iMDS (niMDS). The question was if niMDS allows the detection of subtotal vessel compromise in aneurysm surgery. During surgery, the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the CT-angiography, which was obtained routinely prior to surgery, was displayed by the neuronavigational system. Prior to clipping, neuronavigation was used to define target point and trajectory, which, by coupling the neuronavigational pointer with the Doppler probe, correspond to the insonated vessel segment and the insonation angle. After clipping, for each vessel segment, the same trajectory was used for all consecutive measurements. The mean BFVs pre- and post-clipping were documented. We performed 82 BFV-measurements in 39 aneurysm surgeries. Mean deviation between pre- and post-clipping BFV values was 2.12cm/s. There was a significant correlation between the mean BFV values before and after clipping (r=0.45 [95% CI 17-66%]; p=0.002). One patient experienced new neurological deficits due to occlusion of a perforating vessel that was not insonated. The study could not answer the question if niMDS can detect BFV changes after clipping indicating vessel compromise, as no subtotal vessel occlusion occurred in the 39 operations. However, we proofed that niMDS-measured BFVs only varied minimally in uncompromised vessels pre- and post-clipping, suggesting that vessel compromises might be easily detected during aneurysm surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomechanical comparison of two intraoperative mobilization techniques for maxillary distraction osteogenesis: Down-fracture versus non-down-fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lili; Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2014-01-01

    Purposes: The purpose of this study was to compare the distraction forces and the biomechanical effects between two different intraoperative surgical procedures (down-fracture [DF] and non-DF [NDF]) for maxillary distraction osteogenesis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients were assigned into two groups according to the surgical procedure: DF, n = 6 versus NDF, n = 2. Lateral cephalograms taken preoperatively (T1), immediately after removal of the distraction device (T2), and after at least a 6 months follow-up period (T3) were analyzed. Assessment of distraction forces was performed during the distraction period. The Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare the difference in the amount of advancement, the maximum distraction force and the amount of relapse. Results: Although a significantly greater amount of maxillary movement was observed in the DF group (median 9.5 mm; minimum-maximum 7.9-14.1 mm) than in the NDF group (median 5.9 mm; minimum-maximum 4.4-7.6 mm), significantly lower maximum distraction forces were observed in the DF (median 16.4 N; minimum-maximum 15.1-24.6 N) than in the NDF (median 32.9 N; minimum-maximum 27.6-38.2 N) group. A significantly greater amount of dental anchorage loss was observed in the NDF group. Moreover, the amount of relapse observed in the NDF group was approximately 3.5 times greater than in the DF group. Conclusions: In this study, it seemed that, the use of the NDF procedure resulted in lower levels of maxillary mobility at the time of the maxillary distraction, consequently requiring greater amounts of force to advance the maxillary bone. Moreover, it also resulted in a reduced amount of maxillary movement, a greater amount of dental anchorage loss and poor treatment stability. PMID:25593865

  2. The ability of bispectral index to detect intra-operative wakefulness during total intravenous anaesthesia compared with the isolated forearm technique.

    PubMed

    Russell, I F

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that monitoring during total intravenous anaesthesia should include aspects of brain function. The current study used a manually adjusted target-controlled infusion of propofol for anaesthesia, guided to a bispectral index range of 55-60. Intra-operative responsiveness, as assessed by the isolated forearm technique, was compared with whether the bispectral index predicted/identified a patient's appropriate hand movements in responses to commands. Twenty-two women underwent major gynaecological surgery with total intravenous anaesthesia, propofol, remifentanil and atracurium. Sixteen women responded, on 80 occasions, with appropriate hand movements to commands during surgery, of which the bispectral index detected 47 (sensitivity 59%). The bispectral index suggested consciousness 220 times in the absence of movement responses (specificity 85%). The positive predictive value of a bispectral index response was 18%. While two women had vague recall about squeezing fingers, none had recall of surgery. For patients who responded more than once during surgery the bispectral index value associated with a response was not constant. Although there was no difference in the median (IQR [range]) effect site propofol concentration between intra-operative responses (2.0 (1.5-2.3 [1.2-4.0]) μg.ml(-1)) and eye opening after surgery (2.1 (1.7-2.8 [1.5-3.9]) μg.ml(-1)), the median (IQR [range]) bispectral index value at eye opening after surgery was significantly higher than that associated with responses during surgery: 75 (70-78 [51-93]) vs 61 (52-67 [37-80]) respectively, (p < 0.001). The manual control of propofol intravenous anaesthesia to target a bispectral index range of 55-60 may result in an unacceptable number of patients who are conscious during surgery (albeit without recall). Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Intraoperative gamma hand-held probe navigation in resection of osteoid osteoma tumor--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cengić, Tomislav; Corluka, Stipe; Petrović, Tadija; Baranović, Senka; Kovacić, Ksenija; Kolundzić, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Two cases of osteoid osteoma tumor (OO) are presented and our early experience with intraoperative gamma probing to localize OO during surgery is reported. The concept of radioguided surgery was developed 60 years ago and the gamma detection probe technology for radioguided biopsy and/or resection of bone lesions has been applied since the early 1980s. Bone scintigraphy is very important for initial diagnosis of OO with almost 100% sensitivity. The bone scan finding is specific, with so called double density appearance, very intense accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the nidus and therefore great difference between the nidus and the surrounding healthy bone, thus making possible to treat this lesion with probe guided surgery. Three phase bone scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography were conducted in our patients for initial diagnosis of OO. A second bone scintigraphy was performed before surgery. The surgery followed 12-15 hours later by intraoperative nidus detection with a hand-held gamma probe. Gamma hand-held probe is a system that detects gamma photons. The count rate in the nidus area on the day of surgery was 3 to 4 times higher than in the healthy bone area. Drilling was performed until the counts decreased to the level of the surrounding bone counts, thereby confirming complete excision. This is the method of choice for minimizing bone resection, the risk of pathologic fracture, the need of bone grafting, and reducing the period of convalescence. Evidence for the treatment efficiency is pain disappearance after the surgery.

  4. Reconstruction of large cranial defects with poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) using a rapid prototyping model and a new technique for intraoperative implant modeling.

    PubMed

    Unterhofer, Claudia; Wipplinger, Christoph; Verius, Michael; Recheis, Wolfgang; Thomé, Claudius; Ortler, Martin

    Reconstruction of large cranial defects after craniectomy can be accomplished by free-hand poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) or industrially manufactured implants. The free-hand technique often does not achieve satisfactory cosmetic results but is inexpensive. In an attempt to combine the accuracy of specifically manufactured implants with low cost of PMMA. Forty-six consecutive patients with large skull defects after trauma or infection were retrospectively analyzed. The defects were reconstructed using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. The computer file was imported into a rapid prototyping (RP) machine to produce an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene model (ABS) of the patient's bony head. The gas-sterilized model was used as a template for the intraoperative modeling of the PMMA cranioplasty. Thus, not the PMMA implant was generated by CAD/CAM technique but the model of the patients head to easily form a well-fitting implant. Cosmetic outcome was rated on a six-tiered scale by the patients after a minimum follow-up of three months. The mean size of the defect was 74.36cm(2). The implants fitted well in all patients. Seven patients had a postoperative complication and underwent reoperation. Mean follow-up period was 41 months (range 2-91 months). Results were excellent in 42, good in three and not satisfactory in one patient. Costs per implant were approximately 550 Euros. PMMA implants fabricated in-house by direct molding using a bio-model of the patients bony head are easily produced, fit properly and are inexpensive compared to cranial implants fabricated with other RP or milling techniques. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. From interventionist imaging to intraoperative guidance: New perspectives by combining advanced tools and navigation with radio-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Valdés Olmos, R; Nieweg, O E; Faccini, R; Grootendorst, M R; Wester, H J; Navab, N; Vojnovic, B; van der Poel, H; Martínez-Román, S; Klode, J; Wawroschek, F; van Leeuwen, F W B

    2017-08-03

    The integration of medical imaging technologies into diagnostic and therapeutic approaches can provide a preoperative insight into both anatomical (e.g. using computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, or ultrasound (US)), as well as functional aspects (e.g. using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), lymphoscintigraphy, or optical imaging). Moreover, some imaging modalities are also used in an interventional setting (e.g. CT, US, gamma or optical imaging) where they provide the surgeon with real-time information during the procedure. Various tools and approaches for image-guided navigation in cancer surgery are becoming feasible today. With the development of new tracers and portable imaging devices, these advances will reinforce the role of interventional molecular imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized controlled clinical trial comparing radioguided occult lesion localization with wire-guided lesion localization to evaluate their efficacy and accuracy in the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carlos; Bastidas, Faustino; de los Reyes, Amelia; Martínez, María Cristina; Hurtado, Gloria; Gómez, María Constanza; Sánchez, Ricardo; Manrique, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) technique with the wire-guided lesion localization (WGLL) technique to assess their efficacy and accuracy in the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions in patients at a unique reference medical center. These patients' reports were negative for malignancy but included highly suspicious imaging findings. A controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the WGLL and ROLL techniques in women presenting with breast lesions diagnosed by mammography or ultrasonography at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Bogotá, Colombia, from March 2006 to June 2011. This study examined 129 patients; 64 (49.6%) patients were treated with ROLL, and 65 (51.4%) were treated with WGLL. The ROLL technique achieved better median lesion centricity (ROLL = 11.7 and WGLL = 15.4; P = .038). No significant differences were found regarding demographic variables, operative specimen characteristics, the need to extend margins, operative complications, the degree of difficulty, or patient or surgeon satisfaction. The ROLL technique is as effective as WGLL for the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions. In our study, ROLL achieved better lesion centricity. Therefore, we propose that this technique could be used as a standard procedure in the detection of nonpalpable breast lesions at experienced centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic low anterior resection with double stapling technique anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most devastating complications after rectal cancer surgery. The double stapling technique has greatly facilitated intestinal reconstruction especially for anastomosis after low anterior resection (LAR). Risk factor analyses for AL after open LAR have been widely reported. However, a few studies have analyzed the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR. Laparoscopic rectal surgery provides an excellent operative field in a narrow pelvic space, and enables total mesorectal excision surgery and preservation of the autonomic nervous system with greater precision. However, rectal transection using a laparoscopic linear stapler is relatively difficult compared with open surgery because of the width and limited performance of the linear stapler. Moreover, laparoscopic LAR exhibits a different postoperative course compared with open LAR, which suggests that the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR may also differ from those after open LAR. In this review, we will discuss the risk factors for AL after laparoscopic LAR. PMID:27433085

  8. Intraoperative fracture of phacoemulsification tip.

    PubMed

    Angmo, Dewang; Khokhar, Sudarshan K; Ganguly, Anasua

    2014-01-01

    Phacoemulsification (phaco) is an established procedure for cataract extraction and has undergone a significant advances in techniques, machines and phaco tips. The Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) phaco tip was introduced for phacoemulsification in 1998. The ABS tip allows fluid to be drawn through the opening when the phaco tip is occluded by nuclear material. The ABS tip allowed the safe use of high vacuum and flow rates and improved chamber stability by decreasing surge and therefore reducing intraoperative complications. To date, no disadvantages of ABS tips have been reported. We report a unique case of an intraoperative break of an ABS phaco tip during routine cataract surgery.

  9. Intraoperative Fracture of Phacoemulsification Tip

    PubMed Central

    Angmo, Dewang; Khokhar, Sudarshan K.; Ganguly, Anasua

    2014-01-01

    Phacoemulsification (phaco) is an established procedure for cataract extraction and has undergone a significant advances in techniques, machines and phaco tips. The Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) phaco tip was introduced for phacoemulsification in 1998. The ABS tip allows fluid to be drawn through the opening when the phaco tip is occluded by nuclear material. The ABS tip allowed the safe use of high vacuum and flow rates and improved chamber stability by decreasing surge and therefore reducing intraoperative complications. To date, no disadvantages of ABS tips have been reported. We report a unique case of an intraoperative break of an ABS phaco tip during routine cataract surgery. PMID:24669153

  10. Intraoperative virtual brain counseling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhaowei; Grosky, William I.; Zamorano, Lucia J.; Muzik, Otto; Diaz, Fernando

    1997-06-01

    Our objective is to offer online real-tim e intelligent guidance to the neurosurgeon. Different from traditional image-guidance technologies that offer intra-operative visualization of medical images or atlas images, virtual brain counseling goes one step further. It can distinguish related brain structures and provide information about them intra-operatively. Virtual brain counseling is the foundation for surgical planing optimization and on-line surgical reference. It can provide a warning system that alerts the neurosurgeon if the chosen trajectory will pass through eloquent brain areas. In order to fulfill this objective, tracking techniques are involved for intra- operativity. Most importantly, a 3D virtual brian environment, different from traditional 3D digitized atlases, is an object-oriented model of the brain that stores information about different brain structures together with their elated information. An object-oriented hierarchical hyper-voxel space (HHVS) is introduced to integrate anatomical and functional structures. Spatial queries based on position of interest, line segment of interest, and volume of interest are introduced in this paper. The virtual brain environment is integrated with existing surgical pre-planning and intra-operative tracking systems to provide information for planning optimization and on-line surgical guidance. The neurosurgeon is alerted automatically if the planned treatment affects any critical structures. Architectures such as HHVS and algorithms, such as spatial querying, normalizing, and warping are presented in the paper. A prototype has shown that the virtual brain is intuitive in its hierarchical 3D appearance. It also showed that HHVS, as the key structure for virtual brain counseling, efficiently integrates multi-scale brain structures based on their spatial relationships.This is a promising development for optimization of treatment plans and online surgical intelligent guidance.

  11. A novel technique to prevent intra-operative pneumothorax in awake coronary artery bypass grafting: biomaterial neo-pleura.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yosuke; Matsumoto, Isao; Tomita, Shigeyuki; Watanabe, Go

    2009-01-01

    Pneumothorax caused by damaged pleura represents the biggest obstacle in awake coronary artery bypass grafting. In order to safely perform this surgery, a new technique was developed to close the damaged pleura. A rub-and-spray method was employed using polyglycolic acid nonwoven fabric and fibrin glue. At first, some fibrinogen solution was rubbed on the edge of the pleural defect and then the PGA fabric was placed and the fibrinogen and thrombin solutions were sprayed. Using a thorax model, the burst pressure caused by positive pressure and the influence of negative pressure, moisture, time, continuous respiratory movement and pleural defect size were examined. In an animal experiment using pigs, the duration spent on repair was measured and any air leakage from the pleura was also identified. In the thorax model, the burst pressure was 355.9+/-55.8 mmHg with positive pressure and no significant difference in negative pressure, moisture, time and respiratory moment was identified. However, there was a significant difference in the defect size. In the animal model, repair was easily achieved regardless of the defect size or location and air leakage was not seen after repair. The average duration of repair was 21.0s. The present method achieved a strong closure with sufficient durability. Since the fabric is soft and flexible and suturing is not required, moving and fragile pleura can be easily repaired regardless of the defect location and size. Once established, the present method may be used in other forms of awake thoracic surgery or reconstruction of the thorax.

  12. Arthroscopically guided navigation for repair of acromioclavicular joint dislocations: a safe technique with reduced intraoperative radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Theopold, Jan; Marquass, Bastian; von Dercks, Nikolaus; Mütze, Maria; Henkelmann, Ralf; Josten, Christoph; Hepp, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy evaluation of navigated image free placement of double cortical fixation buttons for coracoclavicular tunnel position in comparison to conventional drill guide based placement. Twenty-six patients with acute acromioclavicular joint instability were included in this non-randomized cohort study. All patients were treated with a Double- TightRope technique. In 13 cases the conventional drill guide based placement was used (group 1). In 13 patients surgery was performed as a navigated procedure with a fluoro-free optoelectronic system (group 2). The number of coracoclavicular drillings per patient (First pass accuracy; FPA (%)) was documented, the subcoracoidal position of the fixation buttons has been evaluated and graded as "intended position achieved (IPA)" or "intended position not achieved (IPnA)". In group 1 drilling had to be repeated in four patients (30.8 %) to achieve proper placement of the subcoracoidal fixation buttons. 100 % first pass accuracy was observed in group 2 (p = 0.03). In group 1, the intended position of the subcoracoid buttons was not achieved (IPnA) in six patients (46.2 %). In group 2 all intended positions were achieved (p = 0.005). Arthroscopic controlled fluoro-free navigated coracoclavicular drilling for the repair of acromioclavicular joint dislocation has higher first pass accuracy in comparison to conventional drill guide based placement. Therefore the navigation enables a precise position of the drill holes, may reduce the risk of an iatrogenic coracoid fracture and migration of fixation devices. Local institutional review board No. 061-14-10032014.

  13. Intraoperative radiotherapy in colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of techniques, long-term outcomes, and complications.

    PubMed

    Mirnezami, Reza; Chang, George J; Das, Prajnan; Chandrakumaran, Kandiah; Tekkis, Paris; Darzi, Ara; Mirnezami, Alexander H

    2013-03-01

    The precise contribution of IORT to the management of locally advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer (CRC) remains uncertain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the value of IORT in this setting. Studies published between 1965 and 2011 that reported outcomes after IORT for advanced or recurrent CRC were identified by an electronic literature search. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and design, and evaluated for technique of IORT delivery, oncological outcomes, and complications following IORT. Outcomes were analysed with fixed-effect and random-effect model meta-analyses and heterogeneity and publication bias examined. 29 studies comprising 14 prospective and 15 retrospective studies met the inclusion criteria and were assessed, yielding a total of 3003 patients. The indication for IORT was locally advanced disease in 1792 patients and locally recurrent disease in 1211 patients. Despite heterogeneity in methodology and reporting practice, IORT is principally applied for the treatment of close or positive margins. When comparative studies were evaluated, a significant effect favouring improved local control (OR 0.22; 95% CI = 0.05-0.86; p = 0.03), disease free survival (HR 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31-0.85; p = 0.009), and overall survival (HR 0.33; 95% CI = 0.2-0.54; p = 0.001) was noted with no increase in total (OR 1.13; 95% CI = 0.77-1.65; p = 0.57), urologic (OR 1.35; 95% CI = 0.84-2.82; p = 0.47), or anastomotic complications (OR 0.94; 95% CI = 0.42-2.1; p = 0.98). Increased wound complications were noted after IORT (OR 1.86; 95% CI = 1.03-3.38; p = 0.049). Despite methodological weaknesses in the studies evaluated, our results suggest that IORT may improve oncological outcomes in advanced and recurrent CRC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Investigate progress of intraoperative periprosthetic fracture of total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Cong, Yu; Zhao, Jian-ning

    2011-02-01

    One of the complications of total hip arthroplasty is intraoperative periprosthetic fracture. Periprosthetic fracture is divided into acetabular fracture and femoral fracture. Risk factors for intraoperative periprosthetic fracture include use of minimally invasive techniques, press-fit cementless stems, revision operations and osteoporosis. It has been recognized that treatment of intraoperative periprosthetic fractures should be based on the classification of the Vancouver system for intraoperative fractures.

  15. Radioguided localisation of non-palpable lesions of the breast in Costa Rica: review of results of our first 800 patients in private practice.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Marisel; Alfaro, Sabrina; Aguilar, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Surgical treatment of non-palpable breast lesions is controversial. At the European Institute of Oncology in Milan, Italy, Prof Umberto Veronesi introduced a new technique called the radioguided occult lesion localisation (ROLL) in 1996 to replace conventional methods and their disadvantages (Zurrida S, Galimberti V, and Monti S et al (1998) Radioguided localization of occult breast lesionsBreast7 11-13 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-9776(98)90044-3). Given the success experienced in that institution, the method became the technique of choice for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, we will examine the technical aspects of ROLL and the results from a large series of patients treated in our private practice in Costa Rica. We analysed the first 816 patients with different non-palpable breast lesions detected by ultrasound or mammography within our private practice in Costa Rica. In 774 patients, technetium 99m labelled with human serum albumin (7-10 MBq) in 0.2 ml of saline solution was injected into the lesion under mammographic or ultrasound guidance. The excisional biopsy was done by means of a gamma-probe and complete excision of the lesion was verified by X-ray on the specimen in lesions that were visible by mammography and ultrasound 4 months after surgery. In the remaining 42 patients, the localisation of the lesion was carried out by wire. The tracer was correctly positioned in the first attempt in 772/816 (94.6%) of cases and in the second attempt in two other cases. In 42/816 (5.1%) cases, the localisation of the lesion had to be performed with the traditional method. X-rays showed that the lesion was entirely removed in 770/772 (99.74%) of cases. The ROLL is a simple and excellent option for the removal of hidden breast lesions in clinical practice. It offers the advantage of making resections safer and with tumour-free margins, in addition to reducing the number of reinterventions. Since it makes it possible to specify to the pathologist

  16. Evaluation of the High-Frequency Monopolar Stimulation Technique for Mapping and Monitoring the Corticospinal Tract in Patients With Supratentorial Gliomas. A Proposal for Intraoperative Management Based on Neurophysiological Data Analysis in a Series of 92 Patients.

    PubMed

    Plans, Gerard; Fernández-Conejero, Isabel; Rifà-Ros, Xavier; Fernández-Coello, Alejandro; Rosselló, Aleix; Gabarrós, Andreu

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative identification and preservation of the corticospinal tract is often necessary for glioma resection. To make a proposal for intraoperative management with the high-frequency monopolar stimulation technique for monitoring the corticospinal tract. Ninety-two patients operated on with the assistance of the high-frequency monopolar stimulation. Clinical and neurophysiological data have been related with the motor status at 3 months to establish prognostic factors of motor deterioration. Twenty-one patients (22.8%) presented intraoperative alterations in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). Twelve (13%) presented an increment in the MEP threshold ≥5 mA (no deficit at 3 months). Two (2.2%) presented an MEP amplitude reduction >50% (100% deficit at 3 months). Seven (7.6%) had an intraoperative MEP loss (80% deficit at 3 months). Subcortical stimulation was positive in 75 patients (81.5%). Eighty-five patients were available for the analysis at 3 months. Fourteen presented new deficits (16.5%). Among them, 5 presented a deficit in nonmonitored muscles (5.9%) and 1 presented a new deficit not detected intraoperatively. The combination of patients with preoperative motor deficits, MEP deterioration, or loss and intensity of subcortical stimulation ≤3 mA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in the prediction of new deficits. Persistent MEP loss or deterioration is associated with a high probability of new deficits. It seems recommendable to stop the subcortical resection before obtaining a subcortical MEP threshold at 3 mA especially in patients with preoperative motor deficits. A careful selection of muscles for the registration of MEPs is mandatory to avoid deficits in nonmonitored muscles.

  17. An intra-operative positron probe with background rejection capability for FDG-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Setsu; Tarutani, Kazumasa; Minato, Kotaro; Senda, Michio

    2005-02-01

    For radio-guided surgery on tumors using F-18-FDG, detection of annihilation gamma photons emanating from other parts of the body produces background radiation counts and limits its use in clinical situations. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an intra-operative positron probe with background-rejection capability. The positron probe uses a phoswich detector composed of a plastic scintillator and a bismuth germinate (BGO). A positron from a positron emitter such as F-18 is detected by the plastic scintillator and emits annihilation photons. The BGO detects one of the annihilation photons while a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) detects scintillation photons from both scintillators. The decay time differences of these two scintillators are used to distinguish whether the event is a true event where a positron and a following annihilation photon are detected simultaneously, or a background event. In this configuration, only positrons can be selectively detected, even in an environment of high background gamma photon flux. Spatial resolution was 11-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) 5 mm from the detector surface. Measured sensitivity for the F-18 point source was 2.6 cps/kBq 5 mm from the detector surface. The background count rate was less than 0.5 cps for a 20-cm diameter cylindrical phantom containing 37 MBq of F-18 solution measured on the phantom surface, while the positron count rate was almost linear over a range of approximately 6 kcps. These results indicate that our developed intra-operative positron probe is valuable for radio-guided surgery on tumors using F-18-FDG in a high flux of background annihilation gamma photons.

  18. Performance of a small CdTe gamma camera for radio-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Sakahara, Harmui; Hayama, Kazuhide; Funaki, Minoru; Shirahata, T.; Orskaug, Terje; Maehlum, Gunnar; Yoshioka, Koki; Nygard, Einar

    2001-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been shown to be highly accurate for detecting metastatic diseases, such as melanoma and breast cancer. Gamma probes that measure only the relative presence of radioactivity are commonly used to identify sentinel lymph nodes. We have developed a small semiconductor gamma camera (SSGC) that allows the size, shape, and location of the target tissues to be visualized. The purpose of this study is to characterize the performance of the SSGC for radioguided surgery of metastatic lesions and for diagnosing other diseases amenable to the smaller- format associated with this prototype imaging system. Methods & Design: The detector head was comprised of a 32 x 32 Cadmium Telluride semiconductor array and application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with a tungsten collimator. The entire assembly was encased in a lead housing measuring 152 mm x 166 mm x 65 mm. The effective visual field was 44.8 mm x 44.8 mm. Two spherical 5 mm diameter Tc-99m radioactive sources having activities of 0.15 MBq and 100 MBq were used to simulate sentinel lymph nodes and injection site. The relative detectability of these foci was compared using the new detector and a conventional scintillation camera. Use of the prototype was also explored on patients in a variety of clinical applications. Results: the SSGC provided better spatial resolution on phantom studies than the conventional gamma camera control. Both foci could be visualized clearly by the SSGC using a 15 second acquisition time, whereas they could not be readily identified using the conventional system under comparable conditions. Preliminary clinical tests of the SSGC were found to be successful in imaging diseases in a variety of tissues including salivary and thyroid glands, temporomandibular joints, and sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion: The SSGC has significant potential for use in diagnosing diseases and for facilitating subsequent radioguided surgery. (This project was supported by a Grant- in

  19. [Intraoperative colonoscopy: current indications].

    PubMed

    Stroppa, I; D'Antini, P; Rossi, L; Farinon, A M

    1993-01-01

    From January 1987 to December 1991, 37 patients underwent intraoperative colonoscopy for several indications; these latter can be summarized in the need to define the site or extension of the lesions treated or detected by endoscopy before surgery. This procedure is therefore necessary in those cases in whom intraoperative endoscopy is likely to be useful in planning the surgical treatment. The use of intraoperative colonoscopy should be however considered complementary, but not substitutive, of the preoperative colonoscopy.

  20. Outcomes of microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided center-sparing internal limiting membrane peeling for myopic traction maculopathy: a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Atul; Ravani, Raghav; Mehta, Aditi; Simakurthy, Sriram; Dhull, Chirakshi

    2017-07-04

    To evaluate the outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (I-OCT)-guided traction removal and center-sparing internal limiting membrane (cs-ILM) peeling. Nine eyes with myopic traction maculopathy as diagnosed on SD-OCT underwent PPV with I-OCT-guided cs-ILM peeling and were evaluated prospectively for resolution of central macular thickness (CMT) and improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and complications, if any, were noted. All patients were followed up for more than 9 months. Resolution of the macular retinoschisis was seen in all nine eyes on SD-OCT. At 36 weeks, there was a significant improvement in mean BCVA from the preoperative BCVA (P = 0.0089) along with a reduction in the CMT from 569.77 ± 263.19 to 166.0 ± 43.91 um (P = 0.0039). None of the eyes showed worsening of BCVA or development of full-thickness macular hole in the intraoperative or follow-up period. PPV with I-OCT-guided cs-ILM peeling helps in complete removal of traction, resolution of retinoschisis and good functional recovery with low intraoperative and postoperative complications.

  1. A prototype small CdTe gamma camera for radioguided surgery and other imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Sakahara, Harumi; Hayama, Kazuhide; Funaki, Minoru; Ohno, Ryoichi; Shirahata, Takashi; Orskaug, Terje; Maehlum, Gunnar; Yoshioka, Koki; Nygard, Einar

    2003-12-01

    Gamma probes have been used for sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma and breast cancer. However, these probes can provide only radioactivity counts and variable pitch audio output based on the intensity of the detected radioactivity. We have developed a small semiconductor gamma camera (SSGC) that allows visualisation of the size, shape and location of the target tissues. This study is designed to characterise the performance of the SSGC for radioguided surgery of metastatic lesions and for other imaging applications amenable to the smaller format of this prototype imaging system. The detector head had 32 cadmium telluride semiconductor arrays with a total of 1,024 pixels, and with application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and a tungsten collimator. The entire assembly was encased in a lead housing measuring 152 mmx166 mmx65 mm. The effective visual field was 44.8 mmx44.8 mm. The energy resolution and imaging aspects were tested. Two spherical 5-mm- and 15-mm-diameter technetium-99m radioactive sources that had activities of 0.15 MBq and 100 MBq, respectively, were used to simulate a sentinel lymph node and an injection site. The relative detectability of these foci by the new detector and a conventional scintillation camera was studied. The prototype was also examined in a variety of clinical applications. Energy resolution [full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)] for a single element at the centre of the field of view was 4.2% at 140 keV (99mTc), and the mean energy resolution of the CdTe detector arrays was approximately 7.8%. The spatial resolution, represented by FWHM, had a mean value of 1.56 +/- 0.05 mm. Simulated node foci could be visualised clearly by the SSGC using a 15-s acquisition time. In preliminary clinical tests, the SSGC successfully imaged diseases in a variety of tissues, including salivary and thyroid glands, temporomandibular joints and sentinel lymph nodes. The SSGC has significant potential for diagnosing diseases and facilitating

  2. Dosimetric comparison of (192)Ir high-dose-rate brachytherapy vs. 50 kV x-rays as techniques for breast intraoperative radiation therapy: conceptual development of image-guided intraoperative brachytherapy using a multilumen balloon applicator and in-room CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan; Libby, Bruce; Showalter, Shayna L; Brenin, David R; Wilson, David D; Schroen, Anneke; Morris, Monica; Reardon, Kelli A; Morrison, John; Showalter, Timothy N

    2014-01-01

    At our institution, the availability of a shielded procedure room with in-room CT-on-rails imaging allows for the exploration of a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy approach for breast intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). We hypothesize that HDR brachytherapy will permit a higher prescription dose without increasing toxicity. In this study, we compare the dosimetry of intraoperative HDR brachytherapy, using multilumen balloon applicator, to IORT with a 50 kV source and then select a prescription dose for a subsequent clinical trial. The CT scans of 14 patients who had previously received multilumen balloon-based breast brachytherapy were replanned to a standard prescription to the target volume. The same 14 cases were planned to the specifications of a 50 kV x-ray system. Uniform volume optimization and prescription doses were used to permit direct comparisons. All plans were evaluated for the dose homogeneity index, tumor coverage, and dose to normal tissues, including skin, ribs, and heart (for left breast plans). The HDR brachytherapy plans were superior to 50 kV superficial photon plans for IORT in all dosimetric parameters except for the heart and rib dosimetric parameters. Prescription dose of 12.5 Gy to the planning target volume for evaluation yielded a dose to 95 percent of the balloon surface of 19.7 Gy. Image-guided HDR intraoperative brachytherapy with a multilumen balloon applicator provides superior target volume coverage compared with 50 kV photons, while maintaining doses within tolerance limits for normal tissues. An ongoing prospective clinical trial will evaluate the safety and feasibility of this technique. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An innovative radio-guided surgery technique for complete resection of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russomando, A.; Collamati, F.; Bellini, F.; Bocci, V.; De Lucia, E.; Faccini, R.; Frallicciardi, P. M.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Morganti, S.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pinci, D.; Recchia, L.; Senzacqua, M.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Voena, C.

    2014-12-01

    Finding new ways to fight cancer is essential to increase the patients life expectancy. This paper reports the latest results of the project CHIRONE finalized to increase the potential of the Radio Guided Surgery through the use of β- emitting radio-tracers and β- probes. This innovation could overcome the present main limiting factor represented by a diffuse background due to the high penetration power of the gamma radiation used. We created a prototype of β- probe and in this paper we report measures of photon efficiency, acquired with commercial photons sources. Then we estimated the signal and background rates in realistic cases of meningioma through a simulation. The device is able to detect residuals of 0.1 ml in 1 s with an administered activity less than 3 MBq/kg.

  4. Potential Usefulness of 99mTc-DMSA for Radio-Guided Surgery in Pediatric Renal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Demetrio; Di Franco, Davide; Cacciaguerra, Sebastiano; Ruggeri, Antonella; Russo, Simona; Fornito, Maria Concetta

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of an ectopic/hypoplastic kidney removed by radio-guided surgery. A 7-year-old girl, with a history of vaginal drainage of urine, underwent renal scintigraphy with Tc-DMSA. SPECT/CT revealed a focal uptake in the pelvis, corresponding to hypoplastic kidney as confirmed by MRI. Based on SPECT/CT findings, the patient underwent laparoscopic surgery, using Tc-DMSA scan to help the surgeon to detect the small ectopic kidney. Intraoperatory histological report confirmed the renal origin of the specimen.

  5. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

  6. [PSMA-radioguided surgery in localized recurrent prostate cancer : Current and future aspects].

    PubMed

    Rauscher, I; Eiber, M; Jilg, C A; Gschwend, J E; Maurer, T

    2017-01-01

    Recently, PSMA-radioguided surgery (PSMA-RGS) was introduced for targeted resection of localized prostate cancer recurrence. Prerequisite for preoperative patient selection and localization of tumor recurrence is a positive (68)Ga-HBED-CC PSMA positron emission tomography (PET) scan with preferably only singular soft tissue or lymph node recurrence. After injection of In-PSMA I&T or Tc-PSMA-I&S single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT)/computer tomography (CT) examination is performed in every patient to verify radiotracer uptake in tumor lesions. In a preliminary study, (111)In-PSMA I&T SPECT/CT could detect about half of the (68)Ga-HBED-CC PSMA PET-positive lesions, while nearly all PET-positive lesions could be detected using PSMA-RGS and also five additional lesions compared to (68)Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA PET. Follow-up data from 55 patients show a PSA reduction >50% and >90% in 44 (80%) and 29 (53%) patients, respectively. In 34 (62%) patients, a PSA drop to <0.2 ng/ml was observed. In all, 15 (27%) patients received further PC-specific treatment; the remaining 40 (73%) patients did not undergo further treatment. In 33% of patients, surgery-related complications were noted; however, most were regarded as minor. Thus, PSMA-RGS seems to be of high value in patients with localized prostate cancer recurrence with exact localization and resection of metastatic tissue. However, patient selection based on (68)Ga-PSMA PET imaging and clinical parameters is crucial to obtain satisfactory oncological results.

  7. Acute Intraoperative Pulmonary Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Nason, Katie S

    2015-08-01

    Acute intraoperative aspiration is a potentially fatal complication with significant associated morbidity. Patients undergoing thoracic surgery are at increased risk for anesthesia-related aspiration, largely due to the predisposing conditions associated with this complication. Awareness of the risk factors, predisposing conditions, maneuvers to decrease risk, and immediate management options by the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesia team is imperative to reducing risk and optimizing patient outcomes associated with acute intraoperative pulmonary aspiration. Based on the root-cause analyses that many of the aspiration events can be traced back to provider factors, having an experienced anesthesiologist present for high-risk cases is also critical.

  8. Techniques and standards in intraoperative graft verification by transit time flow measurement after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Niclauss, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Transit time flow measurement (TTFM) is a quality control tool for intraoperative graft evaluation in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. A critical review of the literature available using TTFM in CABG surgery is the focus of this article. The main objectives will be to detail precise parameters for flow evaluation, to show limitations of TTFM and to prove its predictive impact on postoperative graft failure rate. Publications listed in the PubMed database were reviewed, searching for intraoperative graft verification in coronary surgery by TTFM, with postoperative imaging follow-up (FU) modality and with a special focus on publications released after European guidelines from 2010. Nine included publications revealed an overall graft failure rate of ∼12%. Mean graft flow had a positive predictive value in the largest study, and cut-offs, of at least 20 ml/min for internal mammary artery (IMA) grafts, therein partially confirming guidelines, and 30-40 ml/min for saphenous venous grafts (SVGs) were proposed. An explicit correlation between graft flow, patency rate and severity of coronary stenosis, by indicating the fractional flow reserve, was found for IMA grafts. Increased pulsatility index and increased systolic reverse flow probably predict worse outcome and may help identifying competitive flow. Diastolic filling, rarely indicated, could not be confirmed as the predictive marker. No significant correlation of TTFM and graft failure rate for radial and other arterial grafts could be found, partially due to the small number of these types of grafts analysed. Larger target vessels and lower postoperative CK-MB levels may predict better graft patency rates. Low sensitivity for TTFM to reliably detect graft failure is certainly a major issue, as found in randomized analyses. However, methodical limitations and varying threshold values for TTFM render a general consensus difficult. Influence of quantity (vessel territory distribution) and quality

  9. Intraoperative ultrasound in neurosurgery - a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Marcel; Wilkins, Simone; Poeata, Ion; Brodbelt, Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) provides low-cost real-time imaging that is simple and rapid to use. Recent advances in probe technology, image fusion, 3D techniques and contrast have led to significant improvements in image quality. This article provides an overview of the current uses of iUS, including technical advice for practical use, and future directions.

  10. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  11. Pediatric Spinal Ultrasound: Neonatal and Intraoperative Applications.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Enrique; Leach, James; Caré, Marguerite; Mangano, Francesco; O Hara, Sara

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the use of ultrasound as a screening tool for spinal diseases in neonates and infants and its intraoperative value in selected pediatric neurosurgical disorders. A review of spinal embryology followed by a description of common spinal diseases in neonates assessed with ultrasound is presented. Indications for spinal ultrasound in neonates, commonly identified conditions, and the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in selected cases are emphasized. Additionally, the use of ultrasound in selected neurosurgical spinal diseases in pediatric patients is presented with magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative correlation. Technique, limitations, and pitfalls are discussed.

  12. Comparison of different hypotensive anaesthesia techniques in orthognathic surgery with regard to intraoperative blood loss, quality of the surgical field, and postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Chen, C; Yao, C-F; Chen, Y-A; Chen, Y-R

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-three consecutive patients undergoing bimaxillary surgery between June and August 2015 were included in this study. Twenty-one patients were included in each of three study groups. In group 1, sevoflurane was the sole maintenance anaesthesia agent used; in group 2, propofol was the predominant agent, in addition to a reduced amount of sevoflurane; in group 3, patients received sevoflurane until fixation was completed, at which point it was switched to propofol. The mean intraoperative blood loss (ml) was 707.14±290.74 in group 1, 917.62±380.30 in group 2, and 750.00±331.84 in group 3; the difference between groups 1 and 2 was significant (P=0.047). The mean score for the quality of surgical field assessment was 1.32±0.44 in group 1, 2.04±0.49 in group 2, and 1.45±0.53 in group 3 (P=0.003). The postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) rate was 28.6% in group 1, 9.5% in group 2, and 14.3% in group 3 (P=0.343). The quality of the surgical field was significantly better in groups 1 and 3 than in group 2. The average blood loss in group 1 was also significantly less than in group 2. The PONV rates were lower than those reported in other studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Intraoperative Period and Breast Cancer: Review

    PubMed Central

    Akan, Arzu; Şimsek, Şerife

    2014-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy in breast cancer (IORT) delivers a concentrated dose of radiation therapy to a tumor bed during surgery. IORT offers some of the following advantages with typically fewer complications like; maximum effect, sparing healthy tissues and organs, to help the patients finish treatment and get back to their normal activities. The goal of IORT is to improve local tumor control and survival rates for patients with breast cancer. IORT can both be performed with electron beams (ELIOT) and X-rays. Two main randomised trials testing intraoperative partial breast radiotherapy are TARGIT trial and the ELIOT (intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons) trial, but the techniques are fundamentally different. Whereas TARGIT delivers radiation from within the undisturbed tumour bed, for ELIOT, the mammary gland is mobilised, a prepectoral lead shield is inserted, the edges of the tumour bed are apposed, and radiation is delivered from without.

  14. Surgical management of symptomatic os odontoideum with posterior screw fixation performed using the magerl and harms techniques with intraoperative 3-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chong; Tian, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yu; Liu, Bo; Li, Qin; Wang, Yong-Qing; Sun, Yu-Zhen

    2012-10-01

    Retrospective case series. To evaluate the accuracy of screw fixation using intraoperative three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation (ITFN) and to assess the clinical outcomes of this treatment regimen. The surgical management of symptomatic os odontoideum poses considerable difficulties due to the highly variable anatomy of the upper cervical spine and surrounding neurovascular structures. Various methods have been described for the treatment of symptomatic os odontoideum, all of which have limitations. Nineteen patients with symptomatic os odontoideum were investigated. Pain scores were assessed using the visual analogue scale. Myelopathy was assessed using the Nurick scale and Odom's criteria. Radiological imaging was carried out in all patients for diagnosis and to assess the atlantodens interval, space available for cord, and presence of intramedullary hyperintensity signals on T2-weighted images at the C1-C2 level. Posterior stabilization was performed for all patients by using ITFN. The mean Nurick score improved from 2.3 before surgery to 0.7 at the time of follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 34.7 months (range, 12-65 mo). According to Odom's criteria, outcomes were as follows: excellent, 47%; good, 37%; fair, 11%; and poor, 5%. All patients with preoperative neck pain had symptom relief or improvement, with all of these patients having more than 83.7% improvement in visual analogue scale scores. The mean preoperative space available for cord value of 9.3 mm improved to 17.7 mm. Solid fusion and reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation were achieved in every patient without screw failure. Sixty screws were placed in 19 patients. Two C2 polyaxial screws in 2 patients and 1 transarticular screw in 1 patient slightly penetrated the transverse foramen with no vascular injury and clinical sequelae. ITFN is a safe, accurate, and effective tool for screw placement in patients with symptomatic os odontoideum.

  15. Rapid intraoperative zygoma fracture imaging.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Marcin; Parker, Wendy L; Beckman, Lorne; Williams, H Bruce

    2009-09-01

    A fractured zygoma frequently results in an aesthetically displeasing facial asymmetry. Open reduction and internal fixation may accurately realign the facial skeleton but often with undesirable sequelae. The authors' objective was to develop a precise technique of intraoperative zygoma fracture imaging using a C-arm to permit anatomical fracture realignment while reducing the extent of skeletal exposure required. The simplicity and accessibility of this method should allow its widespread clinical application. First, using a model skull, the relative positions of the C-arm required to adequately depict zygoma projection, width, arch contour, and zygoma rotation were defined. Second, diverse zygoma fracture types were created in six cadaver heads with a Mini Bionix machine and were repaired using C-arm guidance; accuracy was confirmed with postoperative computed tomography. Third, after defining optimal operating room setup, the accuracy in a clinical case was assessed. Two C-arm views were defined. The zygoma projection view (C-arm at 70 to 90 degrees to the skull's coronal plane) allows visualization of projection, width, and contour. The rotation view (C-arm at 70 to 90 degrees to the skull's sagittal plane) allows visualization of zygoma rotation. Postoperative computed tomographic imaging confirmed anatomical repair in all cases. Average operating room duration was less than 30 minutes, with operating room times decreasing progressively. The authors have developed an accurate technique of intraoperative zygoma fracture imaging and reduction guidance. This technique may decrease the risks of open access by potentially limiting direct skeletal exposure to buttresses where skeletal stabilization is required. In addition, this method is simple, can be learned and used rapidly, and is readily accessible.

  16. Intraoperative endovascular ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eton, Darwin; Ahn, Samuel S.; Baker, J. D.; Pensabene, Joseph; Yeatman, Lawrence S.; Moore, Wesley S.

    1991-05-01

    The early experience using intra-operative endovascular ultrasonography (EU) is reported in eight patients undergoing lower extremity revasularization. In four patients, intra-operative EU successfully characterized inflow stenoses that were inadequately imaged with pre- operative arteriography. Two patients were found to have hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses, and were treated with intra-operative balloon angioplasty followed by repeat EU. The other two patients were found to have non-hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses requiring no treatment. Additional outflow procedures were required in all four patients. In the remaining four patients, EU was used to evaluate the completeness of TEC rotary atherectomy, of Hall oscillatory endarterectomy, of thrombectomy of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, and of valve lysis during in situ saphenous vein grafting, respectively. In the latter case, the valve leaflets were not clearly seen. In the other cases, EU assisted the surgeon. Angioscopy and angiography were available for comparison. In one case, angioscopy failed because of inability to clear the field while inspecting retrograde the limb of an aorto-bi-femoral graft. EU however was possible. No complications of EU occurred. EU is a safe procedure indicated when characterization of a lesion is needed prior to an intervention or when evaluation of the intervention's success is desired. We did not find it useful in valve lysis for in-site grafting.

  17. Review of intraoperative optical coherence tomography: technology and applications [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Draelos, Mark; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    During microsurgery, en face imaging of the surgical field through the operating microscope limits the surgeon’s depth perception and visualization of instruments and sub-surface anatomy. Surgical procedures outside microsurgery, such as breast tumor resections, may also benefit from visualization of the sub-surface tissue structures. The widespread clinical adoption of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology and its growing prominence in other fields, such as cancer imaging, has motivated the development of intraoperative OCT for real-time tomographic visualization of surgical interventions. This article reviews key technological developments in intraoperative OCT and their applications in human surgery. We focus on handheld OCT probes, microscope-integrated OCT systems, and OCT-guided laser treatment platforms designed for intraoperative use. Moreover, we discuss intraoperative OCT adjuncts and processing techniques currently under development to optimize the surgical feedback derivable from OCT data. Lastly, we survey salient clinical studies of intraoperative OCT for human surgery. PMID:28663853

  18. Intraoperative BiPAP in OSA Patients

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhavna P

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete upper airway obstructions during sleep. Severe OSA presents with a number of challenges to the anesthesiologist, the most life threatening being loss of the airway. We are reporting a case where we successfully used intraoperative bi level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) with moderate sedation and a regional technique in a patient with severe OSA posted for total knee replacement (TKR). A 55-year-old lady with osteoarthritis of right knee joint was posted for total knee replacement. She had severe OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of 35. She also had moderate pulmonary hypertension due to her long standing OSA. We successfully used in her a combined spinal epidural technique with intraoperative BiPAP and sedation. She had no complications intraoperatively or post operatively and was discharged on day 5. Patients with OSA are vulnerable to sedatives, anaesthesia and analgesia which even in small doses can cause complete airway collapse. The problem, with regional techniques is that it requires excellent patient cooperation. We decided to put our patient on intraoperative BiPAP hoping that this would allow us to sedate her adequately for the surgery. As it happened we were able to successfully sedate her with slightly lesser doses of the commonly used sedatives without any episodes of desaturation, snoring or exacerbation of pulmonary hypertension. Many more trials are required before we can conclusively say that intraoperative BiPAP allows us to safely sedate OSA patients but we hope that our case report draws light on this possibility. Planning ahead and having a BiPAP machine available inside the operating may allow us to use sedatives in these patients to keep them comfortable under regional anaesthesia. PMID:26023625

  19. Intraoperative ultrasound assistance in resection of intracranial meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hailiang; Sun, Huaping; Xie, Liqian; Tang, Qisheng; Mao, Ying; Xie, Qing; Zheng, Mingzhe; Wang, Daijun; Zhu, Hongda; Zhu, Jianhong; Yao, Zhenwei; Chen, Xiancheng; Zhou, Liangfu

    2013-01-01

    Objective Intracranial meningiomas, especially those located at anterior and middle skull base, are difficult to be completely resected due to their complicated anatomy structures and adjacent vessels. It’s essential to locate the tumor and its vessels precisely during operation to reduce the risk of neurological deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraoperative ultrasonography in displaying intracranial meningioma and its surrounding arteries, and evaluate its potential to improve surgical precision and minimize surgical trauma. Methods Between December 2011 and January 2013, 20 patients with anterior and middle skull base meningioma underwent surgery with the assistance of intraoperative ultrasonography in the Neurosurgery Department of Shanghai Huashan Hospital. There were 7 male and 13 female patients, aged from 31 to 66 years old. Their sonographic features were analyzed and the advantages of intraoperative ultrasonography were discussed. Results The border of the meningioma and its adjacent vessels could be exhibited on intraoperative ultrasonography. The sonographic visualization allowed the neurosurgeon to choose an appropriate approach before the operation. In addition, intraoperative ultrasonography could inform neurosurgeons about the location of the tumor, its relation to the surrounding arteries during the operation, thus these essential arteries could be protected carefully. Conclusions Intraoperative ultrasonography is a useful intraoperative technique. When appropriately applied to assist surgical procedures for intracranial meningioma, it could offer very important intraoperative information (such as the tumor supplying vessels) that helps to improve surgical resection and therefore might reduce the postoperative morbidity. PMID:23825911

  20. Assessment of atrial septal defect morphology by transthoracic three dimensional echocardiography using standard grey scale and Doppler myocardial imaging techniques: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative findings

    PubMed Central

    Lange, A.; Walayat, M.; Turnbull, C.; Palka, P.; Mankad, P.; Sutherland, G.; Godman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective—To determine whether transthoracic three dimensional echocardiography is an accurate non-invasive technique for defining the morphology of atrial septal defects (ASD).
Methods—In 34 patients with secundum ASD, mean (SD) age 20 (17) years (14 male, 20 female), the measurements obtained from three dimensional echocardiography were compared to those obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or surgery. Three dimensional images were constructed to simulate the ASD view as seen by a surgeon. Measured variables were: maximum and minimum vertical and horizontal ASD dimension, and distances to inferior and superior vena cava, coronary sinus, and tricuspid valve. In each patient two ultrasound techniques were used to acquire three dimensional data: standard grey scale imaging (GSI) and Doppler myocardial imaging (DMI). 
Results—Good correlation was found in maximum ASD dimension (both horizontal and vertical) between three dimensional echocardiography and both MRI (GSI r = 0.96, SEE = 0.05 cm; DMI r = 0.97, SEE = 0.04 cm) and surgery (GSI r = 0.92, SEE = 0.06 cm; DMI r = 0.95, SEE = 0.06 cm). The systematic error was similar for both three dimensional techniques when compared to both MRI (GSI = 0.40 cm (27%); DMI = 0.38 cm (25%)) and surgery (GSI = 0.50 cm (29%); DMI = 0.37 cm (22%)). A significant difference was found in both horizontal and vertical ASD dimension changes during the cardiac cycle. This change was inversely correlated with age. These findings were consistent for both DMI and GSI technique. In children (age ⩽ 17 years), the feasibility of detecting structures and undertaking measurements was similar for both echo techniques. However, in adult ASD patients (age ⩾ 18 years) this feasibility was higher for DMI than for GSI.
Conclusions—Transthoracic three dimensional imaging using both GSI and DMI accurately displayed the varying morphology, dimensions, and spatial relations of ASD. However

  1. Allgöwer-Donati Versus Vertical Mattress Suture Technique Impact on Perfusion in Ankle Fracture Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Intraoperative Angiography.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Steven F; Houdek, Matthew T; Wyles, Cody C; Yuan, Brandon J; Cross, William W; Cass, Joseph R; Sems, Stephen A

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which primary wound closure technique for ankle fractures affords the most robust perfusion as measured by laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography: Allgöwer-Donati or vertical mattress. Prospective, randomized. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. Thirty patients undergoing open reduction internal fixation for ankle fractures were prospectively randomized to Allgöwer-Donati (n = 15) or vertical mattress (n = 15) closure. Demographics were similar for both cohorts with respect to age, sex, body mass index, surgical timing, and OTA/AO fracture classification. Skin perfusion (mean incision perfusion and mean perfusion impairment) was quantified in fluorescence units with laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography along the lateral incision as well as anterior and posterior to the incision at 30 separate locations. Minimum follow-up was 3 months with a mean follow-up 4.7 months. Allgöwer-Donati enabled superior perfusion compared with the vertical mattress suture technique. Mean incision perfusion for Allgöwer-Donati was 51 (SD = 13) and for vertical mattress was 28 (SD = 10, P < 0.0001). Mean perfusion impairment was less in the Allgöwer-Donati cohort (12.8, SD = 9) compared with that in the vertical mattress cohort (23.4, SD = 14; P = 0.03). One patient in each cohort experienced a wound complication. The Allgöwer-Donati suture technique offers improved incision perfusion compared with vertical mattress closure after open reduction internal fixation of ankle fractures. Theoretically, this may enhance soft tissue healing and decrease the risk of wound complications. Surgeons may take this into consideration when deciding closure techniques for ankle fractures. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Preclinical Evaluation and First Patient Application of 99mTc-PSMA-I&S for SPECT Imaging and Radioguided Surgery in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Robu, Stephanie; Schottelius, Margret; Eiber, Matthias; Maurer, Tobias; Gschwend, Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Initial studies in patients have demonstrated the suitability of (111)In-PSMA-I&T ((111)In-DOTAGA-(3-iodo-y)-f-k-Sub(KuE)) (PSMA is prostate-specific membrane antigen and I&T is imaging and therapy) for radioguided surgery (RGS) of small metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) soft-tissue lesions. To meet the clinical need for a more cost-effective alternative, the PSMA-I&T-based tracer concept was adapted to (99m)Tc-labeling chemistry. Two PSMA-I&T-derived inhibitors with all-L-serine- (MAS3) and all-D-serine- (mas3) chelating moieties were evaluated in parallel, and a kit procedure for routine (99m)Tc labeling was developed. PSMA affinities (IC50) and internalization kinetics of (99m)Tc-MAS3-y-nal-k(Sub-KuE) and (99m)Tc-mas3-y-nal-k(Sub-KuE) ((99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S for imaging and surgery) were determined using LNCaP cells and ((125)I-BA)KuE as a radioligand and reference standard. In vivo metabolite analyses and biodistribution studies were performed using CD-1 nu/nu and LNCaP tumor-bearing CB-17 severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S in humans were investigated in a patient with advanced metastatic PCa via sequential planar whole-body SPECT imaging at 1, 3, 5, and 21 h after injection. Additionally, preoperative SPECT/CT (12 h after injection) and (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S-supported RGS (16 h after injection) were performed in 1 PCa patient with proven iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases. A robust and reliable kit-labeling procedure was established, allowing the preparation of (99m)Tc-MAS3-y-nal-k(Sub-KuE) and (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S in consistently high radiochemical yield and purity (≥98%, n > 50 preparations). Because of its improved internalization efficiency and superior in vivo stability, (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S was selected for further in vivo evaluation. Compared with (111)In-PSMA-I&T, (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S showed delayed clearance kinetics but identical uptake in PSMA-positive tissues in the LNCaP xenograft model (1 h after injection). In

  3. The Art of Intraoperative Glioma Identification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zoe Z.; Shields, Lisa B. E.; Sun, David A.; Zhang, Yi Ping; Hunt, Matthew A.; Shields, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    A major dilemma in brain-tumor surgery is the identification of tumor boundaries to maximize tumor excision and minimize postoperative neurological damage. Gliomas, especially low-grade tumors, and normal brain have a similar color and texture, which poses a challenge to the neurosurgeon. Advances in glioma resection techniques combine the experience of the neurosurgeon and various advanced technologies. Intraoperative methods to delineate gliomas from normal tissue consist of (1) image-based navigation, (2) intraoperative sampling, (3) electrophysiological monitoring, and (4) enhanced visual tumor demarcation. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed. A combination of these methods is becoming widely accepted in routine glioma surgery. Gross total resection in conjunction with radiation, chemotherapy, or immune/gene therapy may increase the rates of cure in this devastating disease. PMID:26284196

  4. History of intraoperative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Makuuchi, M; Torzilli, G; Machi, J

    1998-11-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) using A-mode or non-real-time B-mode imaging started in the 1960s; however, it was not widely accepted mainly because of difficulty in image interpretation. In the late 1970s, IOUS became one of the topics in the surgical communities upon the introduction of high-frequency real-time B-mode ultrasound. Special probes for operative use were developed. In the 1980s, all over the world the use of IOUS spread to a variety of surgical fields, such as hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery, neurosurgery, and cardiovascular surgery. IOUS changed hepatic surgery dramatically because IOUS was the only modality that was capable of delineating and examining the interior of the liver during surgery. After 1990, color Doppler imaging and laparoscopic ultrasound were incorporated into IOUS. Currently, IOUS is considered an indispensable operative procedure for intraoperative decision-making and guidance of surgical procedures. For better surgical practice, education of surgeons in the use of ultrasound is the most important issue.

  5. An evaluation of the effectiveness of different techniques for intraoperative infiltration of antibiotics into alloplastic implants for use in facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Morgan S; Keefe, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction in the head and neck can be difficult owing to the size of the defect or characteristics of the tissue that needs to be replaced. Facial wounds or reconstruction sites can be subject to contamination, thereby risking infection of any implanted material even under ideal circumstances. Particular areas of concern are sites where minimizing the bacterial contamination prior to placing an implant is difficult (eg, the oral cavity and internal nose). Reconstruction involves the facial subcutaneous soft tissue and/or bone, and the ideal implant provides support and natural feel, as well as a low risk of infection. The biocompatibility of alloplastic implants depends on the tissue inertness of the implant and the porosity, allowing connective tissue ingrowth, which in turn decreases the susceptibility to infection. Scalafani et al demonstrated that alloplastic implants contaminated prior to fibrovascular ingrowth had a much higher incidence of infection and rejection. To examine the effectiveness of several techniques for infiltrating antibiotics into alloplastic implants of different porosity using 2 commonly used alloplastic implants, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE, or GORE-TEX) and porous high-density polyethylene (Medpor). Using an in vitro bacterial growth inhibition model, we found that suction infiltration of the implant with antibiotics was the most effective technique, with a statistically significant advantage over other techniques used. The advantages of the suction impregnation were seen to be most effective using alloplasts with a smaller pore size (20-30 microm) (P < .001), but there was a statistically significant difference even with implants with a larger pore size (150-200 microm) (P < .001). Suction infiltration of antibiotics into porous implants seems to be the most effective method identified using an in vitro testing protocol. Further experiments will be needed to confirm the effectiveness in reducing the perioperative risk

  6. POCI: A compact high resolution {gamma} camera for intra-operative surgical use

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, L.; Charon, Y.; Solal, M.; Laniece, P.; Mastrippolito, R.; Pinot, L.; Ploux, L.; Valentin, L. |; Ricard, M.

    1998-06-01

    The development of a hand-held {gamma} imaging probe for inside body localization of small tumors is of first interest for radio-guided operative cancer surgery. In that context, the authors have developed a sub-millimeter spatial resolution, small field of view, {gamma} per-operative compact imager (POCI). It consists of a head module composed of a high resolution tungsten collimator and a YAP:Ce crystal plate, optically coupled to an intensified position sensitive diode (IPSD). The authors report here the essential imaging performance characteristics of the POCI camera (spatial resolution, position linearity, efficiency and energy response). These were obtained by studying the influence of the collimator and the crystal design to evaluate the optimal configuration. The present version of POCI has a 24 mm diameter usable field of view and an intrinsic spatial resolution of 0.9 mm to 1.2 mm FWHM at 120 keV. These good detection performance characteristics combined with the small size of the camera make the device well suited to provide intra-operative monitoring in several medical procedures, such as thyroid and breast tumor removal.

  7. Multimodal anesthesia with the addition of methadone is superior to epidural analgesia: A retrospective comparison of intraoperative anesthetic techniques and pain management for 124 pediatric patients undergoing the Nuss procedure.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neil R; Jones, John; Semenova, Janet; Williamson, Amber; McCollum, Katelyn; Tong, Dennis; Jerman, Jonathan; Notrica, David M; Nguyen, Hayden

    2016-04-01

    The Nuss procedure corrects pectus excavatum by forceful displacement of the sternum with metal bars. Optimal pain management remains a challenge. Mutimodal anesthesia alleviates pain through blockade of multiple nociceptive and inflammatory pain receptors. A retrospective chart review of anesthetic and postoperative mangement of 125 children undergoing the Nuss procedure was conducted. Anesthetic mangement strategies were analyzed in four groups: opioid during general anesthesia (GA), epidural with general anesthesia (Epidural), multimodal anesthesia (MM), and multimodal anesthesia with methadone (MM+M). Data collection included total opioid use (as equivalent milligrams of morphine (Mmg)), pain scores, length of stay (LOS), and adverse effects. Total opioid use varied by group (median, IQR (in Mg)): Epidural 213 [149, 293], GA 179 [134, 298], MM (150 [123, 281]), and MM+M (106 [87, 149]), as did severe pain (in minutes): Epidural (208 [73, 323]), GA (115 [7, 255]), MM (54 [0, 210]), and MM+M (49 [0, 151]). LOS was shortest for the MM+M group (MM+M=3.8+1.0days; MM=4.5+1.3days; GA=4.9+1.4days, Epidural=5.5+2.3days). Multimodal anesthesia is associated with less postoperative pain and shorter LOS compared to epidural or traditional anesthetic techniques for the Nuss procedure. Multimodal anesthesia with a single intraoperative dose of methadone was associated with lowest total opioid use, time with uncontrolled pain, and shortest LOS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mazal, Z

    2007-04-01

    In the year 2005, Chang and Cambell described unusual reaction of the iris during the cataract surgery in patients treated with tamsulosine. This was named as IFIS, an acronym for the Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome. In its advanced stage, the syndrome is characterized by insufficient mydfiasis before the surgery, narrowing of the pupil during the surgery, its impossible dilatation during the surgery by means of stretching, unusual elasticity of the pupilar margin, surging and fluttering iris with tendency to prolapse. The same manifestations we observed in our patients and we confirm the direct connection with tamsulosine hydrochloride treatment. Tamsulosine is the antagonist of alpha 1A adrenergic receptors whose are present, except in the smooth musculature of the prostate gland and the urinary bladder, in the iris dilator as well. At the same time we observed this syndrome rarely in some patients not using tamsulosine. In most cases, these patients were treated with antipsychotic drugs.

  9. Virtual Intraoperative Cholangiogram Using WebCL

    PubMed Central

    YU, Alexander; DEMIREL, Doga; HALIC, Tansel; KOCKARA, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a Virtual Intraoperative Cholangiogram (VIC) training platform. Intraoperative Cholangiogram (IC) is an imaging technique of biliary anatomy with using fluorescent fluids sensitive to the X-Rays. The procedure is often employed to diagnose the difficult cases such as abnormal anatomy or choledocholithiasis during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The major challenge in cholangiogram is accurate interpretation of the X-Ray image, which requires extensive case training. However, the training platforms that support generation of various IC cases have been lacking. In this study, we developed a web based platform to generate IC images from any virtual bile duct anatomy. As the generation of X-Ray image from 3D scene is a computationally intensive task, we utilized WebCL technology to parallelize the computation for achieving real-time rates. In this work, we present details of our WebCL IC generation algorithm and benchmark results. PMID:27046623

  10. Virtual Intraoperative Cholangiogram Using WebCL.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alexander; Demirel, Doga; Halic, Tansel; Kockara, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a Virtual Intraoperative Cholangiogram (VIC) training platform. Intraoperative Cholangiogram (IC) is an imaging technique of biliary anatomy with using fluorescent fluids sensitive to the X-Rays. The procedure is often employed to diagnose the difficult cases such as abnormal anatomy or choledocholithiasis during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The major challenge in cholangiogram is accurate interpretation of the X-Ray image, which requires extensive case training. However, the training platforms that support generation of various IC cases have been lacking. In this study, we developed a web based platform to generate IC images from any virtual bile duct anatomy. As the generation of X-Ray image from 3D scene is a computationally intensive task, we utilized WebCL technology to parallelize the computation for achieving real-time rates. In this work, we present details of our WebCL IC generation algorithm and benchmark results.

  11. Quantitative assessment of Cerenkov luminescence for radioguided brain tumor resection surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Justin S.; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2017-05-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a developing imaging modality that detects radiolabeled molecules via visible light emitted during the radioactive decay process. We used a Monte Carlo based computer simulation to quantitatively investigate CLI compared to direct detection of the ionizing radiation itself as an intraoperative imaging tool for assessment of brain tumor margins. Our brain tumor model consisted of a 1 mm spherical tumor remnant embedded up to 5 mm in depth below the surface of normal brain tissue. Tumor to background contrast ranging from 2:1 to 10:1 were considered. We quantified all decay signals (e±, gamma photon, Cerenkov photons) reaching the brain volume surface. CLI proved to be the most sensitive method for detecting the tumor volume in both imaging and non-imaging strategies as assessed by contrast-to-noise ratio and by receiver operating characteristic output of a channelized Hotelling observer.

  12. Quantitative assessment of Cerenkov luminescence for radioguided brain tumor resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Klein, Justin S; Mitchell, Gregory; Cherry, Simon

    2017-03-13

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a developing imaging modality that detects radiolabeled molecules via visible light emitted during the radioactive decay process. We used a Monte Carlo based computer simulation to quantitatively investigate CLI compared to direct detection of the ionizing radiation itself as an intraoperative imaging tool for assessment of brain tumor margins. Our brain tumor model consisted of a 1 mm spherical tumor remnant embedded up to 5 mm in depth below the surface of normal brain tissue. Tumor to background contrast ranging from 2:1 to 10:1 were considered. We quantified all decay signals (e+/-, gamma photon, Cerenkov photons) reaching the brain volume surface. CLI proved to be the most sensitive method for detecting the tumor volume in both imaging and non-imaging strategies as assessed by contrast-to-noise ratio and by receiver operating characteristic output of a channelized Hotelling observer.

  13. Assessing intraoperative blood flow in cardiovascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Sasaguri, Shiro; Sato, Takayuki

    2011-11-01

    Off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting and new surgical apparatus and techniques have decreased the mortality rate associated with this procedure to approximately 1.5%. If we could detect problems in the constructed coronary anastomoses by an alternative imaging system to coronary angiography during surgery, decisions to revise the surgical procedure could be made without hesitation. Meanwhile, the intraoperative direct evaluation of intestinal blood flow during abdominal aortic aneurysmal surgery is required to prevent ischemic colitis, which is a devastating complication. Indocyanine green (ICG) has recently improved ophthalmic angiography and the navigation systems of oncological surgery. The fluorescence illumination of ICG with a near-infrared light is captured on camera. In coronary arterial surgery, the ICG imaging system is also becoming increasingly useful. A new ICG imaging system, the HyperEye Medical System (HEMS), provides a clear view of the blood flow and ischemic area with color visualization. Furthermore, its combination with a quantitative blood flow assessment tool such as transit time flow measurement could improve the accuracy of intraoperative examination. In this review, we evaluate the current strategies of assessing blood flow intraoperatively with an ICG imaging system in cardiovascular surgery.

  14. Intraoperative in situ radial artery conduit flow assessment.

    PubMed

    Canver, Charles C; Yousafzai, Sajjad M

    2008-01-01

    A technique is described for simple flow assessment of the in situ radial artery conduit during coronary bypass via a small incision. This technique allows morphologic and physiologic direct intraoperative assessment of radial artery quality and expands the use of radial artery during coronary artery surgery.

  15. Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery with Intraoperative Image-Guided Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Terrence T.; Johnson, J. Patrick; Pashman, Robert; Drazin, Doniel

    2016-01-01

    We present our perioperative minimally invasive spine surgery technique using intraoperative computed tomography image-guided navigation for the treatment of various lumbar spine pathologies. We present an illustrative case of a patient undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous posterior spinal fusion assisted by the O-arm system with navigation. We discuss the literature and the advantages of the technique over fluoroscopic imaging methods: lower occupational radiation exposure for operative room personnel, reduced need for postoperative imaging, and decreased revision rates. Most importantly, we demonstrate that use of intraoperative cone beam CT image-guided navigation has been reported to increase accuracy. PMID:27213152

  16. [Intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Motos-Micó, José Jacob; Felices-Montes, Manuel; Abad-Aguilar, Teresa

    Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery facilitates the identification of anatomical structures in cervical endocrine surgery reducing the frequency of vocal cord paralysis. To study the normal electrophysiological values of the vague and recurrent laryngeal nerves before and after thyroid surgery. To compare rates of injury of recurrent nerve before and after the introduction of the intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery. An observational, descriptive and prospective study in which a total of 490 patients were included. Between 2003-2010, surgery was performed on 411 patients (703 nerves at risk) with systematic identification of recurrent laryngeal nerves. Between 2010-2011 neuromonitorization was also systematically performed on 79 patients. Before the introduction of intraoperative neuromonitoring of 704 nerves at risk, there were 14 recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries. Since 2010, after the introduction of the intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery, there has been no nerve injury in 135 nerves at risk. We consider the systematic identification of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is the 'gold standard' in thyroid surgery and the intraoperative neuromonitoring of nerves can never replace surgery but can complement it. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Intra-operative neurophysiology during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Conejero, I; Ulkatan, S; Sen, C; Deletis, V

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that primary hemifacial spasm (HFS) in the majority of patients is related to a vascular compression of the facial nerve at its root exit zone (REZ). As a consequence, the hyperexcitability of facial nerve generates spasms of the facial muscles. Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve near its REZ has been established as an effective treatment of HFS. Intra-operative disappearance of abnormal muscle responses (lateral spread) elicited by stimulating one of the facial nerve branches has been used as a method to predict MVD effectiveness. Other neurophysiologic techniques, such as facial F-wave, blink reflex and facial corticobulbar motor evoked potentials (FCoMEP), are feasible to intra-operatively study changes in excitability of the facial nerve and its nucleus during MVDs. Intra-operative neuromonitoring with the mentioned techniques allows a better understanding of HFS pathophysiology and helps to optimise the MVD.

  18. Anaesthesia management in epilepsy surgery with intraoperative electrocorticography.

    PubMed

    Pacreu, S; Vilà, E; Moltó, L; Bande, D; Rueda, M; Fernández Candil, J L

    2017-09-27

    Epilepsy surgery is a well-established treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. The success of surgery depends on precise presurgical localisation of the epileptogenic zone. There are different techniques to determine its location and extension. Despite the improvements in non-invasive diagnostic tests, in patients for whom these tests are inconclusive, invasive techniques such intraoperative electrocorticography will be needed. Intraoperative electrocorticography is used to guide surgical resection of the epileptogenic lesion and to verify that the resection has been completed. However, it can be affected by some of the anaesthetic drugs used by the anaesthesiologist. Our objective with this case is to review which drugs can be used in epilepsy surgery with intraoperative electrocorticography. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [The role of intraoperative ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yoko; Okayama, Yukinari; Matsuo, Shuji

    2008-06-01

    Intraoperative ultrasonography (US) is able to visualize the inside of the viscera in real time, and is also both noninvasive and simple to perform without influence of the bone or alimentary canal gas disturbing the propagation of the ultrasound. US has recently been widely used for neurosurgery or abdominal surgery, 1) to check the position and size of the tumor, which can not be directly visualized, and to evaluate the relationship between the tumor and blood vessel or tissue, 2) to search for lesions not detected before surgery, 3) to search for residual tumor, 4) to carry out ultrasound-guided biopsy or puncture. For effective intraoperative US, thorough knowledge of the US instrument and the local anatomy is necessary. The medical technologists who routinely perform US are qualified to assist with intraoperative US.

  20. [Intraoperative peroral gastroduodenoscopy].

    PubMed

    Poluéktov, L V; Malykhin, A G; Poluéktov, V L

    1980-10-01

    Gastroduodenoscopy when performed during laparatomy because of the difference between preoperative and operative diagnosis allows to obtain additional objective data on the pathological process and to solve the question of the further surgical tactics. It may be used for diagnosis of the proceeding hemorrhage from the anastomosis suture and for revealing defects of the operation technique.

  1. Brain mapping in tumors: intraoperative or extraoperative?

    PubMed

    Duffau, Hugues

    2013-12-01

    In nontumoral epilepsy surgery, the main goal for all preoperative investigation is to first determine the epileptogenic zone, and then to analyze its relation to eloquent cortex, in order to control seizures while avoiding adverse postoperative neurologic outcome. To this end, in addition to neuropsychological assessment, functional neuroimaging and scalp electroencephalography, extraoperative recording, and electrical mapping, especially using subdural strip- or grid-electrodes, has been reported extensively. Nonetheless, in tumoral epilepsy surgery, the rationale is different. Indeed, the first aim is rather to maximize the extent of tumor resection while minimizing postsurgical morbidity, in order to increase the median survival as well as to preserve quality of life. As a consequence, as frequently seen in infiltrating tumors such as gliomas, where these lesions not only grow but also migrate along white matter tracts, the resection should be performed according to functional boundaries both at cortical and subcortical levels. With this in mind, extraoperative mapping by strips/grids is often not sufficient in tumoral surgery, since in essence, it allows study of the cortex but cannot map subcortical pathways. Therefore, intraoperative electrostimulation mapping, especially in awake patients, is more appropriate in tumor surgery, because this technique allows real-time detection of areas crucial for cerebral functions--eloquent cortex and fibers--throughout the resection. In summary, rather than choosing one or the other of different mapping techniques, methodology should be adapted to each pathology, that is, extraoperative mapping in nontumoral epilepsy surgery and intraoperative mapping in tumoral surgery.

  2. "Urological cold shower"--a novel treatment for intraoperative erection.

    PubMed

    Brierly, R D; Hindley, R G; Challacombe, B J; Popert, R J

    2003-02-01

    Intraoperative penile tumescence during endoscopic surgery is a troublesome complication and a challenge to the urologist. We describe a novel, convenient, safe, and readily available technique. We used an intracavernosal injection of epinephrine using a standard dental syringe and a cartridge of lidocaine 2% and epinephrine 1:80,000 to induce detumescence reliably.

  3. Intraoperative sonography-guided removal of radiolucent foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Leung, A; Patton, A; Navoy, J; Cummings, R J

    1998-01-01

    This article reports our use of intraoperative sonography to guide in real time, the removal of radiolucent foreign bodies from five patients. Two of these patients had undergone previous unsuccessful attempts at surgical removal in the operating room. The technique is cost effective, readily available, and can be very helpful in locating difficult-to-find radiolucent foreign bodies at the time of surgery.

  4. [Intraoperative staging of colorectal tumors].

    PubMed

    Abdurakhmonov, Iu B; Mel'nikov, O R; Egorenkov, V V; Moiseenko, V M

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of intraoperative staging of tumor by sentinel node staining with lymphotropic dyes was evaluated in 60 patients with colorectal tumors (colon carcinoma -39, rectal cancer- 21). High sensitivity (84.6% and 87.5%, respectively) and specificity (100% and 100%, respectively) for regional lymph node assessment were identified for both colonic and rectal cancer.

  5. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Meier, J.; Filipescu, D.; Kozek-Langenecker, S.; Llau Pitarch, J.; Mallett, S.; Martus, P.; Matot, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. Methods. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. Results. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl−1 and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl−1 after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Conclusion. Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7–9 g dl−1), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. Clinical trial registration. NCT 01604083. PMID:26787795

  6. Intraoperative carbon dioxide management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wax, David B; Lin, Hung-Mo; Hossain, Sabera; Porter, Steven B

    2010-09-01

    Intraoperative hyperventilation to induce hypocapnia has historically been common practice and has physiological effects that may be detrimental. In contrast, hypercapnia has effects that may be beneficial. As these effects may influence postoperative recovery, we investigated the association between variations in intraoperative carbon dioxide and length of hospital stay in patients who had elective colon resections and hysterectomies. Data were extracted from electronic records for elective colon resections and hysterectomies done from 2002 to 2008. Patients were divided into four groups based on surgical procedure and use of laparoscopic technique. Parameters extracted for analysis included mean end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) during the surgical procedure as well as others previously purported to affect postoperative outcomes. In-hospital length of stay (LOS) was determined from administrative records and was used as the independent outcome variable. For each group, Poisson regression analysis was performed to find factors that were independently associated with the outcome. A total of 3421 case records in our database met inclusion criteria. Median EtCO2 was 31 mmHg. Median LOS was 7 and 5 days for open and laparoscopic colon resections, and 3 and 2 days for open and laparoscopic hysterectomies, respectively. Regression analysis revealed a statistically significant independent association between higher EtCO2 and reduced LOS for colon resection and open hysterectomy. There is a significant association between higher intraoperative EtCO2 and shorter LOS after colon resection and open hysterectomy. The common practice of inducing hypocapnia may be deleterious, and maintaining normocapnia or permitting hypercapnia may improve clinical outcomes.

  7. The use of intraoperative computed tomography navigation in pituitary surgery promises a better intraoperative orientation in special cases

    PubMed Central

    Linsler, Stefan; Antes, Sebastian; Senger, Sebastian; Oertel, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The safety of endoscopic skull base surgery can be enhanced by accurate navigation in preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we report our initial experience of real-time intraoperative CT-guided navigation surgery for pituitary tumors in childhood. Materials and Methods: We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a huge growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with supra- and perisellar extension. Furthermore, the skull base was infiltrated. In this case, we performed an endonasal transsphenoidal approach for debulking the adenoma and for chiasma decompression. We used an MRI neuronavigation (Medtronic Stealth Air System) which was registered via intraoperative CT scan (Siemens CT Somatom). Preexisting MRI studies (navigation protocol) were fused with the intraoperative CT scans to enable three-dimensional navigation based on MR and CT imaging data. Intraoperatively, we did a further CT scan for resection control. Results: The intraoperative accuracy of the neuronavigation was excellent. There was an adjustment of <1 mm. The navigation was very helpful for orientation on the destroyed skull base in the sphenoid sinus. After opening the sellar region and tumor debulking, we did a CT scan for resection control because the extent of resection was not credible evaluable in this huge infiltrating adenoma. Thereby, we were able to demonstrate a sufficient decompression of the chiasma and complete resection of the medial part of the adenoma in the intraoperative CT images. Conclusions: The use of intraoperative CT/MRI-guided neuronavigation for transsphenoidal surgery is a time-effective, safe, and technically beneficial technique for special cases. PMID:27695249

  8. The use of intraoperative computed tomography navigation in pituitary surgery promises a better intraoperative orientation in special cases.

    PubMed

    Linsler, Stefan; Antes, Sebastian; Senger, Sebastian; Oertel, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The safety of endoscopic skull base surgery can be enhanced by accurate navigation in preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, we report our initial experience of real-time intraoperative CT-guided navigation surgery for pituitary tumors in childhood. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a huge growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with supra- and perisellar extension. Furthermore, the skull base was infiltrated. In this case, we performed an endonasal transsphenoidal approach for debulking the adenoma and for chiasma decompression. We used an MRI neuronavigation (Medtronic Stealth Air System) which was registered via intraoperative CT scan (Siemens CT Somatom). Preexisting MRI studies (navigation protocol) were fused with the intraoperative CT scans to enable three-dimensional navigation based on MR and CT imaging data. Intraoperatively, we did a further CT scan for resection control. The intraoperative accuracy of the neuronavigation was excellent. There was an adjustment of <1 mm. The navigation was very helpful for orientation on the destroyed skull base in the sphenoid sinus. After opening the sellar region and tumor debulking, we did a CT scan for resection control because the extent of resection was not credible evaluable in this huge infiltrating adenoma. Thereby, we were able to demonstrate a sufficient decompression of the chiasma and complete resection of the medial part of the adenoma in the intraoperative CT images. The use of intraoperative CT/MRI-guided neuronavigation for transsphenoidal surgery is a time-effective, safe, and technically beneficial technique for special cases.

  9. Use of intraoperative ultrasonography in canine spinal cord lesions.

    PubMed

    Nanai, Beatrix; Lyman, Ronald; Bichsel, Pierre S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the intraoperative appearance of various spinal cord conditions, and to investigate how intraoperative ultrasonography assisted in modification of surgical and postoperative treatment plans. Intraoperative ultrasonography (B-mode, and power Doppler mode) was used in 25 dogs undergoing spinal surgery. The neurologic conditions included cervical spondylomyelopathy, intervertebral disc (IVD) protrusion, IVD extrusion, spinal tumors, nerve sheath mass, granulomatous myelitis, and discospondylitis. All of these diagnoses were supported by histopathologic and/or cytologic evaluation. It was possible to visualize the spinal cord and the abnormal spinal tissue in all of the patients. Power Doppler imaging allowed assessment of the spinal cord microcirculation, and assisted in judgment of the degree of decompression. Ultrasound imaging directly impacted the surgical and the medical treatment plans in four patients. Owing to the intraoperative imaging, two hemilaminectomies were extended cranially and caudally, and additional disc spaces were fenestrated, one hemilaminectomy site was extended dorsally to retrieve the disc material from the opposite side, and one intramedullary cervical spinal cord lesion was discovered, aspirated, and consequently diagnosed as granulomatous inflammation, which altered the long-term medication protocol in that dog. This study suggests that intraoperative sonographic spinal cord imaging is a useful and viable technique.

  10. Major mandibular surgical procedures as an indication for intraoperative imaging.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Philipp; Blessmann, Marco; Blake, Felix; Gbara, Ali; Schmelzle, Rainer; Heiland, Max

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated 3-dimensional (3D) imaging with intraoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in major mandibular reconstruction procedures. The study group was comprised of 125 patients (83 males, 42 females) admitted for surgical treatment of the mandible. The patients ranged in age from 3 months to 91 years (average age, 40.72 +/- 22.843 years). Surgical procedures of the mandible were subdivided into repair of body fractures (17 patients), angle fractures (21 patients), condylar fractures (14 patients), and multiple fractures (30 patient). In addition, the study group included 21 patients undergoing orthognatic surgery and 22 undergoing reconstructive surgery on the mandible. Intraoperatively, 3D images were generated with a mobile CBCT scanner (Arcadis Orbic 3D; Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). During open reduction of mandibular fractures, not all fracture sites can be readily exposed for direct visual control. For example, the lingual cortical bone of the mandible is difficult to assess intraoperatively. This structure and others can be effectively visualized using the 3D mode of CBCT. Furthermore, screw placement can be evaluated, specifically in insertions near the alveolar nerve. The intraoperative acquisition of the data sets is uncomplicated, and the image quality is sufficient to allow evaluation of the postoperative result in all cases. Intraoperative CBCT has proven to be a reliable imaging technique for providing visual control during major mandibular procedures.

  11. Intraoperative irradiation: precision medicine for quality cancer control promotion.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Felipe A

    2017-02-02

    Intraoperative irradiation was implemented 4 decades ago, pioneering the efforts to improve precision in local cancer therapy by combining real-time surgical exploration/resection with high single dose radiotherapy (Gunderson et al., Intraoperative irradiation: techniques and results, 2011). Clinical and technical developments have led to very precise radiation dose deposit. The ability to deliver a very precise dose of radiation is an essential element of contemporary multidisciplinary individualized oncology.This issue of Radiation Oncology contains a collection of expert review articles and updates with relevant data regarding intraoperative radiotherapy. Technology, physics, biology of single dose and clinical results in a variety of cancer sites and histologies are described and analyzed. The state of the art for advanced cancer care through medical innovation opens a significant opportunity for individualize cancer management across a broad spectrum of clinical practice. The advantage for tailoring diagnostic and treatment decisions in an individualized fashion will translate into precise medical treatment.

  12. Intraoperative fluid management during orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Rebecca A; Collins, Bradley H; Tuttle-Newhall, Elizabeth; Robertson, Kerri; Plotkin, Jeffrey; Johnson, Lynt B; Kuo, Paul C

    2004-08-01

    To assess clinical safety of a low central venous pressure (CVP) fluid management strategy in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Retrospective record review comparing 2 transplant centers, one using the low CVP method and the other using the normal CVP method. University-based, academic, tertiary care centers. Patients undergoing orthotopic cadaveric liver transplantation. Each center practiced according to its own standard of care. Center 1 maintained an intraoperative CVP <5 mmHg using fluid restriction, nitroglycerin, forced diuresis, and morphine. If pressors were required to maintain systolic arterial pressure >90 mmHg, phenylephrine or norepinephrine was used. At center 2, CVP was kept 7 to 10 mmHg and mean arterial pressure >75 mmHg with minimal use of vasoactive drugs. Data collected included United Network for Organ Sharing status, surgical technique, intraoperative transfusion rate, preoperative and peak postoperative creatinine, time spent in intensive care unit and hospital, incidence of death, and postoperative need for hemodialysis. Principal findings include an increased rate of transfusion in the normal CVP group but increased rates of postoperative renal failure (elevated creatinine and more frequent need for dialysis) and 30-day mortality in the low CVP group. Despite success in lowering blood transfusion requirements in liver resection patients, a low CVP should be avoided in patients undergoing liver transplantation.

  13. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meier, J; Filipescu, D; Kozek-Langenecker, S; Llau Pitarch, J; Mallett, S; Martus, P; Matot, I

    2016-02-01

    Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (pRBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month period in 2013. The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone initiated only 8.5% of transfusions. The Hb concentration [mean (sd)] just before transfusion was 8.1 (1.7) g dl(-1) and increased to 9.8 (1.8) g dl(-1) after transfusion. The mean number of intraoperatively transfused pRBC units was 2.5 (2.7) units (median 2). Although European Society of Anaesthesiology transfusion guidelines are moderately implemented in Europe with respect to Hb threshold for transfusion (7-9 g dl(-1)), there is still an urgent need for further educational efforts that focus on the number of pRBC units to be transfused at this threshold. NCT 01604083. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  14. Intra-operative optical diagnostics with vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stelling, Allison; Salzer, Reiner; Kirsch, Matthias; Sobottka, Stephan B; Geiger, Kathrin; Koch, Edmund; Schackert, Gabriele; Steiner, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Established methods for characterization of tissue and diagnostics, for example histochemistry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray tomography, or positron emission tomography (PET), are mostly not suitable for intra-operative use. However, there is a clear need for an intra-operative diagnostics especially to identify the borderline between normal and tumor tissue. Currently, vibrational spectroscopy techniques (both Raman and infrared) complement the standard methods for tissue diagnostics. Vibrational spectroscopy has the potential for intra-operative use, because it can provide a biochemically based profile of tissue in real time and without requiring additional contrast agents, which may perturb the tissue under investigation. In addition, no electric potential needs to be applied, and the measurements are not affected by electromagnetic fields. Currently, promising approaches include Raman fiber techniques and nonlinear Raman spectroscopy. Infrared spectroscopy is also being used to examine freshly resected tissue ex vivo in the operating theater. The immense volume of information contained in Raman and infrared spectra requires multivariate analysis to extract relevant information to distinguish different types of tissue. The promise and limitations of vibrational spectroscopy methods as intra-operative tools are surveyed in this review.

  15. Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence imaging of a paraganglioma using methylene blue: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tummers, Quirijn R J G; Boonstra, Martin C; Frangioni, John V; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Bonsing, Bert A

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperative identification of tumors can be challenging. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is an innovative technique that can assist in intraoperative identification of tumors, which may otherwise be undetectable. A 19-year-old patient with symptoms, normetanephrine levels and radiological findings suspicious for a paraganglioma, a rare tumor arising from extra-adrenal chromaffin cells within the sympathetic nervous system, is presented. Intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging using intravenous administration of methylene blue (MB) assisted in intraoperative detection of the tumor, and even identified a smaller second lesion, which was not identified during surgery by visual inspection. Although the exact mechanism of MB accumulation in neuroendocrine tumors is unclear, it is described in both preclinical and clinical studies. In this report, we describe the first case of intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging of a paraganglioma using MB, which identified an otherwise undetectable lesion. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of neuromuscular blockade and intraoperative 3D imaging in the reduction of basilar invagination.

    PubMed

    Dahdaleh, Nader S; Dlouhy, Brian J; Menezes, Arnold H

    2012-02-01

    The treatment of basilar invagination in the pediatric age group is dependent on the possibility of preoperative reduction. Reducible lesions obviate a ventral decompression and require a dorsal-only approach for stabilization with or without a suboccipital decompression. The authors describe a technique of intraoperative reduction of basilar invagination with the use of general anesthesia and neuromuscular blockade in the presence of crown halo traction. Using the O-arm device, a 3D CT scan is generated in the sagittal plane to demonstrate the reduction intraoperatively. This technique was successful in 6 pediatric patients with basilar invagination. The average age of the patients was 10.8 years, and they were followed for a mean period of 8.5 months. The patients had mild basilar invagination or partial reduction in extension on preoperative MR imaging. Intraoperative reduction was demonstrated in all patients by using the reported technique with intraoperative CT. All patients underwent occipitocervical fusion, and all but one underwent a suboccipital decompression. There were no complications related to the operation, and all but one reported improvement of symptoms on the last postoperative visit. Intraoperative reduction performed using neuromuscular blockade and intraoperative traction is an effective method for further reduction of basilar invagination in the pediatric age group. This is the first reported application of intraoperative CT imaging performed using the O-arm device in craniocervical surgery in which successful reduction is demonstrated in detail.

  17. Apport de la biopsie radioguidée dans le diagnostic histopathologique des tumeurs de l'enfant: expérience de l'Hôpital d'Enfant de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    El Ochi, Mohamed Réda; Bellarbi, Salma; Rouas, Lamiae; Lamalmi, Najat; Malihy, Abderrahmane; Alhamany, Zaitouna; Cherradi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    La biopsie radioguidée constitue une alternative à la biopsie chirurgicale invasive et à la cytologie pour le diagnostic des tumeurs pédiatriques. L'intérêt de notre étude est d’évaluer la valeur diagnostique des biopsies radioguidées examinées au laboratoire d'anatomopathologie de l'hôpital d'Enfants de Rabat (HER). L’étude a porté sur 78 biopsies radioguidées recueillies dans notre laboratoire entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2011. l’âge moyen des patients était de 5 ans et 10 mois avec une prédominance masculine (65,4%). La tumeur était abdominale dans 80% des cas, thoracique dans 15% cas, thoracique et abdominale dans 2,5% et sacrée dans 1,2%. Les biopsies étaient écho-guidées dans 90% des cas et scannoguidées dans 10% des cas. Le diagnostic histopathologique était posé dans 89% des cas. L'immuno-histochimie a été indiquée dans 35% des cas. Les diagnostics les plus fréquents étaient: tumeurs neuroblastiques (42 cas), lymphomes non hodgkiniens (10 cas), rhabdomyosarcomes (6 cas), autres (sarcome d'Ewing, néphroblastomes, tumeur myofibroblastique inflammatoire, maladies de Hodgkin, leucémie aiguë, hépatoblastome et ostéosarcome). Dans notre série, la biopsie radioguidée a permis un diagnostic histopathologique certain dans 89% des cas. Elle nécessite une étroite collaboration entre clinicien, radiologue et anatomopathologiste pour discuter son indication, afin de diminuer le nombre de biopsies peu ou non représentatives. PMID:26587165

  18. Intraoperative laparoscopic complications for urological cancer procedures

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Sergio Fernández-Pello; Rodríguez, Ivan Gonzalez; Ugarteburu, Rodrigo Gil; Villamil, Luis Rodríguez; Mendez, Begoña Diaz; Gil, Patricio Suarez; Madera, Javier Mosquera

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To structure the rate of intraoperative complications that requires an intraoperative or perioperative resolution. METHODS: We perform a literature review of Medline database. The research was focused on intraoperative laparoscopic procedures inside the field of urological oncology. General rate of perioperative complications in laparoscopic urologic surgery is described to be around 12.4%. Most of the manuscripts published do not make differences between pure intraoperative, intraoperative with postoperative consequences and postoperative complications. RESULTS: We expose a narrative statement of complications, possible solutions and possible preventions for most frequent retroperitoneal and pelvic laparoscopic surgery. We expose the results with the following order: retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery (radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy and adrenalectomy) and pelvic laparoscopic surgery (radical prostatectomy and radical cystectomy). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative complications vary from different series. More scheduled reports should be done in order to better understand the real rates of complications. PMID:25984519

  19. Intraoperative laparoscopic complications for urological cancer procedures.

    PubMed

    Montes, Sergio Fernández-Pello; Rodríguez, Ivan Gonzalez; Ugarteburu, Rodrigo Gil; Villamil, Luis Rodríguez; Mendez, Begoña Diaz; Gil, Patricio Suarez; Madera, Javier Mosquera

    2015-05-16

    To structure the rate of intraoperative complications that requires an intraoperative or perioperative resolution. We perform a literature review of Medline database. The research was focused on intraoperative laparoscopic procedures inside the field of urological oncology. General rate of perioperative complications in laparoscopic urologic surgery is described to be around 12.4%. Most of the manuscripts published do not make differences between pure intraoperative, intraoperative with postoperative consequences and postoperative complications. We expose a narrative statement of complications, possible solutions and possible preventions for most frequent retroperitoneal and pelvic laparoscopic surgery. We expose the results with the following order: retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery (radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy and adrenalectomy) and pelvic laparoscopic surgery (radical prostatectomy and radical cystectomy). Intraoperative complications vary from different series. More scheduled reports should be done in order to better understand the real rates of complications.

  20. What Do We Know About Intraoperative Teaching?: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, Matthew D; Mayo, Helen G; Scott, Lauren; Weis, Joshua; Gardner, Aimee K

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing attention on enhancing surgical trainee performance and competency. The purpose of this review is to identify characteristics and themes related to intraoperative teaching that will better inform interventions and assessment endeavors. A systematic search was carried out of the Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE InProcess, Ovid Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify all studies that discussed teaching in the operating room for trainees at the resident and fellow level. Evidence for main outcome categories was evaluated with the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). A total of 2101 records were identified. After screening by title, abstract, and full text, 34 studies were included. We categorized these articles into 3 groups on the basis of study methodology: perceptions, best practices, and interventions to enhance operative teaching. Overall strength of evidence for each type of study was as follows: perceptions (MERSQI: 7.5-10); best practices (6.5-11.5), and interventions (8-15). Although very few studies (n = 5) examined interventions for intraoperative teaching, these studies demonstrate the efficacy of techniques designed to enhance faculty teaching behaviors. Interventions have a positive impact on trainee ratings of their faculty intraoperative teaching performance. There is discordance between trainee perceptions of quantity and quality of teaching, compared with faculty perceptions of their own teaching behaviors. Frameworks and paradigms designed to provide best practices for intraoperative teaching agree that effective teaching spans 3 phases that take place before, during, and after cases.

  1. Capturing intraoperative deformations: research experience at Brigham and Women's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Simon K; Haker, Steven J; Talos, Ion-Florin; Kemper, Corey A; Weisenfeld, Neil; Mewes, Andrea U J; Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Zou, Kelly H; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Wells, William M; Tempany, Clare M C; Golby, Alexandra; Black, Peter M; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Kikinis, Ron

    2005-04-01

    During neurosurgical procedures the objective of the neurosurgeon is to achieve the resection of as much diseased tissue as possible while achieving the preservation of healthy brain tissue. The restricted capacity of the conventional operating room to enable the surgeon to visualize critical healthy brain structures and tumor margin has lead, over the past decade, to the development of sophisticated intraoperative imaging techniques to enhance visualization. However, both rigid motion due to patient placement and nonrigid deformations occurring as a consequence of the surgical intervention disrupt the correspondence between preoperative data used to plan surgery and the intraoperative configuration of the patient's brain. Similar challenges are faced in other interventional therapies, such as in cryoablation of the liver, or biopsy of the prostate. We have developed algorithms to model the motion of key anatomical structures and system implementations that enable us to estimate the deformation of the critical anatomy from sequences of volumetric images and to prepare updated fused visualizations of preoperative and intraoperative images at a rate compatible with surgical decision making. This paper reviews the experience at Brigham and Women's Hospital through the process of developing and applying novel algorithms for capturing intraoperative deformations in support of image guided therapy.

  2. Spinal arteriovenous malformation: use of intraoperative color Doppler ultrasonography guidance for surgical resection. Case report.

    PubMed

    Baskan, Ozdil; Durdag, Emre; Geyik, Serdar; Elmaci, Ilhan

    2014-12-01

    Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) may be associated with sensory and motor deficits, bowel or bladder dysfunction, radicular pain or deficit, and back pain. Hemorrhage can occur in the parenchyma leading to the acute onset of symptoms. Neurosurgical resection is one of the way of treatment. Several techniques including intraoperative angiography, dye-injection and the micro Doppler method have proven to be useful during the surgical resection of spinal vascular lesions. Herein, we report our experience with intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS) and color Doppler ultrasonography guidance for visualizing a spinal cord AVM during surgery. IOUS is a time-saving and noninvasive method for intraoperative imaging of spinal AVM.

  3. Intraoperative Interface Fluid Dynamics and Clinical Outcomes for Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography-Assisted Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty From the PIONEER Study.

    PubMed

    Hallahan, Katie M; Cost, Brian; Goshe, Jeff M; Dupps, William J; Srivastava, Sunil K; Ehlers, Justis P

    2017-01-01

    To correlate intraoperative interface fluid dynamics during Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) using intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) in the Prospective Intraoperative and Perioperative Ophthalmic Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography (PIONEER) study with postoperative outcomes. Prospective consecutive, interventional, comparative case series. One hundred seventy-eight eyes of 173 patients undergoing DSAEK from the Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland, Ohio. Eyes that underwent DSAEK between October 2011 and March 2014 from the PIONEER intraoperative and perioperative OCT study were included. An automated interface fluid segmentation algorithm evaluated intraoperative dynamics of interface fluid before and after surgical manipulations. iOCT images were also captured at multiple intraoperative time points for 2 different DSAEK techniques, 1 that used an active air infusion system and 1 that did not. Interface fluid metrics, graft nonadherence. iOCT measurements of interface fluid after final surgical manipulations and immediately before leaving the operating room identified that total fluid volume (P = .002), largest fluid volume pocket (P = .002), max fluid area (P = .006), mean fluid thickness (P = .03), and max fluid thickness (P = .01) significantly correlated with graft nonadherence rates within the first postoperative week. After placement and optimization of intraoperative lenticle adherence, iOCT revealed a significant difference between the area, volume, and thickness of maximum fluid pockets between the 2 surgical techniques, but both techniques resulted in significant reduction of interface fluid during the procedure. Larger residual interface fluid volume, area, and thickness at the end of surgery detected with iOCT are associated with early graft nonadherence and can be quantified with an automated algorithm. iOCT imaging can successfully capture technique-dependent differences in fluid dynamics during

  4. Approach to the intraoperative consultation for neurosurgical specimens.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Hilary Lynch; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette Kay

    2011-11-01

    Intraoperative consultation remains an invaluable tool in the initial evaluation of surgically excised specimens. Good communication is required between the pathologist and surgeon to obtain the best care for their mutual patient. Intraoperative consultation (frozen section, FS) provides a preliminary diagnosis for the surgeon and aids in guiding his/her subsequent surgical approach. For the pathologist, it serves to assess tissue adequacy in the context of the clinical and imaging features of the patient. FS can guarantee that the surgeon is in the desired anatomic location, but most often serves to ensure that adequate amounts of abnormal, and likely diagnostic, tissue will be available to the pathologist to render a final diagnosis on permanent sections. The preliminary evaluation of tissue at the time of intraoperative FS also guides the pathologist in the ordering of ancillary studies, some of which need to be performed on fresh or frozen tissues and must be sent at the time of the intraoperative consultation. This brief review will specifically focus on the role of the pathologist who is called to perform a FS for a neurosurgical specimen. We will discuss (1) the goals of the neurosurgeon for the intraoperative consultation, (2) how to achieve optimal communication between neurosurgeon and pathologist at the time of the FS, (3) what constitutes reasonable and unreasonable expectations by the neurosurgeon for the FS, (4) choices of techniques that can be used by the pathologist, (5) what tissue should be triaged, and (6) common discrepancies between FS and permanent section diagnoses in central nervous system disorders. The published literature on FS and permanent section discrepancies will be briefly reviewed so that pathologists will understand that some difficulties are inherent in neurosurgical specimens and are not specific to their practice, or to a given pathologist. Hopefully, this knowledge will enhance pathologists' confidence as they negotiate how

  5. Lumbar Lordosis of Spinal Stenosis Patients during Intraoperative Prone Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Keon; Song, Kyung-Sub; Park, Byung-Moon; Lim, Sang-Youn; Jang, Geun; Lee, Beom-Seok; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis on the OSI (Jackson; Orthopaedic Systems Inc.) frame. Restoration of lumbar lordosis is important for maintaining sagittal balance. Physiologic lumbar lordosis has to be gained by intraoperative prone positioning with a hip extension and posterior instrumentation technique. There are some debates about changing lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame after an intraoperative prone position. We evaluated the effect of spondylolisthesis on lumbar lordosis after an intraoperative prone position. Methods Sixty-seven patients, who underwent spinal fusion at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Gwangmyeong Sungae Hospital between May 2007 and February 2012, were included in this study. The study compared lumbar lordosis on preoperative upright, intraoperative prone and postoperative upright lateral X-rays between the simple stenosis (SS) group and spondylolisthesis group. The average age of patients was 67.86 years old. The average preoperative lordosis was 43.5° (± 14.9°), average intraoperative lordosis was 48.8° (± 13.2°), average postoperative lordosis was 46.5° (± 16.1°) and the average change on the frame was 5.3° (± 10.6°). Results Among all patients, 24 patients were diagnosed with simple spinal stenosis, 43 patients with spondylolisthesis (29 degenerative spondylolisthesis and 14 isthmic spondylolisthesis). Between the SS group and spondylolisthesis group, preoperative lordosis, intraoperative lordosis and postoperative lordosis were significantly larger in the spondylolisthesis group. The ratio of patients with increased lordosis on the OSI frame compared to preoperative lordosis was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group. The risk of increased lordosis on frame was significantly higher in the spondylolisthesis group (odds ratio, 3.325; 95% confidence interval, 1.101 to 10.039; p = 0.033). Conclusions Intraoperative lumbar lordosis on the OSI frame with a prone

  6. Physics-based shape matching for intraoperative image guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Suwelack, Stefan Röhl, Sebastian; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Reichard, Daniel; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie; Santos, Thiago dos; Maier-Hein, Lena; Wagner, Martin; Wünscher, Josephine; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller, Beat P.

    2014-11-01

    method is able to accurately match partial surfaces. Finally, a phantom experiment demonstrates how the method can be combined with stereo endoscopic imaging to provide nonrigid registration during laparoscopic interventions. Conclusions: The PBSM approach for surface matching is fast, robust, and accurate. As the technique is based on a preoperative volumetric FE model, it naturally recovers the position of volumetric structures (e.g., tumors and vessels). It cannot only be used to recover soft-tissue deformations from intraoperative surface models but can also be combined with landmark data from volumetric imaging. In addition to applications in laparoscopic surgery, the method might prove useful in other areas that require soft-tissue registration from sparse intraoperative sensor data (e.g., radiation therapy)

  7. Intraoperative radiotherapy in early stage breast cancer: potential indications and evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, A M

    2015-01-01

    Following early results of recent studies of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early breast cancer, the clinical utility of IORT is a subject of much recent debate within the breast oncology community. This review describes the intraoperative techniques available, the potential indications and the evidence to date pertaining to local control and toxicity. We also discuss any implications for current practice and future research. PMID:25734489

  8. Transumbilical approach to intraoperative enteroscopy in a child with intussusception and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chui, Chan Hon; Jacobsen, Anette Sundfor

    2006-10-01

    Intraoperative enteroscopy has been known to reduce reoperation rates in complicated Peutz- Jeghers polyposis. It is usually performed during a laparotomy. This case report illustrates the feasibility of performing intraoperative transenterotomy enteroscopy together with extracorporeal ileal resection using the transumbilical approach after successfully reducing an intussusception laparoscopically in a 10-year-old child with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. This technique obviates the need for a laparotomy.

  9. Radioguided Adrenal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Deus, Javier; Millera, Alfonso; Andrés, Alejandro; Prats, Enrique; Gil, Ismael; Suarez, Manuel; Salcini, José L.; Lahoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered as the procedure of choice for the treatment of adrenal hyperplasia and tumor lesions. However, some special situations may limit the use of this method due to the difficulty to locate the gland and perform the lesion excision. We analyze 2 patients of a left adrenal tumor, explaining how they have overcome the difficulties in both situations. The first case was a patient with a history of intra-abdominal surgery and the other patient suffered from severe obesity. We performed with the use of the gamma probe, and the 2 cases, was of great help to access and glandular localization. The help of gamma probe test was achieved in the surgical bed, that removal was complete. The use of the portable gamma probe facilitated the access to the left adrenal gland as well as conducting the glandular excision without delay, despite the difficulties due to the intra abdominal surgery caused by the previous surgery, and in the case of severe obesity. PMID:26426608

  10. Intraoperative management of critical arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of intraoperative arrhythmia is extremely high, and some arrhythmias require clinical attention. Therefore, it is essential for the anesthesiologist to evaluate risk factors for arrhythmia and understand their etiology, electrophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Anesthetic agents reportedly affect normal cardiac electrical activity. In the normal cardiac cycle, the sinoatrial node initiates cardiac electrical activity through intrinsic autonomous pacemaker activity. Sequential atrial and ventricular contractions result in an effective cardiac pumping mechanism. Arrhythmia occurs due to various causes, and the cardiac pumping mechanism may be affected. A severe case may result in hemodynamic instability. In this situation, the anesthesiologist should eliminate the possible causes of arrhythmia and manage the condition, creating hemodynamic stability under proper electrocardiographic monitoring. PMID:28367281

  11. Intraoperative OCT in Surgical Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Fredrick A.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A.

    The global incidence of cancer is rising, putting an increasingly heavy burden upon health care. The need to effectively detect and treat cancer is one of the most significant problems faced in health care today. Effective cancer treatment typically depends upon early detection and, for most solid tumors, successful removal of the cancerous tumor tissue via surgical procedures. Difficulties arise when attempting to differentiate between normal and tumor tissue during surgery. Unaided visual examination of the tissue provides only superficial, low-resolution information and often with little visual contrast. Many imaging modalities widely used for cancer screening and diagnostics are of limited use in the operating room due to low spatial resolution. OCT provides cellular resolution allowing for more precise localization of the tumor tissue. It is also relatively inexpensive and highly portable, making it well suited for intraoperative applications.

  12. Intraoperative magnification: Who uses it?

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Paul Max

    2004-01-01

    Surgeons over recent decades have made increasing use of intraoperative magnification to enhance the outcome of surgical procedures, yet no published information exists regarding the extent of magnification use within surgical specialties. A sample of surgeons consisting of 148 specialists and senior surgical trainees in the west of Scotland was surveyed by postal questionnaire regarding their frequency and types of magnification use. Patterns of use were similar within each specialty, but varied markedly between specialties. Otolaryngologists and plastic, maxillofacial, and ophthalmic surgeons use both loupes and microscopes frequently. Cardiothoracic and pediatric surgeons tend only to utilize loupes, whereas neurosurgeons tend only to use microscopes. General surgeons, urologists, orthopedic surgeons, and gynecologists are infrequent users or nonusers of magnification, and when required will utilize loupes rather than microscopes. As a clear pattern of magnification use exists, it should be possible to anticipate the equipment needs of surgeons when providing theater services.

  13. Practicality of intraoperative teamwork assessments.

    PubMed

    Phitayakorn, Roy; Minehart, Rebecca; Pian-Smith, May C M; Hemingway, Maureen W; Milosh-Zinkus, Tanya; Oriol-Morway, Danika; Petrusa, Emil

    2014-07-01

    High-quality teamwork among operating room (OR) professionals is a key to efficient and safe practice. Quantification of teamwork facilitates feedback, assessment, and improvement. Several valid and reliable instruments are available for assessing separate OR disciplines and teams. We sought to determine the most feasible approach for routine documentation of teamwork in in-situ OR simulations. We compared rater agreement, hypothetical training costs, and feasibility ratings from five clinicians and two nonclinicians with instruments for assessment of separate OR groups and teams. Five teams of anesthesia or surgery residents and OR nurses (RN) or surgical technicians were videotaped in simulations of an epigastric hernia repair where the patient develops malignant hyperthermia. Two anesthesiologists, one OR clinical RN specialist, one educational psychologist, one simulation specialist, and one general surgeon discussed and then independently completed Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, and Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery forms to rate nontechnical performance of anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, technicians, and the whole team. Intraclass correlations of agreement ranged from 0.17-0.85. Clinicians' agreements were not different from nonclinicians'. Published rater training was 4 h for Anesthesiologists' Non-Technical Skills and Scrub Practitioners' List of Intraoperative Non-Technical Skills, 2.5 h for Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons, and 15.5 h for Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery. Estimated costs to train one rater to use all instruments ranged from $442 for a simulation specialist to $6006 for a general surgeon. Additional training is needed to achieve higher levels of agreement; however, costs may be prohibitive. The most cost-effective model for real-time OR teamwork assessment may be to use a simulation technician

  14. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Hyun, Seung-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many surgeons have been using intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) in spinal surgery to reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological complications, including level of the spinal cord, cauda equina and nerve root. Several established technologies are available and combined motor and somatosensory evoked potentials are considered mandatory for practical and successful IOM. Spinal cord evoked potentials are elicited compound potentials recorded over the spinal cord. Electrical stimulation is provoked on the dorsal spinal cord from an epidural electrode. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the functional integrity of sensory pathways from the peripheral nerve through the dorsal column and to the sensory cortex. For identification of the physiological midline, the dorsal column mapping technique can be used. It is helpful for reducing the postoperative morbidity associated with dorsal column dysfunction when distortion of the normal spinal cord anatomy caused by an intramedullary cord lesion results in confusion in localizing the midline for the myelotomy. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) consist of spinal, neurogenic and muscle MEPs. MEPs allow selective and specific assessment of the functional integrity of descending motor pathways, from the motor cortex to peripheral muscles. Spinal surgeons should understand the concept of the monitoring techniques and interpret monitoring records adequately to use IOM for the decision making during the surgery for safe surgery and a favorable surgical outcome. PMID:26380823

  15. Intraoperative fluoroscopic dose assessment in prostate brachytherapy patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel R; Wallner, Kent E; Narayanan, Sreeram; Sutlief, Steve G; Ford, Eric C; Cho, Paul S

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate a fluoroscopy-based intraoperative dosimetry system to guide placement of additional sources to underdosed areas, and perform computed tomography (CT) verification. Twenty-six patients with prostate carcinoma treated with either I-125 or Pd-103 brachytherapy at the Puget Sound VA using intraoperative postimplant dosimetry were analyzed. Implants were performed by standard techniques. After completion of the initial planned brachytherapy procedure, the initial fluoroscopic intraoperative dose reconstruction analysis (I-FL) was performed with three fluoroscopic images acquired at 0 (AP), +15, and -15 degrees. Automatic seed identification was performed and the three-dimensional (3D) seed coordinates were computed and imported into VariSeed for dose visualization. Based on a 3D assessment of the isodose patterns additional seeds were implanted, and the final fluoroscopic intraoperative dose reconstruction was performed (FL). A postimplant computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained after the procedure and dosimetric parameters and isodose patterns were analyzed and compared. An average of 4.7 additional seeds were implanted after intraoperative analysis of the dose coverage (I-FL), and a median of 5 seeds. After implantation of additional seeds the mean V100 increased from 89% (I-FL) to 92% (FL) (p < 0.001). In I-125 patients an improvement from 91% to 94% (p = 0.01), and 87% to 93% (p = 0.001) was seen for Pd-103. The D90 increased from 105% (I-FL) to 122% (FL) (p < 0.001) for I-125, and 92% (I-FL) to 102% (FL) (p = 0.008) for Pd-103. A minimal change occurred in the R100 from a mean of 0.32 mL (I-FL) to 0.6 mL (FL) (p = 0.19). No statistical difference was noted in the R100 (rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescribed dose) between the two techniques. The rate of adverse isodose patterns decreased between I-FL and FL from 42% to 8%, respectively. The I-125 patients demonstrated a complete resolution of adverse isodose patterns after the initial isodose

  16. Intraoperative Functional Mapping and Monitoring during Glioma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    SAITO, Taiichi; MURAGAKI, Yoshihiro; MARUYAMA, Takashi; TAMURA, Manabu; NITTA, Masayuki; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma surgery represents a significant advance with respect to improving resection rates using new surgical techniques, including intraoperative functional mapping, monitoring, and imaging. Functional mapping under awake craniotomy can be used to detect individual eloquent tissues of speech and/or motor functions in order to prevent unexpected deficits and promote extensive resection. In addition, monitoring the patient’s neurological findings during resection is also very useful for maximizing the removal rate and minimizing deficits by alarming that the touched area is close to eloquent regions and fibers. Assessing several types of evoked potentials, including motor evoked potentials (MEPs), sensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs), is also helpful for performing surgical monitoring in patients under general anesthesia (GA). We herein review the utility of intraoperative mapping and monitoring the assessment of neurological findings, with a particular focus on speech and the motor function, in patients undergoing glioma surgery. PMID:25744346

  17. Intraoperative Imaging Guidance for Sentinel Node Biopsy in Melanoma Using a Mobile Gamma Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Dengel, Lynn T; Judy, Patricia G; Petroni, Gina R; Smolkin, Mark E; Rehm, Patrice K; Majewski, Stan; Williams, Mark B; Slingluff Jr., Craig L

    2011-04-01

    The objective is to evaluate the sensitivity and clinical utility of intraoperative mobile gamma camera (MGC) imaging in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma. The false-negative rate for SLNB for melanoma is approximately 17%, for which failure to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is a major cause. Intraoperative imaging may aid in detection of SLN near the primary site, in ambiguous locations, and after excision of each SLN. The present pilot study reports outcomes with a prototype MGC designed for rapid intraoperative image acquisition. We hypothesized that intraoperative use of the MGC would be feasible and that sensitivity would be at least 90%. From April to September 2008, 20 patients underwent Tc99 sulfur colloid lymphoscintigraphy, and SLNB was performed with use of a conventional fixed gamma camera (FGC), and gamma probe followed by intraoperative MGC imaging. Sensitivity was calculated for each detection method. Intraoperative logistical challenges were scored. Cases in which MGC provided clinical benefit were recorded. Sensitivity for detecting SLN basins was 97% for the FGC and 90% for the MGC. A total of 46 SLN were identified: 32 (70%) were identified as distinct hot spots by preoperative FGC imaging, 31 (67%) by preoperative MGC imaging, and 43 (93%) by MGC imaging pre- or intraoperatively. The gamma probe identified 44 (96%) independent of MGC imaging. The MGC provided defined clinical benefit as an addition to standard practice in 5 (25%) of 20 patients. Mean score for MGC logistic feasibility was 2 on a scale of 1-9 (1 = best). Intraoperative MGC imaging provides additional information when standard techniques fail or are ambiguous. Sensitivity is 90% and can be increased. This pilot study has identified ways to improve the usefulness of an MGC for intraoperative imaging, which holds promise for reducing false negatives of SLNB for melanoma.

  18. Intraoperative ERCP: What role does it have in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Rábago, Luis R; Ortega, Alejandro; Chico, Inmaculada; Collado, David; Olivares, Ana; Castro, Jose Luis; Quintanilla, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    In the treatment of patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis (CBDS) detected during intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), or when the preoperative study of a patient at intermediate risk for CBDS cannot be completed due to the lack of imaging techniques required for confirmation, or if they are available and yield contradictory radiological and clinical results, patients can be treated using intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) during the laparoscopic treatment or postoperative ERCP if the IOC finds CBDS. The choice of treatment depends on the level of experience and availability of each option at each hospital. Intraoperative ERCP has the advantage of being a single-stage treatment and has a significant success rate, an easy learning curve, low morbidity involving a shorter hospital stay and lower costs than the two-stage treatments (postoperative and preoperative ERCP). Intraoperative ERCP is also a good salvage treatment when preoperative ERCP fails or when total laparoscopic management also fails. PMID:22195234

  19. Importance of a arteriography for intraoperative quality control during carotid artery surgery.

    PubMed

    Sala, Florent; Hassen-Khodja, Reda; Bouillanne, Pierre Jean; Hussein, Hassan; Semlali, Chakir; Planchard, Pierre; Declemy, Serge; Batt, Michel

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of intraoperative quality control using arteriography on the conduct and immediate outcome of carotid artery surgery. This retrospective study included 623 carotid artery repair procedures performed between January 1993 and January 2000. There were 427 men and 159 women (37 bilateral procedures) with a mean age of 71.6 years. The repair technique consisted of conventional endarterectomy alone in 353 cases, conventional endarterectomy with patch closure in 95 cases, eversion in 44 cases, and vein (n = 105) or prosthetic (n = 26) grafting in 131 cases. Findings of intraoperative arteriography, which is used routinely in our department, were reviewed and analyzed in all cases. Our findings indicate that intraoperative quality control with arteriography is an important part of carotid artery surgery. In 11.7% of cases in this study, intraoperative arteriography revealed significant defects that are the main cause of postoperative neurological complications.

  20. Intraoperative squash cytology and histology of giant cell ependymoma: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Ebru; Kucuk, Ulku; Ersen, Ayca; Pala, Emel E; Senoglu, Mehmet; Binatli, Ali O; Yildirim, Zubeyde

    2017-01-01

    Giant cell ependymomas (GCE) are extremely rare tumors, with 24 cases described in the literature. Squash cytology is a rapid, reliable, simple technique for intraoperative consultation in neurosurgical practice. We describe a rare case of GCE arising at level of L4-L5 in a 66-year-old woman and discuss the cytologic/histologic features. Intraoperative smears were highly cellular with a prominent fibrillary background and exhibited papillary structures and sheets composed of highly atypical and bizarre cells. Some of the cells showed nuclear pseudoinclusions and rarely formed pseudorosette-like arrays. Intraoperative diagnosis was high grade glial tumor. On paraffin sections, besides extensive polymorphism, there were no microvascular proliferation, necrosis, and mitosis and the final diagnosis was WHO grade II GCE. GCE may be a diagnostic challenge on intraoperative smears, frozen, and paraffin sections. It must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of giant cell exhibiting benign and malignant tumors of brain. PMID:28182061

  1. [Importance of preoperative and intraoperative imaging for operative strategies].

    PubMed

    Nitschke, P; Bork, U; Plodeck, V; Podlesek, D; Sobottka, S B; Schackert, G; Weitz, J; Kirsch, M

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in preoperative and postoperative imaging have an increasing influence on surgical decision-making and make more complex surgical interventions possible. This improves the possibilities for frequently occurring challenges and promoting improved functional and oncological outcome. This manuscript reviews the role of preoperative and intraoperative imaging in surgery. Various techniques are explained based on examples from hepatobiliary surgery and neurosurgery, in particular real-time procedures, such as the online use of augmented reality and in vivo fluorescence, as well as new and promising optical techniques including imaging of intrinsic signals and vibrational spectroscopy.

  2. Intraoperative scintigraphy for active small intestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, A.; Palestro, C.; Lewis, B.S.; Katz, L.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Localizing active sites of bleeding within the small intestine remains a difficult task. Endoscopic, angiographic or scintigraphic studies may point to the small intestine as the site of blood loss, but at operation, without a palpable lesion, the exact site of bleeding remains elusive. Patients are managed at laparotomy with intraoperative endoscopy, angiography, multiple enterotomies, blind resections, or placement of an enterostomy. We describe two patients in whom intraoperative scintigraphy accurately identified active sites of bleeding in the small intestine when other modalities failed. Intraoperative scintigraphy is rapid, easy to perform and is an effective means of identifying active sites of bleeding within the small intestine.

  3. The basics of intraoperative diagnosis in neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han S; Tihan, Tarik

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative pathologic consultation continues to be an essential tool during neurosurgical procedures, helping to ensure adequacy of material for achieving a pathologic diagnosis and to guide surgeons. For pathologists, successful consultation with central nervous system lesions involves not only a basic familiarity with the pathologic features of such lesions but also an understanding of their clinical and radiologic context. This review discusses a basic approach to intraoperative diagnosis for practicing pathologists, including preparation for, performance of, and interpretation of an intraoperative neuropathologic evaluation. The cytologic and frozen section features of select examples of common pathologic entities are described.

  4. High resolution mini-gammacamera and 99mTc [HMPAO] - leukocytes for diagnosis of infection and radioguided surgery in diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Soluri, A; Massari, R; Trotta, C; Stella, S; Cavaiola, S; Capriotti, G; Di Santo, G P; Di Paolo, M L; Mangano, A M; Liberatore, M; Micarelli, A; Bruzzese, A; Pasta, V

    2005-01-01

    Discovery of osteitis may be delayed because of late appearance of X-ray signs in patients with diabetic foot. Scintigraphy with labelled leukocytes is able to detect flogosis but often misses bone involvement, due to inadequate resolution of Anger camera, the commonest detector used in nuclear medicine. Radioguided surgery and biopsy with high resolution scintigraphy (HRS) started to be studied since 2000: although this method had never been tested for planning and guiding diabetic foot surgery, in our opinion it can help early diagnosis and surgical treatment of diabetic foot. Five patients with diabetic foot and suspected infection were studied with standard 99mTc [HMPAO]-leukocyte scan. In the same patients 2 mm spatial resolution HRS was performed 24 hours after administration of labelled WBC, using our inch2 field-of-view portable mini-gammacamera. Operations were done just after the 24h scan and were guided with the portable high resolution device in the four patients who showed positive scan. Scintigraphy with Anger camera and HRS were positive in four patients. HRS showed a bar-shaped radioactivity corresponding to small phalanges, close to the main inter-digital hot spot. The presence of osteitis on phalanges that had been shown by HRS was confirmed at surgery, that was successfully driven with the high resolution mini-camera. In conclusion HRS is able to diagnose early osteitis of diabetic foot and to guide diabetic foot surgery.

  5. Intraoperative imaging using intravascular contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Garland, Summer; Lemole, G. Michael; Romanowski, Marek

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) contrast agents are becoming more frequently studied in medical imaging due to their advantageous characteristics, most notably the ability to capture near-infrared signal across the tissue and the safety of the technique. This produces a need for imaging technology that can be specific for both the NIR dye and medical application. Indocyanine green (ICG) is currently the primary NIR dye used in neurosurgery. Here we report on using the augmented microscope we described previously for image guidance in a rat glioma resection. Luc-C6 cells were implanted in a rat in the left-frontal lobe and grown for 22 days. Surgical resection was performed by a neurosurgeon using augmented microscopy guidance with ICG contrast. Videos and images were acquired to evaluate image quality and resection margins. ICG accumulated in the tumor tissue due to enhanced permeation and retention from the compromised bloodbrain- barrier. The augmented microscope was capable of guiding the rat glioma resection and intraoperatively highlighted tumor tissue regions via ICG fluorescence under normal illumination of the surgical field.

  6. Using intraoperative MRI to assess bleeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Hall, Walter A.; Martin, Alastair J.; Truwit, Charles L.

    2001-05-01

    Immediate detector of any surgically induced hemorrhage prior to the closure is important for minimizing the unnecessary post surgical complications. In the case of hemorrhage, the surgical site of interests often involves hemorrhagic blood in the presence of CSF as well as air pockets. It is known that the hemorrhagic blood or air has a different magnetic susceptibility from its surrounding tissue, and CSF has long T1 and T2. Based on these differences, a set of complimentary imaging techniques (T2, FLAIR, and GE) were optimized to reveal the existence of surgically induced acute hemorrhage. Among 330 neurosurgical cases, one relatively severe hemorrhage has been successfully found intra-operatively using the concept. During the case, a new hyperintense area close to the primary motor cortex was initially noticed on T2 weighted HASTE images. As soon as it was found to increase in size rapidly, the patient was treated immediately via craniotomy for aspiration of the intra-parenchymal blood. Owing to early detection and treatment, the patient was completely free of motor deficits. Besides, there were ten much less severe hemorrhages have been noticed using the method. The proper post-surgical care was planned to closely follow-up the patient for any sign of hemorrhage.

  7. Practical intraoperative stereo camera calibration.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Philip; Bergeles, Christos; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Many of the currently available stereo endoscopes employed during minimally invasive surgical procedures have shallow depths of field. Consequently, focus settings are adjusted from time to time in order to achieve the best view of the operative workspace. Invalidating any prior calibration procedure, this presents a significant problem for image guidance applications as they typically rely on the calibrated camera parameters for a variety of geometric tasks, including triangulation, registration and scene reconstruction. While recalibration can be performed intraoperatively, this invariably results in a major disruption to workflow, and can be seen to represent a genuine barrier to the widespread adoption of image guidance technologies. The novel solution described herein constructs a model of the stereo endoscope across the continuum of focus settings, thereby reducing the number of degrees of freedom to one, such that a single view of reference geometry will determine the calibration uniquely. No special hardware or access to proprietary interfaces is required, and the method is ready for evaluation during human cases. A thorough quantitative analysis indicates that the resulting intrinsic and extrinsic parameters lead to calibrations as accurate as those derived from multiple pattern views.

  8. Virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changho; Lee, Donghyun; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong

    2015-07-01

    A virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy at 1064 nm wavelength (VISPAM) system was designed and fabricated by integrating a commercial type surgical microscope and laser scanning photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) with a 1064 nm pulsed laser. Based on simple augmented reality device, VISPAM could simultaneously provide 2D depth-resolved photoacoustic and magnified microscope images of surgery regions on the same vision of surgeon via an eyepiece of the microscope. The invisible 1064 nm laser removed the interruption of surgical sight due to visible laser scanning of previous report, and decreased the danger of tissue damage caused by over irradiated laser. In addition, to approach the real practical surgery application, a needle-type transducer was utilized without a water bath for PA signal coupling. In order to verify our system's performance, we conducted needle guiding as ex vivo phantom study and needle guiding and injection of carbon particles mixtures into a melanoma tumor region as in vivo study. We expect that VISPAM can be essential tool of brain and ophthalmic microsurgery.

  9. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Tobias, Jeffrey S; Baum, Michael; Keshtgar, Mohammed; Joseph, David; Wenz, Frederik; Houghton, Joan; Saunders, Christobel; Corica, Tammy; D'Souza, Derek; Sainsbury, Richard; Massarut, Samuele; Taylor, Irving; Hilaris, Basil

    2004-03-01

    Postoperative radiotherapy, which forms part of breast-conserving therapy, may not need to encompass the whole breast. Apart from the consumption of huge resources and patients' time, postoperative radiotherapy deters many women from receiving the benefits of breast-conserving surgery, forcing them to choose a mastectomy instead. If radiotherapy could be given in the operating theatre immediately after surgery, many of these disadvantages could be overcome. One striking fact about local recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is that most occurs in the area of breast immediately next to the primary tumour; this is despite the finding that two-thirds of mastectomy samples have microscopic tumours distributed throughout the breast, even when radiotherapy is omitted. Thus, only the area adjacent to the tumour may need treatment with radiotherapy. On the basis of this premise, clinical scientists have used new technology to administer radiotherapy to the area at greatest risk of local recurrence, with the aim of completing the whole local treatment in one sitting. In this review, we have elaborated on the rationale and different methods of delivery of intraoperative radiotherapy. If this approach is validated by the results of current randomised trials, it could save time, money, and breasts.

  10. Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Childhood Malignant Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Sohail R.; Haddy, Theresa B.; Ashayeri, Ebrahim; Goldson, Alfred L.

    1984-01-01

    A 12-year-old black male patient with glioblastoma multiforme was treated with intraoperative radiotherapy followed by conventional external beam radiation and chemotherapy. The authors' clinical experience with these therapeutic measures is discussed. PMID:6330375

  11. Value of Intraoperative Sonography in Pancreatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stefanie; Morgan, Tara; Poder, Liina; Shin, Lewis; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Aslam, Rizwan; Yee, Judy

    2015-07-01

    The utility of intraoperative sonography for pancreatic disease has been well described for detection and evaluation of neoplastic and inflammatory pancreatic disease. Intraoperative sonography can help substantially reduce surgical time as well as decrease potential injury to tissues and major structures. Imaging with sonography literally at the point of care--the surgeon's scalpel--can precisely define the location of pancreatic lesions and their direct relationship with surrounding structures in real time during surgery. This article highlights our experience with intraoperative sonography at multiple institutional sites for both open and laparoscopic surgical procedures. We use intraoperative sonography for a wide range of pancreatic disease to provide accurate localization and staging of disease, provide guidance for enucleation of nonpalpable, nonvisible tumors, and in planning the most direct and least invasive surgical approach, avoiding injury to the pancreatic duct or other vital structures. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Intraoperative Anaphylactic Reaction: Is it the Floseal?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David; Schloss, Brian; Beebe, Allan; Samora, Walter; Klamar, Jan; Stukus, David; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    When hemodynamic or respiratory instability occurs intraoperatively, the inciting event must be determined so that a therapeutic plan can be provided to ensure patient safety. Although generally uncommon, one cause of cardiorespiratory instability is anaphylactic reactions. During anesthetic care, these most commonly involve neuromuscular blocking agents, antibiotics, or latex. Floseal is a topical hemostatic agent that is frequently used during orthopedic surgical procedures to augment local coagulation function and limit intraoperative blood loss. As these products are derived from human thrombin, animal collagen, and animal gelatin, allergic phenomenon may occur following their administration. We present 2 pediatric patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion who developed intraoperative hemodynamic and respiratory instability following use of the topical hemostatic agent, Floseal. Previous reports of such reactions are reviewed, and the perioperative care of patients with intraoperative anaphylaxis is discussed. PMID:27713677

  13. Pediatric urological complications with intraoperative radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchey, M.L.; Gunderson, L.L.; Smithson, W.A.; Kelalis, P.P.; Kaufman, B.H.; Telander, R.L.; Evans, R.G.; Kramer, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy with variable energy electrons has been used as a supplemental boost to treat 6 children with locally advanced retroperitoneal malignancies. Of the patients 4 had treatment-related injuries to portions of the urinary tract within the intraoperative and external radiation fields. Three patients had significant renal impairment requiring surgical correction. The pathogenesis and management of treatment-induced injury to the urinary tract are discussed.

  14. Intraoperative Fluoroscopy for Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Daniel; Anon, Javier; Rossi, Frederic; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Berkmann, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Catheter malpositioning is one of the most frequent causes of ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction and revision surgery. Most intraoperative tools used to improve the accuracy of catheter insertion are time consuming and expensive or do not display the final position. We evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative fluoroscopy to decrease catheter malpositioning, and define radiological landmarks to identify the correct localization. A total of 104 patients undergoing ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement were analyzed for shunt position, revision surgery and outcome. The results for patients operated on using intraoperative biplanar fluoroscopic assessment of catheter location (X-ray group, n = 57) were compared with a control group operated without intraoperative radiography (control, n = 47). In order to generate a surgical reference map for intraoperative validation of shunt location, different ventricular system landmarks were defined on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions of hydrocephalic patients (n = 60) and exported to a two-dimensional layer of the skull. The use of intraoperative X-ray imaging correlated with a significant increase of optimal catheter positions (X-ray group, n = 45, 79%; control group, n = 23, 49%; P = 0.0018). The sensitivity and positive predictive value for estimating an optimal shunt catheter position on biplanar imaging was 96% (95% confidence interval, 87%-99%). The specificity and negative predictive value were both 92% (95% confidence interval, 78%-98%). Intraoperative fluoroscopy is easy to perform and is a reliable method to assess correct catheter positioning. Based on its predictive value, corrections of malpositioned ventricular catheters can be performed during the same procedure. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy decreases early surgical revisions in ventriculoperitoneal shunt treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anesthesia for intraoperative radiation therapy in children

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, R.H.; Morrison, J.E. Jr.; Verbrugge, J.J.; Daniel, W.E.; Aarestad, N.O.; Burrington, J.D.

    1987-06-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a relatively new mode of cancer treatment which is being used with increasing frequency. IORT presents several challenges to the anesthesiologist, including patients who are debilitated from their disease or chemotherapy, operations involving major tumor resections, intraoperative interdepartmental transport of patients, and remote monitoring of patients during electron beam therapy. This report discusses the anesthetic management of ten children undergoing IORT. With adequate preparation and interdepartmental communication, complications can be avoided during these challenging cases.

  16. Fluorescence Imaging Topography Scanning System for intraoperative multimodal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quang, Tri T.; Kim, Hye-Yeong; Bao, Forrest Sheng; Papay, Francis A.; Edwards, W. Barry; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging is a powerful technique with diverse applications in intraoperative settings. Visualization of three dimensional (3D) structures and depth assessment of lesions, however, are oftentimes limited in planar fluorescence imaging systems. In this study, a novel Fluorescence Imaging Topography Scanning (FITS) system has been developed, which offers color reflectance imaging, fluorescence imaging and surface topography scanning capabilities. The system is compact and portable, and thus suitable for deployment in the operating room without disturbing the surgical flow. For system performance, parameters including near infrared fluorescence detection limit, contrast transfer functions and topography depth resolution were characterized. The developed system was tested in chicken tissues ex vivo with simulated tumors for intraoperative imaging. We subsequently conducted in vivo multimodal imaging of sentinel lymph nodes in mice using FITS and PET/CT. The PET/CT/optical multimodal images were co-registered and conveniently presented to users to guide surgeries. Our results show that the developed system can facilitate multimodal intraoperative imaging. PMID:28437441

  17. Lymphatic mapping and intraoperative lymphoscintigraphy for identifying the sentinel node in penile tumors.

    PubMed

    Han, K R; Brogle, B N; Goydos, J; Perrotti, M; Cummings, K B; Weiss, R E

    2000-04-01

    Lymph node mapping has become an integral part of the management of melanoma and breast cancer with regard to both staging and treatment. We report our technique for lymphatic mapping and intraoperative lymphoscintigraphy applied to a patient with penile melanoma. This technique may improve the sensitivity of identifying the sentinel lymph node in patients with malignant penile lesions.

  18. Macular Surgery Using Intraoperative Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Mazloumi, Mehdi; Khodabandeh, Alireza; Riazi-Esfahani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the use of intraoperative spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) for detecting anatomical changes during macular surgery. Methods: In a consecutive case series, 32 eyes of 32 patients undergoing concurrent pars plana vitrectomy and intraoperative SD-OCT for macular hole (MH), epiretinal membrane (ERM) and vitreomacular traction (VMT) were enrolled. Intraoperative changes in retinal thickness and dimensions of the macular hole were measured in patients with ERM and VMT following surgical manipulation using a hand-held SD-OCT device (iVue, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA). Results: SD-OCT images of sixteen eyes with macular hole were subjected to quantitative and qualitative analysis. All MH dimensions remained stable during consecutive stages of surgery except for MH apex diameter, which showed a significant decrease after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling (P=0.025). Quantitative analysis of ten patients with ERM showed a significant decrease in retinal thickness after membrane removal (P=0.018) which did not remain significant until the end of the procedure (P=0.8). In three cases, subretinal fluid was formed after ILM peeling. Quantitative analysis of five patients with VMT showed a decrease in retinal thickness during consecutive steps of the surgery, although these changes were not significant. In two cases, subretinal fluid was formed after ILM peeling. Conclusion: Intraoperative SD-OCT is a useful imaging technique which provides vitreoretinal surgeons with rapid awareness of changes in macular anatomy during surgery and may therefore result in better anatomical and visual outcomes. PMID:26730318

  19. Mild intraoperative hypothermia during surgery for intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Todd, Michael M; Hindman, Bradley J; Clarke, William R; Torner, James C

    2005-01-13

    Surgery for intracranial aneurysm often results in postoperative neurologic deficits. We conducted a randomized trial at 30 centers to determine whether intraoperative cooling during open craniotomy would improve the outcome among patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 1001 patients with a preoperative World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score of I, II, or III ("good-grade patients"), who had had a subarachnoid hemorrhage no more than 14 days before planned surgical aneurysm clipping, were randomly assigned to intraoperative hypothermia (target temperature, 33 degrees C, with the use of surface cooling techniques) or normothermia (target temperature, 36.5 degrees C). Patients were followed closely postoperatively and examined approximately 90 days after surgery, at which time a Glasgow Outcome Score was assigned. There were no significant differences between the group assigned to intraoperative hypothermia and the group assigned to normothermia in the duration of stay in the intensive care unit, the total length of hospitalization, the rates of death at follow-up (6 percent in both groups), or the destination at discharge (home or another hospital, among surviving patients). At the final follow-up, 329 of 499 patients in the hypothermia group had a Glasgow Outcome Score of 1 (good outcome), as compared with 314 of 501 patients in the normothermia group (66 percent vs. 63 percent; odds ratio, 1.14; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.48; P=0.32). Postoperative bacteremia was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (5 percent vs. 3 percent, P=0.05). Intraoperative hypothermia did not improve the neurologic outcome after craniotomy among good-grade patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  20. Rapid intraoperative insulin assay: a novel method to differentiate insulinoma from nesidioblastosis in the pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Strong, Vivian E; Shifrin, Alexander; Inabnet, William B

    2007-10-24

    Hyperinsulinism is the most common cause of recurrent and persistent hypoglycemia in infancy and childhood. Causes can include nesidioblastosis, pancreatic islet cell tumors such as insulinoma, and associations with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Although new, improved imaging techniques have allowed for more precise preoperative localization of insulinomas, the differentiation of nesidioblastosis and insulinoma, particularly in children, can be challenging. To improve intraoperative localization and confirmation of successful resection of insulinoma, a novel hormonal assay, the rapid intraoperative insulin assay, is reported for the first time in a pediatric patient. This intraoperative radioimmunoassay for insulin yields results within several minutes and confirms complete resection of insulinoma. We present a case of pancreatic insulinoma in a child with symptoms of severe hypoglycemia, causing seizures. The insulinoma was enucleated laparoscopically, and rapid intra-operative insulin assay used to determine the success of the procedure. This rapid intra-operative test provides a valuable adjunct for determining complete excision in complicated cases of recurrent or questionable insulinoma. Although not a common problem, for pediatric patients in whom the diagnosis is not clear, this test may provide a novel approach to confirming disease. We propose the use of this assay in facilitating intra-operative resection and confirmation of complete excision in pediatric patients. This population may especially benefit from this novel assay to confirm complete resection and to differentiate multiple etiologies of hyperinsulinism.

  1. Intraoperative ultrasound with contrast medium in resective pancreatic surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Antonino; Del Fabbro, Daniele; Sacchi, Matteo; Zerbi, Alessandro; Torzilli, Guido; Lutman, Fabio R; Laghi, Luigi; Malesci, Alberto; Montorsi, Marco

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasound has been a major innovation in liver and pancreatic imaging. Previous studies have validated its intraoperative use during liver surgery, while there is a lack of data regarding its use during pancreatic surgery. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the possible role of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound (CEIOUS) during resective pancreatic surgery for primary lesion characterization and intraoperative staging. Thirty-four patients (70% males, mean age 67.9 years) were selected for pancreatic surgery between October 2006 and July 2009. All patients underwent intraoperative ultrasound with intravenous injection of 4.8 mL sulfur-hexafluoride microbubbles. Location of the primary tumor, relation to the main vessels, contrast medium uptake modalities, presence of liver metastases, and multifocal pancreatic involvement were evaluated. The majority of operations were pancreatoduodenectomies (70.6%) performed for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (64.7%). Additional lesions were detected by ultrasound in six patients (17.6%: liver metastases in four patients, a hemangioma in one patient, and a further pancreatic lesion in one patient). In five of these patients (5/34, 14.7%) surgical management was modified by these findings. All these new findings were diagnosed before injection of contrast medium, except for a metastasis from a neuroendocrine tumor; the characterization of the hemangioma was possible only after contrast injection. Intraoperative findings regarding location of primary tumor, relation to the main vessels, and lesion characterization did not differ from those obtained with preoperative imaging. In our experience intraoperative ultrasound is a valid technique for intraoperative staging prior to pancreatic resection; it is unclear whether, in pancreatic surgery, the addition of contrast enhancement adds any benefit to traditional intraoperative ultrasound.

  2. Intraoperative measurement of limb lengthening during total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios Vasileiou; Koulouvaris, Panagiotis; Aggelidakis, Georgios Charalambos; Tsantes, Andreas Georgios; Lykissas, Marios Georgios; Mavrodontidis, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limb length discrepancy (LLD) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common problem which cannot be completely resolved. Many techniques have been described in order to minimize postoperative LLD, but most of these techniques are difficult to apply. Ideal technique must be simple and accurate. The most simple technique using a suture tied on the skin has well-known limitations, but its accuracy has not been evaluated before. Materials and Methods: Sixty THAs in sixty patients (mean age 71 years, 1:1 male to female ratio) with hip osteoarthritis (37 cases in the right, and 23 cases in the left side) were studied in this prospective study. In all surgeries, the intraoperataive measurement of limb lengthening was performed using a suture tied on the skin of the lateral pelvis. The accuracy of this technique and correlation between intraoperative and postoperative radiological measurements of lengthening were evaluated. Results: The mean preoperative LLD was –7.5 mm while the mean postoperative LLD was 1.58 mm. The accuracy of this technique, defined as the mean difference between the intraoperative and postoperative measurements was 1.8 mm. A strong correlation between these two measurements was noticed (r = 0.86). Conclusion: The accuracy and correlation index of this simple technique were similar to those of other techniques. The studied technique is quite accurate when attention is given to certain details, such as the amount of tension applied on the suture, the position of the tied point on the skin, and the position of the leg during measurements.

  3. [What is the role of intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer treatment?].

    PubMed

    Aumont, M

    2016-10-01

    Breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast postoperative irradiation is considered to be the current standard treatment for patients with early stage breast cancer. It allows an excellent local tumour control with 6% of local recurrence. Over the last years, partial breast radiotherapy has been developed to reduce treatment volume and duration. Intraoperative radiotherapy is one of the techniques. It offers an excellent delineation of the tumour bed and high normal tissue sparing. This purpose of this review is to describe the different intraoperative radiotherapy techniques available, to assess their potential clinical efficiency and tolerance, the recommendations for new practice with a selected population of patients and for future research.

  4. Analysis of the abdominal musculo-aponeurotic anatomy in rectus diastasis: comparison of CT scanning and preoperative clinical assessment with direct measurement intraoperatively.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, P; Dahlstrand, U; Strömsten, U; Gunnarsson, U; Strigård, K; Stark, B

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the consistency of agreement of two methods for measuring abdominal rectus diastasis (ARD), preoperative computed tomography (CT) scanning and preoperative clinical assessment were compared with direct measurement intraoperatively. Fifty-five consecutive patients were retrieved from an ongoing prospective randomised trial comparing two operative techniques for the repair of ARD. All patients underwent a preoperative clinical assessment and CT scan, and the results were compared with intraoperative measurement of the ARD width. Agreement between methods was described with Bland-Altman plots (BA plots) and calculated using Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC). The median width of the diastasis was 4.0 cm in the upper midline and 3.0 cm in the lower midline for the intraoperative measurement. BA plots showed that measurements on CT and intraoperatively are not in agreement in the lower midline, whereas the agreement was stronger between the clinical and the intraoperative method. The CCC was higher for clinical vs. intraoperative measurement (0.479) than for CT vs. intraoperative measurement (-0.002) in the lower midline, although the agreement was over all low. CT scanning underestimated the width of the ARD when compared to 87 % of preoperative clinical assessments, and 83 % of intraoperative measurements. Preoperative clinical assessment overestimated ARD in 35 % when compared with intraoperative measurements. Clinical assessment prior to surgery provides more accurate information than CT scanning in the assessment of ARD width. CT scanning underestimates ARD width when compared with intraoperative measurement.

  5. A smart method of intraoperative explantation of an aortic bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Can C; Park, Soon J

    2009-01-01

    Structural prosthetic valve deterioration and nonstructural dysfunction are two common causes of nonfatal valve events following implantation of a bioprosthetic valve. Using caution and skill, implantation of a bioprosthesis is relatively easy. On the other hand, explantation of a bioprosthesis is a challenging and time-consuming procedure. We have developed a surgical technique by which we were able to ameliorate this troublesome situation in a 79-year-old man with aortic stenosis in whom we had to intraoperatively explant the bioprosthesis that we have put in initially. Another bioprosthesis of the same kind was used to replace the old prosthesis with the rest of his postoperative course until dismissal being eventless.

  6. [Intraoperative crisis and surgical Apgar score].

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Masakatsu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative crisis is an inevitable event to anesthesiologists. The crisis requires effective and coordinated management once it happened but it is difficult to manage the crises properly under extreme stressful situation. Recently, it is reported that the use of surgical crisis checklists is associated with significant improvement in the management of operating-room crises in a high-fidelity simulation study. Careful preoperative evaluation, proper intraoperative management and using intraoperative crisis checklists will be needed for safer perioperative care in the future. Postoperative complication is a serious public health problem. It reduces the quality of life of patients and raises medical cost. Careful management of surgical patients is required according to their postoperative condition for preventing postoperative complications. A 10-point surgical Apgar score, calculated from intraoperative estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate, is a simple and available scoring system for predicting postoperative complications. It undoubtedly predicts higher than average risk of postoperative complications and death within 30 days of surgery. Surgical Apgar score is a bridge between proper intraoperative and postoperative care. Anesthesiologists should make effort to reduce the postoperative complication and this score is a tool for it.

  7. Intraoperative assessment of margins in breast conserving therapy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Butler-Henderson, Kerryn; Lee, Andy H; Price, Roger I; Waring, Kaylene

    2014-04-01

    Approximately one quarter of patients undergoing breast conserving therapy for breast cancer will require a second operation to achieve adequate clearance of the margins. A number of techniques to assess margins intraoperatively have been reported. This systematic review examines current intraoperative methods for assessing margin status. The final pathology status, statistical measures including accuracy of tumour margin assessment, average time impact on the procedure and second operation rate, were used as criteria for comparison between studies. Although pathological methods, such as frozen section and imprint cytology performed well, they added on average 20-30 min to operation times. An ultrasound probe allows accurate examination of the margins and delivers results in a timely manner, yet it has a limited role with DCIS where calcification is present and in multifocal cancer. Further research is required in other intraoperative margin assessment techniques, such as mammography, radiofrequency spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Intraoperative computer tomography control within the scope of maxillofacial traumatology using a mobile scanner].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, J; Dammann, F; Troitzsch, D; Krimmel, M; Gülicher, D; Reinert, S

    2002-06-01

    Advances in intra-operative imaging and the development of new minimally invasive techniques are having an ever greater impact on modern surgery. Mobile CT scanners in the operating room is a new technique that permits image-guided surgery, and helps minimize postoperative complications. We report on our initial experience with intraoperative CT scanning during surgery on patients suffering lateral midface trauma. A mobile CT unit, the Tomoscan M (Philips, Utrecht, Netherlands) set up in the operating room, was evaluated in 6 patients with zygomatic bone fractures. The patients were placed on the CT scanner table, which is detachable from the gantry. The unit is powered by batteries charged from an ordinary ring mains supply via a conventional plug. The CT images obtained were of good quality in all cases. No technical problems were observed during surgery. Using repeat CT scans, the procedure also permits accurate intraoperative monitoring of the anatomical repositioning of the bone fragments, and accurate implantation. No intraoperative or early postoperative complications were observed. This new technical aid ensures highly accurate reduction of the bone fragments, and minimizes the need for reoperation. High-quality intraoperative imaging with surgical navigation increase surgical outcome, and expand the spectrum of minimally invasive surgery.

  9. [Importance of intraoperative navigation in spinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Richter, P H; Gebhard, F; Kraus, M

    2014-10-01

    The number of spinal operations carried out per year is steadily increasing. Pedicle screw placement is the standard procedure for spinal stabilization but can be associated with severe complications. Intraoperative navigation can increase the accuracy of placement of the screws and a decisive role is played by the improvement in imaging devices. Nowadays, 3D-navigation is performed using intraoperative computed tomography or a flatpanel-3D C-arm. Computer navigation is a crucial aid especially for complex deformities or tumor cases. However, as yet no statistically significant reduction of complications could be shown using navigation compared to conventional procedures. With continuing development of intraoperative imaging and navigation it is hoped that screw positioning can be improved further.

  10. [Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring with evoked potentials].

    PubMed

    Nitzschke, R; Hansen-Algenstaedt, N; Regelsberger, J; Goetz, A E; Goepfert, M S

    2012-04-01

    During the last 30 years intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring (IOEM) has gained increasing importance in monitoring the function of neuronal structures and the intraoperative detection of impending new neurological deficits. The use of IOEM could reduce the incidence of postoperative neurological deficits after various surgical procedures. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) seem to be superior to other methods for many indications regarding monitoring of the central nervous system. During the application of IOEM general anesthesia should be provided by total intravenous anesthesia with propofol with an emphasis on a continuous high opioid dosage. When intraoperative MEP or electromyography guidance is planned, muscle relaxation must be either completely omitted or maintained in a titrated dose range in a steady state. The IOEM can be performed by surgeons, neurologists and neurophysiologists or increasingly more by anesthesiologists. However, to guarantee a safe application and interpretation, sufficient knowledge of the effects of the surgical procedure and pharmacological and physiological influences on the neurophysiological findings are indispensable.

  11. Intraoperative cerebral blood flow imaging of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hangdao; Li, Yao; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Caihong; Lu, Hongyang; Tong, Shanbao

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is of interest to neuroscience researchers, which offers the assessment of hemodynamic responses throughout the process of neurosurgery and provides an early biomarker for surgical guidance. However, intraoperative CBF imaging has been challenging due to animal's motion and position change during the surgery. In this paper, we presented a design of an operation bench integrated with laser speckle contrast imager which enables monitoring of the CBF intraoperatively. With a specially designed stereotaxic frame and imager, we were able to monitor the CBF changes in both hemispheres during the rodent surgery. The rotatable design of the operation plate and implementation of online image registration allow the technician to move the animal without disturbing the CBF imaging during surgery. The performance of the system was tested by middle cerebral artery occlusion model of rats.

  12. Near-Infrared Intraoperative Chemiluminescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Büchel, Gabriel E; Carney, Brandon; Shaffer, Travis M; Tang, Jun; Austin, Christine; Arora, Manish; Zeglis, Brian M; Grimm, Jan; Eppinger, Jörg; Reiner, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Intraoperative imaging technologies recently entered the operating room, and their implementation is revolutionizing how physicians plan, monitor, and perform surgical interventions. In this work, we present a novel surgical imaging reporter system: intraoperative chemiluminescence imaging (ICI). To this end, we have leveraged the ability of a chemiluminescent metal complex to generate near-infrared light upon exposure to an aqueous solution of Ce(4+) in the presence of reducing tissue or blood components. An optical camera spatially resolves the resulting photon flux. We describe the construction and application of a prototype imaging setup, which achieves a detection limit as low as 6.9 pmol cm(-2) of the transition-metal-based ICI agent. As a proof of concept, we use ICI for the in vivo detection of our transition metal tracer following both systemic and subdermal injections. The very high signal-to-noise ratios make ICI an interesting candidate for the development of new intraoperative imaging technologies.

  13. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Bleb Needling.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Angmo, Dewang; Midha, Neha; Sidhu, Talvir

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with history of trabeculectomy presented with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) postoperatively. The first patient had a flat and vasularized bleb 10 weeks after the surgery, and the second subject developed encapsulated bleb 3 months postoperatively. Both patients were taken to the operating room and intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided bleb needling was performed to restore aqueous egress into the subconjunctival space. Postoperatively, IOP of the operated eyes ranged 14-18 mmHg at week 6 and month 3. None of the eyes had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. This novel application of the intraoperative OCT for bleb needling facilitates precision surgery under direct visualization and reduces the risk of complications.

  14. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Bleb Needling

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Tanuj; Angmo, Dewang; Midha, Neha; Sidhu, Talvir

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with history of trabeculectomy presented with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) postoperatively. The first patient had a flat and vasularized bleb 10 weeks after the surgery, and the second subject developed encapsulated bleb 3 months postoperatively. Both patients were taken to the operating room and intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided bleb needling was performed to restore aqueous egress into the subconjunctival space. Postoperatively, IOP of the operated eyes ranged 14-18 mmHg at week 6 and month 3. None of the eyes had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. This novel application of the intraoperative OCT for bleb needling facilitates precision surgery under direct visualization and reduces the risk of complications. PMID:27994819

  15. The Value of Touch Preparation for Rapid Diagnosis of Brain Tumors as an Intraoperative Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Khamechian, Tahere; Alizargar, Javad; Mazoochi, Tahere

    2012-01-01

    Background: The touch preparation technique is an accurate and rapid method, and when used as intraoperative consultation examination technique it preserves a good amount of tissue for paraffin embedded sections. This study aimed at examining the accuracy of the touch preparation technique by comparing its diagnosis with that of final pathological diagnosis made by microscopic examinations. Methods: The diagnoses of 139 central nervous system lesions by touch preparation technique and paraffin-embedded sections were compared. Results: Touch preparation technique diagnosed correctly 118 (84%) of the lesions. However, the technique failed to correctly diagnose 12% of the cases. The highest rate of accurate diagnosis (100%) was observed in five types out of 11 types of tumor examined. However, the technique was not able to diagnose hydatid cysts correctly. Conclusion: The findings indicate that touch preparation technique may be useful in diagnosing tumor type during surgical operations. Touch preparation technique is very accurate for intraoperative diagnosis. However, adequate clinical history, neuroimaging details, and the intraoperative impressions of the neurosurgeons, if provided, help the pathologists to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the technique. PMID:23115439

  16. [Intraoperative echocardiography guidelines in Brazil - Is it time for a task force?

    PubMed

    Salgado Filho, Marcello Fonseca

    The Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) has been promoting continuing education in intraoperative echocardiography in Brazil since 2011, with the implementation of an Intraoperative Echocardiography Course (ETI/SBA). Although echocardiography is a reality of anesthesiology practice in Brazil, we still do not have an established policy on the area of expertise, job training, and recognition by the other societies, such as the Brazilian Society of Cardiology (SBC). The aim of this paper is to contextualize the anesthesiology in the intraoperative echocardiography in Brazil and promote a discussion on the formation of a Task Force along with the SBC to begin drawing up the Brazilian Guidelines on Intraoperative Echocardiography. The first reports on the involvement of anesthesiology in Brazil with intraoperative echocardiography are from the 80s and 90s. However, this technique implementation in routine practice in the Brazilian anesthesiology occurred in 2011 with the formation of the ETI/SBA Course. Since then, the SBA has been promoting a continuing education of its members and disseminating the ETI/SBA Course throughout Brazil. More than 200 associates have taken this course, and the vast majority works with cardiac surgery. Intraoperative echocardiography is a reality in the practice of the Brazilian anesthesiology, and the ETI/SBA Course has been promoting its continuing education, however, we still do not have a grounded guideline. As occurred in major worldwide centers, we have to promote a Task Force along with the SBC in order to begin the drawing up of the Brazilian Guidelines on Intraoperative Echocardiography. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Predisposing Factors for Intraoperative Endplate Injury of Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kanemura, Tokumi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Segi, Naoki; Ouchida, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To compare intraoperative endplate injury cases and no injury cases in consecutive series and to identify predisposing factors for intraoperative endplate injury. Overview of Literature Unintended endplate violation and subsequent cage subsidence is an intraoperative complication of extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF). It is still unknown whether it is derived from inexperienced surgical technique or patients' inherent problems. Methods Consecutive patients (n=102; mean age, 69.0±0.8 years) underwent XLIF at 201 levels at a single institute. Preoperative and immediately postoperative radiographs were compared and cases with intraoperative endplate injury were identified. Various parameters were reviewed in each patient and compared between the injury and no injury groups. Results Twenty one levels (10.4%) had signs of intraoperative endplate injury. The injury group had a significantly higher rate of females (p=0.002), lower bone mineral density (BMD) (p=0.02), higher rate of polyetheretherketone as cage material (p=0.04), and taller cage height (p=0.03) compared with the no injury group. Multivariate analysis indicated that a T-score of BMD as a negative (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.27–0.93; p=0.03) and cage height as a positive (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–3.17; p=0.03) were predisposing factors for intraoperative endplate injury. Conclusions Intraoperative endplate injury is correlated significantly with reduced BMD and taller cage height. Precise evaluation of bone quality and treatment for osteoporosis might be important and care should be taken not to choose excessively taller cage. PMID:27790319

  18. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in spine surgery. Developments and state of the art in France in 2011.

    PubMed

    Gavaret, M; Jouve, J L; Péréon, Y; Accadbled, F; André-Obadia, N; Azabou, E; Blondel, B; Bollini, G; Delécrin, J; Farcy, J-P; Fournet-Fayard, J; Garin, C; Henry, P; Manel, V; Mutschler, V; Perrin, G; Sales de Gauzy, J

    2013-10-01

    Intraoperative spinal cord monitoring consists in a subcontinuous evaluation of spinal cord sensory-motor functions and allows the reduction the incidence of neurological complications resulting from spinal surgery. A combination of techniques is used: somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), neurogenic motor evoked potentials (NMEP), D waves, and pedicular screw testing. In absence of intraoperative neurophysiological testing, the intraoperative wake-up test is a true form of monitoring even if its latency long and its precision variable. A 2011 survey of 117 French spinal surgeons showed that only 36% had neurophysiological monitoring available (public healthcare facilities, 42%; private facilities, 27%). Monitoring can be performed by a neurophysiologist in the operating room, remotely using a network, or directly by the surgeon. Intraoperative alerts allow real-time diagnosis of impending neurological injury. Use of spinal electrodes, moved along the medullary canal, can determine the lesion level (NMEP, D waves). The response to a monitoring alert should take into account the phase of the surgical intervention and does not systematically lead to interruption of the intervention. Multimodal intraoperative monitoring, in presence of a neurophysiologist, in collaboration with the anesthesiologist, is the most reliable technique available. However, no monitoring technique can predict a delayed-onset paraplegia that appears after the end of surgery. In cases of preexisting neurological deficit, monitoring contributes little. Monitoring of the L1-L4 spinal roots also shows low reliability. Therefore, monitoring has no indication in discal and degenerative surgery of the spinal surgery. However, testing pedicular screws can be useful. All in all, thoracic and thoracolumbar vertebral deviations, with normal preoperative neurological examination are currently the essential indication for spinal cord monitoring. Its absence in this

  19. Intraoperative Ultrasound Technology in Neuro-Oncology Practice-Current Role and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Moiyadi, Aliasgar V

    2016-09-01

    Surgery for cranial and spinal tumors has evolved tremendously over the years. Not only have neuro-oncologists been able to better understand tumor biology and thereby improve multimodality therapy, but advances in surgical techniques have also directly equipped neurosurgeons with the armamentarium necessary to achieve more radical resections safely. Intraoperative imaging tools are one such adjunct. Though intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) has emerged as the "gold standard" among these, logistical challenges make it difficult to implement across all centers. On the other hand, the use of ultrasound (US) intraoperatively predates the use of MR. Over the past 4 decades, technologic improvements have refined and expanded the scope and application of intraoperative US technology. Strategies to maximize its efficacy and overcome the various limitations have evolved. A large volume of clinical experience has accumulated with respect to its role as an adjunct specifically in tumor surgery. We performed a literature review to evaluate the role of IOUS in tumor surgery. This review traces the evolution of intraoperative US over the years and reviews the current scope and applications with respect to neuro-oncologic surgery, as well as potential future applications. IOUS has evolved over the years since its introduction. Advances in technology have provided real-time navigated and 3-D techniques, which overcome many of the limitations of older IOUS techniques. This has shown to be very useful in not only localization of lesions, but also in improving resection rates as well as survival. IOUS is a powerful and versatile multipurpose intraoperative adjunct in tumor surgery, especially for resection control. The learning curve is relatively easy to climb and future improvements in technology are likely to widen the scope of its use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraoperative Imaging-Guided Cancer Surgery: From Current Fluorescence Molecular Imaging Methods to Future Multi-Modality Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chongwei; Du, Yang; Ye, Jinzuo; Kou, Deqiang; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Tian, Jie; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to human health. Diagnosis and treatment using precision medicine is expected to be an effective method for preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. Although anatomical and functional imaging techniques such as radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role for accurate preoperative diagnostics, for the most part these techniques cannot be applied intraoperatively. Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique that provides a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in tumor margin detection. Furthermore, existing clinical applications have proven that optical molecular imaging is a powerful intraoperative tool for guiding surgeons performing precision procedures, thus enabling radical resection and improved survival rates. However, detection depth limitation exists in optical molecular imaging methods and further breakthroughs from optical to multi-modality intraoperative imaging methods are needed to develop more extensive and comprehensive intraoperative applications. Here, we review the current intraoperative optical molecular imaging technologies, focusing on contrast agents and surgical navigation systems, and then discuss the future prospects of multi-modality imaging technology for intraoperative imaging-guided cancer surgery. PMID:25250092

  1. Intraoperative imaging in orbital and midface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Frank; Schramm, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The orbit is very often affected by injuries which can leave patients not only with esthetic deficits, but also with functional impairments if reconstruction is inadequate. Computer-assisted surgery helps to achieve predictable outcomes in reconstruction. Today, intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) imaging is an important element in the workflow of computer-assisted orbital surgery. Clinical and radiological diagnosis by means of computed tomography is followed by preoperative computer-assisted planning to define and simulate the desired outcome of reconstruction. In difficult cases, intraoperative navigation helps in the implementation of procedure plans at the site of surgery. Intraoperative 3D imaging then allows an intraoperative final control to be made and the outcome of the surgery to be validated. Today, this is preferably done using 3D C-arm devices based on cone beam computed tomography. They help to avoid malpositioning of bone fragments and/or inserted implants assuring the quality of complex operations and reducing the number of secondary interventions necessary.

  2. [Results of routine intraoperative cholangiography].

    PubMed

    Klima, S; Schyra, B

    1999-01-01

    Most bile duct injuries result from an incorrect interpretation of bile duct anatomy. In 500 laparoscopic cholecystectomies we used a modified technique of cholecystcholangiography. This method is very easy and needs only 5 minutes. We found variants of bile duct anatomy in 74 cases and occult bile duct stones in 20 patients. We recommend this method which decreases the risk of bile duct injuries and gives the opportunity to approximate the golden standard of conventional cholecystectomy.

  3. Assessment of intraoperative awareness with explicit recall: a comparison of 2 methods.

    PubMed

    Mashour, George A; Kent, Christopher; Picton, Paul; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Tremper, Kevin K; Turner, Christopher R; Shanks, Amy; Avidan, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Superiority of the modified Brice interview over quality assurance techniques in detecting intraoperative awareness with explicit recall has not been demonstrated definitively. We studied a single patient cohort to compare the detection of definite awareness using a single modified Brice interview (postoperative day 28-30) versus quality assurance data (postoperative day 1). The incidence of awareness based on the modified Brice interview was 19 per 18,847 or 0.1%. Fewer awareness cases (incidence 0.02%) were detected by the quality assurance approach (P < 0.0001). The modified Brice interview is the preferred modality for assessing intraoperative awareness with explicit recall.

  4. Rapid intraoperative tissue expansion with Foley catheter in a challenging cripple Hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Murat; Gollu, Gulnur; Kucuk, Gonul; Bahadir, Berktug

    2015-01-01

    Failed hypospadiass cases may result in hypovascular, scarred penis with residual penile chordee and leave the patient with minimal residual skin for penile resurfacing and urethroplasty. Local tissue expansion has become a good alternative to provide skin for penis by using expanders however they require long periods of time for expansion. Besides, rapid tissue expansion was also described in different tissues.We used rapid intraoperative expansion technique by using a Foley catheter in a failed hypospadias case who had minimal residual skin secondary to infection and we concluded that rapid intraoperative tissue expansion with Foley catheter is an effective, feasible reconstructive method for easy dissection and penile resurfacing in failed hypospadiass cases.

  5. [Patella navigation in computer-assisted TKA : Intraoperative measurement of patellar kinematics. Video article].

    PubMed

    Springorum, H-R; Baier, C; Craiovan, B; Maderbacher, G; Renkawitz, T; Grifka, J; Keshmiri, A

    2016-07-01

    Patellofemoral maltracking is a relevant problem after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patella navigation is a tool that allows real time monitoring of patella tracking. This video contribution demonstrates the technique of patellofemoral navigation and a possible consequence of intraoperative monitoring. A higher postoperative lateral tilt is addressed with a widening of the lateral retinaculum in a particular manner. In selected cases of patellofemoral problems, patella navigation is a helpful tool to evaluate patellofemoral tracking intraoperatively. Modifications of implant position and soft tissue measurements can then prevent postoperative patellofemoral maltracking.

  6. Nuclear probes and intraoperative gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Heller, Sherman; Zanzonico, Pat

    2011-05-01

    Gamma probes are now an important, well-established technology in the management of cancer, particularly in the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node as well as tumor detection may be improved under some circumstances by the use of beta (negatron or positron), rather than gamma detection, because the very short range (∼ 1 mm or less) of such particulate radiations eliminates the contribution of confounding counts from activity other than in the immediate vicinity of the detector. This has led to the development of intraoperative beta probes. Gamma camera imaging also benefits from short source-to-detector distances and minimal overlying tissue, and intraoperative small field-of-view gamma cameras have therefore been developed as well. Radiation detectors for intraoperative probes can generally be characterized as either scintillation or ionization detectors. Scintillators used in scintillation-detector probes include thallium-doped sodium iodide, thallium- and sodium-doped cesium iodide, and cerium-doped lutecium orthooxysilicate. Alternatives to inorganic scintillators are plastic scintillators, solutions of organic scintillation compounds dissolved in an organic solvent that is subsequently polymerized to form a solid. Their combined high counting efficiency for beta particles and low counting efficiency for 511-keV annihilation γ-rays make plastic scintillators well-suited as intraoperative beta probes in general and positron probes in particular Semiconductors used in ionization-detector probes include cadmium telluride, cadmium zinc telluride, and mercuric iodide. Clinical studies directly comparing scintillation and semiconductor intraoperative probes have not provided a clear choice between scintillation and ionization detector-based probes. The earliest small field-of-view intraoperative gamma camera systems were hand-held devices having fields of view of only 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter that used conventional thallium

  7. Intraoperative Micro-Doppler in Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Till; Siasios, Giannis; Schmidt, Nils Ole; Reitz, Mathias; Regelsberger, Jan; Westphal, Manfred

    2015-11-01

    Intraoperative micro-Doppler (IOMD), intraoperative digital substraction angiography (DSA), and microscope-integrated indocyanine green angiography are methods that guide neurosurgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the brain and minimize the trauma of healthy tissue. In this study we emphasize the use of IOMD in AVM surgery, analyzing the advantages and the limitations of this method. Patients and A total of 32 patients were diagnosed with an AVM. Supplying arteries and draining veins were analyzed regarding hemodynamic profiles, flow velocities, pulsatility index (PI), and resistance index (RI). Venous drainages were accompanied by arterial blood flow disturbances that showed typical characteristics in all cases. We set an angle of 60 degrees between the examined vessel and the probe to achieve a more reliable and comparable measurement. Postoperative DSA was performed in all patients. Supplying arterial blood vessels of AVMs could be identified by their characteristic blood flow profiles with PI < 0.7 and RI < 0.55. Drainage veins in all 32 cases showed normalized venous flow patterns without arterial flow turbulences at the end of the surgical procedure. Postoperative DSA revealed a residual AVM in one patient. IOMD constitutes a safe, accurate, and low-cost imaging modality for evaluating blood flow velocities and for optimal stepwise AVM elimination without unnecessary sacrifice of veins. PI and RI are reliable parameters in diagnosing cerebrovascular malformations, but systolic and diastolic flow velocities may vary to a greater extent. This phenomenon has never been elucidated previously and therefore needs to be emphasized when using this technique intraoperatively. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Intraoperative monitoring of laparoscopic skill development based on quantitative measures.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, Sayra M; Hodgson, Antony J; Panton, O N M; Meneghetti, Adam; Warnock, Garth; Qayumi, Karim

    2009-10-01

    Methods for evaluating standard skills in the operating room typically are based on direct observation and checklists, but such evaluations are time consuming and can be subject to bias. It often is possible to acquire more objective measurements using surgical simulators. However, motor performance in simulators can differ significantly from that in the operating room. Intraoperative assessment is particularly challenging because of the significant variability between procedures related to differences in the patients, the surgical setup, and the team. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a new framework for interpreting quantitative measures acquired in the operating room to distinguish between levels of laparoscopic skill development. Two levels of surgical skill development were observed, namely, those of three fourth-year residents and three attending surgeons performing three laparoscopic cholecystectomies each. Electromagnetic position sensors were attached by the surgeons to a 5-mm curved dissector and a 5-mm atraumatic grasper. From the tools' position histories and video recordings, time, kinematics, and movement transition measures were extracted. Various measures such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and the Jensen-Shanon Divergence were used to provide intuitive dimensionless difference measures ranging from 0 to 1. These scores were used to compare residents and expert surgeons executing two surgical tasks: exposure of Calot's triangle and dissection of the cystic duct and artery. The two groups could be clearly differentiated in both tasks during monitoring for the dominant hand (analysis of variance [ANOVA] and Mann-Whitney; p < 0.05) but not for the nondominant hand. It is practical to acquire time, kinematic, and movement transition measures intraoperatively using video and electromagnetic position-sensing technologies. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful technique for presenting differences between skill levels

  9. Pediatric awake craniotomy and intra-operative stimulation mapping.

    PubMed

    Balogun, James A; Khan, Osaama H; Taylor, Michael; Dirks, Peter; Der, Tara; Carter Snead Iii, O; Weiss, Shelly; Ochi, Ayako; Drake, James; Rutka, James T

    2014-11-01

    The indications for operating on lesions in or near areas of cortical eloquence balance the benefit of resection with the risk of permanent neurological deficit. In adults, awake craniotomy has become a versatile tool in tumor, epilepsy and functional neurosurgery, permitting intra-operative stimulation mapping particularly for language, sensory and motor cortical pathways. This allows for maximal tumor resection with considerable reduction in the risk of post-operative speech and motor deficits. We report our experience of awake craniotomy and cortical stimulation for epilepsy and supratentorial tumors located in and around eloquent areas in a pediatric population (n=10, five females). The presenting symptom was mainly seizures and all children had normal neurological examinations. Neuroimaging showed lesions in the left opercular (n=4) and precentral or peri-sylvian regions (n=6). Three right-sided and seven left-sided awake craniotomies were performed. Two patients had a history of prior craniotomy. All patients had intra-operative mapping for either speech or motor or both using cortical stimulation. The surgical goal for tumor patients was gross total resection, while for all epilepsy procedures, focal cortical resections were completed without any difficulty. None of the patients had permanent post-operative neurologic deficits. The patient with an epileptic focus over the speech area in the left frontal lobe had a mild word finding difficulty post-operatively but this improved progressively. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 27 months. Pediatric awake craniotomy with intra-operative mapping is a precise, safe and reliable method allowing for resection of lesions in eloquent areas. Further validations on larger number of patients will be needed to verify the utility of this technique in the pediatric population.

  10. Intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen for localizing lesions in occult small bowel bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangheng; Cao, Yuning; Yang, Daogui; Li, Senlin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Occult small bowel bleeding is always difficult to locate by either radiological examination or endoscopy. When the site of bleeding cannot be found by nonsurgical measures, exploratory laparotomy becomes necessary. Patient concerns: A 63-year-old woman with a half-month history of occult gastrointestinal bleeding failed to many conservative therapies. Interventions: Intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen was performed. Diagnoses: Small bowel bleeding was diagnosed intraoperatively. Outcomes: Segmental resection of the diseased small bowel with side-to-side anastomosis was performed while the histology showed no significant abnormality. Lessons: The technique of intraoperative transillumination with water-filling of lumen allows simple, accurate, and rapid localization of lesions in occult small bowel bleeding and facilitates precise and definitive surgery. PMID:28151907

  11. Estimation of intra-operative brain shift using a tracked laser range scanner.

    PubMed

    Ding, Siyi; Miga, Michael I; Thompson, Reid C; Dumpuri, Prashanth; Cao, Aize; Dawant, Benoit M

    2007-01-01

    Intra-operative brain shift limits the usefulness of image-guided neurosurgery systems (IGNS), which are based on pre-operative images. Methods that are being developed to address this problem need intra-operative measurements as input. In this work, we present an intra-operative surface shift measurement technique that relies on a tracked 3D laser range scanner. This scanner acquires both 3D range data and 2D images, which are co-registered. We compare two methods to derive displacements at every point in the field of view. The first one relies on the registration of the 2D images; the second relies on the direct 3D registration of the 3D range data. Our results, based on five data sets, show that the 2D method is preferable.

  12. Indocyanine green for intraoperative localization of ureter.

    PubMed

    Siddighi, Sam; Yune, Junchan Joshua; Hardesty, Jeffrey

    2014-10-01

    Intraurethral injection of indocyanine green (ICG; Akorn, Lake Forest, IL) and visualization under near-infrared (NIR) light allows for real-time delineation of the ureter. This technology can be helpful to prevent iatrogenic ureteral injury during pelvic surgery. Patients were scheduled to undergo robot-assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Before the robotic surgery started, the tip of a 6-F ureteral catheter was inserted into the ureteral orifice. Twenty-five milligrams of ICG was dissolved in 10-mL of sterile water and injected through the open catheter. The same procedure was repeated on the opposite side. The ICG reversibly stained the inside lining of the ureter by binding to proteins on urothelial layer. During the course of robotic surgery, the NIR laser on the da Vinci Si surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was used to excite ICG molecules, and infrared emission was captured by the da Vinci filtered lens system and electronically converted to green color. Thus, the ureter fluoresced green, which allowed its definitive identification throughout the entire case. In all cases of >10 patients, we were able to visualize bilateral ureters with this technology, even though there was some variation in brightness that depended on the depth of the ureter from the peritoneal surface. For example, in a morbidly obese patient, the ureters were not as bright green. There were no intraoperative or postoperative adverse effects attributable to ICG administration for up to 2 months of observation. In our experience, this novel method of intraurethral ICG injection was helpful to identify the entire course of ureter and allowed a safe approach to tissues that were adjacent to the urinary tract. The advantage of our technique is that it requires the insertion of just the tip of ureteral catheter. Despite our limited cohort of patients, our findings are consistent with previous reports of the excellent safety profile of intravenous and intrabiliary ICG

  13. Agreement between intraoperative measurements and optical coherence tomography of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    de-Pablo-Gómez-de-Liaño, L; Fernández-Vigo, J I; Ventura-Abreu, N; Morales-Fernández, L; García-Feijóo, J; Gómez-de-Liaño, R

    2016-12-01

    To assess the agreement between intraoperative measurements of the limbus-insertion distance of the extraocular muscles with those measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. An analysis was made of a total of 67 muscles of 21 patients with strabismus. The limbus-insertion distance of the horizontal rectus muscles were measured using pre-operative SD-OCT and intra-operatively in 2 ways: 1) direct, after a conjunctival dissection in patients who underwent surgery, or 2) transconjunctival in patients who were treated with botulinum toxin, or in those who were not going to be operated. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were calculated to determine the concordance between the 2 methods. The mean age was 45.9 ±20.9 years (range 16 to 85), with 52% being women. The percentage of identification by direct intraoperative measurement was 95.6% (22/23), by transconjunctival intraoperative measurement 90.9% (40/44), and by OCT 85% (57/67), with 22 muscles finally being analysed for the agreement study between direct intraoperative measurement and OCT measurements, and 35 muscles for the agreement between transconjuctival intraoperative measurement and OCT. The intraclass correlation coefficient showed good agreement with OCT and direct intraoperative measurements (0.931; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.839-0.972; P<.001), and with transconjunctival intraoperative measurements (0.889; 95% CI: 0.790-0.942; P<.001). The SD-OCT is an effective technique to measure the distance from the insertion of the horizontal rectus muscles to the limbus, with a high agreement with intraoperative measurements being demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of 'radioguided occult lesion localisation' (ROLL) versus 'wire-guided localisation' (WGL) in breast conserving surgery for non-palpable breast cancer: a randomised controlled multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Postma, E L; Verkooijen, H M; van Esser, S; Hobbelink, M G; van der Schelling, G P; Koelemij, R; Witkamp, A J; Contant, C; van Diest, P J; Willems, S M; Borel Rinkes, I H M; van den Bosch, M A A J; Mali, W P; van Hillegersberg, R

    2012-11-01

    For the management of non-palpable breast cancer, accurate pre-operative localisation is essential to achieve complete resection with optimal cosmetic results. Radioguided occult lesions localisation (ROLL) uses the radiotracer, injected intra-tumourally for sentinel lymph node identification to guide surgical excision of the primary tumour. In a multicentre randomised controlled trial, we determined if ROLL is superior to the standard of care (i.e. wire-guided localisation, WGL) for preoperative tumour localisation. Women (>18 years.) with histologically proven non-palpable breast cancer and eligible for breast conserving treatment with sentinel node procedure were randomised to ROLL or WGL. Patients allocated to ROLL received an intra-tumoural dose of 120 Mbq technetium-99 m nanocolloid. The tumour was surgically removed, guided by gamma probe detection. In the WGL group, ultrasound- or mammography-guided insertion of a hooked wire provided surgical guidance for excision of the primary tumour. Primary outcome measures were the proportion of complete tumour excisions (i.e. with negative margins), the proportion of patients requiring re-excision and the volume of tissue removed. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat principle. This study is registered at ClinincalTrials.gov, number NCT00539474. In total, 314 patients with 316 invasive breast cancers were enrolled. Complete tumour removal with negative margins was achieved in 140/162 (86 %) patients in the ROLL group versus 134/152 (88 %) patients in the WGL group (P = 0.644). Re-excision was required in 19/162 (12 %) patients in the ROLL group versus 15/152 (10 %) (P = 0.587) in the WGL group. Specimen volumes in the ROLL arm were significantly larger than those in the WGL arm (71 vs. 64 cm(3), P = 0.017). No significant differences were seen in the duration and difficulty of the radiological and surgical procedures, the success rate of the sentinel node procedure, and cosmetic outcomes. In this first

  15. Intraoperative multi-exposure speckle imaging of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Richards, Lisa M; Kazmi, Sm Shams; Olin, Katherine E; Waldron, James S; Fox, Douglas J; Dunn, Andrew K

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has high potential to be a valuable cerebral blood flow monitoring technique during neurosurgery. However, the quantitative accuracy and sensitivity of LSCI is limited, and highly dependent on the exposure time. An extension to LSCI called multi-exposure speckle imaging (MESI) overcomes these limitations, and was evaluated intraoperatively in patients undergoing brain tumor resection. This clinical study ( n = 8) recorded multiple exposure times from the same cortical tissue area spanning 0.5-20 ms, and evaluated images individually as single-exposure LSCI and jointly using the MESI model. This study demonstrated that the MESI estimates provided the broadest flow sensitivity for sampling the flow magnitude in the human brain, closely followed by the shorter exposure times. Conservation of flow analysis on vascular bifurcations was used to validate physiological accuracy, with highly conserved flow estimates (<10%) from both MESI and 1 ms LSCI ( n = 14 branches). The MESI model had high goodness-of-fit with proper image calibration and acquisition, and was used to monitor blood flow changes after tissue cautery. Results from this study demonstrate that intraoperative MESI can be performed with high quantitative accuracy and sensitivity for cerebral blood flow monitoring.

  16. Intraoperative metastases detection by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Young, J. D.; Chandra, Mudjianto; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Beeder, Clain; Shi, Wei-Qiang; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1991-06-01

    The authors studied the ability of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS) for the intraoperative identification of metastases using a photosensitizing agent Photofrin IIr to enhance spectroscopic detection. A He-Cd laser source (442 nm) was used to produce low-power illumination of tissue via a hand-held 400 micrometers fiberoptic probe. Through the same fiber, reflected and emitted light was returned to an optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA III) for analysis. Spectroscopic signals were displayed on a screen for immediate examination. Lobund Wistar rats, inoculated with Pollard rat adenocarcinoma cells, were used as an animal model. Photofrin IIr was administered intraperitoneal 24 or 48 hours prior to surgical exploration in doses varying from 0.75-7.5 mg/kg. Metastases detection was performed during abdominal exploration directed to ipsilateral and contralateral inguinal, iliac, para-aortic and renal lymph nodes. Nineteen tissue samples, identified as abnormal by LIFS, were removed for histologic analysis; 11 of these samples were larger than 5mm and histologic examination revealed malignancy in all cases. While LIFS signals showed malignancy in 8 tissue samples with dimensions less than 5mm, histology confirmed this in only 3. However, serial histologic sections were not performed. From the initial results, it was concluded that LIFS detection of malignant tissue is feasible and enhanced by the addition of Photofrin IIr. LIFS may be a promising technique for the intraoperative detection of primary malignant and metastatic tissue.

  17. Intraoperative flow measurement in composite Y arterial grafts.

    PubMed

    Speziale, G; Ruvolo, G; Coppola, R; Marino, B

    2000-05-01

    Total arterial myocardial revascularization may be achieved by using the 'Y-graft' techniques with different free arterial conduits anastomosed off the side of an in situ internal thoracic artery to reach distal coronary segments. This study was assessed to measure intraoperative graft flow, resistance and clinical outcomes. Seventy-six patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting during a time period of 27 months were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients received sequential grafting by using both internal thoracic arteries, inferior epigastric and right gastroepiploic artery joined as a composite Y graft. Intraoperative graft flow, resistance and derived variables were measured. All patients except one showed good flow (ml/min and waveform) in either branch of composite graft. In one case, a low-flow situation through the graft was registered requiring surgical correction. Temporary occlusion of either branch did not significantly affect flow in the other side of the arterial Y. Mid-term follow-up (3 and 15 months) and angiographic studies showed a high graft patency rate. Composite arterial grafts provide excellent early and mid-term clinical results. Flow reserve of the left internal thoracic artery did not affect blood flow and resistance on either branch of the Y graft when temporary occlusion on the other side of the arterial Y was performed.

  18. Lightweight distributed computing for intraoperative real-time image guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Katic, Darko; Wagner, Simon; Spengler, Patrick; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Röhl, Sebastian; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2012-02-01

    In order to provide real-time intraoperative guidance, computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems often rely on computationally expensive algorithms. The real-time constraint is especially challenging if several components such as intraoperative image processing, soft tissue registration or context aware visualization are combined in a single system. In this paper, we present a lightweight approach to distribute the workload over several workstations based on the OpenIGTLink protocol. We use XML-based message passing for remote procedure calls and native types for transferring data such as images, meshes or point coordinates. Two different, but typical scenarios are considered in order to evaluate the performance of the new system. First, we analyze a real-time soft tissue registration algorithm based on a finite element (FE) model. Here, we use the proposed approach to distribute the computational workload between a primary workstation that handles sensor data processing and visualization and a dedicated workstation that runs the real-time FE algorithm. We show that the additional overhead that is introduced by the technique is small compared to the total execution time. Furthermore, the approach is used to speed up a context aware augmented reality based navigation system for dental implant surgery. In this scenario, the additional delay for running the computationally expensive reasoning server on a separate workstation is less than a millisecond. The results show that the presented approach is a promising strategy to speed up real-time CAS systems.

  19. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging with the magnetom open scanner: concepts, neurosurgical indications, and procedures: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Steinmeier, R; Fahlbusch, R; Ganslandt, O; Nimsky, C; Buchfelder, M; Kaus, M; Heigl, T; Lenz, G; Kuth, R; Huk, W

    1998-10-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now available with the General Electric MRI system for dedicated intraoperative use. Alternatively, non-dedicated MRI systems require fewer specific adaptations of instrumentation and surgical techniques. In this report, clinical experiences with such a system are presented. All patients were surgically treated in a "twin operating theater," consisting of a conventional operating theater with complete neuronavigation equipment (StealthStation and MKM), which allowed surgery with magnetically incompatible instruments, conventional instrumentation and operating microscope, and a radiofrequency-shielded operating room designed for use with an intraoperative MRI scanner (Magnetom Open; Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). The Magnetom Open is a 0.2-T MRI scanner with a resistive magnet and specific adaptations that are necessary to integrate the scanner into the surgical environment. The operating theaters lie close together, and patients can be intraoperatively transported from one room to the other. This retrospective analysis includes 55 patients with cerebral lesions, all of whom were surgically treated between March 1996 and September 1997. Thirty-one patients with supratentorial tumors were surgically treated (with navigational guidance) in the conventional operating room, with intraoperative MRI for resection control. For 5 of these 31 patients, intraoperative resection control revealed significant tumor remnants, which led to further tumor resection guided by the information provided by intraoperative MRI. Intraoperative MRI resection control was performed in 18 transsphenoidal operations. In cases with suspected tumor remnants, the surgeon reexplored the sellar region; additional tumor tissue was removed in three of five cases. Follow-up scans were obtained for all patients 1 week and 2 to 3 months after surgery. For 14 of the 18 patients, the images obtained intraoperatively were comparable to those obtained after

  20. Enhancing the safety of intraoperative RBC salvage.

    PubMed

    Bull, B S; Bull, M H

    1989-03-01

    Devices for intraoperative blood salvage remove plasma and, in theory, all of the cellular elements of blood except for rbcs. We have previously shown that complete white cell and platelet removal does not always occur and that the retained platelet-leukocyte deposit is potentially harmful (2). In this study we investigated the hydraulic conditions in the centrifuge bowl that allow activated platelets and leukocytes to adhere, the histology of the resulting cellular deposit, and the effects of reinfusing a saline extract of the deposit. Earlier work had suggested that the addition of calcium, of partially clotted blood, and of excessive saline should be avoided during intraoperative rbc salvage (2). The present observations explain, in part, why such measures would be expected to be beneficial.

  1. How do surgeons make intraoperative decisions?

    PubMed

    Flin, Rhona; Youngson, George; Yule, Steven

    2007-06-01

    Surgeons' intraoperative decision making is a key element of clinical practice, yet has received scant attention in the surgical literature. In recent years, serial changes in the configuration of surgical training in the UK have reduced the time spent by trainees in the operating theatre. The opportunity to replace this lost experience with active teaching of decision making is important, but there seem to have been very few studies that have directly examined the cognitive skills underlying surgical decision making during operations. From the available evidence in surgery, and drawing from research in other safety-critical occupations, four decision-making strategies that surgeons may use are discussed: intuitive (recognition-primed), rule based, option comparison and creative. Surgeons' decision-making processes should be studied to provide a better evidence base for the training of cognitive skills for the intraoperative environment.

  2. Tolerance of bile duct to intraoperative irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.

    1982-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of intraoperative radiation therapy of the bile duct and surrounding tissues, seven adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative irradiation with 11 MeV electrons. Two animals were treated at each dose level of 2000, 3000, and 4500 rads. A single dog which received a laparotomy and sham irradiation served as a control. The irradiation field consisted of a 5 cm diameter circle encompassing the extrahepatic bile duct, portal vein, hepatic artery, and lateral duodenal wall. The animals were followed clinically for mor than 18 months after treatment, and autopsies were performed on dogs that died to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. All dogs developed fibrosis and mural thickening of the common duct, which appeared by 6 weeks following irradiation and which was dose-related, being mild at low doses and more severe at high doses. Hepatic changes were seen as early as 6 weeks after irradiation, consisting of periportal inflammation and fibrosis. The hepatic changes appeared earliest at the highest doses. Frank biliary cirrhosis eventually developed at all dose levels. Duodenal fibrosis appeared in the irradiation portal, being most severe at the highest doses and in some animals resulting in duodenal obstruction. No changes were observed in irradiated portions of portal vein and hepatic artery at any dose level. It was concluded that intraoperative radiation therapy delivered to the region of the common duct leads to ductal fibrosis, partial biliary obstruction with secondary hepatic changes, and duodenal fibrosis if bowel wall is included in the field. Clinical use of intraoperative radiation therapy to the bile duct in humans may require routine use of biliary and duodenal bypass to prevent obstructive complications.

  3. Fluorescence goggle for intraoperative breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Charanya, Tauseef; Mondal, Suman; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a fluorescence goggle device for intraoperative oncologic imaging. With our system design, the surgeon can directly visualize the fluorescence information from the eyepieces in real time without any additional monitor, which can improve one's coordination and surgical accuracy. In conjunction with targeting fluorescent dyes, the goggle device can successfully detect tumor margins and small nodules that are not obvious to naked eye. This can potentially decrease the incidence of incomplete resection.

  4. Intraoperative lung ultrasound: A clinicodynamic perspective.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Namrata

    2016-01-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, ultrasonography has emerged as an important and indispensable tool in clinical practice in various specialties including critical care. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has a wide potential in various surgical and clinical situations for timely and easy detection of an impending crisis such as pulmonary edema, endobronchial tube migration, pneumothorax, atelectasis, pleural effusion, and various other causes of desaturation before it clinically ensues to critical level. Although ultrasonography is frequently used in nerve blocks, airway handling, and vascular access, LUS for routine intraoperative monitoring and in crisis management still necessitates recognition. After reviewing the various articles regarding the use of LUS in critical care, we found, that LUS can be used in various intraoperative circumstances similar to Intensive Care Unit with some limitations. Except for few attempts in the intraoperative detection of pneumothorax, LUS is hardly used but has wider perspective for routine and crisis management in real-time. If anesthesiologists add LUS in their routine monitoring armamentarium, it can assist to move a step ahead in the dynamic management of critically ill and high-risk patients.

  5. Intraoperative lung ultrasound: A clinicodynamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Gupta, Namrata

    2016-01-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, ultrasonography has emerged as an important and indispensable tool in clinical practice in various specialties including critical care. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has a wide potential in various surgical and clinical situations for timely and easy detection of an impending crisis such as pulmonary edema, endobronchial tube migration, pneumothorax, atelectasis, pleural effusion, and various other causes of desaturation before it clinically ensues to critical level. Although ultrasonography is frequently used in nerve blocks, airway handling, and vascular access, LUS for routine intraoperative monitoring and in crisis management still necessitates recognition. After reviewing the various articles regarding the use of LUS in critical care, we found, that LUS can be used in various intraoperative circumstances similar to Intensive Care Unit with some limitations. Except for few attempts in the intraoperative detection of pneumothorax, LUS is hardly used but has wider perspective for routine and crisis management in real-time. If anesthesiologists add LUS in their routine monitoring armamentarium, it can assist to move a step ahead in the dynamic management of critically ill and high-risk patients. PMID:27625474

  6. Intraoperative anterior cruciate ligament graft contamination.

    PubMed

    Pasque, Charles B; Geib, Timothy M

    2007-03-01

    Intraoperative anterior cruciate ligament graft contamination is a rare but potentially devastating occurrence for any surgeon to encounter. Most instances in our experience have happened when a surgeon first enters practice or is operating in a new environment with new staff. Based on the currently available literature and the senior author's personal experience with 3 cases, intraoperative cleansing of the graft followed by implantation is a reasonable option. The protocol used successfully in these 3 cases includes getting the graft off of the floor immediately, removing any suture material in the graft, cleansing the graft for 15 to 30 minutes each in chlorohexidine and triple antibiotic solution, followed by a normal saline rinse. All graft sutures should then be replaced. The graft should then be resized and the tibial and femoral tunnels adjusted if needed. After implantation of the graft, additional intraoperative and postoperative intravenous antibiotic and/or oral antibiotic administration is also recommended for the first 1 to 2 weeks. Close clinical follow-up is also very important the first 6 weeks postoperatively and should include candid communication with the patient and family.

  7. Intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Howe, John; Lu, Xiaoying; Thompson, Zoe; Peterson, Gordon W; Losey, Travis E

    2016-05-01

    An acute symptomatic seizure is a clinical seizure occurring at the time of or in close temporal association with a brain insult. We report an acute symptomatic seizure occurring during a surgical procedure in a patient who did not have a prior history of epilepsy and who did not have a lesion associated with an increased risk of epilepsy. To characterize the incidence and clinical features of intraoperative seizures during craniotomy under general anesthesia, we reviewed cases where continuous EEG was acquired during craniotomy. Records of 400 consecutive cases with propofol as general anesthesia during craniotomy were reviewed. Demographic data, indication for surgery, clinical history, history of prior seizures, duration of surgery and duration of burst suppression were recorded. Cases where seizures were observed were analyzed in detail. Two out of 400 patients experienced intraoperative seizures, including one patient who appeared to have an acute symptomatic seizure related to the surgical procedure itself and a second patient who experienced two seizures likely related to an underlying diagnosis of epilepsy. This is the first report of an acute symptomatic seizure secondary to a neurosurgical procedure. Overall, 0.5% of patients monitored experienced seizures, indicating that intraoperative seizures are rare, and EEG monitoring during craniotomies is of low yield in detecting seizures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Intraoperative molecular imaging to identify lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Andrew D.; Kennedy, Gregory T.; Predina, Jarrod D.; Low, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative molecular imaging is a promising new technology with numerous applications in lung cancer surgery. Accurate identification of small nodules and assessment of tumor margins are two challenges in pulmonary resections for cancer, particularly with increasing use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). One potential solution to these problems is intraoperative use of a fluorescent contrast agent to improve detection of cancer cells. This technology requires both a targeted fluorescent dye that will selectively accumulate in cancer cells and a specialized imaging system to detect the cells. In several studies, we have shown that intraoperative imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) can be used to accurately identify indeterminate pulmonary nodules. The use of a folate-tagged fluorescent molecule targeted to the folate receptor-α (FRα) further improves the sensitivity and specificity of detecting lung adenocarcinomas. We have demonstrated this technology can be used as an “optical biopsy” to differentiate adenocarcinoma versus other histological subtypes of pulmonary nodules. This strategy has potential applications in assessing bronchial stump margins, identifying synchronous or metachronous lesions, and rapidly assessing lymph nodes for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:28066672

  9. Current Trends in Intraoperative Optical Imaging for Functional Brain Mapping and Delineation of Lesions of Language Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Neal; Uhleman, Falk; Sheth, Sameer A.; Bookheimer, Susan; Martin, Neil; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    Resection of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM), epileptic focus, or glioma, ideally has a prerequisite of microscopic delineation of the lesion borders in relation to the normal gray and white matter that mediate critical functions. Currently, Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used for preoperative mapping of critical function, whereas electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is used for intraoperative mapping. For lesion delineation, MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) are used preoperatively, whereas microscopy and histological sectioning are used intraoperatively. However, for lesions near eloquent cortex, these imaging techniques may lack sufficient resolution to define the relationship between the lesion and language function, and thus not accurately determine which patients will benefit from neurosurgical resection of the lesion without iatrogenic aphasia. Optical techniques such as intraoperative optical imaging of intrinsic signals (iOIS) show great promise for the precise functional mapping of cortices, as well as delineation of the borders of AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas. Here we first review the physiology of neuroimaging, and then progress towards the validation and justification of using intraoperative optical techniques, especially in relation to neurosurgical planning of resection AVMs, epileptic foci, and gliomas near or in eloquent cortex. We conclude with a short description of potential novel intraoperative optical techniques. PMID:18786643

  10. Fluorescein-guided intraoperative endoscopy in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: first impressions.

    PubMed

    Pagella, Fabio; Pusateri, Alessandro; Zaccari, Dario; Bongetta, Daniele; Zoia, Cesare; Spinozzi, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Carla; Matti, Elina

    2017-03-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare genetic disease that results in mucocutaneous telangiectasias and arteriovenous visceral malformations. Nasal telangiectasias lead to recurrent epistaxis, which affects up to 96% of patients. Different morphologic classifications and methods of visualization of nasal lesions have been described in the literature. We developed a new method of intraoperative endoscopy based on the intravenous administration of fluorescein. Preliminary data of this technique are reported. After the intravenous administration of sodium fluorescein, an intraoperative fluorescein-guided endoscopy was carried out using photographic customized yellow filters on top of a 0-degree, 4-mm endoscope. In 2015, 65 HHT patients underwent surgery for their epistaxis in our institution, and in 7 patients (3 males, 4 females; mean age, 54 years) an intraoperative fluorescein-guided intraoperative nasal endoscopy was performed. No adverse events or complications were observed. First impressions regarding the usage of this technique in HHT patients seem to be promising and positive in terms of efficacy and safety. However, further studies with larger cohorts of patients should be performed in order to better investigate the use of this method for diagnostic and surgical purposes in HHT. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  11. Chromogranin A and cortisol at intraoperative repeated noxious stimuli: Surgical stress in a dog model

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Biomarkers representing sympathetic tone and the surgical stress response are measured to objectively evaluate surgical techniques and anaesthetic protocols. If a part of the intraoperative procedure is repeated on the contralateral organ, one animal may potentially serve as its own control and, if so, may minimize the problem of individual differences of the stress response to anaesthesia and surgery. This study aimed to investigate the use of chromogranin A for measurement of the intraoperative sympathetic tone. Additional aims were to investigate chromogranin A and cortisol as indicators of the intraoperative surgical stress response caused by repeated noxious stimuli in dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy and thereby to investigate the possibility of one dog serving as its own control. Methods: Experiments were carried out on 10 dogs subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Perioperative blood samples (0–6) were collected after premedication, immediately before induction of anaesthesia (0), after induction of anaesthesia and before incision (1), before (2) and after (3) removal of the first ovary, after a 15-min pause before removal of the second ovary (4), after removal of the second ovary (5) and after closing the abdomen (6). Plasma chromogranin A and cortisol were analysed. Results: Plasma chromogranin A did not change. Plasma cortisol concentration did not change between before anaesthesia and opening of the abdomen. Plasma cortisol increased at removal of the first ovary. Cortisol did not change at removal of the second ovary but remained increased compared to initial sample. Conclusion: The results suggest chromogranin A is a poor indicator of intraoperative sympathetic tone during elective surgery in dogs. Cortisol measurement was useful for assessment of intraoperative noxious stimuli. However, at these test conditions, neither plasma chromogranin A nor plasma cortisol was useful for assessment of repeated intraoperative noxious stimuli where

  12. Is there still a role for intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding?

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Pedro; Almeida, Nuno; Lérias, Clotilde; Figueiredo, Pedro; Gouveia, Hermano; Sofia, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    in 21st century, endoscopic study of the small intestine has undergone a revolution with capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy. The difficulties and morbidity associated with intraoperative enteroscopy, the gold-standard in the 20th century, made this technique to be relegated to a second level. evaluate the actual role and assess the diagnostic and therapeutic value of intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. we conducted a retrospective study of 19 patients (11 males; mean age: 66.5 ± 15.3 years) submitted to 21 IOE procedures for obscure GI bleeding. Capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy had been performed in 10 and 5 patients, respectively. with intraoperative enteroscopy a small bowel bleeding lesion was identified in 79% of patients and a gastrointestinal bleeding lesion in 94%. Small bowel findings included: angiodysplasia (n = 6), ulcers (n = 4), small bowel Dieulafoy´s lesion (n = 2), bleeding from anastomotic vessels (n = 1), multiple cavernous hemangiomas (n = 1) and bleeding ectopic jejunal varices (n = 1). Agreement between capsule endoscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy was 70%. Endoscopic and/or surgical treatment was used in 77.8% of the patients with a positive finding on intraoperative enteroscopy, with a rebleeding rate of 21.4% in a mean 21-month follow-up period. Procedure-related mortality and postoperative complications have been 5 and 21%, respectively. intraoperative enteroscopy remains a valuable tool in selected patients with obscure GI bleeding, achieving a high diagnostic yield and allowing an endoscopic and/or surgical treatment in most of them. However, as an invasive procedure with relevant mortality and morbidity, a precise indication for its use is indispensable.

  13. Intra-operative visualization of brain tumors with 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Precise histopathological diagnosis of brain tumors is essential for the correct patient management. Furthermore, complete resection of brain tumors is associated with an improved patient prognosis. However, histopathological undergrading and incomplete tumor removal are not uncommon, especially due to insufficient intra-operative visualization of brain tumor tissue. The fluorescent dye 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is currently applied for fluorescence-guided resections of high-grade gliomas. The value of 5-ALA-induced protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence for intra-operative visualization of other tumors than high-grade gliomas remains unclear. Within the frame of this thesis, we found a significantly higher rate of complete resections of our high-grade gliomas as compared to control cases by using the newly established 5-ALA fluorescence technology at our department. Additionally, we showed that MRI spectroscopy-based chemical shift imaging (CSI) is capable to identify intratumoral high-grade glioma areas (= anaplastic foci) during navigation guided resections to avoid histopathological undergrading. However, the accuracy of navigation systems with integrated pre-operative imaging data such as CSI declines during resections due to intra-operative brainshift. In two further studies, we found that 5-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence is capable as a novel intra-operative marker to detect anaplastic foci within initially suspected low-grade gliomas independent of brainshift. Finally, we showed that the application of 5-ALA is also of relevance in needle biopsies for intra-operative identification of representative brain tumor tissue. These data indicate that 5-ALA is not only of major importance for resection of high-grade gliomas, but also for intra-operative visualization of anaplastic foci as well as representative brain tumor tissue in needle biopsies unaffected by brainshift. Consequently, this new technique might become a novel standard in brain tumor surgery that

  14. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow.

  15. Cytology of bone lesions by intraoperative sampling during fracture treatment.

    PubMed

    Kinias, Ioannis S; Rammou-Kinia, Rea

    2002-03-01

    Cytology was performed on 314 patients who were treated by surgery for hip joint fracture, to determine and evaluate the role, accuracy, and perspective of intraoperative bone sampling. Specimens were collected from bone lesions during surgery by imprints or driller washing in normal saline. The results were compared with those of subsequent biopsies or clinical follow-up. All 13 neoplastic cases (malignant or benign) were identified by cytology. An accuracy rate of 69.2% was achieved by this method when the type and origin of the neoplasms were to be conclusive. There were no false-positive diagnoses, and all benign conditions showed negative results on cytology (specificity and sensitivity of 100%). Cytology can play a valuable role in the diagnosis of bone lesions. The morphologic diagnostic criteria allow for a high level of diagnostic accuracy of cytologic assessments in most cases of bone lesions, no matter the sampling technique.

  16. Beyond conventional pathology: towards preoperative and intraoperative lymph node staging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Marnie; Gibson, Rachel; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; Thompson, Sarah K; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-02-15

    Accurate detection of lymph node metastases is critical for many solid tumours to guide treatment strategies and determine prognostic outcomes. The gold standard for detection of metastasis is by histological analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of removed lymph nodes; this analysis method has remained largely unchanged for decades. Recent studies have highlighted limitations in the sensitivity of this approach, at least in its current clinical use, to detect very small metastatic deposits. Importantly, the poor prognostic outcomes associated with the presence of such small tumour deposits are now well established in a number of cancers. In addition, histological analysis of FFPE sections cannot be used practically for intraoperative node assessment. Novel lymph node staging technologies are therefore actively being developed. This review critically presents the main advances in this field and discusses why these technologies have not been able to provide a better alternative to the current gold standard diagnostic technique. © 2014 UICC.

  17. Video-rate optical flow corrected intraoperative functional fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Koch, Maximilian; Glatz, Jürgen; Ermolayev, Vladimir; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-04-01

    Intraoperative fluorescence molecular imaging based on targeted fluorescence agents is an emerging approach to improve surgical and endoscopic imaging and guidance. Short exposure times per frame and implementation at video rates are necessary to provide continuous feedback to the physician and avoid motion artifacts. However, fast imaging implementations also limit the sensitivity of fluorescence detection. To improve on detection sensitivity in video rate fluorescence imaging, we considered herein an optical flow technique applied to texture-rich color images. This allows the effective accumulation of fluorescence signals over longer, virtual exposure times. The proposed correction scheme is shown to improve signal-to-noise ratios both in phantom experiments and in vivo tissue imaging.

  18. Intraoperative floppy iris and prevalence of intraoperative complications: results from ophthalmic surgery outcomes database.

    PubMed

    Vollman, David E; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Chomsky, Amy; Daly, Mary K; Baze, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Mary

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of untoward events during cataract surgery with the use of pupillary expansion devices and intraoperative floppy iris (IFIS). Retrospective analysis of 4923 cataract surgery cases from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. Outcomes from 5 Veterans Affairs medical centers were analyzed, including use of alpha-blockers (both selective and nonselective), IFIS, intraoperative iris trauma, intraoperative iris prolapse, posterior capsular tear, anterior capsule tear, intraoperative vitreous prolapse, and use of pupillary expansion devices. P values were calculated using the χ(2) test. A total of 1254 patients (25.5%) took alpha-blockers preoperatively (selective, 587; nonselective, 627; both, 40). Of these 1254 patients, 428 patients (34.1%) had documented IFIS. However, 75.2% of patients with IFIS (428/569) had taken alpha-blockers preoperatively (P < .00001). A total of 430 patients (8.7%) had a pupillary expansion device used during their cataract surgery, of which 186 patients (43.4%) had IFIS (P < .0001). Eighty-six patients with IFIS had at least 1 intraoperative complication and 39 patients with IFIS had more than 1 intraoperative complication (P < .001). The use of either selective or nonselective alpha-antagonists preoperatively demonstrated a significant risk of IFIS. Nonselective alpha-antagonists caused IFIS at a higher prevalence than previously reported. This study did demonstrate statistically significant increased odds of surgical complications in patients with IFIS vs those without IFIS in all groups (those taking selective and nonselective alpha-antagonists and also those not taking medications). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Achieving Adequate Margins in Ameloblastoma Resection: The Role for Intra-Operative Specimen Imaging. Clinical Report and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Anand; Mirkazemi, Mansoor; Baillieu, Charles; Ptasznik, Ronnie; Leong, James

    2012-01-01

    Background Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm. With local recurrence rates reaching 90%, only completeness of excision can facilitate cure. Surgical clearance has widely been based on pre-operative imaging to guide operative excision margins, however use of intra-operative specimen x-ray or frozen-section has been sought to improve clearance rates, and advanced imaging technologies in this role have been proposed. This manuscript aims to quantify the evidence for evaluating intra-operative resection margins and present the current standard in this role. Method The current study comprises the first reported comparison of imaging modalities for assessing ameloblastoma margins. A case is presented in which margins are assessed with each of clinical assessment based on preoperative imaging, intra-operative specimen x-ray, intra-operative specimen computed tomography (CT) and definitive histology. Each modality is compared quantitatively. These results are compared to the literature through means of systematic review of current evidence. Results A comparative study highlights the role for CT imaging over plain radiography. With no other comparative studies and a paucity of high level evidence establishing a role for intra-operative margin assessment in ameloblastoma in the literature, only level 4 evidence supporting the use of frozen section and specimen x-ray, and only one level 4 study assesses intra-operative CT. Conclusion The current study suggests that intra-operative specimen CT offers an improvement over existing techniques in this role. While establishing a gold-standard will require higher level comparative studies, the use of intra-operative CT can facilitate accurate single-stage resection. PMID:23094099

  20. Pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative computed tomography and 3-dimensional image-guided navigation.

    PubMed

    Larson, A Noelle; Santos, Edward R G; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles G T; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Mielke, Cary H; Guidera, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study reporting the use of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) and image-guided navigation system for the placement of pedicle screws in pediatric compared with adult patients. To evaluate the accuracy of open pedicle screw placement in pediatric patients using intraoperative CT and 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation. Pedicle screws are widely used in children for the correction of spinal deformity. Navigation systems and intraoperative CT are now available as an adjunct to fluoroscopy and anatomic techniques for placing pedicle screws and verifying screw position. From 2007 to 2010, 984 pedicle screws were placed in a consecutive series cohort of 50 pediatric patients for spinal deformity correction with the use of intraoperative CT (O-arm, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO) and a computerized navigation system (Stealth, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO). The primary outcome measure for this study is redirection or removal of screw on the basis of the intraoperative CT imaging. During the study period, 1511 screws were placed in adult patients using the same image guidance system. A total of 984 pedicle screws were implanted using real-time navigation, with a mean of 20 screws per patient (range: 2-34). On the basis of intraoperative CT, 35 screws (3.6%) were revised (27 redirected and 8 removed), representing a 96.4% accuracy rate. No patients returned to the operating room because of screw malposition.Of the 1511 screws placed in adult patients, 28 (1.8%) were revised intraoperatively for malposition on CT imaging, for an overall 98.2% accuracy rate. Screw revision thus was more common in the pediatric population (P = 0.008). However, the pediatric screw accuracy rate is significantly higher than the findings from a recent meta-analysis of predominantly nonnavigated screws in children, reporting a 94.9% accuracy rate (P = 0.03). We report 96.4% accuracy in pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative CT and a 3D navigation

  1. Radio-guided sentinel lymph node identification by lymphoscintigraphy fused with an anatomical vector profile: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Niccoli Asabella, A; Antonica, F; Renna, M A; Rubini, D; Notaristefano, A; Nicoletti, A; Rubini, G

    2013-12-01

    To develop a method to fuse lymphoscintigraphic images with an adaptable anatomical vector profile and to evaluate its role in the clinical practice. We used Adobe Illustrator CS6 to create different vector profiles, we fused those profiles, using Adobe Photoshop CS6, with lymphoscintigraphic images of the patient. We processed 197 lymphoscintigraphies performed in patients with cutaneous melanomas, breast cancer or delayed lymph drainage. Our models can be adapted to every patient attitude or position and contain different levels of anatomical details ranging from external body profiles to the internal anatomical structures like bones, muscles, vessels, and lymph nodes. If needed, more new anatomical details can be added and embedded in the profile without redrawing them, saving a lot of time. Details can also be easily hidden, allowing the physician to view only relevant information and structures. Fusion times are about 85 s. The diagnostic confidence of the observers increased significantly. The validation process showed a slight shift (mean 4.9 mm). We have created a new, practical, inexpensive digital technique based on commercial software for fusing lymphoscintigraphic images with built-in anatomical reference profiles. It is easily reproducible and does not alter the original scintigraphic image. Our method allows a more meaningful interpretation of lymphoscintigraphies, an easier recognition of the anatomical site and better lymph node dissection planning.

  2. A safe and efficient method for intra-operative digital photography using a waterproof case.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Johnlong; Liao, Han-Tsung; Wang, Wen-Ke; Lam, Wee Leon; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chen, Ruei-Feng; Chen, Chien-Tzung

    2011-10-01

    Intra-operative photography provides valuable information for photo-documentation. In order to improve quality of photographs and avoid additional contamination, we applied a sterilised waterproof case to adapt a digital camera that allowed the operating surgeon himself to obtain his own ideal images. A prospective study was designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of this technique. A total of 46 patients were enrolled in this study. The Fujifilm FinePix F30 digital camera encased in Fuji WP-FXF30 waterproof case was used in this study. Microbiological swabs were taken from the case's surface immediately after sealing the digital camera and at the end of surgery. In addition, intra-operative wound swabs were taken for correlation. The patients were followed up to record the possibility of any additional wound infections. None of the swab results on the waterproof case were positive before use. Overall, 11 patients had positive results of bacteria growth from intra-operative wound cultures. Eight of them also revealed positive microorganisms cultured from the case surface after use, in which the bacteria strains were correlated with the intra-operative wound cultures. However, no additional bacteria growth was noted from the culture of case surface. A digital camera encased in a sterilised waterproof case met the strict requirements for sterility in our series and demonstrated no added increase in infection rate. Safe use of this technique for obtaining intra-operative photographs with high image quality can be achieved. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tolerance of retroperitoneal structures to intraoperative radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, W.F.; Tepper, J.; Travis, E.L.; Terrill, R.

    1982-11-01

    In conjunction with the clinical development of intraoperative radiotherapy, a study was undertaken in dogs to define the tolerance of normal anatomic structures in the retroperitoneum to radiation delivered during operation. Twenty adult dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative 11 MeV electron irradiation in single doses ranging from 0.to 5000 rad. Animals were followed regularly with clinical observation, blood count, serum chemistries, pyelography, and angiography. Animals were sacrificed and autopsied at regular intervals up to 12 months following treatment to assess radiation-induced complications or tissue damage. Irradiation field in all dogs consisted of a 4 X 15 cm rectangle extending in the retroperitoneum from the level of the renal vessels to the bifurcation of aorta and vena cava. The field included aorta, vena cava, inferior portion of left kidney, and distal portion of left ureter. No complications or histologic changes occurred in any animal given doses of 2000 rad, with a follow-up in excess of 18 months. A dose of 3000 rad was well tolerated, except for left ureteral occlusion in one animal. Mild vascular fibrosis was present inthe aorta and vena cava, and significant ureteral fibrosis developed by six months after doses of 4000 or 5000 rad. All animals that received 5000 rad died of radiation-related complications, including ureteral obstruction and rectal perforation. It was concluded that major vessels tolerate intraoperative irradiation well up to and including 3000 rad and that no clinically significant vascular problems develop after 4000 and 5000 rad, although some fibrosis does occur. The ureter and kidney appear to be the most radiosensitive structures inthe retroperitoneum, showing progressive changes at 300 rad or greater and showing the potential for serious complications after doses of 4000 rad or more.

  4. IBMISPS (International Brain Mapping & Intraoperative Surgical Planning Symposium)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Computed Monitoring of Laser-Inducted Interstitial Therapy of Brain Tumor In Intraoperative MRI Behnam Badie, M.D. Director of Neurosurgery, City of...operative and real-time, intraoperative image information 2.) Integrating imaging and treatment related technology into therapy delivery systems and 3... Computed Monitoring of laser-inducted interstitial therapy of Brain Tumor in intra-operative MRI [Rationale and Objective] A software for monitoring

  5. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seunghoon Kim, Sehui Kim, Jeehyun E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu; Lee, Changho Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Chulhong E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu

    2013-11-11

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  6. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Changho; Kim, Sehui; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong

    2013-11-01

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  7. "Live cadavers" for training in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Emad; Aboud, Ghaith; Al-Mefty, Ossama; Aboud, Talal; Rammos, Stylianos; Abolfotoh, Mohammad; Hsu, Sanford P C; Koga, Sebastian; Arthur, Adam; Krisht, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Intraoperative rupture occurs in approximately 9.2% of all cranial aneurysm surgeries. This event is not merely a surgical complication, it is also a real surgical crisis that requires swift and decisive action. Neurosurgical residents may have little exposure to this event, but they may face it in their practice. Laboratory training would be invaluable for developing competency in addressing this crisis. In this study, the authors present the "live cadaver" model, which allows repetitive training under lifelike conditions for residents and other trainees to practice managing this crisis. The authors have used the live cadaver model in 13 training courses from 2009 to 2014 to train residents and neurosurgeons in the management of intraoperative aneurysmal rupture. Twenty-three cadaveric head specimens harboring 57 artificial and 2 real aneurysms were used in these courses. Specimens were specially prepared for this technique and connected to a pump that sent artificial blood into the vessels. This setting created a lifelike situation in the cadaver that simulates live surgery in terms of bleeding, pulsation, and softness of tissue. A total of 203 neurosurgical residents and 89 neurosurgeons and faculty members have practiced and experienced the live cadaver model. Clipping of the aneurysm and management of an intraoperative rupture was first demonstrated by an instructor. Then, trainees worked for 20- to 30-minute sessions each, during which they practiced clipping and reconstruction techniques and managed intraoperative ruptures. Ninety-one of the participants (27 faculty members and 64 participants) completed a questionnaire to rate their personal experience with the model. Most either agreed or strongly agreed that the model was a valid simulation of the conditions of live surgery on cerebral aneurysms and represents a realistic simulation of aneurysmal clipping and intraoperative rupture. Actual performance improvement with this model will require detailed

  8. Intraoperative Imaging Modalities and Compensation for Brain Shift in Tumor Resection Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ostermeier, Martin; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative brain shift during neurosurgical procedures is a well-known phenomenon caused by gravity, tissue manipulation, tumor size, loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and use of medication. For the use of image-guided systems, this phenomenon greatly affects the accuracy of the guidance. During the last several decades, researchers have investigated how to overcome this problem. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of publications concerning different aspects of intraoperative brain shift especially in a tumor resection surgery such as intraoperative imaging systems, quantification, measurement, modeling, and registration techniques. Clinical experience of using intraoperative imaging modalities, details about registration, and modeling methods in connection with brain shift in tumor resection surgery are the focuses of this review. In total, 126 papers regarding this topic are analyzed in a comprehensive summary and are categorized according to fourteen criteria. The result of the categorization is presented in an interactive web tool. The consequences from the categorization and trends in the future are discussed at the end of this work. PMID:28676821

  9. Intraoperative radioimmunodetection of colorectal tumor with a hand-held radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.T.; Hinkle, G.H.; Tuttle, S.; Olsen, J.; Nabi, H.; Houchens, D.; Thurston, M.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    A hand-held gamma detection probe was used intraoperatively to localize primary and recurrent colorectal tumors in 28 patients 48 to 72 hours after they received an intravenous injection of 2.2 mCi of iodine-131 labeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen polyclonal baboon antibody. Preoperative evaluation included determination of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, barium enema, colonoscopy, chest film, computerized axial tomography, liver, spleen, and bone scans, and endoscopy when indicated. Preoperative whole-body imaging correctly localized primary tumors in only 33 percent of the patients, whereas it correctly demonstrated tumor in 64 percent of those with recurrent disease. Intraoperative tumor-to-background ratios derived from the detector probe were elevated in all patients, averaging 3.97:1 in primary lesions and 4.18:1 in recurrent tumors. Postoperatively, carcinoembryonic antigen was localized in tissues with the avidin-biotin peroxidase staining technique to confirm intraoperative readings. Variations in stain uptake in a patient could be correlated with variations in radiation detector readings in the same patient. Results support our previous work in nude mice, demonstrating the improved sensitivity and specificity of the hand-held gamma detection device over whole-body imaging for intraoperative localization of immunoradiolabeled tumors.

  10. Intraoperative Subcortical Electrical Mapping of the Optic Tract in Awake Surgery Using a Virtual Reality Headset.

    PubMed

    Mazerand, Edouard; Le Renard, Marc; Hue, Sophie; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Klinger, Evelyne; Menei, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Brain mapping during awake craniotomy is a well-known technique to preserve neurological functions, especially the language. It is still challenging to map the optic radiations due to the difficulty to test the visual field intraoperatively. To assess the visual field during awake craniotomy, we developed the Functions' Explorer based on a virtual reality headset (FEX-VRH). The impaired visual field of 10 patients was tested with automated perimetry (the gold standard examination) and the FEX-VRH. The proof-of-concept test was done during the surgery performed on a patient who was blind in his right eye and presenting with a left parietotemporal glioblastoma. The FEX-VRH was used intraoperatively, simultaneously with direct subcortical electrostimulation, allowing identification and preservation of the optic radiations. The FEX-VRH detected 9 of the 10 visual field defects found by automated perimetry. The patient who underwent an awake craniotomy with intraoperative mapping of the optic tract using the FEX-VRH had no permanent postoperative visual field defect. Intraoperative visual field assessment with the FEX-VRH during direct subcortical electrostimulation is a promising approach to mapping the optical radiations and preventing a permanent visual field defect during awake surgery for epilepsy or tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D monitoring of the intraoperative brainshift by means of photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Apuzzo, Nicola; Verius, Michael

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of applying multi image photogrammetric techniques for the three-dimensional monitoring of the intraoperative brainshift. The "brainshift" is the motion of cerebral structures occurring in neurosurgery after the craniotomy (opening of the skull in order to access the brain for surgical repair). The causes of this effect are mainly the changes of pressure and loss of cerebrospinal liquid. The phenomenon of brainshift can influence negatively the planning and execution of neurosurgical intervention. A research project at the Clinic of Neuroradiology and Neurosurgery of the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria) aims at the quantification of the intraoperative brainshift by means of photogrammetry. The goals of the project are: (i) the development of a multi-image photogrammetric system for the quantitative monitoring of intraoperative brainshift by means of 3D measurements performed on the surface of the brain during neurosurgery after craniotomy, (ii) transformation of the pre-operative performed MR and CT datasets in function of the quantified intra-operative brainshift. This paper presents the proposed multi-image photogrammetric system, as well as, the first results achieved, in collaboration with Hometrica Consulting, for the automatic 3D measurement and tracking of selected points on the surface of the brain.

  12. Intraoperative ultrasound control of surgical margins during partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Feras M; Chahwan, Charles K; Le Gal, Sophie G; Guleryuz, Kerem M; Tillou, Xavier P; Doerfler, Arnaud P

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a simple and fast technique to ensure negative surgical margins on partial nephrectomies, while correlating margin statuses with the final pathology report. This study was conducted for patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) with T1-T2 renal tumors from January 2010 to the end of December 2015. Before tumor removal, intraoperative ultrasound (US) localization was performed. After tumor removal and before performing hemostasis of the kidney, the specimens were placed in a saline solution and a US was performed to evaluate if the tumor's capsule were intact, and then compared to the final pathology results. In 177 PN(s) (147 open procedures and 30 laparoscopic procedures) were performed on 147 patients. Arterial clamping was done for 32 patients and the mean warm ischemia time was 19 ± 6 min. The mean US examination time was 41 ± 7 s. The US analysis of surgical margins was negative in 172 cases, positive in four, and in only one case it was not possible to conclude. The final pathology results revealed one false positive surgical margin and one false negative surgical margin, while all other margins were in concert with US results. The mean tumor size was 3.53 ± 1.43 cm, and the mean surgical margin was 2.8 ± 1.5 mm. The intraoperative US control of resection margins in PN is a simple, efficient, and effective method for ensuring negative surgical margins with a small increase in warm ischemia time and can be conducted by the operating urologist.

  13. Intraoperative ultrasound control of surgical margins during partial nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Feras M.; Chahwan, Charles K.; Le Gal, Sophie G.; Guleryuz, Kerem M.; Tillou, Xavier P.; Doerfler, Arnaud P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate a simple and fast technique to ensure negative surgical margins on partial nephrectomies, while correlating margin statuses with the final pathology report. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted for patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) with T1–T2 renal tumors from January 2010 to the end of December 2015. Before tumor removal, intraoperative ultrasound (US) localization was performed. After tumor removal and before performing hemostasis of the kidney, the specimens were placed in a saline solution and a US was performed to evaluate if the tumor's capsule were intact, and then compared to the final pathology results. Results: In 177 PN(s) (147 open procedures and 30 laparoscopic procedures) were performed on 147 patients. Arterial clamping was done for 32 patients and the mean warm ischemia time was 19 ± 6 min. The mean US examination time was 41 ± 7 s. The US analysis of surgical margins was negative in 172 cases, positive in four, and in only one case it was not possible to conclude. The final pathology results revealed one false positive surgical margin and one false negative surgical margin, while all other margins were in concert with US results. The mean tumor size was 3.53 ± 1.43 cm, and the mean surgical margin was 2.8 ± 1.5 mm. Conclusions: The intraoperative US control of resection margins in PN is a simple, efficient, and effective method for ensuring negative surgical margins with a small increase in warm ischemia time and can be conducted by the operating urologist. PMID:28057986

  14. Intraoperative blood salvage: a new artificial organ?

    PubMed

    Valbonesi, M; Frisoni, R; Florio, G; Ferrari, M

    1995-03-01

    Optimal blood supply is critical to modern medical practice. Among the different possibilities of improving the quality and safety of blood, it is generally felt that autologous donation has played an important role and has contributed to changing transfusional practices, mainly since the appearance of HIV and HCV on the blood transfusion scene. At the San Martino Hospital Immunohematology Service, the autotransfusion era began in 1985. Autologous predeposit donation was the first to be introduced, followed by intentional perioperative hemodilution, intraoperative blood salvage with DFC apparatuses and lastly post-operative blood salvage. From about 200 autologous donations in 1985 we reached 5,372 in 1993 and more than 6,000 autologous donations are expected for 1994. Only 189 intraoperative blood salvages, were carried out in 1986, 593 in 1989, 1,207 in 1993 and more than 1,500 blood salvage sessions are anticipated for 1994. In the meantime, the total number of homologous RBC units employed in the Hospital dropped from 45,000 in 1985 to 18,000 in 1994, with the Onco-hematological Divisions using approximately 10,000 units of packed RBC.

  15. Application experience of intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haitao; Jiang, Lixin; Wang, Xuewen; Hu, Jinchen; Ning, Jinrao; Wang, Dong; Li, Baoyuan; Zheng, Guibin; Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to summarize the experience of intraoperative neuromonitoring system for monitoring and protection of recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgery. There were 220 cases in this study, male 53, female 167, mean age 38.2 years old. 85 cases in the study had thyroid cancer, 19 cases had thyroid benign tumor, 90 cases had thyroid goiter, 3 cases had Hashimoto's diseases, and 23 cases had hyperthyroidism. The tumor diameters were over than 5 cm in 113 cases. In the procedure, two recording needle electrodes were put into cricothyroid muscle; one stimulator electrodes was explored in tracheo-asophageal groove, if recurrent laryngeal nerves were right there or near, doctors could see the electromyogram and hear the toot honk. With careful dissection, recurrent laryngeal nerve could be found out till explored into the larynx site. 207 cases (278 sizes) of 220 were finished, electromyogram was not drawn out in 13 cases; 9 cases were false-negative because of system and anesthesia questions; needle electrodes cannot be put in properly in 4 cases because of cricothyroid muscle cancer invasion. No permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis occurred, 2 cases with transient nerve paralysis recovered in one month. The intraoperative neuromonitoring system can avoid damage of the recurrent laryngeal nerves when exposing the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the whole operation, therefore, with less medical complications.

  16. Prognostic intraoperative factors in severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Popa, CC

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a serious disease. Triggered by the local inflammation of the pancreas, it can cause inflammation in various organs and systems in the body. It is important to identify severe forms of acute pancreatitis with an increased morbidity and mortality rate. Lately, internationally, numerous clinical and paraclinical factors predicting the severity of acute pancreatitis have been proposed. The purpose of the study is to identify the prognostic intraoperative factors of severity. The prospective study was conducted over a period of four years, between 2007 and 2010 and included 238 patients treated in a surgical clinic in Bucharest. 103 patients experienced a severe form of acute pancreatitis, which means 67.95% of all operations practiced. We monitored intraoperative factors, in particular: the presence and/ or the extent of pancreatic necrosis, common bile duct lithiasis and intraperitoneal fluid, parameters proposed to become statistically prognostic factors in the development and long-term morbidity of acute pancreatitis. The presence and/ or extension of necrosis was identified in the histopathology only in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. 71.43% of the patients with common bile duct lithiasis and 73.91% of the patients with inflammatory intraperitoneal fluid had severe acute pancreatitis. Most patients who developed postoperative complications (86.49%) or who required a surgical intervention (85.71%), presented a severe form of the disease. Conclusions: pancreatic necrosis, common bile duct lithiasis and intraperitoneal fluid may contribute to a more precise prediction of severity, as confirmed by international literature. PMID:25870691

  17. Correlation of intraoperative cytological and final histological diagnoses: a retrospective 10-year study of neurosurgical cases from Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Salami, A; Azeez, A; Malomo, A; Oluwasola, A; Adeleye, A; Ogun, G; Adeoye, A; Adeolu, A; Okolo, C; Eze, U; Abdullahi, Y; Lawan, A; Ogunbiyi, J; Akang, E; Shokunbi, M

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative cytology is a cost-effective, rapid, and easy technique, and studies have shown good correlation between intraoperative cytology and histology. We undertook this study to compare the intraoperative cytology diagnoses of brain lesions made in our unit over a 10-year period with the definitive histological diagnoses. The aim was to determine the degree of accuracy of this procedure. This is a retrospective study of intraoperative neuropathology consultation cytology smears or imprints and histology of 69 cases obtained over a 10-year period. Cytology smears were stained using both Papanicolaou and Giemsa. Histology sections were prepared from routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and stained using H and E method. Each of the smears and histology samples were assessed by at least two pathologists. Cytological diagnosis was correlated with final histological diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of cytological diagnosis was evaluated using final histological diagnosis as gold standard. Correlation was strongest with inflammatory lesions followed by low-grade neoplasms. High-grade neoplasms also showed good concordance, but the degree of correlation was lower than in the other categories. Misdiagnosis was commonest with benign tumors. Intraoperative cytology is a relatively simple, reliable, and accurate diagnostic technique and should be more commonly used, particularly in low-resource settings. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography coregistration for diagnosis and intraoperative localization in recurrent nelson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Eric B; Tomlin, Jeffery M; Chengazi, Vaseem; Vates, G Edward

    2013-06-01

    Recurrent pituitary disease presents unique challenges, including in some cases difficulty localizing a tumor radiographically. Here, we present the case of a patient with recurrent Nelson syndrome whose radiographic work-up was complicated by a significant parasellar metallic artifact. Positron emission tomography ultimately localized the lesion, and coregistration with computed tomography allowed for accurate intraoperative navigation. Additionally, we review a range of imaging techniques available in the evaluation of pituitary disease.

  19. Assessment of visual function during brain surgery near the visual cortex by intraoperative optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Sobottka, Stephan B; Meyer, Tobias; Kirsch, Matthias; Reiss, Gilfe; Koch, Edmund; Morgenstern, Ute; Schackert, Gabriele

    2013-06-01

    Several functional brain imaging and mapping techniques have been used for the intraoperative identification and preservation of the sensory, motor, and speech areas of the brain. However, intraoperative monitoring and mapping of the visual function is less frequently performed in the clinical routine. To our knowledge, here we demonstrate for the first time that the individual visual cortex can be mapped to the brain surface using a contact-free optical camera system during brain surgery. Intraoperative optical imaging (IOI) was performed by visual stimulation of both eyes using stobe-light flashes. Images were acquired by a camera mounted to a standard surgical microscope. Activity maps could reproducibly be computed by detecting the blood volume-dependent signal changes of the exposed cortex. To the preliminary experience, the new technique seems to be suitable for mapping the visual function in any neurosurgical intervention that requires exposure of the visual cortex. However, the clinical relevance and reliability of the technique need to be confirmed in further studies.

  20. Tailoring Adjuvant Radiation Therapy by Intraoperative Imaging to Detect Residual Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Melodi J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    For many solid cancers, radiation therapy is offered as an adjuvant to surgical resection in order to lower rates of local recurrence and improve survival. However, a subset of patients treated with surgery alone will not have a local recurrence. Currently, there is no way to accurately determine which patients have microscopic residual disease in the tumor bed after surgery and therefore are most likely to benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy. To address this problem, a number of technologies have been developed to try to improve margin assessment of resected tissue and to detect residual cancer in the tumor bed. Moreover, some of these approaches have been translated from the preclinical arena into clinical trials. Here, we review different types of intraoperative molecular imaging systems for cancer. Optical imaging techniques like epi-illumination, fluorescence molecular tomography and optoacoustic imaging can be coupled with exogenous fluorescent imaging probes that accumulate in tumors passively via the enhanced permeability and retention effect or are targeted to tumor tissues based on affinity or enzyme activity. In these approaches, detection of fluorescence in the tumor bed may indicate residual disease. Protease activated probes have generated great interest because of their potential for leading to high tumor to normal contrast. Recently, the first Phase I clinical trial to assess the safety and activation of a protease activated probe was conducted. Spectroscopic methods like radiofrequency spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, which are based on energy absorption and scattering respectively, have also been tested in humans and are able to distinguish between normal and tumors tissues intraoperatively. Most recently, multi-modal contrast agents have been developed that target tumors and contain both fluorescent dyes and MRI contrast agents, allowing for preoperative planning and intraoperative margin assessment with a single contrast agent. Further

  1. Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging using indocyanine green in colorectal carcinomatosis surgery: Proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Barabino, G; Klein, J P; Porcheron, J; Grichine, A; Coll, J-L; Cottier, M

    2016-12-01

    This study assesses the value of using Intraoperative Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging and Indocyanine green to detect colorectal carcinomatosis during oncological surgery. In colorectal carcinomatosis cancer, two of the most important prognostic factors are completeness of staging and completeness of cytoreductive surgery. Presently, intraoperative assessment of tumoral margins relies on palpation and visual inspection. The recent introduction of Near Infrared fluorescence image guidance provides new opportunities for surgical roles, particularly in cancer surgery. The study was a non-randomized, monocentric, pilot "ex vivo" blinded clinical trial validated by the ethical committee of University Hospital of Saint Etienne. Ten patients with colorectal carcinomatosis cancer scheduled for cytoreductive surgery were included. Patients received 0.25 mg/kg of Indocyanine green intravenously 24 h before surgery. A Near Infrared camera was used to detect "ex-vivo" fluorescent lesions. There was no surgical mortality. Each analysis was done blindly. In a total of 88 lesions analyzed, 58 were classified by a pathologist as cancerous and 30 as non-cancerous. Among the 58 cancerous lesions, 42 were correctly classified by the Intraoperative Near-Infrared camera (sensitivity of 72.4%). Among the 30 non-cancerous lesions, 18 were correctly classified by the Intraoperative Near-Infrared camera (specificity of 60.0%). Near Infrared fluorescence imaging is a promising technique for intraoperative tumor identification. It could help the surgeon to determine resection margins and reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism During Resection of Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Merkel, Andreas; Zimmermann, Max; Sommer, Björn; Buchfelder, Michael; Meyer-Bäse, Anke; Rössler, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Tissue oxygen tension is an important parameter for brain tissue viability and its noninvasive intraoperative monitoring in the whole brain is of highly clinical relevance. The purpose of this study was the introduction of a multiparametric quantitative blood oxygenation dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach for intraoperative examination of oxygen metabolism during the resection of brain lesions. Sixteen patients suffering from brain lesions were examined intraoperatively twice (before craniotomy and after gross-total resection) via the quantitative blood oxygenation dependent technique and a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner, which is installed in an operating room. The MRI protocol included T2*- and T2 mapping and dynamic susceptibility weighted perfusion. Data analysis was performed with a custom-made, in-house MatLab software for calculation of maps of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) as well as of cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow. Perilesional edema showed a significant increase in both perfusion (cerebral blood volume +21%, cerebral blood flow +13%) and oxygen metabolism (OEF +32%, CMRO2 +16%) after resection of the lesions. In perilesional nonedematous tissue only, however, oxygen metabolism (OEF +19%, CMRO2 +11%) was significantly increased, but not perfusion. No changes were found in normal brain. Fortunately, no neurovascular adverse events were observed. This approach for intraoperative examination of oxygen metabolism in the whole brain is a new application of intraoperative MRI additionally to resection control (residual tumor detection) and updating of neuronavigation (brain shift detection). It may help to detect neurovascular adverse events early during surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors for intraoperative complications in resident-performed phacoemulsification surgery.

    PubMed

    Rutar, Tina; Porco, Travis C; Naseri, Ayman

    2009-03-01

    To determine the risk factors for intraoperative complications in resident-performed phacoemulsification surgery and the effect of complications on postoperative visual acuity. Retrospective case series. A total of 320 consecutive eyes of predominantly male (96.6%) and elderly patients (mean age +/-1 standard deviation = 73.1+/-10.0 years) undergoing phacoemulsification surgery by ophthalmology residents at a Veterans Administration Hospital between January 2006 and 2007. There were no exclusion criteria for type of cataract undergoing phacoemulsification surgery. Data were collected by review of patients' electronic medical records. Collected data included the patient demographics, ocular comorbidities, cataract features, resident, resident experience, attending, right or left eye, anesthesia type, wound type, phacoemulsification technique, preoperative and postoperative visual acuities, and presence of any intraoperative complication. Multivariate models were constructed to determine potential risk factors for intraoperative complications. Major intraoperative complication rate, risk factors for major intraoperative complications, and best-corrected postoperative visual acuity. The major intraoperative complication rate was 4.7%, which included 3.1% of cases with vitreous loss. The strongest association with a major complication was the presence of a case identified as challenging preoperatively, which had an odds ratio of 6.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-24.1, P=0.01). The challenging features most strongly associated with major complications were mature 4+ nuclear sclerotic cataracts and zonular pathology (antecedent trauma and pseudoexfoliation), which had odds ratios of 18.9 (95% CI, 3.1-117, P=0.002) and 26.2 (95% CI, 4.3-159, P=0.003), respectively. A major complication decreased the likelihood of achieving 20/40 or better visual acuity within 90 days of surgery (95% of uncomplicated eyes vs. 71% of complicated eyes; P=0.009). Residents performing

  4. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ankur N.; Miga, Michael I.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Chambless, Lola B.; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient’s preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (~1 hour) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  5. Persistent and automatic intraoperative 3D digitization of surfaces under dynamic magnifications of an operating microscope.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ankur N; Miga, Michael I; Pheiffer, Thomas S; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges impeding advancement in image-guided surgical (IGS) systems is the soft-tissue deformation during surgical procedures. These deformations reduce the utility of the patient's preoperative images and may produce inaccuracies in the application of preoperative surgical plans. Solutions to compensate for the tissue deformations include the acquisition of intraoperative tomographic images of the whole organ for direct displacement measurement and techniques that combines intraoperative organ surface measurements with computational biomechanical models to predict subsurface displacements. The later solution has the advantage of being less expensive and amenable to surgical workflow. Several modalities such as textured laser scanners, conoscopic holography, and stereo-pair cameras have been proposed for the intraoperative 3D estimation of organ surfaces to drive patient-specific biomechanical models for the intraoperative update of preoperative images. Though each modality has its respective advantages and disadvantages, stereo-pair camera approaches used within a standard operating microscope is the focus of this article. A new method that permits the automatic and near real-time estimation of 3D surfaces (at 1 Hz) under varying magnifications of the operating microscope is proposed. This method has been evaluated on a CAD phantom object and on full-length neurosurgery video sequences (∼1 h) acquired intraoperatively by the proposed stereovision system. To the best of our knowledge, this type of validation study on full-length brain tumor surgery videos has not been done before. The method for estimating the unknown magnification factor of the operating microscope achieves accuracy within 0.02 of the theoretical value on a CAD phantom and within 0.06 on 4 clinical videos of the entire brain tumor surgery. When compared to a laser range scanner, the proposed method for reconstructing 3D surfaces intraoperatively achieves root mean square

  6. Anesthesia and intraoperative high-frequency oscillatory ventilation during burn surgery.

    PubMed

    Walia, Gautam; Jada, George; Cartotto, Robert

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a mainstay in the ventilatory management of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in our burn center. Many patients require burn surgery while on HFOV, potentially necessitating the use of HFOV during general anesthesia in the operating room. The purpose of this study was to describe the technique of providing and maintaining intraoperative HFOV. This is a retrospective analysis of the hospital and anesthesia records of all adult burn patients who went to the operating room on HFOV at our regional burn center between October 22, 1999, and April 30, 2009. There were 57 procedures performed on 36 patients who were receiving HFOV for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome available for analysis (age 45 ± 16 years, %TBSA burn 43 ± 14, % full-thickness burn 32 ± 19, and 69% with inhalation injury). Intraoperative HFOV settings were mean airway pressure 33 ± 4 cm H₂O, frequency 5 ± 1 Hz, and FiO₂ 0.7 ± 0.2. There were no significant changes in oxygenation as measured by the PaO₂/FiO₂ ratio and the oxygenation index, but there was a transient but significant increase in PaCO₂ intraoperatively. Existing continuous infusions of midazolam, opioids, and neuromuscular blockers were continued during surgery and were augmented by a variety of parenteral agents, including propofol, fentanyl, and ketamine during surgery. Prone positioning was required in 16 of 57 procedures. Subanalysis of the prone cases showed no significant changes in the PaO₂/FiO₂ ratio or oxygenation index but again showed a significant but temporary increase in intraoperative PaCO₂. HFOV was aborted for conventional mechanical ventilation in three cases due to respiratory deterioration (2 cases) and hemodynamic instability (1 case). There were no intraoperative deaths. In-hospital mortality was 33%. Intraoperative HFOV was feasible and safe in the overwhelming majority of cases, and aside from an inconsequential period of

  7. The role of intraoperative hemodialysis in liver transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Sedra, Ashraf H; Strum, Earl

    2011-06-01

    Orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) is a major surgical procedure that can be both challenging and lengthy. One of the common findings in end-stage liver disease is renal failure, whether acute or chronic, which may complicate the intraoperative course. The use of intraoperative hemodialysis is described by several centers to aid during OLT cases with impaired renal function or kidney failure. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of available data, which is limited to sporadic case reports, and only few structured studies in which continuous renal replacement therapy was used versus intraoperative hemodialysis, which is the main focus of this article. The rationale behind the use of intraoperative hemodialysis during OLT in patients with kidney dysfunction or failure is that the procedure is usually complicated by major hemodynamic changes, metabolic derangement, and coagulation abnormalities, which we think can be better managed intraoperatively using hemodialysis. In our institution, we performed over 140 cases of OLT using intraoperative hemodialysis since 2003 until the present. A retrospective cohort study is being conducted during the writing of this article. Preliminary data collection report zero percentage intraoperative mortality and 48 h postoperatively. Hemodialysis is widely acknowledged as a treatment option to stabilize patients with renal failure, and one of the most challenging situations is during OLT in which the role of intraoperative hemodialysis is becoming more important today more than ever before.

  8. The cost of intraoperative plastic surgery education.

    PubMed

    Sasor, Sarah E; Flores, Roberto L; Wooden, William A; Tholpady, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Within the surgical community, it is commonly accepted that the length and cost of a surgical case increase when a resident physician participates. Many accountable care organizations, however, believe the opposite, that is, resident assistance enhances efficiency and diminishes operative time. The purpose of this study is to determine the opportunity cost to the attending surgeon for intraoperative teaching during index plastic surgery cases. A single senior surgeon's experience over a 7-year period was evaluated retrospectively for Current Procedural Terminology codes 40700 (repair of primary, unilateral cleft lip) and 42200 (palatoplasty). Variables collected include operative time, the presence or absence of a physician learner, and postgraduate year level. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test using the S+ programming language. A cost analysis was performed to quantify the effect of longer operative times in terms of relative value units (RVUs) lost. During the study period, a total of 45 patients had primary, unilateral cleft lip repair; 70 patients had cleft palate repair. Of those cases, 39 (87%) cleft lip repairs and 60 (86%) cleft palate repairs were performed with a resident or fellow present. There was a statistically significant difference in the amount of time required to perform either surgery with a physician learner than without, with operative times being 60% (p = 0.020) longer for cleft lip repair and 65% (p = 0.0016) longer for cleft palate repair. The results were further stratified based on level of training, with craniofacial fellows and plastic surgery residents (independent and integrated) compared separately. Cases where a craniofacial fellow was present required the longest operative times: 103% (p = 0.0012) longer for cleft lip repairs and 104% (p < 0.0001) longer for cleft palate repairs when compared with the senior surgeon operating alone. Using the 2011 physician work RVUs for these surgeries and the 2011

  9. Complications and prognosis of intraoperative blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Manoel; Cezario, Thiago Abreu; Toledo, Diogo O; Magalhães, Danielle Dourado; Pinto, Marco Aurélio Cícero; Victoria, Luiz Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Intraoperative blood transfusions are associated with an increase in postoperative complications and hospital costs. Thus, this study evaluated the characteristics, complications, and probable risk factors for death in surgical patients who needed intraoperative blood transfusions. This is a prospective study that spanned a one-year period, undertaken at the surgical suite of a tertiary hospital. Patients older than 18 years who needed intraoperative blood transfusions were included in this study Jehovah witnesses, patients with a history of prior blood transfusions, coronary failure, and acute brain lesions were excluded. Eighty patients with mean age of 68.4 +/- 14.1 years participated in the study. Most patients were ASA II, representing 69.6% of the study group; APACHE and POSSUM scores were 13.6 +/- 4.4 and 37.5 +/- 11.4, respectively. Mean hemoglobin at the time of transfusion was 8.2 +/-1.8 g x dL(-1) and 19% of the patients had hemoglobin levels higher than 10 g x dL(-1). Patients received an average of 2.2 +/- 0.9 IU of packed red blood cells. Hospital mortality was 26.3%. Post-transfusion complications totaled 57.5% of the cases in the postoperative period, and most of them were due to infections. In the logistic regression, independent factors for death included APACHE II (OR = 1.34; 95% CI 1.102-1.622), POSSUM (OR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.008-1.150) and the number of packed red blood cells received (OR = 2.22; 95% CI 1.100-4.463). Thus, the higher the number of transfusions, the greater the incidence of complications and mortality. Hemoglobin level, and the number of packed red blood cells used were elevated when compared with studies that suggest restrictive strategies. This sample presented a high incidence of complications, especially infections, and complications. APACHE II and POSSUM scores and the number of transfusions were independent risk factors for a worse postoperative prognosis.

  10. Intraoperative arterial oxygenation in obese patients.

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, R W; Wise, L

    1976-01-01

    Although obese patients have been shown to represent a particularly high risk group with respect to hypoxemia both pre and postoperatively, no data exist to delineate the intraoperative arterial oxygenation pattern of these patients. Furthermore, no one has studied the effects of a change in operative position or a subdiaphragmatic laparotomy pack on arterial oxygenation (PaO2). Sixty-four adults undergoing jejunoileal bypass for morbid exogenous obesity, with a mean weight of 142.0 +/- 31.4 kg and a mean age of 33.3 +/- 10.4 years, were studied. Twenty-five patients (Group I) were maintained in the supine position throughout the operative procedure, while the remaining 39 patients (Group II) were changed to a 15 degrees head down position 15 minutes after a control blood sample was taken. Four additional markedly obese patients were studied to determine the effect of an abdominal pack of PaO2 values. The following findings were demonstrated: 1) 40% oxygen did not uniformly produce adequate arterial oxygenation for intra-abdominal surgery in otherwise healthy obese patients; 2) placement of a subdiaphragmatic abdominal laparotomy pack without a change in operative position resulted in a consistent fall in PaO2 in each patient to less than 65 mm Hg even though 40% oxygen was being administered; and 3) a change from supine to a 15 degrees head down operative position resulted in a significant (P less than 0.001) reduction in mean PaO2 (73.0 +/- 26.3 mm Hg). Seventy-seven per cent of these patients demonstrated PaO2 values of less than 80 mm Hg on 40% oxygen. Because of these findings, serious consideration should be given to the routine use of the Trendelenberg position intraoperatively in obese patients. However, if one elects this posture, prudence would dictate careful monitoring and maintenance of arterial oxygenation. Certainly, in obese patients, the intraoperative combination of the head down position and a subdiaphragmatic laparotomy pack should be avoided

  11. Surgical Pathology and Intraoperative Consultation: An Audit

    PubMed Central

    GOLAM, Mostafa; QUEEN, Zarat

    2015-01-01

    Background: While intraoperative consultation has been used in Bangladesh for a long period of time, to date, there has been no published reporting on the performance of frozen sections. The current audit evaluates the performance of frozen sections in a well reputed medical center in Bangladesh, Anowara Medical Services. Objective: This retrospective study has been designed to measure the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis in a medical center in a third-world country, where many surgical procedures rely on intraoperative consultation. Methods: A series of 1379 intra- and peri-operative frozen section cases, from 2007 to 2014, was reviewed. Intraoperative tissue specimens received at Anowara Medical Services were processed for frozen sections. After examination of the frozen section that yielded the initial frozen section diagnoses, the frozen tissues were reprocessed for regular paraffin sectioning. These paraffin sections were examined by a second pathologist, and a final diagnosis was issued. The frozen section diagnosis and final diagnoses of all cases were retrospectively analysed to determine the accuracy of frozen section examination. Results: Overall, accurate diagnosis was made on frozen sections in 98.2% of the cases. The discrepant diagnoses were all clinically significant, i.e., there were discrepancies between benign and malignant diagnoses on frozen and paraffin sections. In 1% of the cases, diagnosis was deferred. Fifty percent of the deferred cases were benign. Two cases, received in formalin, were excluded. In both cases, the diagnosis was positive for malignancy. The number of false negative results (4 false negatives) was slightly lower than that of false positives (5 false positives). Specificity and sensitivity of 99.3% and 99.4% were achieved, respectively. In this study, the positive predictive value was 99.2% and the negative predictive value was 99.5%. Over the years, the number of discrepant diagnoses remained fairly constant. Conclusion

  12. Improved Visualization of Intracranial Vessels with Intraoperative Coregistration of Rotational Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intraoperative 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Podlesek, Dino; Meyer, Tobias; Morgenstern, Ute; Schackert, Gabriele; Kirsch, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ultrasound can visualize and update the vessel status in real time during cerebral vascular surgery. We studied the depiction of parent vessels and aneurysms with a high-resolution 3D intraoperative ultrasound imaging system during aneurysm clipping using rotational digital subtraction angiography as a reference. Methods We analyzed 3D intraoperative ultrasound in 39 patients with cerebral aneurysms to visualize the aneurysm intraoperatively and the nearby vascular tree before and after clipping. Simultaneous coregistration of preoperative subtraction angiography data with 3D intraoperative ultrasound was performed to verify the anatomical assignment. Results Intraoperative ultrasound detected 35 of 43 aneurysms (81%) in 39 patients. Thirty-nine intraoperative ultrasound measurements were matched with rotational digital subtraction angiography and were successfully reconstructed during the procedure. In 7 patients, the aneurysm was partially visualized by 3D-ioUS or was not in field of view. Post-clipping intraoperative ultrasound was obtained in 26 and successfully reconstructed in 18 patients (69%) despite clip related artefacts. The overlap between 3D-ioUS aneurysm volume and preoperative rDSA aneurysm volume resulted in a mean accuracy of 0.71 (Dice coefficient). Conclusions Intraoperative coregistration of 3D intraoperative ultrasound data with preoperative rotational digital subtraction angiography is possible with high accuracy. It allows the immediate visualization of vessels beyond the microscopic field, as well as parallel assessment of blood velocity, aneurysm and vascular tree configuration. Although spatial resolution is lower than for standard angiography, the method provides an excellent vascular overview, advantageous interpretation of 3D-ioUS and immediate intraoperative feedback of the vascular status. A prerequisite for understanding vascular intraoperative ultrasound is image quality and a successful match with preoperative

  13. Intraoperative photodynamic therapy for larynx carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukatch, Erwin V.; Latyshevska, Galina; Fekeshgazi, Ishtvan V.

    1995-05-01

    We made an experimental and clinical researches to examine Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy (IPT) as a method to prevent the recidives of tumors. In experimental researches on models with radio-inducated fibrosarcomas and Erlich carcinomas of mice the best method of IPT was worked out. The therapeutic effect was studied also on patients with laryngeal cancer. In researches on C3H mice the antirecidive effect of IPT established with local administration of methylene blue and Ar-laser. We found that IPT (He-Ne laser combined with methylene blue administration) was endured by patients with laryngeal cancers without problems. We got good results of treatment 42 patients with laryngeal cancers with middle localization during three years with using IPT method. This can show the perspectives of using this method in treatment of other ENT-oncological diseases.

  14. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Pablo A; Roberts, David W; Lu, Fa-Ke; Golby, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light-tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and advanced quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence and lifetime imaging. Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview and discussion of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as intraoperative guidance tools in neurosurgery.

  15. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  16. Intraoperative nerve monitoring in laryngotracheal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bolufer, Sergio; Coves, María Dolores; Gálvez, Carlos; Villalona, Gustavo Adolfo

    Laryngotracheal surgery has an inherent risk of injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN). These complications go from minor dysphonia to even bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The intraoperative neuromonitoring of the RLN was developed in the field of thyroid surgery, in order to preserve nerve and vocal cord function. However, tracheal surgery requires in-field intubation of the distal trachea, which limits the use of nerve monitoring using conventional endotracheal tube with surface electrodes. Given these challenges, we present an alternative method for nerve monitoring during laryngotracheal surgery through the insertion of electrodes within the endolaryngeal musculature by bilateral puncture. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pablo A.; Roberts, David W.; Lu, Fa-Ke; Golby, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light–tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and advanced quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence and lifetime imaging. Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview and discussion of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as intraoperative guidance tools in neurosurgery. PMID:26926066

  18. Intra-operative robotics: NeuroArm.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; Greer, Alexander D; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and ongoing integration of neuroArm, an image-guided MR-compatible robot. A neurosurgical robotics platform was developed, including MR-compatible manipulators, or arms, with seven degrees of freedom, a main system controller, and a human-machine interface. This system was evaluated during pre-clinical trials and subsequent clinical application, combined with intra-operative MRI, at both 1.5 and 3.0 T. An MR-compatible surgical robot was successfully developed and merged with ioMRI at both 1.5 or 3.0 T. Image-guidance accuracy and microsurgical capability were established in pre-clinical trials. Early clinical experience demonstrated feasibility and showed the importance of a master-slave configuration. Surgeon-directed manipulator control improved performance and safety. NeuroArm successfully united the precision and accuracy of robotics with the executive decision-making capability of the surgeon.

  19. [Intraoperative sonography to exclude thoracic injury].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Jósa, Valéria; Jakab, Ferenc; Szabó, Gyozo János

    2007-08-12

    The authors present the case of a 29-year-old female with stab wound to the abdomen. After the initial fluid resuscitation and preliminary radiographic examinations immediate laparotomy was indicated due to hypovolaemic circulatory collapse. Splenectomy and gastric suture were necessary. Following the urgent interventions a wound of the left diaphragm was noticed during the extended abdominal exploration. According to the prior examinations and the operative situation it was not clear whether the injury is penetrating. In order to avoid explorative thoracotomy intraoperative ultrasonography was performed: the transducer and the acoustic gel were placed into sterile plastic bag and the organs above the diaphragm were examined from the abdominal cavity. With this method intrathoracic injury close to the diaphragm could be clearly excluded.

  20. Best practices to optimize intraoperative photography.

    PubMed

    Gaujoux, Sébastien; Ceribelli, Cecilia; Goudard, Geoffrey; Khayat, Antoine; Leconte, Mahaut; Massault, Pierre-Philippe; Balagué, Julie; Dousset, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Intraoperative photography is used extensively for communication, research, or teaching. The objective of the present work was to define, using a standardized methodology and literature review, the best technical conditions for intraoperative photography. Using either a smartphone camera, a bridge camera, or a single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, photographs were taken under various standard conditions by a professional photographer. All images were independently assessed blinded to technical conditions to define the best shooting conditions and methods. For better photographs, an SLR camera with manual settings should be used. Photographs should be centered and taken vertically and orthogonal to the surgical field with a linear scale to avoid error in perspective. The shooting distance should be about 75 cm using an 80-100-mm focal lens. Flash should be avoided and scialytic low-powered light should be used without focus. The operative field should be clean, wet surfaces should be avoided, and metal instruments should be hidden to avoid reflections. For SLR camera, International Organization for Standardization speed should be as low as possible, autofocus area selection mode should be on single point AF, shutter speed should be above 1/100 second, and aperture should be as narrow as possible, above f/8. For smartphone, use high dynamic range setting if available, use of flash, digital filter, effect apps, and digital zoom is not recommended. If a few basic technical rules are known and applied, high-quality photographs can be taken by amateur photographers and fit the standards accepted in clinical practice, academic communication, and publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intraoperative medications associated with hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Freundlich, Robert E; Duggal, Neal M; Housey, Michelle; Tremper, Tyler T; Engoren, Milo C; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2016-12-01

    To facilitate the identification of drugs and patient factors associated with hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis. Using an existing database containing complete perioperative records, instances of hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis were identified using a physiologic and treatment-based screening algorithm. All cases were manually reviewed by 2 clinicians, with a third adjudicating disagreements, and confirmed cases were matched 3:1 with control cases. Intraoperative medications given in instances of hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis and patient risk factors were compared with control cases. University of Michigan Hospital, a large, tertiary care hospital. All adult patients undergoing surgery between January 1, 2004, and January 5, 2015. None. Incidence of hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis during anesthesia. Patient risk factors and intraoperative medications associated with hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis. Hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis occurred in 55 of 461 986 cases (1 in 8400). Hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis occurred in 52 patients, with 1 patient experiencing 3 instances and another patient 2 instances. Only 1 drug was associated with an increased risk of hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis: protamine (odds ratio, 11.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-99.26; P=.0233). No category of drugs was associated with increased risk. Of patient risk factors, only personal history of anaphylaxis was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio, 77.1; 95% confidence interval, 10.46-567.69; P=<.0001). Postoperative follow-up and evaluation of patients were low at our institution. A serum tryptase level was sent in only 49% of cases, and 41% of levels were positive, an overall positive rate of 20% of cases. Following instances of hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis, only 29% of patients were seen and evaluated by an allergist at our institution. Hemodynamically significant anaphylaxis is a rare complication of

  2. [Intra-operative cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Neufeld, D; Jessel, J; Freund, U

    1994-01-16

    Intraoperative cholangiography (IC) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a controversial issue. According to traditional teaching, the purpose of cholangiography in gallbladder surgery is to discover previously undiscovered common bile duct stones. This examination was extremely important in the era before ERCP. IC enabled surgeons to find stones and remove them at the same operation. With progress in ERCP, the importance of intraoperative cholangiography has diminished. A stone missed during surgery can most often be dealt with by the less invasive ERCP and papillotomy. There has been a difference of opinion in the literature as to whether to perform cholangiography routinely during gallbladder operations or only in cases in which there is a specific indication, such as an enlarged common bile duct, a history of pancreatitis, or elevated enzymes. Routine operative cholangiography prolongs operative time and carries its own inherent risks, such as injury to the bile ducts. The likelihood of stones is not high and over-diagnosis of stones would result in unwarranted common bile duct exploration and the danger of complications from the procedure. The tendency today is towards a more selective approach. In this era of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery, the controversy has come to the fore again, and there is now an additional aspect. In laparoscopic gallbladder surgery there is greater significance to the "road map" provided by X-rays. We rely mainly on the visual sense and have forgone the tactile sense. Therefore, any added visual input in this operation helps avoid the danger of injuring the main bile ducts. It is our contention that the indications for operative cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy should again be broadened.

  3. Intraoperative radiation therapy in recurrent ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, O.W. Stephanie . E-mail: stbeast@stanford.edu; Kapp, Daniel S.; Teng, Nelson N.H.; Husain, Amreen

    2005-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate disease outcomes and complications in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer treated with cytoreductive surgery and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective study of 24 consecutive patients with ovarian carcinoma who underwent secondary cytoreduction and intraoperative radiation therapy at our institution between 1994 and 2002 was conducted. After optimal cytoreductive surgery, IORT was delivered with orthovoltage X-rays (200 kVp) using individually sized and beveled cone applications. Outcomes measures were local control of disease, progression-free interval, overall survival, and treatment-related complications. Results: Of these 24 patients, 22 were available for follow-up analysis. Additional treatment at the time of and after IORT included whole abdominopelvic radiation, 9; pelvic or locoregional radiation, 5; chemotherapy, 6; and no adjuvant treatment, 2. IORT doses ranged from 9-14 Gy (median, 12 Gy). The anatomic sites treated were pelvis (sidewalls, vaginal cuff, presacral area, anterior pubis), para-aortic and paracaval lymph node beds, inguinal region, or porta hepatitis. At a median follow-up of 24 months, 5 patients remain free of disease, whereas 17 patients have recurred, of whom 4 are alive with disease and 13 died from disease. Five patients recurred within the radiation fields for a locoregional relapse rate of 32% and 12 patients recurred at distant sites with a median time to recurrence of 13.7 months. Five-year overall survival was 22% with a median survival of 26 months from time of IORT. Nine patients (41%) experienced Grade 3 toxicities from their treatments. Conclusion: In carefully selected patients with locally recurrent ovarian cancer, combined IORT and tumor reductive surgery is reasonably tolerated and may contribute to achieving local control and disease palliation.

  4. Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Evaluate the Motor Pathways After an Intraoperative Spinal Cord Injury and to Predict the Recovery of Intraoperative Transcranial Electrical Motor Evoked Potentials: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Grover, Helen J; Thornton, Rachel; Lutchman, Lennel N; Blake, Julian C

    2016-06-01

    The authors report a case of unilateral loss of intraoperative transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TES MEP) associated with a spinal cord injury during scoliosis correction and the subsequent use of extraoperative transcranial magnetic stimulation to monitor the recovery of spinal cord function. The authors demonstrate the absence of TES MEPs and absent transcranial magnetic stimulation responses in the immediate postoperative period, and document the partial recovery of transcranial magnetic stimulation responses, which corresponded to partial recovery of TES MEPs. Intraoperative TES MEPs were enhanced using spatial facilitation technique, which enabled the patient to undergo further surgery to stabilize the spine and correct her scoliosis. This case report supports evidence of the use of extraoperative transcranial magnetic stimulation to predict the presence of intraoperative TES responses and demonstrates the usefulness of spatial facilitation to monitor TES MEPs in a patient with a preexisting spinal cord injury.

  5. Intraoperative tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Balog, Júlia; Sasi-Szabó, László; Kinross, James; Lewis, Matthew R; Muirhead, Laura J; Veselkov, Kirill; Mirnezami, Reza; Dezső, Balázs; Damjanovich, László; Darzi, Ara; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Takáts, Zoltán

    2013-07-17

    Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) is an emerging technique that allows near-real-time characterization of human tissue in vivo by analysis of the aerosol ("smoke") released during electrosurgical dissection. The coupling of REIMS technology with electrosurgery for tissue diagnostics is known as the intelligent knife (iKnife). This study aimed to validate the technique by applying it to the analysis of fresh human tissue samples ex vivo and to demonstrate the translation to real-time use in vivo in a surgical environment. A variety of tissue samples from 302 patients were analyzed in the laboratory, resulting in 1624 cancerous and 1309 noncancerous database entries. The technology was then transferred to the operating theater, where the device was coupled to existing electrosurgical equipment to collect data during a total of 81 resections. Mass spectrometric data were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods, including principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and a spectral identification algorithm using a similar approach was implemented. The REIMS approach differentiated accurately between distinct histological and histopathological tissue types, with malignant tissues yielding chemical characteristics specific to their histopathological subtypes. Tissue identification via intraoperative REIMS matched the postoperative histological diagnosis in 100% (all 81) of the cases studied. The mass spectra reflected lipidomic profiles that varied between distinct histological tumor types and also between primary and metastatic tumors. Thus, in addition to real-time diagnostic information, the spectra provided additional information on divergent tumor biochemistry that may have mechanistic importance in cancer.

  6. Coblation tonsillectomy versus dissection tonsillectomy: a comparison of intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pain.

    PubMed

    Izny Hafiz, Z; Rosdan, S; Mohd Khairi, M D

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain between coblation tonsillectomy and cold tonsillectomy in the same patient. A prospective single blind control trial was carried out on 34 patients whom underwent tonsillectomy. The patients with known bleeding disorder, history of unilateral peritonsillar abscess and unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy were excluded. Operations were done by a single surgeon using cold dissection tonsillectomy in one side while coblation tonsillectomy in the other. Intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain during the first 3 days were compared between the two methods. Results showed that the intraoperative time was significantly shorter (p<0.001) and intraoperative blood loss was significantly lesser (p<0.001) in coblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. Post operative pain score was significantly less at 6 hours post operation (p<0.001) in coblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. However, there were no differences in the post operative pain scores on day 1, 2 and 3. In conclusion, coblation tonsillectomy does have superiority in improving intraoperative efficiency in term of intraoperative time and bleeding compared to cold dissection tonsillectomy. The patient will benefit with minimal post operative pain in the immediate post surgery duration.

  7. Safety, efficacy, and cost of intraoperative indocyanine green angiography compared to intraoperative catheter angiography in cerebral aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Douglas A; Thind, Harjot; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Intraoperative angiography in cerebrovascular neurosurgery can drive the repositioning or addition of aneurysm clips. Our institution has switched from a strategy of intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) universally, to a strategy of indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography with DSA on an as-needed basis. We retrospectively evaluated whether the rates of perioperative stroke, unexpected postoperative aneurysm residual, or parent vessel stenosis differed in 100 patients from each era (2002, "DSA era"; 2007, "ICG era"). The clip repositioning rate for neck residual or parent vessel stenosis did not differ significantly between the two eras. There were no differences in the rate of perioperative stroke or rate of false-negative studies. The per-patient cost of intraoperative imaging within the DSA era was significantly higher than in the ICG era. The replacement of routine intraoperative DSA with ICG videoangiography and selective intraoperative DSA in cerebrovascular aneurysm surgery is safe and effective.

  8. Biomechanics of the intra-operative lateral decubitus position for the scoliotic spine: effect of the pelvic obliquity.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Nadine M; Aubin, Carl-Eric; Parent, Stefan; Pannetier, Romain; Villemure, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The intra-operative prone position used for the posterior instrumentation of scoliotic patients has been shown to reduce the spinal deformities prior to instrumentation by 37% on average. However, the effects of the lateral decubitus position used for anterior approaches and minimally invasive techniques have not been investigated. The objectives were to characterize, model and study the biomechanics of this intra-operative posture. Several clinical indices were measured on the pre- and intra-operative radiographs of six scoliotic patients. A personalized finite element mode (FEM) was developed using the pre-op 3D reconstruction, and a three-step method was developed to simulate the lateral decubitus positioning. Two additional intra-op postures, simulating different pelvic obliquities, were also tested by varying the inclination of L5. The radiographic evaluation of the lateral decubitus position showed a significant reduction of 44% of the major curve with 18 mm of apical vertebra translation. The FEM was able to reproduce the intra-op spine geometry with no significant difference with the measured values. Simulations also showed that the pelvic obliquity had different effects on the lumbar and major Cobb angles depending on the scoliotic curve type. The lateral decubitus posture reduces significantly the scoliotic curvatures prior to instrumentation, which was dependent on the pelvic obliquity.

  9. Intraoperative Parathyroid Localization with Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using Indocyanine Green during Total Parathyroidectomy for Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cui, Le; Gao, Yang; Yu, Heping; Li, Min; Wang, Birong; Zhou, Tao; Hu, Qinggang

    2017-08-15

    The detection of all glands during total parathyroidectomy (TPTX) in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) patients is often difficult due to their variability in number and location. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) for intraoperative parathyroid gland (PTG) localization in SHPT patients. Twenty-nine patients with SHPT were divided into two groups with or without intraoperative NIRF imaging. ICG was administered in patients undergoing intraoperative imaging, and the fluorescence of PTGs was assessed. Clinical and histopathologic variables were analyzed to determine factors associated with ICG uptake. Comparisons between NIRF and preoperative imaging, as well as differences between groups with or without NIRF imaging, were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of this technique. Most PTGs could be clearly identified, including one ectopic gland. The sensitivity of NIRF imaging is 91.1% in contrast to 81.82% for ultrasonography (US), 62.34% for (99m)Tc-MIBI and 85.71% for computed tomography (CT). In addition, intraoperative NIRF imaging can reduce the operation time and improve the complete resection rate compared with the group not using it. Intraoperative NIRF imaging using ICG during TPTX is technically feasible and reliable for assisting surgeons in detecting and confirming PTGs.

  10. Intraoperative computed tomography for intracranial electrode implantation surgery in medically refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Darrin J; Zwienenberg-Lee, Marike; Seyal, Masud; Shahlaie, Kiarash

    2015-03-01

    Accurate placement of intracranial depth and subdural electrodes is important in evaluating patients with medically refractory epilepsy for possible resection. Confirming electrode locations on postoperative CT scans does not allow for immediate replacement of malpositioned electrodes, and thus revision surgery is required in select cases. Intraoperative CT (iCT) using the Medtronic O-arm device has been performed to detect electrode locations in deep brain stimulation surgery, but its application in epilepsy surgery has not been explored. In the present study, the authors describe their institutional experience in using the O-arm to facilitate accurate placement of intracranial electrodes for epilepsy monitoring. In this retrospective study, the authors evaluated consecutive patients who had undergone subdural and/or depth electrode implantation for epilepsy monitoring between November 2010 and September 2012. The O-arm device is used to obtain iCT images, which are then merged with the preoperative planning MRI studies and reviewed by the surgical team to confirm final positioning. Minor modifications in patient positioning and operative field preparation are necessary to safely incorporate the O-arm device into routine intracranial electrode implantation surgery. The device does not obstruct surgeon access for bur hole or craniotomy surgery. Depth and subdural electrode locations are easily identified on iCT, which merge with MRI studies without difficulty, allowing the epilepsy surgical team to intraoperatively confirm lead locations. Depth and subdural electrodes were implanted in 10 consecutive patients by using routine surgical techniques together with preoperative stereotactic planning and intraoperative neuronavigation. No wound infections or other surgical complications occurred. In one patient, the hippocampal depth electrode was believed to be in a suboptimal position and was repositioned before final wound closure. Additionally, 4 strip electrodes were

  11. An intraoperative multimodal neurophysiologic approach to successful resection of precentral gyrus epileptogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Simon, Mirela V; Cole, Andrew J; Chang, Eric C; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Stufflebeam, Steve M; Nozari, Ala; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Eskandar, Emad N

    2012-04-01

    Cortical dysplasias (CDs) are highly epileptogenic lesions with a good prognosis of seizure freedom, if totally resected. However, their accurate delineation and resection can be difficult, and depend on the extent of pathology and lesion location. Intraoperative neurophysiologic assessments are valuable in these situations. We present an illustrative case of intractable epilepsy where judicious use of intraoperative neurophysiologic-techniques guided resection of precentral CD, under general anesthesia and in the absence of preoperative electrophysiologic mapping data. Ictal onset was accurately delineated using electrocorticography (ECoG). Phase reversal of the median somatosensory-evoked potentials (MSSEPs) localized the central sulcus (CS). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) triggered by high-frequency monopolar anodal electrical cortical stimulation at the primary motor cortex (PMC) threshold delineated the PMC. Using this technique, PMC and the corticospinal tract (CST) were continuously monitored during resection. No changes in MEPs from the preresection baseline were seen; no residual abnormal activity was present in the postresection ECoG. The patient emerged from surgery without deficits and has been seizure free during a 10-month follow-up. Staged multimodal intraoperative neurophysiology can be used successfully under general anesthesia to guide resection of epileptogenic lesions within the precentral gyrus, as an add-on or, in certain situations, as a viable alternative to preoperative electrophysiologic mapping.

  12. An intraoperative multimodal neurophysiologic approach to successful resection of precentral gyrus epileptogenic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Mirela V.; Cole, Andrew J.; Chang, Eric C.; Buchbinder, Bradley R.; Stufflebeam, Steve M.; Nozari, Ala; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical dysplasias (CDs) are highly epileptogenic lesions with a good prognosis of seizure freedom, if totally resected. However, their accurate delineation and resection can be difficult, and depend on the extent of pathology and lesion location. Intraoperative neurophysiologic assessments are valuable in these situations. We present an illustrative case of intractable epilepsy where judicious use of intraoperative neurophysiologic–techniques guided resection of precentral CD, under general anesthesia and in the absence of preoperative electrophysiologic mapping data. Ictal onset was accurately delineated using electrocorticography (ECoG). Phase reversal of the median somatosensory-evoked potentials (MSSEPs) localized the central sulcus (CS). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) triggered by high-frequency monopolar anodal electrical cortical stimulation at the primary motor cortex (PMC) threshold delineated the PMC. Using this technique, PMC and the corticospinal tract (CST) were continuously monitored during resection. No changes in MEPs from the pre-resection baseline were seen; no residual abnormal activity was present in the postresection ECoG. The patient emerged from surgery without deficits and has been seizure free during a 10-month follow-up. Staged multimodal intraoperative neurophysiology can be used successfully under general anesthesia to guide resection of epileptogenic lesions within the precentral gyrus, as an add-on or, in certain situations, as a viable alternative to preoperative electrophysiologic mapping. PMID:22309192

  13. Rapid intraoperative tissue expansion with Foley catheter in a challenging cripple Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Murat; Gollu, Gulnur; Kucuk, Gonul; Bahadir, Berktug

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Failed hypospadiass cases may result in hypovascular, scarred penis with residual penile chordee and leave the patient with minimal residual skin for penile resurfacing and urethroplasty. Local tissue expansion has become a good alternative to provide skin for penis by using expanders however they require long periods of time for expansion. Besides, rapid tissue expansion was also described in different tissues. We used rapid intraoperative expansion technique by using a Foley catheter in a failed hypospadias case who had minimal residual skin secondary to infection and we concluded that rapid intraoperative tissue expansion with Foley catheter is an effective, feasible reconstructive method for easy dissection and penile resurfacing in failed hypospadiass cases. PMID:26200557

  14. Intraoperative thermal imaging in esophageal replacement: its use in the assessment of gastric tube viability.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Katsunori; Matsudaira, Hideki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Ryouji; Hanyuu, Nobuyoshi; Iwabuchi, Shuuichi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    We examined the use of intraoperative thermal imaging to assess the gastric vascularization and gastric tube viability during esophagectomy. The surface temperatures of the intact stomach, devascularized stomach, and gastric tube were measured in 13 patients from the proximal end to the pylorus longitudinally along the greater curvature or along the entire gastric tube during esophagectomy. Thermal images clearly demonstrated a surface temperature decline in the proximal region of the gastric tube. The mean decline rate in the surface temperature in the proximal region of the gastric tube in comparison to the intact stomach was 17.7% (P < 0.001). One patient who developed gastric tube necrosis exhibited a prominent drop in the surface temperature in the proximal region of 20.6% in comparison to that in the distal region, compared to that of 12.5% in other patients. Intraoperative thermal imaging is a noninvasive and reliable technique for the assessment of the gastric tube viability.

  15. Intraoperative neural monitoring in thyroid surgery: lessons learned from animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Gregory W.; Lu, I-Cheng; Chang, Pi-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ting; Hun, Pao-Chu; Lin, Yi-Chu; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Chiang, Feng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury remains a significant morbidity associated with thyroid and parathyroid surgery. In the past decade, surgeons have increasingly used intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM) as an adjunct technique for localizing and identifying the RLN, detecting RLN injury, and predicting the outcome of vocal cord function. In recent years, many animal studies have investigated common pitfalls and new applications of IONM. For example, the use of IONM technology in animal models has proven valuable in studies of the electrophysiology of RLN injury. The advent of animal studies has substantially improved understanding of IONM technology. Lessons learned from animal studies have immediate clinical applications in establishing reliable strategies for preventing intraoperative RLN injury. This article gives an overview of the research progress on IONM-relevant animal models. PMID:27867861

  16. Functional preoperative and intraoperative mapping and monitoring: increasing safety and efficacy in glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Ottenhausen, Malte; Krieg, Sandro M; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Greater extent of resection (EOR) of low-grade gliomas is associated with improved survival. Proximity to eloquent cortical regions often limits resectability and elevates the risk of surgery-related deficits. Therefore, functional localization of eloquent cortex or subcortical fiber tracts can enhance the EOR and functional outcome. Imaging techniques such as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking, and neurophysiological methods like navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetoencephalography, make it possible to identify eloquent areas prior to resective surgery and to tailor indication and surgical approach but also to assess the surgical risk. Intraoperative monitoring with direct cortical stimulation and subcortical stimulation enables surgeons to preserve essential functional tissue during surgery. Through tailored pre- and intraoperative mapping and monitoring the EOR can be maximized, with reduced rates of surgery-related deficits.

  17. A case report of intraoperative endoscopic ultrasound during robotic assisted Heller myotomy for severe esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Abdel Khalek, Mohamed; Abbas, Abbas; Joshi, Virendra; Hariri, Nizar; Kandil, Emad

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal achalasia is the best described primary esophageal motility disorder. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is considered a useful adjunct for grading and establishing the prognosis of these patients. Recent experience using Da Vinci robotic assisted myotomy has demonstrated that this is a safe and effective approach of treatment. The benefit of magnification and three dimensional imaging helps prevent esophageal perforation and identify residual circular muscle fibers. This paper reports the relative efficacy and safety of intraoperative ultrasound during robotic assisted myotomy in a patient with severe achalasia. Intraoperative esophageal endoscopic ultrasound is a safe technique that may improve the success rate of surgery by confirming the adequacy of myotomy, thereby decreasing the likelihood of recurrent symptoms.

  18. Intraoperative OCT Imaging of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System.

    PubMed

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex; Marino, Meghan J; Reese, Jamie; Ehlers, Justis P

    2016-11-01

    Optimal placement of the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) is critical. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for intrasurgical visualization and confirmation of array placement. In this study, two different OCT systems were evaluated to assess the feasibility and utility of this technology during Argus II surgery. Intraoperative OCT was performed on five patients undergoing Argus II implantation at Cole Eye Institute from June 2015 to July 2016. The EnVisu portable OCT (Bioptigen, Morrisville, NC) and microscope-integrated RESCAN 700 (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) intraoperative OCT systems were utilized. The EnVisu was used in three patients and the RESCAN 700 in three of the five patients. Following array tacking, intraoperative OCT was performed over the entire array including the edges and tack. Intraoperative OCT allowed for visualization of the array/retina interface. Microscope integration of the OCT system facilitated ease of focusing, real-time feedback, surgeon-directed OCT scanning to the areas of interest, and enhanced image quality at points of interest. Intraoperative imaging of the Argus II electrode array is feasible and provides information about electrode array-retina interface and distance to help guide a surgeon. Microscope integration of OCT appears to provide an optimal and efficient approach to intraoperative OCT during Argus II array placement. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:999-1003.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. An MRS- and PET-guided biopsy tool for intraoperative neuronavigational systems.

    PubMed

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Vaqas, Babar; Thompson, Gerard; Barwick, Tara; Honeyfield, Lesley; O'Neill, Kevin; Waldman, Adam D

    2017-03-17

    OBJECTIVE Glioma heterogeneity and the limitations of conventional structural MRI for identifying aggressive tumor components can limit the reliability of stereotactic biopsy and, hence, tumor characterization, which is a hurdle for developing and selecting effective treatment strategies. In vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) and PET enable noninvasive imaging of cellular metabolism relevant to proliferation and can detect regions of more highly active tumor. Here, the authors integrated presurgical PET and MRS with intraoperative neuronavigation to guide surgical biopsy and tumor sampling of brain gliomas with the aim of improving intraoperative tumor-tissue characterization and imaging biomarker validation. METHODS A novel intraoperative neuronavigation tool was developed as part of a study that aimed to sample high-choline tumor components identified by multivoxel MRS and (18)F-methylcholine PET-CT. Spatially coregistered PET and MRS data were integrated into structural data sets and loaded onto an intraoperative neuronavigation system. High and low choline uptake/metabolite regions were represented as color-coded hollow spheres for targeted stereotactic biopsy and tumor sampling. RESULTS The neurosurgeons found the 3D spherical targets readily identifiable on the interactive neuronavigation system. In one case, areas of high mitotic activity were identified on the basis of high (18)F-methylcholine uptake and elevated choline ratios found with MRS in an otherwise low-grade tumor, which revealed the possible use of this technique for tumor characterization. CONCLUSIONS These PET and MRI data can be combined and represented usefully for the surgeon in neuronavigation systems. This method enables neurosurgeons to sample tumor regions based on physiological and molecular imaging markers. The technique was applied for characterizing choline metabolism using MRS and (18)F PET; however, this approach provides proof of principle for using different radionuclide tracers and

  20. An MRS- and PET-guided biopsy tool for intraoperative neuronavigational systems.

    PubMed

    Grech-Sollars, Matthew; Vaqas, Babar; Thompson, Gerard; Barwick, Tara; Honeyfield, Lesley; O'Neill, Kevin; Waldman, Adam D

    2016-11-11

    OBJECTIVE Glioma heterogeneity and the limitations of conventional structural MRI for identifying aggressive tumor components can limit the reliability of stereotactic biopsy and, hence, tumor characterization, which is a hurdle for developing and selecting effective treatment strategies. In vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) and PET enable noninvasive imaging of cellular metabolism relevant to proliferation and can detect regions of more highly active tumor. Here, the authors integrated presurgical PET and MRS with intraoperative neuronavigation to guide surgical biopsy and tumor sampling of brain gliomas with the aim of improving intraoperative tumor-tissue characterization and imaging biomarker validation. METHODS A novel intraoperative neuronavigation tool was developed as part of a study that aimed to sample high-choline tumor components identified by multivoxel MRS and (18)F-methylcholine PET-CT. Spatially coregistered PET and MRS data were integrated into structural data sets and loaded onto an intraoperative neuronavigation system. High and low choline uptake/metabolite regions were represented as color-coded hollow spheres for targeted stereotactic biopsy and tumor sampling. RESULTS The neurosurgeons found the 3D spherical targets readily identifiable on the interactive neuronavigation system. In one case, areas of high mitotic activity were identified on the basis of high (18)F-methylcholine uptake and elevated choline ratios found with MRS in an otherwise low-grade tumor, which revealed the possible use of this technique for tumor characterization. CONCLUSIONS These PET and MRI data can be combined and represented usefully for the surgeon in neuronavigation systems. This method enables neurosurgeons to sample tumor regions based on physiological and molecular imaging markers. The technique was applied for characterizing choline metabolism using MRS and (18)F PET; however, this approach provides proof of principle for using different radionuclide tracers and

  1. Intraoperative changes in transcranial motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials predicting outcome in children with intramedullary spinal cord tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jason S.; Ivan, Michael E.; Stapleton, Christopher J.; Quinones-HinoJosa, AlfreDo; Gupta, Nalin; Auguste, Kurtis I.

    2015-01-01

    intraoperatively, and both had new postoperative sensory deficits that resolved. One additional patient had a CUSA-related SSEP decrease intraoperatively, which resolved postoperatively, and the last patient had 3 traction-related sensory deficits and a CUSA-related sensory deficit postoperatively, none of which resolved. Conclusions Intraoperative TcMEPs and SSEPs can predict the degree of postoperative motor deficit in pediatric patients undergoing IMSCT resection. This technique, combined with dorsal column mapping, is particularly useful in resecting lesions of the upper cervical cord, which are generally considered to be high risk in this population. Furthermore, the spinal cord appears to be less tolerant of repeated intraoperative SSEP decreases, with 3 successive insults most likely to yield postoperative sensory deficits. Changes in TcMEPs and SSEP waveforms can signal the need to guard against excessive manipulation thereby increasing the safety of tumor resection. PMID:24702615

  2. Intraoperative changes in transcranial motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials predicting outcome in children with intramedullary spinal cord tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason S; Ivan, Michael E; Stapleton, Christopher J; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gupta, Nalin; Auguste, Kurtis I

    2014-06-01

    had new postoperative sensory deficits that resolved. One additional patient had a CUSA-related SSEP decrease intraoperatively, which resolved postoperatively, and the last patient had 3 traction-related sensory deficits and a CUSA-related sensory deficit postoperatively, none of which resolved. Intraoperative TcMEPs and SSEPs can predict the degree of postoperative motor deficit in pediatric patients undergoing IMSCT resection. This technique, combined with dorsal column mapping, is particularly useful in resecting lesions of the upper cervical cord, which are generally considered to be high risk in this population. Furthermore, the spinal cord appears to be less tolerant of repeated intraoperative SSEP decreases, with 3 successive insults most likely to yield postoperative sensory deficits. Changes in TcMEPs and SSEP waveforms can signal the need to guard against excessive manipulation thereby increasing the safety of tumor resection.

  3. A Preliminary Experience with Use of Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Thalamic Glioma Surgery: A Case Series of 38 Patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuan; Xu, Xinghua; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Qun; Ma, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaolei; Sun, Guochen; Zhang, Jiashu; Jiang, Jinli; Xu, Bainan; Zhang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Thalamic gliomas are rare tumors that constitute 1%-5% of all central nervous system tumors. Despite advanced techniques and equipment, surgical resection remains challenging because of the vital structures adjacent to the tumor. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might play an active role during brain tumor surgery because it compensates for brain shift or operation-induced hemorrhage, which are challenging issues for neurosurgeons. We reviewed 38 patients treated surgically under intraoperative MRI guidance between January 2008 and July 2015 at our center. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative MRI scans were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative motor power, morbidity and mortality, resection rate, surgical approach, pathologic results, and patient demographics were also reviewed. Mean patient age was 37 years ± 18; 12 patients were included in the low-grade group, and 26 patients were included in the high-grade group. Under intraoperative MRI guidance, the gross total resection rate was increased from 16 (42.1%) to 26 (68.4%), and the near-total or subtotal resection rate was increased from 5 (13.2%) to 9 (23.7%). Hematoma formation was discovered in 3 patients on intraoperative MRI scan; each patient underwent a hemostatic operation immediately. With improvements in neurosurgical techniques and equipment, surgical resection is considered feasible in patients with thalamic gliomas. Intraoperative MRI may be helpful in achieving the maximal resection rate with minimal surgical-related morbidity. However, because of severe disease progression, the overall prognosis is unfavorable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraoperative monitoring technician: a new member of the surgical team.

    PubMed

    Brown, Molly S; Brown, Debra S

    2011-02-01

    As surgery needs have increased, the traditional surgical team has expanded to include personnel from radiology and perfusion services. A new surgical team member, the intraoperative monitoring technician, is needed to perform intraoperative monitoring during procedures that carry a higher risk of central and peripheral nerve injury. Including the intraoperative monitoring technician on the surgical team can create challenges, including surgical delays and anesthesia care considerations. When the surgical team members, including the surgeon, anesthesia care provider, and circulating nurse, understand and facilitate this new staff member's responsibilities, the technician is able to perform monitoring functions that promote the smooth flow of the surgical procedure and positive patient outcomes.

  5. Goal-directed therapy in intraoperative fluid and hemodynamic management

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Moore, Peter G.; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative fluid management is pivotal to the outcome and success of surgery, especially in high-risk procedures. Empirical formula and invasive static monitoring have been traditionally used to guide intraoperative fluid management and assess volume status. With the awareness of the potential complications of invasive procedures and the poor reliability of these methods as indicators of volume status, we present a case scenario of a patient who underwent major abdominal surgery as an example to discuss how the use of minimally invasive dynamic monitoring may guide intraoperative fluid therapy. PMID:24086168

  6. Incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with neuromuscular scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Rui; Li, Na; Xu, Bi-Yun; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Xiao-ping; Ma, Zheng-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Factors influencing massive blood loss for neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) patients. Despite advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques, scoliosis surgery is still associated with intraoperative massive blood loss, which can result in postoperative mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with NMS. A retrospective review of adolescents who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for NMS was performed. Perioperative variables and data were recorded. Massive blood loss was defined as an estimated blood loss that exceeds 30% of total blood volume. We obtained data for 114 patients, of whom 63 (55%) had intraoperative massive blood loss. Compared with those without, patients with massive blood loss were more likely to be older, have lower body mass indexes (BMIs), larger Cobb angles, more fused levels, more osteotomy procedures, and prolonged duration of operation. Logistic regression analysis identified the number of fused levels to be more than 12 (P = 0.003, odds ratio = 6.614, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.891–23.131), BMI lower than 16.8 kg/m2 (P = 0.025, odds ratio = 3.293, 95% CI: 1.159–9.357), age greater than 15 years (P = 0.014, odds ratio = 3.505, 95% CI: 1.259–9.761), and duration of operation longer than 4.4 hours (P = 0.016, odds ratio = 3.746, 95% CI: 1.428–9.822) as influencing factors. Patients with massive blood loss are associated with more intraoperative colloids infusion and blood transfusions (red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma), as well as postoperative drainage volume. In adolescents with NMS who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion operations, intraoperative massive blood loss is common. The number of fused levels, BMI, age, and duration of operation are factors influencing intraoperative massive blood loss. PMID:28296737

  7. Echocardiographic detection and treatment of intraoperative air embolism.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Toya, S; Ohira, T; Mine, T; Greig, N H

    1986-03-01

    A real-time two-dimensional echocardiogram was used to detect the presence of an air embolism in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position. The technique could with good sensitivity detect the appearance of a single air bubble intraoperatively, thus allowing early intervention to prevent development of further air emboli. Two types of air embolism could be differentiated; the single-bubble type and the "stormy-bubble" type. The single-bubble type was observed during skin and muscle incisions, craniotomy, and brain lesion excision. Further embolism development was prevented by electrocoagulation and application of bone wax. The stormy-bubble type occurred during dura and muscle incisions and was prevented by electrocoagulation, reflection of the dura, or suturing the affected muscle. The routine use of a Swan-Ganz catheter for removal of air embolism by suction proved effective for the treatment of the stormy-bubble type of air embolism. Masking the operative field with saline-soaked cotton strips was of moderate benefit in the stabilization of the single-bubble type of air influx, but proved to be of little value in controlling the entrance of the stormy-bubble type.

  8. Intraoperative Subcortical Fiber Mapping with Subcortico-Cortical Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Enatsu, Rei; Kanno, Aya; Ohtaki, Shunya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Ochi, Satoko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-02-01

    During brain surgery, there are difficulties associated with identifying subcortical fibers with no clear landmarks. We evaluated the usefulness of cortical evoked potentials with subcortical stimuli (subcortico-cortical evoked potential [SCEP]) in identifying subcortical fibers intraoperatively. We used SCEP to identify the pyramidal tract in 4 patients, arcuate fasciculus in 1 patient, and both in 2 patients during surgical procedures. After resection, a 1 × 4-electrode plate was placed on the floor of the removal cavity and 1-Hz alternating electrical stimuli were delivered to this electrode. A 4 × 5 recording electrode plate was placed on the central cortical areas to map the pyramidal tract and temporoparietal cortical areas for the arcuate fasciculus. SCEPs were obtained by averaging electrocorticograms time locked to the stimulus onset. The subcortical stimulation within 15 mm of the target fiber induced cortical evoked potentials in the corresponding areas, whereas the stimulation apart from 20 mm did not. Five patients showed transient worsening of neurologic symptoms after surgery. However, all patients recovered. SCEP was useful for identifying subcortical fibers and confirmed the preservation of these fibers. This technique is expected to contribute to the effectiveness and safety of resective surgery in patients with lesions close to eloquent areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Abscesses after appendectomy due to intraoperative retaining of fecalith].

    PubMed

    Hörmann, M; Kreuzer, S; Sacher, P; Eich, G F

    2001-08-01

    Fecaliths appear to predispose a patient to acute appendicitis, abscess formation, and perforation. The number of preoperative radiological evaluations is increasing, although children with suspected perforation still undergo surgery immediately. We report and discuss imaging findings and implications in children with acute appendicitis and fecaliths. Four children (3 girls, 1 boy; mean age 9 years) underwent surgery for acute appendicitis. Three children underwent sonography and plain radiography before surgery, 1 child was operated without radiological evaluation. After readmission, all 4 children underwent sonography and plain radiography before surgery. In 3 patients a fecalith was diagnosed initially. After uneventful recovery all 4 patients had acute abdominal pain and readmission was necessary. In all 4 patients the escaped fecalith was demonstrated with sonography and plain radiography confirmed surgically. Discussion about the role of imaging in acute appendicities has concentrated on the diagnostic yield of cross-section techniques. The importance of demonstrating a fecalith, prompting a more thorough intraoperative search has found little attention. The radiologist should also detect and localize a fecalith and should be aware of retained fecaliths as a cause of abscess formation after appendectomy.

  10. A new instrument for intraoperative assessment of individual vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Heaton, James T; Kobler, James B; Hillman, Robert E; Zeitels, Steven M

    2005-07-01

    Intraoperative assessment of vocal fold vibration during phonomicrosurgery performed under general anesthesia may enhance surgical decision-making. We therefore developed and bench-tested a new device we refer to as the aerodynamic vocal fold driver (AVFD). The AVFD comprises a hand-held probe that uses airflow to drive individual vocal folds into phonatory-like vibration. This permits stroboscopic visualization of mucosal waves with simultaneous control of subglottal air pressure. In initial experiments to validate the technique, AVFD driven phonation and conventional whole-larynx phonation were compared using excised canine larynges (n = 14). Single vocal fold phonation using the AVFD and whole larynx phonation yielded similar, positive correlations between subglottal pressure and both amplitude and frequency of vibration. Experiments simulating vocal fold scar-related mucosal stiffening by subepithelial injection of fixative showed the expected elevation of phonation threshold pressures as measured with the AVFD. Likewise, unilateral tissue compression injury disrupted vocal fold vibration, and the AVFD was useful for quantifying improvement in the damaged vocal fold after repair with injection of cross-linked hyaluronic acid gel. These results show that this new instrument has the potential to provide novel and useful information for laryngeal experimentation and to improve phonosurgery.

  11. Design of an intraoperative peritoneal lavage device.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Maria Ignacia; Pino, Esteban J

    2016-08-01

    This paper consists of the design and construction of an intraoperative peritoneal lavage device. It is intended for cleaning the intra-abdominal cavity during a surgical procedure, once the etiology of a peritonitis has been identified and treated. Its purpose is to improve the current standard treatment consisting of simple pouring saline solution. A good washing procedure aids stopping the inflammatory and infectious process generated after the contamination due to the perforation of a hollow viscera. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to simulate the biomechanical behavior of the liver against localized pressure. A graphical interface allows the user to predict liver deformation under different fluid pressures and positions simulating the lavage procedure. A preliminary prototype was implemented and a clinical trial was approved in an animal model. Three intraperitoneal structures belonging to a sheep were analyzed to observe the effect of the lavage. In closing, the final prototype implemented delivers a maximum force of 0.08 [N] and a pressure of 25.6 [kPa], and complied with the specialist's expectations.

  12. Intraoperative anaphylaxis: verba volant, scripta manent!

    PubMed

    Bilò, M B; Cinti, B; Chiarello, M; Bonifazi, F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2005-11-01

    We describe a case of intraoperative gelatine-induced anaphylaxis whose diagnosis was delayed as the use of gelatine during surgical procedures was omitted for two times in patient's medical records. The subject is a 66-year old woman, with a negative medical history of atopy, food and drug allergy, with arterial hypertension on a course of beta-blockers and with bladder carcinoma requiring surgery. The patient had tolerated both general and local anaesthesia on several previous occasions. On the first occasion she experienced arterial fibrillation secondary to a severe episode of hypotension following local anaesthesia, while on a course of beta-blockers. On the second occasion she developed a very severe episode of hypotension followed by the outbreak of a generalised rash during general anaesthesia. The tryptase sera level was 109 mg/L one hour after the reaction had subsided, while the basal values were normal. On the third occasion the patient redeveloped severe hypotension and a generalised rash during general anaesthesia. The allergological work-up was negative, except for intradermal test with gelatine. A study of the intra-cellular cytokines in blood lymphocytes showed a production of IL4 from CD4+ lymphocytes after stimulation by gelatine. The patient underwent a successive surgical procedure without any adverse event.

  13. Intraoperative knee anthropometrics: correlation with cartilage wear.

    PubMed

    Rooney, N; Fitzpatrick, D P; Beverland, D E

    2006-08-01

    Accurate knee morphology is of value in determining the correct sizing of prosthetic implants. Intraoperative measurement of key linear dimensional variables was carried out on 196 Caucasian knees (osteoarthritic patients: 68 male and 128 female). Of the 196 knees measured, 70 had extensive cartilage degeneration. Statistical analysis was carried out on this large sample size of data. Summary statistics and correlation coefficients between variables were determined and compared between subgroups. Male knees were on average larger than female knees. Higher correlation was found between variables for males than between variables for females. Overall, the patellar dimensions were seen to correlate least well with other anatomical variables. High correlation between femoral variables supports current femoral sizing procedure, although routine patellar resection practices are called into question. Average values for the 70 knees with extensive cartilage degeneration were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) than their counterparts for the other 126 knees. For a measurement not containing cartilage, such as femoral epicondylar width, this difference cannot be accounted for by the loss of cartilage owing to wear. This suggests that, for similar height and weight, a naturally narrower femoral epicondylar width may be associated with severe osteoarthritis.

  14. Intraoperative nitrous oxide as a preventive analgesic.

    PubMed

    Stiglitz, D K; Amaratunge, L N; Konstantatos, A H; Lindholm, D E

    2010-09-01

    Preventive analgesia is defined as the persistence of the analgesic effects of a drug beyond the clinical activity of the drug. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor plays a critical role in the sensitisation of pain pathways induced by injury. Nitrous oxide inhibits excitatory N-methyl D-aspartate sensitive glutamate receptors. The objective of our study was to test the efficacy of nitrous oxide as a preventive analgesic. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a subset of patients (n = 100) randomly selected from a previous major multicentre randomised controlled trial on nitrous oxide (ENIGMA trial). Data analysed included postoperative analgesic requirements, pain scores and duration of patient-controlled analgesia during the first 72 postoperative hours. There was no significant difference in postoperative oral morphine equivalent usage (nitrous group 248 mg, no nitrous group 289 mg, mean difference -43 mg, 95% confidence interval 141 to 54 mg). However, patients who received nitrous oxide had a shorter duration of patient-controlled analgesia use (nitrous group 35 hours, no nitrous group 51 hours, mean difference -16 hours, 95% confidence interval -29 to -2 hours, P = 0.022). There was no difference in pain scores between the groups. The shorter patient-controlled analgesia duration in the nitrous oxide group suggests that intraoperative nitrous oxide may have a preventive analgesic effect.

  15. Safety planning for intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Maureen; Kilfoyle, Marguerite

    2013-11-01

    An intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suite (ie, a type of hybrid OR) is a high-risk zone that requires well-defined safety procedures to avoid adverse events related to magnetic forces. At one facility, the opening of an MRI suite necessitated the creation of a safety plan to establish guidelines, procedures, education, and nursing care specific to the use of MRI technology in the operative environment. Formation of a steering committee enabled a multidisciplinary approach to planning and implementation. The addition of two new perioperative nursing roles (ie, MRI control room monitor, MRI safety nurse) addressed staffing challenges related to strictly enforcing MRI safety procedures and delineating duties different from those of the RN circulator. Benefits of a safe approach to an MRI-integrated operative setting included the elimination of an entire surgical experience for patients who underwent additional resection of the tumor during their initial surgical procedure instead of postoperatively or during a subsequent return to the OR. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perspectives in Intraoperative Diagnostics of Human Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Tyurikova, O.; Dembitskaya, Y.; Yashin, K.; Mishchenko, M.; Vedunova, M.; Medyanik, I.; Kazantsev, V.

    2015-01-01

    Amongst large a variety of oncological diseases, malignant gliomas represent one of the most severe types of tumors. They are also the most common type of the brain tumors and account for over half of the astrocytic tumors. According to different sources, the average life expectancy of patients with various glioblastomas varies between 10 and 12 months and that of patients with anaplastic astrocytic tumors between 20 and 24 months. Therefore, studies of the physiology of transformed glial cells are critical for the development of treatment methods. Modern medical approaches offer complex procedures, including the microsurgical tumor removal, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, supplemented with photodynamic therapy and immunotherapy. The most radical of them is surgical resection, which allows removing the largest part of the tumor, reduces the intracranial hypertension, and minimizes the degree of neurological deficit. However, complete removal of the tumor remains impossible. The main limitations are insufficient visualization of glioma boundaries, due to its infiltrative growth, and the necessity to preserve healthy tissue. This review is devoted to the description of advantages and disadvantages of modern intraoperative diagnostics of human gliomas and highlights potential perspectives for development of their treatment. PMID:26543495

  17. Endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Theodore H; Stieg, Phillip E; Anand, Vijay K

    2006-02-01

    The two most recent significant advances in pituitary surgery have been the endonasal endoscopic approach and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI). Each provides improved visualization of intra- and parasellar anatomy with the goal of attaining a complete resection. The combination of the two techniques has not been previously reported in the literature. We performed endoscopic, endonasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in 15 patients using the Polestar N-10 (0.12T) IMRI (Odin Medical Technologies, Inc., Newton, MA). Eleven patients had nonfunctioning tumors, three had acromegaly, and one had a medication-resistant prolactinoma. The effect of the magnetic field on the cathode ray tube screen and the image quality of the IMRI images were assessed. The presence of residual tumor on IMRI was noted and then re-examined with the endoscope. Although the Polestar N-10 is a low Tesla magnet, the IMRI caused significant distortion of the cathode ray tube screen regardless of the viewing angle. This was overcome with the use of a wall-mounted plasma screen. IMRI images were obtained in all cases and were of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate adequate decompression of the optic chiasm and the removal of all suprasellar tumor. In three cases, residual tumor was found with IMRI that was resected endoscopically before the completion of surgery. In four other cases, potential residual tumor was examined endoscopically and found to be normal postoperative change. In eight cases no residual intrasellar tumor was seen on the IMRI. Preresection visual deficits improved in all cases and the insulin-like growth factor levels normalized in two of three cases. There were no delayed cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Combining intraoperative endoscopy and IMRI is feasible and distortion of the cathode ray tube screen can be overcome with the use of either a plasma or liquid crystal display screen. Each technology provides complementary information, which can assist the

  18. Intraoperative methods to stage and localize pancreatic and duodenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Norton, J A

    1999-01-01

    Intraoperative methods to stage and localize tumors have dramatically improved. Advances include less invasive methods to obtain comparable results and precise localization of previously occult tumors. The use of new technology including laparoscopy and ultrasound has provided some of these advances, while improved operative techniques have provided others. Laparoscopy with ultrasound has allowed for improved staging of patients with pancreatic cancer and exclusion of patients who are not resectable for cure. We performed laparoscopy with ultrasound on 50 consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or liver who appeared to have resectable tumors based on preoperative computed tomography. 22 patients (44%) were found to be unresectable because of tumor nodules on the liver and/or peritoneal surfaces or unsuspected distant nodal or liver metastases. The site of disease making the patient unresectable was confirmed by biopsy in each case. Of the 28 remaining patients in whom laparoscopic ultrasound predicted to be resectable for cure, 26 (93%) had all tumor removed. Thus laparoscopy with ultrasound was the best method to select patients for curative surgery. Intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) has been a critical method to identify insulinomas that are not palpable. Nonpalpable tumors are most commonly in the pancreatic head. Because the pancreatic head is thick and insulinomas are small, of 9 pancreatic head insulinomas only 3 (33%) were palpable. However, IOUS precisely identified each (100%). Others have recommended blind distal pancreatectomy for individuals with insulinoma in whom no tumor can be identified. However, our data suggest that this procedure is contraindicated as these occult tumors are usually within the pancreatic head. Recent series suggest that previously missed gastrinomas are commonly in the duodenum. IOUS is not able to identify these tumors, but other methods can. Of 27 patients with 31 duodenal gastrinomas, palpation identified 19

  19. Implementation of an intraoperative electron radiotherapy in vivo dosimetry program.

    PubMed

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Morillo-Macías, Virginia; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Boldó-Roda, Enrique; Lozoya-Albacar, Rafael; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos

    2016-03-15

    Intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) is a highly selective radiotherapy technique which aims to treat restricted anatomic volumes during oncological surgery and is now the subject of intense re-evaluation. In vivo dosimetry has been recommended for IOERT and has been identified as a risk-reduction intervention in the context of an IOERT risk analysis. Despite reports of fruitful experiences, information about in vivo dosimetry in intraoperative radiotherapy is somewhat scarce. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to report our experience in developing a program of in vivo dosimetry for IOERT, from both multidisciplinary and practical approaches, in a consistent patient series. We also report several current weaknesses. Reinforced TN-502RDM-H mobile metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and Gafchromic MD-55-2 films were used as a redundant in vivo treatment verification system with an Elekta Precise fixed linear accelerator for calibrations and treatments. In vivo dosimetry was performed in 45 patients in cases involving primary tumors or relapses. The most frequent primary tumors were breast (37 %) and colorectal (29 %), and local recurrences among relapses was 83 %. We made 50 attempts to measure with MOSFETs and 48 attempts to measure with films in the treatment zones. The surgical team placed both detectors with supervision from the radiation oncologist and following their instructions. The program was considered an overall success by the different professionals involved. The absorbed doses measured with MOSFETs and films were 93.8 ± 6.7 % and 97.9 ± 9.0 % (mean ± SD) respectively using a scale in which 90 % is the prescribed dose and 100 % is the maximum absorbed dose delivered by the beam. However, in 10 % of cases we experienced dosimetric problems due to detector misalignment, a situation which might be avoided with additional checks. The useful MOSFET lifetime length and the film sterilization procedure should also be

  20. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging in neurosurgery: the Brigham concept.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S; Black, P M

    2006-01-01

    The resection of brain tumors is limited by the surgeon's ability to precisely define margins. To overcome this problem, various neuronavigational tools have been used. The development of image-guided navigation systems represents a substantial improvement in the microsurgical treatment of various intracranial lesions. However, a major drawback of this technology is that they use images acquired preoperatively, on which the surgical planning and intraoperative performance is based. As the intracranial anatomy dynamically changes during a neurosurgical procedure, only intraoperatively acquired images can provide the neurosurgeon with the information needed to perform real-time, image-guided surgery. Because magnetic resonance imaging best delineates the soft-tissue extent of most tumors, it currently remains the superior method for intraoperative image guidance. In this review, we outline the development as well as current and possible future applications of the intraoperative MRI (iMRI) unit at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

  1. Intra-Operative Indocyanine Green Angiography of the Parathyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Vidal Fortuny, Jordi; Karenovics, Wolfram; Triponez, Frederic; Sadowski, Samira M

    2016-10-01

    Major complications of thyroid and parathyroid surgery are recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries and definitive hypoparathyroidism. The use of intra-operative Indocyanine Green Angiography for confirmation of vascular status of the parathyroid gland is reported here.

  2. A non-docking intraoperative electron beam applicator system.

    PubMed

    Palta, J R; Suntharalingam, N

    1989-08-01

    A non-docking intraoperative radiation therapy electron beam applicator system for a linear accelerator has been designed to minimize the mechanical, electrical, and tumor visualization problems associated with a docking system. A number of technical innovations have been used in the design of this system. These include: (a) a new intraoperative radiation therapy cone design that gives a better dose uniformity in the treatment volume at all depths; (b) a collimation system which reduces the leakage radiation dose to tissues outside the intraoperative radiation therapy cone; (c) a non-docking system with a translational accuracy of 2 mm and a rotational accuracy of 0.5 degrees; and (d) a rigid clamping system for the cones. A comprehensive set of dosimetric characteristics of the intraoperative radiation therapy applicator system is presented.

  3. MEDIASSIST: medical assistance for intraoperative skill transfer in minimally invasive surgery using augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudra, Gunther; Speidel, Stefanie; Fritz, Dominik; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Gutt, Carsten; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2007-03-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is a highly complex medical discipline with various risks for surgeon and patient, but has also numerous advantages on patient-side. The surgeon has to adapt special operation-techniques and deal with difficulties like the complex hand-eye coordination, limited field of view and restricted mobility. To alleviate with these new problems, we propose to support the surgeon's spatial cognition by using augmented reality (AR) techniques to directly visualize virtual objects in the surgical site. In order to generate an intelligent support, it is necessary to have an intraoperative assistance system that recognizes the surgical skills during the intervention and provides context-aware assistance surgeon using AR techniques. With MEDIASSIST we bundle our research activities in the field of intraoperative intelligent support and visualization. Our experimental setup consists of a stereo endoscope, an optical tracking system and a head-mounted-display for 3D visualization. The framework will be used as platform for the development and evaluation of our research in the field of skill recognition and context-aware assistance generation. This includes methods for surgical skill analysis, skill classification, context interpretation as well as assistive visualization and interaction techniques. In this paper we present the objectives of MEDIASSIST and first results in the fields of skill analysis, visualization and multi-modal interaction. In detail we present a markerless instrument tracking for surgical skill analysis as well as visualization techniques and recognition of interaction gestures in an AR environment.

  4. [Intraoperative mapping of lymph outflow tracts in colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mel'nikov, O R; Iaitskiĭ, A N; Danilov, I N; Anishkin, M Iu; Abdurakhmonov, Iu B

    2007-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 60 cases the authors have shown that identification and target investigation of signal lymph nodes using intraoperative staining with special dyes allows correct assessment of the stage of malignant disease. The method also allows treatment of the patient with an adequate, corresponding to up-to-date standards scheme of combined and complex treatment, gives possibilities of exact intraoperative diagnosis of lymphogenic metastasis and, as a result, allows extended operative intervention up to radical volumes.

  5. Intraoperative Ultrasound to Assess for Pancreatic Duct Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    cholecystocholangiopancreatography is often nondiagnostic, gastroenterologists may not be available for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP...10MHz.We use the SonoSite MicroMaxx SLT 10-5 MHz 52mm broadband linear array intraoperative US probe ( FUJIFILM SonoSite, Inc., Bothell, WA). The duct...Intraoperative US Availability Is gastroenterology available? Is the fluoroscopic and endoscopic equipment available? Is MRCP available? Is a

  6. Intraoperative ice pack application for uvulopalatoplasty pain reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Brian W; Wickens, Brandon; Parnes, Jason

    2013-02-01

    Pain after uvulopalatoplasty continues to cause patients significant morbidity, especially from the tonsillectomy portion. The literature describes multiple techniques to reduce post-tonsillectomy pain, none being definitive. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intraoperative ice pack application on post-uvulopalatoplasty pain. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were met, patients were enrolled and randomized, and subsequently underwent standard electrocautery uvulopalatoplasty. Packs were placed into the tonsillar fossae immediately following tonsil removal and into the palate after the palatoplasty. Patients then completed a questionnaire that evaluated their experience for 10 days following surgery. The primary outcome was pain rated on a visual analog scale. Return to work and return to normal diet were also assessed. T test and Mann-Whitney statistical analyses, as well as routine descriptive statistics, were conducted. Eighteen subjects were recruited. Patients that received intraoperative cold packs experienced a statistically significant change in VAS average pain [3.4 ± 1.1 cm (p = 0.00001)] when compared with patients receiving room temperature packs. No difference in return to work (p = 0.16) and return to normal diet (p = 0.12) was identified. Intraoperative ice pack administration results in significantly reduced pain following electrocautery uvulopalatoplasty. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Intraoperative use of fibrin glue dyed with methylene blue in surgery for branchial cleft anomalies.

    PubMed

    Piccioni, Michela; Bottazzoli, Marco; Nassif, Nader; Stefini, Stefania; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-09-01

    We present a new method of optimizing the results of surgery for branchial cleft anomalies based on the intraoperative injection of fibrin glue combined with methylene blue dye. Retrospective single-center cohort study. The method was applied in 17 patients suffering from branchial anomalies. Six (35.29%) had a preauricular lesion; three (17.65%) had lesions derived from the first arch/pouch/groove (type I), four (23.53%) had lesions derived from the first (type II), one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the second, one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the third, and two (11.76%) had lesions derived from the fourth. The median and mean age at surgery were 10 and 10.6 years, respectively. All patients were followed by periodic clinical and ultrasonographic examination. The combination of fibrin glue with methylene blue facilitated the correct assessment of the extension of the lesions and their intraoperative manipulation. After a mean follow-up of 47.8 months, all patients were free of disease. Intraoperative injection of branchial fistulae and cysts by a mixture of fibrin glue and methylene blue is an effective, easy, and safe tool to track lesions and achieve radical resection. The technique requires a definitive validation on a large cohort with adequate stratification of patients. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2147-2150, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Photoacoustic intra-operative nodal staging using clinically approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Fratila, Raluca M.; Visscher, Martijn; Ten Haken, Bennie; van Wezel, Richard; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theo J. M.

    2013-02-01

    Detection of tumor metastases in the lymphatic system is essential for accurate staging of various malignancies, however fast, accurate and cost-effective intra-operative evaluation of the nodal status remains difficult to perform with common available medical imaging techniques. In recent years, numerous studies have confirmed the additional value of superparamagnetic iron oxide dispersions (SPIOs) for nodal staging purposes, prompting the clearance of different SPIO dispersions for clinical practice. We evaluate whether a combination of photoacoustic (PA) imaging and a clinically approved SPIO dispersion, could be applied for intra-operative nodal staging. Metastatic adenocarcinoma was inoculated in Copenhagen rats for 5 or 8 days. After SPIO injection, the lymph nodes were photoacoustically imaged both in vivo and ex vivo whereafter imaging results were correlated with MR and histology. Results were compared to a control group without tumor inoculation. In the tumor groups clear irregularities, as small as 1 mm, were observed in the PA contrast pattern of the nodes together with an decrease of PA response. These irregularities could be correlated to the absence of contrast in the MR images and could be linked to metastatic deposits seen in the histological slides. The PA and MR images of the control animals did not show these features. We conclude that the combination of photoacoustic imaging with a clinically approved iron oxide nanoparticle dispersion is able to detect lymph node metastases in an animal model. This approach opens up new possibilities for fast intra-operative nodal staging in a clinical setting.

  9. Subependymal spread of recurrent glioblastoma detected with the intraoperative use of 5-aminolevulinic acid: case report.

    PubMed

    Cage, Tene A; Pekmezci, Melike; Prados, Michael; Berger, Mitchel S

    2013-06-01

    Recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) can occur locally or at distant sites within the brain. Though MRI is the standard imaging modality for primary and recurrent GBM, the full extent of diffuse lesions may not be appreciated on MRI alone. Glioblastomas with ependymal and/or subependymal spread are examples of diffuse infiltrative tumors that are incompletely seen on MRI. Some other adjuvant visualization technique such as intraoperative fluorescence-assisted 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) could be used to assist the surgeon in localizing the infiltrating tumor. The authors report on a 56-year-old man who presented 7 years after initial resection of an occipital lobe GBM with imaging consistent with distant discrete foci of tumor recurrence. Because these foci were distant from the original resection cavity, there was concern for diffuse, infiltrative tumor elsewhere throughout the brain versus a distant multicentric recurrence. Therefore, the patient was given 5-ALA prior to surgery to aid in tumor detection intraoperatively. Using fluorescent visualization of the resection cavity, it was confirmed that there was subependymal and ependymal spread of the recurrent tumor along the lateral ventricle connecting the recurrence to the previous tumor site. Magnetic resonance imaging may not completely detect the presence of diffuse tumor infiltrating the ependymal or subependymal spaces. Therefore, adjunct intraoperative use of fluorescence-assisted visualization with 5-ALA may be helpful in highlighting and detecting infiltrative tumor to accurately detect tumor burden and distinguish it from a separate multicentric recurrence.

  10. Intraoperative detection and removal of microscopic residual sarcoma using wide-field imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Jeffrey K; Ferrer, Jorge M; Brigman, Brian E; Lee, Chang-Lung; Dodd, Rebecca D; Eward, William C; Marshall, Lisa F; Cuneo, Kyle C; Carter, Jessica E; Ramasunder, Shalini; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, W David; Griffith, Linda G; Bawendi, Moungi G; Kirsch, David G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The goal of limb-sparing surgery for a soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity is to remove all malignant cells while preserving limb function. After initial surgery, microscopic residual disease in the tumor bed will cause a local recurrence in approximately 33% of patients with sarcoma. To help identify these patients, the authors developed an in vivo imaging system to investigate the suitability of molecular imaging for intraoperative visualization. METHODS: A primary mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma and a wide field-of-view imaging device were used to investigate a series of exogenously administered, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes activated by cathepsin proteases for real-time intraoperative imaging. RESULTS: The authors demonstrated that exogenously administered cathepsin-activated probes can be used for image-guided surgery to identify microscopic residual NIR fluorescence in the tumor beds of mice. The presence of residual NIR fluorescence was correlated with microscopic residual sarcoma and local recurrence. The removal of residual NIR fluorescence improved local control. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that their technique has the potential to be used for intraoperative image-guided surgery to identify microscopic residual disease in patients with cancer. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society. PMID:22437667

  11. Effect of intraoperative infusion of low-dose ketamine on management of postoperative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sarvjeet; Saroa, Richa; Aggarwal, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of opioids for perioperative analgesia is associated with sedation, respiratory depression and postoperative nausea and vomiting. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist such as ketamine has both analgesic and antihyperalgesic properties. We studied the effect of intraoperative infusion of low-dose ketamine on postoperative analgesia and its management with opioids. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients scheduled for open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into two equal groups in a randomized double-blinded way. The general anesthetic technique was standardized in both groups. Group K patients (n = 40) received bolus of ketamine 0.2 mg/kg intravenously followed by an infusion of 0.1 mg/kg/h before skin incision, which was continued up to the end of surgery. Similar volume of saline was infused in Group C (n = 40). The pain score at different intervals and cumulative morphine consumption over 24 h was observed. Secondary outcomes such as hemodynamic parameters, patient satisfaction score and incidences of side effects were also recorded. Results: Intraoperative infusion of low-dose ketamine resulted in effective analgesia in first 6 h of the postoperative period, which was evident from reduced pain scores and reduced opioid requirements (P = 0.001). The incidence of side effects and patient satisfaction were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Intraoperative low-dose ketamine infusion provides good postoperative analgesia while reducing need of opioid analgesics, which must be considered for better management of postoperative analgesia. PMID:26283834

  12. Assessing the registration of CT-scan data to intraoperative x rays by fusing x rays and preoperative information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueziec, Andre P.

    1999-05-01

    This paper addresses a key issue of providing clinicians with visual feedback to validate a computer-generated registration of pre-operative and intra-operative data. With this feedback information, the clinician may decide to proceed with a computer-assisted intervention, revert to a manual intervention, or potentially provide information to the computer system to improve the registration. The paper focuses on total hip replacement (THR) surgery, but similar techniques could be applied to other types of interventions or therapy, including orthopedics, neurosurgery, and radiation therapy. Pre-operative CT data is used to plane the surgery (select an implant type, size and precise position), and is registered to intra-operative X-ray images, allowing to execute the plan: mill a cavity with the implant's shape. (Intra-operative X-ray images must be calibrated with respect to the surgical device executing the plan). One novel technique presented in this paper consists of simulating a post-operative X-ray image of the tissue of interest before doing the procedure, by projecting the registered implant onto an intra-operative X- ray image (corrected for distortion or not), providing clinicians with familiar and easy to interpret images. As an additional benefit, this method provides new means for comparing various strategies for registering pre-operative data to the physical space of the operating room.

  13. Surgical subinguinal approach to varicocele combined with antegrade intraoperative sclerosis of venous vessels.

    PubMed

    Colpi, Giovanni Maria; Carmignani, Luca; Bozzini, Giorgio; Picozzi, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    Varicocele is treated by different surgical techniques, none of which is yet acknowledged as the "gold standard." Some of these techniques, especially microsurgical techniques, are very time consuming and thus expensive, and the treatment of varicocele still causes some complications and recurrences. Marmar and Kim's technique presents some indisputable advantages: it allows the preservation of the arteries and seems to offer the highest percentage of success and lowest number of complications. The authors modified and simplified the microsurgical technique of Marmar and Kim, using a subinguinal approach with intraoperative antegrade sclerotherapy of dilated veins. After the cord has been clamped, 1.5 to 3 mL of 3% aetoxisclerol mixed with 0.5 mL of air is injected. Commonly, minor complications can occur. The most common complication is transient penile lymphangitis, the cause of which is unclear. As the procedure allows selective sparing of the lymphatic vessels, it avoids hydrocele due to the performed procedure.

  14. Analysis of 137 Patients Who Underwent Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Pituitary Adenoma Resection Under High-Field Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Navigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaping; Wang, Fuyu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Peng; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiashu; Zhou, Dingbiao

    2017-08-01

    Pure endoscopic resection has become the most popular surgical approach for pituitary adenoma. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) systems have been in use for endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of iMRI and neuroimaging navigation techniques during endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenomas. Data from 137 patients who underwent resection of endoscopic pituitary adenoma under 1.5T iMRI navigation were collected and analyzed. Of patients, 92 underwent complete resection and 45 had residual tumor on real-time iMRI. Twenty-three patients underwent further surgery, and total resection was achieved in 19. Extent of total resection increased from 67.15% to 81.02%. iMRI revealed 3 patients with bleeding in the surgical area, which was successfully treated during the surgery. Review images obtained 3 months after surgery showed 26 patients with residual tumor; 14 patients had the same volume as intraoperatively, and 12 patients had a volume less than that observed intraoperatively. Residual tumor volume in the suprasellar region was less than that seen intraoperatively in 11 of 15 (73.3%) patients. The use of iMRI and neuronavigation not only leads to a higher rate of tumor resection but also helps in detecting and removing hematomas in the surgical area. Follow-up examinations of extent of residual tumor at 3 months postoperatively were consistent with intraoperative results. Residual tumor volume in the suprasellar region was usually less than that observed intraoperatively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Intraoperative ultrasonography in the staging of pancreatic head neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Alberti, Antonino; Dattola, Pasquale; Littori, Francesca; Dattola, Arturo; Maccarone, Pietro; Basile, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Tumours of the head of the pancreas constitute the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. These tumours are characterised by low survival rates (5% at 5 years) and low surgical resectability rates (20-25%). Liver metastases, lymph-node and vascular involvement, and peritoneal metastases are, in our opinion, exclusion criteria for curative surgical resection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative ultrasonography on the staging of such tumours. Over the period from 1990 to 2000 we introduced intraoperative ultrasonography in the staging of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated 51 patients who at preoperative staging had been regarded as candidates for surgical therapy consisting in a pancreaticoduodenectomy. All patients had been staged by preoperative abdominal ultrasound, ERCP, CT and MRI. Intraoperative ultrasound and colour-Doppler imaging (from 1997 on) revealed involvement of (i) the liver, (ii) the splenomesenteric vessels and (iii) the portal vein. Intraoperative ultrasonography yielded a diagnosis of occult liver metastases in 10 cases and signs of vascular involvement (absence of cleavage, partial and total thrombosis) in 12. One false-negative was registered. Intraoperative ultrasonography in our experience showed 98% sensitivity and specificity in the detection of vascular and lymph-node involvement. Its sensitivity in the detection of liver metastases was 100%. Intraoperative ultrasound is a procedure with a very high sensitivity in the operative staging of cancer of the head of the pancreas.

  16. Intraoperatively Testing the Anastomotic Integrity of Esophagojejunostomy Using Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Celik, S; Almalı, N; Aras, A; Yılmaz, Ö; Kızıltan, R

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative testing of gastrointestinal anastomosis effectively ensures anastomotic integrity. This study investigated whether the routine use of methylene blue intraoperatively identified leaks to reduce the postoperative proportion of clinical leaks. This study retrospectively analyzed consecutive total gastrectomies performed from January 2007 to December 2014 in a university hospital setting by a general surgical group that exclusively used the methylene blue test. All surgeries were performed for gastric or junctional cancers (n = 198). All reconstructions (Roux-en Y esophagojejunostomy) were performed using a stapler. The methylene blue test was used in 108 cases (group 1) via a nasojejunal tube. No test was performed for the other 90 cases (group 2). Intraoperative leakage rate, postoperative clinical leakage rate, length of hospitalization, and mortality rate were the outcome measures. The intraoperative leakage rate was 7.4% in group 1. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 8.6%. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 3.7% in group 1 and 14.4% in group 2 (p = 0.007). There were no postoperative clinical leaks when an intraoperative leak led to concomitant intraoperative repair. The median length of hospital stay was 6 days in group 1 and 8 days in group 2 (p < 0.001). One death occurred in each group. No test-related complications were observed. The methylene blue test for esophagojejunostomy is a safe and reliable method for the assessment of anastomosis integrity, especially in cases with difficult esophagojejunostomic construction.

  17. Intraoperative complications in pediatric neurosurgery: review of 1807 cases.

    PubMed

    van Lindert, Erik J; Arts, Sebastian; Blok, Laura M; Hendriks, Mark P; Tielens, Luc; van Bilsen, Martine; Delye, Hans

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Minimal literature exists on the intraoperative complication rate of pediatric neurosurgical procedures with respect to both surgical and anesthesiological complications. The aim of this study, therefore, was to establish intraoperative complication rates to provide patients and parents with information on which to base their informed consent and to establish a baseline for further targeted improvement of pediatric neurosurgical care. METHODS A clinical complication registration database comprising a consecutive cohort of all pediatric neurosurgical procedures carried out in a general neurosurgical department from January 1, 2004, until July 1, 2012, was analyzed. During the study period, 1807 procedures were performed on patients below the age of 17 years. RESULTS Sixty-four intraoperative complications occurred in 62 patients (3.5% of procedures). Intraoperative mortality was 0.17% (n = 3). Seventy-eight percent of the complications (n = 50) were related to the neurosurgical procedures, whereas 22% (n = 14) were due to anesthesiology. The highest intraoperative complication rates were for cerebrovascular surgery (7.7%) and tumor surgery (7.4%). The most frequently occurring complications were cerebrovascular complications (33%). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative complications are not exceptional during pediatric neurosurgical procedures. Awareness of these complications is the first step in preventing them.

  18. Intraoperative bradycardia and postoperative hyperkalemia in patients undergoing endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

    PubMed

    Anandh, B; Madhusudan Reddy, K R; Mohanty, A; Umamaheswara Rao, G S; Chandramouli, B A

    2002-09-01

    During our initial experience with endoscopic third ventriculostomies, we observed intraoperative bradycardia and postoperative hyperkalemia. The present study was carried out to verify the consistency of these initial observations. Intraoperative heart rate (HR) changes and postoperative serum K + changes were studied prospectively in 20 patients of endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Another 6 patients who underwent endoscopic procedures other than ventriculostomy acted as controls. The anaesthetic technique and intraoperative and postoperative fluid regimen were similar in all patients. Serum K + concentrations were measured intraoperatively and once a day for the next 5 days. The third ventriculostomy group exhibited a significant slowing of the heart rate during the fenestration of the floor of the third ventricle (112 +/- 26 to 101 +/- 28 bpm, p < 0.001) and also at the time of the reversal of the neuromuscular block at the end of surgery (104 +/- 29 to 96 +/- 33 bpm, p < 0.01). The control group did not exhibit similar changes in the heart rate. The postoperative increase in serum K + values in the ventriculostomy group (0.82 +/- 0.55 mmol/L) was higher than that in the control group (0.10 +/- 0.44 mmol/L) (p < 0.01). Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is associated with a significant bradycardia at the time of fenestration and at the time of reversal of the neuromuscular block. The procedure is also associated with a postoperative increase in serum K + values. We propose a mechanism involving distortion of the posterior hypothalamus, which accounts for the bradycardia and postoperative hyperkalemia.

  19. Evaluation of the Metasin assay for intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, G J; Hodges, E; Markham, H; Zhang, S; Cutress, R I

    2017-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the preferred surgical technique for staging the axilla in clinically node-negative breast cancer. Accurate intraoperative staging allows for the immediate performance of an axillary clearance in node-positive patients. We assessed the Metasin assay for the intraoperative analysis of SLNs in a prospective evaluation of 250 consecutive patients undergoing intraoperative SLN analysis at the Breast Unit, University Hospital, Southampton, UK. Metasin uses a quantitative reverse transcription PCR to detect two markers of metastasis: cytokeratin 19 (CK19) an epithelial marker and mammaglobin (MGB) a breast specific marker. Metasin results were compared with the results from routine paraffin block histopathology. Metasin was robust, with a failure rate of <1%, and demonstrated excellent accuracy and reproducibility. The average turnaround time for the Metasin assay was 42 min, the largest variable being the number of nodes assayed. A total of 533 SLNs were evaluated with 75 patients testing positive for MGB and/or CK19. Based on the analysis of individual SLNs, the overall concordance between Metasin and histology was 92.3% (sensitivity 88.7%, specificity 92.9%). When adjusted for tissue allocation bias, the concordance was 93.8% (sensitivity 89.8%, specificity 94.6%). In this evaluation, 57/250 patients (23%) proceeded to axillary clearance based on Metasin results and were considered spared a second operative procedure. Metasin has proven to be an accurate, reproducible and reliable laboratory test. The analysis time is acceptable for intraoperative use, and in comparison to routine histology demonstrates acceptable concordance, sensitivity and specificity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Intraoperative resection control using arterial spin labeling - Proof of concept, reproducibility of data and initial results.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Thomas; Ahmeti, Hajrullah; Lübbing, Isabel; Helle, Michael; Jansen, Olav; Synowitz, Michael; Ulmer, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool for visualizing structures during resection and/or for updating any kind of neuronavigation that might be hampered as a result of brain shift during surgery. Advanced MRI techniques such as perfusion-weighted imaging have already proven to be important in the initial diagnosis preoperatively, but can also help to differentiate between tumor and surgically induced changes intraoperatively. Commonly used methods to visualize brain perfusion include contrast agent administration and are therefore somewhat limited. One method that uses blood as an internal contrast medium is arterial spin labeling (ASL), which might represent an attractive alternative. Ten healthy volunteers were examined using three different scanners and coils within 1 h (3T Achieva MRI using 32-channel head coil, 1.5T Achieva MRI using a 6-channel head coil, 1.5 Intera Scanner using 2 surface coils, Philips, Best, The Netherlands) and quantitative CBF values were calculated and compared between the different setups. Additionally, in eight patients with glioblastoma multiforme, ASL was used pre-, intra-, and postoperatively to define tumor tissue and the extent of resection in comparison to structural imaging. A high correlation (r = 0.91-0.96) was found between MRI scanners and coils used. ASL was as reliable as conventional MR imaging if complete resection was already achieved, but additionally provided valuable information regarding residual tumor tissue in one patient. Intraoperative arterial spin-labeling is a feasible, reproducible, and reliable tool to map CBF in brain tumors and seems to give beneficial information compared to conventional intraoperative MR imaging in partial resection.

  1. Risk factors for intra-operative complications during phacoemulsification performed by residents.

    PubMed

    Lomi, Neiwete; Sharma, Reetika; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Dada, Tanuj; Vanathi, Murugesan; Agarwal, Tushar

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for occurrence of intra-operative complications during phacoemulsification performed by residents. One hundred fifty patients with cataract who underwent phacoemulsification by residents, with an experience of five or more phacoemulsification surgery, at a tertiary care centre were included in this study. The pre-operative data of these patients were collected from the hospital records. Surgeons were interviewed immediately after the surgery regarding the surgeon experience, phacoemulsification technique, machine factors, and intra-operative complications. Statistical analysis was done to determine pre-operative and intra-operative risk factors. The overall surgical complication rate in resident-performed phacoemulsification was 37 % of which major and minor complications were 21 and 16 %, respectively. Success in terms of placement of intraocular lens in capsular bag was 84 %. The most common major and minor complications found were posterior capsular tear and irregular capsulorhexis, respectively. Systemic and ocular features of patients as well as type of machine (longitudinal versus torsional longitudinal) had no significant association in terms of complication rate. Increase in success rate was seen with increase in semester and number of surgeries performed. Patient factors including general physical condition, systemic diseases, and anatomical factors do not influence success in resident-performed phacoemulsification. With increase in semester of residents, there is a significant decrease in intra-operative complications. Minor complications in the beginning of case lead to increase in major complications later on during the case and decrease in success rate by junior-semester residents.

  2. Evaluation of two intraoperative gamma detectors for assessment of (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sandblom, Viktor; Ståhl, Ingun; Olofsson Bagge, Roger; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2017-12-01

    Patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing neuroendocrine tumours can be treated with intravenously administered (177)Lu-octreotate. Few patients are cured with the present protocol due to the current dose limitation of normal organs at risk, such as the kidneys. By locally administering (177)Lu-octreotate to the liver for the purpose of treating liver metastases, a substantially reduced absorbed dose to organs at risk could be achieved. The development of such a technique requires the capability of measuring the (177)Lu activity concentration in tissues in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate different performance parameters of two commercially available intraoperative gamma detectors in order to investigate whether intraoperative gamma detector measurements could be used to determine (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo. Measurements were made using different sources containing (177)Lu. Response linearity, sensitivity, spatial resolution and its depth dependence, organ thickness dependence of the measured count rate and tumour detectability were assessed for two intraoperative gamma detectors. The two detectors (a scintillation and a semiconductor detector) showed differences in technical performance. For example, the sensitivity was higher for the scintillation detector, while the spatial resolution was better for the semiconductor detector. Regarding organ thickness dependence and tumour detectability, similar results were obtained for both detectors, and even relatively small simulated tumours of low tumour-to-background activity concentration ratios could be detected. Acceptable results were obtained for both detectors, although the semiconductor detector proved more advantageous for our purpose. The measurements demonstrated factors that must be corrected for, such as organ thickness or dead-time effects. Altogether, intraoperative gamma detector measurements could be used to determine (177)Lu activity concentration in vivo.

  3. Intraoperative assessment of laryngeal pathologies with optical coherence tomography integrated into a surgical microscope.

    PubMed

    Englhard, Anna S; Betz, Tom; Volgger, Veronika; Lankenau, Eva; Ledderose, Georg J; Stepp, Herbert; Homann, Christian; Betz, Christian S

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic examination followed by tissue biopsy is the gold standard in the evaluation of lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, it can be difficult to distinguish between healthy mucosa, dysplasia, and invasive carcinoma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique which acquires high-resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in vivo. Integrated into a surgical microscope, it allows the intraoperative evaluation of lesions simultaneously with microscopic visualization. In a prospective case series, we evaluated the use of OCT integrated into a surgical microscope during microlaryngoscopy to help differentiating various laryngeal pathologies. 33 patients with laryngeal pathologies were examined with an OCT- microscope (OPMedT iOCT-camera, HS Hi-R 1000G-microscope, Haag-Streit Surgical GmbH, Wedel, Germany) during microlaryngoscopy. The suspected intraoperative diagnoses were compared to the histopathological reports of subsequent tissue biopsies. Hands-free non-contact OCT revealed high-resolution images of the larynx with a varying penetration depth of up to 1.2 mm and an average of 0.6 mm. Picture quality was variable. OCT showed disorders of horizontal tissue layering in dysplasias with a disruption of the basement membrane in carcinomas. When comparing the suspected diagnosis during OCT-supported microlaryngoscopy with histology, 79% of the laryngeal lesions could be correctly identified. Premalignant lesions were difficult to diagnose and falsely classified as carcinoma. OCT integrated into a surgical microscope seems to be a promising adjunct tool to discriminate pathologies of the upper aerodigestive tract intraoperatively. However, picture quality and penetration depth were variable. Although premalignant lesions were difficult to diagnose, the system proved overall helpful for the intraoperative discrimination of benign and malignant tumors. Further studies will be necessary to define its value in the future. Lasers

  4. Intraoperative Device Closure of Atrial Septal Defects with Minimal Transthoracic Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Peng; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Qiu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Atrial septal defect is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Open-heart repair via midline sternotomy or right thoracotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass has been considered the standard treatment for the closure of atrial septal defects, but transcatheter closure with the Amplatzer septal occluder has recently become a viable option. We have adopted a 3rd alternative: intraoperative device closure with minimal transthoracic invasion. From May 2007 through June 2011, 250 patients with secundum atrial septal defect underwent cardiac surgery at our institution. Open-heart repair with cardiopulmonary bypass was performed in 72 patients, and intraoperative device closure was performed in 178 patients. This minimally invasive approach, which required a full evaluation of the atrial septal defect by transthoracic echocardiography, was performed by deploying the device through the delivery sheath to occlude the atrial septal defect. The approach was successful in 175 of the 178 patients. The size of the implanted occluder ranged from 12 to 46 mm in diameter. Minor complications included transient arrhythmias (n=7) and pleural effusion (n=25). After complete release, the intraoperative occluder device dislodged in the right atrium in 3 patients, who then underwent immediate surgical repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. All discharged patients were monitored for 2.3 years to 5 years. As monotherapy, intraoperative device closure of atrial septal defect with minimal transthoracic invasion is a safe and feasible technique. It is particularly beneficial for elderly patients or patients with pulmonary hypertension and is associated with better cosmetic results and less trauma than is surgical closure. PMID:23914014

  5. Intraoperative value of the thompson test.

    PubMed

    Cuttica, Daniel J; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity of the Thompson sign and determine whether the deep flexors of the foot can produce a falsely intact Achilles tendon.Ten unmatched above-the-knee lower extremity cadaveric specimens were studied. In group 1, the Achilles tendon was sectioned into 25% increments. The Thompson maneuver was performed after each sequential sectioning of the Achilles tendon, including after it had been completely sectioned. If the Thompson sign was still intact after complete release of the Achilles tendon, we proceeded to release the tendon, and tendon flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and posterior tibial tendons. The Thompson test was performed after the release of each tendon. In group 2, the tendon releases were performed in a reverse order to that of group 1, with the Thompson test performed after each release. In group 1, the Thompson sign remained intact in all specimens after sectioning of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the tendon. After complete (100%) release of the tendon, the Thompson sign was absent in all specimens. In group 2, the Thompson sign remained intact after sectioning of the posterior tibial, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus tendons in all specimens. The Thompson sign remained intact in all specimens after sectioning of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the Achilles tendon. After complete release of the tendon, the Thompson sign was absent in all specimens.The Thompson test is an accurate clinical test for diagnosing complete Achilles tendon ruptures. However, it might not be a useful test for diagnosing partial Achilles tendon ruptures. Our findings also call into question the usefulness of the Thompson test in the intraoperative setting.

  6. Automated intraoperative calibration for prostate cancer brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiran Chen, Thomas; Heffter, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; Pinter, Csaba; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Burdette, E. Clif; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Prostate cancer brachytherapy relies on an accurate spatial registration between the implant needles and the TRUS image, called ''calibration''. The authors propose a new device and a fast, automatic method to calibrate the brachytherapy system in the operating room, with instant error feedback. Methods: A device was CAD-designed and precision-engineered, which mechanically couples a calibration phantom with an exact replica of the standard brachytherapy template. From real-time TRUS images acquired from the calibration device and processed by the calibration system, the coordinate transformation between the brachytherapy template and the TRUS images was computed automatically. The system instantly generated a report of the target reconstruction accuracy based on the current calibration outcome. Results: Four types of validation tests were conducted. First, 50 independent, real-time calibration trials yielded an average of 0.57 {+-} 0.13 mm line reconstruction error (LRE) relative to ground truth. Second, the averaged LRE was 0.37 {+-} 0.25 mm relative to ground truth in tests with six different commercial TRUS scanners operating at similar imaging settings. Furthermore, testing with five different commercial stepper systems yielded an average of 0.29 {+-} 0.16 mm LRE relative to ground truth. Finally, the system achieved an average of 0.56 {+-} 0.27 mm target registration error (TRE) relative to ground truth in needle insertion tests through the template in a water tank. Conclusions: The proposed automatic, intraoperative calibration system for prostate cancer brachytherapy has achieved high accuracy, precision, and robustness.

  7. Our intraoperative boost radiotherapy experience and applications

    PubMed Central

    Günay, Semra; Alan, Ömür; Yalçın, Orhan; Türkmen, Aygen; Dizdar, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present our experience since November 2013, and case selection criteria for intraoperative boost radiotherapy (IObRT) that significantly reduces the local recurrence rate after breast conserving surgery in patients with breast cancer. Material and Methods: Patients who were suitable for IObRT were identified within the group of patients who were selected for breast conserving surgery at our breast council. A MOBETRON (mobile linear accelerator for IObRT) was used for IObRt during surgery. Results: Patients younger than 60 years old with <3 cm invasive ductal cancer in one focus (or two foci within 2 cm), with a histologic grade of 2–3, and a high possibility of local recurrence were admitted for IObRT application. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed and advancement flaps were prepared according to the size and inclination of the conus following evaluation of tumor size and surgical margins by pathology. Distance to the thoracic wall was measured, and a radiation oncologist and radiation physicist calculated the required dose. Anesthesia was regulated with slower ventilation frequency, without causing hypoxia. The skin and incision edges were protected, the field was radiated (with 6 MeV electron beam of 10 Gy) and the incision was closed. In our cases, there were no major postoperative surgical or early radiotherapy related complications. Conclusion: The completion of another stage of local therapy with IObRT during surgery positively effects sequencing of other treatments like chemotherapy, hormonotherapy and radiotherapy, if required. IObRT increases disease free and overall survival, as well as quality of life in breast cancer patients. PMID:26985156

  8. Pilot study of intraoperative digital imaging with the use of a mammograph for assessment of bone surgical margins in the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Ntomouchtsis, A; Xinou, K; Patrikidou, A; Paraskevopoulos, K; Kechagias, N; Tsekos, A; Balis, G C; Gerasimidou, D; Thuau, H; Mangoudi, D; Vahtsevanos, K

    2013-03-01

    To investigate alternative possibilities for the intraoperative evaluation of surgical margins after bone resection utilizing more conventional hospital infrastructure technologies. A small pilot study was performed using digital mammograph imaging intraoperatively on 16 surgical specimens of bone tumours or malignancies with bone infiltration of the head and neck area, with the aim of evaluating the resection margins. In thirteen cases the intraoperative specimen images indicated clinically complete excision. In two cases incomplete resection or close proximity of margins was detected, which required additional resection. The results indicated that intraoperative specimen radiography can prove useful in evaluating completeness of excision. The significance of intraoperative assessment of surgical margin is of paramount importance when immediate reconstruction is performed. This proposed method is cheap, easy to perform and fast. Its cost-benefit ratio is superior than that of any other available technique. Intraoperative analysis of specimens with digital mammography imaging can potentially become a useful tool for immediate evaluation of osseous margins after resection. Copyright © 2012 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between preoperative imaging features and intraoperative blood loss of meningioma: a new scoring system for predicting intraoperative blood loss.

    PubMed

    Lü, J

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the correlation between preoperative imaging features and intraoperative blood loss and transfusion of meningioma in order to explore the possibility of reasonable blood preparation based on the preoperative images. The data of 93 adults with meningioma having undergone microsurgical operations was retrospectively analyzed. The intraoperative blood loss of meningioma was evaluated with "estimated blood loss (EBL)". The preoperative imaging features including volume, origin, peritumoral edema, invasive behavior, calcification, dural tail sign, adjacent bone involvement, blood vessel or venous sinus involvement were reviewed. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlations between the imaging factors and the EBL or blood requirement. Origin, volume, and blood vessel or venous sinus involvement of meningioma affected its EBL statistically. Calcification, invasive behaviors, dural tail sign, peritumoral edema and adjacent bone involvement did not influence EBL statistically. Origin and volume were independent risk factors for the high intraoperative blood loss. Origin, volume and blood vessel or venous sinus involvement were independent risk factors for the intraoperative red blood cell transfusion requirement. A scoring method was proposed to predict the intraoperative blood loss and transfusion of meningioma based on preoperative images. It is feasible to predict the intraoperative blood loss and transfusion of meningioma surgery according to the preoperative images.

  10. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative imaging in high-grade glioma resection; a comparative review of intraoperative ALA, fluorescein, ultrasound and MRI.

    PubMed

    Eljamel, M Sam; Mahboob, Syed Osama

    2016-12-01

    Surgical resection of high-grade gliomas (HGG) is standard therapy because it imparts significant progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). However, HGG-tumor margins are indistinguishable from normal brain during surgery. Hence intraoperative technology such as fluorescence (ALA, fluorescein) and intraoperative ultrasound (IoUS) and MRI (IoMRI) has been deployed. This study compares the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these technologies. Critical literature review and meta-analyses, using MEDLINE/PubMed service. The list of references in each article was double-checked for any missing references. We included all studies that reported the use of ALA, fluorescein (FLCN), IoUS or IoMRI to guide HGG-surgery. The meta-analyses were conducted according to statistical heterogeneity between studies. If there was no heterogeneity, fixed effects model was used; otherwise, a random effects model was used. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by χ(2) and inconsistency (I(2)) statistics. To assess cost-effectiveness, we calculated the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Gross total resection (GTR) after ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI was 69.1%, 84.4%, 73.4% and 70% respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. All four techniques led to significant prolongation of PFS and tended to prolong OS. However none of these technologies led to significant prolongation of OS compared to controls. The cost/QALY was $16,218, $3181, $6049 and $32,954 for ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI respectively. ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI significantly improve GTR and PFS of HGG. Their incremental cost was below the threshold for cost-effectiveness of HGG-therapy, denoting that each intraoperative technology was cost-effective on its own. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Intraoperative and post-implant dosimetry in patients treated with permanent prostate implant brachytherapy].

    PubMed

    Herein, András; Ágoston, Péter; Szabó, Zoltán; Jorgo, Kliton; Markgruber, Balázs; Pesznyák, Csilla; Polgár, Csaba; Major, Tibor

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of our work was to compare intraoperative and four-week post-implant dosimetry for loose and stranded seed implants for permanent prostate implant brachytherapy. In our institute low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy is performed with encapsulated I-125 isotopes (seeds) using transrectal ultrasound guidance and metal needles. The SPOT PRO 3.1 (Elekta, Sweden) system is used for treatment planning. In this study the first 79 patients were treated with loose seed (LS) technique, the consecutive patients were treated with stranded seed (SS) technique. During intraoperative planning the dose constraints were the same for both techniques. All LSs were placed inside the prostate capsule, while with SS a 2 mm margin around the prostate was allowed for seed positioning. The prescribed dose for the prostate was 145 Gy. This study investigated prostate dose coverage in 30-30 randomly selected patients with LS and SS. Four weeks after the implantation native CT and MRI were done and CT/MRI image fusion was performed. The target was contoured on MRI and the plan was prepared on CT data. To assess the treatment plan dose-volume histograms were used. For the target coverage V100, V90, D90, D100, for the dose inhomogeneity V150, V200, and the dose-homogeneity index (DHI), for dose conformality the conformal index (COIN) were calculated. Intraoperative and postimplant plans were compared. The mean V100 values decreased at four-week plan for SS (97% vs. 84%) and for LS (96% vs. 80%) technique, as well. Decrease was observed for all parameters except for the DHI value. The DHI increased for SS (0.38 vs. 0.41) and for LS (0.38 vs. 0.47) technique, as well. The COIN decreased for both techniques at four-week plan (SS: 0.63 vs. 0.57; LS: 0.67 vs. 0.50). All differences were significant except for the DHI value at SS technique. The percentage changes were not significant, except the COIN value. The dose coverage of the target decreased significantly at four-week plans

  12. Intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring for C1-2 spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Muncie, Laura M; Ellens, Nathaniel R; Tolod-Kemp, Emeline; Feler, Claudio A; Winestone, John S

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE This study is a retrospective case series involving C1-2 spinal cord stimulation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) under general endotracheal anesthesia. Currently, C1-2 paddle lead placement is an accepted practice, which provides effective cervical stimulation to ameliorate upper-extremity and sometimes lower-extremity symptoms experienced by patients with CRPS. However, this technique must be performed under general endotracheal anesthesia rather than in an awake or semiconscious state due to intraoperative safety concerns and patient comfort. The authors aim to provide additional data to support the following novel technique: the use of somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) diminution data to assist with proper midline placement of C1-2 leads under general anesthesia. METHODS SSEP median nerve (MN) and posterior tibial nerve (PTN) data were collected from 6 patients undergoing placement of C1-2 leads under general anesthesia. Fluoroscopy was used as an initial guide for proper anatomical midline placement. This was followed by the activation of the spinal cord stimulator and simultaneous collection of primarily MN SSEPs as well as PTN SSEPs for physiological midline placement. Unilateral and bilateral reductions in SSEPs assisted with the correct lateralization of the lead to ensure effective postoperative coverage according to the patient's individual preoperative symptoms. RESULTS Six patients were monitored using SSEPs and repeatable, reliable MN and PTN baseline responses were obtained from all. A reduction in amplitude ranging from 5% to 87% was observed, confirming inhibition of dorsal column conduction, and an average pain relief of 63% at short-term and 64% at long-term follow-up was recorded with 6 of 6 and 5 of 6 patients responding, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative SSEP collision study testing appears to be a safe technique to monitor placement of C1-2 paddle leads intraoperatively under general anesthesia.

  13. A Prospective Nonrandomized Study on Carotid Surgery Performed under General Anesthesia without Intraoperative Cerebral Monitoring.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Francesco; Chaves Brait, Cristina Margot; Pattaro, Cristian; Cesareo, Vladimiro; Di Cintio, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess our experience of carotid surgery habitually performed under general anesthesia without intraoperative intracerebral monitoring, and following a pre-established perioperative protocol, which includes extensive use of an intraoperative shunt (IOS). This study included 311 consecutive carotid operations performed over 32 months. This patient cohort represents 14% of our total experience in carotid surgery (2219 operations, major stroke/mortality rate: 1.4%). The IOS was inserted routinely in the presence of intraoperative blood pressure instability during cross-clamping and when the predictable clamping time might have exceeded 20 minutes. A moderate and stable hypertension was maintained throughout surgery without IOS. Overall, 120 (38.6%) endarterectomies were performed with primary closure, 73 (23.5%) with eversion technique, 113 (36.3%) with patch angioplasty, and 5 (1.6%) with other techniques. Out of 113 patch angioplasties, 111 (98.2%) were performed with an IOS. This was utilized in only 3 cases of direct carotid reconstructions or other carotid endarterectomy techniques (1.5%). Overall, the IOS placement rate was 36.7%. Postoperatively, 2 major strokes (.64%), 2 minor strokes (.64%), 4 hyperperfusion syndromes (1.3%), and no mortality were recorded. No cases of cross-clamp ischemia/shunt-related perioperative strokes were observed. The low perioperative stroke rate reported in this prospective study proves the advantages of wide use of IOS during carotid surgery. This coupled with a large experience in carotid surgery and close monitoring and support of blood pressure, are the major determinants of these results that demonstrate the low risk of shunt-related complications for surgeons who regularly utilize an IOS. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The difficult intraoperative nasogastric tube intubation: A review of the literature and a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Socias, Stephanie M; Ciesla, David J; Karlnoski, Rachel A; Camporesi, Enrico M; Mangar, Devanand

    2014-01-01

    Nasogastric tube intubation of a patient under general anesthesia with an endotracheal tube in place can pose a challenge to the most experienced anesthesiologist. Physiologic and pathologic variations in a patient’s functional anatomy can present further difficulty. While numerous techniques to the difficult nasogastric tube intubation have been described, there is no consensus for a standard approach. Therefore, selecting the most appropriate approach requires a working knowledge of the techniques available, mindful consideration of individual patient and clinical factors, and the operator’s experience and preference. This article reviews the relevant literature regarding various approaches to the difficult nasogastric tube intubation with descriptions of techniques and results from comparative studies if available. Additionally, we present a novel approach using a retrograde technique for the difficult intraoperative nasogastric tube intubation. PMID:26770713

  15. Intraoperative landmarking of vascular anatomy by integration of duplex and Doppler ultrasonography in image-guided surgery. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Sure, Ulrich; Benes, Ludwig; Bozinov, Oliver; Woydt, Michael; Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2005-02-01

    The integration of ultrasound technology into neuronavigation systems has recently been the subject of reports by several groups. This article describes our preliminary findings with regard to the integration of data derived from intraoperative duplex (color mode) and Doppler ultrasonography into a neuronavigational data set. It was the aim of the study to investigate (1) whether the intraoperative landmarking of vessels that are outlined with ultrasound technology is possible and (2) whether such a technique might be of clinical interest for neurosurgical interventions. The video image of an ultrasound plane (Toshiba, Powervision 6000 SSA-370A, Tokyo, Japan) was integrated into our neuronavigation system (VectorVision2, BrainLab, Heimstetten, Germany). For calibration of the ultrasound plane, an instrument adapter was fixed to the ultrasound probe and then calibrated using a special, predefined calibration phantom. Accordingly, the system supported a combination of the ultrasound plane functionality with the preoperatively acquired neuronavigational data. The duplex and Doppler mode of the ultrasound system displayed the intraoperative vascular anatomy. Once a vessel was outlined during surgery, it could be landmarked by touching the navigation screen. These landmarks were integrated automatically into the neuronavigational data set and could be used to provide intraoperative image updates of the vascular anatomy. This technique was successful in 45 of 47 (95.7%) surgical interventions. Both image-guided ultrasound and duplex-guided integration of vascular anatomy into the neuronavigational data set are technically possible. In the future, this technology may provide useful intraoperative information during surgery of complex cerebral pathologies.

  16. Intraoperative intrinsic optical imaging of human somatosensory cortex during neurosurgical operations.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsushige; Nariai, Tadashi; Momose-Sato, Yoko; Kamino, Kohtaro

    2017-07-01

    Intrinsic optical imaging as developed by Grinvald et al. is a powerful technique for monitoring neural function in the in vivo central nervous system. The advent of this dye-free imaging has also enabled us to monitor human brain function during neurosurgical operations. We briefly describe our own experience in functional mapping of the human somatosensory cortex, carried out using intraoperative optical imaging. The maps obtained demonstrate new additional evidence of a hierarchy for sensory response patterns in the human primary somatosensory cortex.

  17. Intradural Intramedullary Mixed Type Hemangioma: Optimizing the Surgical Management through Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Situmeang, Adrian; Safri, Ahmad Yanuar; Fadhly, Zulfa Indah K.

    2015-01-01

    Intradural intramedullary mixed type hemangioma is a rare histotype of primary spinal cord tumors, though it can carry a severe clinical burden leading to limb dysfunction or motor and sensory disturbances. Timely intervention with radical resection is the hallmark of treatment but achieving it is not an easy task even for experienced neurosurgeons. We herein present an exemplificative case presenting with sudden paraplegia in which total resection was achieved under intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring. A thorough discussion on the operative technique and the role of neuromonitoring in allowing a safe surgical management of primary spinal cord tumors is presented. PMID:26839729

  18. A case report of intraoperative retroorbital fluid dissection after frontal mini-trephine placement.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jamie N; Lopez, Manuel A; Weitzel, Erik K

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of a 24-year-old male with a history of allergic fungal sinusitis, who experienced an intraoperative retro-orbital fluid dissection after frontal mini-trephine placement. Although mini-trephination of the frontal sinus is a useful technique that is frequently employed during endoscopic sinus surgery, it has potential complications. The purpose of this report is to discuss a previously unreported complication of frontal mini-trephination and its management. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Advantages of microscope-integrated intraoperative online optical coherence tomography: usage in Boston keratoprosthesis type I surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebelmann, Sebastian; Steven, Philipp; Hos, Deniz; Hüttmann, Gereon; Lankenau, Eva; Bachmann, Björn; Cursiefen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) type I is a technique to treat patients with corneal diseases that are not amenable to conventional keratoplasty. Correct assembly and central implantation of the prosthesis are crucial for postoperative visual recovery. This study investigates the potential benefit of intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) to monitor KPro surgery. Retrospective case series are presented for two patients who underwent Boston KPro type I implantation. The surgery in both patients was monitored intraoperatively using a commercially available intraoperative OCT (iOCT) device mounted on a surgical microscope. Microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT was able to evaluate the correct assembly and implantation of the KPro. All parts of the prosthesis were visible, and interfaces between the corneal graft and titanium backplate or anterior optics were clearly depictable. Moreover, iOCT visualized a gap between the backplate and graft in one case, and in the other case, a gap between the anterior optic and graft. Neither gap was visible with a conventional surgical microscope. The gap between the anterior optic and the graft could easily be corrected. Microscope-integrated iOCT delivers enhanced information, adding to the normal surgical microscope view during KPro surgery. Correct assembly can be controlled as well as the correct placement of the Boston KPro into the anterior chamber.

  20. Characterization of an asymmetric add-on collimator used with a hand-held gamma probe for radioguided surgery and sentinel node detection: a demonstration of an alternative collimation method.

    PubMed

    Johnsrud, Kjersti; Skretting, Arne; Naum, Alexandru G; Bogsrud, Trond V; Bach-Gansmo, Tore

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate a new principle for collimation of gamma probes for radioguided surgery and sentinel node detection: the use of asymmetric lateral shielding. The intension was to maintain the sensitivity in the lateral and forward directions on the unshielded side while at the same time to shield the probe against high activity sources that could mask the signal from the object to be detected. The device was constructed to shield only against photons that come from a region in space that spans approximately 180° sideways and forwards relative to the detector. The intension of the study was to demonstrate the principle rather than to document its use in the clinic. Sensitivity profiles were derived from measurements obtained while stepwise moving the probe relatively to a point source of known activity surrounded by water. The measurements were taken in the symmetry plane of the collimator where the shielding effects were expected to be most pronounced. The asymmetric collimator led to nearly unchanged sensitivity in the lateral and forward directions. At the same time, the field of view was effectively shrunk on the shielded side. Contributions from sources lateral and close to the shield were reduced by factors up to 45. By rotating the probe around its longitudinal axis, an asymmetric add-on shield collimator could potentially make it easier to detect a sentinel node when this is located close to a neighbouring high activity region like the urinary bladder or the injection site. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The intraoperative gamma probe: basic principles and choices available.

    PubMed

    Zanzonico, P; Heller, S

    2000-01-01

    By taking advantage of the proximity to radioactive sentinel nodes and occult tumors achievable in an operative setting, intraoperative probes are becoming increasingly important in the surgical management of cancer. This article begins with a discussion of the statistical limitations of radiation detection and measurement and of the key performance parameters (sensitivity, energy resolution, and spatial resolution) that characterize detectors. The basic design and operating principle of radiation detectors used in intraoperative probes, scintillation and semiconductor detectors, are then reviewed. Scintillation detector-based intraoperative probes, generally using a NaI(T1) or a CsI(T1) crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube by a fiberoptic cable, have the advantages of reliability, relatively low cost, and high sensitivity, especially for medium- to high-energy photons. Disadvantages include poor energy resolution and scatter rejection, and bulkiness. Semiconductor (CdZn, CdZnTe, HgI2)-based probes are compact and have excellent energy resolution and scatter rejection, but with complex energy spectra reflecting charge-carrier trapping. Their main disadvantage is lower sensitivity. The performance parameters of various commercially available intraoperative probes are then compared. The article concludes with a discussion of the practical considerations in selecting and using intraoperative probes, including ergonomic and other design features, as well as performance parameters.

  2. Intraoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy: An American Brachytherapy Society consensus report.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S; Alektiar, K M; Nag, S; Huang, Y J; Deufel, C L; Mourtada, F; Gaffney, D K

    This report presents recommendations from the American Brachytherapy Society for the use of intraoperative high-dose-rate (IOHDR) brachytherapy. Members of the American Brachytherapy Society with expertise in IOHDR formulated this document based on their clinical experience and a review of the literature. This report covers the use of IOHDR in colorectal cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, gynecologic cancers, head and neck cancers, and pediatric cancers. This report does not cover intraoperative brachytherapy for breast cancer. Details about treatment planning and delivery are emphasized so this document can serve as a guide to practices implementing this technique. IOHDR brachytherapy is generally most beneficial for patients with either close or positive margins and/or recurrent disease in a previous resection bed or previously irradiated area. IOHDR brachytherapy requires a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team. IOHDR brachytherapy is recommended in the treatment of both recurrent and primary locally advanced disease for colorectal and gynecologic malignancies, soft tissue sarcoma, and selected head and neck and pediatric malignancies. Other techniques such as perioperative fractionated brachytherapy are also acceptable in many cases with some advantages and disadvantages compared to IOHDR. IOHDR brachytherapy is a specialized technique in radiation therapy with unique properties and advantages in cancer control. Special considerations for treatment planning and delivery are outlined herein. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oil-on-water: proposed method for intraoperative identification of perilymphatic fistula.

    PubMed

    Todd, N W; Jackson, R T

    1995-07-01

    The intraoperative diagnosis of a perilymphatic fistula is usually subjective and controversial. Unless there is profuse gushing of fluid, there is no reliable, objective, intraoperative indicator of a perilymphatic fistula. The authors suggest a technique for the real-time determination of the existence and location of a perilymphatic fistula: visualization of clear perilymphatic fluid beneath a layer of mineral oil. Mineral oil is transparent to visible light, hydrophobic, and lighter than perilymphatic fluid. The oil traps the aqueous fluid, and tends to keep it contained in a droplet. With standard otomicroscopic viewing, a droplet of less than 1 microL of fluid is readily visible through the oil. In vitro temporal bone studies showing the utility and objectivity of identifying the aqueous fluid in the mesotympanum are reported. Mineral oil floats on saline and is readily removed with suction-irrigation techniques. The authors consider the oil-on-water technique to increase the resolution of identifying minute aqueous droplets and recommend in vivo study in patients.

  4. Intraoperative Monitoring and Mapping of the Functional Integrity of the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Conejero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic damage is very high in surgical interventions in or around the brainstem. However, surgical techniques and intraoperative neuromonitoring (ION) have evolved sufficiently to increase the likelihood of successful functional outcomes in many patients. We present a critical review of the methodologies available for intraoperative monitoring and mapping of the brainstem. There are three main groups of techniques that can be used to assess the functional integrity of the brainstem: 1) mapping, which provides rapid anatomical identification of neural structures using electrical stimulation with a hand-held probe, 2) monitoring, which provides real-time information about the functional integrity of the nervous tissue, and 3) techniques involving the examination of brainstem reflexes in the operating room, which allows for the evaluation of the reflex responses that are known to be crucial for most brainstem functions. These include the blink reflex, which is already in use, and other brainstem reflexes that are being explored, such as the masseter H-reflex. This is still under development but is likely to have important functional consequences. Today an abundant armory of ION methods is available for the monitoring and mapping of the functional integrity of the brainstem during surgery. ION methods are essential in surgery either in or around the brainstem; they facilitate the removal of lesions and contribute to notable improvements in the functional outcomes of patients. PMID:27449909

  5. Intraoperative targeted optical imaging: a guide towards tumor-free margins in cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Orbay, Hakan; Bean, Jero; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, development of various imaging techniques such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography greatly facilitated the early detection of cancer. Another important aspect that is closely related to the survival of cancer patients is complete tumor removal during surgical resection. The major obstacle in achieving this goal is to distinguish between tumor tissue and normal tissue during surgery. Currently, tumor margins are typically assessed by visual assessment and palpation of the tumor intraoperatively. However, the possibility of microinvasion to the surrounding tissues makes it difficult to determine an adequate tumor-free excision margin, often forcing the surgeons to perform wide excisions including the healthy tissue that may contain vital structures. It would be ideal to remove the tumor completely, with minimal safety margins, if surgeons could see precise tumor margins during the operation. Molecular imaging with optical techniques can visualize the tumors via fluorophore conjugated probes targeting tumor markers such as proteins and enzymes that are upregulated during malignant transformation. Intraoperative use of this technique may facilitate complete excision of the tumor and tumor micromasses located beyond the visual capacity of the naked eye, ultimately improving the clinical outcome and survival rates of cancer patients.

  6. Are intraoperative precursor events associated with postoperative major adverse events?

    PubMed

    Herman, Christine R; Légaré, Jean-François; Levy, Adrian; Buth, Karen J; Baskett, Roger

    2014-05-01

    Precursor events are undesirable events that can lead to a subsequent adverse event and have been associated with postoperative mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether precursor events are associated with a composite endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (death, acute renal failure, stroke, infection) in a low- to medium-risk coronary artery bypass grafting, valve, and valve plus coronary artery bypass grafting population. These events might be targets for strategies aimed at quality improvement. The present study was a retrospective cohort design performed at the Queen Elizabeth Health Science Centre. Low- to medium-risk patients who had experienced postoperative MACE were matched 1:1 with patients who had not experienced postoperative MACE. The operative notes, for both groups, were scored by 5 surgeons to determine the frequency of 4 precursor events: bleeding, difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, repair or regrafting, and incomplete revascularization or repair. A univariate comparison of ≥1 precursor events in the matched groups was performed. A total of 311 MACE patients (98.4%) were matched. The primary outcome occurred more frequently in the MACE group than in the non-MACE group (33% vs 24%; P = .015). The incidence of the individual events of bleeding and difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was significantly higher in the MACE group. Those patients with a precursor event in the absence of MACE also appeared to have a greater prevalence of other important postoperative outcomes. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery who are exposed to intraoperative precursor events were more likely to experience a postoperative MACE. Quality improvement techniques aimed at mitigating the consequences of precursor events might improve the surgical outcomes for cardiac surgical patients. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radical pleurectomy and intraoperative photodynamic therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Culligan, Melissa J; Mick, Rosemarie; Stevenson, James; Hahn, Stephen M; Sterman, Daniel; Punekar, Salman; Glatstein, Eli; Cengel, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Radical pleurectomy (RP) for mesothelioma is often considered either technically unfeasible or an operation limited to patients who would not tolerate a pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using RP and intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) for mesothelioma. Thirty-eight patients (42-81 years) underwent RP-PDT. Thirty five of 38 (92%) patients also received systemic therapy. Standard statistical techniques were used for analysis. Thirty seven of 38 (97%) patients had stage III/IV cancer (according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC manual 7th Edition, 2010]) and 7/38 (18%) patients had nonepithelial subtypes. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 37/38 (97%) patients. There was 1 postoperative mortality (stroke). At a median follow-up of 34.4 months, the median survival was 31.7 months for all 38 patients, 41.2 months for the 31/38 (82%) patients with epithelial subtypes, and 6.8 months for the 7/38 (18%) patients with nonepithelial subtypes. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.6, 15.1, and 4.8 months, respectively. The median survival and PFS for the 20/31 (64%) patients with N2 epithelial disease were 31.7 and 15.1 months, respectively. It was possible to achieve a macroscopic complete resection using lung-sparing surgery in 97% of these patients with stage III/IV disease. The survival we observed with this approach was unusually long for the patients with the epithelial subtype but, interestingly, the PFS was not. The reason for this prolonged survival despite recurrence is not clear but is potentially related to preservation of the lung or some PDT-induced effect, or both. We conclude that the results of this lung-sparing approach are safe, encouraging, and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radical Pleurectomy and Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Friedberg, Joseph S.; Culligan, Melissa J.; Mick, Rosemarie; Stevenson, James; Hahn, Stephen M.; Sterman, Daniel; Punekar, Salman; Glatstein, Eli; Cengel, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Background Radical pleurectomy (RP) for mesothelioma is often considered either technically infeasible or an operation limited to patients who would not tolerate a pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using RP and intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) for mesothelioma. Methods 38 patients (42–81 years) underwent RP-PDT. 35/38 (92%) patients also received systemic therapy. Standard statistical techniques were employed for analysis. Results 37/38 (97%) patients had Stage III/IV (AJCC) cancer and 7/38 (18%) patients had nonepithelial subtypes. Macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 37/38 (97%) patients. There was one postoperative mortality (stroke). At a median follow-up of 34.4 months, the median survival was 31.7 months for all 38 patients, 41.2 months for the 31/38 (82%) epithelial patients and 6.8 months for the 7/38 (18%) nonepithelial patients. The median progression free survivals were 9.6, 15.1 and 4.8 months, respectively. The median and progression free survivals for the 20/31 (64%) epithelial patients with N2 disease were 31.7 and 15.1 months, respectively. Conclusions It was possible to achieve a macroscopic complete resection utilizing lung-sparing surgery in 97% of these stage III/IV patients. The survival we observed with this approach was unusually long for the epithelial subtype patients but, interestingly, the progression free survival was not. The reason for this prolonged survival in spite of recurrence is not clear, but is potentially related to preservation of the lung and/or some PDT-induced effect. We conclude that the results of this lung-sparing approach are safe, encouraging and warrant further investigation. PMID:22541196

  9. Intraoperative positioning of mobile C-arms using artificial fluoroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Philipp; Wang, Lejing; Kutter, Oliver; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro-Michael; Navab, Nassir

    2010-02-01

    In trauma and orthopedic surgery, imaging through X-ray fluoroscopy with C-arms is ubiquitous. This leads to an increase in ionizing radiation applied to patient and clinical staff. Placing these devices in the desired position to visualize a region of interest is a challenging task, requiring both skill of the operator and numerous X-rays for guidance. We propose an extension to C-arms for which position data is available that provides the surgeon with so called artificial fluoroscopy. This is achieved by computing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) from pre- or intraoperative CT data. The approach is based on C-arm motion estimation, for which we employ a Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CAMC) system, and a rigid registration of the patient to the CT data. Using this information we are able to generate DRRs and simulate fluoroscopic images. For positioning tasks, this system appears almost exactly like conventional fluoroscopy, however simulating the images from the CT data in realtime as the C-arm is moved without the application of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, preoperative planning can be done on the CT data and then visualized during positioning, e.g. defining drilling axes for pedicle approach techniques. Since our method does not require external tracking it is suitable for deployment in clinical environments and day-to-day routine. An experiment with six drillings into a lumbar spine phantom showed reproducible accuracy in positioning the C-arm, ranging from 1.1 mm to 4.1 mm deviation of marker points on the phantom compared in real and virtual images.

  10. Intraoperative electron beam irradiation for patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, W.U.; Wood, W.C.; Tepper, J.E.; Warshaw, A.L.; Orlow, E.L.; Kaufman, S.D.; Battit, G.E.; Nardi, G.L.

    1984-09-01

    Since 1978 we have used electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) to deliver higher radiation doses to pancreatic tumors than are possible with external beam techniques while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. Twenty-nine patients with localized, unresectable, pancreatic carcinoma were treated by electron beam IORT in combination with conventional external radiation therapy (XRT). The primary tumor was located in the head of the pancreas in 20 patients, in the head and body in six patients, and in the body and tail in three. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 23 of the 29 patients. The last 13 patients have received misonidazole (3.5 mg/M2) just prior to IORT (20 Gy). At present 14 patients are alive and 11 are without evidence of disease from 3 to 41 months after IORT. The median survival is 16.5 months. Eight patients have failed locally in the IORT field and two others failed regionally. Twelve patients have developed distant metastases, including five who failed locally or regionally. We have seen no local recurrences in the 12 patients who have been treated with misonidazole and have completed IORT and XRT while 10 of 15 patients treated without misonidazole have recurred locally. Because of the shorter follow-up in the misonidazole group, this apparent improvement is not statistically significant. Fifteen patients (52%) have not had pain following treatment and 22 (76%) have had no upper gastrointestinal or biliary obstruction subsequent to their initial surgical bypasses and radiation treatments. Based on the good palliation generally obtained, the 16.5-month median survival, and the possible added benefit from misonidazole, we are encouraged to continue this approach.

  11. Intra-Operative Vertebroplasty Combined with Posterior Cord Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Luca; Mavilio, Nicola; Fiaschi, Pietro; Bragazzi, Roberto; Pacetti, Mattia; Castelletti, Lara; Saitta, Laura; Castellan, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) is a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of vertebral pathology providing early vertebral stabilization and pain relief. In cases of vertebral pathology complicated by spinal cord compression with associated neurological deficits, VP alone cannot be performed free of risks. We describe a combined approach in which decompressive laminectomy and intra-operative vertebroplasty (IVP) are performed during a single session. Among the 252 VP performed in our centre in the past three years, 12 patients (12 vertebral levels) with different pathologies (six symptomatic haemangiomas, two metastatic fractures, four osteoporotic fractures) were treated with an open procedure combined with surgery. All cases were treated with decompressive laminectomy and IVP (mono/bipeduncular or median-posterior trans-somatic access). Five patients with symptomatic haemangiomas were treated with endovascular embolization prior to the combined approach. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to assess pain intensity before and after surgery. The neurological deficits were evaluated with an ASIA impairment scale. In all cases benefit from pain and neurological deficits was observed. The mean VAS score decreased from 7.8 to 2.5 after surgery. The ASIA score improved in all cases (five cases from D to E and five cases from C to D). No clinical complications were observed. In one case a CT scan performed after the procedure showed a foraminal accumulation of PMMA, but the patient referred no symptoms. IVP can be successfully applied in different pathologies affecting the vertebrae. In our limited series this approach proved safe and efficient to provide decompression of spinal cord and dural sac and vertebral body stabilization in a single session. PMID:25363261

  12. Recurrent renal hyperparathyroidism due to parathyromatosis

    PubMed Central

    D’Errico, Giovanni; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Bossola, Maurizio; Lodoli, Claudio; Fadda, Guido; Bruno, Isabella; Giordano, Alessandro; Castagneto, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Parathyromatosis is the most severe type of recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in haemodialysis patients. It is difficult to completely remove all foci of parathyroid tissue and neck re-explorations are often required. Here, we report for the first time a case of recurrent SHPT due to parathyromatosis treated by radio-guided PTX. A haemodialysed 48-year-old woman with recurrent SHPT due to parathyromatosis was treated by radio-guided PTX. Preoperatively Ultrasonography, 99Tc-SestaMIBI scintigraphy and magnetic resonances of the neck and thorax were performed. The preoperative imaging techniques detected four parathyroid nodules, while intraoperative gamma probe identified six nodules (three in atypical site). No frozen sections were performed during surgery. Post-operative intact parathyroid hormone levels were stabilized in the range 300–500 pg/mL during the 26 month follow-up by means of cinacalcet and paricalcitol therapy. In cases of parathyromatosis, the preoperative imaging techniques are inadequate, while intraoperative gamma probe is useful to detect the parathyroid tissue and allows a more extensive cytoreduction because it ensures the removal of undetectable and ectopic parathyroid foci. The operative time is reduced and frozen sections are unnecessary. However, the radio-guided PTX do not rule out parathyromatosis recurrence and complementary medical treatment is appropriate. PMID:25984178

  13. [Intraoperative monitoring of oxygen tissue pressure: Applications in vascular neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Arikan, Fuat; Vilalta, Jordi; Torne, Ramon; Chocron, Ivette; Rodriguez-Tesouro, Ana; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic lesions related to surgical procedures are a major cause of postoperative morbidity in patients with cerebral vascular disease. There are different systems of neuromonitoring to detect intraoperative ischemic events, including intraoperative monitoring of oxygen tissue pressure (PtiO2). The aim of this article was to describe, through the discussion of 4 cases, the usefulness of intraoperative PtiO2 monitoring during vascular neurosurgery. In presenting these cases, we demonstrate that monitoring PtiO2 is a reliable way to detect early ischemic events during surgical procedures. Continuous monitoring of PtiO2 in an area at risk allows the surgeon to resolve the cause of the ischemic event before it evolves to an established cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Intraoperative prediction of compensatory sweating for thoracic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takeo; Mano, Masayuki; Nishi, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2005-09-01

    Postoperative compensatory sweating (PCS) is an important problem impacting on quality of life for patients after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS). The present study investigated whether intraoperative palmar temperature and blood flow are useful for assessing PCS after ETS. Retrospectively, results were evaluated for ETS in 27 consecutive patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis between 1996 and 2002. For all patients, bilateral nerve conduction to the palms was interrupted. The relationship between the range of PCS and intraoperative changes in palmar temperature and blood flow was investigated. PCS developed in all cases. After completion of ETS, mean blood flow and temperature increased respectively. Significant correlations were found between the range of PCS and increases in palmar temperature (p<0.05) and blood flow (p<0.05). Intraoperative monitoring of increases in palmar temperature and blood flow may be useful in patients with primary hyperhidrosis, to predict the range of PCS after ETS.

  15. The Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in Intraoperative Ophthalmic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Paul; Migacz, Justin; O’Connell, Rachelle; Maldonado, Ramiro S.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has transformed diagnostic ophthalmic imaging but until recently has been limited to the clinic setting. The development of spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), with its improved speed and resolution, along with the development of a handheld OCT scanner, enabled portable imaging of patients unable to sit in a conventional tabletop scanner. This handheld SD-OCT unit has proven useful in examinations under anesthesia and, more recently, in intraoperative imaging of preoperative and postoperative manipulations. Recently, several groups have pioneered the development of novel OCT modalities, such as microscope-mounted OCT systems. Although still immature, the development of these systems is directed toward real-time imaging of surgical maneuvers in the intraoperative setting. This article reviews intraoperative imaging of the posterior and anterior segment using the handheld SD-OCT and recent advances toward real-time microscope-mounted intrasurgical imaging. PMID:21790116

  16. The Esthetic and Psychologic Benefits of an Intraoperative Provisional Restoration.

    PubMed

    Walter, Robert D; Goodacre, Charles J

    2017-05-06

    When multiple visible teeth are prepared, the prolonged treatment time may lead to patients needing a break that requires them to leave the operatory. Such a situation allows the patient to view their prepared teeth, a process that can be disconcerting to some patients. An intraoperative provisional restoration can be made by using a thermoplastic vacuum-formed matrix of the patient's teeth that is filled with white-colored impression material and then placed over the prepared teeth to form a provisional restoration. The use of an intraoperative provisional restoration can be effectively used to cover prepared teeth while providing normal tooth morphology and facial appearance after preparation of visible teeth. When visible teeth are prepared, an intraoperative provisional restoration can be used to cover the prepared teeth and prevent concerned patients from viewing their prepared teeth. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:189-192, 2017). © 2017 The Authors Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Robust endoscopic pose estimation for intraoperative organ-mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, Daniel; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Suwelack, Stefan; Wagner, Martin; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2016-03-01

    The number of minimally invasive procedures is growing every year. These procedures are highly complex and very demanding for the surgeons. It is therefore important to provide intraoperative assistance to alleviate these difficulties. For most computer-assistance systems, like visualizing target structures with augmented reality, a registration step is required to map preoperative data (e.g. CT images) to the ongoing intraoperative scene. Without additional hardware, the (stereo-) endoscope is the prime intraoperative data source and with it, stereo reconstruction methods can be used to obtain 3D models from target structures. To link reconstructed parts from different frames (mosaicking), the endoscope movement has to be known. In this paper, we present a camera tracking method that uses dense depth and feature registration which are combined with a Kalman Filter scheme. It provides a robust position estimation that shows promising results in ex vivo and in silico experiments.

  18. [Surgical Correction of Scoliosis: Does Intraoperative CT Navigation Prolong Operative Time?

    PubMed

    Skála-Rosenbaum, J; Ježek, M; Džupa, V; Kadeřábek, R; Douša, P; Rusnák, R; Krbec, M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to compare the duration of corrective surgery for scoliosis in relation to the intra-operative use of either fluoroscopic or CT navigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS The indication for surgery was adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in younger patients and degenerative scoliosis in middleage or elderly patients. In a retrospective study, treatment outcomes in 43 consecutive patients operated on between April 2011 and April 2014 were compared. Only patients undergoing surgical correction of five or more spinal segments (fixation of six and more vertebrae) were included. RESULTS Transpedicular screw fixation of six to 13 vertebrae was performed under C-arm fluoroscopy guidance in 22 patients, and transpedicular screws were inserted in six to 14 vertebrae using the O-arm imaging system in 21 patients. A total of 246 screws were placed using the C-arm system and 340 screws were inserted using the O-arm system (p < 0.001). The procedures with use of the O-arm system were more complicated and required an average operative time longer by 48% (measured from the first skin incision to the completion of skin suture). However, the mean time needed for one screw placement (the sum of all surgical procedures with the use of a navigation technique divided by the number of screws placed using this technique) was the same in both techniques (19 min). DISCUSSION With good teamwork (surgeons, anaesthesiologists and a radiologist attending to the O-arm system), the time required to obtain one intra-operative CT scan is 3 to 5 minutes. The study showed that the mean time for placement of one screw was identical in both techniques although the average operative time was longer in surgery with O-arm navigation. The 19- minute interval was not the real placement time per screw. It was the sum of all operative times of surgical procedures (from first incision to suture completion including the whole approach within the range of planned stabilization

  19. Effectiveness of timely intraoperative iodine irrigation during cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kazuki; Miyazaki, Dai; Sasaki, Shin-Ichi; Yakura, Keiko; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Sakamoto, Masako

    2016-11-01

    To determine the antiseptic efficacy of timely intraoperative iodine irrigation during cataract surgery. A total of 198 eyes of 99 cataract surgery patients were studied. The eyes were randomly assigned to treatment with or without timely intraoperative iodine irrigation of the surgical field with an iodine compound equivalent to 0.33 % povidone-iodine. In eyes in the timely intraoperative iodine irrigation group, the ocular surface was irrigated twice intraoperatively-before the initial incision and before insertion of the intraocular lens (IOL). The efficacy of the antiseptic treatment was evaluated by culture tests using scrapings of the surface of the sclerocornea and conjunctiva to the left of the incision and by broad-range real-time PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA using scrapings from the right side of the incision. Following intraoperative application of the iodine, bacteria were not detected in cultures of the samples. For the control eyes without timely iodine irrigation, cultures of samples from five and two eyes were positive before the initial incision and before IOL insertion, respectively. The bacterial DNA copy number before the initial incision was 1.7 ± 0.5 × 10(3), which was significantly lower than that of the control eyes (1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(4)). For both groups of eyes, the bacterial DNA copy number was significantly lower before the IOL insertion depending on the time course. When the antiseptic effect of the iodine irrigation and time course on bacterial DNA copy number was analyzed using generalized mixed linear regression, both were found to be significantly effective. No significant intraoperative epithelial defect was observed. The postoperative corneal endothelial cell count did not differ significantly between the two groups of eyes. Timely iodine irrigation can serve as a simple and useful adjunctive disinfection step in cataract surgery.

  20. Intraoperative Hypothermia During Surgical Fixation of Hip Fractures.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Nicholas B; Pepper, Andrew M; Jildeh, Toufic R; Shaw, Jonathan; Guthrie, Trent; Silverton, Craig

    2016-11-01

    Hip fractures are common orthopedic injuries and are associated with significant morbidity/mortality. Intraoperative normothermia is recommended by national guidelines to minimize additional morbidity/mortality, but limited evidence exists regarding hypothermia's effect on orthopedic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia in patients with operatively treated hip fractures and evaluate its effect on complications and outcomes. Retrospective chart review was performed on clinical records from 1541 consecutive patients who sustained a hip fracture and underwent operative fixation at the authors' institution between January 2005 and October 2013. A total of 1525 patients were included for analysis, excluding those with injuries requiring additional surgical intervention. Patient demographic data, surgery-specific data, postoperative complications, length of stay, and 30-day readmission were recorded. Patients with a mean intraoperative temperature less than 36°C were identified as hypothermic. Statistical analysis with univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling evaluated associations with hypothermia and effect on complications/outcomes. The incidence of intraoperative hypothermia in operatively treated hip fractures was 17.0%. Hypothermia was associated with an increase in the rate of deep surgical-site infection (odds ratio, 3.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-9.14; P=.022). Lower body mass index and increasing age demonstrated increased association with hypothermia (P=.004 and P=.005, respectively). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first and largest study analyzing the effect of intraoperative hypothermia in orthopedic patients. In patients with hip fractures, the study's findings confirm evidence found in other surgical specialties that hypothermia may be associated with an increased risk of deep surgical-site infection and that lower body mass index and increasing age are risk factors

  1. Development of effective prophylaxis against intraoperative carcinoid crisis.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Eugene A; Wright, Anne E; Stevens, Melissa A; Wang, Yi-Zarn; Boudreaux, John P; Mamikunian, Gregg; Riopelle, James M; Kaye, Alan D

    2016-08-01

    The prophylactic use of a preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative high-dose continuous octreotide acetate infusion was evaluated for its ability to minimize the incidence of carcinoid crises during neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cytoreductive surgeries. A retrospective study was approved by the institutional review boards at Ochsner Medical Center-Kenner and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center. Ochsner Medical Center-Kenner operating room and multispecialty NET clinic. One hundred fifty consecutive patients who underwent a total of 179 cytoreductive surgeries for stage IV, small bowel NETs. All patients received a 500-μg/h infusion of octreotide acetate preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. Anesthesia and surgical records were reviewed. Carcinoid crisis was defined as a systolic blood pressure of less than 80mm Hg for greater than 10minutes. Patients who experienced intraoperative hypertension or hypotension, profound tachycardia, or a "crisis" according to the operative note were also reviewed. One hundred sixty-nine (169/179; 94%) patients had normal anesthesia courses. The medical records of 10 patients were further investigated for a potential intraoperative crisis using the aforementioned criteria. Upon review, 6 patients were determined to have had a crisis. The final incidence of intraoperative crisis was 3.4% (6/179). A continuous high-dose infusion of octreotide acetate intraoperatively minimizes the incidence of carcinoid crisis. We believe that the low cost and excellent safety profile of octreotide warrant the use of this therapy during extensive surgical procedures for midgut and foregut NETs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraoperative neural response telemetry as a predictor of performance.

    PubMed

    Cosetti, Maura K; Shapiro, William H; Green, Janet E; Roman, Benjamin R; Lalwani, Anil K; Gunn, Stacey H; Roland, John Thomas; Waltzman, Susan B

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether intraoperative neural response telemetry (tNRT) is predictive of postoperative speech perception. Retrospective review. Tertiary referral center. Children (n = 24) aged between 5 and 17 years and adults 18 years and older (n = 73) with severe-to-profound hearing loss and implanted with the Nucleus Freedom device between 2005 and 2008 and observed at least 1 year were included. Intraoperative neural response telemetry after insertion of the electrode array. Measures included 1) intraoperative tNRT measurements and 2) preoperative and 1-year postoperative open-set word recognition scores using age-appropriate open-set tests for children and adults. Intraoperative neural response telemetry levels for electrodes E20, E15, E10, and E5 in each patient were correlated to performance at the 1-year evaluation interval. No correlation existed between tNRT responses and open-set speech performance at the 1-year evaluation. Several patients had absent tNRT in the OR but developed speech recognition abilities, whereas the remaining patients had intraoperative responses with levels of postoperative performance ranging from 0% to 100%. This study suggests that there is no significant correlation between intraoperative tNRT and speech perception performance at 1 year. At the time of surgery, tNRT provides valuable information regarding the electrical output of the implant and the response of the auditory system to electrical stimulation and preliminary device programming data; however, it is not a valuable predictor of postoperative performance. Furthermore, the absence of tNRT does not necessarily indicate a lack of stimulation.

  3. [Key Points of Intraoperative Diagnostic Measures Performed by Anaesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Ache, J; Rath, S; Schneider, R; Dralle, H; Bucher, M; Raspé, C

    2017-08-01

    The main focus of surgeons and anaesthesiologists during a surgical procedure is on safety and optimal treatment of the patient. Within the scope of interdisciplinary collaboration, the intraoperative communication between surgeons and anaesthesiologists is the basis of case-, findings- and surgery-phases-adapted patient management. The perioperative monitoring of patients and the implementation of diagnostic measures by anaesthesiologists are essential for optimal patient management. The results of the examinations may significantly determine the course of surgery. Therefore, it is important for surgeons to be familiar with the relevant intraoperative diagnostic measures. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Intraoperative wide bore nasogastric tube knotting: A rare incidence

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Sethi, Surendra K.; Khare, Arvind; Saini, Sudheendra

    2016-01-01

    Nasogastric tubes are commonly used in anesthetic practice for gastric decompression in surgical patients intraoperatively. The indications for its use are associated with a number of potential complications. Knotting of small-bore nasogastric tubes is usually common both during insertion and removal as compared to wide bore nasogastric tubes. Knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube is a rare complication and if occurs usually seen in long standing cases. We hereby report a case of incidental knotting of wide bore nasogastric tube that occurred intraoperatively. PMID:26957700

  5. Intraoperative neurophysiology in deep brain surgery for psychogenic dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Vesper Fe Marie L; Pillai, Ajay S; Lungu, Codrin; Ostrem, Jill; Starr, Philip; Hallett, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic dystonia is a challenging entity to diagnose and treat because little is known about its pathophysiology. We describe two cases of psychogenic dystonia who underwent deep brain stimulation when thought to have organic dystonia. The intraoperative microelectrode recordings in globus pallidus internus were retrospectively compared with those of five patients with known DYT1 dystonia using spontaneous discharge parameters of rate and bursting, as well as movement-related discharges. Our data suggest that simple intraoperative neurophysiology measures in single subjects do not differentiate psychogenic dystonia from DYT1 dystonia. PMID:26125045

  6. Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury in colorectal surgery. An update.

    PubMed

    Colsa Gutiérrez, Pablo; Viadero Cervera, Raquel; Morales-García, Dieter; Ingelmo Setién, Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative peripheral nerve injury during colorectal surgery procedures is a potentially serious complication that is often underestimated. The Trendelenburg position, use of inappropriately padded armboards and excessive shoulder abduction may encourage the development of brachial plexopathy during laparoscopic procedures. In open colorectal surgery, nerve injuries are less common. It usually involves the femoral plexus associated with lithotomy position and self-retaining retractor systems. Although in most cases the recovery is mostly complete, treatment consists of physical therapy to prevent muscular atrophy, protection of hypoesthesic skin areas and analgesics for neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study is to review the incidence, prevention and management of intraoperative peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Practicability of intraoperative microvascular Doppler sonography in aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Firsching, R; Synowitz, H J; Hanebeck, J

    2000-09-01

    Inadvertent narrowing of parent or branching vessels is one major cause of unfavorable outcome from aneurysm surgery. Intraoperative micro-Doppler sonography of arterial brain vessels during surgery for cerebral aneurysms of the anterior circulation was performed in 50 patients and compared retrospectively with 50 patients, who were operated upon without micro-Doppler sonography. Intraoperative micro-Doppler sonography demonstrated the need for repositioning of the clip in 12 instances. Outcome after surgery with micro-Doppler sonography appeared slightly better than without. Micro-Doppler sonography is concluded to be a practicable adjunct to routine aneurysm surgery.

  8. [Anaesthetic management of excision of a cervical intraspinal tumor with intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in a pregnant woman at 29 weeks].

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; González-González, G; Rubio-Romero, R; Federero-Martínez, F; Jiménez, I

    2016-05-01

    The intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is a technique used to test and monitor nervous function. This technique has become essential in some neurosurgery interventions, since it avoids neurological injuries during surgery and reduces morbidity. The experience of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring is limited in some clinical cases due to the low incidence of pregnant women undergoing a surgical procedure. A case is presented of a 29-weeks pregnant woman suffering from a cervical intraspinal tumour with intense pain, which required surgery. The collaboration of a multidisciplinary team composed of anaesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists and obstetricians, the continuous monitoring of the foetus, the intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and maintaining the neurophysiological and utero-placental variables were crucial for the proper development of the surgery. According to our experience and the limited publications in the literature, no damaging effects of this technique were detected at maternal-foetal level. On the contrary, it brings important benefits during the surgery and for the final result. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of intra-operative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery.

    PubMed

    Alenezi, Ahmad N; Karim, Omer

    2015-03-01

    This review examines studies of intra-operative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its emerging role and advantages in robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a technology that combines the use of second-generation contrast agents consisting of microbubbles with existent ultrasound techniques. Until now, this novel technology has aided surgeons with procedures involving the liver. However, with recent advances in the CEUS technique and the introduction of robotics in nephron-sparing surgery, CEUS has proven to be efficacious in answering several clinical questions with respect to the kidneys. In addition, the introduction of the microbubble-based contrast agents has increased the image quality and signal uptake by the ultrasound probe. This has led to better, enhanced scanning of the macro and microvasculature of the kidneys, making CEUS a powerful diagnostic modality. This imaging method is capable of further lowering the learning curve and warm ischemia time (WIT) during robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery, with its increased level of capillary perfusion and imaging. CEUS has the potential to increase the sensitivity and specificity of intra-operative images, and can significantly improve the outcome of robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery by increasing the precision and diagnostic insight of the surgeon. The purpose of this article is to review the practical and potential uses of CEUS as an intra-operative imaging technique during robotic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery.

  10. From pre-operative cardiac modeling to intra-operative virtual environments for surgical guidance: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linte, Cristian A.; Wierzbicki, Marcin; Moore, John; Wedlake, Christopher; Wiles, Andrew D.; Bainbridge, Daniel; Guiraudon, Gérard M.; Jones, Douglas L.; Peters, Terry M.

    2008-03-01

    As part of an ongoing theme in our laboratory on reducing morbidity during minimally-invasive intracardiac procedures, we developed a computer-assisted intervention system that provides safe access inside the beating heart and sufficient visualization to deliver therapy to intracardiac targets while maintaining the efficacy of the procedure. Integrating pre-operative information, 2D trans-esophageal ultrasound for real-time intra-operative imaging, and surgical tool tracking using the NDI Aurora magnetic tracking system in an augmented virtual environment, our system allows the surgeons to navigate instruments inside the heart in spite of the lack of direct target visualization. This work focuses on further enhancing intracardiac visualization and navigation by supplying the surgeons with detailed 3D dynamic cardiac models constructed from high-resolution pre-operative MR data and overlaid onto the intra-operative imaging environment. Here we report our experience during an in vivo porcine study. A feature-based registration technique previously explored and validated in our laboratory was employed for the pre-operative to intra-operative mapping. This registration method is suitable for in vivo interventional applications as it involves the selection of easily identifiable landmarks, while ensuring a good alignment of the pre-operative and intra-operative surgical targets. The resulting augmented reality environment fuses the pre-operative cardiac model with the intra-operative real-time US images with approximately 5 mm accuracy for structures located in the vicinity of the valvular region. Therefore, we strongly believe that our augmented virtual environment significantly enhances intracardiac navigation of surgical instruments, while on-target detailed manipulations are performed under real-time US guidance.

  11. Intraoperative and Immediate Postoperative Outcomes of Cataract Surgery using Phacoemulsification in Eyes with and without Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neelam R; Dubey, Arun K; Shankar, P Ravi

    2014-12-01

    To compare the intraoperative and immediate postoperative behavior and complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome with eyes having senile cataract without PEX during cataract surgery using phacoemulsification (PKE). In this prospective study, 68 eyes of 68 patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (test) comprised 34 eyes with immature senile cataract with PEX and Group 2 (control) included 34 eyes with immature senile cataract without PEX and any coexisting ocular pathology. Phacoemulsification (modern cataract surgery) was performed on both groups through stop and chop technique and comparative analysis of the incidence of intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications was made. There was no significant difference in rates of intraoperative complications between PEX (2.9%) and Control (0%) group. The mean pupil diameter was significantly smaller in Group 1 (p<0.001). No eye in either group had phacodonesis. 58.8% of eyes in Group 1 and 29.4% in Group 2 had a harder cataract (nuclear sclerosis) ≥ grade 3 (p=0.017). PKE was performed in all eyes with cataract in both groups. Intraoperative complication (zonular dialysis (dehiscence) was encountered in only 2.9% (1 case) of eyes with PEX. PC (posterior capsule) tear (rent) with vitreous loss was seen in 2.9% eyes of Group 1 and none in Group 2. Postoperatively, IOP (intraocular pressure) and aqueous flare response were comparable between the groups. Significantly higher inflammatory cell response was observed in Group 1 (p=0.014). BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) using Snellen chart with pinhole on postoperative day1 was significantly better in the control group compared to the group with PEX (p=0.027). Phacoemulsification can be safely performed by experienced hands in cataractous eyes with PEX. The incidence of intraoperative and immediate post-operative complications in eyes with PEX was not significantly different compared to eyes without PEX in our study. Further studies

  12. Automatic localization of endoscope in intraoperative CT image: A simple approach to augmented reality guidance in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Sylvain; Nicolau, Stéphane A; Agnus, Vincent; Soler, Luc; Doignon, Christophe; Marescaux, Jacques

    2016-05-01

    The use of augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery has been the subject of much research for more than a decade. The endoscopic view of the surgical scene is typically augmented with a 3D model extracted from a preoperative acquisition. However, the organs of interest often present major changes in shape and location because of the pneumoperitoneum and patient displacement. There have been numerous attempts to compensate for this distortion between the pre- and intraoperative states. Some have attempted to recover the visible surface of the organ through image analysis and register it to the preoperative data, but this has proven insufficiently robust and may be problematic with large organs. A second approach is to introduce an intraoperative 3D imaging system as a transition. Hybrid operating rooms are becoming more and more popular, so this seems to be a viable solution, but current techniques require yet another external and constraining piece of apparatus such as an optical tracking system to determine the relationship between the intraoperative images and the endoscopic view. In this article, we propose a new approach to automatically register the reconstruction from an intraoperative CT acquisition with the static endoscopic view, by locating the endoscope tip in the volume data. We first describe our method to localize the endoscope orientation in the intraoperative image using standard image processing algorithms. Secondly, we highlight that the axis of the endoscope needs a specific calibration process to ensure proper registration accuracy. In the last section, we present quantitative and qualitative results proving the feasibility and the clinical potential of our approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of intraoperative seizures during motor evoked potential monitoring in a large cohort of patients undergoing different surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Ulkatan, Sedat; Jaramillo, Ana Maria; Téllez, Maria J; Kim, Jinu; Deletis, Vedran; Seidel, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of seizures during the intraoperative monitoring of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by electrical brain stimulation in a wide spectrum of surgeries such as those of the orthopedic spine, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, interventional radiology procedures, and craniotomies for supra- and infratentorial tumors and vascular lesions. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed data from 4179 consecutive patients who underwent surgery or an interventional radiology procedure with MEP monitoring. RESULTS Of 4179 patients, only 32 (0.8%) had 1 or more intraoperative seizures. The incidence of seizures in cranial procedures, including craniotomies and interventional neuroradiology, was 1.8%. In craniotomies in which transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) was applied to elicit MEPs, the incidence of seizures was 0.7% (6/850). When direct cortical stimulation was additionally applied, the incidence of seizures increased to 5.4% (23/422). Patients undergoing craniotomies for the excision of extraaxial brain tumors, particularly meningiomas (15 patients), exhibited the highest risk of developing an intraoperative seizure (16 patients). The incidence of seizures in orthopedic spine surgeries was 0.2% (3/1664). None of the patients who underwent surgery for conditions of the spinal cord, neck, or peripheral nerves or who underwent cranial or noncranial interventional radiology procedures had intraoperative seizures elicited by TES during MEP monitoring. CONCLUSIONS In this largest such study to date, the authors report the incidence of intraoperative seizures in patients who underwent MEP monitoring during a wide spectrum of surgeries such as those of the orthopedic spine, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, interventional radiology procedures, and craniotomies for supra- and infratentorial tumors and vascular lesions. The low incidence of seizures induced by electrical brain stimulation

  14. Enhanced analysis of intracerebral arterioveneous malformations by the intraoperative use of analytical indocyanine green videoangiography: technical note.

    PubMed

    Faber, Florian; Thon, Niklas; Fesl, Gunther; Rachinger, Walter; Guckler, Roland; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Schichor, Christian

    2011-11-01

    In cerebral arterioveneous malformations (AVMs) detailed intraoperative identification of feeding arteries, nidal vessels and draining veins is crucial for surgery. Intraoperative imaging techniques like indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VAG) provide information about vessel architecture and patency, but do not allow time-dependent analysis of intravascular blood flow. Here we report on our first experiences with analytical indocyanine green videoangiography (aICG-VAG) using FLOW 800 software as a useful tool for assessing the time-dependent intraoperative blood flow during surgical removal of cerebral AVMs. Microsope-integrated colour-encoded aICG-VAG was used for the surgical treatment of a 38-year-old woman diagnosed with an incidental AVM, Spetzler Martin grade I, of the left frontal lobe and of a 26-year-old man suffering from seizures caused by a symptomatic AVM, Spetzler Martin grade III, of the right temporal lobe. Analytical ICG-VAG visualization was intraoperatively correlated with in situ micro-Doppler investigation, as well as preoperative and postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Analytical ICG-VAG is fast, easy to handle and integrates intuitively into surgical procedures. It allows colour-encoded visualization of blood flow distribution with high temporal and spatial resolution. Superficial major and minor feeding arteries can be clearly separated from the nidus and draining veins. Effects of stepwise vessel obliteration on velocity and direction of AVM blood flow can be objectified. High quality of visualization, however, is limited to the site of surgery. Colour-encoded aICG-VAG with FLOW 800 enables intraoperative real-time analysis of arterial and venous vessel architecture and might, therefore, increase efficacy and safety of neurovascular surgery in a selected subset of superficial AVMs.

  15. Maternal obesity and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Smid, Marcela C; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Boggess, Kim A; Manuck, Tracy A; Stamilio, David M

    2017-06-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between maternal obesity and postoperative complications, but there is a dearth of information about the impact of obesity on intraoperative complications. To estimate the association between maternal obesity at delivery and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery (CD). This is a secondary analysis of the deidentified Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry of women with singleton pregnancies. Maternal body mass index (BMI) at delivery was categorized as BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2). The primary outcome, any intraoperative complication, was defined as having at least 1 major intraoperative complication, including perioperative blood transfusion, intraoperative injury (bowel, bladder, ureteral injury; broad ligament hematoma), atony requiring surgical intervention, repeat laparotomy, and hysterectomy. Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios of intraoperative complication in 2 models: model 1 adjusting for maternal race, and preterm delivery <37 weeks; and model 2 adjusting for confounders in Model 1 as well as emergency CD, and type of skin incision. A total of 51,218 women underwent CD; 38% had BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), 47% BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), 12% BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2) and 3% BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2). Having at least 1 intraoperative complication was uncommon (3.4%): 3.8% for BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), 3.2% BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), 2.6% BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2) and 4.3% BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2) (P < .001). In the fully adjusted model 2, women with BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2) had a lower risk of any intraoperative complication (adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89) compared with women with BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2). Women with BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2) (ARR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03) had a similar risk of any intraoperative complication compared with nonobese women. Among super obese women

  16. Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring in Spine Surgery: A Significant Tool for Neuronal Protection and Functional Restoration.

    PubMed

    Scibilia, Antonino; Raffa, Giovanni; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Quartarone, Angelo; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Although there is recent evidence for the role of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) in spine surgery, there are no uniform opinions on the optimal combination of the different tools. At our institution, multimodal IONM (mIONM) approach in spine surgery involves the evaluation of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with electrical transcranial stimulation, including the use of a multipulse technique with multiple myomeric registration of responses from limbs, and a single-pulse technique with D-wave registration through epi- and intradural recording, and free running and evoked electromyography (frEMG and eEMG) with bilateral recording from segmental target muscles. We analyzed the impact of the mIONM on the preservation of neuronal structures and on functional restoration in a prospective series of patients who underwent spine surgery. We observed an improvement of neurological status in 50 % of the patients. The D-wave registration was the most useful intraoperative tool, especially when MEP and SEP responses were absent or poorly recordable. Our preliminary data confirm that mIONM plays a fundamental role in the identification and functional preservation of the spinal cord and nerve roots. It is highly sensitive and specific for detecting and avoiding neurological injury during spine surgery and represents a helpful tool for achieving optimal postoperative functional outcome.

  17. Intra-operative multi-site stimulation: Expanding methodology for cortical brain mapping of language functions

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Akiva; Kirschner, Adi; Perry, Daniella; Hendler, Talma; Ram, Zvi

    2017-01-01

    Direct cortical stimulation (DCS) is considered the gold-standard for functional cortical mapping during awake surgery for brain tumor resection. DCS is performed by stimulating one local cortical area at a time. We present a feasibility study using an intra-operative technique aimed at improving our ability to map brain functions which rely on activity in distributed cortical regions. Following standard DCS, Multi-Site Stimulation (MSS) was performed in 15 patients by applying simultaneous cortical stimulations at multiple locations. Language functioning was chosen as a case-cognitive domain due to its relatively well-known cortical organization. MSS, performed at sites that did not produce disruption when applied in a single stimulation point, revealed additional language dysfunction in 73% of the patients. Functional regions identified by this technique were presumed to be significant to language circuitry and were spared during surgery. No new neurological deficits were observed in any of the patients following surgery. Though the neuro-electrical effects of MSS need further investigation, this feasibility study may provide a first step towards sophistication of intra-operative cortical mapping. PMID:28700619

  18. Intra-operative multi-site stimulation: Expanding methodology for cortical brain mapping of language functions.

    PubMed

    Gonen, Tal; Gazit, Tomer; Korn, Akiva; Kirschner, Adi; Perry, Daniella; Hendler, Talma; Ram, Zvi

    2017-01-01

    Direct cortical stimulation (DCS) is considered the gold-standard for functional cortical mapping during awake surgery for brain tumor resection. DCS is performed by stimulating one local cortical area at a time. We present a feasibility study using an intra-operative technique aimed at improving our ability to map brain functions which rely on activity in distributed cortical regions. Following standard DCS, Multi-Site Stimulation (MSS) was performed in 15 patients by applying simultaneous cortical stimulations at multiple locations. Language functioning was chosen as a case-cognitive domain due to its relatively well-known cortical organization. MSS, performed at sites that did not produce disruption when applied in a single stimulation point, revealed additional language dysfunction in 73% of the patients. Functional regions identified by this technique were presumed to be significant to language circuitry and were spared during surgery. No new neurological deficits were observed in any of the patients following surgery. Though the neuro-electrical effects of MSS need further investigation, this feasibility study may provide a first step towards sophistication of intra-operative cortical mapping.

  19. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: The Lasting Effects of a Fleeting Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Anne L.

    2014-01-01

    In well-selected patients who choose to pursue breast conservation therapy (BCT) for early-stage breast cancer, partial breast irradiation (PBI) delivered externally or intraoperatively, may be a viable alternative to conventional whole breast irradiation. Two large, contemporary randomized trials have demonstrated breast intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) to be noninferior to whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) when assessing for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence in select patients. Additionally, IORT and other PBI techniques are likely to be more widely adopted in the future because they improve patient convenience by offering an accelerated course of treatment. Coupled with these novel techniques for breast radiotherapy (RT) are distinct toxicity profiles and unique cosmetic alterations that differ from conventional breast EBRT and have the potential to impact disease surveillance and patient satisfaction. This paper will review the level-one evidence for treatment efficacy as well as important secondary endpoints like RT toxicity, breast cosmesis, quality of life, patient satisfaction, and surveillance mammography following BCT with IORT. PMID:25180098

  20. The contribution of rapid intraoperative cytology in the evaluation of endometrial cancer spread.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, Panagiotis; Koutlaki, Nikoleta; Liberis, Vasilios; Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Dimitraki, Marina; Liberis, Anastasios; Galazios, George

    2011-02-01

    Peritoneal washing cytology and imprint cytology of pelvic lymph nodes samples were used to evaluate the rapid cytologic detection of peritoneal and retroperitoneal spread of endometrial cancer. We undertook a study on 194 endometrial cancer patients who underwent primary treatment in the Gynecologic Clinic, Democritus University of Thrace. All patients were subjected to peritoneal washing (PW) cytology and imprint cytology performed on lymph node sampling. The cytologic specimens were stained by May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) and Haematoxylin eosin (HE) techniques. Cell-blocks prepared from peritoneal washings (PWs) and the lymph node samples were sent for histologic examination. The cytologic fi ndings were correlated to histologic results. Rapid intraoperative cytology provides a useful diagnostic technique for the assessment of endometrial cancer spread. HE and MGG stain presented different values of sensitivity and specifi city in the detection of peritoneal and retroperitoneal spread of endometrial cancer. Cytologic assessment of intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal spread of endometrial cancer is a rapid, intraoperative procedure, which provides the surgeon with useful information regarding the stage of the disease and the subsequent therapeutic approach.

  1. Assessment of Macular Function during Vitrectomy: New Approach Using Intraoperative Focal Macular Electroretinograms

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Terauchi, Gaku; Matsumoto, Harue; Mizota, Atsushi; Miyake, Yozo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe a new technique to record focal macular electroretinograms (FMERGs) during vitrectomy to assess macular function. Methods Intraoperative FMERGs (iFMERGs) were recorded in ten patients (10 eyes) who undergo vitrectomy. iFMERGs were elicited by focal macular stimulation. The stimulus light was directed to the macular area through a 25 gauge (25G) glass fiber optic bundle. Background light was delivered through a dual chandelier-type light fiber probe. Focal macular responses elicited with combinations of stimulus and background luminances were analyzed. Results A stimulus luminance that was approximately 1.75 log units brighter than the background light was able to elicit focal macular responses that were not contaminated by stray light responses. Thus, a stimulus luminance of 160 cd/m2 delivered on a background of 3 cd/m2 elicited iFMEGs from only the stimulated area. This combination of stimulus and background luminances did not elicit a response when the stimulus was projected onto the optic nerve head. The iFMERGs elicited by a 10° stimulus with a duration of 100 ms and an interstimulus interval of 150 ms consisted of an a-, b-, and d-waves, the oscillatory potentials, and the photopic negative response (PhNR). Conclusions Focal ERGs with all components can be recorded from the macula and other retinal areas during vitreous surgery. This new technique will allow surgeons to assess the function of focal areas of the retina intraoperatively. PMID:26658489

  2. High spatial frequency structured light imaging for intraoperative breast tumor margin assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchy, David M.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Kanick, Stephen C.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Wells, Wendy A.; Barth, Richard J.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    A new superficial wide-field imaging technique is presented, which utilizes high spatial frequency structured illumination to constrain the light sampling volume to a sub-diffuse regime. In this transport regime, the effects of absorption are drastically reduced and the sensitivity to local scattering from ultrastructrual alterations is increased. Absorption independence is validated with multiple experiments including a bovine blood-Intralipid solution matrix and avian tissue with superficial bovine blood. The resulting structured light demodulated images show a complete insensitivity to the blood over Hb concentrations of 0 - 240 μM. Increased sensitivity to ultrastructual changes is demonstrated by imaging avian tissue with controlled morphological alterations including formalin-induced crosslinking. This imaging technique is currently being translated towards intraoperative assessment of breast tumor margins because of its ability to capture an entire lumpectomy margin in a single field of view, insensitivity to confounding surface blood present on lumpectomies, and its inherent scatter signal without the need of any model inversion. Further, a new lumpectomy marking system is introduced that allows for both the surgeon to mark the lumpectomy during excision and optical assessment of the specimen after the margins have been marked. Structured light images acquired intraoperatively of all margins of lumpectomy specimens are presented to show feasibility of clinical translation. Immediate future work will focus on developing a multi-spectral system.

  3. Continuous intraoperative neural monitoring of the recurrent nerves in thyroid surgery: a quantum leap in technology

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Gregory W.; Barczynski, Marcin; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Wu, Che-Wei; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Machens, Andreas; Kamani, Dipti; Dralle, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The continuous intraoperative neural monitoring (CIONM) technique is increasingly acknowledged as a useful tool to recognize impending nerve injury and to abort the related manoeuvre to prevent nerve injury during thyroid surgery. CIONM provides valuable real-time information constantly, which is really useful during complex thyroid surgeries especially in the settings of unusual anatomy. Thus, CIONM overcomes the key methodological limitation inherent in intermittent nerve monitoring (IINOM); which is allowing the nerve to be at risk in between the stimulations. The clinically important combined electromyographic (EMG) event, indicative of impending recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury, prevents the majority of traction related injuries to the anatomically intact RLN enabling modification of the causative surgical manoeuvre in 80% of cases. These EMG changes can progress to loss of EMG signal with postoperative vocal cord palsy (VCP) if corrective action is not taken. As a further extension, CIONM also helps to identify intraoperative functional nerve recovery with restitution of amplitude to ≥50% of initial baseline; this allows continuing of resection of contralateral side. CIONM facilitates for early corrective action before permanent damage to the nerve has been done. CIONM is a recent but rapidly evolving technique, constantly being refined by various studies focusing on improvement in its implementation and interpretation, as well as on the elimination of the technical snags. PMID:28149807

  4. In Vivo Dosimetry for Single-Fraction Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy (TARGIT) for Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, David J.; Best, Bronagh; Brew-Graves, Chris; Duck, Stephen; Ghaus, Tabasom; Gonzalez, Regina; Pigott, Katharine; Reynolds, Claire; Williams, Norman R.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R.S.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In vivo dosimetry provides an independent check of delivered dose and gives confidence in the introduction or consistency of radiotherapy techniques. Single-fraction intraoperative radiotherapy of the breast can be performed with the Intrabeam compact, mobile 50 kV x-ray source (Carl Zeiss Surgical, Oberkochen, Germany). Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) can be used to estimate skin doses during these treatments. Methods and Materials: Measurements of skin doses were taken using TLDs for 72 patients over 3 years of clinical treatments. Phantom studies were also undertaken to assess the uncertainties resulting from changes in beam quality and backscatter conditions in vivo. Results: The mean measured skin dose was 2.9 {+-} 1.6 Gy, with 11% of readings higher than the prescription dose of 6 Gy, but none of these patients showed increased complications. Uncertainties due to beam hardening and backscatter reduction were small compared with overall accuracy. Conclusions: TLDs are a useful and effective method to measure in vivo skin doses in intraoperative radiotherapy and are recommended for the initial validation or any modification to the delivery of this technique. They are also an effective tool to show consistent and safe delivery on a more frequent basis or to determine doses to other critical structures as required.

  5. Endoscopic scene labelling and augmentation using intraoperative pulsatile motion and colour appearance cues with preoperative anatomical priors.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Masoud S; Amir-Khalili, Alborz; Peyrat, Jean-Marc; Abinahed, Julien; Al-Alao, Osama; Al-Ansari, Abdulla; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-08-01

    Despite great advances in medical image segmentation, the accurate and automatic segmentation of endoscopic scenes remains a challenging problem. Two important aspects have to be considered in segmenting an endoscopic scene: (1) noise and clutter due to light reflection and smoke from cutting tissue, and (2) structure occlusion (e.g. vessels occluded by fat, or endophytic tumours occluded by healthy kidney tissue). In this paper, we propose a variational technique to augment a surgeon's endoscopic view by segmenting visible as well as occluded structures in the intraoperative endoscopic view. Our method estimates the 3D pose and deformation of anatomical structures segmented from 3D preoperative data in order to align to and segment corresponding structures in 2D intraoperative endoscopic views. Our preoperative to intraoperative alignment is driven by, first, spatio-temporal, signal processing based vessel pulsation cues and, second, machine learning based analysis of colour and textural visual cues. To our knowledge, this is the first work that utilizes vascular pulsation cues for guiding preoperative to intraoperative registration. In addition, we incorporate a tissue-specific (i.e. heterogeneous) physically based deformation model into our framework to cope with the non-rigid deformation of structures that occurs during the intervention. We validated the utility of our technique on fifteen challenging clinical cases with 45 % improvements in accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art method. A new technique for localizing both visible and occluded structures in an endoscopic view was proposed and tested. This method leverages both preoperative data, as a source of patient-specific prior knowledge, as well as vasculature pulsation and endoscopic visual cues in order to accurately segment the highly noisy and cluttered environment of an endoscopic video. Our results on in vivo clinical cases of partial nephrectomy illustrate the potential of the proposed

  6. Baseline correction of intraoperative electromyography using discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Rampp, Stefan; Prell, Julian; Thielemann, Henning; Posch, Stefan; Strauss, Christian; Romstöck, Johann

    2007-08-01

    In intraoperative analysis of electromygraphic signals (EMG) for monitoring purposes, baseline artefacts frequently pose considerable problems. Since artefact sources in the operating room can only be reduced to a limited degree, signal-processing methods are needed to correct the registered data online without major changes to the relevant data itself. We describe a method for baseline correction based on "discrete wavelet transform" (DWT) and evaluate its performance compared to commonly used digital filters. EMG data from 10 patients who underwent removal of acoustic neuromas were processed. Effectiveness, preservation of relevant EMG patterns and processing speed of a DWT based correction method was assessed and compared to a range of commonly used Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Butterworth and DWT filters showed better performance regarding artefact correction and pattern preservation compared to Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian filters. Assuming equal weighting of both characteristics, DWT outperformed the other methods: While Butterworth, Resistor-Capacitor and Gaussian provided good pattern preservation, the effectiveness was low and vice versa, while DWT baseline correction at level 6 performed well in both characteristics. The DWT method allows reliable and efficient intraoperative baseline correction in real-time. It is superior to commonly used methods and may be crucial for intraoperative analysis of EMG data, for example for intraoperative assessment of facial nerve function.

  7. Volumetric intraoperative brain deformation compensation: model development and phantom validation.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Papademetris, Xenophon; Staib, Lawrence H; Vives, Kenneth P; Spencer, Dennis D; Duncan, James S

    2012-08-01

    During neurosurgery, nonrigid brain deformation may affect the reliability of tissue localization based on preoperative images. To provide accurate surgical guidance in these cases, preoperative images must be updated to reflect the intraoperative brain. This can be accomplished by warping these preoperative images using a biomechanical model. Due to the possible complexity of this deformation, intraoperative information is often required to guide the model solution. In this paper, a linear elastic model of the brain is developed to infer volumetric brain deformation associated with measured intraoperative cortical surface displacement. The developed model relies on known material properties of brain tissue, and does not require further knowledge about intraoperative conditions. To provide an initial estimation of volumetric model accuracy, as well as determine the model's sensitivity to the specified material parameters and surface displacements, a realistic brain phantom was developed. Phantom results indicate that the linear elastic model significantly reduced localization error due to brain shift, from > 16 mm to under 5 mm, on average. In addition, though in vivo quantitative validation is necessary, preliminary application of this approach to images acquired during neocortical epilepsy cases confirms the feasibility of applying the developed model to in vivo data.

  8. Intraoperative monitoring of flash visual evoked potential under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hironobu

    2017-01-01

    In neurosurgical procedures that may cause visual impairment in the intraoperative period, the monitoring of flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is clinically used to evaluate visual function. Patients are unconscious during surgery under general anesthesia, making flash VEP monitoring useful as it can objectively evaluate visual function. The flash stimulus input to the retina is transmitted to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation (geniculocalcarine tract), and visual cortical area, and the VEP waveform is recorded from the occipital region. Intraoperative flash VEP monitoring allows detection of dysfunction arising anywhere in the optic pathway, from the retina to the visual cortex. Particularly important steps to obtain reproducible intraoperative flash VEP waveforms under general anesthesia are total intravenous anesthesia with propofol, use of retinal flash stimulation devices using high-intensity light-emitting diodes, and a combination of electroretinography to confirm that the flash stimulus has reached the retina. Relatively major postoperative visual impairment can be detected by intraoperative decreases in the flash VEP amplitude. PMID:28367282

  9. [Intraoperative fluid management in pancreatic resections--the surgeon's view].

    PubMed

    Lindenblatt, N; Park, S; Alsfasser, G; Gock, M; Klar, E

    2008-04-01

    Even though intraoperative fluid management during major intraabdominal surgery has frequently been addressed in the past, there is a lack of evidence-based recommendations. This report elucidates the topic from the surgeon's view. For the surgeon, the influence of larger fluid amounts on wound and anastomotic healing, bleeding complications and postoperative outcome (time of extubation, postoperative gastrointestinal function, hospital stay, etc.) is of interest. To clarify the question as to what a perioperative fluid regime should be composed of from a surgical point of view, data from the literature and our own studies were evaluated. The retrospective analysis of 98 pancreas resections that had been performed in our hospital revealed no significant differences concerning the occurrence of postoperative bleeding (8.2 %), wound infection (4.1 %), pancreatic fistula (9.4 %) and mortality (2.0 %) based on the administered intraoperative fluid amount. These results were comparable to those of other authors. The average intraoperatively infused fluid amount was 13.9 +/- 0.9 mL / kg / h. Catecholamines were administered in 74 % of all operations, while noradrenaline was used in 54 % of all cases. Although other factors might play a role in this setting, we can deduce from these data that application of a volume of 10-15 mL / kg / h has no negative influence on the outcome following pancreas resections and that the intraoperative fluid therapy should be targeted at these values.

  10. Intraoperative Death During Cervical Spinal Surgery: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeffrey C; Buser, Zorica; Fish, David E; Lord, Elizabeth L; Roe, Allison K; Chatterjee, Dhananjay; Gee, Erica L; Mayer, Erik N; Yanez, Marisa Y; McBride, Owen J; Cha, Peter I; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A retrospective multicenter study. Routine cervical spine surgeries are typically associated with low complication rates, but serious complications can occur. Intraoperative death is a very rare complication and there is no literature on its incidence. The purpose of this study was to determine the intraoperative mortality rates and associated risk factors in patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. Twenty-one surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network participated in the study. Medical records of patients who received cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, were reviewed to identify occurrence of intraoperative death. A total of 258 patients across 21 centers met the inclusion criteria. Most of the surgeries were done using the anterior approach (53.9%), followed by posterior (39.1%) and circumferential (7%). Average patient age was 57.1 ± 13.2 years, and there were more male patients (54.7% male and 45.3% female). There was no case of intraoperative death. Death during cervical spine surgery is a very rare complication. In our multicenter study, there was a 0% mortality rate. Using an adequate surgical approach for patient diagnosis and comorbidities may be the reason how the occurrence of this catastrophic adverse event was prevented in our patient population.

  11. High-accuracy registration of intraoperative CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oentoro, A.; Ellis, R. E.

    2010-02-01

    Image-guided interventions using intraoperative 3D imaging can be less cumbersome than systems dependent on preoperative images, especially by needing neither potentially invasive image-to-patient registration nor a lengthy process of segmenting and generating a 3D surface model. In this study, a method for computer-assisted surgery using direct navigation on intraoperative imaging is presented. In this system the registration step of a navigated procedure was divided into two stages: preoperative calibration of images to a ceiling-mounted optical tracking system, and intraoperative tracking during acquisition of the 3D medical image volume. The preoperative stage used a custom-made multi-modal calibrator that could be optically tracked and also contained fiducial spheres for radiological detection; a robust registration algorithm was used to compensate for the very high false-detection rate that was due to the high physical density of the optical light-emitting diodes. Intraoperatively, a tracking device was attached to plastic bone models that were also instrumented with radio-opaque spheres; A calibrated pointer was used to contact the latter spheres as a validation of the registration. Experiments showed that the fiducial registration error of the preoperative calibration stage was approximately 0.1 mm. The target registration error in the validation stage was approximately 1.2 mm. This study suggests that direct registration, coupled with procedure-specific graphical rendering, is potentially a highly