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Sample records for intraperitoneal alpha-lipoic acid

  1. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  2. Hypotensive effect of alpha-lipoic acid after a single administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Magdalena; Razny, Katarzyna; Bilska-Wilkosz, Anna; Iciek, Malgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Wlodek, Lidia; Filipek, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on blood pressure was investigated many times in chronic studies, but there are no studies on the effect of this compound after a single administration. Alpha-lipoic acid is a drug used in diabetic neuropathy, often in obese patients, to treat hypertension. Therefore, knowledge of the potential antihypertensive effect of alpha-lipoic acid even after a single dose and possibly too much pressure reduction is interesting and useful. The mechanism of the hypotensive effect of alpha-lipoic acid was examined in normotensive rats in vivo after a single intraperitoneal administration, blood pressure in the left carotid artery of the rats was measured prior to the administration of the compounds (alpha- lipoic acid and/or glibenclamide) and 80 min thereafter. Alpha-lipoic acid at a dosage of 50 mg/kg b.w. i.p. significantly decreased the blood pressure from the 50th min after drug administration. This cardiovascular effect of this compound was reversed by glibenclamide, a selective KATP blocker. Glibenclamide alone at this dose did not significantly affect the blood pressure. Statistical significance was evaluated using two-way ANOVA. This suggests that alpha-lipoic acid affects ATP-dependent potassium channels. It is possible that this is an indirect effect of hydrogen sulfide because alpha-lipoic acid can increase its concentration. The results obtained in this study are very important because the patients taking alpha-lipoic acid may be treated for co-existing hypertension. Therefore, the possibility of blood pressure lowering by alpha-lipoic acid should be taken into account, although it does not lead to excessive orthostatic hypotension.

  3. Alpha lipoic acid in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Di Tucci, Chiara; Di Feliciantonio, Mara; Vena, Flaminia; Capone, Carmela; Schiavi, Michele Carlo; Pietrangeli, Daniela; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2018-05-04

    Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant synthetized by plants and animals, identified as a catalytic agent for oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate. In this review, we analyzed the action of ALA in gynecology and obstetrics focusing in particular on neuropathic pain and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed and Cochrane Library for retrieving articles in English language on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of ALA in gynecological and obstetrical conditions. ALA reduces oxidative stress and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The association of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), and bromelain (Br) is used for prevention and treatment of endometriosis. In association with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) with amitriptyline is used for treatment of vestibulodynia/painful bladder syndrome (VBD/PBS). A promising area of research is ALA supplementation in patients with threatened miscarriage to improve the subchorionic hematoma resorption. Furthermore, ALA could be used in prevention of diabetic embryopathy and premature rupture of fetal membranes induced by inflamation. In conclusion, ALA can be safely used for treatment of neuropatic pain and as a dietary support during pregnancy.

  4. Alpha-lipoic acid and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Stephanie D; Jones, Peter J H

    2003-11-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has been identified as a powerful antioxidant found naturally in our diets, but appears to have increased functional capacity when given as a supplement in the form of a natural or synthetic isolate. ALA and its active reduced counterpart, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), have been shown to combat oxidative stress by quenching a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because this molecule is soluble in both aqueous and lipid portions of the cell, its biological functions are not limited solely to one environment. In addition to ROS scavenging, ALA has been shown to be involved in the recycling of other antioxidants in the body including vitamins C and E and glutathione. Not only have the antioxidant qualities of this molecule been studied, but there are also several reports pertaining to its blood lipid modulating characteristics, protection against LDL oxidation and modulation of hypertension. Therefore, ALA represents a possible protective agent against risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the literature pertaining to ALA in relation to CVD and describe the most powerful actions and potential uses of this naturally occurring antioxidant. Despite the numerous studies on ALA, many questions remain relating to the use of ALA as a supplement. There is no consensus on dosage, dose frequency, form of administration, and/or preferred form of ALA. However, collectively the literature increases our understanding of the potential uses for supplementation with ALA and identifies key areas for future research.

  5. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on leukotriene A4 hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Torres, María José; Fierro, Angélica; Pessoa-Mahana, C David; Romero-Parra, Javier; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Faúndez, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Leukotriene A 4 hydrolase is a soluble enzyme with epoxide hydrolase and aminopeptidase activities catalysing the conversion of leukotriene A 4 to leukotriene B 4 and the hydrolysis of the peptide proline-glycine-proline. Imbalances in leukotriene B 4 synthesis are related to several pathologic conditions. Currently there are no available drugs capable to modulate the synthesis of leukotriene B 4 or to block its receptors. Here we show the inhibitory profile of alpha lipoic acid on the activity of leukotriene A 4 Hydrolase. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited both activities of the enzyme at concentrations lower than 10μM. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton, or the 5-lipoxygenase activating protein inhibitor MK-886, were unable to inhibit the activity of the enzyme. Acute promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells were differentiated to leukotriene A 4 hydrolase expressing neutrophil-like cells. Alpha lipoic acid inhibited the aminopeptidase activity of the cytosolic fraction from neutrophil-like cells but had no effect on the cytosolic fraction from undifferentiated cells. Docking and molecular dynamic approximations revealed that alpha lipoic acid participates in electrostatic interactions with K-565 and R-563, which are key residues for the carboxylate group recognition of endogenous substrates by the enzyme. Alpha lipoic acid is a compound widely used in clinical practice, most of its therapeutic effects are associated with its antioxidants properties, however, antioxidant effect alone is unable to explain all clinical effects observed with alpha lipoic acid. Our results invite to evaluate the significance of the inhibitory effect of alpha lipoic acid on the catalytic activity of leukotriene A 4 hydrolase using in vivo models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction and cerebellar oxidative stress in mice: protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Manda, Kailash; Ueno, Megumi; Moritake, Takashi; Anzai, Kazunori

    2007-02-12

    Reactive oxygen species are implicated in neurodegeneration and cognitive disorders due to higher vulnerability of neuronal tissues. The cerebellum is recently reported to be involved in cognitive function. Therefore, present study aimed at investigating the role alpha-lipoic acid against radiation-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cerebellum and its correlation with cognitive dysfunction. We observed spontaneous motor activities and spatial memory task of mice using pyroelectric infrared sensor and programmed video tracking system, respectively. Whole body X-irradiation (6 Gy) of mice substantially impaired the reference memory and motor activities of mice. However, acute intraperitoneal treatment of mice with alpha-lipoic acid prior to irradiation significantly attenuated such cognitive dysfunction. Alpha-lipoic acid pretreatment exerted a very high magnitude of protection against radiation-induced augmentation of protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in mice cerebellum. Further, radiation-induced deficit of total, nonprotein and protein-bound sulfhydryl (T-SH, NP-SH, PB-SH) contents of cerebellum and plasma ferric reducing power (FRAP) was also inhibited by alpha-lipoic acid pre-treatment. Moreover, alpha-lipoic acid treated mice showed an intact cytoarchitecture of cerebellum, higher counts of intact Purkinje cells and granular cells in comparison to untreated irradiated mice. Results clearly indicate that alpha-lipoic acid is potent neuroprotective antioxidant.

  7. Memory impairment, oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by space radiation: ameliorative potential of alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Manda, Kailash; Ueno, Megumi; Anzai, Kazunori

    2008-03-05

    Exposure to high-energy particle radiation (HZE) may cause oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in the same manner that seen in aged mice. This phenomenon has raised the concerns about the safety of an extended manned mission into deep space where a significant portion of the radiation burden would come from HZE particle radiation. The present study aimed at investigating the role of alpha-lipoic acid against space radiation-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant status in cerebellum and its correlation with cognitive dysfunction. We observed spontaneous motor activities and spatial memory task of mice using pyroelectric infrared sensor and programmed video tracking system, respectively. Whole body irradiation of mice with high-LET (56)Fe beams (500 MeV/nucleon, 1.5 Gy) substantially impaired the reference memory at 30 day post-irradiation; however, no significant effect was observed on motor activities of mice. Acute intraperitoneal treatment of mice with alpha-lipoic acid prior to irradiation significantly attenuated such memory dysfunction. Radiation-induced apoptotic damage in cerebellum was examined using a neuronal-specific terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling method (NeuroTACS). Radiation-induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death of granule cells and Purkinje cells were inhibited significantly by alpha-lipoic acid pretreatment. Alpha-lipoic acid pretreatment exerted a very high magnitude of protection against radiation-induced augmentation of DNA damage (comet tail movement and serum 8-OHdG), lipid proxidation products (MDA+HAE) and protein carbonyls in mice cerebellum. Further, radiation-induced decline of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) contents of cerebellum and plasma ferric reducing power (FRAP) was also inhibited by alpha-lipoic acid pre-treatment. Results clearly indicate that alpha-lipoic acid is a potent neuroprotective antioxidant. Moreover, present finding also support the idea suggesting the cerebellar

  8. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on endometrial implants in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Pınar, Neslihan; Soylu Karapınar, Oya; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özgür, Tümay; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in the treatment of endometriosis in an experimental rat model by evaluating biochemical and histopathologic parameters. Experimental endometriosis was induced by the peritoneal implantation of autologous endometrial tissue. The rats were randomly divided into two groups with eight rats each. Group I was intraperitoneally administered ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Group II was intraperitoneally administered saline solution at the same dosage and over the same period. Endometrial implant volume was measured in both groups both pre- and post-treatment. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was measured in peritoneal fluid. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were assessed in serum. The implants were histopathologically evaluated. In the ALA group, the serum TOS and OSI levels, the endometrial implant volumes, the TNF-α levels in serum and peritoneal fluid, and the histopathologic scores were significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  9. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Mitochondrial Superoxide and Glucocorticoid-Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sharon L. H.; Vohra, Harpreet; Zhang, Yi; Sutton, Matthew; Whitworth, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To examine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant with mitochondrial superoxide inhibitory properties, on adrenocorticotrophic hormone- (ACTH-HT) and dexamethasone-induced hypertensions (DEX-HT) in rats and if any antihypertensive effect is mediated via mitochondrial superoxide inhibition. Methods. In a prevention study, rats received ground food or alpha-lipoic-acid-laced food (10 mg/rat/day) for 15 nights. Saline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, 0.2 mg/kg/day), or dexamethasone (DEX, 10 μg/rat/day) was injected subcutaneously from day 5 to day 11. In a reversal study, rats received alpha-lipoic-acid-laced food 4 days after commencement of saline or DEX. Tail-cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured second daily. Kidney mitochondrial superoxide was examined using (MitoSOX) Red (MitoSOX) via flow cytometry. Results. SBP was increased by ACTH (P < 0.0005) and DEX (P < 0.0005). Alpha-lipoic acid alone did not alter SBP. With alpha-lipoic acid pretreatment, SBP was increased by ACTH (P′ < 0.005) but not by DEX. Alpha-lipoic partially prevented ACTH-HT (P′ < 0.0005) and fully prevented DEX-HT (P′ < 0.0005) but failed to reverse DEX-HT. ACTH and DEX did not increase MitoSOX signal. In ACTH-hypertensive rats, high-dose alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg/rat/day) did not decrease SBP further but raised MitoSOX signal (P < 0.001), suggesting prooxidant activity. Conclusion. Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension in rats is prevented by alpha-lipoic acid via mechanisms other than mitochondrial superoxide reduction. PMID:23533693

  10. The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on mitochondrial superoxide and glucocorticoid-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sharon L H; Vohra, Harpreet; Zhang, Yi; Sutton, Matthew; Whitworth, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant with mitochondrial superoxide inhibitory properties, on adrenocorticotrophic hormone- (ACTH-HT) and dexamethasone-induced hypertensions (DEX-HT) in rats and if any antihypertensive effect is mediated via mitochondrial superoxide inhibition. In a prevention study, rats received ground food or alpha-lipoic-acid-laced food (10 mg/rat/day) for 15 nights. Saline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, 0.2 mg/kg/day), or dexamethasone (DEX, 10  μ g/rat/day) was injected subcutaneously from day 5 to day 11. In a reversal study, rats received alpha-lipoic-acid-laced food 4 days after commencement of saline or DEX. Tail-cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured second daily. Kidney mitochondrial superoxide was examined using (MitoSOX) Red (MitoSOX) via flow cytometry. SBP was increased by ACTH (P < 0.0005) and DEX (P < 0.0005). Alpha-lipoic acid alone did not alter SBP. With alpha-lipoic acid pretreatment, SBP was increased by ACTH (P' < 0.005) but not by DEX. Alpha-lipoic partially prevented ACTH-HT (P' < 0.0005) and fully prevented DEX-HT (P' < 0.0005) but failed to reverse DEX-HT. ACTH and DEX did not increase MitoSOX signal. In ACTH-hypertensive rats, high-dose alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg/rat/day) did not decrease SBP further but raised MitoSOX signal (P < 0.001), suggesting prooxidant activity. Glucocorticoid-induced hypertension in rats is prevented by alpha-lipoic acid via mechanisms other than mitochondrial superoxide reduction.

  11. Alpha lipoic acid intoxicatıon: An adult.

    PubMed

    Emir, Duygu Ferek; Ozturan, Ibrahim Ulas; Yilmaz, Serkan

    2018-06-01

    Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant used to treat a variety of disorders. Although ALA is considered a very safe supplement and intoxication is very rare, acute high-dose ingestions can cause mortality. In this report, we discuss a very rare case of ALA intoxication to increase awareness of this issue. A 22-year-old female was referred to our emergency department with ALA intoxication after ingesting a total of 18g of ALA with a suicidal intention. The patient was found in an altered mental state and confused. During the physical examination, the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale was 13 (E4M6V3); however, she was neither alert nor oriented. Vital signs revealed a mildly decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, and an increased respiratory rate. Cranial nerve examination was normal except a horizontal gaze nystagmus. Laboratory testing showed a decompensated metabolic acidosis. T wave inversions were seen in the electrocardiography (EKG). The patient was treated with supportive treatment and discharged within three days of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. ALA is a very common supplement that is easily accessible worldwide. Although ALA intoxication is very rare, it is sometimes seen after accidental or suicidal acute ingestion. Neurologic effects, metabolic acidosis, and t wave inversions in the EKG are observed when this acute poisoning occurs. Supportive treatment should be the main therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety of oral alpha-lipoic acid treatment in pregnant women: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Parente, E; Colannino, G; Picconi, O; Monastra, G

    2017-09-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid is a natural molecule, which directly or by means of its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, very helpful also in preventing miscarriage and preterm delivery. Used as dietary supplement alpha-lipoic acid was demonstrated to be safe for living organisms even when administered at high doses. However, no study was made so far to verify the safety of its continuous administration on a substantial number of pregnant women. The present investigation was performed to answer this issue. An observational retrospective study was carried out analyzing 610 expectant mothers. They had been treated daily by oral route with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid, for at least 7 weeks during gestation. The primary outcome was to verify alpha-lipoic acid safety in the mother and infant. Maternal safety was assessed by monitoring for adverse reactions, physical and clinical examination, including a morbidity assessment. Laboratory and clinical examinations were performed monthly. Neonatal safety was assessed by the evaluation of birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores, neonatal death with the related cause of death. Data collected from the Birth Registry of Campania Region were used as control. This study provided a very clear and reassuring picture about the safety of alpha-lipoic acid oral treatment during pregnancy. No adverse effect was noticed in mothers or newborns. The two sets of monitored data, from treated and controls, were completely superimposable or, in some cases, better in alpha-lipoic acid group. Our results open a reassuring scenario regarding the administration of alpha-lipoic acid during pregnancy.

  13. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monisha; Gupta, Y K

    2003-08-01

    In the present study, the effect of alpha lipoic acid, a potent free radical scavenger, was investigated against the intracerebroventricular streptozotocin model of cognitive impairment in rats, which is characterized by a progressive deterioration of memory, cerebral glucose and energy metabolism, and oxidative stress. Wistar rats were injected with intracerebroventricular streptozotocin bilaterally. The rats were treated chronically with alpha lipoic acid (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) orally for 21 days starting from day 1 of streptozotocin injection in separate groups. The learning and memory behavior was evaluated and the rats were sacrificed for estimation of oxidative stress. The intracerebroventricular streptozotocin rats treated with alpha lipoic acid (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significantly less cognitive impairment as compared to the vehicle treated rats. There was also an insignificant increase in oxidative stress in the alpha lipoic acid treated groups. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid in preventing cognitive impairment and oxidative stress induced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin and its potential in dementia associated with age and age related neurodegenerative disorders where oxidative stress is involved such as Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment of acetaminophen-induced rat liver damage.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Mahmoud, A A; Nassar, G

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a well-tolerated analgesic and antipyretic drug when used at therapeutic doses. Overdoses, however, cause oxidative stress, which leads to acute liver failure. Alpha lipoic acid is an antioxidant that has proven effective for ameliorating many pathological conditions caused by oxidative stress. We evaluated the effect of alpha lipoic acid on the histological and histochemical alterations of liver caused by an acute overdose of acetaminophen in rats. Livers of acetaminophen-intoxicated rats were congested and showed centrilobular necrosis, vacuolar degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Necrotic hepatocytes lost most of their carbohydrates, lipids and structural proteins. Liver sections from rats pre-treated with lipoic acid showed fewer pathological changes; the hepatocytes appeared moderately vacuolated with moderate staining of carbohydrates and proteins. Nevertheless, alpha lipoic acid at the dose we used did not protect the liver fully from acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity.

  15. Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid: possible neurotherapeutic agents for mood disorders?

    PubMed

    Soczynska, Joanna K; Kennedy, Sidney H; Chow, Cindy S M; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Konarski, Jakub Z; McIntyre, Roger S

    2008-06-01

    Mood disorders are associated with decrements in cognitive function, which are insufficiently treated with contemporary pharmacotherapies. To evaluate the putative neurotherapeutic effects of the mitochondrial cofactors, L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and alpha-lipoic acid; and to provide a rationale for investigating their efficacy in the treatment of neurocognitive deficits associated with mood disorders. A PubMed search of English-language articles published between January 1966 and March 2007 was conducted using the search terms carnitine and lipoic acid. L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid may offer neurotherapeutic effects (e.g., neurocognitive enhancement) via disparate mechanisms including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and metabolic regulation. Preliminary controlled trials in depressed geriatric populations also suggest an antidepressant effect with acetyl-L-carnitine. L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid are pleiotropic agents capable of offering neuroprotective and possibly cognitive-enhancing effects for neuropsychiatric disorders in which cognitive deficits are an integral feature.

  16. Alpha-lipoic acid improves subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Sahar K; Tolba, Osama A; Mostafa, Tarek M; Eid, Manal A; El-Afify, Dalia R

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a powerful antioxidant that may have a protective role in diabetic cardiac dysfunction. We investigated the possible beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid on diabetic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in children and adolescents with asymptomatic type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thirty T1D patients (aged 10-14) were randomized to receive insulin treatment (n = 15) or insulin plus alpha-lipoic acid 300 mg twice daily (n = 15) for four months. Age and sex matched healthy controls (n = 15) were also included. Patients were evaluated with conventional 2-dimensional echocardiographic examination (2D), pulsed tissue Doppler (PTD), and 2-dimensional longitudinal strain echocardiography (2DS) before and after therapy. Glutathione, malondialdhyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Fas ligand (Fas-L), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and troponin-I were determined and correlated to echocardiographic parameters. Diabetic patients had significantly lower levels of glutathione and significantly higher MDA, NO, TNF-alpha, Fas-L, MMP-2, and troponin-I levels than control subjects. The expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also increased in diabetic patients. Significant correlations of mitral e'/a' ratio and left ventricular global peak systolic strain with glutathione, MDA, NO, TNF-alpha, and Fas-L were observed in diabetic patients. Alpha-lipoic acid significantly increased glutathione level and significantly decreased MDA, NO, TNF-alpha, Fas-L, MMP-2, troponin-I levels, and TGF-beta gene expression. Moreover, alpha-lipoic acid significantly increased mitral e'/a' ratio and left ventricular global peak systolic strain in diabetic patients. These findings suggest that alpha-lipoic acid may have a role in preventing the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy in type 1 diabetes.

  17. Dietary Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alters Piglet Neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Austin T; Waworuntu, Rosaline V; Berg, Brian M; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (a-LA) is an antioxidant shown to ameliorate age-associated impairments of brain and cardiovascular function. Human milk is known to have high antioxidant capacity; however, the role of antioxidants in the developing brain is largely uncharacterized. This exploratory study aimed to examine the dose-response effects of a-LA on piglet growth and neurodevelopment. Beginning at 2 days of age, 31 male pigs received 1 of 3 diets: control (CONT) (0 mg a-LA/100 g), low a-LA (LOW) (120 mg a-LA/100 g), or high a-LA (HIGH) (240 mg a-LA/100 g). From 14 to 28 days of age, pigs were subjected to spatial T-maze assessment, and macrostructural and microstructural neuroimaging procedures were performed at 31 days of age. No differences due to diet were observed for bodyweight gain or intestinal weight and length. Spatial T-maze assessment did not reveal learning differences due to diet in proportion of correct choices or latency to choice measures. Diffusion tensor imaging revealed decreased (P = 0.01) fractional anisotropy (FA) in the internal capsule of HIGH-fed pigs compared with both the CONT (P < 0.01)- and LOW (P = 0.03)-fed pigs, which were not different from one another. Analysis of axial diffusivity (AD) within the internal capsule revealed a main effect of diet (P < 0.01) in which HIGH-fed piglets exhibited smaller (P < 0.01) rates of diffusion compared with CONT piglets, but HIGH-fed piglets were not different (P = 0.12) than LOW-fed piglets. Tract-based spatial statistics, a comparison of FA values along white matter tracts, revealed 1,650 voxels where CONT piglets exhibited higher (P < 0.05) values compared with HIGH-fed piglets. The lack of differences in intestinal and bodyweight measures among piglets indicate a-LA supplementation does not impact overall growth, regardless of concentration. Additionally, no observed differences between CONT- and LOW-fed piglets in behavior and neuroimaging measures

  18. [Safety and structural analysis of polymers produced in manufacturing process of alpha-lipoic acid].

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Junji; Seki, Azusa; Honda, Haruya; Akaogi, Seiichiro; Komatsubara, Hirobumi; Suzuki, Nobuo; Kameyama, Mayumi; Tamura, Satoru; Murakami, Nobutoshi

    2007-10-01

    Alpha-Lipoic acid has recently been permitted for use in foodstuffs and is contained in tablets and capsules. Although alpha-lipoic acid is synthesized from adipic acid, the safety of polymers produced during the purification and drying processes has been an issue of concern. Hence, we examined the safety profiles of thermally denatured polymer (LAP-A) and ethanol-denatured polymer (LAP-B) produced in the manufacturing process of alpha-lipoic acid. Furthermore, we conducted structural analysis of these polymers by 1H-NMR and FAB-MS spectroscopy. In a consecutive ingestion test, male and female mice ingested diet containing 0.1 and 0.2% LAP-A and -B for 4 weeks. Blood uric acid, potassium and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) tended to increase without dose-dependency. Relative liver weights were also increased. However, male dogs that were orally administered LAP-B (500 mg/kg) once did not show any abnormalities in blood parameters or general condition. These findings indicate that alpha-lipoic acid polymers are not acutely toxic; however, chronic ingestion of these polymers may affect liver and kidney functions.

  19. Effects of alpha lipoic acid on acrylamide-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, F A; Arafah, M; Sharma, B; Siddiqi, N J

    2017-07-31

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a neurotoxicant, reproductive toxicant, and carcinogen in animal species.  It is used in many industries and has been found to form naturally in foods cooked at high temperatures. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant whose therapeutic effect has been related to its antioxidant activity.  This study was carried out to study the protective effect of alpha lipoic acid on acrylamide induced perturbations in rat liver.  Four groups of rats were studied viz., control rats, acrylamide treated rats, alpha lipoic acid treated rats, and alpha lipoic acid plus acrylamide treated rats. ACR and ALA treatment alone and together caused a signifi-cant increase in hepatic reduced glutathione content while a decrease in hepatic ascorbic content was observed when compared to control group.  ALA pretreatment of acrylamide exposed rats caused no a signifi-cant alteration in superoxide dismutase activity but resulted in a tendency towards restoration of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity to near normal levels.  Gel electrophoresis showed fragmentation of DNA in the treated groups.  The dose of ALA used in the present study afforded partial restoration of oxidative indices altered by ACR in rat liver.

  20. Mechanism of alpha-lipoic acid in attenuating kanamycin-induced ototoxicity☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aimei; Hou, Ning; Bao, Dongyan; Liu, Shuangyue; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In view of the theory that alpha-lipoic acid effectively prevents cochlear cells from injury caused by various factors such as cisplatin and noise, this study examined whether alpha-lipoic acid can prevent kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. To this end, healthy BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with alpha-lipoic acid and kanamycin for 14 days. Auditory brainstem response test showed that increased auditory brainstem response threshold shifts caused by kanamycin were significantly inhibited. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis showed that the expression of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase in mouse cochlea was significantly decreased. The experimental findings suggest that phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediated kanamycin-induced ototoxic injury in BALB/c mice. Alpha-lipoic acid effectively attenuated kanamycin ototoxicity by inhibiting the kanamycin-induced high expression of phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase. PMID:25317129

  1. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces body weight and regulates triglycerides in obese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Okanović, Azra; Prnjavorac, Besim; Jusufović, Edin; Sejdinović, Rifat

    2015-08-01

    To determine an influence of alpha-lipoic acid to reduction of body weight and regulation of total cholesterol concentration, triglycerides and glucose serum levels in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. A prospective study includes two groups of obese patients with diabetes mellitus and signs of peripheral polyneuropathia: examined group (30 patients; 15 females and 15 males), and control group (30 patients; 12 females and 18 males). All were treated with metformin (850-1700 mg/day). Examined patients were additionally treated with alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg/day during 20 weeks. Body mass index and concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in serum were compared before and after the treatment. The group treated with 600 mg alpha-lipoic acid lost significantly more weight, and had lower triglyceride level than the control group. There were no significant differences in total cholesterol and glucose serum levels between the groups. Alpha-lipoic acid of 600 mg/day treatment have influenced weight and triglycerides loss in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. It should be considered as an important additive therapy in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of alpha-lipoic acid in experimentally induced acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Tatar, A; Korkmaz, M; Yayla, M; Gozeler, M S; Mutlu, V; Halici, Z; Uslu, H; Korkmaz, H; Selli, J

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and tissue protective effects, as well as the potential therapeutic role, of alpha-lipoic acid in experimentally induced acute otitis media. Twenty-five guinea pigs were assigned to one of five groups: a control (non-otitis) group, and otitis-induced groups treated with saline, penicillin G, alpha-lipoic acid, or alpha-lipoic acid plus penicillin G. Tissue samples were histologically analysed, and oxidative parameters in tissue samples were measured and compared between groups. The epithelial integrity was better preserved, and histological signs of inflammation and secretory metaplasia were decreased, in all groups compared to the saline treated otitis group. In the alpha-lipoic acid plus penicillin G treated otitis group, epithelial integrity was well preserved and histological findings of inflammation were significantly decreased compared to the saline, penicillin G and alpha-lipoic acid treated otitis groups. The most favourable oxidative parameters were observed in the control group, followed by the alpha-lipoic acid plus penicillin G treated otitis group. Alpha-lipoic acid, with its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and tissue protective properties, may decrease the clinical sequelae and morbidity associated with acute otitis media.

  3. Alpha lipoic acid attenuates high-fructose-induced pancreatic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Topsakal, Senay; Ozmen, Ozlem; Cankara, Fatma Nihan; Yesilot, Sukriye; Bayram, Dilek; Genç Özdamar, Nilüfer; Kayan, Sümeyra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) causes several problems such as insulin resistance. The goal of the study was to investigate pancreatic damage induced by chronic HFCS consumption and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on pancreatic cells. Wistar Albino, 4-month-old, female rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly distributed into three groups, each containing eight rats. The study included an HFCS group, an HFCS + ALA-administered group and a control group (CON). The prepared 30% solution of HFCS (F30) (24% fructose, 28% dextrose) was added to the drinking water for 10 weeks. ALA treatment was begun 4 weeks after the first HFCS administration (100 mg/kg/oral, last 6 weeks). Rats were anaesthetised and euthanised by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last ALA administration. Blood samples for biochemical tests (amylase, lipase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT)) and tissue samples for histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations (caspase-3, insulin and glucagon) were collected. Comparing the control and HFCS groups, serum glucose (150.92 ± 39.77 and 236.50 ± 18.28, respectively, p < 0.05), amylase (2165.00 ± 150.76 and 3027.66 ± 729.19, respectively, p < 0.01), lipase (5.58 ± 2.22 and 11.51 ± 2.74, respectively, p < 0.01) and pancreatic tissue MDA (0.0167 ± 0.004 and 0.0193 ± 0.006, respectively, p < 0.05) levels were increased, whereas tissue CAT (0.0924 ± 0.029 and 0.0359 ± 0.023, respectively, p < 0.05) activity decreased in the HFCS group significantly. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative and necrotic changes in Langerhans islet cells and slight inflammatory cell infiltration in pancreatic tissue in the HFCS group. Immunohistochemically there was a significant decrease in insulin (2.85 ± 0.37 and 0.87 ± 0.64, respectively, p < 0.001) and glucagon (2.71 ± 0.48 and 1.00 ± 0.75, respectively, p < 0.001) secreting cell scores, whereas a

  4. Transepithelial transport of alpha-lipoic acid across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Satsu, Hideo; Shimizu, Makoto

    2007-06-27

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is used in dietary supplements or food with antioxidative functions. The mechanism for the intestinal absorption of alpha-lipoic acid was investigated in this study by using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. LA was rapidly transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers, this transport being energy-dependent, suggesting transporter-mediated transport to be the mechanism involved. The LA transport was strongly dependent on the pH value, being accelerated in the acidic pH range. Furthermore, such monocarboxylic acids as benzoic acid and medium-chain fatty acids significantly inhibited LA transport, suggesting that a proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) was involved in the intestinal transport of LA. The conversion of LA to the more antioxidative dihydrolipoic acid was also apparent during the transport process.

  5. Lipid Lowering Effect of Antioxidant Alpha-Lipoic Acid in Experimental Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Amom, Zulkhairi; Zakaria, Zaiton; Mohamed, Jamaluddin; Azlan, Azrina; Bahari, Hasnah; Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohd; Aris Moklas, Mohd; Osman, Khairul; Asmawi, Zanariyah; Kamal Nik Hassan, Mohd

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating data demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a protective activity of alpha-lipoic acid; a metabolic antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic-induced animals was investigated. Eighteen adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit were segregated into three groups labelled as group N, HCD and ALA (n = 6). Group N (normal control) was fed with normal chow, the rest (HCD and ALA) were fed with 100 g/head/day of 1% cholesterol rich diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. Four point two mg/body weight of alpha lipoic acid was concomintantly supplemented to the ALA group. Drinking water was given ad-libitum. The study was designed for 10 weeks. Blood sampling was taken from the ear lobe vein at the beginning, week 5 and week 10. Plasma was prepared for lipid profile estimation and microsomal lipid peroxidation index indicated with malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and the aorta were excised for intimal lesion analysis. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were found to be significantly low in ALA group compared to that of the HCD group (p<0.05). Similarly, low level of MDA (p<0.05) in ALA group was observed compared to that of the HCD group showing a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation activity. Histomorphometric intimal lesion analysis of the aorta showing less of atheromatous plaque formation in alpha lipoic acid supplemented group (p<0.05) compared to HCD group. These findings suggested that alpha lipoic acid posses a dual lipid lowering and anti-atherosclerotic properties indicated with low plasma TC and LDL levels and reduction of athero-lesion formation in hypercholesterolemic-induced rabbits. PMID:18818758

  6. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on boar spermatozoa quality during freezing-thawing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known as a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar sperm and the antioxidant effect of ALA on boar sperm during freezing-thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, and 10.0, mg/m...

  7. Alpha-lipoic acid as a pleiotropic compound with potential therapeutic use in diabetes and other chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marilia Brito; Negrato, Carlos Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid is a naturally occurring substance, essential for the function of different enzymes that take part in mitochondria's oxidative metabolism. It is believed that alpha-lipoic acid or its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid have many biochemical functions acting as biological antioxidants, as metal chelators, reducers of the oxidized forms of other antioxidant agents such as vitamin C and E, and modulator of the signaling transduction of several pathways. These above-mentioned actions have been shown in experimental studies emphasizing the use of alpha-lipoic acid as a potential therapeutic agent for many chronic diseases with great epidemiological as well economic and social impact such as brain diseases and cognitive dysfunctions like Alzheimer disease, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, burning mouth syndrome, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, some types of cancer, glaucoma and osteoporosis. Many conflicting data have been found concerning the clinical use of alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetes and of diabetes-related chronic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, wound healing and diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. The most frequent clinical condition in which alpha-lipoic acid has been studied was in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 as well type 2 diabetes. Considering that oxidative stress, a imbalance between pro and antioxidants with excessive production of reactive oxygen species, is a factor in the development of many diseases and that alpha-lipoic acid, a natural thiol antioxidant, has been shown to have beneficial effects on oxidative stress parameters in various tissues we wrote this article in order to make an up-to-date review of current thinking regarding alpha-lipoic acid and its use as an antioxidant drug therapy for a myriad of diseases that could have potential benefits from its use.

  8. Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Lyn

    2002-12-01

    Mercury exposure is the second-most common cause of toxic metal poisoning. Public health concern over mercury exposure, due to contamination of fish with methylmercury and the elemental mercury content of dental amalgams, has long been a topic of political and medical debate. Although the toxicology of mercury is complex, there is evidence for antioxidant protection in the prevention of neurological and renal damage caused by mercury toxicity. Alpha-lipoic acid, a coenzyme of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, has been used in Germany as an antioxidant and approved treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy for 40 years. Research has attempted to identify the role of antioxidants, glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid specifically, in both mitigation of heavy metal toxicity and direct chelation of heavy metals. This review of the literature will assess the role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity.

  9. Physiological effect and therapeutic application of alpha lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmi; Karunakaran, Udayakumar; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Jeon, Jae-Han; Lee, In-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species promote endothelial dysfunction in old age and contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. α-Lipoic acid was identified as a catalytic agent for oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate in 1951, and it has been studied intensively by chemists, biologists, and clinicians who have been interested in its role in energetic metabolism and protection from reactive oxygen species-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Consequently, many biological effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation can be attributed to the potent antioxidant properties of α-lipoic acid and dihydro α-lipoic acid. The reducing environments inside the cell help to protect from oxidative damage and the reduction-oxidation status of α-lipoic acid is dependent upon the degree to which the cellular components are found in the oxidized state. Although healthy young humans can synthesize enough α-lipoic acid to scavenge reactive oxygen species and enhance endogenous antioxidants like glutathione and vitamins C and E, the level of α-lipoic acid significantly declines with age and this may lead to endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, many studies have reported α-lipoic acid can regulate the transcription of genes associated with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. In this review, we will discuss recent clinical studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of α-lipoic acid on endothelial dysfunction and propose possible mechanisms involved.

  10. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on retinal ganglion cells, retinal thicknesses, and VEGF production in an experimental model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kan, Emrah; Alici, Ömer; Kan, Elif Kılıç; Ayar, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on the thicknesses of various retinal layers and on the numbers of retinal ganglion cells and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in experimental diabetic mouse retinas. Twenty-one male BALB/C mice were made diabetic by the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). One week after the induction of diabetes, the mice were divided randomly into three groups: control group (non-diabetic mice treated with alpha-lipoic acid, n = 7), diabetic group (diabetic mice without treatment, n = 7), and alpha-lipoic acid treatment group (diabetic mice with alpha-lipoic acid treatment, n = 7). At the end of the 8th week, the thicknesses of the inner nuclear layer (INL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), and full-length retina were measured; also retinal ganglion cells and VEGF expressions were counted on the histological sections of the mouse retinas and compared with each other. The thicknesses of the full-length retina, ONL, and INL were significantly reduced in the diabetic group compared to the control and ALA treatment groups (p = 0.001), whereas the thicknesses of these layers did not show a significant difference between ALA treatment and control groups. The number of ganglion cells in the diabetic group was significantly lower than those in the control and ALA treatment groups (p = 0.001). The VEGF expression was significantly higher in the diabetic group and mostly observed in the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers compared to the control and ALA treatment groups (p = 0.001). Therefore, the number of ganglion cells and VEGF levels did not show significant differences between the ALA treatment and control groups (p = 0.7). Our results show that alpha-lipoic acid treatment may have an impact on reducing VEGF levels, protecting ganglion cells, and preserving the thicknesses of the inner and outer layers in diabetic mouse retinas.

  11. Alpha lipoic acid efficacy in burning mouth syndrome. A controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Sánchez, Begoña; Cerero-Lapiedra, Rocío; Llamas-Martínez, Silvia; Esparza-Gómez, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Background A double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and determine the statistical significance of the outcome variables. Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as an oral burning sensation in the absence of clinical signs which could justify the syndrome. Recent studies suggest the existence of neurological factors as a possible cause of the disease. Material and Methods 60 patients with BMS, in two groups: case group with 600 mg/day and placebo as control group; with follow up of 2 months. Results 64% of ALA patients reported some level of improvement, with a level of maintenance of 68.75% one month after treatment. 27.6% of the placebo group also demonstrated some reduction in BMS symptoms. Conclusions Long-term evolution and the intensity of symptoms are variables that reduce the probability of improvement with ALA treatment. Key words: Burning mouth syndrome, neuropathy, alpha lipoic acid. PMID:26034927

  12. Histomorphometric and Ultrastructural Evaluation of Long-Term Alpha Lipoic Acid and Vitamin B12 Use After Experimental Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Murat; Togral, Guray; Hasturk, Askin Esen; Horasanli, Bahriye; Helvacioglu, Fatma; Dagdeviren, Atilla; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Parpucu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the therapeutic effects of long-term alpha lipoic acid (A-LA) and vitamin B12 use via histomorphometric methods and electron microscopy in the transected sciatic nerves of rats. Forty rats were randomized into five groups (n=8/group). In group I, 1 cm segment of sciatic nerve was resected without any other intervention. In group II (sham), following right sciatic nerve transection, primary epineurial anastomosis was performed by placing the edges of the nerve end-to-end. In group III (saline), after right sciatic nerve transection, the ends of the nerves were brought together and closed after application of intraperitoneal physiologic saline. In group IV, 2 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid and in group V, 2 mg/kg of vitamin B12 was administered intraperitoneally before surgical intervention. Histomorphometric and electron microscopic analyses revealed that vitamin B12 did not prevent structural changes, abnormal myelination and g-ratio deviations regarding the functional aspects of the sciatic nerve. Alpha lipoic acid was more effective in restructuring the histomorphometric and structural aspects of the nerve with more myelinated fibers with optimal values (0.55-0.68) than vitamin B12 groups, in which the number of myelinated nerve fibers significantly decreased at optimal intervals (0.55-0.68). A-LA administration following peripheral nerve transection injury is more effective in promoting nerve healing regarding the structural aspects of the sciatic nerve compared to vitamin B12 and also myelination of nerve fibers by increasing g-values.

  13. A rare cause of status epilepticus; alpha lipoic acid intoxication, case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tolunay, Orkun; Çelik, Tamer; Kömür, Mustafa; Gezgin, Ali Emre; Kaya, Musa Soner; Çelik, Ümit

    2015-11-01

    Alpha lipoic acid is a powerful antioxidant widely used for the supplementary treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Intoxication with alpha lipoic acid is very rare. There is no reported dose of safety in children. A 14-month-old previously healthy girl was referred to our hospital with the diagnosis of drug intoxication. She was admitted to the emergency department with lethargy and continuing involuntary movements for several hours after she had ingested an unknown amount of alpha lipoic acid. On admission she was lethargic and had myoclonic seizures involving all extremities. She had no fever and laboratory examinations were normal except for mild metabolic acidosis. The seizures were unresponsive to bolus midazolam, phenytoin infusion and levetiracetam infusion. She was taken to the pediatric intensive care unit with the diagnosis of status epilepticus. After failure of the treatment with midazolam infusion she was intubated and thiopental sodium infusion was started. Her myoclonic seizures were controlled with thiopental sodium infusion. After 48 h intubation and mechanical ventilation thiopental sodium was gradually reduced and then stopped. Following the withdraw of thiopental sodium, she was seizure free on her discharge on the 8th day. Alpha lipoic acid and derivatives cause side effects in children like refractory convulsions. They are frequently rendered as vitamins by diabetic patients and are left at places where children can easily access them. Therefore, when faced with refractory convulsions in children who have had no disease before, intoxication by medicaments with alpha lipoic acid should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. {alpha}-Lipoic acid exhibits anti-amyloidogenicity for {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito

    2006-03-24

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and the metabolic product of LA, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro. LA and DHLA dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-protein, as well as their extension. Moreover, they destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. LA and DHLA couldmore » be key molecules for the development of therapeutics for AD.« less

  15. Chemopreventive Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Obesity-Related Cancers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyun-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    It has been generally accepted that being overweight or obese is a risk factor for several types of cancers, including breast, thyroid, colon, pancreatic and liver. In fact, people who are obese have more fat tissues that can produce hormones, such as insulin or estrogen, which may cause cancer cells to grow. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is anorganosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid, which is produced in animals normally, and is essential for aerobic metabolism. Studies in both in vitro cells and in vivo animal models have shown that ALA inhibits the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, suggesting that ALA has considerable attention as a chemopreventive agent. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning ALA and highlights its anti-cancer properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory implications. Based on scientific evidences so far, ALA might be useful agents in the management or chemoprevention of obesity-related cancers. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Hegazy, H G

    2016-01-01

    Because of the important role that oxidative stress is thought to play in the aging process, antioxidants could be candidates for preventing its related pathologies. We investigated the ameliorative effects of two antioxidant supplements, ginger and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), on hepatic ultrastructural alterations in old rats. Livers of young (4 months) and old (24 months) Wistar rats were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Livers of old rats showed sinusoidal collapse and congestion, endothelial thickening and defenestration, and inconsistent perisinusoidal extracellular matrix deposition. Aged hepatocytes were characterized by hypertrophy, cytoplasmic vacuolization and a significant increase in the volume densities of the nuclei, mitochondria and dense bodies. Lipofuscin accumulation and decreased microvilli in bile canaliculi and space of Disse also were observed. The adverse alterations were ameliorated significantly by both ginger and ALA supplementation; ALA was more effective than ginger. Ginger and ALA appear to be promising anti-aging agents based on their amelioration of ultrastructural alterations in livers of old rats.

  17. [Comparative study of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol effects on affective status, cognitive functions and quality of life in diabetes mellitus patients].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Koliadich, M I; Alekseev, M I

    2011-01-01

    Short-term, prospective placebo-controlled simple blind randomized study of the effects of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol on the dynamics of affective status disorders, cognitive functions, and quality of life in parallel with changes in carbohydrate metabolism and lipidemia has been conducted in diabetic patients. It is established that two-week administration of alpha-lipoic acid (600 mg once a day, i.v.) and mexidol (300 mg once a day, i.v.) reduced hyperglycemia by 13.00 with simultaneous decrease of depressive "feelings of guilt". In case of mexidol, these effects were accompanied by positive "vitality" dynamics established with SF-36 questionnaire and reflecting improvement in patients' quality of life. Additionally, course administration of alpha-lipoic acid increased attention as studied with Schulte tables. Favorable psychotropic effects of alpha-lipoic acid and mexidol were unrelated to changes in lipidemia and "lipid peroxidation - antioxidant protection" system indicators.

  18. Alpha Lipoic Acid Plus Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Vestibulodynia Associated With Painful Bladder Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murina, Filippo; Graziottin, Alessandra; Felice, Raffaele; Gambini, Dania

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) plus omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in combination with amitriptyline therapy in patients with vestibulodynia/painful bladder syndrome (VBD/PBS). Women with VBD/PBS were randomly assigned to receive amitriptyline or amitriptyline plus a commercially available preparation (ALAnerv Age; Alfa Wassermann, Bologna, Italy) containing, in 2 capsules, ALA 600 mg plus docosahexaenoic acid 250 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 16.67 mg. Symptoms of burning and pain were assessed using a 10-cm visual analog scale and the short form of the McGill-Melzack Pain Questionnaire. Among 84 women who were randomized, the mean ± standard deviation dose of amitriptyline was 21.7 ± 6.6 mg/day, without statistical difference between the two groups. Pain, as assessed using both the pain rating index of the visual analog scale and the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, decreased significantly in both trial groups, with a greater effect seen with the addition of ALA and n-3 PUFAs. The addition of ALA/n-3 PUFAs to amitriptyline treatment was also associated with improvements in dyspareunia and pelvic floor muscle tone. The overall incidence of adverse events was low, and none led to treatment discontinuation. The addition of ALA/n-3 PUFAs to amitriptyline treatment in patients with VBD/PBS appears to improve outcomes and may allow for a lower dosage of amitriptyline, which may lead to fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic (thioctic) acid on heart and kidney microvasculature in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tayebati, Seyed Khosrow; Tomassoni, Daniele; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Amenta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells represent an important vascular site of signaling and development of damage during ischemia, inflammation and other pathological conditions. Excessive reactive oxygen species production causes pathological activation of endothelium including exposure of cell to adhesion molecules. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) are members of the immunoglobulin super-family which are present on the surface of endothelial cells. These molecules represent important markers of endothelial inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate, with immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques, the effect of treatment with (+/-)-alpha lipoic (thioctic) acid and its enantiomers on heart and kidney endothelium in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Arterial hypertension is accompanied by an increased oxidative stress status in the heart characterized by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nucleic acid oxidation increase. The higher oxidative stress also modifies adhesion molecules expression. In the heart VCAM-1, which was higher than ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, was increased in SHR. ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and PECAM-1 expression was significantly greater in the renal endothelium of SHR. (+/-)-Alpha lipoic acid and (+)-alpha lipoic acid treatment significantly decreased TBARS levels, the nucleic acid oxidation and prevented adhesion molecules expression in cardiac and renal vascular endothelium. These data suggest that endothelial molecules may be used for studying the mechanisms of vascular injury on target organs of hypertension. The effects observed after treatment with (+)-alpha lipoic acid could open new perspectives for countering heart and kidney microvascular injury which represent a common feature in hypertensive end-organs damage.

  20. The Protective Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10 Combination on Ovarian Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, Ahmet Ali; Bozkurt, Mehmet Fatih; Koken, Tulay; Dogan, Nurhan; Pektaş, Mine Kanat; Baskin Embleton, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to evaluate whether alpha-lipoic acid and/or coenzyme Q10 can protect the prepubertal ovarian tissue from ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental rat model of ovarian torsion. Materials and Methods. Forty-two female preadolescent Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups randomly. The sham group had laparotomy without torsion; the other groups had torsion/detorsion procedure. After undergoing torsion, group 2 received saline, group 3 received olive oil, group 4 received alpha-lipoic acid, group 5 received coenzyme Q10, and group 6 received both alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 orally. The oxidant-antioxidant statuses of these groups were compared using biochemical measurement of oxidized/reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, pathological evaluation of damage and apoptosis within the ovarian tissue, and immunohistochemical assessment of nitric oxide synthase. Results. The left ovaries of the alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly lower apoptosis scores and significantly higher nitric oxide synthase content than the left ovaries of the control groups. The alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly higher glutathione peroxidase levels and serum malondialdehyde concentrations than the sham group. Conclusions. The combination of alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 has beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury related to ovarian torsion.

  1. Protective effect of alpha-lipoic acid in methotrexate-induced ovarian oxidative injury and decreased ovarian reserve in rats.

    PubMed

    Soylu Karapinar, Oya; Pinar, Neslihan; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özgür, Tümay; Dolapçıoğlu, Kenan

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether the possible oxidative effect of methotrexate (Mtx) on ovary and to evaluate the effectiveness of alpha lipoic acid (ALA), which may be useful in many oxidative stress models. Thirty-two female Wistar-albino rats were randomly divided into four groups; control group, alpha lipoic acid group (ALA 100 mg/kg, 10 days), multiple dose Mtx group (Mtx 1 mg/kg 1, 3, 5, 7 days) and Mtx and ALA group (Mtx 1 mg/kg 1, 3, 5, 7 days and ALA 100 mg/kg, 10 days). Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and total ovarian follicle count were evaluated. Mtx administration caused a significant decrease in TAS, a significant increase in TOS and OSI, a significant increase in MDA levels and a decrease in GSH-Px and CAT activity. Moreover the proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) was increased in the Mtx group. And AMH values and total follicle count were significantly decreased in Mtx group. However, ALA treatment reversed biochemical results and AMH levels and total follicle count. Alpha lipoic acid ameliorates methotrexate induced oxidative damage of ovarian in rats.

  2. Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Alzheimer's disease--a 48 months follow-up analysis.

    PubMed

    Hager, K; Kenklies, M; McAfoose, J; Engel, J; Münch, G

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative stress and neuronal energy depletion are characteristic biochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is therefore conceivable that pro-energetic and antioxidant drugs such as alpha-lipoic acid might delay the onset or slow down the progression of the disease. In a previous study, 600mg alpha-lipoic acid was given daily to nine patients with AD (receiving a standard treatment with choline-esterase inhibitors) in an open-label study over an observation period of 12 months. The treatment led to a stabilization of cognitive functions in the study group, demonstrated by constant scores in two neuropsychological tests (the mini mental state exam, MMSE and the Alzheimer's disease assessment score cognitive subscale, ADAScog). In this report, we have extended the analysis to 43 patients over an observation period of up to 48 months. In patients with mild dementia (ADAScog < 15), the disease progressed extremely slowly (ADAScog: +1.2 points/year, MMSE: -0.6 points/year), in patients with moderate dementia at approximately twice the rate. However, the progression appears dramatically lower than data reported for untreated patients or patients on choline-esterase inhibitors in the second year of long-term studies. Despite the fact that this study was not double-blinded, placebo-controlled and randomized, our data suggest that treatment with alpha-lipoic acid might be a successful 'neuroprotective' therapy option for AD. However, a state-of-the-art phase II trial is needed urgently.

  3. Phthalate induced toxicity in prostate cancer cell lines and effects of alpha lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Kismali, G; Yurdakok-Dikmen, B; Kuzukiran, O; Arslan, P; Filazi, A

    2017-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate were investigated on human prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 in vitro. Standards of dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, and di-ethyl hexyl phthalate were used. Alpha lipoic acid was used as antioxidant compound. DU145 and PC3 human prostate carcinoma cells were used. MTT assay were used for cytotoxicity assay. A low dose proliferative effect of phthalates in vitro was observed. With the hypothesis of the inhibition of aerobic glycolysis activity in cancer treatment, α-lipoic acid was applied to cells; where as a contrary to previous studies, no change in the cell proliferation was observed. In combination with ALA, at IC50 and lower doses, an increase of the cytotoxic effect was found for DIBP, DBP and BBP; while for DMP, DEP and DEHP, a decrease was observed for DU145 cells. In PC3 cells, a decrease was observed for DMP, DEP and DBPs; while no significant difference were observed for DEHP, DIBP and BBP. The present study demonstrates preliminary information regarding the low dose proliferative effects of phthalates in prostate cancer in vitro (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 65).

  4. Immunomodulatory activities of alpha lipoic acid with a special focus on its efficacy in preventing miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Monastra, Giovanni; De Grazia, Sara; Cilaker Micili, Serap; Goker, Asli; Unfer, Vittorio

    2016-12-01

    Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is an essential mitochondrial co-factor and, as a free molecule, it can exert multi-level immunomodulatory functions. Both ALA and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), are believed to be able to chelate heavy metals, to regenerate essential antioxidants and to repair important molecules damaged by oxidation. The largest part of the effects of ALA/DHLA couple can be explained by a specific stimulatory activity on Nrf2-dependent gene transcription and by the inhibition of NF-kB activity. These features have prompted its use as a drug for several diseases. Areas covered: This article surveys the main features of ALA/DHLA and its therapeutic effects. Its complex and differentiated function cannot simply be reduced to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and detoxifying action. We highlight its capability to finely modulate several physiological pathways when unbalanced. In particular, we focus our attention on pregnancy, in relation to ALA administration by oral route and by a new formulation for vaginal delivery, in patients with threatened miscarriage. Expert opinion: Future efforts should be devoted to explaining carefully ALA/DHLA mechanism of action to reactivate the physiological balance when modified during pregnancy. On the other hand, ALA safety in pregnant women and its pharmacokinetics by vaginal route, have to be studied in depth. Moreover, ALA efficacy has to be confirmed in a much larger sample of patients.

  5. Alpha-lipoic acid: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Luc; Ghibu, Steliana; Muresan, Adriana; Vergely, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease with a high prevalence worldwide. Diabetes and insulin resistance are associated with the development of cardiovascular and nervous diseases. The development of these disorders reflects complex pathological processes in which the oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) plays a pivotal role. It is widely accepted that diabetes impairs endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and increases the production of ROS, thus resulting in diminished NO bioavailability and increased oxidative stress. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) possesses beneficial effects both in the prevention and in the treatment of diabetes. LA is a potent antioxidant with insulin-mimetic and anti-inflammatory activity. LA in the diet is quickly absorbed, transported to the intracellular compartments, and reduced to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) under the action of enzymes. LA, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has drawn considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy and other vascular diseases.

  6. {alpha}-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8854; Naseem, R. Haris

    2006-05-26

    {alpha}-Lipoic acid ({alpha}-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, {alpha}-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, {alpha}-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In {alpha}-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activatedmore » receptor-{gamma} cofactor-1{alpha} mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that {alpha}-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity.« less

  7. Alpha-lipoic acid impairs body weight gain of young broiler chicks via modulating peripheral AMPK.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Everaert, Nadia; Song, Zhigang; Decuypere, Eddy; Vermeulen, Daniel; Buyse, Johan

    2017-09-01

    In mammals, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the central and peripheral tissues coordinately integrate inputs from multiple sources to regulate energy balance. The present study was aimed to explore the potential role of hepatic AMPK in the energy homeostasis of broiler chickens. Diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), a known AMPK inhibitor were provided to broiler chicks for 7days. As a result, α-LA supplementation decreased the relative growth rate of broiler chicks. Hepatic AMPKα2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated by dietary α-LA, in concert with the increased phosphorylated AMPKα protein levels. In addition, hepatic FAS mRNA levels together with the malonyl-CoA to total CoA ester ratio were reduced by α-LA supplementation. Moreover, the hepatic phosphorylated glycogen synthase levels were increased resulting in a markedly decreased hepatic glycogen content. In conclusion, dietary α-LA supplementation decreased the in vivo hepatic glycogenesis and lipogenesis via stimulating hepatic AMPKα mRNA levels and the phosphorylated gene product. The stimulatory effect of α-LA on hepatic AMPK mRNA and pAMPKα protein levels together with our previous observations regarding its inhibitory effect on hypothalamic AMPK may have altered the energy balance and hence impaired body weight gain of broiler chicks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on boar spermatozoa quality during freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Cong-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Chen; Li, Qing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing-thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.

  9. Modulatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on insulin sensitivity in obese PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, A D; Shefer, K; Della Casa, D; Prati, A; Napolitano, A; Manzo, A; Despini, G; Simoncini, T

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on hormonal and metabolic parameters of obese PCOS patients. A group of 32 obese PCOS patients were selected after informed consent. 20 patients referred to have first grade relatives with diabetes type I or II. Hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as OGTT were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ALA integrative administration (400 mg per os every day). ALA administration significantly decreased insulin, glucose, BMI and HOMA index. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin response to OGTT decreased both as maximal response (Δmax) and as AUC. PCOS with diabetes relatives showed the decrease also of triglyceride and GOT. Interestingly in all PCOS no changes occurred on all hormonal parameters involved in reproduction such as LH, FSH, and androstenedione. ALA integrative administration at a low dosage as 400 mg daily improved the metabolic impairment of all PCOS patients especially in those PCOS with familiar diabetes who have a higher grade of risk of NAFLD and predisposition to diabetes.

  10. Alpha lipoic acid protects the heart against myocardial post ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmias via KATP channel activation in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Bilska-Wilkosz, Anna; Iciek, Małgorzata; Otto, Monika; Żytka, Iwona; Sapa, Jacek; Włodek, Lidia; Filipek, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    The cardiovascular effects of alpha lipoic acid were evaluated in isolated rat hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury in vitro. Alpha-lipoic acid raised the level of sulfane sulfur playing an important role in the release of hydrogen sulfide. H2S was shown to prevent the post-reperfusion arrhythmias and to protect the cardiomyocytes from death caused by hypoxia. The activation of potassium ATP-sensitive channels (K(ATP) channels) is one of the most important mechanisms of action of hydrogen sulfide in the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alpha lipoic acid can prevent the occurrence of post-reperfusion arrhythmias in vitro using a Langendorff model of ischemia-reperfusion in rats affecting the K(ATP) channels. Alpha lipoic acid significantly improved post-reperfusion cardiac function (reducing incidence of arrhythmias), especially in a dose of 10(-7)M. These cardiovascular effects of this compound on the measured parameters were reversed by glibenclamide, a selective K(ATP) blocker. Alpha lipoic acid increased the level of sulfane sulfur in the hearts. This may suggest that the positive effects caused by alpha lipoic acid in the cardiovascular system are not only related to its strong antioxidant activity, and the influence on the activity of such enzymes as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, as previously suggested, but this compound can affect K(ATP) channels. It is possible that this indirect effect of alpha lipoic acid is connected with changes in the release of sulfane sulfur and hydrogen sulfide. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on spatial learning and memory, oxidative stress, and central cholinergic system in a rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran-Ran; Xu, Fei; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Tan, Guo-Jun; Liu, Liang-Min; Wu, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong; Liu, Ji-Xiang

    2015-02-05

    Brain oxidative stress due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was considered to be the major risk factor in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant, against vascular dementia in rats, as well as the potential mechanism. Bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO) induced severe cognitive deficits tested by Morris water maze (MWM), along with oxidative stress and disturbance of central cholinergic system. However, administration of alpha-lipoic acid (50mg/kg, i.p.) for 28 days significantly restored cognitive deficits induced by BCCAO. Biochemical determination revealed that alpha-lipoic acid markedly decreased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS), and increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the hippocampal tissue. Additionally, alpha-lipoic acid raised the level of acetylcholine (ACh) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and decreased the activity of acetycholinesterase (AChE) in the hippocampus. These results indicated that treatment with alpha-lipoic acid significantly improved behavioral alterations, protected against oxidative stress, and restored central cholinergic system in the rat model of vascular dementia induced by BCCAO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Safety of long-term feeding of dl-alpha-lipoic acid and its effect on reduced glutathione:oxidized glutathione ratios in beagles.

    PubMed

    Zicker, Steven C; Hagen, Tory M; Joisher, Neha; Golder, Christina; Joshi, Dinesh K; Miller, E Phillip

    2002-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid is touted as a powerful antioxidant and possibly a conditionally essential nutrient in older mammals. The safety and efficacy of dl-alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in 30 adult beagles that were evenly randomized into five groups, each of which was fed one of five different foods with varying inclusion rates of dl-alpha-lipoic acid (0, 150, 1500, 3000, and 4500 ppm). All dogs were fed their respective portion of food daily as their sole source of nutrition for 6 months. Evaluations included general health, body weight, food intake, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters, and glutathione:oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) ratios in lymphocytes. No signs of toxicity were observed at any except the highest level of dl-alpha-lipoic acid inclusion, and no consistent abnormalities were noted in hematologic or biochemical measures at any level. There was a significant overall effect (P< .05) of food on the difference of GSH:GSSG ratio between Day 84 and Day 0. All inclusions of dl-alpha-lipoic acid increased the ratio of GSH:GSSG with the largest numeric improvement occurring at the lowest inclusion rate (150 ppm).

  13. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Oxidative Stress and Kinin Receptor Expression in Obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.

    PubMed

    Midaoui, Adil El; Talbot, Sébastien; Lahjouji, Karim; Dias, Jenny Pena; Fantus, I George; Couture, Réjean

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of alpha-lipoic acid on superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity as well as on the expression of kinin B1 and B2 receptors in key organs of obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Superoxide anion production was measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors expression was measured at protein and mRNA levels by western blot and qRT-PCR in key organs of Zucker Diabetic Fatty and Zucker lean control rats treated for a period of 6 weeks with a standard diet or a diet containing the antioxidant α-lipoic acid (1 g/kg). Superoxide anion production and NADPH oxidase activity were significantly enhanced in aorta and adipose tissue of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Kinin B1 and B2 receptors expression levels were also significantly increased in the liver and the gastrocnemius muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Expression of both receptors was not altered in the pancreas of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and was undetectable in white retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Alpha-lipoic acid prevented the rise in NADPH oxidase activity in aorta and epididymal adipose tissue of Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and the upregulation of kinin B1 receptor in liver and gastrocnemius muscle and that of kinin B2 receptor in the liver. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment was found to prevent the final body weight increase without affecting significantly hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance index in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is implicated in the induction of kinin B1 receptor in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. The ability of α-lipoic acid to blunt the body weight gain appears to be mediated in part by preventing NADPH oxidase activity rise in adipose tissue and reversing the hepatic upregulation of kinin B1 receptor in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats.

  14. Alpha-lipoic acid protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xueming; Chen, Aihua, E-mail: aihuachen2012@sina.com; Yang, Pingzhen

    Highlights: •We observed the cell viability and death subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •We observed the degree of autophagy subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival. •LA inhibited the autophagy in parallel to the decreased total cell death. •We concluded that LA protected cardiomyocytes against H/R by inhibiting autophagy. -- Abstract: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) is an important in vitro model for exploring the molecular mechanisms and functions of autophagy during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) plays an important role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. Autophagy ismore » widely implicated in myocardial I/R injury. We assessed the degree of autophagy by pretreatment with LA exposed to H/R in H9c2 cell based on the expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3II/LC3I, and green fluorescent protein-labeled LC3 fusion proteins. Autophagic vacuoles were confirmed in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R using transmission electron microscopy. Our findings indicated that pretreatment with LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival and decreased total cell death in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R. We conclude that LA protects cardiomyocytes against H/R injury by inhibiting autophagy.« less

  15. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on relieving ammonia stress and hepatic proteomic analyses of broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, M; Bai, J; Xu, B; Sun, Q Y; Wei, F X; Tang, X F; Zhang, H F; Li, J; Wang, G L; Yin, Q Q; Li, S Y

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia in poultry houses not only affects worker health but also induces a variety of poultry diseases. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is an effective antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative injury during various toxic and pathological processes. This study was designed to evaluate the mitigating effects of LA supplementation on ammonia stress and hepatic proteome changes in broilers. Male broilers (22 d old) were allocated to 3 groups: (1) a control group without ammonia stress (CTRL); (2) exposure to 70 ppm ammonia (AM); and (3) exposure to 70 ppm ammonia and dietary administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM+LA). Ammonia exposure significantly decreased broiler growth performance and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05), and increased plasma malondialdehyde content and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity (P < 0.05). These negative effects were eliminated by LA supplementation. Comparative proteomic analyses revealed 291 differentially expressed proteins in the AM group compared to the CTRL and AM+LA groups. A total of 30 proteins were differentially expressed between the AM/CTRL and (AM+LA)/AM groups. The addition of LA restored 24 of these proteins to control levels; these proteins were mainly related to transcription regulation, detoxification, protein translation and degradation, and immune and stress responses. The differentially expressed proteins included the high mobility group box (HMGB) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), which is closely related to immune response and oxidative stress, and collagens, which are implicated in liver injury. The addition of LA to broiler diet may reduce ammonia toxicity by maintaining the antioxidant system, xenobiotic metabolism, and metabolic pathways. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) effects on subchorionic hematoma: preliminary clinical results.

    PubMed

    Porcaro, G; Brillo, E; Giardina, I; Di Iorio, R

    2015-09-01

    The clinic use of alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is linked to its capability to exert antioxidant effects and, more interestingly, to counteract the pathologic changes of complex networks of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, restoring their physiological state. The aim of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to test the contribution of oral supplementation of ALA to the standard treatment with Progesterone vaginal suppositories, in healing subchorionic hematomas in patients with threatened miscarriage. Controls were administered only Progesterone suppositories. Nineteen pregnant women in the first trimester of gestation, with threatened miscarriage and ultrasound evidence of subchorionic hematoma, were included in the trial and randomly divided in two groups: controls, treated with 400 mg Progesterone (200 mg 2 times per day), given by vaginal suppositories, and case study treated with the same Progesterone dosage, plus ALA, given orally at the dose of 600 mg (300 mg 2 times per day, DAV®, Lo.Li. Pharma srl, Italy). Sixteen patients completed the trial. Treatment was performed until complete resolution of the clinical picture. In both groups, the subjects improved significantly but, in general, a better and faster evolution in the major signs of threatened miscarriage was observed in the subjects treated with ALA and Progesterone. In these patients, the speed of resorption of subchorionic hematoma was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) superior compared to controls. The ALA and Progesterone group showed a faster decrease or disappearance of all symptoms than that observed in the control group, however the difference was not significant. These preliminary results suggest that ALA supplementation significantly contributes to speed up the process of restoration of physiological conditions in threatened miscarriage and ameliorates the medical conditions of both the mothers and the foetus, probably modulating the networks of cytokines, growth factors and other

  17. The effects of alpha-lipoic acid on breast of female albino rats exposed to malathion: Histopathological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Omran, Ola M; Omer, Osama H

    2015-06-01

    The wide use of the organophosphate insecticide malathion is accompanied by the risk of human exposure and may be involved in the etiology of breast cancers, especially in developing countries. Alpha (α)-lipoic acid, a natural molecule, present in our diet has antioxidant and protective effects in cases such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and vascular and neurodegenerative diseases all in which free radicals are involved. However, there is only scarce data regarding the efficacy and biological activity of α-lipoic acid on malathion-induced breast histopathological changes. To investigate whether malathion can induce mammary histopathological changes, to immunohistochemically analyze the modulations in proliferation-apoptosis balance associated with these changes, to assess the associated metabolic parameters, antioxidant stress and hormonal profile changes and to elucidate the possible protective effect of α-lipoic acid on malathion induced alterations in rats. Forty Wistar female rats weighing 150-170g were divided into four groups. Group 1: control group were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with saline solution. Group2: animals were injected (ip) with malathion twice a day for five days. Group 3: animals were orally given α-lipoic acid, after three hours of treatment with malathion at the same dose given to group 2. Group 4: animals were treated with α-lipoic acid at the same dose given to group 3. Rats were sacrificed on the 90th day, and breast tissues were analyzed for histopathological and immunohistochemical alterations. Blood samples were collected for biochemical tests. α-Lipoic acid exhibited a striking reduction of malathion-induced mammary tumor incidence, and reversed intra-tumor histopathological alterations. Alpha lipoic acid suppressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 expression, induced apoptosis, upregulated proapoptotic protein Bax. Our results provide the experimental evidence that α-lipoic acid exerts chemopreventive

  18. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial of omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Lynne; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas; Dodge, Hiroko H; Woodward, William; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara; Waichunas, Dana; Bumgarner, Lauren; Bourdette, Dennis; Silbert, Lisa; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (ω-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (ω-3 + LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ω-3, or 3) ω-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ω-3 + LA and ω-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ω-3 + LA showed less decline in MMSE (p < 0.01) and IADL (p = 0.01) and the ω-3 group showed less decline in IADL (p < 0.01). The combination of ω-3 + LA slowed cognitive and functional decline in AD over 12 months. Because the results were generated from a small sample size, further evaluation of the combination of omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted.

  19. d-chiro-Inositol and alpha lipoic acid treatment of metabolic and menses disorders in women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Cianci, Antonio; Panella, Marco; Fichera, Michele; Falduzzi, Cristina; Bartolo, Manuela; Caruso, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combination of d-chiro-inositol (DCI) and alpha lipoic acid on menses and metabolic disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Forty-six women (26 study group subjects and 20 controls) of reproductive age with PCOS according to Rotterdam criteria were enrolled in this prospective study. Fasting serum samples were collected from each woman. Homeostasis model of insulin resistance, insulin levels, lipid profile, frequency of menstrual cycles, number of ovarian peripheral cysts and BMI of both groups were investigated at baseline and after 180 days. Clinical and metabolic aspects of women on DCI and lipoic acid treatment underwent improvement (p < 0.5) with respect to the control group. Regarding lipid profile, no statistically difference was observed in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both groups at follow-up with respect the baseline values (p = NS). DCI and alpha lipoic acid treatment has been thought because it plays an essential role in mitochondrial specific pathways that generate energy from glucose and its potent effect as antioxidant. The association might have a strong impact on metabolic profile even with a short-term treatment. Further investigations are needed to evaluate other effects on reproductive physiology of women with PCOS.

  20. Cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy are ameliorated by alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-jun; Lv, Lin; Li, Hui; Yu, De-min

    2012-06-19

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a naturally occurring compound, exerts powerful protective effects in various cardiovascular disease models. However, its role in protecting against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) has not been elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ALA on cardiac dysfunction, mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS), extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and interrelated signaling pathways in a diabetic rat model. Diabetes was induced in rats by I.V. injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at 45 mg/kg. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal groups with or without ALA treatment, and diabetes groups with or without ALA treatment. All studies were carried out 11 weeks after induction of diabetes. Cardiac catheterization was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mitochondrial oxidative biochemical parameters were measured by spectophotometeric assays. Extracellular matrix content (total collagen, type I and III collagen) was assessed by staining with Sirius Red. Gelatinolytic activity of Pro- and active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) levels were analyzed by a zymogram. Cardiac fibroblasts differentiation to myofibroblasts was evaluated by Western blot measuring smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Key components of underlying signaling pathways including the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK and ERK were also assayed by Western blot. DCM was successfully induced by the injection of STZ as evidenced by abnormal heart mass and cardiac function, as well as the imbalance of ECM homeostasis. After administration of ALA, left ventricular dysfunction greatly improved; interstitial fibrosis also notably ameliorated indicated by decreased collagen deposition, ECM synthesis as well as enhanced ECM degradation. To further assess the underlying mechanism of improved DCM by ALA, redox status and cardiac remodeling associated signaling pathway components were evaluated. It was

  1. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on C-reactive protein level: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Saboori, S; Falahi, E; Eslampour, E; Zeinali Khosroshahi, M; Yousefi Rad, E

    2018-04-17

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in clinical trial studies. A systematic search was carried out on clinical trial studies published in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases completed by manual search on reference list of eligible studies accomplished by November 4, 2017. Of a total number of 508 studies found in the first step of literature search, only 11 were included with 264 participants in supplementation groups and 287 in control groups. Estimated pooled random effects size analysis showed a significant reducing effect of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on CRP level (-0.72 mg/l, 95% CI; -1.4, -0.04; P = 0.03) with a significant heterogeneity between the selected studies. Sub-group analysis showed that alpha-lipoic acid supplementation could significantly reduce serum CRP level when the baseline CRP level was greater than 3 mg/l (-1.02 mg/l, 95% CI: -1.3, -0.73) and when trial duration was >8 weeks (-0.99 mg/l, 95% CI: -1.29, -0.70). Results of subgroup analysis also showed that alpha lipoic acid supplementation could decrease CRP level only in non-diabetic patients (-1.02 mg/l, 95% CI: -1.31, -0.74). Results of the current meta-analysis study showed that alpha-lipoic acid supplementation could significantly decrease CRP level in patients with elevated levels of this inflammatory marker. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The potent free radical scavenger alpha-lipoic acid improves memory in aged mice: putative relationship to NMDA receptor deficits.

    PubMed

    Stoll, S; Hartmann, H; Cohen, S A; Müller, W E

    1993-12-01

    alpha-Lipoic acid (alpha-LA) improved longer-term memory of aged female NMRI mice in the habituation in the open field test at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. In a separate experiment, no such effect could be found for young mice. alpha-LA alleviated age-related NMDA receptor deficits (Bmax) without changing muscarinic, benzodiazepine, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptor deficits in aged mice. The carbachol-stimulated accumulation of inositol monophosphates was not changed by the treatment with alpha-LA. These results give tentative support to the hypothesis that alpha-LA improves memory in aged mice, probably by a partial compensation of NMDA receptor deficits. Possible modes of action of alpha-LA based on its free radical scavenger properties are discussed in relation to the membrane hypothesis of aging.

  3. An open-label pilot trial of alpha-lipoic acid for weight loss in patients with schizophrenia without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Joseph C; Palmese, Laura B; Reutenauer, Erin L; Tek, Cenk

    2015-01-01

    A possible mechanism of antipsychotic-induced weight gain is activation of hypothalamic monophosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK) mediated by histamine 1 receptors. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, counteracts this effect and may be helpful in reducing weight for patients taking antipsychotics. The objective of this open-label study was to assess the efficacy of ALA (1,200 mg) on twelve non-diabetic schizophrenia patients over ten weeks. Participants lost significant weight during the intervention (-2.2 kg±2.5 kg). ALA was well tolerated and was particularly effective for individuals taking strongly antihistaminic antipsychotics (-2.9 kg±2.6 kg vs. -0.5 kg±1.0 kg). NCT01355952.

  4. Neuroprotective evidence of alpha-lipoic acid and desvenlafaxine on memory deficit in a neuroendocrine model of depression.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Meneses, Lucas Nascimento; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; da Silva Medeiros, Ingridy; Silva, Márcia Calheiros Chaves; Mouaffak, Fayçal; Kebir, Oussama; da Silva Leite, Cláudio Manuel Gonçalves; Patrocinio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Macedo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2018-05-07

    Cognitive impairment is present in patients with depression. We hypothesized that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) can reduce cognitive impairment, especially when combined to antidepressants. Female mice received vehicle or corticosterone (CORT) 20 mg/kg, s.c. for 14 days. From the 15th to 21st day, the animals were divided in groups: vehicle, CORT, CORT+desvenlafaxine (DVS) 10 or 20 mg/kg, ALA 100 or 200 mg/kg, DVS10+ALA100, DVS20+ALA100, DVS10+ALA200, or DVS20+ALA200. Tail suspension (TST), social interaction (SIT), novel object recognition (NOR), and Y-maze tests were conducted. Acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC), and striatum (ST). CORT caused depressive-like behavior, impairment in SIT, and cognitive deficits. Alpha-lipoic acid and DVS, alone or combined, reversed CORT effect on TST. In the NOR, ALA200 alone, DVS10+ALA100, or DVS10+ALA200 reversed the deficits in short-term memory, while DVS20 alone or DVS20+ALA200 reversed the deficits in long-term memory. In the Y-maze test, ALA200 alone, DVS20+ALA100, or DVS20+ALA200 reversed the deficits caused by CORT in the working memory. CORT increased AChE in the PFC, HC, and ST. ALA200 alone or DVS20+ALA200 reversed this effect in the PFC, while DVS20 or DVS20+ALA100 reversed this effect in the HC. In the ST, DVS10 or 20, alone or combined, and ALA100 reversed the effects of CORT. These results suggest that DVS+ALA, by reversing CORT-induced memory and social deficits, seems to be a promising therapy for the treatment of depression and reversal of cognitive impairment observed in this disorder.

  5. Alpha-lipoic acid improves high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by modulating the transcription factors SREBP-1, FoxO1 and Nrf2 via the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Wang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Yuning; Li, Yan; Yao, Qing; Li, Jianning; Zhang, Qian; Gao, Yujing; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which alpha-lipoic acid supplementation has a protective effect upon nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in vivo and in vitro may lead to targets for preventing hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented with alpha-lipoic acid for 24 weeks. HepG2 cells were incubated with normal medium, palmitate or alpha-lipoic acid. The lipid-lowering effects were measured. The protein expression and distribution were analyzed by Western blot, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence, respectively. We found that alpha-lipoic acid enhanced sirtuin 1 deacetylase activity through liver kinase B1 and stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase. By activating the sirtuin 1/liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase pathway, the translocation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 into the nucleus and forkhead box O1 into the cytoplasm was prevented. Alpha-lipoic acid increased adipose triacylglycerol lipase expression and decreased fatty acid synthase abundance. In in vivo and in vitro studies, alpha-lipoic acid also increased nuclear NF-E2-related factor 2 levels and downstream target amounts via the sirtuin 1 pathway. Alpha-lipoic acid eventually reduced intrahepatic and serum triglyceride content. The protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid on hepatic steatosis appear to be associated with the transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, forkhead box O1 and NF-E2-related factor 2. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) modulates expression of apoptosis associated proteins in hippocampus of rats exposed during postnatal period to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2).

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shilpi; Dhar, Pushpa; Mehra, Raj D

    2015-01-01

    The present study focused on the role of exogenous alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in amelioration of inorganic arsenic ( iAs ) induced effects on apoptosis and apoptosis associated proteins in developing rat hippocampus. NaAsO 2 (1.5/2.0 mg/kg bw) alone or along with ALA (70 mg/kg bw) was administered to rat pups (experimental groups) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route from postnatal day (PND) 4-15. Controls received no treatment/distilled water/ALA. On PND 16, the animals were perfusion fixed and the brains were processed for paraffin embedding (CV and TUNEL staining) and cryopreservation (immunohistochemistry). The fresh brain tissue was used for Western blotting. Significant increase was observed in TUNEL positive cells and Bax (pro-apoptotic protein) expression in hippocampal sub-regions of iAs alone treated groups, whereas Bcl-2 expression was intensified in animals receiving ALA with iAs . Densitometric analysis (Western blots) revealed optimal restoration of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio in animals receiving ALA with iAs , thereby suggesting the protective role of ALA in iAs induced developmental neurotoxicity.

  7. Efficacy of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on methanol induced free radical changes, protein oxidative damages and hsp70 expression in folate deficient rat nervous tissue.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Rathinam; Muthuvel, Arumugam; Manikandan, Sundaramahalingam; Srikumar, Ramasundaram; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2007-05-01

    DL-alpha-Lipoic acid (LPA) was reported to be effective in reducing free radicals generated by oxidative stress. The protective of effect of LPA on methanol (MeOH) induced free radical changes and oxidative damages in discrete regions of rat brain have been reported in this study. Folate deficient rat (FDD) model was used. The five animal groups (saline control, FDD control, FDD+MeOH, FDD+LPA+MeOH, LPA control) were used. The FDD+MeOH and FDD+LPA+MeOH animals were injected intraperitoneally with methanol (3gm/kg). After 24h, the level of free radical scavengers such as, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione was estimated in six discrete regions of brain, retina and optic nerve. Level of protein thiol, protein carbonyl and lipid peroxidation was also estimated. Expression of heat shock protein 70 mRNA (hsp70) was studied in the cerebellum and hippocampus by reverse transcriptase PCR. All the samples showed elevation in the level of free radical scavenging enzymes and reduced level of glutathione in the FDD+MeOH group in relation to the other groups. hsp70 expression was more in FDD+MeOH group when compared to FDD+LPA+MeOH group. In conclusion, MeOH exposure leads to increased free radical generation and protein oxidative damages in the rat nervous tissue. Treatment with LPA prevents oxidative damage induced by MeOH exposure.

  8. [The effect of reamberin and alpha-lipoic acid on the tolerance to acute cerebral ischemia in experimental diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskii, I A; Miroshnichenko, I Yu; Rassokhina, L M; Faizullin, R M

    To study an effect of reamberin and α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on the tolerance of mice with experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) to acute cerebrovascular accident (ACVA) in mice experiments. The authors studied mice with alloxan diabetes and subtotal and total brain ischemia. In additional experimental series, an effect of reamberin and α-lipoic acid on the tolerance to acute hypoxic hypoxia and intensity of hyperglycemia in experimental DM was studied. The increased vulnerability of animals to ACVA due to hyperglycemia and increased sensitivity to acute hypoxic hypoxia was established. Reamberin and α-lipoic acid administered for 14 days in doses, which are equivalent to therapeutic range in humans, enhance the tolerance to ACVA and acute hypoxic hypoxia in mice with alloxan diabetes. These medications also decrease the intensity of hyperglycemia during concurrent insulin replacement therapy. The increased tolerance to ACVA in mice with alloxan diabetes caused by reamberin and alpha-lipoic acid is associated with an antihypoxic effect of these medications and does not depend on their effect on the intensity of hyperglycemia. Reamberin outperformed α-lipoic acid in the antihypoxic activity, protection against ACVA and the rate of onset of glucose reducing effect in experimental diabetes mellitus.

  9. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a supplementation for weight loss: results from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kucukgoncu, S; Zhou, E; Lucas, K B; Tek, C

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Even modest weight loss may be associated with health benefits. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant. Studies have suggested anti-obesity properties of ALA; however, results are inconsistent. The purpose of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of the effect of ALA on weight and body mass index (BMI). A comprehensive, systematic literature search identified 10 articles on randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies involving ALA. We conducted a meta-analysis of mean weight and BMI change differences between ALA and placebo treatment groups. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment coincided with a statistically significant 1.27 kg (confidence interval = 0.25 to 2.29) greater mean weight loss compared with the placebo group. A significant overall mean BMI difference of -0.43 kg/ m 2 (confidence interval = -0.82 to -0.03) was found between the ALA and placebo groups. Meta-regression analysis showed no significance in ALA dose on BMI and weight changes. Study duration significantly affected BMI change, but not weight change. Alpha-lipoic acid treatment showed small, yet significant short-term weight loss compared with placebo. Further research is needed to examine the effect of different doses and the long-term benefits of ALA on weight management. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex formulation enhances activities of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases and respiratory complexes I-IV in the heart of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sudheesh, N P; Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K; Krishnan, C V

    2009-08-01

    Age-related decline in the capacity to withstand stress, such as ischemia and reperfusion, results in congestive heart failure. Though the mechanisms underlying cardiac decay are not clear, age dependent somatic damages to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), loss of mitochondrial function, and a resultant increase in oxidative stress in heart muscle cells may be responsible for the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The effect of a safe nutritional supplement, POLY-MVA, containing the active ingredient palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex, was evaluated on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV in heart mitochondria of aged male albino rats of Wistar strain. Administration of 0.05 ml/kg of POLY-MVA (which is equivalent to 0.38 mg complexed alpha-lipoic acid/kg, p.o), once daily for 30 days, was significantly (p<0.05) effective to enhance the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. The unique electronic and redox properties of palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex appear to be a key to this physiological effectiveness. The results strongly suggest that this formulation might be effective to protect the aging associated risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Analysis of the Enhanced Stability of R(+)-Alpha Lipoic Acid by the Complex Formation with Cyclodextrins

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Naoko; Sugiyama, Hironori; Shimosegawa, Hiroshi; Nakane, Rie; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Uekaji, Yukiko; Nakata, Daisuke; Pallauf, Kathrin; Rimbach, Gerald; Terao, Keiji; Matsugo, Seiichi

    2013-01-01

    R(+)-alpha lipoic acid (RALA) is one of the cofactors for mitochondrial enzymes and, therefore, plays a central role in energy metabolism. RALA is unstable when exposed to low pH or heat, and therefore, it is difficult to use enantiopure RALA as a pharma- and nutra-ceutical. In this study, we have aimed to stabilize RALA through complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs). α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD were used for the formation of these RALA-CD complexes. We confirmed the complex formation using differential scanning calorimetry and showed by using HPLC analysis that complexed RALA is more stable than free RALA when subjected to humidity and high temperature or acidic pH conditions. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that the particle size and shape differed depending on the cyclodextrin used for complexation. Further, the complexes of CD and RALA showed a different particle size distribution pattern compared with that of CD itself or that of the physical mixture of RALA and CD. PMID:23434662

  12. Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on nicotine-induced lung and liver damage in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Ateyya, Hayam; Nader, Manar A; Attia, Ghalia M; El-Sherbeeny, Nagla A

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine mediates some of the injurious effects caused by consuming tobacco products. This work aimed at investigating the defensive role of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) with its known antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect in nicotine-induced lung and liver damage. Rats were arranged into 4 groups: control, nicotine, ALA, and ALA-nicotine groups. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status were determined by assessing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) levels in lung and liver. Liver enzymes and lipid profiles were measured and pulmonary and hepatic damage were assessed by histopathological examination. Also, serum levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were determined. The results revealed an increase in TBARS in tissues and a reduction in both SOD and GSH activity in the nicotine-treated rats. Nicotine induced high levels of liver enzymes, TGF-β1, VCAM-1, and dyslipidemia with histopathological changes in the lung and liver. ALA administration along with nicotine attenuated oxidative stress and normalized the SOD and GSH levels, ameliorated dyslipidemia, and improved TGF-β1 and VCAM-1 with better histopathology of the lung and liver. The study data revealed that ALA may be beneficial in alleviating nicotine-induced oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and both lung and liver damage.

  13. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Some Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Bojana; Milovanović, Srđan; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Takić, Marija; Debeljak-Martačić, Jasmina; Pantović, Maja; Đorđević, Brižita

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties and is suggested to be a biomarker of metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on plasma adiponectin and some metabolic risk factors in patients with schizophrenia. The plasma adipokine levels (adiponectin and leptin), routine biochemical and anthropometric parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and the serum phospholipid fatty acid profile in eighteen schizophrenic patients at baseline, in the middle, and at the end of a 3-month long supplementation period with ALA (500 mg daily) were determined. A significant increase in the plasma adiponectin concentrations, as well as a decrease in fasting glucose and aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), was found. Baseline AST activity was independently correlated with the adiponectin concentrations. Our data show that ALA can improve plasma adiponectin levels and may play a potential role in the treatment of metabolic risk factor in patients with schizophrenia. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary investigations.

  14. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P < 0.05). Total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in serum, and glutathione content in liver were higher in the AM + LA group than that in the AM group (P < 0.05); however, serum malondialdehyde content was decreased by LA addition (P < 0.05). Additionally, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were reduced and albumin level was increased by LA addition (P < 0.05). In conclusion, LA addition could relieve ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Resolution of subchorionic hematoma and symptoms of threatened miscarriage using vaginal alpha lipoic acid or progesterone: clinical evidences.

    PubMed

    Costantino, M; Guaraldi, C; Costantino, D

    2016-04-01

    Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a safe natural molecule that exerts a selective immunomodulating activity with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) tested the effect of the vaginal administration with ALA or Progesterone, in subchorionic hematoma resorption in women with threatened miscarriage. 400 mg of vaginal Progesterone or 10 mg of vaginal ALA were administered to sixty-two pregnant women, in the first trimester of gestation with threatened miscarriage and subchorionic hematoma. Controls were patients who chose not to receive any treatment. In the ALA group the subchorionic hematoma was reabsorbed more quickly in comparison with the progression detected in Progesterone group (p ≤ 0.05). The other parameters checked (pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding) did not show any significant difference and a smaller number of miscarriages was recorded in the ALA group, compared to Progesterone group. Our data provides the first evidence of the efficacy of ALA, administered by vaginal route, in the healing process of patients with threatened miscarriage, thus supporting the normal course of pregnancy. NCT02601898 (ClinicalTrials.gov registry).

  16. Evaluation of laser therapy and alpha-lipoic acid for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Natália Guimarães; Gonzaga, Amanda Katarinny Goes; de Sena Fernandes, Luzia Leiros; da Fonseca, Aldilane Gonçalves; Queiroz, Salomão Israel Monteiro Lourenço; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and secondary oral burning (SOB) by unstimulated sialometry, symptom assessment, and measurement of salivary TNF-α levels. Forty-four patients were randomized into four treatment groups: BMS/laser (n = 10), BMS/ALA (n = 5), SOB/laser (n = 15), and SOB/ALA (n = 14). The control group consisted of eight healthy female subjects. Unstimulated salivary flow was measured before and after treatment, and the collected saliva was stored at - 20 °C for the analysis of TNF-α. Symptoms were evaluated before and after treatment using a pain visual analog scale. Most patients were women (81.8%) during menopause (72.2%). LLLT and ALA were efficient in increasing salivary flow only in BMS but provided symptom relief in both conditions. TNF-α levels did not differ between patients with BMS and SOB or between those patients and the control group. No differences were observed in posttreatment TNF-α levels in either condition. The results of this study suggest that LLLT and ALA are efficient therapies in reducing burning mouth symptoms, with LLLT being more efficient than ALA.

  17. New insights on the modulatory roles of metformin or alpha-lipoic acid versus their combination in dextran sulfate sodium-induced chronic colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Samman, Fatma S; Elaidy, Samah M; Essawy, Soha S; Hassan, Mohammad S

    2017-11-24

    Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis is the most widely used model that resembles ulcerative colitis (UC) in human with challenging chronic mechanistic oxidative stress-inflammatory/immunological cascades. In models of acute colitis, reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory burdens beside manipulation of many transcriptional factors were achieved by metformin or alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA). Currently, in vivo DSS-induced chronic colitis was conducted and the possible therapeutic roles of metformin and/or α-LA were explored. Chronic UC was induced by adding 5% DSS orally in drinking water for 7 days followed by 3% DSS in drinking water for 14 days in adult male albino Wistar rats. Intraperitoneal administration of α-LA (25 mg/kg, twice/day) and/or metformin (100 mg/kg/day) were set at day 7 of DSS administration and continued for 14 days. Body weights, survival rates, disease activity index (DAI), colonic oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, colonic nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) immunohistochemical expression, and the colonic histopathological changes were observed. Metformin or/and α-LA attenuated the severity of the DSS-induced colitis through improving the reductions in body weights, the DAI, the colonic oxidative stress markers, TNF-α, and NF-κB levels, and the morphological mucosal damage scores. Significant synergetic therapeutic effects were observed with combined therapeutic regimens. Therapeutically, metformin and α-LA could be administered in chronic colitis. The combination of currently used pharmaceutics with natural and synthetic potent antioxidant compounds will become a therapeutic strategy of choice for UC to improve the quality of life if sufficient clinical trials are available. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of alpha lipoic acid protect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Asmaa M S; Abd El-Mottaleb, Nashwa A; Aamer, Hazem A

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gastric ulcer and the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in their modulation. Hence, this experimental study was designed to assess the possible protective effect of ALA against indomethacin (IND)-induced gastric ulcer in rats, as well as to determine the possible underlying mechanisms with a special focus on TNF-α, PAI-1, and iNOS. Adult male rats (n = 28) were divided into four equal groups: the control group received distilled water, the vehicle group received 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, the ulcer group received a single oral dose of IND (50 mg/kg) and the ALA-treated group received ALA (100 mg/kg) orally for 3 days before ulcer induction. Four hours after IND administration, all rats were sacrificed. The ulcer index, and gastric tissue homogenate contents of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, and PAI-1 were evaluated. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iNOS protein expression and histopathological examination of gastric tissue were investigated. The results revealed that ALA pretreatment significantly decreased the ulcer index, the gastric levels of MDA, TNF-α, PAI-1, and iNOS protein expression while increased the gastric levels of TAC as well as improved the histopathological appearance of gastric tissues. In conclusion, ALA ameliorated the IND-induced gastric ulceration. This could be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities via suppression of TNF-α-induced elevation of both PAI-1 level and iNOS expression in the gastric tissue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Alpha-lipoic acid-mediated activation of muscarinic receptors improves hippocampus- and amygdala-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Aamra; Farhat, Syeda Mehpara; Iqbal, Ghazala; Babar, Mustafeez Mujtaba; Zaidi, Najam-us-Sahar Sadaf; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2016-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic agent which readily crosses the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and accumulates in the brain leading to neurodegenerative disorders, characterised by cognitive impairment. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is an antioxidant and has a potential to improve cognitive functions. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of ALA in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity mouse model. Effect of ALA (25mg/kg/day) was evaluated in the AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity (AlCl3 150 mg/kg/day) mouse model on learning and memory using behaviour tests and on the expression of muscarinic receptor genes (using RT-PCR), in hippocampus and amygdala. Following ALA treatment, the expression of muscarinic receptor genes M1, M2 and choline acetyltransferase (ChaT) were significantly improved (p<0.05) relative to AlCl3-treated group. ALA enhanced fear memory (p<0.01) and social novelty preference (p<0.001) comparative to the AlCl3-treated group. Fear extinction memory was remarkably restored (p<0.001) in ALA-treated group demonstrated by reduced freezing response as compared to the AlCl3-treated group which showed higher freezing. In-silico analysis showed that racemic mixture of ALA has higher binding affinity for M1 and M2 compared to acetylcholine. These novel findings highlight the potential role of ALA in cognitive functions and cholinergic system enhancement thus presenting it an enviable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alpha-lipoic acid affects the oxidative stress in various brain structures in mice with methionine and choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Veskovic, Milena; Mladenovic, Dusan; Jorgacevic, Bojan; Stevanovic, Ivana; de Luka, Silvio; Radosavljevic, Tatjana

    2015-04-01

    Deficiency in methionine or choline can induce oxidative stress in various organs such as liver, kidney, heart, and brain. This study was to examine the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on oxidative stress induced by methionine and choline deficiency (MCD) in several brain structures. Male mice C57BL/6 (n = 28) were divided into four groups: (1) control - continuously fed with standard chow; (2) LA - fed with standard chow and receiving LA; (3) MCD2 - fed with MCD diet for two weeks, and (4) MCD2+LA - fed with MCD diet for two weeks and receiving LA (100 mg/kg/day intraperitonealy [i.p.]). Brain tissue (cortex, hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus) was taken for determination of oxidative stress parameters. MCD diet induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde and NOx concentration in all brain regions, while LA restored their content to normal values. Similar to this, in MCD2 group, activity of total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD was reduced by MCD diet, while LA treatment improved their activities in all brain structures. Besides, in MCD2 group a decrease in catalase activity in cortex and GSH content in hypothalamus was evident, while LA treatment induced an increase in catalase activity in cortex and striatum and GSH content in hypothalamus. LA treatment can significantly reduce lipid peroxidation and nitrosative stress, caused by MCD diet, in all brain regions by restoring antioxidant enzymes activities, predominantly total SOD, MnSOD, and Cu/ZnSOD, and to a lesser extent by modulating catalase activity and GSH content. LA supplementation may be used in order to prevent brain oxidative injury induced by methionine and choline deficiency. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. Alpha-lipoic acid supplement in obesity treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Nazli; Larijani, Bagher; Azadbakht, Leila

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have supported positive roles of antioxidant supplements on weight-loss. One antioxidant supplement is Alpha-lipoic acid. However, recommending ALA as an anti-obesity supplement remains controversial. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis on the effects of ALA supplement on anthropometric indices among adult subjects. We searched five electronic databases till September 2016. Placebo-controlled clinical trials were included. Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) was pooled using a random-effects model. Findings of 12 included trials indicated that ALA supplement reduced body weight (WMD: -0.69 kg; 95% CI: -1.27, -0.10; I 2  = 0%) and BMI (WMD: -0.38 kg/m 2 ; 95% CI: -0.53, -0.24; I 2  = 0%) significantly compared to the placebo group. However, its effects on Waist Circumference (WC) was not significant (WMD: -0.30 cm; 95% CI: -1.18, 0.58; I 2  = 17.8%). Stratification by health status indicated that ALA decreased WC in unhealthy subjects (WMD: -2.00 cm; 95% CI: -4.19, 0.19; I 2  = 1.3%) more than healthy individuals (0.03 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, 0.75; I 2  = 0%). The present study revealed that supplementation with ALA slightly but significantly decreased body weight and BMI. Safe dosage for ALA is up to 1200 mg/day. However, it seems that ALA cannot be cost-effective. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of ALA on metabolic parameter in unhealthy obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eosu; Park, Dong-Wha; Choi, Song-Hee; Kim, Jae-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2008-04-01

    Weight gain and other metabolic disturbances have now become discouraging, major side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs). The novel strategies required to counteract these serious consequences, however, should avoid modulating the activities of the neurotransmitter receptors involved because those receptors are the therapeutic targets of AAPDs. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), which is known to modulate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues, would ameliorate AAPD-induced weight gain. We describe the case series of a 12-week ALA trial in schizophrenia patients treated with AAPDs. Two of 7 enrolled subjects were dropped from the study because of noncompliance and demand for new medication to treat depressive symptoms, respectively. The mean (SD) weight loss was 3.16 (3.20) kg (P = 0.043, last observation carried forward; median, 3.03 kg; range, 0-8.85 kg). On average, body mass index showed a significant reduction (P = 0.028) over the 12 weeks. During the same period, a statistically significant reduction was also observed in total cholesterol levels (P = 0.042), and there was a weak trend toward the reduction in insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) (P = 0.080). Three subjects reported increased energy subjectively. The total scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale did not vary significantly during the study. These preliminary data suggest the possibility that ALA can ameliorate the adverse metabolic effects induced by AAPDs. To confirm the benefits of ALA, more extended study is warranted.

  3. Alpha-lipoic acid blocks HIV-1 LTR-dependent expression of hygromycin resistance in THP-1 stable transformants.

    PubMed

    Merin, J P; Matsuyama, M; Kira, T; Baba, M; Okamoto, T

    1996-09-23

    Gene expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on a host cellular transcription factors including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). The involvement of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) has been implicated as intracellular messengers in the inducible activation of NF-kappaB. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two antioxidants, alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which are widely recognized NF-kappaB inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that LA has a more potent activity in inhibiting NF-KappaB-mediated gene expression in THP-1 cells that have been stably transfected with a plasmid bearing a hygromycin B resistance gene under the control of HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. The spontaneous activation of NF-kappaB in this cell culture system leads to expression of the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene hence rendering the cells resistance to hygromycin B. In this study, the effect of the test compounds against transcriptional activity of HIV-1 LTR was evaluated based on the degree of cellular toxicity due to the inhibitory activity on the expression of hygromycin B resistance gene in the presence of hygromycin B. We also found that 0.2 mM LA could cause 40% reduction in the HIV-1 expression from the TNF-alpha-stimulated OM 10.1, a cell line latently infected with HIV-1. On the other hand, 10 mM NAC was required to elicit the same effect. Furthermore, the initiation of HIV-1 induction by TNF-alpha was completely abolished by 1 mM LA. These findings confirm the involvement of ROI in NF-kappaB-mediated HIV gene expression as well as the efficacy of LA as a therapeutic regimen for HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Moreover, this study validates the applicability of our present assay system which we primarily designed for the screening of candidate drugs against HIV-1 gene expression.

  4. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on asymmetric dimethylarginine and disability in multiple sclerosis patients: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Mohammad; Soltani, Madjid; Moghadam, Shirin Amiri; Dehghan, Parvin; Azimi, Amirreza; Abbaszadeh, Omid

    2017-07-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the onset and progression of MS. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) formation is dependent on oxidative stress status. We examined whether alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a potent antioxidant could improve the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and decrease plasma level of ADMA in multiple sclerosis patients. In a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial conducted at Sina Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from September 2009 to July 2011, 24 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were divided into a treatment group receiving ALA (1200mg/day) for 12 weeks and a control group receiving placebo. Then patients' EDSS and Plasma levels of ADMA were measured at baseline and 12 weeks later. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software version 16 using the K-S test, Chi square, Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test. The plasma levels of ADMA in the intervention group were decreased significantly (p=0.04). Also, no patient had increased EDSS score in the supplement group, where 2 out of 12 patients in the placebo group experienced so. Comparing the serum level of ADMA between the two groups failed to show any significant change in the supplement group compared with the control group. Considering that ADMA is produced by oxidative stress in MS patients and leads to increase of inflammation, ALA may have the potential of beneficial effects in them, in part, by decreasing the plasma level of ADMA and stopping progression. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: No. IRCT138812222602N2. The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

  5. Lens and cornea lesions of rats fed corn syrup and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Alime; Ozmen, Ozlem; Saygın, Mustafa; Ascı, Halil; Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem; Dıncoglu, Dılnur

    2016-03-01

    To examine the pathological findings that occurred in the lens and cornea and biochemical findings in the lens of rats fed with corn syrup and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I served as the control group. Group II was used as the study group; the rats were treated with 30% corn sugar solution for 10 weeks. Group III was the treatment group. Corn syrup was given by the oral route to the rats during the study, and ALA (100 mg/kg) was added to the treatment 4 weeks after the study began. At the end of the experiment, central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured in all rats with an ultrasonic pachymeter. Then the right eyes of the rats were enucleated for histopathological examination of the cornea and lens. The left lenses were homogenized for biochemical analyses. The lenses of the rats treated with corn syrup revealed severe damage; many lens fibers appeared swollen and ruptured with large vacuoles near the lens epithelium. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a parameter of oxidative stress, increased but not significantly in Group II; however. ALA treatment decreased MDA levels significantly. Antioxidant enzyme and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly decreased in Group II, and ALA treatment increased these activities; however, the increase was not significant. Changes were observed in the cornea such as epithelial alterations, subepithelial vacuolizations, collagen fibers loss in the stromal layer, interruptions in the subepithelial basement membrane and central corneal thickening. Corn syrup can cause severe damage in rat lenses and corneas. However, ALA ameliorates the effect of corn syrup-related lesions on the cornea and lens.

  6. Inhibition of Peripheral TNF-α and Downregulation of Microglial Activation by Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Etanercept Protect Rat Brain Against Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Huang, Chao-Ching; Chio, Chung-Ching; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Chang, Ching-Ping; Lin, Nan-Kai; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2016-09-01

    Ischemic stroke, caused by obstruction of blood flow to the brain, would initiate microglia activation which contributes to neuronal damage. Therefore, inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation could be a therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. This study was aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid and etanercept given either singly or in combination in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Both α-lipoic acid and etanercept markedly reduced cerebral infarct, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neurological motor deficits with the former drug being more effective with the dosage used. Furthermore, when used in combination, the reduction was more substantial. Remarkably, a greater diminution in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as the brain levels of microglial activation (e.g., microgliosis, amoeboid microglia, and microglial overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α) was observed with the combined drug treatment as compared to the drugs given separately. We conclude that inhibition of peripheral tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as downregulation of brain microglial activation by alpha-lipoic acid or etanercept protect rat brain against ischemic stroke. Moreover, when both drugs were used in combination, the stroke recovery was promoted more extensively.

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on cyclosporine A induced renal alterations.

    PubMed

    Amudha, Ganapathy; Josephine, Anthony; Mythili, Yenjerla; Sundarapandiyan, Rajaguru; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2007-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of lipoic acid in preventing the renal damage induced by cyclosporine A in rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were divided into four groups and treated as follows. Two groups received cyclosporine A by oral gavage (25 mg/kg/body weight) for 21 days to induce nephrotoxicity, one of which simultaneously received lipoic acid treatment (20 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. A vehicle (olive oil) and a lipoic acid drug control were also included. Cyclosporine A induced renal damage was evident from the decreased activities of tissue marker enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase) and decreased activities of ATPases (Na+, K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase and Mg2+ ATPase). An apparent increase in the levels of serum constituents (urea, uric acid and creatinine) and urinary marker enzymes (N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, cathepsin-D and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) along with significant decline in creatinine clearance were seen in the cyclosporine treated rats, which was reversed upon treatment with lipoic acid. Ultrastructural observations were also in agreement with the above abnormal changes. Lipoic acid effectively reverted these abnormal biochemical changes and minimized the morphological lesions in renal tissue. Hence, this study clearly exemplifies that lipoic acid might be an ideal choice against cyclosporine A induced cellular abnormalities.

  8. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Alpha Lipoic Acid in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Lynne; Quinn, Joseph; Montine, Thomas; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Woodward, William; Baldauf-Wagner, Sara; Waichunas, Dana; Bumgarner, Lauren; Bourdette, Dennis; Silbert, Lisa; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress, inflammation, and increased cholesterol levels are all mechanisms that have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Several epidemiologic studies have reported a decreased risk of AD with fish consumption. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone (ω-3) or omega-3 plus alpha lipoic acid (ω-3 +LA) compared to placebo on oxidative stress biomarkers in AD. The primary outcome measure was peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (oxidative stress measure). Secondary outcome measures included performance on: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL), and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Thirty-nine AD subjects were randomized to one of three groups: 1) placebo, 2) ω-3, or 3) ω-3 + LA for a treatment duration of 12 months. Eighty seven percent (34/39) of the subjects completed the 12-month intervention. There was no difference between groups at 12 months in peripheral F2-isoprostane levels (p = 0.83). The ω-3 +LA and ω-3 were not significantly different than the placebo group in ADAS-cog (p = 0.98, p = 0.86) and in ADL (p = 0.15, p = 0.82). Compared to placebo, the ω-3+LA showed less decline in MMSE (p< 0.01) and IADL (p= 0.01) and the ω-3 group showed less decline in IADL (p < 0.01). The combination of ω-3+LA slowed cognitive and functional decline in AD over 12 months. Because the results were generated from a small sample size, further evaluation of the combination of omega-3 fatty acids plus alpha-lipoic acid as a potential treatment in AD is warranted. PMID:24077434

  9. Rheology as a Tool to Predict the Release of Alpha-Lipoic Acid from Emulsions Used for the Prevention of Skin Aging

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Marto, Joana Marques; Moraes, Jemima Daniela Dias; Leone, Beatriz Alves; Corrêa, Marcos Antonio; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2015-01-01

    The availability of an active substance through the skin depends basically on two consecutive steps: the release of this substance from the vehicle and its subsequent permeation through the skin. Hence, studies on the specific properties of vehicles, such as their rheological behavior, are of great interest in the field of dermatological products. Recent studies have shown the influence of the rheological features of a vehicle on the release of drugs and active compounds from the formulation. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the rheological features of two different emulsion formulations on the release of alpha-lipoic acid. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) was chosen for this study because of its antioxidant characteristics, which could be useful for the prevention of skin diseases and aging. The rheological and mechanical behavior and the in vitro release profile were assayed. The results showed that rheological features, such as viscosity, thixotropy, and compliance, strongly influenced the release of ALA from the emulsion and that the presence of a hydrophilic polymer in one of the emulsions was an important factor affecting the rheology and, therefore, the release of ALA. PMID:26788510

  10. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation protects enzymes from damage by nitrosative and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Sylvia; DeKroon, Robert; Hamlett, Eric D; Xu, Longquan; Osorio, Cristina; Robinette, Jennifer; Winnik, Witold; Simington, Stephen; Maeda, Nobuyo; Alzate, Oscar; Yi, Xianwen

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial enzymes involved in energy transfer under nitrosative stress may result in ATP deficiency. We investigated whether α-lipoic acid, a powerful antioxidant, could alleviate nitrosative stress by regulating S-nitrosylation, which could result in retaining the mitochondrial enzyme activity. In this study, we have identified the S-nitrosylated forms of subunit 1 of dihydrolipoyllysine succinyltransferase (complex III), and subunit 2 of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by implementing a fluorescence-based differential quantitative proteomics method. We found that the activities of these two mitochondrial enzymes were partially but reversibly inhibited by S-nitrosylation in cultured endothelial cells, and that their activities were partially restored by supplementation of α-lipoic acid. We show that protein S-nitrosylation affects the activity of mitochondrial enzymes that are central to energy supply, and that α-lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes by altering S-nitrosylation levels. Inhibiting protein S-nitrosylation with α-lipoic acid seems to be a protective mechanism against nitrosative stress. Identification and characterization of these new protein targets should contribute to expanding the therapeutic power of α-lipoic acid and to a better understanding of the underlying antioxidant mechanisms.

  11. [Use of alpha-lipoic acid and omega-3 in postpartum pain treatment].

    PubMed

    Costantino, D; Guaraldi, C; Costantino, M; Bounous, V E

    2015-10-01

    Postpartum pain is a frequent condition that negatively affects women's quality of life, interferring with everyday life. Analgesic drugs and surgery are often contraindicated in pregnancy and during breast feeding. This review of the literature aims to evaluate the rational of the association of lipoic acid and omega-3 employ in the management of postpartum pain. Lipoic acid is a cofactor essential in mitochondrial metabolism with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Lipoic acid has been shown to be effective in neuropatic pain treatment in patients with sciatica, carpal tunnel syndrome and diabetic neuropathy. Omega-3 are known for their anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic activity. The peripheral and central activity of both substances allows to act on neuroinflammation mechanisms thus reducing cronicization of pain and also determining a potential improvement of women's emotional status. The preliminary data here presented confirm the positive effect of this association on the treatment of postpartum perineal pain. The supplementation of lipoic acid in association with omega-3 seems effective and safe for the treatment of chronic postpartum pain, allowing a pathogenetic approach to neuroinflammation, thus reducing the consumption of analgesic drugs, often contraindicated during breast-feeding.

  12. Evaluation of Eudragit® Retard Polymers for the Microencapsulation of Alpha-Lipoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pecora, Tiziana M G; Musumeci, Teresa; Musumeci, Lucrezia; Fresta, Massimo; Pignatello, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Microencapsulation of natural antioxidants in polymeric systems represents a possible strategy for improving the oral bioavailability of compounds that are otherwise poorly soluble. α-lipoic acid (ALA) was microencapsulated with polymethacrylate polymers (blends at various ratios of Eudragit® RS100 and RL100 resins). Microspheres were produced by solvent displacement of an ethanol cosolution of ALA and polymers; the microsuspensions were then freeze-dried, using trehalose as a cryoprotector. Microspheres were characterized in the solid state for micromeritic properties and drug loading, as well as by infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. The antioxidant activity of free and encapsulated ALA was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. In vitro release studies, performed in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) and intestinal fluid (pH 6.8), showed that, depending on polymer composition and drug-to-polymer ratio, ALA release can be slowed down, compared to the dissolution pattern of the free drug. Solid-state characterization confirmed the chemical stability of ALA in the microspheres, suggesting that ALA did not develop strong interactions with the polymer and was present in an amorphous or a disordered-crystalline state within the polymer network. As indicated by the DPPH assay, the microencapsulation of ALA in Eudragit® Retard matrices did not alter its antioxidant activity. ALA was effectively encapsulated in Eudragit® Retard matrices, showing a chemical stability up to 6 months at room conditions and at 40°C. Moreover, since the drug maintained its antioxidant activity in vitro, the potential application of these microparticulate systems for oral administration would deserve further studies.

  13. Sperm quality after swim up and density gradient centrifugation sperm preparation with supplementation of alpha lipoic acid (ALA): A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Silvia W.; Lestari, Sarah H.; Pujianto, Dwi A.

    2018-02-01

    Intra uterine insemination (IUI) as one of the treatment for infertility, persists low success rate. A factor that contributes to the unsuccessful of IUI is sperm preparation, performed through Swim-up (SU) and Density Gradient Centrifugation (DGC) methods. Furthermore, studies have shown that Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant that could enhance the sperm motility and protect the DNA integrity of the sperm [1]. This study is aimed to re-evaluate the efficiency of the DGC and SU methods in selecting sperm before being transferred for IUI by the supplementation of ALA based on the sperm DNA integrity. Semen samples were obtained from 13 men from partners of women who are infertile (normozoospermia) and underwent IUI. Semen analysis based on the guideline of World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 was performed to measure the sperm motility and velocity, before and after sperm preparation. Then, samples were incubated with Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) in 0.625 mg (ALA 1), 1.25 mg (ALA 2) and 2.5 mg (ALA 3). The Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test was performed to evaluate the sperm DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI). The percentage of motile sperm was higher in prepared sperm (post-DGC and post-SU) than in whole semen. Furthermore, the percentage of motile sperm was higher in post-DGC compared to post-SU. The level of DFI after the supplementation of ALA was decreased in prepared sperm compared to the whole semen. ALA was proved capable to select the better sperm quality with decreased sperm DNA fragmentation of prepared sperm in the all of DFI category.

  14. The combination of exercise training and alpha-lipoic acid treatment has therapeutic effects on the pathogenic phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease in NSE/APPsw-transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Y; Um, Hyun S; Kang, Eun B; Cho, In H; Kim, Chul H; Cho, Jung S; Hwang, Dae Y

    2010-03-01

    Exercise training was suggested as a practical therapeutic strategy for human subjects suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) in our previous study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combining exercise training with the administration of antioxidants on the pathological phenotype of AD. To accomplish this, non-transgenic mice (Non-Tg) and NSE/APPsw Tg mice were treated with alpha-lipoic acid and treadmill exercised for 16 weeks, after which their brains were evaluated to determine whether any changes in the pathological phenotype-related factors occurred. The results indicated that (i) the combination-applied (COMA) Tg group with exercise training (ET) and alpha-lipoic acid administration (LA) showed ameliorated spatial learning and memory compared to the sedentary (SED)-Tg and single-treatment groups; (ii) there were no differences in the level of Abeta-42 peptides across groups; (iii) the level of glucose transporter-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins were highly increased in the COMA group, (iv) ET and LA did not induce a synergistic effect on the expression of heat shock protein-70 and apoptotic proteins including Bax and caspase-3; (v) the levels of SOD-1 and CAT suppressing oxidative stress were extensively higher in the COMA than in the single-treated groups and (vi) there were no significant differences across groups regarding these serum characteristics, although these levels were lower than the SED-Tg group. Taken together, these results suggest that the combination with ET and LA may contribute to protect the neuron injury induced by Abeta peptides and may be considered an effective therapeutic strategy for human subjects suffering from AD.

  15. A comparative study of effects of omega-3 Fatty acids, alpha lipoic Acid and vitamin e in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Udupa, A; Nahar, P; Shah, S; Kshirsagar, M; Ghongane, B

    2013-07-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism. Various modes of adjuvant therapy have been advocated to ameliorate insulin resistance. This study was intended to assess the effects of antioxidants; alpha lipoic acid (ALA), omega 3 fatty acid and vitamin E on parameters of insulin sensitivity (blood glucose and HbA1c) in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus with documented insulin resistance. It was a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, single centered study. 104 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with insulin resistance were recruited. They were given ALA, omega 3 fatty acid, vitamin E or placebo. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were measured at first visit (V1) and after 90 days (V2). Statistical analysis was carried out by paired t-test by using SPSS software version 11 (SPSS, Chicago, USA). Analysis of baseline (V1) vs. end of treatment period (V2) parameters, showed significant decrease in HbA1c in the three treatment group. We also observed decrease in fasting blood glucose in the three treatment group but it was not statistically significant (Gr. I = 0.51, Gr. II = 0.05, Gr. III = 0.22, Gr. IV = 0.88). ALA, Omega 3 fatty acid and vitamin E can be used as add on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism.

  16. The Combination of N-Acetyl Cysteine, Alpha-Lipoic Acid, and Bromelain Shows High Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Novel In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Agostinis, C.; Zorzet, S.; De Leo, R.; Zauli, G.; De Seta, F.; Bulla, R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an association of N-acetyl cystein, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain (NAC/LA/Br) in the treatment of endometriosis we set up a new in vivo murine model. We explored the anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic effect of this combination on human endometriotic endothelial cells (EECs) and on endothelial cells isolated from normal uterus (UtMECs). We implanted fragments of human endometriotic cysts intraperitoneally into SCID mice to evaluate the efficacy of NAC/LA/Br treatment. UtMECs and EECs, untreated or treated with NAC/LA/Br, were activated with the proinflammatory stimulus TNF-α and their response in terms of VCAM1 expression was evaluated. The proapoptotic effect of higher doses of NAC/LA/Br on UtMECs and EECs was measured with a fluorogenic substrate for activated caspases 3 and 7. The preincubation of EECs with NAC/LA/Br prior to cell stimulation with TNF-α prevents the upregulation of the expression of the inflammatory “marker” VCAM1. Furthermore NAC/LA/Br were able to induce EEC, but not UtMEC, apoptosis. Finally, the novel mouse model allowed us to demonstrate that mice treated with NAC/LA/Br presented a lower number of cysts, smaller in size, compared to untreated mice. Our findings suggest that these dietary supplements may have potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like endometriosis. PMID:25960622

  17. The combination of N-acetyl cysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain shows high anti-inflammatory properties in novel in vivo and in vitro models of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Agostinis, C; Zorzet, S; De Leo, R; Zauli, G; De Seta, F; Bulla, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an association of N-acetyl cystein, alpha-lipoic acid, and bromelain (NAC/LA/Br) in the treatment of endometriosis we set up a new in vivo murine model. We explored the anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic effect of this combination on human endometriotic endothelial cells (EECs) and on endothelial cells isolated from normal uterus (UtMECs). We implanted fragments of human endometriotic cysts intraperitoneally into SCID mice to evaluate the efficacy of NAC/LA/Br treatment. UtMECs and EECs, untreated or treated with NAC/LA/Br, were activated with the proinflammatory stimulus TNF-α and their response in terms of VCAM1 expression was evaluated. The proapoptotic effect of higher doses of NAC/LA/Br on UtMECs and EECs was measured with a fluorogenic substrate for activated caspases 3 and 7. The preincubation of EECs with NAC/LA/Br prior to cell stimulation with TNF-α prevents the upregulation of the expression of the inflammatory "marker" VCAM1. Furthermore NAC/LA/Br were able to induce EEC, but not UtMEC, apoptosis. Finally, the novel mouse model allowed us to demonstrate that mice treated with NAC/LA/Br presented a lower number of cysts, smaller in size, compared to untreated mice. Our findings suggest that these dietary supplements may have potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like endometriosis.

  18. Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases.

    PubMed

    Berkson, Burton M; Rubin, Daniel M; Berkson, Arthur J

    2009-12-01

    The authors, in a previous article, described the long-term survival of a man with pancreatic cancer and metastases to the liver, treated with intravenous alpha-lipoic acid and oral low-dose naltrexone (ALA/N) without any adverse effects. He is alive and well 78 months after initial presentation. Three additional pancreatic cancer case studies are presented in this article. At the time of this writing, the first patient, GB, is alive and well 39 months after presenting with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with metastases to the liver. The second patient, JK, who presented to the clinic with the same diagnosis was treated with the ALA/N protocol and after 5 months of therapy, PET scan demonstrated no evidence of disease. The third patient, RC, in addition to his pancreatic cancer with liver and retroperitoneal metastases, has a history of B-cell lymphoma and prostate adenocarcinoma. After 4 months of the ALA/N protocol his PET scan demonstrated no signs of cancer. In this article, the authors discuss the poly activity of ALA: as an agent that reduces oxidative stress, its ability to stabilize NF(k)B, its ability to stimulate pro-oxidant apoptosic activity, and its discriminative ability to discourage the proliferation of malignant cells. In addition, the ability of lowdose naltrexone to modulate an endogenous immune response is discussed. This is the second article published on the ALA/N protocol and the authors believe the protocol warrants clinical trial.

  19. The effect of acetyl-L-carnitine and R-alpha-lipoic acid treatment in ApoE4 mouse as a model of human Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Justin C; Liu, Jiankang; Fischbach, Kathryn; Xu, Kui; Puchowicz, Michel; Obrenovich, Mark E; Gasimov, Eldar; Alvarez, Ludis Morales; Ames, Bruce N; Lamanna, Joseph C; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2009-08-15

    We measured age-dependent effects of human ApoE4 on cerebral blood flow (CBF) using ApoE4 transgenic mice compared to age-matched wild-type (WT) mice by use of [(14)C] iodoantipyrene autoradiography. ApoE4 associated factors reduce CBF gradually to create brain hypoperfusion when compared to WT, and the differences in CBF are greatest as animals age from 6-weeks to 12-months. Transmission electron microscopy with colloidal gold immunocytochemistry showed structural damage in young and aged microvessel endothelium of ApoE4 animals extended to the cytoplasm of perivascular cells, perivascular nerve terminals and hippocampal neurons and glial cells. These abnormalities coexist with mitochondrial structural alteration and mitochondrial DNA overproliferation and/or deletion in all brain cellular compartments. Spatial memory and temporal memory tests showed a trend in improving cognitive function in ApoE4 mice fed selective mitochondrial antioxidants acetyl-l-carnitine and R-alpha-lipoic acid. Our findings indicate that ApoE4 genotype-induced mitochondrial changes and associated structural damage may explain age-dependent pathology seen in AD, indicating potential for novel treatment strategies in the near future.

  20. The effects and mechanisms of mitochondrial nutrient alpha-lipoic acid on improving age-associated mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction: an overview.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiankang

    2008-01-01

    We have identified a group of nutrients that can directly or indirectly protect mitochondria from oxidative damage and improve mitochondrial function and named them "mitochondrial nutrients". The direct protection includes preventing the generation of oxidants, scavenging free radicals or inhibiting oxidant reactivity, and elevating cofactors of defective mitochondrial enzymes with increased Michaelis-Menten constant to stimulate enzyme activity, and also protect enzymes from further oxidation, and the indirect protection includes repairing oxidative damage by enhancing antioxidant defense systems either through activation of phase 2 enzymes or through increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. In this review, we take alpha-lipoic acid (LA) as an example of mitochondrial nutrients by summarizing the protective effects and possible mechanisms of LA and its derivatives on age-associated cognitive and mitochondrial dysfunction of the brain. LA and its derivatives improve the age-associated decline of memory, improve mitochondrial structure and function, inhibit the age-associated increase of oxidative damage, elevate the levels of antioxidants, and restore the activity of key enzymes. In addition, co-administration of LA with other mitochondrial nutrients, such as acetyl-L: -carnitine and coenzyme Q10, appears more effective in improving cognitive dysfunction and reducing oxidative mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, administrating mitochondrial nutrients, such as LA and its derivatives in combination with other mitochondrial nutrients to aged people and patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, may be an effective strategy for improving mitochondrial and cognitive dysfunction.

  1. The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Poon, H Fai; Dogrukol-Ak, Dilek; Drake, Jeniffer; Banks, William A; Eyerman, Edward; Butterfield, D Allan; Morley, John E

    2003-03-01

    Oxidative stress may play a crucial role in age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the ability of two antioxidants, alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), to reverse the cognitive deficits found in the SAMP8 mouse. By 12 months of age, this strain develops elevated levels of Abeta and severe deficits in learning and memory. We found that 12-month-old SAMP8 mice, in comparison with 4-month-old mice, had increased levels of protein carbonyls (an index of protein oxidation), increased TBARS (an index of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in the weakly immobilized/strongly immobilized (W/S) ratio of the protein-specific spin label MAL-6 (an index of oxidation-induced conformational changes in synaptosomal membrane proteins). Chronic administration of either LA or NAC improved cognition of 12-month-old SAMP8 mice in both the T-maze footshock avoidance paradigm and the lever press appetitive task without inducing non-specific effects on motor activity, motivation to avoid shock, or body weight. These effects probably occurred directly within the brain, as NAC crossed the blood-brain barrier and accumulated in the brain. Furthermore, treatment of 12-month-old SAMP8 mice with LA reversed all three indexes of oxidative stress. These results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress can lead to cognitive dysfunction and provide evidence for a therapeutic role for antioxidants.

  2. Gas-saturated solution process to obtain microcomposite particles of alpha lipoic acid/hydrogenated colza oil in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kenji; Honjo, Masatoshi; Sharmin, Tanjina; Ito, Shota; Kawakami, Ryo; Kato, Takafumi; Misumi, Makoto; Suetsugu, Tadashi; Orii, Hideaki; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Irie, Keiichi; Sano, Kazunori; Mishima, Kenichi; Harada, Takunori; Ouchi, Mikio

    2016-09-01

    Alpha lipoic acid (ALA), an active substance in anti-aging products and dietary supplements, need to be masked with an edible polymer to obscure its unpleasant taste. However, the high viscosity of the ALA molecules prevents them from forming microcomposites with masking materials even in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate and develop a novel production method for microcomposite particles for ALA in hydrogenated colza oil (HCO). Microcomposite particles of ALA/HCO were prepared by using a novel gas-saturated solution (PGSS) process in which the solid-dispersion method is used along with stepwise temperature control (PGSS-STC). Its high viscosity prevents the formation of microcomposites in the conventional PGSS process even under strong agitation. Here, we disperse the solid particles of ALA and HCO in scCO2 at low temperatures and change the temperature stepwise in order to mix the melted ALA and HCO in scCO2. As a result, a homogeneous dispersion of the droplets of ALA in melted HCO saturated with CO2 is obtained at high temperatures. After the rapid expansion of the saturated solution through a nozzle, microcomposite particles of ALA/HCO several micrometers in diameter are obtained.

  3. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Downregulates IL-1β and IL-6 by DNA Hypermethylation in SK-N-BE Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Dinicola, Simona; Proietti, Sara; Cucina, Alessandra; Bizzarri, Mariano; Fuso, Andrea

    2017-09-26

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a pleiotropic molecule with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, of which the effects are exerted through the modulation of NF-kB. This nuclear factor, in fact, modulates different inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1b and IL-6, in different tissues and cell types. We recently showed that IL-1b and IL-6 DNA methylation is modulated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, and that IL-1b expression is associated to DNA methylation in the brain of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. These results prompted us to ask whether ALA-induced repression of IL-1b and IL-6 was dependent on DNA methylation. Therefore, we profiled DNA methylation in the 5'-flanking region of the two aforementioned genes in SK-N-BE human neuroblastoma cells cultured in presence of ALA 0.5 mM. Our experimental data pointed out that the two promoters are hypermethylated in cells supplemented with ALA, both at CpG and non-CpG sites. Moreover, the observed hypermethylation is associated with decreased mRNA expression and decreased cytokine release. These results reinforce previous findings indicating that IL-1b and IL-6 undergo DNA methylation-dependent modulation in neural models and pave the road to study the epigenetic mechanisms triggered by ALA.

  4. Myoinositol combined with alpha-lipoic acid may improve the clinical and endocrine features of polycystic ovary syndrome through an insulin-independent action.

    PubMed

    De Cicco, Simona; Immediata, Valentina; Romualdi, Daniela; Policola, Caterina; Tropea, Anna; Di Florio, Christian; Tagliaferri, Valeria; Scarinci, Elisa; Della Casa, Silvia; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a combined treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and myoinositol (MYO) on clinical, endocrine and metabolic features of women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In this pilot cohort study, forty women with PCOS were enrolled and clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters were evaluated before and after a six-months combined treatment with ALA and MYO daily. Studied patients experienced a significant increase in the number of cycles in six months (p < 0.01). The free androgen index (FAI), the mean androstenedione and DHEAS levels significantly decreased after treatment (p < 0.05). Mean SHBG levels significantly raised (p < 0.01). A significant improvement in mean Ferriman-Gallwey (F-G) score (p < 0.01) and a significant reduction of BMI (p < 0.01) were also observed. A significant reduction of AMH levels, ovarian volume and total antral follicular count were observed in our studied women (p< 0.05). No significant changes occurred in gluco-insulinaemic and lipid parameters after treatment. The combined treatment of ALA and MYO is able to restore the menstrual pattern and to improve the hormonal milieu of PCOS women, even in the absence of apparent changes in insulin metabolism.

  5. Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced insulin resistance by improving mitochondrial function in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lei, Lin; Zhu, Yiwei; Gao, Wenwen; Du, Xiliang; Zhang, Min; Peng, Zhicheng; Fu, Shoupeng; Li, Xiaobing; Zhe, Wang; Li, Xinwei; Liu, Guowen

    2016-10-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to have beneficial effects for improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of the beneficial effects remains poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered causal factors that induce insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA on the modulation of insulin resistance in ER-stressed HepG2 cells, and we explored the potential mechanism of this effect. HepG2 cells were incubated with tunicamycin (Tun) for 6h to establish an ER stress cell model. Tun treatment induced ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Interestingly, ALA had no significant effect on ER stress signals. Pretreatment of the ER stress cell model with ALA for 24h improved insulin sensitivity, restored the expression levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and increased intracellular ATP production. Moreover, ALA augmented the β-oxidation capacity of the mitochondria. Importantly, ALA treatment could decrease oligomycin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and then improved insulin resistance. Taken together, our data suggest that ALA prevents ER stress-induced insulin resistance by enhancing mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Advantages of the Alpha-lipoic Acid Association with Chlorpromazine in a Model of Schizophrenia Induced by Ketamine in Rats: Behavioral and Oxidative Stress evidences.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Luis Rafael Leite; Cysne Filho, Francisco Maurício Sales; de Almeida, Jamily Cunha; Diniz, Danilo Dos Santos; Patrocínio, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder reported to compromise about 1% of the world's population. Although its pathophysiological process is not completely elucidated, evidence showing the presence of an oxidative imbalance has been increasingly highlighted in the literature. Thus, the use of antioxidant substances may be of importance for schizophrenia treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavioral and oxidative alterations by the combination of chlorpromazine (CP) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a potent antioxidant, in the ketamine (KET) model of schizophrenia in rats. Male Wistar rats (200-300 g) were treated for 10 days with saline, CP or ALA alone or in combination with CP previous to KET and the behavioral (open field, Y-maze and PPI tests) and oxidative tests were performed on the last day of treatment. The results showed that KET induced hyperlocomotion, impaired working memory and decreased PPI. CP alone or in combination with ALA prevented KET-induced behavioral effects. In addition, the administration of KET decreased GSH and increased nitrite, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase activity. CP alone or combined with ALA prevented the oxidative alterations induced by KET. In conclusion, the treatment with KET in rats induced behavioral impairments accompanied by hippocampal oxidative alterations, possibly related to NMDA receptors hypofunction. Besides that, CP alone or combined with ALA prevented these effects, showing a beneficial activity as antipsychotic agents. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergic prooxidant, apoptotic and TRPV1 channel activator effects of alpha-lipoic acid and cisplatin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nur, Gökhan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Deveci, Haci Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Resistance to cisplatin (Cisp) in the treatment of breast cancer is a major obstacle. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) has both antioxidant and oxidant properties. ALA has been used on stimulation mechanisms of apoptosis and oxidative stress in the treatment of cancer with a combination of chemotherapeutic agents, although its role on molecular mechanisms in the cancer cells has not been clarified yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a combination therapy of ALA with Cisp can alter the effect of this chemotherapy drug in the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The MCF-7 cells were divided into four treatment groups as control, Cisp (0.025 mM), ALA (0.05 mM), and Cisp + ALA. Apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, PARP1, caspase 3 and 9 expression levels are increased through activating TRPV1 in the cells by the Cisp and ALA treatments, although cell viability, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) values were decreased by the treatments. The Cisp and ALA-induced increase of intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration was decreased with the TRPV1 blocker, capsazepine. Apoptosis and oxidant effects of Cisp were increased by activation of TRPV1 channels, but its action on the values was further increased by the ALA treatment. Combination therapy of ALA and Cisp could be used as an effective strategy in the treatment of breast cancer.

  8. Comparative analysis of the effects combined physical procedures and alpha-lipoic acid on the electroneurographic parameters of patients with distal sensorimotor diabetic polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Grbovic, Vesna; Jurisic-Skevin, Aleksandra; Djukic, Svetlana; Stefanović, Srdjan; Nurkovic, Jasmin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Painful diabetic polyneuropathy occurs as a complication in 16% of all patients with diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] A clinical, prospective open-label randomized intervention study was conducted of 60 adult patients, with distal sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy two groups of 30 patients, with diabetes mellitus type 2 with distal sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy. Patients in group A were treated with combined physical procedures, and patients in group B were treated with alpha lipoic acid. [Results] There where a statistically significant improvements in terminal latency and the amplitude of the action potential in group A patients, while group B patients showed a statistically significant improvements in conduction velocity and terminal latency of n. peroneus. Group A patients showed a statistically significant improvements in conduction velocity and terminal latency, while group B patients also showed a statistically significant improvements in conduction velocity and terminal latency. This was reflected in a significant improvements in electrophysiological parameters (conduction velocity, amplitude and latency) of the motor and sensory nerves (n. peroneus, n. suralis). [Conclusion] These results present further evidence justifying of the use of physical agents in the treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. PMID:27065527

  9. Synergistic ameliorative effects of sesame oil and alpha-lipoic acid against subacute diazinon toxicity in rats: hematological, biochemical, and antioxidant studies.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Taha, Ramadan; Ghazy, Emad W; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2016-01-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is a common organophosphorus insecticide extensively used for agriculture and veterinary purposes. DZN toxicity is not limited to insects; it also induces harmful effects in mammals and birds. Our experiment evaluated the protective and antioxidant potential of sesame oil (SO) and (or) alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) against DZN toxicity in male Wistar albino rats. DZN-treated animals exhibited macrocytic hypochromic anemia and significant increases in serum biochemical parameters related to liver injury, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT), cholesterol, and triglycerides. They also had elevated levels of markers related to cardiac injury, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and increased biomarkers of renal injury, urea and creatinine. DZN also increased hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant biomarker levels. SO and (or) ALA supplementation ameliorated the deleterious effects of DZN intoxication. Treatment improved hematology and serum parameters, enhanced endogenous antioxidant status, and reduced lipid peroxidation. Importantly, they exerted synergistic hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and cardioprotective effects. Our findings demonstrate that SO and (or) ALA supplementation can alleviate the toxic effects of DZN via their potent antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities.

  10. Effects of alpha lipoic acid, ascorbic acid-6-palmitate, and fish oil on the glutathione, malonaldehyde, and fatty acids levels in erythrocytes of streptozotocin induced diabetic male rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Okkeş; Ozkan, Yusuf; Yildirim, Mehmet; Oztürk, A Ihsan; Erşan, Yasemin

    2002-01-01

    In this research, it has been aimed to evaluate the improvement effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA), ascorbic acid-6-palmitate (AA6P), fish oil (FO), and their combination (COM) on some biochemical properties in erythrocytes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. According to experimental results, glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocytes decreased in diabetes (P < 0.01), D + ALA, and D + AA6P groups (P < 0.001). Malonaldehyde (MA) level increased in diabetes (P < 0.05), D + FO, and D + COM groups (P < 0.001), but its level in D + AA6P and D + ALA groups was lower in diabetes group (P < 0.01). Total lipid level in diabetes and diabetes plus antioxidant administered groups were higher than control. Total cholesterol level was high in diabetes and D + ALA groups (P < 0.05), but its level reduced in D + FO compared to control and diabetes groups, P < 0.05, < 0.001, respectively. Total triglyceride (TTG) level was high in the D + ALA (P < 0.05) and D + COM (P < 0.001) groups. In contrast, TTG level in blood of diabetes group was higher than diabetes plus antioxidant and FO administered groups (P < 0.001). According to gas chromatography analysis results, while the palmitic acid raised in diabetes group (P < 0.05), stearic acid in D + FO, D + ALA, and diabetes groups was lower than control (P < 0.05), oleic acid reduced in D + COM and D + FO groups, but its level raised in D + AA6P and D + ALA groups (P < 0.01). As the linoleic acid (LA) elevated in ALA + D, D + AA6P, and diabetes groups, linolenic acid level in diabetes, D + AA6P, and D + FO groups was lower than control (P < 0.001). Arachidonic acid (AA) decreased in D + ALA, D+ AA6P, and diabetes groups (P < 0.01), but its level in D + COM and D + FO was higher than control (P < 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increased in D + AA6P and D + COM (P < 0.05). While the total saturated fatty acid level raised in diabetes group, its level reduced in D + ALA and D + FO groups (P < 0.05). In contrast, total

  11. Effects of triple antioxidant combination (vitamin E, vitamin C and alpha-lipoic acid) with insulin on lipid and cholesterol levels and fatty acid composition of brain tissue in experimental diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Yusuf; Yilmaz, Okkeş; Oztürk, Ali Ihsan; Erşan, Yasemin

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of a triple antioxidant combination (vitamins E (VE) and C (VC) plus alpha-lipoic acid (LA)) on the total lipid and cholesterol levels and the fatty acid composition of brain tissues in experimental diabetic and non-diabetic rats. VE and LA were injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg) four times per week and VC was provided as a supplement dissolved in the drinking water (50 mg/kg). In addition, rats in the diabetes 1 and D+VELAVC groups were given daily by subcutaneous insulin injections (8 IU/kg), but no insulin was given to rats in the diabetes 2 group. The results indicate that the brain lipid levels in the D+VELAVC, diabetes 1 and diabetes 2 groups were higher than in the control group (P<0.01). Total lipid was also higher in the non-diabetic rats treated with LA and VC. Total cholesterol was higher in the diabetes 1 and diabetes 2 groups (P<0.05) than in controls. Cholesterol levels were similar in the D+VELAVC and LA groups but lower in the VC, VE and VELAVC groups of non-diabetic rats (P<0.05 and P<0.01). In respect of fatty acid composition, palmitic acid levels were lower in the diabetes 2 and non-diabetic VE groups than the control group (P<0.05), but higher in the non-diabetic LA group (P<0.05). Oleic acid (18:1 n-9) levels were lower in the diabetic and non-diabetic groups than the control group (P<0.01), but higher in the non-diabetic LA group. Arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) levels were similar in the diabetes 1, D+VELAVC and control groups (P>0.05) but higher in the non-diabetic VE, VC, LA and VEVCLA groups (P<0.05) and lower in the diabetes 2 group (P<0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was elevated in the diabetes 2 and VEVCLA groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). In conclusion, the current study confirmed that treatment with a triple combination of VE, VC and LA protects the arachidonic acid level in the brains of diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

  12. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Reduces LDL-Particle Number and PCSK9 Concentrations in High-Fat Fed Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Bradley; Wen, Shin; Zigouras, Sophia; Browne, Richard W.; Li, Zhuyun; Patel, Mulchand S.; Williamson, David L.; Rideout, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the hypolipidemic effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA, R-form) and examined the associated molecular mechanisms in a high fat fed Zucker rat model. Rats (n = 8) were assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet with 0.25% LA (HF-LA) for 30 days and pair fed to remove confounding effects associated with the anorectic properties of LA. Compared with the HF controls, the HF-LA group was protected against diet-induced obesity (102.5±3.1 vs. 121.5±3.6,% change BW) and hypercholesterolemia with a reduction in total-C (−21%), non-HDL-C (−25%), LDL-C (−16%), and total LDL particle number (−46%) and an increase in total HDL particles (∼22%). This cholesterol-lowering response was associated with a reduction in plasma PCSK9 concentration (−70%) and an increase in hepatic LDLr receptor protein abundance (2 fold of HF). Compared with the HF-fed animals, livers of LA-supplemented animals were protected against TG accumulation (−46%), likely through multiple mechanisms including: a suppressed lipogenic response (down-regulation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase expression); enhanced hepatic fat oxidation (increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase Iα expression); and enhanced VLDL export (increased hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and elevated plasma VLDL particle number). Study results also support an enhanced fatty acid uptake (2.8 fold increase in total lipase activity) and oxidation (increased CPT1β protein abundance) in muscle tissue in LA-supplemented animals compared with the HF group. In summary, in the absence of a change in caloric intake, LA was effective in protecting against hypercholesterolemia and hepatic fat accumulation under conditions of strong genetic and dietary predisposition toward obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:24595397

  13. Sulforaphane and alpha-lipoic acid upregulate the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase through c-jun and Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Lii, Chong-Kuei; Liu, Kai-Li; Cheng, Yi-Ping; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chen, Haw-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2010-05-01

    The anticarcinogenic effect of dietary organosulfur compounds has been partly attributed to their modulation of the activity and expression of phase II detoxification enzymes. Our previous studies indicated that garlic allyl sulfides upregulate the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) through the activator protein-1 pathway. Here, we examined the modulatory effect of sulforaphane (SFN) and alpha-lipoic acid (LA) or dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) on GSTP expression in rat Clone 9 liver cells. Cells were treated with LA or DHLA (50-600 micromol/L) or SFN (0.2-5 micromol/L) for 24 h. Immunoblots and real-time PCR showed that SFN, LA, and DHLA dose dependently induced GSTP protein and mRNA expression. Compared with the induction by the garlic organosulfur compound diallyl trisulfide (DATS), the effectiveness was in the order of SFN > DATS > LA = DHLA. The increase in GSTP enzyme activity in cells treated with 5 micromol/L SFN, 50 micromol/L DATS, and 600 micromol/L LA and DHLA was 172, 75, 122, and 117%, respectively (P < 0.05). A reporter assay showed that the GSTP enhancer I (GPEI) was required for GSTP induction by the organosulfur compounds. Electromobility gel shift assays showed that the DNA binding of GPEI to nuclear proteins reached a maximum at 0.5-1 h after SFN, LA, and DHLA treatment. Super-shift assay revealed that the transcription factors c-jun and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) were bound to GPEI. These results suggest that SFN and LA in either its oxidized or reduced form upregulate the transcription of the GSTP gene by activating c-jun and Nrf2 binding to the enhancer element GPEI.

  14. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on associative and spatial memory of sham-irradiated and 56Fe-irradiated C57BL/6J male mice.

    PubMed

    Villasana, Laura E; Rosenthal, Rosalind A; Doctrow, Susan R; Pfankuch, Timothy; Zuloaga, Damian G; Garfinkel, Alexandra Maccoll; Raber, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Cranial irradiation with (56)Fe, a form of space radiation, causes hippocampus-dependent cognitive changes. (56)Fe irradiation also increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, which may contribute to these changes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on cognition following sham-irradiation and irradiation. Male mice were irradiated (brain only) with (56)Fe (3 Gy) or sham-irradiated at 6-9 months of age. Half of the mice remained fed a regular chow and the other half of the mice were fed a caloric-matched diet containing ALA starting two-weeks prior to irradiation and throughout cognitive testing. Following cognitive testing, levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), a marker of oxidative protein stress, and levels of microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2), a dendritic protein important for cognition, were assessed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. ALA prevented radiation-induced impairments in spatial memory retention in the hippocampal and cortical dependent water maze probe trials following reversal learning. However, in sham-irradiated mice, ALA treatment impaired cortical-dependent novel object recognition and amygdala-dependent cued fear conditioning. There was a trend towards lower 3NT levels in irradiated mice receiving a diet containing ALA than irradiated mice receiving a regular diet. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus of mice on regular diet, irradiated mice had higher levels of MAP-2 immunoreactivity than sham-irradiated mice. Thus, ALA might have differential effects on the brain under normal physiological conditions and those involving environmental challenges such as cranial irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain antioxidant effect of mirtazapine and reversal of sedation by its combination with alpha-lipoic acid in a model of depression induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tatiana de Queiroz; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; de Sousa, Luciene Costa; de Oliveira, Anneheydi Araújo; Patrocínio, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos; Medeiros, Ingridy da Silva; Honório Júnior, José Eduardo Ribeiro; Maes, Michael; Macedo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2017-09-01

    Depression is accompanied by activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative pathways, while targeting these pathways has clinical efficacy in depression. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mirtazapine (MIRT) alone and combined with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) against corticosterone (CORT) induced behavioral and oxidative alterations. Male mice received vehicle or CORT 20mg/kg during 14 days. From the 15th to 21st days they were divided in groups administered: vehicle, MIRT 3mg/kg or the combinations MIRT+ALA100 or MIRT+ALA200. On the 21st day of treatment, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests. Twenty-four hours after the last drug administration hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) were dissected for the determination reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LP) and nitrite levels. CORT induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors as observed by increased immobility time in the tail suspension test and decreased sucrose consumption. MIRT or MIRT+ALA are effective in reversing anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors induced by CORT. CORT and MIRT alone prolonged sleeping time and this effect was reversed by MIRT+ALA. CORT significantly increased LP, which was reversed by MIRT or MIRT+ALA. Nitrite levels were increased in CORT-treated animals and reversed by MIRT+ALA200 (HC), MIRT or MIRT+ALA (ST). A relative small sample size and lack of a washout period between drug administration and behavioral testing. MIRT or MIRT+ALA reverse CORT-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors probably via their central antioxidant effects. Augmentation of MIRT with ALA may reverse sedation, an important side effect of MIRT. Randomized controlled studies are needed to examine the clinical efficacy of this combination in human depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alpha-lipoic acid alone and combined with clozapine reverses schizophrenia-like symptoms induced by ketamine in mice: Participation of antioxidant, nitrergic and neurotrophic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Ximenes, Naiara Coelho; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Oliveira, Tatiana de Queiroz; Lima, Laio Ladislau Lopes; de Lucena, David Freitas; Gama, Clarissa Severino; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2015-07-01

    Oxidative stress has important implications in schizophrenia. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant synthesized in human tissues with clinical uses. We studied the effect of ALA or clozapine (CLZ) alone or in combination in the reversal of schizophrenia-like alterations induced by ketamine (KET). Adult male mice received saline or KET for 14 days. From 8th to 14th days mice were additionally administered saline, ALA (100 mg/kg), CLZ 2.5 or 5 mg/kg or the combinations ALA+CLZ2.5 or ALA+CLZ5. Schizophrenia-like symptoms were evaluated by prepulse inhibition of the startle (PPI) and locomotor activity (positive-like), social preference (negative-like) and Y maze (cognitive-like). Oxidative alterations (reduced glutathione - GSH and lipid peroxidation - LP) and nitrite in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) and BDNF in the PFC were also determined. KET caused deficits in PPI, working memory, social interaction and hyperlocomotion. Decreased levels of GSH, nitrite (HC) and BDNF and increased LP were also observed in KET-treated mice. ALA and CLZ alone reversed KET-induced behavioral alterations. These drugs also reversed the decreases in GSH (HC) and BDNF and increase in LP (PFC, HC and ST). The combination ALA+CLZ2.5 reversed behavioral and some neurochemical parameters. However, ALA+CLZ5 caused motor impairment. Therefore, ALA presented an antipsychotic-like profile reversing KET-induced positive- and negative-like symptoms. The mechanism partially involves antioxidant, neurotrophic and nitrergic pathways. The combination of ALA+CLZ2.5 improved most of the parameters evaluated in this study without causing motor impairment demonstrating, thus, that possibly when combined with ALA a lower dose of CLZ is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electroencephalographic study of chlorpromazine alone or combined with alpha-lipoic acid in a model of schizophrenia induced by ketamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Luis Rafael Leite; Borges, Lucas Teixeira Nunes; Barbosa, Talita Matias; Matos, Natalia Castelo Branco; Lima, Ricardo de Freitas; Oliveira, Mariana Nascimento de; Gularte, Viviane Nóbrega; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Macêdo, Danielle; Vale, Otoni Cardoso do; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes de

    2017-03-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by behavioral symptoms, brain function impairments and electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. Dysregulation of immune responses and oxidative imbalance underpins this mental disorder. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the typical antipsychotic chlorpromazine (CP) alone or combined with the natural antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on changes in the hippocampal average spectral power induced by ketamine (KET). Three days after stereotactic implantation of electrodes, male Wistar rats were divided into groups treated for 10 days with saline (control) or KET (10 mg/kg, IP). CP (1 or 5 mg/kg, IP) alone or combined with ALA (100 mg/kg, P.O.) was administered 30 min before KET or saline. Hippocampal EEG recordings were taken on the 1st, 5th and 10th days of treatment immediately after the last drug administration. KET significantly increased average spectral power of delta and gamma-high bands on the 5th and 10th days of treatment when compared to control. Gamma low-band significantly increased on the 1st, 5th and 10th days when compared to control group. This effect of KET was prevented by CP alone or combined with ALA. Indeed, the combination of ALA 100 + CP1 potentiated the inhibitory effects of CP1 on gamma low-band oscillations. In conclusion, our results showed that KET presents excitatory and time-dependent effects on hippocampal EEG bands activity. KET excitatory effects on EEG were prevented by CP alone and in some situations potentiated by its combination with ALA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early alpha-lipoic acid therapy protects from degeneration of the inner retinal layers and vision loss in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-optic neuritis model.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Michael; Helling, Niklas; Hilla, Alexander; Heskamp, Annemarie; Issberner, Andrea; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Kohne, Zippora; Küry, Patrick; Berndt, Carsten; Aktas, Orhan; Fischer, Dietmar; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Albrecht, Philipp

    2018-03-07

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), neurodegeneration is the main reason for chronic disability. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant which has recently been demonstrated to reduce the rate of brain atrophy in progressive MS. However, it remains uncertain if it is also beneficial in the early, more inflammatory-driven phases. As clinical studies are costly and time consuming, optic neuritis (ON) is often used for investigating neuroprotective or regenerative therapeutics. We aimed to investigate the prospect for success of a clinical ON trial using an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-optic neuritis (EAE-ON) model with visual system readouts adaptable to a clinical ON trial. Using an in vitro cell culture model for endogenous oxidative stress, we compared the neuroprotective capacity of racemic LA with the R/S-enantiomers and its reduced form. In vivo, we analyzed retinal neurodegeneration using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the visual function by optokinetic response (OKR) in MOG 35-55 -induced EAE-ON in C57BL/6J mice. Ganglion cell counts, inflammation, and demyelination were assessed by immunohistological staining of retinae and optic nerves. All forms of LA provided equal neuroprotective capacities in vitro. In EAE-ON, prophylactic LA therapy attenuated the clinical EAE score and prevented the thinning of the inner retinal layer while therapeutic treatment was not protective on visual outcomes. A prophylactic LA treatment is necessary to protect from visual loss and retinal thinning in EAE-ON, suggesting that a clinical ON trial starting therapy after the onset of symptoms may not be successful.

  19. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages.

  20. Type 1 5'-deiodinase activity is inhibited by oxidative stress and restored by alpha-lipoic acid in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kanjun; Yan, Biao; Wang, Fei; Wen, Feiting; Xing, Xingan; Tang, Xue; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2016-04-08

    3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) is largely generated from thyroxine (T4) by the catalysis of deiodinases in peripheral tissues. Emerging evidences have indicated its broad participation in regulating various metabolic process via protecting tissues from oxidative stress and improving cellular antioxidant capacity. However, the potential correlation between the oxidative stress and conversion of T4 to T3 is still unclear. In the present study, the effects of T3 and T4 on redox homeostasis in HepG2 cells pre-treated with H2O2 was investigated. It revealed that T3 significantly rescued the apoptotic cell death, consistent with an upregulation of cell antioxidant ability and reduction of ROS accumulation while T4 did not. Afterwards, we examined the enzyme activity and mRNA expression of type 1 5'-deiodianse (DIO1), T3 and rT3 level and found that H2O2 reduced both DIO1 activity and expression in a dose-dependent manner, which consequently declined T3 and rT3 generation. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) treatment notably restored DIO1 activity, T3 and rT3 level, as well as transcriptional abnormalities of inflammation-associated genes. It suggests that oxidative stress may reduce DIO1 activity by an indirect way like activating cellular inflammatory responses. All these results indicate that the oxidative stress downregulates the conversion of T4 to T3 through DIO1 function in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The potential antifibrotic impact of apocynin and alpha-lipoic acid in concanavalin A-induced liver fibrosis in rats: Role of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    Fayed, Mostafa R; El-Naga, Reem N; Akool, El-Sayed; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2018-01-01

    Liver fibrosis results from chronic inflammation that precipitates excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Oxidative stress is involved in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to elucidate the potential antifibrotic effect of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, apocynin against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced immunological model of liver fibrosis, and to investigate the ability of the antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) to potentiate this effect. Rats were treated with apocynin and/or α-LA for six weeks. Hepatotoxicity indices, oxidative stress, insulin, NOXs, inflammatory and liver fibrosis markers were assessed. Treatment of animals with apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated the changes in liver functions and histopathological architecture induced by ConA. Liver fibrosis induced by ConA was evident where alpha-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor- beta1 were elevated, which was further confirmed by Masson's trichrome stain and increased hydroxyproline. Co-treatment with apocynin and α-LA significantly reduced their expression. Besides, apocynin and α-LA significantly ameliorated oxidative stress injury evoked by ConA, as evidenced by enhancing reduced glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes activities and decreasing lipid peroxides. ConA induced a significant elevation in serum insulin level and inflammatory markers; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and nuclear factor kappa b. Furthermore, the mRNA tissue expression of NOXs 1 and 4 was found to be elevated in the ConA group. All these elevations were significantly reduced by apocynin and α-LA co-treatment. These findings indicate that using apocynin and α-LA in combination possess marked antifibrotic effects, and that NOX enzymes are partially involved in the pathogenesis of ConA-induced liver fibrosis.

  2. Alpha lipoic acid selectively inhibits proliferation and adhesion to fibronectin of v-H-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao; Iwase, Masahiro; Kawano, Kazuo; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2012-05-01

    Here, we focused on the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on proliferation and adhesion properties of 3Y1 rat fibroblasts and the v-H-ras-transformed derivative, HR-3Y1-2 cells. Racemic α-lipoic acid inhibited proliferation of HR-3Y1-2 but not 3Y1 cells at 0.3 and 1.0 mM. R-(+)-α-lipoic acid also inhibited proliferation of HR-3Y1-2 cells equivalent to that of racemic α-lipoic acid. In addition, racemic α-lipoic acid decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in HR-3Y1 cells but not 3Y1 cells. Next, we evaluated the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on cell adhesion to fibronectin. The results indicated that racemic α-lipoic acid decreased adhesive ability of HR-3Y1-2 cells to fibronectin-coated plates. As blocking antibody experiment revealed that β1-integrin plays a key role in cell adhesion in this experimental system, the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on the expression of β1-integrin were examined. The results indicated that racemic α-lipoic acid selectively downregulated the expression of cell surface β1-integrin expression in HR-3Y1-2 cells. Intriguingly, exogenous hydrogen peroxide upregulated cell surface β1-integrin expression in 3Y1 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels by α-lipoic acid could be an effective means of ameliorating abnormal growth and adhesive properties in v-H-ras transformed cells.

  3. Proteomic analysis of specific brain proteins in aged SAMP8 mice treated with alpha-lipoic acid: implications for aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Poon, H Fai; Farr, Susan A; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Lynn, Bert C; Banks, William A; Morley, John E; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2005-01-01

    Free radical-mediated damage to neuronal membrane components has been implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and aging. The senescence accelerated prone mouse strain 8 (SAMP8) exhibits age-related deterioration in memory and learning along with increased oxidative markers. Therefore, SAMP8 is a suitable model to study brain aging and, since aging is the major risk factor for AD and SAMP8 exhibits many of the biochemical findings of AD, perhaps as a model for and the early phase of AD. Our previous studies reported higher oxidative stress markers in brains of 12-month-old SAMP8 mice when compared to that of 4-month-old SAMP8 mice. Further, we have previously shown that injecting the mice with alpha-lipoic acid (LA) reversed brain lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, as well as the learning and memory impairments in SAMP8 mice. Recently, we reported the use of proteomics to identify proteins that are expressed differently and/or modified oxidatively in aged SAMP8 brains. In order to understand how LA reverses the learning and memory deficits of aged SAMP8 mice, in the current study, we used proteomics to compare the expression levels and specific carbonyl levels of proteins in brains from 12-month-old SAMP8 mice treated or not treated with LA. We found that the expressions of the three brain proteins (neurofilament triplet L protein, alpha-enolase, and ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase) were increased significantly and that the specific carbonyl levels of the three brain proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B, dihydropyrimidinase-like protein 2, and alpha-enolase) were significantly decreased in the aged SAMP8 mice treated with LA. These findings suggest that the improved learning and memory observed in LA-injected SAMP8 mice may be related to the restoration of the normal condition of specific proteins in aged SAMP8 mouse brain. Moreover, our current study implicates neurofilament triplet L protein, alpha-enolase, ubiquitous mitochondrial

  4. Effect of myo-inositol and alpha-lipoic acid on oocyte quality in polycystic ovary syndrome non-obese women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rago, R; Marcucci, I; Leto, G; Caponecchia, L; Salacone, P; Bonanni, P; Fiori, C; Sorrenti, G; Sebastianelli, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined administration of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with normal body mass index (BMI), who had previously undergone intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and received myo-inositol alone. Thirty-six of 65 normal-weight patients affected by PCOS who did not achieve pregnancy and one patient who had a spontaneous abortion were re-enrolled and given a cycle of treatment with myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid. For all female partners of the treated couples, the endocrine-metabolic and ultrasound parameters, ovarian volume, oocyte and embryo quality, and pregnancy rates were assessed before and after three months of treatment and compared with those of previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle(s). After supplementation of myo-inositol with α-lipoic acid, insulin levels, BMI and ovarian volume were significantly reduced compared with myo-inositol alone. No differences were found in the fertilization and cleavage rate or in the mean number of transferred embryos between the two different treatments, whereas the number of grade 1 embryos was significantly increased, with a significant reduction in the number of grade 2 embryos treated with myo-inositol plus α-lipoic acid. Clinical pregnancy was not significantly different with a trend for a higher percentage for of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid compared to the myo-inositol alone group. Our preliminary data suggest that the supplementation of myo-inositol and α-lipoic acid in PCOS patients undergoing an IVF cycle can help to improve their reproductive outcome and also their metabolic profiles, opening potential for their use in long-term prevention of PCOS.

  5. Alpha-lipoic acid protects oxidative stress, changes in cholinergic system and tissue histopathology during co-exposure to arsenic-dichlorvos in rats.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Nidhi; Flora, Govinder; Kushwaha, Pramod; Flora, Swaran J S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated protective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (LA), an antioxidant against arsenic and DDVP co-exposed rats. Biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative stress, neurological dysfunction, and tissue histopathological alterations were determined. Male rats were exposed either to 50 ppm sodium arsenite in drinking water or in combination with DDVP (4 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for 10 weeks. α-Lipoic acid (50mg/kg, pos) was also co-administered in above groups. Arsenic exposure led to significant oxidative stress along, hepatotoxicity, hematotoxicity and altered brain biogenic amines levels accompanied by increased arsenic accumulation in blood and tissues. These altered biochemical variables were supported by histopathological examinations leading to oxidative stress and cell death. These biochemical alterations were significantly restored by co-administration of α-lipoic acid with arsenic and DDVP alone and concomitantly. The results indicate that arsenic and DDVP induced oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction can be significantly protected by the supplementation of α-lipoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by Unilateral Stereotaxic Injection of 6-Ohda in Rat

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; De Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Araújo, Paulo Victor Pontes; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo de Souza; Sousa Rodrigues, Francisca Taciana; Escudeiro, Sarah Souza; Lima, Nicole Brito Cortez; Patrocínio, Manoel Claúdio Azevedo; Aguiar, Lissiana Magna Vasconcelos; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg) alone or associated with L-DOPA using an animal model of Parkinson's disease induced by stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rat striatum. Motor behavior was assessed by monitoring body rotations induced by apomorphine, open field test and cylinder test. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation using the TBARS method, concentration of nitrite and evaluation of catalase activity. α-Lipoic acid decreased body rotations induced by apomorphine, as well as caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open field test and use of contralateral paw (in the opposite side of the lesion produced by 6-OHDA) at cylinder test. α-lipoic acid showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels and interacting with antioxidant system by decreasing of endogenous catalase activity. Therefore, α-lipoic acid prevented the damage induced by 6-OHDA or by chronic use of L-DOPA in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting that α-lipoic could be a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease prevention and treatment. PMID:24023579

  7. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alleviates Acute Inflammation and Promotes Lipid Mobilization During the Inflammatory Response in White Adipose Tissue of Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Shixing; Liu, Zhiqing; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, white adipose tissue has been shown to exhibit immunological activity, and may play an important role in host defense and protection against bacterial infection. Αlpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) has been demonstrated to function as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. However, its influence on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue remains unknown. We used male C57BL/6 mice as models to study the effect of α-LA on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The non-esterified fatty acid content was measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The expression of inflammation-, lipid- and energy metabolism-related genes and proteins was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results indicated that α-LA significantly decreased the epididymis fat weight index and the non-esterified fatty acid content in plasma compared with the control group. LPS significantly increased the expression of inflammation genes and α-LA reduced their expression. The LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-κB protein was decreased by α-LA. Regarding lipid metabolism, α-LA significantly counteracted the inhibitory effects of LPS on the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase gene and protein. α-LA evidently increased the gene expression of fatty acid transport protein 1 and cluster of differentiation 36. Regarding energy metabolism, α-LA significantly increased the expression of most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes compared with the control and LPS group. Accordingly, α-LA can alleviate acute inflammatory response and this action may be related with the promotion of lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue.

  8. Alpha-lipoic acid-stearylamine conjugate-based solid lipid nanoparticles for tamoxifen delivery: formulation, optimization, in-vivo pharmacokinetic and hepatotoxicity study.

    PubMed

    Dhaundiyal, Ankit; Jena, Sunil K; Samal, Sanjaya K; Sonvane, Bhavin; Chand, Mahesh; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the potential of novel α-lipoic acid-stearylamine (ALA-SA) conjugate-based solid lipid nanoparticles in modulating the pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity of tamoxifen (TMX). α-lipoic acid-stearylamine bioconjugate was synthesized via carbodiimide chemistry and used as a lipid moiety for the generation of TMX-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TMX-SLNs). TMX-SLNs were prepared by solvent emulsification-diffusion method and optimized for maximum drug loading using rotatable central composite design. The optimized TMX-SLNs were stabilized using 10% w/w trehalose as cryoprotectant. In addition, pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity of freeze-dried TMX-SLNs were also evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats. Initial characterization with transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical morphology with smooth surface having an average particle size of 261.08 ± 2.13 nm. The observed entrapment efficiency was 40.73 ± 2.83%. In-vitro release study showed TMX release was slow and pH dependent. Pharmacokinetic study revealed a 1.59-fold increase in relative bioavailability as compared to TMX suspension. A decrease in hepatotoxicity of TMX is evidenced by the histopathological evaluation of liver tissues. α-lipoic acid-stearylamine conjugate-based SLNs have a great potential in enhancing the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs like TMX. Moreover, this ALA-SA nanoparticulate system could be of significant value in long-term anticancer therapy with least side effects. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of alpha lipoic acid associated with omega-3 in tardive dyskinesia induced by chronic haloperidol in rats.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Dayane Pessoa; Camboim, Thaisa Gracielle Martins; Silva, Ana Patrícia Magalhães; Silva, Caio da Fonseca; de Sousa, Rebeca Canuto; Barbosa, Mabson Delâno Alves; Oliveira, Lucidio Clebeson; Cavalcanti, José Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva; Lucena, Eudes Euler de Souza; Guzen, Fausto Pierdoná

    2017-07-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is characterized by involuntary movements of the lower portion of the face being related to typical antipsychotic therapy. TD is associated with the oxidative imbalance in the basal ganglia. Lipoic acid (LA) and omega-3 (ω-3) are antioxidants acting as enzyme cofactors, regenerating antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to investigate behavioral and neurochemical effects of supplementation with LA (100 mg/kg) and ω-3 (1 g/kg) in the treatment of TD induced by chronic use of haloperidol (HAL) (1 mg/kg) in rats. Wistar male rats were used, weighing between 180-200 g. The animals were treated chronically (31 days) with LA alone or associated with HAL or ω-3. Motor behavior was assessed by open-field test, the catalepsy test, and evaluation of orofacial dyskinesia. Oxidative stress was accessed by determination of lipid peroxidation and concentration of nitrite. LA and ω-3 alone or associated caused an improvement in motor performance by increasing locomotor activity in the open-field test and decreased the permanence time on the bar in the catalepsy test and decreased the orofacial dyskinesia. LA and ω-3 showed antioxidant effects, decreasing lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels. Thus, the use of LA associated with ω-3 reduced the extrapyramidal effects produced by chronic use of HAL.

  10. Alpha-Lipoic acid increases energy expenditure by enhancing adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha signaling in the skeletal muscle of aged mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with aging and diabetes, which decreases respiratory capacity and increases reactive oxygen species. Lipoic acid (LA) possesses antioxidative and antidiabetic properties. Metabolic action of LA is mediated by activation of adenosine monophospha...

  11. Liquid Paraffin vs Hyaluronic Acid in Preventing Intraperitoneal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Hanish; Singh, Vinod Prem

    2017-12-01

    Adhesion formation after abdominal and pelvic operations remains a challenging problem. Role of adjuvant barriers have been studied but there is no comparative study between liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid as a barrier method. Hence, we planned to compare the effectiveness of 0.4 % hyaluronic acid and liquid paraffin in the prevention of postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions in rats. This prospective, randomized and controlled study was conducted in 60 adult Wistar albino rats. Surgical trauma by caecal abrasion and 1 g talcum powder was used in the rat model to induce adhesion formation. After trauma, 3 ml normal saline was instilled in the peritoneal cavity in control group ( n  = 20), 3 ml liquid paraffin was instilled in experimental group A ( n  = 20) and 3 ml 0.4 % hyaluronic acid was instilled in experimental group B ( n  = 20). Two weeks after laparotomy, repeat laparotomy was performed and the adhesions were scored according to Zuhlke classification. Liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid both reduce the extent and grade of adhesions both macroscopically ( p  = 0.018, p  = 0.017) and microscopically ( p  = 0.019, p  = 0.019) respectively. Although there was significant reduction in adhesions by hyaluronic acid at certain specific sites as compared with liquid paraffin, its overall effectiveness in preventing postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions is not significantly different from liquid paraffin ( p  = 0.092, p  = 0.193) respectively. The presence of liquid paraffin and hyaluronic acid in the peritoneal cavity reduce postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions significantly in rats. However, there is no overall significant difference in the effectiveness of two groups. Dosage and safety of these chemicals in human beings remains to be established.

  12. Effects of lipoic Acid on acrylamide induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Lebda, Mohamed; Gad, Shereen; Gaafar, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Acrylamide is very toxic to various organs and associated with significant increase of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants. Alpha-lipoic acid enhances cellular antioxidant defense capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the protective role of alpha-lipoic acid on the oxidative damage induced by acrylamide in testicular and epididymal tissues. Forty adult male rats were divided into four groups (10 rats each). Control group; acrylamide treated group administered acrylamide 0.05% (w/v) in drinking water for 21 days; alpha-lipoic acid group received basal diet supplemented with 1% alpha-lipoic acid and forth group was exposed to acrylamide and treated with alpha-lipoic acid at the same doses and treatment regimen mentioned before. The administration of acrylamide resulted in significant elevation in testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level (MDA) and significant reduction in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, acrylamide significantly reduced serum total testosterone and progesterone but increased estradiol (E2) levels. Treatment with alpha-lipoic acid prior to acrylamide induced protective effects and attenuated these biochemical changes. Alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to possess antioxidant properties offering promising efficacy against oxidative stress induced by acrylamide administration.

  13. Alpha-lipoic acid protects mitochondrial enzymes and attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Hypothermia is a key symptom of sepsis and the mechanism(s) leading to hypothermia during sepsis is largely unknown. To investigate a potential mechanism and find an effective treatment for hypothermia in sepsis, we induced hypothermia in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LP...

  14. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes.

  15. [The effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives on obsessive-compulsive activity of mice in marble-burying test].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Miroshnichenko, I Iu; Rassokhina, L M; Faĭzullin, R M; Priakhina, K E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of domestic derivatives of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid (emoxipine, reamberin, and mexidol) on obsessive-compulsive behavior of mice was studied in the marble-burying test. Additionally the effect of these drugs on the behavior of animals was assessed in the open field test. Amitriptylin and alpha-lipoic acid were used as reference drugs. It was established that single administration of the investigated drugs in optimal doses, corresponding to therapeutic range in humans, inhibits obsessive-compulsive behavior of mice in the marble-burying test. Amitriptylin and alpha-lipoic acid produced similar effects. It is established that emoxipine stimulates the behavior of mice in the open field after single administration. An increase in the emoxipine dose led to decrease of stimulation and gradual development of sedative effect. Reamberin and mexidol, as well as alpha-lipoic acid and amitriptyline, caused sedation in mice tested in the open field. Inhibiting effect of emoxipine, reamberin, mexidol and alpha-lipoic acid on the obsessive-compulsive behavior in mice directly depended on sedative action of these drugs.

  16. Intraperitoneal delivery of platinum with in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel for local therapy of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jung; Sun, Bo; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Wilson, Erin M.; Torregrosa-Allen, Sandra; Elzey, Bennett D.; Yeo, Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is a promising post-surgical therapy of solid carcinomas confined within the peritoneal cavity, with potential benefits in locoregional and systemic management of residual tumors. In this study, we intended to increase local retention of platinum in the peritoneal cavity over a prolonged period of time using a nanoparticle form of platinum and an in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel. Hyaluronic acid was chosen as a carrier due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability. We confirmed a sustained release of platinum from the nanoparticles (PtNPs) and nanoparticle/gel hybrid (PtNP/gel), receptor-mediated endocytosis of PtNPs, and retention of the gel in the peritoneal cavity over 4 weeks--conditions desirable for a prolonged local delivery of platinum. However, PtNPs and PtNP/gel did not show a greater anti-tumor efficacy than CDDP solution administered at the same dose but rather caused a slight increase in tumor burdens at later time points, which suggests a potential involvement of empty carriers and degradation products in the growth of residual tumors. This study alerts that although several materials considered biocompatible and safe are used as drug carriers, they may have unwanted biological effects on the residual targets once the drug is exhausted; therefore, more attention should be paid to the selection of the drug carriers. PMID:25453960

  17. Intraperitoneal delivery of platinum with in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel for local therapy of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Jung; Sun, Bo; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Wilson, Erin M; Torregrosa-Allen, Sandra; Elzey, Bennett D; Yeo, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is a promising post-surgical therapy of solid carcinomas confined within the peritoneal cavity, with potential benefits in locoregional and systemic management of residual tumors. In this study, we intended to increase local retention of platinum in the peritoneal cavity over a prolonged period of time using a nanoparticle form of platinum and an in-situ crosslinkable hyaluronic acid gel. Hyaluronic acid was chosen as a carrier due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability. We confirmed a sustained release of platinum from the nanoparticles (PtNPs) and nanoparticle/gel hybrid (PtNP/gel), receptor-mediated endocytosis of PtNPs, and retention of the gel in the peritoneal cavity over 4 weeks: conditions desirable for a prolonged local delivery of platinum. However, PtNPs and PtNP/gel did not show a greater anti-tumor efficacy than CDDP solution administered at the same dose but rather caused a slight increase in tumor burdens at later time points, which suggests a potential involvement of empty carriers and degradation products in the growth of residual tumors. This study alerts that although several materials considered biocompatible and safe are used as drug carriers, they may have unwanted biological effects on the residual targets once the drug is exhausted; therefore, more attention should be paid to the selection of drug carriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Amino acid changes following intraperitoneal administration of Tityus zulianus scorpion venom in mice. Study with subcutaneous microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Páez, Ximena; Mazzei-Dávila, Carmen Amalia; Quiñonez, Belkis; D'Suze, Gina; Hernández, Luis

    2003-12-01

    Scorpion human envenoming is a public health hazard in the southwest of Venezuela. Tityus zulianus is one of the scorpion species whose venom causes lung edema and cardiac failure in children. These occasionally deadly manifestations have been attributed to a massive sympathetic discharge. The intraperitoneal administration of T. zulianus venom (20 micrograms/g mouse) to anesthetized mice during subcutaneous microdialysis caused increased secretions, dyspnea, seizures and death between 30 min to 2 h. Seven amino acids were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIFD) in the collected samples before and after the venom administration. We found an increase of arginine (39%), phenylalanine (40%) and glutamate (94%), with no changes in valine, serine and aspartate, changes were significant when the injection of venom and vehicle were compared and before vs after venom injection. Further investigation is needed to know if the observed changes could be related to the molecular mechanisms of the venom or some of its components and therefore with the envenoming symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first report with subcutaneous microdialysis and CE-LIFD coupling in scorpion envenomation studies in vivo, in mice.

  19. Intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid for 14days increases serum unesterified DHA and seizure latency in the maximal pentylenetetrazol model.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lim, Joonbum; Lai, Terence K Y; Cho, Hye Jin; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Taha, Ameer Y; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2014-04-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) which has been shown to raise seizure thresholds following acute administration in rats. The aims of the present experiment were the following: 1) to test whether subchronic DHA administration raises seizure threshold in the maximal pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) model 24h following the last injection and 2) to determine whether the increase in seizure threshold is correlated with an increase in serum and/or brain DHA. Animals received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 50mg/kg of DHA, DHA ethyl ester (DHA EE), or volume-matched vehicle (albumin/saline) for 14days. On day 15, one subset of animals was seizure tested in the maximal PTZ model (Experiment 1). In a separate (non-seizure tested) subset of animals, blood was collected, and brains were excised following high-energy, head-focused microwave fixation. Lipid analysis was performed on serum and brain (Experiment 2). For data analysis, the DHA and DHA EE groups were combined since they did not differ significantly from each other. In the maximal PTZ model, DHA significantly increased seizure latency by approximately 3-fold as compared to vehicle-injected animals. This increase in seizure latency was associated with an increase in serum unesterified DHA. Total brain DHA and brain unesterified DHA concentrations, however, did not differ significantly in the treatment and control groups. An increase in serum unesterified DHA concentration reflecting increased flux of DHA to the brain appears to explain changes in seizure threshold, independent of changes in brain DHA concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic Effects of Rivastigmine and Alfa-Lipoic Acid Combination in the Charles Bonnet Syndrome: Electroencephalography Correlates.

    PubMed

    Hanoglu, Lutfu; Yildiz, Sultan; Polat, Burcu; Demirci, Sema; Tavli, Ahmet Mithat; Yilmaz, Nesrin; Yulug, Burak

    2016-01-01

    Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) is a rare clinical condition which is characterized by complex hallucinations in visually impaired patients. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains largely unknown, and there is still no proven treatment for this disease. In our study, we aimed to investigate the neural activity through Electroencephalography (EEG) power and evaluate the effect of rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic acid on hallucination in two CBS patients with diabetic retinopathy. EEG data was recorded with standard routine EEG protocols for both patients in our electrophysiological research laboratory (REMER Clinical Electrophysiology and Neuromodulation Research and Application Laboratory) with Brain Vision Recorder (Brainproduct, Munich, Germany). All spectral analyses were processed by BrainVision Analyzer 2 (Brainproduct, Munich, Germany, 2.0.4 Version) in 128 Hz sample rates and the EEG recording and analysis was performed before the administration of rivastigmine (4.5 mg/daily and five patch daily for the first and second patients, respectively) in combination with alpha-lipoic acid (600 mg/daily) for both patients while they were not hallucinated during the time period recordings. Based on our measurement protocol, we have compared the patients in the study group with the three control subjects who were found to be normal except of visual disturbances secondary to significant diabetic retinopathy. Highest theta power values were found in right occipital and left temporo-parietal regions for first and second CBS patients, respectively. Additionally, power spectra were lower in two cases as compared to their control groups in the alpha band for all electrodes. We have also shown that acid rivastigmine in combination with alpha-lipoic exerted significant anti-hallucinatory efficiency. Our present findings could support the hypothesis that increased activation of specific areas in the source monitoring system plays an important role in the

  1. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of liposomes containing phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin reduce amyloid-β levels in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Re, Francesca; Bereczki, Erika; Ioja, Eniko; Gregori, Maria; Andersen, Alina J; Antón, Marta; Moghimi, S Moein; Pei, Jin-Jing; Masserini, Massimo; Wandosell, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    The accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are two major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought that an equilibrium exists between Aβ in the brain and in the peripheral blood and thus, it was hypothesized that shifting this equilibrium towards the blood by enhancing peripheral clearance might reduce Aβ levels in the brain: the 'sink effect'. We tested this hypothesis by intraperitoneally injecting APP/PS1 transgenic mice with small unilamellar vesicles containing either phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin over 3weeks. This treatment reduced significantly the amount of Aβ in the plasma and the brain levels of Aβ were lighter affected. Nevertheless, this dosing regimen did modulate tau phosphorylation and glycogen synthase kinase 3 activities in the brain, suggesting that the targeting of circulating Aβ may be therapeutically relevant in AD. Intraperitoneal injection of small unilamellar vesicles containing phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin significantly reduced the amount of amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide in the plasma in a rodent model. Brain levels of Aß were also affected - although to a lesser extent - suggesting that targeting of circulating Aß may be therapeutically relevant of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of an alpha lipoic, methylsulfonylmethane and bromelain dietary supplement (Opera®) for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy management, a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Isacco; Francolini, Giulio; Becherini, Carlotta; Terziani, Francesca; Delli Paoli, Camilla; Olmetto, Emanuela; Loi, Mauro; Perna, Marco; Meattini, Icro; Scotti, Vieri; Greto, Daniela; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Sulprizio, Susanna; Livi, Lorenzo

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major clinical problem associated with a number of cytotoxic agents. OPERA ® (GAMFARMA srl, Milan, Italy) is a new dietary supplement where α-lipoic acid, Boswellia Serrata, methylsulfonylmethane and bromelain are combined in a single capsule. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the efficacy and safety of OPERA ® supplementation in a series of patients affected by CIPN. We selected 25 subjects with CIPN evolving during or after chemotherapy with potentially neurotoxic agents. Patients were enrolled at the first clinical manifestation of neuropathy. CIPN was assessed at the enrollment visit and subsequently repeated every 3 weeks until 12 weeks. Primary endpoint was the evaluation of changes of measured scores after 12 weeks of therapy compared to baseline evaluation. Secondary endpoints were the evaluation of neuropathy reduction at 12 weeks after beginning of therapy with OPERA ® . Analysis of VAS data showed reduction in pain perceived by patients. According to NCI-CTC sensor and motor score, mISS scale and TNSc scale, both pain and both sensor and motor neuropathic impairment decreased after 12 weeks of treatments. Treatment with OPERA supplement was well tolerated; no increase in the toxicity profile of any of the therapeutic regimen that the patients were undergoing was reported. OPERA ® was able to improve CIPN symptoms in a prospective series of patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy, with no significant toxicity or interaction. Prospective RCT in a selected patients' population is warranted to confirm its promising activity.

  3. Dietary supplementation with a combination of alpha-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, glycerophosphocoline, docosahexaenoic acid, and phosphatidylserine reduces oxidative damage to murine brain and improves cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Suchy, James; Chan, Amy; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer disease has a complex etiology composed of nutritional and genetic risk factors and predispositions. Moreover, genetic risk factors for cognitive decline may remain latent pending age-related decline in nutrition, suggesting the potential importance of early nutritional intervention, including preventative approaches. We hypothesized that a combination of multiple nutritional additives may be able to provide neuroprotection. We demonstrate herein that dietary supplementation with a mixture of ALA, ALCAR, GPC, DHA, and PS reduced reactive oxygen species in normal mice by 57% and prevented the increase in reactive oxygen species normally observed in mice lacking murine ApoE when maintained on a vitamin-free, iron-enriched, oxidative-challenge diet. We further demonstrate that supplementation with these agents prevented the marked cognitive decline otherwise observed in normal mice maintained on this challenge diet. These findings add to the growing body of research indicating that key dietary supplementation may delay the progression of age-related cognitive decline.

  4. Sirolimus-coated, poly(L-lactic acid)-modified polypropylene mesh with minimal intra-peritoneal adhesion formation in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Lu, S; Hu, W; Zhang, Z; Ji, Z; Zhang, T

    2018-05-18

    This study evaluated the manufacturing method and anti-adhesion properties of a new composite mesh in the rat model, which was made from sirolimus (SRL) grafts on a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-modified polypropylene (PP) hernia mesh. PLLA was first grafted onto argon-plasma-treated native PP mesh through catalysis of stannous chloride. SRL was grafted onto the surface of PP-PLLA meshes using catalysis of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) in a CH 2 Cl 2 solvent. Sprague-Dawley female rats received either SRL-coated meshes, PP-PLLA meshes, or native PP meshes to repair abdominal wall defects. At different intervals, rats were euthanized by a lethal dose of chloral hydrate and adhesion area and tenacity were evaluated. Sections of the mesh with adjacent tissues were assessed histologically. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the existence of a C=O group absorption peak (1724.1 cm -1 ), and scanning electron microscope morphological analysis indicated that the surface of the PP mesh was covered with SRL. Compared to the native PP meshes and PP-PLLA meshes, SRL-coated meshes demonstrated the greatest ability to decrease the formation of adhesions (P < 0.05) and inflammation. The SRL-coated composite mesh showed minimal formation of intra-abdominal adhesions in a rat model of abdominal wall defect repair.

  5. Antioxidant effect of erdosteine and lipoic acid in ovarian ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Dokuyucu, R; Karateke, A; Gokce, H; Kurt, R K; Ozcan, O; Ozturk, S; Tas, Z A; Karateke, F; Duru, M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of erdosteine and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) in a rat model of ovarian ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Forty-eight female Wistar albino rats were separated, at random, into six groups of eight rats. The groups were classified as: sham, torsion, detorsion, detorsion+erdosteine 100mg/kg, detorsion+alpha lipoic acid (ALA) 100mg/kg, and detorsion+erdosteine+ALA. The investigators executing the biochemical and histological analyses were blinded to the randomization until the end of the study. The TOS (Total Oxidant Status) and OSI (Oxidative Stress Index) levels are higher in the Torsion and Detorsion groups when compared with the ones in the Sham group (p<0.05). Strong correlation was found between OSI and total histological score in the sham, torsion and detorsion groups (r=0.765, p<0.001). The mean levels of TOS and OSI in the rats that received erdosteine and/or ALA were significantly lower compared with the sham, torsion and detorsion groups (p<0.05). Mean TOS and mean OSI were lower in the detorsion+erdosteine+ALA group compared with the detorsion+erdosteine and detorsion+ALA groups (p<0.05). In comparison with the detorsion group, the numbers of primordial follicles (p=0.006) and primary follicles (p=0.036) were increased in the groups that received erdosteine and/or ALA. Erdosteine and ALA decreased ischaemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental rat ovarian torsion model; combination treatment had a greater effect than either agent alone. Treatment with erdosteine and/or ALA was found to preserve the loss of reproductive capacity normally observed after ovarian torsion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy Using an Intraperitoneal Port

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, Paul H.; Bijelic, Lana

    2012-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been established as treatment options for patients with peritoneal metastases or peritoneal mesothelioma. However, this novel treatment strategy remains associated with a large percentage of local-regional treatment failures. These treatment failures are attributed to the inadequacy of HIPEC to maintain a surgical complete response. Management strategies to supplement CRS and HIPEC are indicated. A simplified approach to the intraoperative placement of an intraperitoneal port for adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy (ABC) was devised. Four different chemotherapy treatment plans were utilized depending upon the primary site of the malignancy. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an intraoperative placement of the intraperitoneal port were available for study. The incidence of adverse events that caused an early discontinuation of the bidirectional chemotherapy occurred in 75% of the 8 patients who had an incomplete cytoreduction and in 0% of patients who had a complete cytoreduction. All of the patients who had complete cytoreduction completed at least 5 of the scheduled 6 bidirectional chemotherapy treatments. Adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy is possible following a major cytoreductive surgical procedure using a simplified method of intraoperative intraperitoneal port placement. PMID:22888340

  7. Dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol antioxidant capacity in phospholipid vesicles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antioxidants have critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and disease-state prevention. The multi-functional agent alpha-lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. alpha-Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction wi...

  8. Pancreatic resection without routine intraperitoneal drainage

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William E; Hodges, Sally E; Silberfein, Eric J; Artinyan, Avo; Ahern, Charlotte H; Jo, Eunji; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background Most surgeons routinely place intraperitoneal drains at the time of pancreatic resection but this practice has recently been challenged. Objective Evaluate the outcome when pancreatic resection is performed without operatively placed intraperitoneal drains. Methods In all, 226 consecutive patients underwent pancreatic resection. In 179 patients drains were routinely placed at the time of surgery and in 47 no drains were placed. Outcomes for these two cohorts were recorded in a prospective database and compared using the χ2- /Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, and Wilcoxon's test for continuous variables. Results Demographic, surgical and pathological details were similar between the two cohorts. Elimination of routine intraperitoneal drainage did not increase the frequency or severity of serious complications. However, when all grades of complications were considered, the number of patients that experienced any complication (65% vs. 47%, P = 0.020) and the median complication severity grade (1 vs. 0, P = 0.027) were increased in the group that had drains placed at the time of surgery. Eliminating intra-operative drains was associated with decreased delayed gastric emptying (24% vs. 9%, P = 0.020) and a trend towards decreased wound infection (12% vs. 2%, P = 0.054). The readmission rate (9% vs. 17% P = 0.007) and number of patients requiring post-operative percutaneous drains (2% vs. 11%, P = 0.001) was higher in patients who did not have operatively placed drains but there was no difference in the re-operation rate (4% vs. 0%, P = 0.210). Conclusion Abandoning the practice of routine intraperitoneal drainage after pancreatic resection may not increase the incidence or severity of severe post-operative complications. PMID:21689234

  9. Cannabinoid Disposition After Human Intraperitoneal Use: An Insight Into Intraperitoneal Pharmacokinetic Properties in Metastatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Catherine J; Galettis, Peter; Song, Shuzhen; Solowij, Nadia; Reuter, Stephanie E; Schneider, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer H

    2018-01-06

    Medicinal cannabis is prescribed under the provision of a controlled drug in the Australian Poisons Standard. However, multiple laws must be navigated in order for patients to obtain access and imported products can be expensive. Dose-response information for both efficacy and toxicity pertaining to medicinal cannabis is lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis administered by traditional routes has been described but to date, there is no literature on the pharmacokinetic properties of an intraperitoneal cannabinoid emulsion. A cachectic 56-year-old female with stage IV ovarian cancer and peritoneal metastases presented to hospital with fevers, abdominal distension and severe pain, vomiting, anorexia, dehydration and confusion. The patient reported receiving an intraperitoneal injection, purported to contain 12 g of mixed cannabinoid (administered by a deregistered medical practitioner) two days prior to presentation. Additionally, cannabis oil oral capsules were administered in the hours prior to hospital admission. THC concentrations were consistent with the clinical state but not with the known pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis nor of intraperitoneal absorption. THC concentrations at the time of presentation were predicted to be ~60 ng/mL. Evidence suggests that blood THC concentrations >5 ng/mL are associated with substantial cognitive and psychomotor impairment. The predicted time for concentrations to drop <5 ng/mL was 49 days after administration. The unusual pharmacokinetic properties of the case suggest that there is a large amount unknown about cannabis pharmacokinetic properties. The pharmacokinetic properties of a large amount of a lipid soluble compound given intraperitoneally gave insights into the absorption and distribution of cannabinoids, particularly in the setting of metastatic malignancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gymnema

    MedlinePlus

    ... combination of gymnema, hydroxycitric acid, and niacin-bound chromium by mouth can reduce body weight in people ... these products include alpha-lipoic acid, bitter melon, chromium, devil's claw, fenugreek, garlic, guar gum, horse chestnut, ...

  11. Overproduction of α-Lipoic Acid by Gene Manipulated Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yirong; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Jincheng; Pang, Hongshen; Wang, Haihong

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is an important enzyme cofactor widely used by organisms and is also a natural antioxidant for the treatment of pathologies driven by low levels of endogenous antioxidants. In order to establish a safer and more efficient process for LA production, we developed a new biological method for LA synthesis based on the emerging knowledge of lipoic acid biosynthesis. We first cloned the lipD gene, which encodes the lipoyl domain of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase, allowing high levels of LipD production. Plasmids containing genes for the biosynthesis of LA were subsequently constructed utilizing various vectors and promotors to produce high levels of LA. These plasmids were transformed into the Escherichia coli strain BL21. Octanoic acid (OA) was used as the substrate for LA synthesis. One transformant, YS61, which carried lipD, lplA, and lipA, produced LA at levels over 200-fold greater than the wild-type strain, showing that LA could be produced efficiently in E. coli using genetic engineering methods. PMID:28068366

  12. Intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation versus no intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Nagendran, Myura; Guerrini, Gian Piero; Toon, Clare D; Zinnuroglu, Murat; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-03-13

    While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally considered less painful than open surgery, pain is one of the important reasons for delayed discharge after day surgery and overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The safety and effectiveness of intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is unknown. To assess the benefits and harms of intraperitoneal instillation of local anaesthetic agents in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013 to identify randomised clinical trials of relevance to this review. We considered only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) comparing local anaesthetic intraperitoneal instillation versus placebo, no intervention, or inactive control during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the review with regards to benefits while we considered quasi-randomised studies and non-randomised studies for treatment-related harms. Two review authors collected the data independently. We analysed the data with both fixed-effect and random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 58 trials, of which 48 trials with 2849 participants randomised to intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation (1558 participants) versus control (1291 participants) contributed data to one or more of the outcomes. All the trials except one trial with 30 participants were at high risk of bias. Most trials included only low anaesthetic risk people undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Various intraperitoneal local anaesthetic agents were used but bupivacaine in the liquid form was the most common local anaesthetic used. There were considerable differences in the methods of local anaesthetic

  13. Inhibitory effects of indole α-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in LPS/IFNγ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Karabay, Arzu Zeynep; Koc, Aslı; Gurkan-Alp, A Selen; Buyukbingol, Zeliha; Buyukbingol, Erdem

    2015-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-lipoic acid) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. RAW 264.7 macrophages produce various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-alpha upon activation with LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) and IFNγ (interferon gamma). In this study, the effect of 12 synthetic indole α-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) protein expression in LPS/IFNγ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages was determined. Cell proliferation, nitric oxide levels and iNOS protein expression were examined with thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue test, griess assay and western blot, respectively. Our results showed that all of the indole α-lipoic acid derivatives showed significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and iNOS protein levels (p < 0.05). The most active compounds were identified as compound I-4b, I-4e and II-3b. In conclusion, these indole α-lipoic acid derivatives may have the potential for treatment of inflammatory conditions related with high nitric oxide production. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sublethal Total Body Irradiation Leads to Early Cerebellar Damage and Oxidative Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    mice: protective effect of alpha - lipoic acid . Behav Brain Res 2007b; 177(1): 7-14. [8] Manda K, Ueno M, Anzai K. Melatonin mitigates oxidative...Memory impairment, oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by space radiation: ameliorative potential of alpha - lipoic acid . Behav Brain Res 2008b...1977; 171(1): 39-50. [6] Manda K, Ueno M, Moritake T, Anzai K. - Lipoic acid attenuates x-irradiation-induced oxidative stress in mice. Cell Biol

  15. Lipoic Acid Decreases the Viability of Breast Cancer Cells and Activity of PTP1B and SHP2.

    PubMed

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Gorska-Ponikowska, Magdalena; Wozniak, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP1B and SHP2 are potential targets for anticancer therapy, because of the essential role they play in the development of tumors. PTP1B and SHP2 are overexpressed in breast cancer cells, thus inhibition of their activity can be potentially effective in breast cancer therapy. Lipoic acid has been previously reported to inhibit the proliferation of colon, breast and thyroid cancer cells. We investigated the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and its reduced form of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) on the viability of MCF-7 cancer cells and on the enzymatic activity of PTP1B and SHP2 phosphatases. ALA and DHLA decrease the activity of PTP1B and SHP2, and have inhibitory effects on the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells. ALA and DHLA can be considered as potential agents for the adjunctive treatment of breast cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of intraperitoneal vincristine in malignant peritoneal effusion.

    PubMed

    Bairy, K L; Sanath, S; Jagetia, G C; Somayaji, S N; Vidyasagar, M S; Baliga, M S

    2003-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal administration of vincristine sulphate was determined in mice bearing Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma. The tumor bearing animals were administered with 0.5 mg/kg body weight (b.wt) of freshly prepared vincristine sulphate intraperitoneally on day 6 after tumor transplantation followed by drug administration once daily 5 days a week consecutively. The observations regarding the survival, alteration in the volume of peritoneal fluid, increase in life span and pathological changes in the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract and bone tissues were made. The vincristine sulphate treatment reduced the malignant cell population significantly and there were no significant changes in the histological picture of liver, kidney, bone, except the intestine, where atropy of villi demonstrating nests and cords of uniform small round cells were observed. Our experimental data suggests that intraperitoneal administration of vincristine is beneficial in malignant peritoneal effusion.

  17. Lipoic acid prevents suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver induced by n-3 PUFAs. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Arend, A; Zilmer, M; Vihalemm, T; Selstam, G; Sepp, E

    2000-01-01

    As previously shown, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) suppress connective tissue proliferation in the rat liver wound concurrent with an elevated level of lipid peroxidation. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a natural anti-oxidant, on these effects of n-3 PUFAs. Rats were fed with a commercial pellet diet (control group) or with diets enriched with 10% of sunflower oil (n-6 group) or 10% of fish oil (n-3 group) for 8 weeks followed by addition of LA to the same diets for 10 days. Then a liver thermic wound was induced and the administration of LA was continued for 6 days. The proliferation of the connective tissue, the level of lipid peroxidation and their peroxidizability and the content of prostaglandins E2 and F2alpha were measured in the liver wounds. LA prevented the suppression of connective tissue proliferation in the healing wound induced by n-3 PUFAs, avoided the increase in peroxidation of lipids, reduced peroxidizability of lipids and modulated the decrease in PGE2 and PGF2alpha. The results indicate that dietary LA may prevent the suppression of liver wound healing induced by n-3 PUFAs.

  18. The effects of gold nanoparticles in wound healing with antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate and α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Leu, Jyh-Gang; Chen, Siang-An; Chen, Han-Min; Wu, Wen-Mein; Hung, Chi-Feng; Yao, Yeong-Der; Tu, Chi-Shun; Liang, Yao-Jen

    2012-07-01

    Topical applications of antioxidant agents in cutaneous wounds have attracted much attention. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and α-lipoic acid (ALA) were shown to have antioxidative effects and could be helpful in wound healing. Their effects in Hs68 and HaCaT cell proliferation and in mouse cutaneous wound healing were studied. Both the mixture of EGCG + ALA (EA) and AuNPs + EGCG + ALA (AuEA) significantly increased Hs68 and HaCaT proliferation and migration. Topical AuEA application accelerated wound healing on mouse skin. Immunoblotting of wound tissue showed significant increase of vascular endothelial cell growth factor and angiopoietin-1 protein expression, but no change of angiopoietin-2 or CD31 after 7 days. After AuEA treatment, CD68 protein expression decreased and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase increased significantly in the wound area. In conclusion, AuEA significantly accelerated mouse cutaneous wound healing through anti-inflammatory and antioxidation effects. This study may support future studies using other antioxidant agents in the treatment of cutaneous wounds. In this study, topically applied gold nanoparticles with epigallocatechin gallate and alpha-lipoic acid were studied regarding their effects in wound healing in cell cultures. Significant acceleration was demonstrated in wound healing in a murine model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy of the rat CC531 adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Veenhuizen, R. B.; Marijnissen, J. P.; Kenemans, P.; Ruevekamp-Helmers, M. C.; 't Mannetje, L. W.; Helmerhorst, T. J.; Stewart, F. A.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of a single tumour growing intraperitoneally. For this purpose the CC531 colon carcinoma, implanted in an intraperitoneal fat pad of Wag/RijA rats, was treated with intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy (IPPDT) using Photofrin as the photosensitiser. Two illumination techniques have been compared. An invasive illumination technique using Perspex blocks to illuminate 30 cm2 of the lower abdomen gave a significant delay in tumour growth with 25 J cm-2 applied 1 day after Photofrin. A minimally invasive illumination technique using a balloon catheter to illuminate 14 cm2 resulted in an equivalent growth delay with 75 J cm-2. The route of administration of the photosensitiser did not influence regrowth times of the tumour. Mitomycin C (MMC), a bioreductive agent, was used to exploit the known PDT-induced hypoxia. The combination of IPPDT with MMC resulted in an increased tumoricidal effect. In conclusion, IPPDT led to a significant growth delay for a single tumour implanted intraperitoneally and repetition of the PDT treatment was possible using a minimally invasive illumination technique. Repeated treatments resulted in increased tumour response. PMID:8645584

  20. Intraperitoneal insemination and retrograde sperm transport in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F; Yániz, J

    2000-03-01

    To examine the efficiency of retrograde sperm transport following intraperitoneal insemination, live and dead spermatozoa were used at different concentrations, and sperm recovery from cervical mucus (0.5 ml) 2, 6, 12 and 24 h following insemination was evaluated. Forty lactating Friesian cows, in their second to fourth lactation period, were used in this experiment. Thirty-six cows received intraperitoneally either live or dead spermatozoa. Each group of six cows received one of three total sperm numbers of 30, 45 and 90 million. Four cows were inseminated with 90 million spermatozoa into the uterus and served as a control group. All cows were inseminated towards the end of oestrus. After intrauterine insemination sperm recovery declined, but motile and/or immotile spermatozoa were recovered from all cows at any time. In cows inseminated intraperitoneally, sperm was recovered from the cervix at 6-24 h when 90 million were inseminated. A greater number of spermatozoa was recovered after dead rather than after live sperm inseminations. Only immotile, intact or broken spermatozoa and tail-less heads were recovered after intraperitioneal insemination using either live or dead spermatozoa. No sperm was recovered for 30 and 45 million inseminations. Our results show that, following intraperitoneal insemination, there is passive sperm transport from the peritoneal cavity to the genital tract close to the time of ovulation, and suggest a higher sperm retention in the genital tract when live as opposed to dead spermatozoa are used.

  1. Tumor regression with a combination of drugs interfering with the tumor metabolism: efficacy of hydroxycitrate, lipoic acid and capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Laurent; Guais, Adeline; Israël, Maurice; Junod, Bernard; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Crespi, Elisabetta; Baronzio, Gianfranco; Abolhassani, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Cellular metabolic alterations are now well described as implicated in cancer and some strategies are currently developed to target these different pathways. In previous papers, we demonstrated that a combination of molecules (namely alpha-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate, i.e. Metabloc™) targeting the cancer metabolism markedly decreased tumor cell growth in mice. In this work, we demonstrate that the addition of capsaicin further delays tumor growth in mice in a dose dependant manner. This is true for the three animal model tested: lung (LLC) cancer, bladder cancer (MBT-2) and melanoma B16F10. There was no apparent side effect of this ternary combination. The addition of a fourth drug (octreotide) is even more effective resulting in tumor regression in mice bearing LLC cancer. These four compounds are all known to target the cellular metabolism not its DNA. The efficacy, the apparent lack of toxicity, the long clinical track records of these medications in human medicine, all points toward the need for a clinical trial. The dramatic efficacy of treatment suggests that cancer may simply be a disease of dysregulated cellular metabolism.

  2. In vivo biocompatibility of three potential intraperitoneal implants.

    PubMed

    Defrère, Sylvie; Mestagdt, Mélanie; Riva, Raphaël; Krier, Fabrice; Van Langendonckt, Anne; Drion, Pierre; Jérôme, Christine; Evrard, Brigitte; Dehoux, Jean-Paul; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Donnez, Jacques

    2011-10-10

    The intraperitoneal biocompatibility of PDMS, polyHEMA and pEVA was investigated in rats, rabbits and rhesus monkeys. No inflammation was evidenced by hematological analyses and measurement of inflammatory markers throughout the experiment and by post-mortem examination of the pelvic cavity. After 3 or 6 months, histological analysis revealed fibrous tissue encapsulating PDMS and PEVA implants in all species and polyHEMA implants in rabbits and monkeys. Calcium deposits were observed inside polyHEMA implants. The intraperitoneal biocompatibility of all 3 polymers makes them suitable for the design of drug delivery systems, which may be of great interest for pathologies confined to the pelvic cavity. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Nanoparticle as a novel tool in hyperthermic intraperitoneal and pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotheprapy to treat patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Maciej; Peterson, Margarita; Kloskowski, Tomasz; McCabe, Eleanor; Guiral, Delia Cortes; Polom, Karol; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Zegarska, Barbara; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Drewa, Tomasz; Roviello, Franco; Medina, Edward A.; Habib, Samy L.; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of peritoneal surface malignances has changed considerably over the last thirty years. Unfortunately, the palliative is the only current treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Two primary intraperitoneal chemotherapeutic methods are used. The first is combination of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic IntraPEritoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC), which has become the gold standard for many cases of PC. The second is Pressurized IntraPeritoneal Aerosol Chemotheprapy (PIPAC), which is promising direction to minimally invasive as safedrug delivery. These methods were improved through multicenter studies and clinical trials that yield important insights and solutions. Major method development has been made through nanomedicine, specifically nanoparticles. Here, we are presenting the latest advances of nanoparticles and their application to precision diagnostics and improved treatment strategies for PC. These advances will likely develop both HIPEC and PIPAC methods that used for in vitro and in vivo studies. Several benefits of using nanoparticles will be discussed including: 1) Nanoparticles as drug delivery systems; 2) Nanoparticles and Near Infrred (NIR) Irradiation; 3) use of nanoparticles in perioperative diagnostic and individualized treatment planning; 4) use of nanoparticles as anticancer dressing’s, hydrogels and as active beeds for optimal reccurence prevention; and 5) finally the curent in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials of nanoparticles. The current review highlighted use of nanoparticles as novel tools in improving drug delivery to be effective for treatment patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. PMID:29100461

  4. α-Lipoic Acid Promotes Neurological Recovery After Ischemic Stroke by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway to Attenuate Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chengmei; Maharjan, Surendra; Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yongxin; Han, Xu; Wang, Shan; Mao, Zhengchun; Xin, Yanming; Zhang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) has been demonstrated to be protective against cerebral ischemia injury. Herein, we investigate the neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of α-LA. In vivo study, α-LA was administered intravenously upon reperfusion of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Garcia score was used to evaluate neurologic recovery. Infarct volume was examined by TTC staining, and oxidative damage was evaluated by ELISA assay. In an in vitro study, neurons were pretreated with α-LA at different doses and then subjected to OGD. Lentiviral vectors were applied to knockdown nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) or heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Cell viability was measured using CCK8. Protein expression was evaluated using western blot, and immunofluorescence staining was assessed. α-LA significantly reduced the infarct volume, brain edema, and oxidative damage and promoted neurologic recovery in rats. Pretreatment of α-LA caused an obvious increase in cell viability and a decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species. Western blot analyses and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated a distinct increase in Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression. Conversely, knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 resulted in the down-regulation of HO-1 protein and inhibited the neuroprotective effect of α-LA. α-LA treatment is neuroprotective and promotes functional recovery after ischemic stroke by attenuating oxidative damage, which is partially mediated by the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Regeneration of glutathione by α-lipoic acid via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway alleviates cadmium-induced HepG2 cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayu; Zhou, Xue; Wu, Wenbo; Wang, Jiachun; Xie, Hong; Wu, Zhigang

    2017-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is an important antioxidant that is capable of regenerating other antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH). However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which α-LA regenerates GSH remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate whether α-LA regenerates GSH by activation of Nrf2 to alleviate cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we found that cadmium induced cell death by depletion of GSH through inactivation of Nrf2. Addition of α-LA to cadmium-treated cells reactivated Nrf2 and regenerated GSH through elevating the Nrf2-downstream genes γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-GCL) and GR, both of which are key enzymes for GSH synthesis. However, blocking Nrf2 with brusatol in the cells co-treated with α-LA and cadmium reduced the mRNA and the protein levels of γ-GCL and GR, thus suppressed GSH regeneration by α-LA. Our results indicated that α-LA activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, which upregulated the transcription of the enzymes for GSH synthesis and therefore GSH contents to alleviate cadmium-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Intraperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma showing MDM2 amplification: case report.

    PubMed

    Grifasi, Carlo; Calogero, Armando; Carlomagno, Nicola; Campione, Severo; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Renda, Andrea

    2013-11-26

    Liposarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). It is divided into five groups according to histological pattern: well-differentiated, myxoid, round cell, pleomorphic, and dedifferentiated. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma most commonly occurs in the retroperitoneum, while an intraperitoneal location is extremely rare. Only seven cases have been reported in literature. Many pathologists recognize that a large number of intra-abdominal poorly differentiated sarcomas are dedifferentiated liposarcomas. We report a case initially diagnosed as undifferentiated sarcoma that was reclassified as intraperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma showing an amplification of the MDM2 gene. A 59-year-old woman with abdominal pain and constipation was referred to the Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy, in November 2012. On physical examination, a very large firm mass was palpable in the meso-hypogastrium. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a heterogeneous density mass (measuring 10 × 19 cm) that was contiguous with the mesentery and compressed the third part of the duodenum and jejunum.At laparotomy, a large mass occupying the entire abdomen was found, adhering to the first jejunal loop and involving the mesentery. Surgical removal of the tumor along with a jejunal resection was performed because the first jejunal loop was firmly attached to the tumor.Macroscopic examination showed a solid, whitish, cerebroid, and myxoid mass, with variable hemorrhage and cystic degeneration, measuring 26 × 19 × 5 cm. Microscopic examination revealed two main different morphologic patterns: areas with spindle cells in a myxoid matrix and areas with pleomorphic cells. The case was initially diagnosed as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Histological review showed areas of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed and demonstrated an amplification of the MDM2 gene

  7. Intraperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma showing MDM2 amplification: case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liposarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). It is divided into five groups according to histological pattern: well-differentiated, myxoid, round cell, pleomorphic, and dedifferentiated. Dedifferentiated liposarcoma most commonly occurs in the retroperitoneum, while an intraperitoneal location is extremely rare. Only seven cases have been reported in literature. Many pathologists recognize that a large number of intra-abdominal poorly differentiated sarcomas are dedifferentiated liposarcomas. We report a case initially diagnosed as undifferentiated sarcoma that was reclassified as intraperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma showing an amplification of the MDM2 gene. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman with abdominal pain and constipation was referred to the Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy, in November 2012. On physical examination, a very large firm mass was palpable in the meso-hypogastrium. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a heterogeneous density mass (measuring 10 × 19 cm) that was contiguous with the mesentery and compressed the third part of the duodenum and jejunum. At laparotomy, a large mass occupying the entire abdomen was found, adhering to the first jejunal loop and involving the mesentery. Surgical removal of the tumor along with a jejunal resection was performed because the first jejunal loop was firmly attached to the tumor. Macroscopic examination showed a solid, whitish, cerebroid, and myxoid mass, with variable hemorrhage and cystic degeneration, measuring 26 × 19 × 5 cm. Microscopic examination revealed two main different morphologic patterns: areas with spindle cells in a myxoid matrix and areas with pleomorphic cells. The case was initially diagnosed as undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. Histological review showed areas of well-differentiated liposarcoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed and

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Fosfomycin in Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Patients without Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Tobudic, Selma; Matzneller, Peter; Stoiser, Brigitte; Wenisch, Judith Maria; Vychytil, Andreas; Jaeger, Walter; Boehmdorfer, Michaela; Reznicek, Gottfried; Burgmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Blood and dialysate concentrations of fosfomycin were determined after intravenous and intraperitoneal application of 4 mg/liter in patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis. Maximum serum concentrations after intravenous (287.75 ± 86.34 mg/liter) and intraperitoneal (205.78 ± 66.78 mg/liter) administration were comparable. Ratios of intraperitoneal to systemic exposure were 1.12 (intraperitoneal administration) and 0.22 (intravenous administration), indicating good systemic exposure after intraperitoneal application but limited penetration of fosfomycin into the peritoneal fluid after the intravenous dose. PMID:22564843

  9. Pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal and intravenous fosfomycin in automated peritoneal dialysis patients without peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Tobudic, Selma; Matzneller, Peter; Stoiser, Brigitte; Wenisch, Judith Maria; Zeitlinger, Markus; Vychytil, Andreas; Jaeger, Walter; Boehmdorfer, Michaela; Reznicek, Gottfried; Burgmann, Heinz

    2012-07-01

    Blood and dialysate concentrations of fosfomycin were determined after intravenous and intraperitoneal application of 4 mg/liter in patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis. Maximum serum concentrations after intravenous (287.75 ± 86.34 mg/liter) and intraperitoneal (205.78 ± 66.78 mg/liter) administration were comparable. Ratios of intraperitoneal to systemic exposure were 1.12 (intraperitoneal administration) and 0.22 (intravenous administration), indicating good systemic exposure after intraperitoneal application but limited penetration of fosfomycin into the peritoneal fluid after the intravenous dose.

  10. Detection and quantification of intraperitoneal fluid using electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Sadleir, R J; Fox, R A

    2001-04-01

    A prototype electrical impedance tomography system was evaluated prior to its use for the detection of intraperitoneal bleeding, with the assistance of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The system was sensitive enough to detect small amounts of dialysis fluid appearing in subtractive images over short time periods. Uniform sensitivity to blood appearing anywhere within the abdominal cavity was produced using a post-reconstructive filter that corrected for changes in apparent resistivity of anomalies with their radial position. The image parameter used as an indication of fluid quantity, the resistivity index, varied approximately linearly with the quantity of fluid added. A test of the system's response to the introduction of conductive fluid out of the electrode plane (when a blood-equivalent fluid was added to the stomach) found that the sensitivity of the system was about half that observed in the electrode plane. Breathing artifacts were found to upset quantitative monitoring of intraperitoneal bleeding, but only on time scales short compared with the fluid administration rate. Longer term breathing changes, such as those due to variations in the functional residual capacity of the lungs, should ultimately limit the sensitivity over long time periods.

  11. What's new in intraperitoneal test on Kevlar (asbestos substitute)?

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, O A; Müller, K M

    1989-09-01

    The intraperitoneal test is a suitable experimental method for studying the different patterns of morphological reaction to foreign body substances of various kinds and concentrations as well as their transport within and elimination from the organism, Kevlar fibres are synthetic aromatic polyamid (aramid) fibres which, investigated by means of the intraperitoneal test in Wistar rats, show distinct pathogenetic reaction patterns: 1. In the early stage after application, the formation of multinucleated giant cells with phagocytosis of the amber-coloured Kevlar fibres, and an inflammatory reaction are foremost features. 2. The typical feature of the second stage is the development of granulomas with central necrosis indicating the cytotoxic nature of Kevlar fibres. 3. The third stage is dominated by the mesenchymal activation with capsular structures of collagenous fibres. Besides granulomatous foci, a slight submesothelial fibrosis is observed. 4. Fragments of Kevlar fibres are drained through lymphatic pathways and stored in lymph nodes where they lead to inflammatory reactions. 5. The reactive granulomatous changes in the greater omentum of rats are accompanied by proliferative mesothelial changes which, in one cases, even led to the development of a multilocular mesothelioma.

  12. Effects of intraperitoneal and intranasal application of Lentinan on cellular response in rats.

    PubMed

    Markova, Nadya; Kussovski, Vesselin; Radoucheva, Tatyana; Dilova, Krasimira; Georgieva, Neli

    2002-11-01

    Lentinan (Ajinomoto, Japan) was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intranasally (i.n.) at different doses (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) to rats. Effectiveness of Lentinan treatment was evaluated by comparative testing of cell activation (establishing the number, glycolytic and acid phosphatase activity, H2O2 production and killing ability against Salmonella enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus) at two different compartments--peritoneal and broncho-alveolar cavities. The results indicated that Lentinan induced high-grade activation of peritoneal cells (PCs) and especially of broncho-alveolar cells (BACs) with markedly enhanced effector function (killing ability against S. aureus). Generally, Lentinan, known usually with its parenteral routes of application, can be successful to stimulate the host cell response in the respiratory tract by intranasal route of administration.

  13. Intraperitoneal but not intravenous cryopreserved mesenchymal stromal cells home to the inflamed colon and ameliorate experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, Morgana T L; Soares, Igor D P; Lopes, Daiana V; Buongusto, Fernanda; Martinusso, Cesonia A; do Rosario, Alyson; Souza, Sergio A L; Gutfilen, Bianca; Fonseca, Lea Mirian B; Elia, Celeste; Madi, Kalil; Schanaider, Alberto; Rossi, Maria Isabel D; Souza, Heitor S P

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were shown to have immunomodulatory activity and have been applied for treating immune-mediated disorders. We compared the homing and therapeutic action of cryopreserved subcutaneous adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. After colonoscopic detection of inflammation AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs were injected intraperitoneally. Colonoscopic and histologic scores were obtained. Density of collagen fibres and apoptotic rates were evaluated. Cytokine levels were measured in supernatants of colon explants. For cell migration studies MSCs and skin fibroblasts were labelled with Tc-99m or CM-DiI and injected intraperitonealy or intravenously. Intraperitoneal injection of AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs reduced the endoscopic and histopathologic severity of colitis, the collagen deposition, and the epithelial apoptosis. Levels of TNF-α and interleukin-1β decreased, while VEGF and TGF-β did not change following cell-therapy. Scintigraphy showed that MSCs migrated towards the inflamed colon and the uptake increased from 0.5 to 24 h. Tc-99m-MSCs injected intravenously distributed into various organs, but not the colon. Cm-DiI-positive MSCs were detected throughout the colon wall 72 h after inoculation, predominantly in the submucosa and muscular layer of inflamed areas. Intraperitoneally injected cryopreserved MSCs home to and engraft into the inflamed colon and ameliorate TNBS-colitis.

  14. Is early detection of anastomotic leakage possible by intraperitoneal microdialysis and intraperitoneal cytokines after anterior resection of the rectum for cancer?

    PubMed

    Matthiessen, Peter; Strand, Ida; Jansson, Kjell; Törnquist, Cathrine; Andersson, Magnus; Rutegård, Jörgen; Norgren, Lars

    2007-11-01

    This prospective study assessed methods of detecting intraperitoneal ischemia and inflammatory response in patients with and without postoperative complications after anterior resection of the rectum. In 23 patients operated on with anterior resection of the rectum for rectal carcinoma, intraperitoneal lactate, pyruvate, and glucose levels were monitored postoperatively for six days by using microdialysis with catheters applied in two locations: intraperitoneally near the anastomosis, and in the central abdominal cavity. A reference catheter was placed subcutaneously in the pectoral region. Cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, were measured in intraperitoneal fluid by means of a pelvic drain for two postoperative days. The intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio near the anastomosis was higher on postoperative Day 5 (P = 0.029) and Day 6 (P = 0.009) in patients with clinical anastomotic leakage (n = 7) compared with patients without leakage (n = 16). The intraperitoneal levels of IL-6 (P = 0.002; P = 0.012, respectively) and IL-10 (P = 0.002; P = 0.041, respectively) were higher on postoperative Days 1 and 2 in the leakage group, and TNF-alpha was higher in the leakage group on Day 1 (P = 0.011). In-hospital clinical anastomotic leakage was diagnosed on median Day 6, and leakage after hospital discharge on median Day 20. The intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio and cytokines, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha, were increased in patients who developed symptomatic anastomotic leakage before clinical symptoms were evident.

  15. Liver lipid composition and intravenous, intraperitoneal, and enteral administration of intralipid.

    PubMed

    Morán Penco, J M; Maciá Botejara, E; Salas Martinez, J; Mahedero Ruiz, G; Climent Mata, V; Saenz de Santamaria, J; Vinagre Velasco, L M

    1994-01-01

    We studied the variations arising in plasma and liver lipids after intravenous (i.v.), intraperitoneal (IP), and intragastric (IG) administration of a fat overdose on the order of 4 g.kg-1 body wt.day-1 in the form of Intralipid (ITL) 20% to 33 New Zealand rabbits for 15 days. The control group was submitted for surgery but did not receive an ITL supplement. The results show weight gain in all animals and normal liver enzyme values. There was an increase in plasma lipids in groups supplemented by the parenteral route (i.v. and IP), and fatty acids showed a similar distribution, in terms of percentages, to that for ITL. In liver tissue, there was an increase in the fractions related to ethanolamine and a decrease in phospholipids of choline and serine. In the i.v. group, neutral lipids predominated compared with other groups. The livers of all supplemented animals (i.v., IP, and IG) showed a higher content of stearic and linoleic acid and a reduction in oleic acid. Study with optical microscopy showed a microvacuolization affecting the three areas of the hepatic acini in the i.v. group, seen with electron microscopy as vacuoles lacking membranes and surrounded by mitochondria. In conclusion, there is an increase in hepatic steatosis in parenteral groups and a greater deposit of neutral lipids in the i.v. group, related to the administration route, without biochemical signs of liver dysfunction.

  16. Magnetically assisted intraperitoneal drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Milad; Sedaghatkish, Amir; Dejam, Morteza; Saghafian, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Sanati-Nezhad, Amir

    2018-11-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy has revived hopes during the past few years for the management of peritoneal disseminations of digestive and gynecological cancers. Nevertheless, a poor drug penetration is one key drawback of IP chemotherapy since peritoneal neoplasms are notoriously resistant to drug penetration. Recent preclinical studies have focused on targeting the aberrant tumor microenvironment to improve intratumoral drug transport. However, tumor stroma targeting therapies have limited therapeutic windows and show variable outcomes across different cohort of patients. Therefore, the development of new strategies for improving the efficacy of IP chemotherapy is a certain need. In this work, we propose a new magnetically assisted strategy to elevate drug penetration into peritoneal tumor nodules and improve IP chemotherapy. A computational model was developed to assess the feasibility and predictability of the proposed active drug delivery method. The key tumor pathophysiology, including a spatially heterogeneous construct of leaky vasculature, nonfunctional lymphatics, and dense extracellular matrix (ECM), was reconstructed in silico. The transport of intraperitoneally injected magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) inside tumors was simulated and compared with the transport of free cytotoxic agents. Our results on magnetically assisted delivery showed an order of magnitude increase in the final intratumoral concentration of drug-coated MNPs with respect to free cytotoxic agents. The intermediate MNPs with the radius range of 200-300 nm yield optimal magnetic drug targeting (MDT) performance in 5-10 mm tumors while the MDT performance remains essentially the same over a large particle radius range of 100-500 nm for a 1 mm radius small tumor. The success of MDT in larger tumors (5-10 mm in radius) was found to be markedly dependent on the choice of magnet strength and tumor-magnet distance while these two parameters were less of a concern in small tumors

  17. Intraperitoneal photodynamic therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Stephen M.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Rodriguez, Carmen E.; Smith, Debbie; Currens, Ann; Glatstein, Eli

    2000-03-01

    The preliminary results of an ongoing Phase II trial of Photofrin-mediated intraperitoneal PDT (IP PDT) are presented. The clinical endpoints of this trial are to determine the response rates of patients with carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis to IP PDT and to document the toxicities of IP PDT in a defined patient population. Photofrin, 2.5 mg/kg, was administered intravenously 48 hours prior to debulking surgery and light delivery, 57 patients with ovarian cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and sarcomas were enrolled. 44 patients received Photofrin and received light treatment. 39 patients are valuable for response. 8 of 39 patients had a complete radiographic response to IP PDT 3 months after treatment. 3 patients are alive without evidence of disease 6, 6 and 9 months after treatment. 1 patient is alive and has no evidence of intra-abdominal disease but has developed lung metastases. Toxicities include post-operative fluid shifts, hypotension, hydronephrosis, pleural effusions, enteric fistula, transient liver function test elevation, thrombocytopenia, and wound dehiscence. Toxicity is related to pre-operative tumor bulk and to the extensiveness of surgery required. IP PDT is feasible and leads to an initial clinical response rate of 25 percent in patients with incurable peritoneal carcinomatosis and sarcomatosis.

  18. Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with epithelial appendiceal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tuvin, Daniel; Berger, Yaniv; Aycart, Samantha N; Shtilbans, Tatiana; Hiotis, Spiros; Labow, Daniel M; Sarpel, Umut

    2016-05-01

    Background Prophylactic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a promising approach for preventing peritoneal carcinomatosis in high-risk patients. We report our initial experience with prophylactic HIPEC in a series of patients with appendiceal neoplasms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively maintained database to identify patients who underwent HIPEC in the absence of peritoneal disease. Patients with previously documented peritoneal surface disease were excluded. Data regarding clinical, operative and pathological features were analysed. Results Out of 322 HIPEC procedures performed between March 2007and August 2015, we identified 16 patients who underwent surgery with prophylactic intent. Primary diagnoses included high-grade and low-grade appendiceal neoplasms. Most patients presented originally with appendiceal perforation; all patients underwent initial surgery during which the appendix or right colon were resected. Following a median time interval of 2.2 months, a second surgery performed at our institution consisted of completion of omentectomy, partial colectomy and oophorectomy, with administration of prophylactic HIPEC (using mitomycin C). A totally laparoscopic approach was attempted and achieved in 11 patients in whom the median duration of surgery, estimated intraoperative blood loss and length of hospitalisation were 251 min, 100 cm(3) and 4 days, respectively. There were no cases of major perioperative morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Prophylactic HIPEC for appendiceal neoplasms is feasible, safe and may be performed laparoscopically. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine whether a survival benefit is associated with this treatment.

  19. Peritonectomy and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: cost analysis and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Bagnoli, Pietro F; Cananzi, F C M; Brocchi, A; Ardito, A; Strada, D; Cozzaglio, L; Mussi, C; Brusa, S; Carlino, C; Borrelli, B; Alemanno, F; Quagliuolo, V

    2015-03-01

    Malignancies of the peritoneum remain a challenge in any hospital that accepts to manage them, due not only to difficulties associated with the complexity of the procedures involved but also the costs, which - in Italy and other countries that use a diagnosis-related group (DRG) system - are not adequately reimbursed. We analyzed data relative to 24 patients operated on between September 2010 and May 2013 with special regard to operating room expenditure, ICU stay, duration of hospitalization, and DRG reimbursement. The total costs per patient included clinical, operating room, procedure, pathology, imaging, ward care, allied healthcare, pharmaceutical, and ICU costs. Postoperative hospital stay, drugs and materials, and operating room occupancy were the main factors affecting the expenditure for cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. We had a median hospitalization of 14 days, median ICU stay of 2.4 days, and median operating room occupancy of 585 min. The median expenditure for each case was € 21,744; the median reimbursement by the national health system € 8,375. In a DRG reimbursement system, the economic effort in the management of patients undergoing peritonectomy procedures may not be counterbalanced by adequate reimbursement. Joint efforts between medical and administration parties are mandatory to develop appropriate treatment protocols and keep down the costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Lipoic Acid on Antiapoptotic Genes in Control and Ethanol-Treated Fetal Rhombencephalic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Angeline M.; Gillespie, Roberta A.; Druse, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory showed that ethanol augments apoptosis in fetal rhombencephalic neurons and co-treatment with alpha-lipoic acid (LA) or one of several other antioxidants prevents ethanol-associated apoptosis. Because ethanol increases oxidative stress, which causes apoptosis, it is likely that some of the neuroprotective effects of LA and other antioxidants involve classical antioxidant actions. Considering the reported link of LA with pro-survival cell signaling, it is also possible that LA’s neuroprotective effects involve additional mechanisms. The present study investigated the effects of LA on ethanol-treated fetal rhombencephalic neurons with regard to oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pro-survival genes Xiap and Bcl-2. We included parallel gene expression studies with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) to determine whether LA’s effects on Xiap and Bcl-2 were shared by other antioxidants. We also used enzyme inhibitors to determine which signaling pathway(s) might be involved with the effects of LA. The results of this investigation showed that LA treatment of ethanol-treated neurons exerted several pro-survival effects. LA blocked two pro-apoptotic changes, i.e., the ethanol-associated rise in ROS and caspase-3. LA also up-regulated the expression genes that encode the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Xiap by a mechanism that involves NF-κB. NAC also up-regulated Bcl-2 and Xiap. Thus, the neuroprotective effects of LA and NAC could involve up-regulation of pro-survival genes as well as their classical antioxidant actions. PMID:21303669

  1. α-Lipoic acid inhibits human lung cancer cell proliferation through Grb2-mediated EGFR downregulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Wen, Ya; Lv, Guoqing; Lin, Yuntao; Tang, Junlong; Lu, Jingxiao; Zhang, Manqiao; Liu, Wen; Sun, Xiaojuan

    2017-12-09

    Alpha lipoic acid (α -LA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant and metabolic enzyme co-factor. Recently, α -LA has been reported to inhibit the growth of various cancer cells, but the precise signaling pathways that mediate the effects of α -LA on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development remain unclear. The CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell proliferation in NSCLC cell lines after α -LA treatment. The expression of growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-2, CDK4, CDK6, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Ras, c-Raf, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ERK1/2 and activated EGFR and ERK1/2 was evaluated by western blotting. Grb2 levels were restored in α-LA-treated cells by transfection of a plasmid carrying Grb2 and were reduced in NSCLC cells via specific siRNA-mediated knockdown. α -LA dramatically decreased NSCLC cell proliferation by downregulating Grb2; in contrast, Grb2 overexpression significantly prevented α-LA-induced decrease in cell growth in vitro. Western blot analysis indicated that α-LA decreased the levels of phospho-EGFR, CDK2/4/6, Cyclins D3 and E1, which are associated with the inhibition of G1/S-phase transition. Additional experiments indicated that Grb2 inhibition partially abolished EGF-induced phospho-EGFR and phospho-ERK1/2 activity. In addition, α-LA exerted greater inhibitory effects than gefitinib on NSCLC cells by preventing EGF-induced EGFR activation. For the first time, these findings provide the first evidence that α-LA inhibits cell proliferation through Grb2 by suppressing EGFR phosphorylation and that MAPK/ERK is involved in this pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The quantitative transperitoneal absorption of a fat emulsion: implications for intraperitoneal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, M D; Coran, A G; Drongowski, R A; Wesley, J R

    1983-12-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of nutrients would be an attractive alternative to intravenous nutrition since it eliminates intravascular complications. If glucose alone were used as the nonprotein calorie source, associated fluid shifts might not be well tolerated by the patient. A fat emulsion does not have osmotic properties and thus might be incorporated into a program of IP nutrition as a calorie source. Transperitoneal absorption of a commercial fat emulsion (Liposyn 10%, Abbott Laboratories, N Chicago, IL) was studied in 12 beagle puppies divided into two groups. One group received 2.5 gm/kg of fat and the other group received a similar volume of 3.5% crystalline amino acids and 5% glucose in one IP dose. In the first group, the serum triglyceride (TG) increased three fold from 61 +/- 25 mg% to 185 +/- 61 mg% at 15 minutes and then decreased slowly while remaining significantly elevated (p less than 0.05) at 4 hours. 1.94 +/- 0.20 gm/kg of TG were absorbed from the peritoneal cavity over 4 hours. Concommitant IP administration of amino acids and glucose did not affect that absorption. Radiolabeled amino acids and glucose instilled IP were demonstrated in the blood immediately after administration and their absorption was not affected by the presence of a fat emulsion. Plasma free fatty acids showed a small increase at 4 hours (from 0.32 +/- 0.09 mEq/L to 0.59 +/- 0.22 mEq/L). Animals receiving no IP fat showed no change in serum TG. Serum glucose rose in both groups and serum cholesterol showed no changes in either group. Peritoneal fluid accumulation 4 hours after IP fat administration was minimal at 12.7 +/- 6.4 mL/kg. This study shows that a fat emulsion can be quantitatively absorbed from the peritoneal cavity over four hours and that IP nutrition may be feasible.

  3. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer with peritoneal disease: experience from Singapore and Japan.

    PubMed

    Kono, Koji; Yong, Wei-Peng; Okayama, Hirokazu; Shabbir, Asim; Momma, Tomoyuki; Ohki, Shinji; Takenoshita, Seiichi; So, Jimmy

    2017-03-01

    Among advanced gastric cancer cases, peritoneal dissemination is a life-threatening mode of metastasis, and any strategy to control peritoneal metastasis will significantly improve treatment outcomes. Since intraperitoneal administration of anticancer drugs can induce an extremely high concentration of drugs in the peritoneal cavity, intraperitoneal chemotherapy would appear to be a reasonable and promising strategy to control the peritoneal dissemination. However, it has been reported in the past that intraperitoneal administration of mitomycin C or cisplatin resulted in no significant clinical effects against peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer. In contrast, intraperitoneal paclitaxel is expected to remain inside the peritoneal cavity due to its large molecular weight and fat solubility, leading to a high concentration of the drug in the peritoneal cavity. In fact, promising results in several phase II clinical trials using intraperitoneal paclitaxel have been reported, including a median survival time of 16.2-24.6 months and a 1-year overall survival rate of 69-78 %. Thereafter, a phase III randomized control study (PHOENIX-GC trial) with intraperitoneal paclitaxel plus systemic S-1 and intravenous paclitaxel in comparison to systemic S-1 plus cisplatin was conducted in Japan. Moreover, a phase II clinical trial of combination chemotherapy of intraperitoneal paclitaxel with systemic capecitabine plus oxaliplatin is currently ongoing in Singapore. In this review, based on clinical experience from Singapore and Japan, the clinical significance of intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer with peritoneal disease is discussed.

  4. The preventive effect of Rofecoxib in postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, M; Oztürk, H; Erten, C; Büyükbayram, H

    2004-02-01

    Previous studies showed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs suppressed prostaglandin synthesis and were able to prevent adhesion formation following surgical trauma to the peritoneum. The selective suppression inflammatory cascade may prevent adhesion formation. Therefore, we planned this study to experimentally evaluate the effects of Rofecoxib, the selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, in postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups of 10. All rats underwent midline laparotomy under ketamine anaesthesia (25 mg/kg im). In group 1 (n = 10), the sham operation group (SG); abdominal walls were closed without any process after 2 minutes. In Group 2 (n = 10), the control group (CG); standard serosal damage was constituted and the abdominal wall was closed. In group 3 (n = 10), the COX-2 group (COXG), after serosal damage, the abdominal wall was closed. A 12 mg/kg/day dose of was given orally to the rats during one week. On the 7th postoperative day, all rats were sacrificed and intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated both macroscopically and microscopically. Macroscopically, no serious adhesion formations were seen in the SG. Multiple adhesion formations of the CG were significantly more than those of the SG (p < 0.0001). It was determined that adhesions of the COXG diminished (p < 0.0001) when macromorphological adhesion scale results of the COXG were compared with those of the CG. The adhesion scores of the CG were compared microscopically with those of the COXG and granulation tissue formation and fibrosis in the COXG were found to be significantly less than those of the CG (respectively p = 0.002, p < 0.0001). We were of the opinion that Rofecoxib, the selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, was effective in the prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions.

  5. Analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal administration of bupivacaine in cats.

    PubMed

    Benito, Javier; Monteiro, Beatriz; Lavoie, Anne-Marie; Beauchamp, Guy; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Steagall, Paulo V

    2016-11-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal (IP) bupivacaine in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVH). Methods Forty-five cats were included in a randomized, prospective, blinded study after owners' written consent was obtained. The anesthetic protocol included acepromazine-buprenorphine-propofol-isoflurane. A ventral midline incision was made and cats (n = 15/group) were administered either IP saline 0.9% (negative and positive control groups; NG and PG, respectively) or IP bupivacaine (2 mg/kg; bupivacaine group; BG). Cats in the PG received meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC). An OVH was performed and postoperative pain was evaluated using a dynamic interactive visual analog scale (DIVAS), the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) for up to 8 h after the end of surgery. Postoperative sedation was evaluated using DIVAS. Rescue analgesia was provided with buprenorphine and/or meloxicam. Repeated measures linear models and a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were used for statistical analysis ( P <0.05). Results There was a significant effect of treatment on the number of times rescue analgesia was administered ( P = 0.002) (PG, n = 2, 13%; NG, n = 12, 80%; BG, n = 4, 27%) with the number of rescues being higher in the NG group than in the PG ( P = 0.0004) and BG ( P = 0.02) groups. The DIVAS, MCPS and MNT were significantly different when compared with baseline values at different time points; however, data were not significantly different among groups. Conclusions and relevance Treatments PG and BG produced similar analgesia in terms of pain scores, number of times rescue analgesia was administered and MNT. Based on rescue analgesia, IP administration of bupivacaine provides analgesia in cats after OVH.

  6. [Cost of an intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia (IPCH) related to cytoreductive surgery].

    PubMed

    Bonastre, J; Jan, P; de Pouvourville, G; Pocard, M; Estphan, G; Elias, D

    2005-10-01

    A complete cytoreductive surgery followed with an intraperitoneal chemohyperthermia (IPCH) is a new treatment allowing curing some patients with a peritoneal carcinomatosis. The cost of this treatment, evaluated in different countries, is high. In France, we do not have any cost evaluation of this therapy, and this state slows its diffusion in our country. The aim of this study is to evaluate the real cost of maximal cytoreductive surgery with IPCH, and to compare it with the financial support given by the Ministery of Health. The real cost of this therapy was established on the standard analytic accountancy of our Institute. The analysis of the financial support received was done after the classification of the patients in the current official diagnosis-related groups, and according to the current rates of reimbursing of these acts. Seventy-three patients were treated with IPCH in our Institute during 2002 and 2003. The real mean cost for our hospital was 39,358 euros per patient, with a mean hospital staying of 27.7 days. In counterpart, our hospital received a mean financial support of 20,485 euros, resulting in a deficit of 18,873 euros per patient (and close to 1.4 million of euros for the two years). Our current classification of diagnosis-related groups does not allow to describe the real importance of this therapy which combines a maximal cytoreductive surgery with IPCH. In our system of reimbursing, the hospital which offers this type of new therapy to its patients receives only half of the real rate. Two correctives measures are suitable: to describe this combining treatment in the official list of medical acts, and to determine its specific cost for reimbursing.

  7. Effect of Intraperitoneal Bupivacaine on Postoperative Pain in the Gynecologic Oncology Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Colleen; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Teoh, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective To evaluate if the administration of intraperitoneal bupivacaine decreased postoperative pain in patients undergoing minimally invasive gynecologic and gynecologic cancer surgery. Design Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Setting University-based gynecologic oncology practice operating at a tertiary medical center. Patients All patients on the gynecologic oncology service undergoing minimally invasive surgery between September 2011 and June 2013. Interventions Starting August 2012, intraperitoneal administration of .25% bupivacaine was added to all minimally invasive surgeries. These patients were compared with historical control subjects who had surgery between September 2011 and July 2012 but did not receive intraperitoneal bupivacaine. Measurements and Main Results One-hundred thirty patients were included in the study. The patients who received intraperitoneal bupivacaine had lower median narcotic use on the day of surgery and the first postoperative day compared with those who did not receive intraperitoneal bupivacaine (day 0: 7.0 mg morphine equivalents vs 11.0 mg, p = .007; day 1: .3 mg vs 1.7 mg, p = .0002). The median patient-reported pain scores were lower on the day of surgery in the intraperitoneal bupivacaine group (2.7 vs 3.2, p = .05) Conclusions The administration of intraperitoneal bupivacaine was associated with improved postoperative pain control in patients undergoing minimally invasive gynecologic and gynecologic cancer surgery and should be further evaluated in a prospective study. PMID:26216095

  8. Lipoic acid induces p53-independent cell death in colorectal cancer cells and potentiates the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Dörsam, Bastian; Göder, Anja; Seiwert, Nina; Kaina, Bernd; Fahrer, Jörg

    2015-10-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA), which plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial energy metabolism, is an endogenous dithiol compound with an array of antioxidative functions. It has been shown that LA triggers cell death in tumor cell lines, whereas non-transformed cells are hardly affected. In the present study, we analyzed the cytotoxicity of LA on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells differing in their p53 status and investigated a putative synergistic effect with the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We show that LA induces a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, which was independent of the p53 status as attested in isogenic p53-proficient and p53-deficient cell lines. This effect was largely attributable to cell death induction as revealed by Annexin-V/PI staining. LA-treated HCT116 cells underwent caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death, which was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD and the RIP-kinase inhibitor Necrostatin-1, respectively. In CaCO-2 and HT29 cells, LA induced caspase-dependent cell demise via activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and caspase-7 with subsequent PARP-1 cleavage as demonstrated by immunoblot analysis, activity assays and pan-caspase inhibition. Interestingly, LA treatment did neither activate p53 nor induced genotoxic effects as shown by lack of DNA strand breaks and phosphorylation of histone 2AX. Finally, we provide evidence that LA increases the cytotoxic effect induced by the anticancer drug 5-FU as revealed by significantly enhanced cell death rates in HCT116 and CaCO-2 cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that LA induces CRC cell death independent of their p53 status and potentiates the cytotoxicity of 5-FU without causing DNA damage on its own, which makes it a candidate for tumor therapy.

  9. Systemic levels of local anaesthetic after intra-peritoneal application--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kahokehr, A; Sammour, T; Vather, R; Taylor, M; Stapelberg, F; Hill, A G

    2010-07-01

    There is a lack of cohesive reports on the systemic levels of local anaesthetic after intraperitoneal application. A comprehensive systematic review with no language restriction was conducted. Eighteen suitable articles were identified. Data were compiled and presented according to local anaesthetic agent. Intraperitoneal local anaesthetic has been studied in many different procedures, including open and laparoscopic surgery. A total of 415 patients were included for analysis. There were no cases of clinical toxicity. There were 11 (2.7%) cases with a systemic level above or close to a safe threshold (as determined by the report authors) in three trials utilising intraperitoneal local anaesthetic after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intraperitoneal lignocaine doses varied from 100 to 1000 mg, mean Cmax ranged from 1.01 to 4.32 microg/ml and mean Tmax ranged from 15 to 40 minutes. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine doses varied from 50 to 150 mg (weight based doses also reported), mean Cmax ranged from 0.29 to 1.14 microg/ml and mean Tmax ranged from 15 to 60 minutes. Intraperitoneal ropivacaine doses varied from 100 to 300 mg, mean Cmax ranged from 0.66 to 3.76 microg/ml and mean Tmax ranged from 15 to 35 minutes. The addition of adrenaline to intraperitoneal local anaesthetic almost halves systemic levels and prolongs Tmax. Intraperitoneal local anaesthetic results in detectable systemic levels in the perioperative setting. Despite a lack of clinical toxicity, careful attention to dose is still required to prevent potential systemic toxic levels. Clinicians should also consider the addition of adrenaline to intraperitoneal local anaesthetic solutions to further add to the systemic safety profile.

  10. Topical Application of Liposomal Antioxidants for Protection Against CEES Induced Skin Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    alveolar macrophages. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1999, 45:675-686. 13. Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha CV: Influence of alpha - lipoic acid on lipid...33 4 ABBREVIATIONS: ALA, α- Lipoic acid AT, α-tocopherol CEES, half mustard or 2...Vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and lipoic acid are very effective antioxidants. Their antioxidative potential

  11. Phoenixin-14 injected intracerebroventricularly but not intraperitoneally stimulates food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Schalla, Martha; Prinz, Philip; Friedrich, Tiemo; Scharner, Sophie; Kobelt, Peter; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Phoenixin, a recently discovered 20-amino acid peptide was implicated in reproduction. However, the expression in food intake-regulatory nuclei such as the paraventricular nucleus, the arcuate nucleus and the nucleus of the solitary tract suggests an implication of phoenixin in food intake regulation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of phoenixin-14, the shorter form of phoenixin, on food intake following intracerebroventricular (icv) and intraperitoneal (ip) injection in ad libitum fed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Phoenixin-14 injected icv (0.2, 1.7 or 15nmol/rat) during the light phase induced a dose-dependent increase of light phase food intake reaching significance at a minimum dose of 1.7 nmol/rat (+72%, p<0.05 vs. vehicle) used for all further analyses. Assessment of the food intake microstructure showed an icv phoenixin-14-induced increase in meal size (+51%), meal duration (+157%), time spent in meals (+182%) and eating rate (+123%), while inter-meal intervals (-42%) and the satiety ratio (-64%) were decreased compared to vehicle (p<0.05). When injected icv during the dark phase, no modulation of food intake was observed (p>0.05). The light phase icv phoenixin-14-induced increase of water intake did not reach statistical significance compared to vehicle (+136%, p>0.05). The increase of food intake following icv phoenixin-14 was not associated with a significant alteration of grooming behavior (0.4-fold, p=0.377) or locomotion (6-fold, p=0.066) compared to vehicle. When injected ip at higher doses (0.6, 5nmol/kg or 45nmol/kg body weight) during the light phase, phoenixin-14 did not affect food intake (p>0.05). In summary, phoenixin-14 exerts a centrally-mediated orexigenic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Status Epilepticus due to Intraperitoneal Injection of Vehicle Containing Propylene Glycol in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Seth M.; Smith, Cara S.; Chen, Keying; Kleinman, Nanette; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Published reports of status epilepticus due to intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol in rats are sparse. In fact, there are no reports specifying a maximum safe dose of propylene glycol through intraperitoneal administration. We report here a case of unexpected seizures in Sprague Dawley rats after receiving an intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol. Nine-week-old, 225–250 gram male rats were reported to experience tremor progressing to seizures within minutes after given injections of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) dissolved in a 40 : 60 propylene glycol/corn oil vehicle solution by direct intraperitoneal (IP) slow bolus injection or via a preplaced intraperitoneal catheter. The World Health Organization suggests a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg/day of propylene glycol taken orally and no more than 25 mg/dL in blood serum, whereas the animals used in our study got a calculated maximum 0.52 g/kg (25 times lower dose). Blood tests from the seizing rat support a diagnosis of hemolysis and lactic acidosis which may have led to the seizures, all of which appeared to be a consequence of the propylene glycol administration. These findings are consistent with oral and intravenous administration of propylene glycol toxicity as previously reported in other species, including humans. To our knowledge, this report represents the first published case of status epilepticus due to an IP injection containing propylene glycol. PMID:28785508

  13. Status Epilepticus due to Intraperitoneal Injection of Vehicle Containing Propylene Glycol in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ereifej, Evon S; Meade, Seth M; Smith, Cara S; Chen, Keying; Kleinman, Nanette; Capadona, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Published reports of status epilepticus due to intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol in rats are sparse. In fact, there are no reports specifying a maximum safe dose of propylene glycol through intraperitoneal administration. We report here a case of unexpected seizures in Sprague Dawley rats after receiving an intraperitoneal injection containing propylene glycol. Nine-week-old, 225-250 gram male rats were reported to experience tremor progressing to seizures within minutes after given injections of resveratrol (30 mg/kg) dissolved in a 40 : 60 propylene glycol/corn oil vehicle solution by direct intraperitoneal (IP) slow bolus injection or via a preplaced intraperitoneal catheter. The World Health Organization suggests a maximum dose of 25 mg/kg/day of propylene glycol taken orally and no more than 25 mg/dL in blood serum, whereas the animals used in our study got a calculated maximum 0.52 g/kg (25 times lower dose). Blood tests from the seizing rat support a diagnosis of hemolysis and lactic acidosis which may have led to the seizures, all of which appeared to be a consequence of the propylene glycol administration. These findings are consistent with oral and intravenous administration of propylene glycol toxicity as previously reported in other species, including humans. To our knowledge, this report represents the first published case of status epilepticus due to an IP injection containing propylene glycol.

  14. Nanoparticle-induced intraperitoneal hyperthermia and targeted photoablation in treating ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chao-Chih; Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Huang, Jung-Tang; Chang, Chih-Long

    2015-01-01

    Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is effective in treating various intra-abdominal malignancies. However, this therapeutic modality can only be performed during surgical operations and cannot be used repeatedly. We propose repeatedly noninvasive hyperthermia mediated by pegylated silica-core gold nanoshells (pSGNs) in vivo with external near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. This study demonstrated that repeated photothermal treatment can effectively eliminate intraperitoneal tumors in mouse ovarian cancer models without damage of normal tissues. By conjugating pSGNs with anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibody, a significant photoablative effect can be achieved using lower amount of pSGNs and shorter NIR laser irradiation. Conjugated pSGNs specifically targeted and bound to cancer cells inside the peritoneal cavity. Our results indicate the possibility of a noninvasive method of repeated hyperthermia and photoablative therapies using nanoparticles. This has substantial clinical potential in treating ovarian and other intraperitoneal cancers. PMID:26318039

  15. Intraperitoneally placed Foley catheter via verumontanum initially presenting as a bladder rupture.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Omer A; Jeong, Young Beom

    2011-09-01

    Since urethral Foley catheterization is usually easy and safe, serious complications related to this procedure have been rarely reported. Herein, we describe a case of intraperitoneally placed urethral catheter via verumontanum presenting as intraperitoneal bladder perforation in a chronically debilitated elderly patient. A 82-yr-old male patient was admitted with symptoms of hematuria, lower abdominal pain after traumatic Foley catheterization. The retrograde cystography showed findings of intraperitoneal bladder perforation, but emergency laparotomy with intraoperative urethrocystoscopy revealed a tunnel-like false passage extending from the verumontanum into the rectovesical pouch between the posterior wall of the bladder and the anterior wall of the rectum with no bladder injury. The patient was treated with simple closure of the perforated rectovesical pouch and a placement of suprapubic cystostomy tube.

  16. Intraperitoneal Vancomycin Plus Either Oral Moxifloxacin or Intraperitoneal Ceftazidime for the Treatment of Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Yang, Zhikai; Qu, Zhen; Wang, Huan; Tian, Xue; Johnson, David W; Dong, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics is recommended as a first treatment for managing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. However, the efficacy of oral administration of quinolones has not been well studied. Randomized controlled pilot study. 80 eligible patients with PD-related peritonitis from Peking University First Hospital (40 in each arm). Intraperitoneal vancomycin, 1g, every 5 days plus oral moxifloxacin, 400mg, every day (treatment group) versus intraperitoneal vancomycin, 1g, every 5 days plus intraperitoneal ceftazidime, 1g, every day (control group). The primary end point was complete resolution of peritonitis, and secondary end points were primary or secondary treatment failure. PD effluent white blood cell count. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups were comparable. There were 24 and 22 Gram-positive organisms, 6 and 7 Gram-negative organisms, 9 and 10 culture-negative samples, and 1 and 1 fungal sample in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Complete resolution of peritonitis was achieved in 78% and 80% of cases in the treatment and control groups, respectively (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.30-2.52; P=0.8). There were 3 and 1 cases of relapse in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Primary and secondary treatment failure rates were not significantly different (33% vs 20% and 10% vs 13%, respectively). In each group, there was 1 peritonitis-related death and 6 transfers to hemodialysis therapy. During the 3-month follow-up period, 7 and 3 successive episodes of peritonitis occurred in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Only 2 adverse drug reactions (mild nausea and mild rash, respectively) were observed in the 2 groups. Sample size was relatively small and the eligibility ratio was low. Also, the number of peritonitis episodes was low, limiting the power to detect a difference between groups. This pilot study suggests that intraperitoneal vancomycin with oral moxifloxacin is a

  17. Subcutaneous Compared with Intraperitoneal KetamineXylazine for Anesthesia of Mice.

    PubMed

    Levin-Arama, Maya; Abraham, Lital; Waner, Trevor; Harmelin, Alon; Steinberg, David M; Lahav, Tal; Harlev, Mickey

    2016-11-01

    Mice are commonly anesthetized intraperitoneally with a ketamine-xylazine (KX) solution. Although this route of administration allows rapid uptake of the injected drugs, its disadvantages and potential risks include pain, peritoneal irritation, and perforation of an abdominal organ; some of the risks depend on the operator's experience. We compared the efficacy of intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of KX in HSD:ICR, BALB/cOlaHsd, and C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice in terms of time to onset and duration of surgical anesthesia, procedure safety, and mortality. Male and female mice (n = 20 each sex and strain) were anesthetized by using the same dose of intraperitoneal or subcutaneous KX. Time to onset and duration of immobilization and time to onset and duration of surgical anesthesia according to the pedal reflex differed significantly between strains. Within each strain, the durations of immobilization and surgical anesthesia were comparable between the routes of administration. The sex of the mouse but not the route of administration influenced whether surgical anesthesia was achieved. None of the subcutaneously-injected mice died. After intraperitoneal injections, 30% of the female mice died, compared with 3% of the male. In addition, fewer female mice achieved surgical anesthesia, suggesting a narrow therapeutic window for intraperitoneal KX in female mice. In conclusion, surgical anesthesia of mice with subcutaneous KX (K, 191.25 mg/kg; X, 4.25 mg/kg) seems to be safe, and the subcutaneous route is generally just as effective as the intraperitoneal route. The variability among mouse strains and between sexes requires further investigation to determine the optimal dosage.

  18. Quantifying rates of glucose production in vivo following an intraperitoneal tracer bolus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Ping; Zhou, Dan; Yao, Zuliang; Satapati, Santhosh; Chen, Ying; Daurio, Natalie A; Petrov, Aleksandr; Shen, Xiaolan; Metzger, Daniel; Yin, Wu; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Eiermann, George J; Hwa, Joyce; Fancourt, Craig; Miller, Corin; Herath, Kithsiri; Roddy, Thomas P; Slipetz, Deborah; Erion, Mark D; Previs, Stephen F; Kelley, David E

    2016-12-01

    Aberrant regulation of glucose production makes a critical contribution to the impaired glycemic control that is observed in type 2 diabetes. Although isotopic tracer methods have proven to be informative in quantifying the magnitude of such alterations, it is presumed that one must rely on venous access to administer glucose tracers which therein presents obstacles for the routine application of tracer methods in rodent models. Since intraperitoneal injections are readily used to deliver glucose challenges and/or dose potential therapeutics, we hypothesized that this route could also be used to administer a glucose tracer. The ability to then reliably estimate glucose flux would require attention toward setting a schedule for collecting samples and choosing a distribution volume. For example, glucose production can be calculated by multiplying the fractional turnover rate by the pool size. We have taken a step-wise approach to examine the potential of using an intraperitoneal tracer administration in rat and mouse models. First, we compared the kinetics of [U- 13 C]glucose following either an intravenous or an intraperitoneal injection. Second, we tested whether the intraperitoneal method could detect a pharmacological manipulation of glucose production. Finally, we contrasted a potential application of the intraperitoneal method against the glucose-insulin clamp. We conclude that it is possible to 1) quantify glucose production using an intraperitoneal injection of tracer and 2) derive a "glucose production index" by coupling estimates of basal glucose production with measurements of fasting insulin concentration; this yields a proxy for clamp-derived assessments of insulin sensitivity of endogenous production. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."

  20. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-01-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is “acceptable with conditions” for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital–phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as “acceptable with conditions.” PMID:26632787

  1. Acute intraperitoneal administration of taurine decreases the glycemia and reduces food intake in type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rosane; Caletti, Greice; Arbo, Bruno Dutra; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Schneider, Ricardo; Hansen, Alana Witt; Pulcinelli, Rianne Remus; Freese, Luana; Bandiera, Solange; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Barros, Helena Maria Tanhauser

    2018-07-01

    Taurine, an amino acid with antioxidant and osmoregulatory properties, has been studied for its possible antidiabetic properties in type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals. In type 2 diabetic mice, taurine decreases blood glucose through increased insulin secretion and insulin receptor sensitization. However, insulin is absent in type 1 diabetic individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine on parameters related to the energy balance that could explain the metabolic action of this amino acid in type 1 diabetic rats. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats received saline or taurine (100 mg/kg/day), intraperitoneally, for 30 days. Parameters such as palatable food intake, gastrointestinal transit rate, serum glucose, insulin, leptin, and glucagon levels were measured 60 min after the last taurine administration. Liver, kidneys, heart, and retroperitoneal fat were dissected and weighted. Glycogen levels were measured in the liver and soleus muscle. Our results showed that acute taurine administration decreased glycemia. It also decreased food intake in diabetic rats, without affecting other metabolic parameters. Altogether, our results suggest that in type 1 diabetic rats, taurine decreases blood glucose by a non-insulin-dependent mechanism. Due to the safety profile of taurine, and its effect on glycemia, this amino acid may help to design new drugs to add benefit to insulin therapy in type 1 diabetic individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [The system design of an intraperitoneal perfusion machine for hyperthermic chemotherapy based on single chip microcomputer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Xuandong; Li, Kaiyang

    2005-06-01

    A new kind of method for intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy has been proved to be very effective for the therapy of gastrointestinal cancer. In this article is reported an intraperitoneal perfusion machine which is designed for instituting the treatment. The liquor of the chemotherapy drug is infused into the abdomen after being heated by heating system; the liquor flows out of the abdomen is abandoned. The temperature of heating and the velocity of flow are controlled by MCU, thus the temperature of the liquor of the chemotherapy drug in the abdomen can be adjusted to the most favarable temperature.

  3. Radioimmunotherapy of nude mice with intraperitoneally growing ovarian cancer xenograft utilizing 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv18.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Lindegren, S; Back, T; Jacobsson, L; Leser, G; Horvath, G

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody given intraperitoneally to nude mice with intraperitoneal growth of a human ovarian cancer cell line. Female nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(7) cells of the human ovarian cancer cell line NIH:OVCAR 3. After about two weeks they were injected with the 211At-labelled specific monoclonal antibody MOv18 intraperitoneally. For comparison, other groups of mice were given the same labelled antibody intravenously, 211At-labelled unspecific antibody C242 intraperitoneally or unalbelled MOv18 intraperitoneally. Six weeks later the animals were sacrificed and the occurrence of tumour and ascites was determined. When the mice were treated with 211At-labelled MOv18 intraperitoneally 9 out of 10 were apparently free of both ascites and tumour compared to none of the mice given unlabelled antibody. 211At-labelled MOv18 given intravenously or 211At-labelled unspecific antibody given intraperitoneally were less effective. Regional radioimmunotherapy with the alpa-emitter 211Astatine seems to be an effective treatment of nude mice with intraperitoneally growing human ovarian cancer. Hopefully this treatment can be given in an adjuvant setting to women with minimal residual ovarian cancer in the future.

  4. Analgesic Effect of Intraperitoneal Bupivacaine Hydrochloride After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Alamdari, Nasser Malekpour; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood; Gholizadeh, Barmak; Shariati, Catrine

    2018-03-01

    The indications for sleeve gastrectomy as a primary procedure for the surgical treatment of morbid obesity have increased worldwide. Pain is the most common complaint for patients on the first day after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. There are various methods for decreasing pain after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy such as the use of intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride. This clinical trial was an attempt to discover the effects of intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride on alleviating postoperative pain after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. In general, 120 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated into two interventions and control groups using a balanced block randomization technique. One group received intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride (30 cm 3 ), and the other group served as the control one and did not receive bupivacaine hydrochloride. Diclofenac suppository and paracetamol injection were administered to both groups for postoperative pain management. The mean subjective postoperative pain score was significantly decreased in patients who received intraperitoneal bupivacaine hydrochloride within the first 24 h after the surgery; thus, the instillation of bupivacaine hydrochloride was beneficial in managing postoperative pain. The intraoperative peritoneal irrigation of bupivacaine hydrochloride (30 cm 3 , 0.25%) in sleeve gastrectomy patients was safe and effective in reducing postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting (IRCT2016120329181N4).

  5. Quantitative X-ray computed tomography peritoneography in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma patients receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leinwand, Joshua C; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Krishnamoorthy, Saravanan; Qi, Jing; Graziano, Joseph H; Slavkovic, Vesna N; Bates, Gleneara E; Lewin, Sharyn N; Allendorf, John D; Chabot, John A; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Taub, Robert N

    2013-12-01

    Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is used to treat peritoneal surface-spreading malignancies. We sought to determine whether volume and surface area of the intraperitoneal chemotherapy compartments are associated with overall survival and posttreatment glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) patients. Thirty-eight MPM patients underwent X-ray computed tomography peritoneograms during outpatient intraperitoneal chemotherapy. We calculated volume and surface area of contrast-filled compartments by semiautomated computer algorithm. We tested whether these were associated with overall survival and posttreatment GFR. Decreased likelihood of mortality was associated with larger surface areas (p = 0.0201) and smaller contrast-filled compartment volumes (p = 0.0341), controlling for age, sex, histologic subtype, and presence of residual disease >0.5 cm postoperatively. Larger volumes were associated with higher posttreatment GFR, controlling for pretreatment GFR, body surface area, surface area, and the interaction between body surface area and volume (p = 0.0167). Computed tomography peritoneography is an appropriate modality to assess for maldistribution of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. In addition to identifying catheter failure and frank loculation, quantitative analysis of the contrast-filled compartment's surface area and volume may predict overall survival and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Prospective studies should be undertaken to confirm and extend these findings to other diseases, including advanced ovarian carcinoma.

  6. Reduction of peritoneal carcinomatosis by intraperitoneal administration of phospholipids in rats

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Jens; Jansen, Petra Lynen; Lucas, Stefan; Schumpelick, Volker; Jansen, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Background Intraperitoneal tumor cell attachment after resection of gastrointestinal cancer may lead to a developing of peritoneal carcinosis. Intraabdominal application of phospholipids shows a significant decrease of adhesion formation even in case of rising tumor cell concentration. Methods In experiment A 2*106 colonic tumor cells (DHD/K12/Trb) were injected intraperitonely in female BD-IX-rats. A total of 30 rats were divided into three groups with treatments of phospholipids at 6% or 9% and the control group. In experiment B a total of 100 rats were divided into ten groups with treatments of phospholipids at 9% and the control group. A rising concentration of tumor cells (10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 250,000 and 500,000) were injected intraperitonely in female BD-IX-rats of the different groups. After 30 days, the extent of peritoneal carcinosis was determined by measuring the tumor volume, the area of attachment and the Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI). Results In experiment A, we found a significant reduction (control group: tumor volume: 12.0 ± 4.9 ml; area of tumor adhesion: 2434.4 ± 766 mm2; PCI 28.5 ± 10.0) of peritoneal dissemination according to all evaluation methods after treatment with phospholipids 6% (tumor volume: 5.2 ± 2.2 ml; area of tumor adhesion: 1106.8 ± 689 mm2; PCI 19.0 ± 5.0) and phospholipids 9% (tumor volume: 4.0 ± 3.5 ml; area of tumor adhesion: 362.7 ± 339 mm2; PCI 13.8 ± 5.1). In experiment B we found a significant reduction of tumor volume in all different groups of rising tumor cell concentration compared to the control. As detected by the area of attachment we found a significant reduction in the subgroups 1*104, 25*104 and 50*104. The reduction in the other subgroups shows no significance. The PCI could be reduced significantly in all subgroups apart from 5*104. Conclusion In this animal study intraperitoneal application of phospholipids resulted in reduction of the extent of peritoneal carcinomatosis after intraperitoneal

  7. The behavior of glass fibers in the rat following intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Collier, C G; Morris, K J; Launder, K A; Humphreys, J A; Morgan, A; Eastes, W; Townsend, S

    1994-12-01

    Potential carcinogenicity of fibers is believed to be determined by three factors: the dose, dimensions and durability of the fibers concerned. Currently there is considerable debate on the appropriateness of using results from intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection studies to predict the potential carcinogenicity of airborne fibers following inhalation. For ip results to have any significance to potential inhalation hazards, there should be some relation between the biopersistence, dose, and dose distribution of fibers in the serosal cavity and in the lung. Preliminary results on the durability of one experimental glass fiber in the peritoneal cavity suggest differences in dissolution when compared with durability in the lung. In the lung, the diameters of the long fibers (> 20 microns) were observed to decline at a rate consistent with their exposure to a neutral pH environment. The diameter of shorter fibers declined much more slowly, consistent with exposure to a more acidic environment such as is found in the phagolysosomes of alveolar macrophages. In the peritoneal cavity all fibers, regardless of length, dissolved at the same rate as short fibers in the lung. The effect of dose on the distribution of fibers in the peritoneal cavity was investigated using similar experimental glass fibers and compared with that of a powder made from ground fibers. For both materials at doses up to 1.5 mg, material was taken up by the peritoneal organs roughly in proportion to their surface area. This uptake was complete 1-2 days after injection. At higher doses, the majority of the material in excess of this 1.5 mg formed clumps of fibers (nodules) which were either free in the peritoneal cavity or loosely bound to peritoneal organs. These nodules displayed classic foreign body reactions with an associated granulomatous inflammatory response. The findings on both durability in the peritoneal cavity and the presence of two distinct populations of material following i.p. injection

  8. Intraperitoneal ketorolac for post-cholecystectomy pain: a double-blind randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, John; Ramsey, Gillian; Day, Andrew G; McMullen, Michael; Orr, Elizabeth; Phelan, Rachel; Jalink, Diederick

    2016-06-01

    Ketorolac is a parenterally active nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with localized anti-inflammatory properties. We examine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of locally administered intraperitoneal (IP) ketorolac compared with intravenous (IV) ketorolac during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. With institutional ethics approval, 120 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to receive intraoperative 1) IP ketorolac 30 mg + intravenous saline (IP group), 2) intraperitoneal saline + IV ketorolac 30 mg (IV group), or 3) intraperitoneal saline + intravenous saline (Control group) under standardized anesthesia. The primary and secondary outcomes were postoperative fentanyl requirements in the postanesthesia care unit and the time to first analgesic request, respectively. Other outcomes examined included abdominal pain (at rest and with coughing), shoulder pain, nausea, vomiting, and any other postoperative complications. On average, patients receiving IP ketorolac required less (mean difference, 29 μg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 56; P = 0.04) fentanyl than patients in the Control group but a similar (mean difference, 16 μg; 95% CI, 12 to 43; P = 0.27) amount compared to patients in the IV group. There was an increase in the median (interquartile range [IQR]) time to first request in the IP group (43[30-52] min) compared with the Control group (35 [27-49]min; P = 0.04) but no difference between the IP group compared with the IV group (47 [40-75] min; P = 0.22). Shoulder pain and resting pain were reduced with IP and IV ketorolac compared with Control, but there was no difference between the IP and IV groups. No differences were observed in any other outcomes, side effects, or complications attributable to opioids or ketorolac at any time points. This study did not demonstrate any advantage for the off-label topical intraperitoneal administration of ketorolac in this surgical population. Intraperitoneal and IV ketorolac showed

  9. The Identification of Splice Variants as Molecular Markers in Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    abnormality after unilateral dopamine depletion. Behav Brain Res 104:189-196 61. Jonsson G ( 1980 ) Chemical neurotoxins as denervation tools in...by alpha-lipoic acid. Faseb J 21:2226-2236 64. Kennedy JL, Farrer LA, Andreasen NC, Mayeux R, St George- Hyslop P (2003) The genetics of adult-onset

  10. Lipoyl dioleoylglycerol: Synthesis and potential use of a novel lipid in tribology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipoyl dioleoylglycerol is a lipophilic derivative of alpha-lipoic acid, a well-known antioxidant. Lipoyl dioleoylglycerol derived from vegetable oil maintains oily characteristics, suggesting potential use as a lubricant additive. Lipoyl dioleoylglycerol exists in an oxidized form with a disulfid...

  11. Evaluation of Eu(II) -based positive contrast enhancement after intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous injections.

    PubMed

    Ekanger, Levi A; Polin, Lisa A; Shen, Yimin; Haacke, E Mark; Allen, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    Eu(II) -based contrast agents offer physiologically relevant, metal-based redox sensing that is unachievable with Gd(III) -based contrast agents. To evaluate the in vivo contrast enhancement of Eu(II) as a function of injection type, we performed intravenous, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous injections in mice. Our data reveal a correlation between reported oxygen content and expected rates of diffusion with the persistence of Eu(II) -based contrast enhancement. Biodistribution studies revealed europium clearance through the liver and kidneys for intravenous and intraperitoneal injections, but no contrast enhancement was observed in organs associated with clearance. These data represent a step toward understanding the behavior of Eu(II) -based complexes in vivo. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Behrenbruch, Corina; Hollande, Frédéric; Thomson, Benjamin; Michael, Michael; Warrier, Satish K; Lynch, Craig; Heriot, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    The peritoneum is the second most common site of metastasis after the liver and the only site of metastatic disease in approximately 25% of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past, peritoneal carcinomatosis in CRC was thought to be equivalent to distant metastasis; however, the transcoelomic spread of malignant cells is an acknowledged alternative pathway. Metastasectomy with curative intent is well accepted in patients with liver metastasis in CRC despite the paucity of randomized trials. Therefore, there is rationale for local treatment with peritonectomy to eliminate macroscopic disease, followed by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy to destroy any residual free tumour cells within the peritoneal cavity. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current evidence for cytoreduction and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in CRC. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  13. Lipoma of round ligament on the intraperitoneal portion (abdominal site): a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozdemır, Ozhan; Sarı, Mustafa Erkan; Sakar, Vefa Selimova; Nebıoglu, Mehriban; Atalay, Cemal Resat

    2017-09-01

    Primary tumors of round ligament are rare, and when found are typically leiomyomas. Endometrioma, and mesothelial cysts are the benign lesions recognized as involving the round ligament. We report a case of lipoma of the round ligament in a 48-year-old premenopausal woman. Round ligament lipoma on the intraperitoneal portion (abdominal site) is very rare and it should be kept in the differential diagnosis of ovarian and abdominal masses.

  14. Purification of Encephalitozoon Cultures Contaminated by Mycoplasmas by Murine Intraperitoneal Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Ridoux, Olivier; Foucault, Cédric; Drancourt, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Encephalitozoon species are strict intracellular microsporidia. Cocultures with eukaryotic cell lines can become accidently contaminated by mycoplasmas. We propose a decontamination protocol based on differential cell targeting after intraperitoneal inoculation in mice. Mycoplasma-free microsporidia were isolated from the brains and spleens of inoculated mice 24 h postinoculation by using the centrifugation shell vial system. Identification was confirmed by direct sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA. PMID:9666031

  15. Extraperitoneal vs. intraperitoneal route for permanent colostomy: a meta-analysis of 1,071 patients.

    PubMed

    Lian, Lei; Wu, Xian-Rui; He, Xiao-Sheng; Zou, Yi-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Jian; Lan, Ping; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Parastomal hernia is a common complication after colostomy construction. Whether an extraperitoneal route for colostomy creation can reduce the risk of parastomal hernia remains controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the value of extraperitoneal route in the prevention of parastomal hernia and other postoperative complications related to colostomy. A literature search of Medline, Embase, Ovid, and Cochrane databases from the years 1966 to 2010 was performed. Studies comparing extraperitoneal colostomy with intraperitoneal colostomy were identified. Extraperitoneal colostomy was performed to prevent colostomy-related complications. Data on the following outcomes were sought: incidence of postoperative colostomy complications including parastomal hernia, prolapse, and bowel obstruction. Seven retrospective studies with a combined total of 1,071 patients (250 extraperitoneal colostomy and 821 intraperitoneal colostomy) were identified. There was a significantly lower rate of parastomal hernia (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.73, p = 0.002) in the extraperitoneal colostomy group. However, the occurrences of bowel obstruction and prolapse were not significantly different between the two groups. A limitation of the study lies on the meta-analysis of observational studies. Extraperitoneal colostomy is associated with a lower rate of postoperative parastomal hernia as compared to intraperitoneal colostomy. Prospective randomized controlled trial is warranted to further determine the role of extraperitoneal route in the prevention of parastomal hernia.

  16. The influence of intraperitoneal transplantation of free and encapsulated Langerhans islets on the second set phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Orłowski, Tadeusz; Godlewska, Ewa; Mościcka, Maria; Sitarek, Elzbieta

    2003-12-01

    To protect the allografts or xenografts against transplant rejection special semipermeable membranes are applied. So far, there are only a few studies on the influence of an immunoisolated graft on the recipient immune system. Therefore, the possibility that an intraperitoneally grafted alginate/poly L-lysine/alginate (APA) coated pancreatic islets graft can effectively sensitize the recipient and provoke second set phenomenon was studied. C3H male mice and male WAG rats were used as donors of full-thickness skin and of free or encapsulated islet intraperitoneal grafts. Male BALB/c mice served as recipients. Skin grafts were performed following the method of Billingham and Medawar. The length of the second skin graft survival time served as the criterion for the sensitizing capacity of the primary graft. APA encapsulation of islets delayed but has not prevented the development of the second set phenomenon. However, the second skin graft rejection time was significantly longer after grafting of encapsulated islets than after free islets transplantation. APA microencapsulation of intraperitoneally transplanted islets delayed but did not prevent the development of the second set phenomenon. Encapsulation does not ensure complete immunoisolation, but only creates "an artificially immunoprivileged site of transplantation."

  17. Intraperitoneal Urinary Bladder Perforation with Pneumoperitoneum in Association with Indwelling Foley Catheter Diagnosed in Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Chenyang; Maria, Pedro P; Dym, R Joshua

    2017-11-01

    Indwelling Foley catheter is a rare cause of urinary bladder perforation, a serious injury with high mortality that demands accurate and prompt diagnosis. While the gold standard for diagnosis of bladder injury is computed tomography (CT) cystography, few bladder ruptures associated with Foley catheter have been reported to be diagnosed in the emergency department (ED). An 83-year-old man with indwelling Foley catheter presented to the ED for hematuria and altered mental status. He was diagnosed to have intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder in the ED using abdominal and pelvic CT without contrast, which demonstrated bladder wall discontinuity, intraperitoneal free fluid, and pneumoperitoneum. The patient was treated successfully with medical management and bladder drainage. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: To our knowledge, this is the first report of intraperitoneal urinary bladder perforation associated with Foley catheter diagnosed in the ED by CT without contrast. Pneumoperitoneum found in this case was a clue to the diagnosis and is a benign finding that does not necessitate urgent surgical intervention. The early and accurate diagnosis in this case allowed for effective management with good clinical outcome. The use of indwelling Foley catheter has a high prevalence, especially in long-term care facility residents, who are frequent visitors in the ED. Therefore, emergency physicians and radiologists should be familiar with the presentation and imaging findings of this potential injury associated with Foley catheters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subchronic, Low-Level Intraperitoneal Injections of Manganese (IV) Oxide and Manganese (II) Chloride Affect Rat Brain Neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Brian S; Larsen, Erik H; Ladefoged, Ole; Lam, Henrik R

    Manganese (Mn) is neurotoxic and can induce manganism, a Parkinson-like disease categorized as being a serious central nervous system irreversible neurodegenerative disease. An increased risk of developing symptoms of Parkinson disease has been linked to work-related exposure, for example, for workers in agriculture, horticulture, and people living near areas with frequent use of Mn-containing pesticides. In this study, the focus was placed on neurochemical effects of Mn. Rats were dosed intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl (control), 1.22 mg Mn (as MnO 2 )/kg bodyweight (bw)/day, or 2.5 mg Mn (as MnCl 2 )/kg bw/day for 7 d/wk for 8 or 12 weeks. This dosing regimen adds relevant new knowledge about Mn neurotoxicity as a consequence of low-dose subchronic Mn dosing. Manganese concentrations increased in the striatum, the rest of the brain, and in plasma, and regional brain neurotransmitter concentrations, including noradrenaline, dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytrytamine, glutamate, taurine, and γ-amino butyric acid, and the activity of acetylcholinesterase changed. Importantly, a target parameter for Parkinson disease and manganism, the striatal DA concentration, was reduced after 12 weeks of dosing with MnCl 2 . Plasma prolactin concentration was not significantly affected due to a potentially reduced dopaminergic inhibition of the prolactin release from the anterior hypophysis. No effects on the striatal α-synuclein and synaptophysin protein levels were detected.

  19. Effects of troxerutin on cognitive deficits and glutamate cysteine ligase subunits in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songyun; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Jie; Wang, Ruiying; Wang, Mian

    2017-02-15

    Increasing evidence demonstrates an association between diabetes and hippocampal neuron damage. This study aimed to determine the effects of troxerutin on cognitive deficits and glutamate cysteine ligase subunits (GCLM and GCLC) in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. At 12weeks after streptozotocin injection, T1DM rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15 each group) to receive no treatment (T1DM), saline (T1DM+saline), alpha-lipoic acid (T1DM+alpha-lipoic acid), and troxerutin (T1DM+troxerutin), respectively, for 6weeks. Meanwhile, 10 control animals (NC group) were assessed in parallel. Learning performance was evaluated by the Morris water maze. After treatment, hippocampi were collected for pathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Next, hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were assessed. Finally, glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC) and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNA and protein levels were quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Compared with T1DM and T1DM+saline groups, escape latency was overtly reduced in T1DM+alpha-lipoic acid and T1DM+troxerutin groups. Significantly increased GCLM and GCLC mRNA levels, GCLC protein amounts, SOD activity, and GSH levels, and reduced MDA amounts were observed in T1DM+alpha-lipoic acid and T1DM+troxerutin groups. In T1DM and T1DM+saline groups, H&E staining showed less pyramidal cells in the hippocampus, with disorganized layers, karyopyknosis, decreased endochylema, and cavitation, effects relieved in T1DM+alpha-lipoic acid and T1DM+troxerutin groups. Troxerutin alleviates oxidative stress and promotes learning in streptozotocin-induced T1DM rats, a process involving GCLC expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraperitoneal temperature and desiccation during endoscopic surgery. Intraoperative humidification and cooling of the peritoneal cavity can reduce adhesions.

    PubMed

    Corona, Roberta; Verguts, Jasper; Koninckx, Robert; Mailova, Karina; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Koninckx, Philippe R

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to document quantitatively the intraperitoneal temperature and desiccation during laparoscopic surgery. The temperature, relative humidity, and flow rate were measured in vitro and during laparoscopic surgery, at the entrance and at the exit of the abdomen. This permitted us to calculate desiccation for various flow rates using either dry CO(2) or CO(2) humidified with 100% relative humidity at any preset temperature between 25 and 37°C. The study showed that desiccation, both in vitro and in vivo, varies as expected with the flow rates and relative humidity while intraperitoneal temperature varies mainly with desiccation. Temperature regulation of bowels is specific and drops to the intraperitoneal temperature without affecting core body temperature. With a modified humidifier, desiccation could be eliminated while maintaining the intraperitoneal temperature between 31 to 32°C. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breakthrough therapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with taxanes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hironori; Kitayama, Joji; Ishigami, Hironori; Kazama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kawai, Kazushige; Hata, Keisuke; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Junichiro; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-11-15

    The effect of chemotherapy on peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of gastric cancer remains unclear. Recently, the intraperitoneal (IP) administration of taxanes [e.g., paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DOC)] during the perioperative period has shown promising results. Herein, we summarized the rationale and methodology for using IP chemotherapy with taxanes and reviewed the clinical results. IP administered taxanes remain in the IP space at an extremely high concentration for 48-72 h. The drug directly infiltrates peritoneal metastatic nodules from the surface and then produces antitumor effects, making it ideal for IP chemotherapy. There are two types of perioperative IP chemotherapy with taxanes: neoadjuvant intraperitoneal and systemic chemotherapy and sequential perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (SPIC). In SPIC, patients receive neoadjuvant IP chemotherapy and the same regimen of IP chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) until disease progression. Usually, a taxane dissolved in 500-1000 mL of saline at ordinary temperature is administered through an IP access port on an outpatient basis. According to phase I studies, the recommended doses (RD) are as follows: IP DOC, 45-60 mg/m(2); IP PTX [without intravenous (IV) PTX], 80 mg/m(2); and IP PTX (with IV PTX), 20 mg/m(2). Phase II studies have reported a median survival time of 14.4-24.6 mo with a 1-year overall survival of 67%-78%. A phase III study comparing S-1 in combination with IP and IV PTX to S-1 with IV cisplatin started in 2011. The prognosis of patients who underwent CRS was better than that of those who did not; however, this was partly due to selection bias. Although several phase II studies have shown promising results, a randomized controlled study is needed to validate the effectiveness of IP chemotherapy with taxanes for PC of gastric cancer.

  2. High pressure enhances the effect of hyperthermia in intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Facy, Olivier; Al Samman, Sophie; Magnin, Guy; Ghiringhelli, Francois; Ladoire, Sylvain; Chauffert, Bruno; Rat, Patrick; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) achieve good results in selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. High intra-abdominal pressure could enhance the penetration of chemotherapy drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high pressure and hyperthermia when used separately and when combined in terms of blood and tissue absorption of oxaliplatin in a swine model of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. Four groups of 5 pigs each underwent laparotomy and open intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin at a constant concentration (150 mg/L) for 30 minutes in normothermia and atmospheric pressure (group 1), or hyperthermia (42°C) and atmospheric pressure (group 2), or normothermia and high pressure (25 cm H2O) (group 3), or hyperthermia and high pressure (group 4). High pressure was achieved thorough a water column over the abdomen. Systemic absorption and abdominal tissue mapping of the penetration of oxaliplatin in each group were studied. Blood concentrations of oxaliplatin were similar in the different groups. Hyperthermia achieved higher concentrations in visceral surfaces (P = 0.0014), but not in parietal surfaces. High pressure enhanced diffusion of the drug in both the visceral and parietal peritoneum (P = 0.0058 and P = 0.0044, respectively). The combination of hyperthermia and high pressure significantly increased the penetration of oxaliplatin and achieved the highest tissue concentrations (10.39 mg/kg vs 5.48 mg/kg; P = 0.00001 in the visceral peritoneum, and 66.16 mg/kg vs 35.62 mg/kg; P = 0.0003 in the parietal peritoneum). Open high-pressure HIPEC with oxaliplatin is feasible in the pig. Hyperthermia enhances diffusion in the visceral peritoneum, whereas high pressure is effective in the visceral and parietal peritoneum. The combination of the two achieves the highest tissue concentrations of oxaliplatin.

  3. Intraperitoneal Continuous-Rate Infusion for the Maintenance of Anesthesia in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Terzi, Matthew C; Jaber, Samer M; Hankenson, F Claire; McKinstry-Wu, Andrew; Kelz, Max B; Marx, James O

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injectable anesthetics are often used to achieve surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. Because bolus redosing of injectable anesthetics can cause unacceptably high mortality, we evaluated intraperitoneal continuous-rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine with or without xylazine for maintaining surgical anesthesia for an extended period of time. Anesthesia was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (8 mg/kg) without or with acepromazine at 0.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg. At 10 min after induction, CRI for 90 min was initiated and comprised 25%, 50%, or 100% of the initial ketamine dose per hour or 50% of the initial doses of both ketamine and xylazine. Anesthetic regimens were compared on the basis of animal immobility, continuous surgical depth of anesthesia as determined by the absence of a pedal withdrawal reflex, and mortality. Consistent with previous studies, the response to anesthetics was highly variable. Regimens that provided the longest continuous surgical plane of anesthesia with minimal mortality were ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) with CRI of 100% of the initial ketamine dose and ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg) with CRI of 50% of the initial ketamine and xylazine doses. In addition, heart rate and respiratory rate did not increase consistently in response to a noxious stimulus during CRI anesthesia, even when mice exhibited a positive pedal withdrawal reflex, suggesting that these parameters are unreliable indicators of anesthetic depth during ketamine–xylazine anesthesia in mice. We conclude that intraperitoneal CRI anesthesia in mice prolongs injectable anesthesia more consistently and with lower mortality than does bolus redosing. PMID:27657709

  4. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine with epinephrine or dexmedetomidine after intraperitoneal administration in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Benito, Javier; Monteiro, Beatriz; Beaudry, Francis; Steagall, Paulo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine in combination with epinephrine or dexmedetomidine after intraperitoneal administration in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen healthy adult cats (3.3 ± 0.6 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial after obtaining owners' consent. Anesthetic protocol included buprenorphine-propofol-isoflurane. Meloxicam [0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW)] was administered subcutaneously before surgery. Cats were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive 1 of 2 treatments. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine 0.25% (2 mg/kg BW) was administered with epinephrine (BE group; 2 μg/kg BW) or dexmedetomidine (BD group; 1 μg/kg BW) before ovariohysterectomy ( n = 8/group). A catheter was placed in the jugular vein for blood sampling. Blood samples were collected for up to 8 h after bupivacaine was administered. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and non-compartmental model, respectively. Pain was evaluated using the UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional composite pain scale (MCPS), the Glasgow composite feline pain scale (GPS), and a dynamic visual analog scale up to 8 h after extubation. Rescue analgesia was provided with buprenorphine if MCPS was ≥ 6. Repeated measures linear models were used for analysis of pain and sedation scores ( P < 0.05). Maximum bupivacaine plasma concentrations (Cmax) for BE and BD were 1155 ± 168 ng/mL and 1678 ± 364 ng/mL ( P = 0.29) at 67 ± 13 min (Tmax) and 123 ± 59 min ( P = 0.17), respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters and pain scores were not different between treatments ( P > 0.05). One cat in the BE group received rescue analgesia ( P = 0.30). Intraperitoneal bupivacaine with epinephrine or dexmedetomidine produced concentrations below toxic levels and similar analgesic effects. It is therefore safe to administer these drug combinations in

  5. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Novel Candidate Markers of Ovarian Carcinoma Intraperitoneal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Elsnerova, Katerina; Bartakova, Alena; Tihlarik, Josef; Bouda, Jiri; Rob, Lukas; Skapa, Petr; Hruda, Martin; Gut, Ivan; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Soucek, Pavel; Vaclavikova, Radka

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has the highest mortality among gynecological carcinomas. The lack of specific markers for prognostic determination of EOC progression hinders the search for novel effective therapies. The aim of the present study was (i) to explore differences in expressions of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and solute carrier (SLC) transporter genes, genes associated with drug metabolism and cell cycle regulation between control ovarian tissues (n = 14), primary EOCs (n = 44) and intraperitoneal metastases (n = 29); (ii) to investigate associations of gene expression levels with prognosis of patients with intraperitoneal metastases. In all tissue samples, transcript levels of the above target genes were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Gene expression levels were compared between particular tissue types and evaluated with regard to progression-free survival (PFS) and drug-resistance status of patients with metastases. Gene expression of ABCA7 significantly increased and that of ESR2 decreased in the order control ovarian tissues - primary EOCs - metastases. High expressions of ABCA2 / 8 / 9 / 10 , ABCB1 , ABCC9 , ABCG2 , ATP7A , SLC16A14 , and SOD3 genes were significantly associated with longer progression-free survival of patients. In intraperitoneal metastases, expression of all of these genes highly correlated and indicated prognostic profile. Transporters from the ABCA family, ABCG2, and ESR2 are involved mainly in lipid metabolism, membrane transport, and cell proliferation. These processes are thus probably the most important for EOC progression. Based on these results, we have proposed novel markers of ovarian carcinoma progression and metastatic spread which might be potentially useful as therapeutic targets. Their significance should be further explored on a larger independent set of patients.

  6. NPY intraperitoneal injections produce antidepressant-like effects and downregulate BDNF in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Gelfo, Francesca; Tirassa, Paola; De Bartolo, Paola; Croce, Nicoletta; Bernardini, Sergio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have documented an involvement of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in stress-related disorders. Stress-related disorders are also characterized by changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophins implicated in the survival and function of neurons. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate whether an NPY intraperitoneal treatment has antidepressant-like effects in rats subjected to a classical stress paradigm, the Forced Swim Test (FST), in association with changes in local brain neurotrophin production. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with either NPY (60 μg/kg) or a vehicle for three consecutive days between two FST sessions and then tested for time spent (or delay onset) in immobile posture. Moreover, we measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) neurotrophin levels in the hypothalamus and corticosterone levels in plasma. The data showed that NPY induced a significant delay in the onset and a significant reduction in the duration of the immobility posture in FST. We also found that NPY decreased BDNF levels in the hypothalamus and corticosterone levels in plasma. Immobility posture in FST can be reduced by antidepressant drugs. Thus, our data show an antidepressant-like effect of NPY associated with changes in BDNF levels in the hypothalamus and reduced activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These findings, while confirming the involvement of the NPY system in stress-related disorders, suggest that a less invasive route of administration, such as an intraperitoneal injection, may be instrumental in coping with stressful events in animal models and perhaps in humans. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Quality of life after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal surface malignancies.

    PubMed

    Piso, Pompiliu; Glockzin, Gabriel; von Breitenbuch, Phillipp; Popp, Felix Cristoph; Dahlke, Marc Hendrik; Schlitt, Hans J; Nissan, Aviram

    2009-09-15

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is associated with high morbidity. The Quality of Life (QoL) assessment in this patient group with a limited life expectancy and high recurrence rate is important. Published data show an impairment of postoperative Quality of Life at 3 months postoperatively with an improvement over 6-12 months at levels higher than the baseline. Standardized instruments QoL have to be included in clinical trials assessing the efficacy of CRS and HIPEC. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Efficacy of periportal infiltration and intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine after laparoscopic surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Di Pace, Maria Rita; Cimador, Marcello; Catalano, Pieralba; Caruso, Anna; Sergio, Maria; Casuccio, Alessandra; De Grazia, Enrico

    2009-12-01

    Postoperative pain is less intense after laparoscopic than after open surgery. However, minimally invasive surgery is not a a pain-free procedure. Many trials have been done in adults using intraperitoneal and/or incisional local anesthetic, but similar studies have not yet been reported in the literature in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of periportal infiltration and intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine in children undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Thirty patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Group A (n = 10) received local infiltration of port sites with 10 mL of ropivacaine. Group B (n = 10) received both an infiltration of port sites with 10 mL of ropivacaine and an intraperitoneal instillation of 10 mL of ropivacaine. Group C did not receive any analgesic treatment. The local anesthetic was always administered at the end of surgery. The degree of postoperative abdominal parietal pain, abdominal visceral pain, and shoulder pain was assessed by using a Wong-Baker pain scale and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 3, 6 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. The following parameters were also evaluated: rescue analgesic treatment, length of hospital stay, and time of return to normal activities. Three hours after operation, patients had low pain scores. Six and 12 hours postoperatively, the abdominal parietal pain was significantly higher (P < 0.0005) in group C than in the other two groups, both treated with an infiltration at the trocar sites; mean intensity of abdominal visceral pain was significantly lower (P < 0.0005) in group B than in groups A and C; the overall incidence of shoulder pain was significantly lower (P < 0.0005) in group B patients than in patients of groups A and C. At 20 hours postoperatively, pain scores were significantly reduced of intensity in all groups. Rescue analgesic treatment was significantly higher in group C, if compared to groups A and B 12

  9. Predicting Survival After Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Appendix Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Omer; Jaradat, Ihab; Chakrabarty, Bipasha; Selvasekar, Chelliah R; Fulford, Paul E; Saunders, Mark P; Renehan, Andrew G; Wilson, Malcolm S; O'Dwyer, Sarah T

    2018-05-15

    Appendix adenocarcinomas are rare tumors with propensity for peritoneal metastasis. Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is an established treatment with curative intent, but, to date, studies reporting survival have been heterogeneous with regard to their patient groups (including other tumor types), interventions (not all patients receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy), and follow-up (varying surveillance protocols). The aim of this study is to quantify the impact of this intervention on survival in a homogeneous group of patients with appendix adenocarcinoma receiving standardized treatment and follow-up, and to determine the impact of prognostic indicators on survival. This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective database at a national peritoneal tumor center where all patients had their appendix pathology reviewed and management planned by a specialized peritoneal tumor multidisciplinary team. Data were extracted on prognostic indicators including peritoneal cancer index, completeness of cytoreduction score, preoperative tumor markers, and histological features. Overall and disease event-free survival from the date of intervention were evaluated using Kaplan Meier curves and univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 65 patients underwent cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for appendix adenocarcinoma between 2005 and 2015. Median follow-up was 44.3 months. The overall survival was 55.5% and disease event-free survival was 36.1% (5-year rate). Peritoneal Cancer Index <7, complete cytoreduction score of 0, and preoperative CEA of <6 were all associated with significantly higher overall and disease event-free survival. CA19-9 <38 and CA125 <31 were not associated with a significantly higher overall or disease event-free survival. The sample size was limited because of the rarity of this tumor type. This study quantifies the impact of cytoreductive surgery with

  10. Effect of exposure routes on the relationships of lethal toxicity to rats from oral, intravenous, intraperitoneal and intramuscular routes.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhong H; Long, Shuang; Zhou, Yuan Y; Peng, Zi Y; Sun, Yi N; Chen, Si W; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-11-01

    The lethal toxicity values (log 1/LD(50)) of 527 aliphatic and aromatic compounds in oral, intravenous, intramuscular and intraperitoneal routes were used to investigate the relationships of log 1/LD(50) from different exposure routes. Regression analysis shows that the log 1/LD(50) values are well correlated between intravenous and intraperitoneal or intramuscular injections. However, the correlations between oral and intravenous or intraperitoneal routes are relatively poor. Comparison of the average residuals indicates that intravenous injection is the most sensitive exposure route and oral administration is the least sensitive exposure route. This is attributed to the difference in kinetic process of toxicity testing. The toxic effect of a chemical can be similar or significantly different between exposure routes, depending on the absorption rates of chemicals into blood. Inclusion of hydrophobic parameter and fractions of ionic forms can improve the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes, but not between intraperitoneal and oral routes. This is due to the differences of absorption rate in different exposure environments from different routes. Several factors, such as experimental uncertainty, metabolism and toxic kinetics, can affect the correlations between intravenous and intraperitoneal or oral routes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emphysema induced by elastase enhances acute inflammatory pulmonary response to intraperitoneal LPS in rats.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Lídia Maria Carneiro; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Lucinda, Leda Marília Fonseca; Fazza, Thaís Fernanda; Rabelo, Maria Aparecida Esteves; Fonseca, Adenilson Souza; de Paoli, Flavia; Pinheiro, Bruno Valle

    2016-12-01

    Abnormalities in lungs caused by emphysema might alter their response to sepsis and the occurrence of acute lung injury (ALI). This study compared the extension of ALI in response to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in Wistar rats with and without emphysema induced by elastase. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: control, emphysema without sepsis, normal lung with sepsis and emphysema with sepsis. Sepsis was induced, and 24 h later the rats were euthanised. The following analysis was performed: blood gas measurements, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung permeability and histology. Animals that received LPS showed significant increase in a lung injury scoring system, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and IL-6, TNF-α and CXCL2 mRNA expression in lung tissue. Animals with emphysema and sepsis showed increased alveolocapillary membrane permeability, demonstrated by higher BAL/serum albumin ratio. In conclusion, the presence of emphysema induced by elastase increases the inflammatory response in the lungs to a systemic stimulus, represented in this model by the intraperitoneal injection of LPS. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  12. Induction of mammary tumors in rat by intraperitoneal injection of NMU: histopathology and estral cycle influence.

    PubMed

    Rivera, E S; Andrade, N; Martin, G; Melito, G; Cricco, G; Mohamad, N; Davio, C; Caro, R; Bergoc, R M

    1994-11-11

    In order to obtain an experimental model we induced mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 50 mg/kg body weight when animals were 50, 80 and 110 days old. Tumor sizes were measured with a caliper and their growth parameters and histopathological properties were tested. For 100 rats, 88.4% of developed lesions were ductal carcinomas, histologically classified as 52.8% cribiform variety, 30.6% solid carcinoma. Metastases in liver, spleen and lung were present. Other primary tumors were detected with low incidence. The influence of the rat estrous cycle during the first exposure to intraperitoneal NMU injection was studied. The latency period in estrus, proestrus and diestrus was 82 +/- 15, 77 +/- 18 and 79 +/- 18 days, respectively. Tumor incidence was significantly higher in estrus (95.2%) than proestrus (71.4%) or diestrus (77.4), (P < 0.01). Mean number or tumors per animal was similar among the three groups (4.4 +/- 3.2, 3.8 +/- 3.6, 3.2 +/- 1.8). The procedure described appears to be the simplest method for inducing experimental mammary tumors in rats.

  13. Intraabdominal actinomycosis resulting in a difficult to diagnose intraperitoneal mass: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Naoto; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Nakahara, Yujiro; Wakasugi, Masaki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Takachi, Kou; Oshima, Satoshi; Yoshida, Kyotaro

    2018-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous disease caused by Actinomyces israelii. Preoperative confirmed diagnosis is very difficult, so most cases are diagnosed preoperatively as malignant tumors. We report a case of intraabdominal actinomycosis which was difficult to diagnose preoperatively. A woman, 60 years old, experienced discomfort in her lower right abdomen. She complained of nausea and anorexia and visited our hospital. Laboratory blood tests, abdominal CT, and abdominal MRI led to a diagnosis of a uterine sarcoma or primary intestinal mass, and she underwent surgery. Her histopathological diagnosis was intraabdominal actinomycosis. Actinomycosis is a chronic purulent granulomatous inflammation caused by Actinomyces israelii. No clinical symptoms or laboratory findings are characteristic of abdominal actinomycosis, so this disorder is very difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Therefore, many cases are diagnosed as malignant tumors and undergo surgery. After surgery, long-term antibiotic treatment (penicillin) is usually administered. We reported a case of intraabdominal actinomycosis that resulted in a difficult to diagnose intraperitoneal mass. When a large intraperitoneal mass is found, actinomycosis needs to be included as one of differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental intraperitoneal infusion of OK-432 in rats: evaluation of peritoneal complications and pathology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jun Woo

    2010-06-01

    OK-432 is known to be a potent sclerosant of cystic lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both its safety and pathologic effects after the infusion of OK-432 into the peritoneal cavity of rats. Twenty male rats were used in this study. Twelve rats were infused intraperitoneally with 0.2 Klinishe Einheit of OK-432 melted in 2 mL of normal saline (group 1: the treated group); four rats each were infused intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of 99% ethanol (group 2) and normal saline (group 3), and served as the control groups. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed both before and after the infusions in all rats. Three rats in group 1 and one rat in each of groups 2 and 3 were sacrificed each week following the infusion. Gross and microscopic evaluations of the peritoneum and abdominal cavity were performed on each rat. In group 1, the abdomen was clear on gross inspection and the peritoneum was unremarkable on microscopic examination. In group 2, mild-to-moderate peritoneal adhesions were revealed grossly, and inflammation and fibrosis of the peritoneum were demonstrated microscopically. In group 3, no specific abnormalities were noted on gross or microscopic examinations. Leakage or abnormal infusion of OK-432 solution into the peritoneal cavity during sclerotherapy of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal cystic lesions does not result in any significant complications. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anaesthetic Considerations in the Perioperative Management of Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sheshadri, Deepak B; Chakravarthy, Murali R

    2016-06-01

    Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has emerged as one of the primary modalities of treatment of diffuse peritoneal malignancies. It is a complex surgical procedure with the patients facing major and potentially life threatening alterations of haemodynamic, respiratory, metabolic and thermal balance with significant fluid losses and the perioperative management is challenging for anaesthesiologists and intensive care physicians. Though the alterations are short lived, these patients require advanced organ function monitoring and support perioperatively. The anaesthesiologist is involved in the management of haemodynamics, respiratory function, coagulation, haematologic parameters, fluid balance, thermal variations, and metabolic and nutritional support perioperatively. The chemotherapy instillate used are known to cause nephrotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, dyselectrolytemia and lactic acidosis. The preoperative polypharmacy for pain control, previous surgery and/or chemotherapy, malnourished status secondary to feeding problems and tumour wasting syndrome make the task all the more challenging. The anaesthesiologist also needs to consider the perioperative care from a quality of life perspective and proper preoperative counselling is important. The present overview summarizes the challenges faced by the anaesthesiologist regarding the pathophysiological alterations during the Cytoreductive surgery and Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative periods.

  16. Current status and future prospects of hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) clinical trials in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Renee A; O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Zivanovic, Oliver; Chi, Dennis S

    2017-08-01

    The natural history of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer is one of clinical remission after surgery and platinum/taxane-based intravenous (IV) and/or intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy followed by early or late recurrence in the majority of patients. Prevention of progression and recurrence remains a major hurdle in the management of ovarian cancer. Recently, many investigators have evaluated the use of normothermic and hyperthermic intraoperative IP drug delivery as a management strategy. This is a narrative review of the current status of clinical trials of hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in ovarian cancer and the future directions for this treatment strategy. The existing studies on HIPEC in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer are mostly retrospective in nature, are heterogeneous with regards to combined inclusion of primary and recurrent disease and lack unbiased data. Until data are available from evidence-based trials, it is reasonable to conclude that surgical cytoreduction and HIPEC is a rational and interesting, though still investigative, approach in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer, whose use should be employed within prospective clinical trials.

  17. Intraperitoneal administration of chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles targeting TNFα prevents radiation-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Isabel; Alsner, Jan; Behlke, Mark A; Besenbacher, Flemming; Overgaard, Jens; Howard, Kenneth A; Kjems, Jørgen

    2010-10-01

    One of the most common and dose-limiting long-term adverse effects of radiation therapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), which is characterized by restricted tissue flexibility, reduced compliance or strictures, pain and in severe cases, ulceration and necrosis. Several strategies have been proposed to ameliorate RIF but presently no effective one is available. Recent studies have reported that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) plays a role in fibrogenesis. Male CDF1 mice were radiated with a single dose of 45 Gy. Chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles targeting TNFα were intraperitoneal injected and late radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) was assessed using a modification of the leg contracture model. Additionally, the effect of these nanoparticles on tumor growth and tumor control probability in the absence of radiation was examined in a C3H mammary carcinoma model. We show in this work, that targeting TNFα in macrophages by intraperitoneal administration of chitosan/DsiRNA nanoparticles completely prevented radiation-induced fibrosis in CDF1 mice without revealing any cytotoxic side-effects after a long-term administration. Furthermore, such TNFα targeting was selective without any significant influence on tumor growth or irradiation-related tumor control probability. This nanoparticle-based RNAi approach represents a novel approach to prevent RIF with potential application to improve clinical radiation therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood and tissue tocopherol levels in rats following intraperitoneally administered alpha-tocopheryl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGee, C D; Greenwood, C E; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1990-01-01

    The correction or maintenance of blood and tissue alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) levels by intraperitoneally administered all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (alpha-Tac) was compared with RRR- alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) in vitamin E-depleted and control rats. Rats received 1.3 TE vitamin E daily for 7 days. alpha-Tac was detected in plasma of one-third of alpha-Tac-treated rats 24 hr after the first treatment, although not in subsequent samplings. Both alpha-Tac and alpha-Toc increased tocopherol levels in plasma and liver of E-deprived rats, while little or no change was observed in adipose tissue and brain. Similarly, control rats treated with alpha-Tac or alpha-Toc had significantly greater (p less than 0.05) plasma and liver alpha-Toc levels at day 3 and day 7 than did saline-treated rats. There was no significant difference in adipose alpha-Toc levels among treatment groups of control rats. The results of this study suggest that alpha-Tac is rapidly hydrolyzed to its biologically active alcohol form and results in similar effects to that of intraperitoneally administered alpha-Toc.

  19. Peritoneal metastases of colorectal origin - cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The financial aspect.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębski, Tomasz; Bębenek, Marek

    2017-12-30

    The incidence of peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer amounts to 5%-15% for synchronous metastases and as much as 40% in cases of local recurrence. Best results are obtained for cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). This treatment offers much better outcomes, leading to 5-year survival rates of as much as 30%-50%. The procedures require significant experience in abdominal surgery, are time-consuming (mean duration of the procedure ranging from 6 to 8 hours) and are burdened by complications that are due not only to the procedure itself but also to the intraperitoneal administration of the cytostatic drug at elevated temperature (41.5 °C). After the procedure, patients are required to be admitted to intensive care units due to potential complications associated with the extent and duration of the procedure as well as chemotherapy administered in hyperthermia. Postoperative management of these patients requires appropriate experience of the entire medical and nursing team. Cytoreductive surgeries combined with HIPEC as highly specialized medical procedures should be assessed for their potential long-term benefits and their costs should be appropriately calculated with consideration to realistic reimbursement rates. Realistic valuation and reimbursement covering the overall average cost of the procedure is recommended by the National Consultant in Surgical Oncology as well as the ESMO consensus guidelines.

  20. Effects of oral and intraperitoneal magnesium treatment against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in plasma of rats.

    PubMed

    Buha, Aleksandra; Bulat, Zorica; Dukić-Ćosić, Danijela; Matović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been recognised as one of the most important environmental and industrial pollutants, and up-to-date investigations have shown that one of the mechanisms of its toxicity is associated with the induction of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine the connection between acute oral and intraperitoneal exposure to Cd and parameters indicative of oxidative stress in the plasma of rats, as well as to examine the potential protective effect of magnesium (Mg) in conditions of acute oral and intraperitoneal Cd poisoning. The experiment was performed on male albino Wistar rats (n=40) randomly divided into control group, Cdor group that received 30 mg kg-1 b.w. Cd by oral gavage, Cd+Mgor group that orally received 50 mg kg-1 b.w. Mg one hour before oral Cd, Cdip group that received 1.5 mg kg-1 b.w. Cd intraperitoneally, and Cd+Mgip group that intraperitoneally received 3 mg kg-1 b.w. Mg 10 min before intraperitoneal Cd. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after treatment and the following parameters were measured: superoxide dismutase activity, superoxide anion, total oxidative status, advanced oxidation protein products, and malondialdehyde. All parameters of oxidative stress in rat plasma were negatively affected by Cd treatment with more pronounced negative effects after intraperitoneal treatment, with the exception of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Although both oral and intraperitoneal Mg pretreatment had protective effects, more pronounced beneficial effects were observed after oral administration, since it managed to completely prevent Cd-induced changes in the investigated parameters. The observed results support the use of Mg as potential protective agent against toxic effects caused by Cd.

  1. Effect of long-term intraperitoneal zinc administration on liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    PubMed

    Bicer, Mursel; Gunay, Mehmet; Akil, Mustafa; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of zinc administration on liver glycogen levels of rats in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and which were subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study was conducted on 80 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, zinc-administrated control; group 3, zinc-administrated diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, zinc-administrated swimming; group 6, zinc-administrated diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control group. In order to induce diabetes, animals were injected with 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) streptozotocin. The injections were repeated in the same dose after 24 h. Animals which had blood glucose at or above 300 mg/dl 6 days after the last injections were accepted as diabetic. Zinc was administrated ip for 4 weeks as 6 mg/kg/day per rat. Hepatic tissue samples taken from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. Cross sections of 5 µm thickness, taken by the help of a microtome from the tissue samples buried in paraffin, were placed on a microscope slide and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and evaluated by light microscope. All microscopic images were transferred to a PC and assessed with the help of Clemex PE3.5 image analysis software. The lowest liver glycogen levels in the study were obtained in groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. Liver glycogen levels in group 5 were higher than groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8, but lower than groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Groups 1 and 2 had the highest liver glycogen levels. The results obtained from the study indicate that liver glycogen levels which dropped in acute swimming exercise were restored by zinc administration and that diabetes induced in rats prevented the protective effect of zinc.

  2. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation induced by TSA in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chan, Shu-Ting; Lin, Yi-Chin; Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Shiau, Rong-Jen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that quercetin enhances the anticancer effect of trichostatin A (TSA) in xenograft mice given quercetin intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg, 3 times/week). Herein, we investigate whether quercetin administered orally exerts such an effect and prevents the cytotoxic side effects of TSA. We found that quercetin given orally (20 and 100 mg/kg, 3 times/week) failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA although it increased the total quercetin concentration more than quercetin administered intraperitoneally in the plasma. The compound quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) increased the most. However, quercetin administered intraperitoneally increased the total quercetin level in tumor tissues more than oral quercetin. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin similarly decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation level induced by TSA. Furthermore, we found that the enhancing effect of Q3G on the antitumor effect of TSA and the incorporation of Q3G was less than that of quercetin in A549 cells. However, we found that A549 cells possessed the ability to convert Q3G to quercetin. In conclusion, different from quercetin administered intraperitoneally, quercetin administered orally failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA because of its metabolic conversion. However, it prevented TSA-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  3. Oral and Intraperitoneal Administration of Quercetin Decreased Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Induced by TSA In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shu-Ting; Shiau, Rong-Jen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that quercetin enhances the anticancer effect of trichostatin A (TSA) in xenograft mice given quercetin intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg, 3 times/week). Herein, we investigate whether quercetin administered orally exerts such an effect and prevents the cytotoxic side effects of TSA. We found that quercetin given orally (20 and 100 mg/kg, 3 times/week) failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA although it increased the total quercetin concentration more than quercetin administered intraperitoneally in the plasma. The compound quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) increased the most. However, quercetin administered intraperitoneally increased the total quercetin level in tumor tissues more than oral quercetin. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin similarly decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation level induced by TSA. Furthermore, we found that the enhancing effect of Q3G on the antitumor effect of TSA and the incorporation of Q3G was less than that of quercetin in A549 cells. However, we found that A549 cells possessed the ability to convert Q3G to quercetin. In conclusion, different from quercetin administered intraperitoneally, quercetin administered orally failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA because of its metabolic conversion. However, it prevented TSA-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:24868531

  4. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the initial management of primary epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jaaback, Kenneth; Johnson, Nick; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer tends to be chemosensitive and confine itself to the surface of the peritoneal cavity for much of its natural history. These features have made it an obvious target for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is usually given as an intravenous (IV) infusion repeatedly over five to eight cycles. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given by infusion of the chemotherapeutic agent directly into the peritoneal cavity. There are biological reasons why this might increase the anticancer effect and reduce some systemic adverse effects in comparison to IV therapy. Objectives To determine if adding a component of the chemotherapy regime into the peritoneal cavity affects overall survival, progression-free survival, quality of life (QOL) and toxicity in the primary treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. Search methods We searched the Gynaecological Cancer Review Group’s Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2011, MEDLINE (1951 to May 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to May 2011). We updated these searches in February 2007, August 2010 and May 2011. In addition, we handsearched and cascade searched the major gynaecological oncology journals. Selection criteria The analysis was restricted to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing women with a new diagnosis of primary epithelial ovarian cancer, of any FIGO stage, following primary cytoreductive surgery. Standard IV chemotherapy was compared with chemotherapy that included a component of IP administration. Data collection and analysis We extracted data on overall survival, disease-free survival, adverse events and QOL and performed meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HR) for time-to-event variables and relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes using RevMan software. Main results Nine randomised trials studied 2119 women receiving primary treatment for ovarian cancer. We considered six trials to be of high quality. Women were less

  5. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the initial management of primary epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Jaaback, Kenneth; Johnson, Nick; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2011-11-09

    Ovarian cancer tends to be chemosensitive and confine itself to the surface of the peritoneal cavity for much of its natural history. These features have made it an obvious target for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for ovarian cancer is usually given as an intravenous (IV) infusion repeatedly over five to eight cycles. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy is given by infusion of the chemotherapeutic agent directly into the peritoneal cavity. There are biological reasons why this might increase the anticancer effect and reduce some systemic adverse effects in comparison to IV therapy. To determine if adding a component of the chemotherapy regime into the peritoneal cavity affects overall survival, progression-free survival, quality of life (QOL) and toxicity in the primary treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. We searched the Gynaecological Cancer Review Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2011, MEDLINE (1951 to May 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to May 2011). We updated these searches in February 2007, August 2010 and May 2011. In addition, we handsearched and cascade searched the major gynaecological oncology journals. The analysis was restricted to randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing women with a new diagnosis of primary epithelial ovarian cancer, of any FIGO stage, following primary cytoreductive surgery. Standard IV chemotherapy was compared with chemotherapy that included a component of IP administration. We extracted data on overall survival, disease-free survival, adverse events and QOL and performed meta-analyses of hazard ratios (HR) for time-to-event variables and relative risks (RR) for dichotomous outcomes using RevMan software. Nine randomised trials studied 2119 women receiving primary treatment for ovarian cancer. We considered six trials to be of high quality. Women were less likely to die if they received an IP component to chemotherapy (eight studies, 2026 women; HR = 0

  6. Current role of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rampone, Bernardino; Schiavone, Beniamino; Martino, Antonio; Confuorto, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is one of the most common routes of dissemination of colorectal cancer (CRC). It is encountered in 7% of patients at primary surgery, while it develops in about 4% to 19% of patients after curative surgery and in up to 44% of patients with recurrent CRC. Peritoneal involvement from colorectal malignancies has been considered traditionally as a manifestation of terminal disease, due to limited response to conventional surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments. In the past few years the introduction of cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion has shown promising results in selected patients. Currently, the surgical management of peritoneal surface malignancies of colonic origin with this combined locoregional therapy has resulted in a significant improvement in survival of these patients. However, further controlled studies will help to standardize indications and the technique of this locoregional therapy in order to achieve an improvement of morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:20238394

  7. Presumptive intraperitoneal envenomation resulting in hemoperitoneum and acute abdominal pain in a dog.

    PubMed

    Istvan, Stephanie A; Walker, Julie M; Hansen, Bernard D; Hanel, Rita M; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical features, diagnostic findings, treatment, and outcome of a dog with acute abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum secondary to a presumptive intraperitoneal (IP) snakebite. A 10-month-old castrated male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for suspected snake envenomation. The dog presented recumbent and tachycardic with signs of severe abdominal pain. Two cutaneous puncture wounds and hemoperitoneum were discovered during evaluation. Ultrasonographic examination revealed communication of the wounds with the peritoneal cavity. The dog was treated with supportive care, parenteral analgesia, packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusions, crotalid antivenom, and placement of an IP catheter to provide local analgesia. The dog recovered fully and was discharged 5 days after initial presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IP envenomation accompanied by hemorrhage treated with continuous IP analgesia in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  8. Successful palliation of malignant ascites from peritoneal mesothelioma by laparoscopic intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Patriti, Alberto; Cavazzoni, Emanuel; Graziosi, Luigina; Pisciaroli, Antonio; Luzi, Debora; Gullà, Nino; Donini, Annibale

    2008-08-01

    A variety of options have been proposed to treat malignant ascites but most of them have failed to reach a significant impact in terms of palliation. Laparoscopic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (LHIPEC) could represent a good therapeutic tool for patients in whom medical therapies have failed and peritoneovenous shunting is contraindicated. Here we present a case of a 49-year-old woman with malignant ascites secondary to peritoneal spreading of a right pleural mesothelioma. After failure of medical therapy, the patient underwent LHIPEC with Cisplatin 25 mg/m/L and Doxorubicin 7 mg/m/L. A dramatic reduction of ascites was documented in the postoperative period and the patient experienced complete abdominal symptom relief. Ascites did not recur during a follow-up period of 6 months. LHIPEC could be a good therapeutic option to palliate malignant ascites from mesothelioma in cases not eligible for a radical treatment. Further studies are needed to standardize dosage and perfusion parameters.

  9. Near fatal spontaneous intraperitoneal bleeding: A rare manifestation in a congenital factor X deficiency carrier.

    PubMed

    Vinod, K V; Hitha, B; Kaaviya, R; Dutta, T K

    2015-03-01

    Congenital factor X (FX) deficiency is a rare coagulation disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by bleeding of variable severity. Bleeding severity generally correlates with the level of FX functional activity and severe bleeding usually occurs in moderate and severe deficiency, when FX coagulant activity is <5%. FX activity above 10% is infrequently associated with severe bleeding. Here we report the rare occurrence of life-threatening massive spontaneous intraperitoneal bleeding with hypovolemic shock, resulting from spontaneous rupture of an ovarian luteal cyst in a 25-year-old FX deficiency carrier woman, with a FX activity of 26%. She was managed successfully conservatively, with fresh frozen plasma and packed red blood cell transfusions and she showed gradual improvement. The case is being reported to discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare inherited coagulation disorder.

  10. Insulin delivery route for the artificial pancreas: subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, or intravenous? Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Renard, Eric

    2008-07-01

    Insulin delivery is a crucial component of a closed-loop system aiming at the development of an artificial pancreas. The intravenous route, which has been used in the bedside artificial pancreas model for 30 years, has clear advantages in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but cannot be used in any ambulatory system so far. Subcutaneous (SC) insulin infusion benefits from the broad expansion of insulin pump therapy that promoted the availability of constantly improving technology and fast-acting insulin analog use. However, persistent delays of insulin absorption and action, variability and shortterm stability of insulin infusion from SC-inserted catheters generate effectiveness and safety issues in view of an ambulatory, automated, glucose-controlled, artificial beta cell. Intraperitoneal insulin delivery, although still marginally used in diabetes care, may offer an interesting alternative because of its more-physiological plasma insulin profiles and sustained stability and reliability of insulin delivery.

  11. Use of Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Administration Methods to Facilitate Cassette Dosing in Microdialysis Studies in Rats.

    PubMed

    Durk, Matthew R; Deshmukh, Gauri; Valle, Nicole; Ding, Xiao; Liederer, Bianca M; Liu, Xingrong

    2018-07-01

    Microdialysis is a powerful technique allowing for real-time measurement of unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial fluid in conscious animals. Use of microdialysis in drug discovery is limited by high resource requirement and low throughput, but this may be improved by cassette dosing. Administering multiple compounds intravenously of diverse physiochemical properties, it is often very challenging and time consuming to identify a vehicle that can dissolve all of the compounds. To overcome this limitation, the present study explores the possibility of administering a cassette dose of nine diverse compounds (carbamazepine, citalopram, desmethylclozapine, diphenhydramine, gabapentin, metoclopramide, naltrexone, quinidine, and risperidone) in suspension, rather than in solution, by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes, and determining if this is a viable option for assessing blood-brain barrier penetration in microdialysis studies. Repeated hourly subcutaneous dosing during the 6-hour microdialysis study allowed for the best attainment of distributional equilibrium between brain and plasma, resulting in less than a 2-fold difference in the unbound brain to unbound plasma concentration ratio for the cassette dosing method versus discrete dosing. Both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal repeated dosing can provide a more practical substitute for intravenous dosing in determining brain penetration of a cassette of diverse compounds in brain microdialysis studies. The results from the present study demonstrate that dosing compounds in suspension represents a practical approach to eliminating the technical challenge and labor-intensive step of preparation of solutions of a mixture of compounds and will enable the use of the cassette brain microdialysis method in a central nervous system drug discovery setting. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Repair for the Treatment of Multiple Recurrent Inguinal Hernias

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kim; Zajkowska, Marta; Lam, Vincent; Hawthorne, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite an exponential rise in laparoscopic surgery for inguinal herniorrhaphy, overall recurrence rates have remained unchanged. Therefore, an increasing number of patients present with recurrent hernias after having failed anterior and laparoscopic repairs. This study reports our experience with single-incision laparoscopic (SIL) intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) repair for these hernias. Materials and methods: All patients referred with multiply recurrent inguinal hernias underwent SIL-IPOM from November 1 2009 to October 30 2013. A 2.5-cm infraumbilical incision was made and a SIL surgical port was placed intraperitoneally. Modified dissection techniques, namely, “chopsticks” and “inline” dissection, 5.5 mm/52 cm/30° angled laparoscope and conventional straight dissecting instruments were used. The peritoneum was incised above the symphysis pubis and dissection continued laterally and proximally raising an inferior flap, below a previous extraperitoneal mesh, while reducing any direct/indirect/femoral/cord lipoma before placement of antiadhesive mesh that was fixed into the pubic ramus as well as superiorly with nonabsorbable tacks before fixing its inferior border with fibrin sealant. The inferior peritoneal flap was then tacked back onto the mesh. Results: There were 9 male patients who underwent SIL-IPOM. Mean age was 55 years old and mean body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2. Mean mesh size was 275 cm2. Mean operation time was 125 minutes with hospital stay of 1 day and umbilical scar length of 21 mm at 4 weeks' follow-up. There were no intraoperative/postoperative complications, port-site hernias, chronic groin pain, or recurrence with mean follow-up of 20 months. Conclusions: Multiply recurrent inguinal hernias after failed conventional anterior and laparoscopic repairs can be treated safely and efficiently with SIL-IPOM. PMID:25392643

  13. Lung-Derived Microscaffolds Facilitate Diabetes Reversal after Mouse and Human Intraperitoneal Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abualhassan, Nasser; Sapozhnikov, Lena; Pawlick, Rena L; Kahana, Meygal; Pepper, Andrew R; Bruni, Antonio; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Kin, Tatsuya; Mitrani, Eduardo; Shapiro, A M James

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to develop three-dimensional structures that mimic the natural islet tissue microenvironment. Endocrine micro-pancreata (EMPs) made up of acellular organ-derived micro-scaffolds seeded with human islets have been shown to express high levels of key beta-cell specific genes and secrete quantities of insulin per cell similar to freshly isolated human islets in a glucose-regulated manner for more than three months in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of EMPs to restore euglycemia in vivo after transplantation of mouse or human islets in chemically diabetic mice. We proposed that the organ-derived EMPs would restore the extracellular components of the islet microenvironment, generating favorable conditions for islet function and survival. EMPs seeded with 500 mouse islets were implanted intraperitoneally into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and reverted diabetes in 67% of mice compared to 13% of controls (p = 0.018, n = 9 per group). Histological analysis of the explanted grafts 60 days post-transplantation stained positive for insulin and exhibited increased vascular density in a collagen-rich background. EMPs were also seeded with human islets and transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of immune-deficient diabetic mice at 250 islet equivalents (IEQ), 500 IEQ and 1000 IEQ. Escalating islet dose increased rates of normoglycemia (50% of the 500 IEQ group and 75% of the 1000 IEQ group, n = 3 per group). Human c-peptide levels were detected 90 days post-transplantation in a dose-response relationship. Herein, we report reversal of diabetes in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation of human islet seeded on EMPs with a human islet dose as low as 500 IEQ.

  14. Lung-Derived Microscaffolds Facilitate Diabetes Reversal after Mouse and Human Intraperitoneal Islet Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pawlick, Rena L.; Kahana, Meygal; Pepper, Andrew R.; Bruni, Antonio; Gala-Lopez, Boris; Kin, Tatsuya; Mitrani, Eduardo; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to develop three-dimensional structures that mimic the natural islet tissue microenvironment. Endocrine micro-pancreata (EMPs) made up of acellular organ-derived micro-scaffolds seeded with human islets have been shown to express high levels of key beta-cell specific genes and secrete quantities of insulin per cell similar to freshly isolated human islets in a glucose-regulated manner for more than three months in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of EMPs to restore euglycemia in vivo after transplantation of mouse or human islets in chemically diabetic mice. We proposed that the organ-derived EMPs would restore the extracellular components of the islet microenvironment, generating favorable conditions for islet function and survival. EMPs seeded with 500 mouse islets were implanted intraperitoneally into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and reverted diabetes in 67% of mice compared to 13% of controls (p = 0.018, n = 9 per group). Histological analysis of the explanted grafts 60 days post-transplantation stained positive for insulin and exhibited increased vascular density in a collagen-rich background. EMPs were also seeded with human islets and transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of immune-deficient diabetic mice at 250 islet equivalents (IEQ), 500 IEQ and 1000 IEQ. Escalating islet dose increased rates of normoglycemia (50% of the 500 IEQ group and 75% of the 1000 IEQ group, n = 3 per group). Human c-peptide levels were detected 90 days post-transplantation in a dose-response relationship. Herein, we report reversal of diabetes in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation of human islet seeded on EMPs with a human islet dose as low as 500 IEQ. PMID:27227978

  15. [Stability study of oxaliplatin and doxorubicin for intraperitoneal administration with hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Escudero-Ortiz, V; Duart-Duart, M J; Pérez-Ruixo, C; Pérez-Ruixo, J J; Valenzuela, B

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the in vitro physicochemical stability of oxaliplatin and doxorubicin when the in vivo hyperthermic intraperitoneal conditions are reproduced. Three solutions were prepared, A (oxaliplatin 200 mg/L), B(doxorubicin 15 mg/L) and C (oxaliplatin 200 mg/L with doxorubicin 15mg/L) in glucose 5%. The three solutions were subjected to the maximum temperature reached in vivo (49° C) for two hours. Physical stability was focused on visual control of particles or precipitates in solutions, discharge of gases, odor and color. Samples were taken every 15 minutes and the chemical stability was evaluated by determining the concentration of oxaliplatin and doxorubicin remaining in the samples. Oxaliplatin concentrations were determined by atomic absorption graphite chamber while doxorubicin was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.The chemical stability criteria selected was the one described by the American Pharmacopoeia, which sets a permissible variation range between the 90-110% of the initial concentration. During the assay there was no appearance of particles, precipitates in the samples, discharge of gases, nor colour changes in the solutions. The samples showed a remaining concentration of oxaliplatin and doxorubicin within the 90-110% limit. The stability of the samples that follow to two cycles of freeze-thaw after hyperthermia was also found within the specified limits. A, B and c solutions in 5% glucose, are physically and chemically stable at 49° C for two hours. Under these conditions, these solutions could be used with guarantees of stability in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis subsidiary of intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy based in these antineoplastic agents. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. On the importance of telemetric temperature sensor location during intraperitoneal implantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chapon, P A; Bulla, J; Gauthier, A; Moussay, S

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to assess the thermal homogeneity of the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the relevance of using a fixed telemetric temperature sensor at a given location in studying rodents. Ten rats were intraperitoneally implanted with three Jonah® capsules each; after assessing the accuracy and reliability of the sensors. Two capsules were attached, one to the right iliac fossa (RIF) and the other to the left hypochondrium (LH), and another was placed between the intestines but not attached (Free). In the ex vivo condition, the differences between sensors and reference values remained in the range of ±0.1. In the in vivo condition, each sensor enabled the observation of temperature patterns. However, sensor location affected mean and median temperature values while the rats were moving freely. Indeed, temperature data collected in the LH were 0.1 significantly higher than those collected in the RIF and temperature data collected in the LH were 0.11 significantly higher than those collected with the Free capsules. In in vivo conditions, intra-sensor variability of temperature data was not affected by sensor location. Taking into account sensor accuracy, similar intra-sensor variability, and mean differences observed between the three locations, the impact of sensor location within the IP cavity could be considered negligible. In in vivo conditions, temperature differences between locations regularly exceeded ±0.2 and reached up to 2.5. These extreme values could be explained by behavioral factors such as food or water intake. Finally, considering the good thermal homogeneity of the IP cavity and possible adverse consequences of sensor attachment, it seems better to let sensors range free within the cavity.

  17. Cadherin composition and multicellular aggregate invasion in organotypic models of epithelial ovarian cancer intraperitoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Klymenko, Y; Kim, O; Loughran, E; Yang, J; Lombard, R; Alber, M; Stack, M S

    2017-10-19

    During epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression, intraperitoneally disseminating tumor cells and multicellular aggregates (MCAs) present in ascites fluid adhere to the peritoneum and induce retraction of the peritoneal mesothelial monolayer prior to invasion of the collagen-rich submesothelial matrix and proliferation into macro-metastases. Clinical studies have shown heterogeneity among EOC metastatic units with respect to cadherin expression profiles and invasive behavior; however, the impact of distinct cadherin profiles on peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions remains poorly understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that metastasis-associated behaviors of ovarian cancer cells and MCAs are influenced by cellular cadherin composition. Our results show that mesenchymal N-cadherin-expressing (Ncad+) cells and MCAs invade much more efficiently than E-cadherin-expressing (Ecad+) cells. Ncad+ MCAs exhibit rapid lateral dispersal prior to penetration of three-dimensional collagen matrices. When seeded as individual cells, lateral migration and cell-cell junction formation precede matrix invasion. Neutralizing the Ncad extracellular domain with the monoclonal antibody GC-4 suppresses lateral dispersal and cell penetration of collagen gels. In contrast, use of a broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (GM6001) to block endogenous membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) activity does not fully inhibit cell invasion. Using intact tissue explants, Ncad+ MCAs were also shown to efficiently rupture peritoneal mesothelial cells, exposing the submesothelial collagen matrix. Acquisition of Ncad by Ecad+ cells increased mesothelial clearance activity but was not sufficient to induce matrix invasion. Furthermore, co-culture of Ncad+ with Ecad+ cells did not promote a 'leader-follower' mode of collective cell invasion, demonstrating that matrix remodeling and creation of invasive micro-tracks are not sufficient for cell penetration of

  18. Intraperitoneal administration of apigenin in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury protective effects.

    PubMed

    Tsaroucha, Alexandra K; Tsiaousidou, Anastasia; Ouzounidis, Nikolaos; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Lambropoulou, Maria; Giakoustidis, Dimitrios; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2016-11-01

    Hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a clinical problem associated with major liver surgery. Among other flavonoids, apigenin has shown a promising effect on I/R cases. In this study, we have investigated the effects of apigenin after liver I/R injury in rats. Forty eight rats were randomized into the following eight groups: (1) Control-sham group: rats subjected to the surgical procedure, except for liver I/R; (2) DMSO group: rats subjected to surgery, except for liver I/R given the apigenin solvent dimethyl-sulfoxide intraperitoneally; (3) C60 group; (4) C120 group; (5) C240 group: rats underwent liver ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min, 120 min, and 240 min; (6) AP60 group; (7) AP120 group; (8) AP240 group: rats underwent liver ischemia for 45 min, and then given apigenin (5 mg) intraperitoneally followed by reperfusion for 60 min, 120 min, and 240 min. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed on liver tissues to measure BCL-2/BAX expression, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure M30/M65 and ICAM-1. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify M30 biomarker in liver tissues. Quantitative variables were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, repeated measures analysis of variance/Friedman test. Gene levels were assessed by Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U-test. BCL-2 levels were significantly higher in I/R apigenin groups than in I/R control groups. BAX levels were lower in the AP240 group than in C240 group. Prolongation of reperfusion resulted in increased activation of M30. ICAM-1 levels were lower in the AP240 group than in C240 group. Apigenin seems to inhibit the process of apoptosis and ameliorate the hepatic I/R injury.

  19. Diagnostic procedures for catheter malfunction in programmable implantable intraperitoneal insulin infusion devices.

    PubMed

    Olsen, C L; Turner, D S; Iravani, M; Waxman, K; Selam, J L; Charles, M A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the roles of 1) abdominal radiography, 2) a pressure diagnostic procedure (PDP) using a standardized diluent infusion into the catheter sideport, and 3) radiocontrast imaging of the catheter lumen as procedures for diagnosing catheter malfunction in diabetic patients implanted with a programmable intraperitoneal infusion device. Sixteen type I diabetic patients implanted with Infusaid programmable intraperitoneal insulin pumps were studied. The ability of the above three procedures to assist diagnosis of catheter malfunction and distinguish between occlusion and catheter breakage was retrospectively analyzed. Glycated hemoglobin was measured to determine the clinical importance of catheter malfunctions and decreases in pump flow due to insulin aggregation in the pump chamber. Mean glycated hemoglobin levels increased significantly from 8.0 +/- 0.3 to 9.0 +/- 0.4% (P < 0.05) before and after catheter malfunction, but not during pump flow slowdowns. Mean peak pressure during PDP was 1.96 +/- 0.14 psi (P < 0.01 vs. normal) in reversibly occluded catheters and 1.86 +/- 0.35 psi (P < 0.05 vs. normal) in broken catheters, compared with 1.32 +/- 0.23 psi in normal catheters. Decay times during PDP were > 50 s for both reversibly occluded and broken catheters (P < 0.001 vs. normal of 3.6 +/- 0.82 s). Abdominal radiographs and sideport injections of contrast material were used to distinguish the types of broken catheters. Catheter breakage and occlusion are complications in implantable insulin infusion systems and result in metabolic deterioration. The presence of a sideport allows pressure data and radiographic procedures to assist in determining the cause of catheter malfunction. A diagnostic algorithm was generated to improve efficiency in investigating catheter problems.

  20. Assessment of adhesion formation after laparoscopic intraperitoneal implantation of Dynamesh IPOM mesh

    PubMed Central

    Jałyński, Marek; Piskorz, Łukasz; Brocki, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Formation of adhesions after laparoscopic hernia repair using the intra-peritoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) procedure can lead to intestinal obstruction or mesh erosion into intestinal lumen. The aims of this study included: measurement of adhesion formation with Dynamesh IPOM after laparoscopic intraperitoneal implantation, and assessment of the occurrence of isolated adhesions at the fastening sites of slowly absorbable sutures. Material and methods Twelve healthy pigs underwent laparoscopic implantation of 2 Dynamesh IPOM mesh fragments each, one was fastened with PDSII, and the other with Maxon sutures. An assessment of adhesion formation was carried out after 6 weeks and included an evaluation of surface area, hardness according to the Zhulke scale, and index values. The occurrence of isolated adhesions at slowly absorbable suture fixation points was also analyzed. Results Adhesions were noted in 83.3% of Dynamesh IPOM meshes. Adhesions covered on average 37.7% of the mesh surface with mean hardness 1.46 and index value 78.8. In groups fixed with PDS in comparison to Maxon sutures adhesions covered mean 31.6% vs. 42.5% (p = 0.62) of the mesh surface, mean hardness was 1.67 vs.1.25 (p = 0.34) and index 85.42 vs. 72.02 (p = 0.95). Conclusions The Dynamesh IPOM mesh, in spite of its anti-adhesive layer of PVDF, does not prevent the formation of adhesions. Adhesion hardness, surface area, and index values of the Dynamesh IPOM mesh are close to the mean values of these parameters for other commercially available 2-layer meshes. Slowly absorbable sutures used for fastening did not increase the risk of adhesion formation. PMID:23847671

  1. Intraperitoneal Vancomycin Concentrations During Peritoneal Dialysis–Associated Peritonitis: Correlation with Serum Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Richard; Nipah, Robert; Jones, Chris; Finney, Hazel; Fan, Stanley L.S.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: For the treatment of peritoneal dialysis–associated peritonitis (PDP), it has been suggested that serum concentrations of vancomycin be kept above 12 mg/L – 15 mg/L. However, studies correlating vancomycin concentrations in serum and peritoneal dialysate effluent (PDE) during active infection are sparse. We undertook the present study to investigate this issue and to determine whether achieving the recommended serum level of vancomycin results in therapeutic levels intraperitoneally. ♦ Methods: We studied patients treated with intraperitoneal (IP) vancomycin for non-gram-negative PDP. We gave a single dose (approximately 30 mg/kg) at presentation, and we subsequently measured vancomycin levels in PDE on day 5; we wanted to determine if efflux of vancomycin from serum to PDE during a 4-hour dwell was consistent and resulted in therapeutic levels. ♦ Results: Of the 48 episodes of PDP studied, serum vancomycin concentrations exceeding 12 mg/L were achieved in 98% of patients, but in 11 patients (23%), a PDE vancomycin level below 4 mg/L—the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of many gram-positive organisms—was observed at the end of a 4-hour dwell on day 5. The correlation between the concentrations of vancomycin in serum and PDE (from efflux of antibiotic over 4 hours) was statistically significant, but poor (R2 = 0.18). ♦ Conclusions: Our data support the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis statement that adequate serum vancomycin concentrations can be achieved with intermittent dosing (single dose every 5 days), but cannot guarantee therapeutic PDE levels in the treatment of PDP. Intermittent dosing of vancomycin may not consistently result in PDE concentrations markedly greater than MIC of many important pathogens. Although the clinical significance of this finding remains to be determined, it may be preferable to give smaller but more frequent doses of PDE vancomycin (continuous dosing) for adults with PDP (as is

  2. Effect of perfusion temperature on glucose and electrolyte transport during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) with oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Ceelen, W; De Somer, F; Van Nieuwenhove, Y; Vande Putte, D; Pattyn, P

    2013-07-01

    Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) with oxaliplatin is increasingly used in patients with carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer. For reasons of chemical stability, oxaliplatin can only be administered in a dextrose (D5%) solution, and this causes peroperative glucose and electrolyte shifts. Here, we examined the influence of perfusion temperature on glucose and electrolyte transport, metabolic shifts, and surgical morbidity. Patients with carcinomatosis underwent cytoreduction and HIPEC using oxaliplatin (460 mg/m(2) in D5%, open abdomen) during 30 min at 39°-41 °C. Intraperitoneal (IP) temperature was measured at three locations using thermocouple probes. The area under the temperature versus time curve (AUCt) was calculated using the trapezoid rule. The influence of perfusion temperature on surgical outcome was assessed using linear regression models and the Mann Whitney U test where appropriate. From July 2005 until March 2011, 145 procedures were performed in 139 patients with a diagnosis of CRC (70%), pseudomyxoma peritonei (11%), ovarian cancer (10%), or miscellaneous peritoneal malignancies (9%). Postoperative mortality and major morbidity were 1.4% and 26%, respectively. Higher perfusion temperature was related to more pronounced changes in serum glucose (P = 0.058), sodium (P = 0.017), and lactate (P < 0.001). The median duration of nasogastric drainage was 5 days, and this was unrelated to perfusion temperature (P = 0.76). The GI fistula rate and reoperation rate were 12.4% and 16.5% respectively; neither was related to perfusion temperature. In patients undergoing HIPEC with oxaliplatin, perfusion temperature exacerbates peroperative metabolic shifts but does not affect surgical outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraperitoneal lignocaine (lidocaine) versus bupivacaine after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rizwan; Raza, Rushna; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Shamim, Faisal; Raza, Syed Ahsan; Pal, Khawaja Muhammad Inam; Zafar, Hasnain; Alvi, Rehman; Chawla, Tabish; Azmi, Rizwan

    2012-12-01

    Intraperitoneal local anesthetics have been shown to improve postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, the choice of local anesthetic agent is debatable. We compared the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal lignocaine (lidocaine) versus bupivacaine after elective LC. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. We randomized consecutive patients undergoing LC into two groups. Group L received 10 mL 2% lignocaine (lidocaine), whereas Group B received 10 mL 0.5% bupivacaine, each diluted in 10 mL normal saline. All patients underwent standard perioperative anesthesia and analgesia protocol. We assessed patients at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h postoperatively for pain using the visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale, and the need for additional analgesic medications. We analyzed a total of 206 patients: 106 in Group L and 100 in Group B. Demographic details were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Abdominal pain decreased significantly with time in both groups, with a similar mean response profile (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between groups with regard to abdominal or shoulder pain by both visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale at all five time intervals (P > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in the side effect profile of both drugs (P > 0.05). A lower proportion of patients in Group B required additional narcotic analgesia (87%) compared with Group L (94%). This difference was marginally significant (P = 0.057). Bupivacaine and lignocaine (lidocaine) are both safe and equally effective at decreasing postoperative pain after LC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intra-Peritoneal Hyperthermia Combining α-Galactosylceramide in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yun-Ting; Huang, Jung-Tang; Wu, T. -C; Hung, Chien-Fu; Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Long

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effect and potential mechanisms of i.p. hyperthermia in combination with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In this study, immuno-competent tumor models were established using murine ovarian cancer cell lines and treated with i.p. hyperthermia combining α-GalCer. Th1/Th2 cytokine expression profiles in the serum, NK cell cytotoxicity and phagocytic activities of dendritic cells (DCs) were assayed. We also analyzed the number of CD8+/IFN-γ+ tumor specific cytotoxic T cells, as well as the tumor growth based on depletion of lymphocyte sub-population. Therapeutic effect on those ovarian tumors was monitored by a non-invasive luminescent imaging system. Intra-peritoneal hyperthermia induced significant pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, and sustained the response of NK and DCs induced by α-GalCer treatment. The combination treatment enhanced the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response in two mouse ovarian cancer models. This novel treatment modality by combination of hyperthermia and glycolipid provides a pronounced anti-tumor immune response and better survival. In conclusion, intra-peritoneal hyperthermia enhanced the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and phagocytic activity of DCs stimulated by α-GalCer. The subsequent CTL immune response induced by α-GalCer was further strengthened by combining with i.p. hyperthermia. Both innate and adaptive immunities were involved and resulted in a superior therapeutic effect in treating the ovarian cancer. PMID:23935988

  5. Dosimetric model for intraperitoneal targeted liposomal radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer micrometastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syme, A. M.; McQuarrie, S. A.; Middleton, J. W.; Fallone, B. G.

    2003-05-01

    A simple model has been developed to investigate the dosimetry of micrometastases in the peritoneal cavity during intraperitoneal targeted liposomal radioimmunotherapy. The model is applied to free-floating tumours with radii between 0.005 cm and 0.1 cm. Tumour dose is assumed to come from two sources: free liposomes in solution in the peritoneal cavity and liposomes bound to the surface of the micrometastases. It is assumed that liposomes do not penetrate beyond the surface of the tumours and that the total amount of surface antigen does not change over the course of treatment. Integrated tumour doses are expressed as a function of biological parameters that describe the rates at which liposomes bind to and unbind from the tumour surface, the rate at which liposomes escape from the peritoneal cavity and the tumour surface antigen density. Integrated doses are translated into time-dependent tumour control probabilities (TCPs). The results of the work are illustrated in the context of a therapy in which liposomes labelled with Re-188 are targeted at ovarian cancer cells that express the surface antigen CA-125. The time required to produce a TCP of 95% is used to investigate the importance of the various parameters. The relative contributions of surface-bound radioactivity and unbound radioactivity are used to assess the conditions required for a targeted approach to provide an improvement over a non-targeted approach during intraperitoneal radiation therapy. Using Re-188 as the radionuclide, the model suggests that, for microscopic tumours, the relative importance of the surface-bound radioactivity increases with tumour size. This is evidenced by the requirement for larger antigen densities on smaller tumours to affect an improvement in the time required to produce a TCP of 95%. This is because for the smallest tumours considered, the unbound radioactivity is often capable of exerting a tumouricidal effect before the targeting agent has time to accumulate

  6. Antioxidant Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Prostatic Epithelial Neoplasia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    additional year until the end of March 2008. 105Co-enzyme Q10 105Grape seed extract 31.5Alpha Lipoic acid 10.5Lutein 10.5Lycopene...antioxidants used in the study. Ascorbic acid is a potent antioxidant that interacts synergistically with Lipoic acid to destroy many types of free radicals...co-enzyme Q10. Lycopene and lutein are fat soluble carotenoids that work synergistically and possess very high antioxidant activity. Lipoic acid not

  7. Mitochondrial cofactors in experimental Huntington's disease: behavioral, biochemical and histological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Arpit; Sandhir, Rajat

    2014-03-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the beneficial effect of mitochondrial cofactors; alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced experimental model of Huntington's disease (HD). HD was developed by administering sub-chronic doses of 3-NP, intraperitoneally, twice daily for 17 days. The animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of motor (spontaneous locomotor activity, narrow beam walk test, footprint analysis and rotarod test) and cognitive (elevated plus maze and T-maze tests) functions. 3-NP treated animals showed impairment in motor coordination such as decreased stride length, increased distance between inner toes, and increased gait angle. Increased transfer latency on elevated plus maze and T-maze tasks revealed cognition deficits in 3-NP treated animals. Increased lipid peroxidation and concomitant decrease in thiol levels were also observed. 3-NP administration also induced histopathological changes in terms of enhanced striatal lesion volume, presence of pyknotic nuclei and astrogliosis. However, combined supplementation with ALA+ALCAR to 3-NP administered animals for 21 days was able to efficiently improve behavioral deficits, attenuate oxidative stress and histological changes, suggesting a putative role of these two supplements if given together in ameliorating 3-NP induced impairments and thus could be engaged in managing HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Route of nutritional supply influences local, systemic, and remote organ responses to intraperitoneal bacterial challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, M T; Saito, H; Fukushima, R; Inaba, T; Fukatsu, K; Inoue, T; Furukawa, S; Han, I; Muto, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' aim was to investigate whether antecedent nutritional routes influence immune responses after surgical insult. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may influence host responses to infection. To the best of the authors' knowledge, however, no study has focused on the mechanisms underlying the influence of nutritional route on local, systemic, and remote organ (lung) responses after surgical insult. METHODS: Sixty-eight rats were divided into TPN and total enteral nutrition (TEN) groups. The two groups received identical nutrients for 7 days and were then challenged intraperitoneally with 3 x 10(8) Escherichia coli. In the first experiment, the rats were observed for survival. In the second experiment, the rats were killed before (0 hours) challenge or 2 or 6 hours after challenge. Peritoneal exudative cells (PEC) and bronchoalveolar cells (BALC) were harvested and cultured in vitro. Colony-forming units of bacteria in the peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) were determined. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels in serum, PLF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and cell culture supernatants were measured. RESULTS: The 48-hour survival rate was higher in TEN than in TPN rats. Local immunity was depressed in the TPN group. Bacterial colony counts in PLF were significantly higher in the TPN group than in the TEN group after challenge. The number of PECs was significantly lower, and at 2 hours, local cytokine (TNF and IL-1 alpha) responses were diminished in the TPN group compared with the TEN group at 2 hours. The number of PECs showed a significant positive correlation with levels of local cytokines in the TEN group but not in the TPN group. Elevation of local IFN-gamma was significant from 0 to 6 hours in the TEN group but not in the TPN group. In vitro production of TNF by PEC was impaired in the TPN rats before challenge. Remote organ (lung) responses were

  9. Cadherin Composition and Multicellular Aggregate Invasion In Organotypic Models of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Intraperitoneal Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Yuliya; Kim, Oleg; Loughran, Elizabeth; Yang, Jing; Lombard, Rachel; Alber, Mark; Stack, M. Sharon

    2017-01-01

    During epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression, intraperitoneally disseminating tumor cells and multi-cellular aggregates (MCAs) present in ascites fluid adhere to the peritoneum and induce retraction of the peritoneal mesothelial monolayer prior to invasion of the collagen-rich sub-mesothelial matrix and proliferation into macro-metastases. Clinical studies have shown heterogeneity among EOC metastatic units with respect to cadherin expression profiles and invasive behavior, however the impact of distinct cadherin profiles on peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions remains poorly understood. In the current study, we demonstrate that metastasis-associated behaviors of ovarian cancer cells and MCAs are influenced by cellular cadherin composition. Our results show that mesenchymal N-cadherin expressing (Ncad+) cells and MCAs invade much more efficiently than E-cadherin expressing (Ecad+) cells. Ncad+ MCAs exhibit rapid lateral dispersal prior to penetration of three-dimensional collagen matrices. When seeded as individual cells, lateral migration and cell-cell junction formation precede matrix invasion. Neutralizing the Ncad extracellular domain with the monoclonal antibody GC-4 suppresses lateral dispersal and cell penetration of collagen gels. In contrast, use of a broad spectrum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (GM6001) to block endogenous membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) activity does not fully inhibit cell invasion. Using intact tissue explants, Ncad+ MCAs were also shown to efficiently rupture peritoneal mesothelial cells, exposing the sub-mesothelial collagen matrix. Acquisition of Ncad by E-cadherin expressing cells (Ecad+) increased mesothelial clearance activity, but was not sufficient to induce matrix invasion. Furthermore, co-culture of Ncad+ with Ecad+ cells did not promote a “leader-follower” mode of collective cell invasion, demonstrating that matrix remodeling and creation of invasive micro-tracks are not

  10. Inhibition of Growth and Metastasis of Tumor in Nude Mice after Intraperitoneal Injection of Bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ze-Xue; Li, Xiang; Liu, Wei-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Wu, Su-Jia; Hu, Xiao-Hui

    2016-05-01

    To explore the inhibitory effect of bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, on angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma of nude mice. Twenty-one nude mice were inoculated with red fluorescent protein (RFP)-labeled human osteosarcoma cell line 143B-RFP, that is, clones that expressed RFP in the cytoplasm, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: G1 (Control group, injected with saline solution); G2 (intraperitoneal bevacizumab 2 mg/kg twice per week) and G3 (intraperitoneal bevacizumab 5 mg/kg, twice per week). The tumor-bearing mice were examined in a fluorescence light box that was illuminated periodically. The primary tumors were measured by fluorescence imaging weekly and their volumes calculated. The mean tumor volumes were significantly smaller in the G3 (186.4 ± 100.8 mm(3) ) than the control group (587.0 ± 406.8 mm(3) ) (P < 0.05) on Day 31, and again significantly smaller in the G3 (677.3 ± 461.9 mm(3) ) than the control group (3162.6 ± 1529.2 mm(3) ) on Day 38 (P < 0.01). The average tumor volume in the G2 group was 493.5 ± 425.4 mm(3) on Day 31 and 1870.1 ± 1524.8 mm(3) on Day 38. The effect on tumor volume was greater in the G3 than the G2 group. Three mice in the G2 group, four in the G3 group and four in the control group developed lung metastases that were confirmed by pathological examination; these differences were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Bevacizumab exhibits strong antiangiogenesis activity in experimental osteosarcoma in a nude mouse model but does not influence the incidence of lung metastasis. Our findings may have considerable potential for the treatment of osteosarcoma. © 2016 The Authors. Orthopaedic Surgery Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd and Chinese Orthopaedic Association.

  11. A laparoscopic intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique for the repair of an indirect inguinal hernia.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbons, R J; Salerno, G M; Filipi, C J; Hunter, W J; Watson, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was done (1) to determine whether congenital indirect inguinal hernias in male pigs could be repaired by placing a polypropylene mesh prosthesis over the defect intra-abdominally, (2) to measure the incidence of adhesions between intra-abdominal viscera and the prosthesis with and without the adhesion barrier oxidized regenerated cellulose, (3) to determine the incidence of other complications, and (4) to assess the effect on fertility. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Several techniques for laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy are currently being evaluated to determine whether there are advantages over conventional inguinal herniorrhaphy. Perhaps the most controversial is the intraperitoneal onlay mesh procedure (IPOM). Its advantage is its simplicity (in that the repair is accomplished by placing a prosthesis over the hernia defect intra-abdominally, avoiding a groin dissection). Its disadvantage is the potential for complications because the prosthesis is in contact with the intra-abdominal viscera. METHODS: In male pigs, polypropylene mesh alone or polypropylene mesh plus the adhesion barrier oxidized regenerated cellulose (composite prosthesis) was fixed to the peritoneum surrounding the hernia defect. In phase 1 (6-week follow-up), two groups of 13 pigs each underwent herniorrhaphy at laparotomy or laparoscopy. In phase 2 (7.1-month follow-up), 21 pigs underwent laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. RESULTS: All IPOM herniorrhaphies were successful. The prostheses adhered most frequently to the bladder, followed by small bowel, peritoneum, and cord structures. Prosthetic erosion into these organs was not observed. Laparoscopically placed prostheses in phases 1 and 2 had significantly less surface covered by adhesions (13% +/- 13% and 19% +/- 27%, respectively) and a lower adhesion tenacity grade (1.5 +/- 0.9 and 1.3 +/- 1.1, respectively) than those placed at laparotomy (44% +/- 27% and 2.5 +/- 0.7, respectively; p < 0.01). In phase 1, a histologic

  12. [Intraoperative chemotherapy with intraperitoneal activated carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C against peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, A; Takahashi, T; Sasabe, T; Itoh, M; Kondoh, S; Seiki, K; Yoneyama, C; Shimotsuma, M; Hagiwara, A; Yamaguchi, T

    1989-08-01

    A new form of dosage (MMC-CH) was composed of activated carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C. Intraperitoneal administration of MMC-CH was tested clinically for prophylactic and therapeutic effects on peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer. The criteria of MMC-CH's administration were equal or less than 70 years old, more than 40 kg in body weight, no disfunction of liver and kidney, no particular findings in electrocardiography, S2 or S3 in the grade of serosal invasion, P0, P1, P2 or P3 in the grade of peritoneal dissemination, according to the General Rules for the Gastric Cancer Study in Surgery and Pathology by the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer. MMC-CH was given to 44 patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer in our department from 1985 to 1988. The 44 patients were composed of 12 patients with P0 findings (P0 patients), 8 patients with P1 findings (P1 patients), 12 patients with P2 findings (P2 patients), and 12 patients with P3 findings (P3 patients). MMC-CH at 50 mg/person in terms of mitomycin C was administered intraperitoneally before the operation wound was closed. Fifty-seven patients in our department from 1983 to 1987 for whom the same criteria were applicable and did not receive MMC-CH therapy, served as the control group. The 57 patients were composed of 23 P0 patients, 21 P1 patients, 10 P2 patients, and 3 P3 patients. There was statistically with chi 2 test no significant difference of age, sex, depth of infiltration macroscopically and microscopically defined progression of lymph-nodal metastases between the MMC-CH group and the control group. Survival rate was calculated with Kaplan-Meier's method in the overall patients in each of the MMC-CH group or the control group. The overall survival rate in the MMC-CH group was statistically significantly (p less than 0.01-0.05) higher from day 460 to day 552 and from day 736 to day 800 than that in the control group. Next, the patients were classified into two subgroups

  13. The outcome of A. Double mesh intraperitoneal repair for complex ventral hernia: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Raafat Y; Hamood, Mokhtar; Hassan, Maged

    2018-05-01

    Complex ventral hernia is a challenging surgical entity, commonly attended with huge defect, loss of domain and possible soft tissue infection. It is difficult to repair, especially with multiple recurrences. Numerous methods of repair have been described with no evidence-based data available to prefer one method over the other. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term outcome of the proposed new modification of intraperitoneal mesh repair procedure in complex ventral hernia. This is a single-center retrospective analysis utilizing the prospectively-maintained dataset in our institution during the study period between January 2003 and June 2017. Patients who fit the inclusion criteria of having a complex ventral hernia, whether de-novo or recurrent and were subjected to A. Double Mesh Intraperitoneal Repair (ADMIR) procedure were included in the study. Patients were followed up till recurrence or lost to follow through a period ranging from 6 to 174 months (mean: 142.96 ± SE: 11.91). Forty-nine cases were included in this study (38 females and 11 males) with a female to male ratio of 3.5:1. The age range was from 28 to 81 years (mean 49 ± 12.4). BMI range from 25 to 42 (mean 33.6 ± 5.42). The ratio between the hernia sac volume and abdominal cavity volume was more than 20% in 12 patients (24.5%), who were subjected to preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) for an average period of two weeks. Hernias were recurrent in 28 cases (57%) and associated comorbidities were observed in 29 patients (63%). Postoperative complications occurred in 19 patients (38.7%), among them only 2 patients developed recurrence (4%) after a mean follow up period of 142 months. Five patients were lost to follow and were included in the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. ADMIR procedure is successful for the repair of complex ventral hernias as it is applicable to all sites of ventral hernias. The mesh is tension free hidden within the abdomen allowing

  14. Sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine reduces early postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young K; Lee, Scott S; Suh, Euy H; Lee, Lyon; Lee, Hee C; Lee, Hyo J; Yeon, Seong C

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine to relieve postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOVH) in dogs. Sixteen sexually intact female dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. The sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine (SIB) group received 4.4 mg/kg of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine diluted to 0.25% with an equivalent volume of saline after pneumoperitoneum. The control group received 1.76 mL/kg of saline in a similar fashion. Both groups received preoperative periportal 5% bupivacaine (1 mL) before incision. Postoperative pain was measured using the short form of the Glasgow composite measures pain scale (CMPS-SF, 0-24). Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured preoperatively and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h postoperatively. The SIB group had significantly lower CMPS-SF compared to the control group 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12h after the operation. Cortisol concentrations were significantly increased from preoperative concentrations in the control group at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4h post operation and at 0.5 and 1h post operation in the SIB group. No significant differences were seen in serum glucose within each group. This report suggests that the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine can be used as part of a multimodal approach for pain management after LOVH in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A prototype single-port device for pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy. Technical feasibility and local drug distribution.

    PubMed

    Seitenfus, Rafael; Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Walter; Santos, Gabriel Oliveira Dos; Alves, Rafael José Vargas; Kalil, Antonio Nocchi; Barros, Eduardo Dipp de; Glehen, Olivier; Casagrande, Thaís Andrade Costa; Bonin, Eduardo Aimoré; Silva Junior, Edison Martins da

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and homogeneity of drug distribution of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) based on a novel process of intraperitoneal drug application (multidirectional aerosolization). This was an in vivo experimental study in pigs. A single-port device was manufactured at the smallest diameter possible for multidirectional aerosolization of the chemotherapeutic drug under positive intraperitoneal pressure. Four domestic pigs were used in the study, one control animal that received multidirectional microjets of 9 mL/sec for 30 min and three animals that received multidirectional aerosolization (pig 02: 9 mL/sec for 30 min; pigs 03 and 04: 3 mL/sec for 15 min). Aerosolized silver nitrate solution was applied for anatomopathological evaluation of intraperitoneal drug distribution. Injection time was able to maintain the pneumoperitoneum pressure below 20 mmHg. The rate of moderate silver nitrate staining was 45.4% for pig 01, 36.3% for pig 02, 36.3% for pig 03, and 72.7% for pig 04. Intra-abdominal drug distribution had a broad pattern, especially in animals exposed to the drug for 30 min. Our sample of only four animals was not large enough to demonstrate an association between aerosolization and a higher silver nitrate concentration in the stained abdominal regions.

  16. Predicting the amount of intraperitoneal fluid accumulation by computed tomography and its clinical use in patients with perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications.

  17. Predicting the Amount of Intraperitoneal Fluid Accumulation by Computed Tomography and Its Clinical Use in Patients With Perforated Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Toru; Kumagai, Youichi; Baba, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Hideko; Suzuki, Okihide; Kuwabara, Koki; Matsuzawa, Takeaki; Sobajima, Jun; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between the amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters in patients with perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) has not been investigated. The authors' objective was to derive a reliable formula for determining the amount of peritoneal fluid in patients with PPU before surgery, and to evaluate the correlation between the estimated amount of peritoneal fluid and clinical parameters. We investigated 62 consecutive patients who underwent emergency surgery for PPU, and in whom prediction of the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid was possible by computed tomography (CT) using the methods described by Oriuchi et al. We examined the relationship between the predicted amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid and that measured during surgery, and the relationship between the amount of fluid predicted preoperatively or measured during surgery and several clinical parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of fluid predicted by CT scan and that measured during surgery. When patients with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were analyzed collectively, the predicted amount of intraperitoneal fluid and the amount measured during surgery were each associated with the period from onset until CT scan, perforation size, the Mannheim peritoneal index, and the severity of postoperative complications according to the Clavien–Dindo classification. Our present results suggest that the method of Oriuchi et al is useful for predicting the amount of accumulated intraperitoneal fluid in patients with PPU, and that this would be potentially helpful for treatment decision-making and estimating the severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25437594

  18. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10°C vs. 16

  19. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tiago S; Gamperl, A Kurt; Booman, Marije; Nash, Gordon W; Rise, Matthew L

    2012-08-28

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen's transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10°C vs. 16°C at 6HPI. These results

  20. Nanovehicles as a novel target strategy for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a multidisciplinary study of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Maciej; Wisniewski, Marek; Werengowska-Ciecwierz, Karolina; Roszek, Katarzyna; Czarnecka, Joanna; Łakomska, I.; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Tyloch, Dominik; Debski, Robert; Pietkun, Katarzyna; Pokrywczynska, Marta; Grzanka, Dariusz; Czajkowski, Rafał; Drewa, Gerard; Jundziłł, A.; Agyin, Joseph K.; Habib, Samy L.; Terzyk, Artur P.; Drewa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In general, detection of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) occurs at the late stage when there is no treatment option. In the present study, we designed novel drug delivery systems that are functionalized with anti-CD133 antibodies. The C1, C2 and C3 complexes with cisplatin were introduced into nanotubes, either physically or chemically. The complexes were reacted with anti-CD133 antibody to form the labeled product of A0-o-CX-chem-CD133. Cytotoxicity screening of all the complexes was performed on CHO cells. Data showed that both C2 and C3 Pt-complexes are more cytotoxic than C1. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that nanotubes conjugated to CD133 antibody have the ability to target cells expressing the CD133 antigen which is responsible for the emergence of resistance to chemotherapy and disease recurrence. The shortest survival rate was observed in the control mice group (K3) where no hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy procedures were used. On the other hand, the longest median survival rate was observed in the group treated with A0-o-C1-chem-CD133. In summary, we designed a novel drug delivery system based on carbon nanotubes loaded with Pt-prodrugs and functionalized with anti-CD133 antibodies. Our data demonstrates the effectiveness of the new drug delivery system and provides a novel therapeutic modality in the treatment of melanoma. PMID:26254295

  1. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAP ™ Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAP ™ Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure.

  2. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanjoy; Hammond, Jeffrey; Panish, Jessica; Shnoda, Pullen; Savidge, Sandy; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (p < 0.00001). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (p < 0.001). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. PMID:26240834

  3. Factors associated with thromboembolic events following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rottenstreich, Amihai; Kalish, Yosef; Kleinstern, Geffen; Yaacov, Almog Ben; Dux, Joseph; Nissan, Aviram

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the risk factors, incidence, and role of thromboprophylaxis in the development of thrombosis following cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC). We reviewed data of patients with CRS/HIPEC in three hospitals. Overall, 192 patients underwent CRS/HIPEC during 2007-2016. Mechanical (thigh-length pneumatic compression stockings) and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (40 mg enoxaparin daily, starting 12 h before surgery until discharge) was provided for all patients; and 116 (60.4%) also received an extended course of enoxaparin for 2-4 weeks after discharge. Twenty-six patients experienced thrombotic complications (13.5%) including portal-splenic-mesenteric venous thrombosis (n = 11, 5.7%), pulmonary embolism (n = 10, 5.2%), and deep vein thrombosis (n = 5, 2.6%); most (n = 21, 80.8%) occurred after hospital discharge. Univariate analysis identified Peritoneal Cancer Index, intraoperative transfusion requirement, operative blood loss, operative time, lengths of hospital, and intensive care unit stay, and lack of administration of anticoagulation at discharge as significantly associated with thrombosis. With multivariate analysis, only the lack of anticoagulation therapy at discharge remained significantly associated with thrombosis (P = 0.0001). Thromboembolic complications are common following CRS/HIPEC. As significantly lower rates of thrombosis were found in patients who received an extended course of anticoagulation, we support its use for at least 2 weeks after discharge. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Early experience with gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI).

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, M; Lim-Howe, D; Savvas, M; Studd, J W

    1988-01-01

    We present our early experience with gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and direct intraperitoneal insemination (DIPI) combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), two recently described methods of assisting conception in patients with patent fallopian tubes. Sixty-nine patients (93 cycles) were entered into the study. Thirty-three patients (51 cycles) entered the DIPI/IUI programme and 36 patients (42 cycles) entered the GIFT programme. The mean age, duration and aetiology of infertility were similar in both groups. In the GIFT programme 12 pregnancies occurred, which is a 29% pregnancy rate per cycle and a 33% pregnancy rate per patient. In the DIPI/IUI programme only 3 pregnancies occurred, being a 6% pregnancy rate per cycle and a 9% pregnancy rate per patient. With the live birth rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) being 12% per embryo transfer, we conclude that GIFT is more successful than either DIPI/IUI or IVF in patients with patent fallopian tubes. Further controlled studies are required to assess the future role of DIPI/IUI in clinical practice. PMID:3210194

  5. Combination Treatment of Citral Potentiates the Efficacy of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion with Pirarubicin for Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yu; Li, Hao; Yu, Shuaishuai; Liu, Ziying; Fan, Zhichao; Chen, Xiaomin; Wu, Yuying; Pan, Xuebo; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Cong

    2017-10-02

    Citral is a widely used penetration enhancer that has been used to assist the delivery of drugs through the skin. In this study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of combination treatments of citral with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for colorectal cancer and to unravel the underlying mechanism by which citral increased the efficacy of HIPEC. In vitro experiments indicated that citral increased cytoplasmic absorption of pirarubicin and potentiated the effects of pirarubicin on colorectal cancer cells to induce apoptosis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity was elevated after single or combo treatments with pirarubicin, leading to compromised NF-κB signaling. Therefore, the results suggested that the effects of citral were mediated by increasing cell permeability and ROS productions. Furthermore, the colorectal xenograft model was used to evaluate the efficacy of the combo treatment at the histological and molecular levels, which showed that the cotreatment with citral for colorectal cancer increased the efficacy of HIPEC with pirarubicin with respect to both ascite control and tumor load. The results indicated that citral was an effective additive for HIPEC with pirarubicin for colorectal cancer, which warrant further effort to explore the translational application of this new treatment regimen.

  6. Acute toxicity assessment of choline by inhalation, intraperitoneal and oral routes in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Amit Kumar; Arora, Naveen; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Singh, Bhanu Pratap

    2009-08-01

    Studies suggest that choline has potential to be used as a dietary supplement and a drug for immune inflammatory diseases like asthma and rhinitis. But there are apprehensions regarding adverse effects of choline when given orally in high doses. To address this knowledge gap, toxicity assessment of choline chloride was carried out by intranasal (i.n.), oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes in Balb/c mice for 28days. Body weight, food and water consumption of mice were recorded daily. Hematology and clinical chemistry were assessed to check hepatocellular functions and morphological alterations of the cells. Splenocyte counts were analysed for evaluating cellular immunity. Liver function test was performed by assaying different enzyme systems in serum such as, urea, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Body weight, food and water consumption did not differ between mice treated with choline and the saline control group. Hematologic and biochemical variables were not affected with any increase in serum toxicity marker enzymes indicating normal liver functioning. Choline administration did not affect total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels as compared to their respective controls. Urea and blood urea nitrogen levels in choline treated mice were not different than controls. Creatinine level was, however, higher than control in i.p. treatment group, but other parameters were normal. In conclusion, the repeated consumption of choline chloride via i.n. and oral or i.p. routes did not cause toxicity in mice in the toxicological endpoints examined.

  7. Mathematical modeling of intraperitoneal drug delivery: simulation of drug distribution in a single tumor nodule.

    PubMed

    Steuperaert, Margo; Falvo D'Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Debbaut, Charlotte; De Wever, Olivier; Vanhove, Christian; Ceelen, Wim; Segers, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The intraperitoneal (IP) administration of chemotherapy is an alternative treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis, allowing for higher intratumor concentrations of the cytotoxic agent compared to intravenous administration. Nevertheless, drug penetration depths are still limited to a few millimeters. It is thus necessary to better understand the limiting factors behind this poor penetration in order to improve IP chemotherapy delivery. By developing a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for drug penetration in a tumor nodule, we investigated the impact of a number of key parameters on the drug transport and penetration depth during IP chemotherapy. Overall, smaller tumors showed better penetration than larger ones, which could be attributed to the lower IFP in smaller tumors. Furthermore, the model demonstrated large improvements in penetration depth by subjecting the tumor nodules to vascular normalization therapy, and illustrated the importance of the drug that is used for therapy. Explicitly modeling the necrotic core had a limited effect on the simulated penetration. Similarly, the penetration depth remained virtually constant when the Darcy permeability of the tissue changed. Our findings illustrate that the developed parametrical CFD model is a powerful tool providing more insight in the drug transport and penetration during IP chemotherapy.

  8. Chinese expert consensus on cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Yun-Feng; Liang, Han; Wang, Hua-Qing; Hao, Ji-Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Wan, De-Seng; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Ji, Jia-Fu; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wei, Shao-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Bin; Suo, Tao; Yang, Shu-Jun; Xie, Cong-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Locoregional spread of abdominopelvic malignant tumors frequently results in peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). The prognosis of PC patients treated by conventional systemic chemotherapy is poor, with a median survival of < 6 mo. However, over the past three decades, an integrated treatment strategy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) + hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been developed by the pioneering oncologists, with proved efficacy and safety in selected patients. Supported by several lines of clinical evidence from phases I, II and III clinical trials, CRS + HIPEC has been regarded as the standard treatment for selected patients with PC in many established cancer centers worldwide. In China, an expert consensus on CRS + HIPEC has been reached by the leading surgical and medical oncologists, under the framework of the China Anti-Cancer Association. This expert consensus has summarized the progress in PC clinical studies and systematically evaluated the CRS + HIPEC procedures in China as well as across the world, so as to lay the foundation for formulating PC treatment guidelines specific to the national conditions of China. PMID:27570426

  9. Intoxication by Intraperitoneal Injection or Oral Gavage Equally Potentiates Postburn Organ Damage and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael M.; Palmer, Jessica L.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Curtis, Brenda J.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of binge drinking and its association with trauma necessitate accurate animal models to examine the impact of intoxication on the response and outcome to injuries such as burn. While much research has focused on the effect of alcohol dose and duration on the subsequent inflammatory parameters following burn, little evidence exists on the effect of the route of alcohol administration. We examined the degree to which intoxication before burn injury causes systemic inflammation when ethanol is given by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or oral gavage. We found that intoxication potentiates postburn damage in the ileum, liver, and lungs of mice to an equivalent extent when either ethanol administration route is used. We also found a similar hematologic response and levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) when either ethanol paradigm achieved intoxication before burn. Furthermore, both i.p. and gavage resulted in similar blood alcohol concentrations at all time points tested. Overall, our data show an equal inflammatory response to burn injury when intoxication is achieved by either i.p. injection or oral gavage, suggesting that findings from studies using either ethanol paradigm are directly comparable. PMID:24379525

  10. The social buffering effect of playful handling on responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Wahl, Kim; Baker, Chelsea; Newberry, Ruth C

    2014-03-01

    Handling small animals for veterinary and experimental procedures can negatively affect animal wellbeing. We hypothesized that playful handling (tickling) would decrease stress associated with repeated injections in adult laboratory rats, especially those with prior tickling experience. We compared responses of 4 groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats to intraperitoneal injection of saline daily for 10 d. Rats either tickled or not tickled as juveniles (2 min/d for 21 d) were exposed as adults to either a passive hand or tickling for 2 min immediately before and after injections. Rates of vocalization (22- and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), indicative of negative and positive affective states, respectively, and audible calls indicative of pain and discomfort) were quantified before, during, and after injection. Tickling before and after injection, especially when combined with juvenile tickling experience (ending 40 to 50 d earlier), increased 50-kHz USV rates before and after injection, reduced audible call rate during injection, and decreased the duration of the injection procedure. The treatments did not affect indicators of physiologic stress (body weight change; fecal corticosteroid levels). We conclude that playful handling performed in association with a mildly aversive procedure serves as a useful refinement by inducing a positive affective state that mitigates the aversiveness of the procedure and makes rats easier to handle, especially when they have been accustomed to tickling as juveniles.

  11. The Social Buffering Effect of Playful Handling on Responses to Repeated Intraperitoneal Injections in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Wahl, Kim; Baker, Chelsea; Newberry, Ruth C

    2014-01-01

    Handling small animals for veterinary and experimental procedures can negatively affect animal wellbeing. We hypothesized that playful handling (tickling) would decrease stress associated with repeated injections in adult laboratory rats, especially those with prior tickling experience. We compared responses of 4 groups of male Sprague–Dawley rats to intraperitoneal injection of saline daily for 10 d. Rats either tickled or not tickled as juveniles (2 min/d for 21 d) were exposed as adults to either a passive hand or tickling for 2 min immediately before and after injections. Rates of vocalization (22- and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), indicative of negative and positive affective states, respectively, and audible calls indicative of pain and discomfort) were quantified before, during, and after injection. Tickling before and after injection, especially when combined with juvenile tickling experience (ending 40 to 50 d earlier), increased 50-kHz USV rates before and after injection, reduced audible call rate during injection, and decreased the duration of the injection procedure. The treatments did not affect indicators of physiologic stress (body weight change; fecal corticosteroid levels). We conclude that playful handling performed in association with a mildly aversive procedure serves as a useful refinement by inducing a positive affective state that mitigates the aversiveness of the procedure and makes rats easier to handle, especially when they have been accustomed to tickling as juveniles. PMID:24602543

  12. Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity following intraperitoneal administrations of hexavalent chromium to pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Marouani, Neila; Tebourbi, Olfa; Mokni, Moncef; Yacoubi, Mohamed Tahar; Sakly, Mohsen; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2011-08-01

    Heavy metals are omnipresent in the environment, and industrial use has greatly increased their presence in soil, water and air. Their inevitable transfer to the human food chain remains an important environmental issue as many heavy metals cause a range of toxic effects, including developmental toxicity. Administration of chromium VI (1 and 2 mg/kg as potassium dichromate) through intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection during organogenesis (days 6 to 15 of gestation) in rats revealed embryo- and fetotoxic effects. Reduced fetal weight, retarded fetal development, number of fetuses per mother and high incidences of dead fetuses and resorptions in treated mothers were also observed. Gross morphological abnormalities, such as displayed form of edema, facial defect, lack of tail, hypotrophy, severs subdermal haemorrhage patches and hypotrophy of placenta were observed in fetuses after chromium VI-treated mothers. A skeletal development of fetuses presented an incomplete ossification in nasal, cranium, abdominal or caudal bones in rats treated with 1 mg/kg of chromium, whereas rats treated with 2 mg/kg showed ossification and absence of the sacral vertebrae compared with the control. At a higher dose of chromium, histological changes were found in fetuses with atrophy of theirs vital organs. Placental histological observations revealed a pronounced morphological alteration, with atrophy of decidual cells, a degenerated of chorionic villi and hypertrophy of blood lacuna. The present study suggests a risk to the developing embryo when the mother is exposed to a high concentration of chromium VI during organogenesis.

  13. Influence of dosage, consciousness, and nifedipine on the acute pressor response to intraperitoneally administered cadmium. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.E.; Hungerford, S.

    1982-05-01

    The acute pressor effect of intraperitoneally administered cadmium was explored over the dose range 0.015-2 mg/kg in both pentobarbital-anesthetized and conscious rats. The former first respondent at 0.031 mg/kg, and successive doublings of that dosage increased the highest pressures attained in a stepwise fashion until a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg, the maximally effective quantity, was reached. Arterial pressure did not rise in conscious rats until a dose of 1 mg/kg, which gave the maximum response within the range examined. Heart-rate changes with Cd were slight, and rarely significant at a given dosage, but pentobarbital invariably caused tachycardia. Anesthetized rats thusmore » gave a graded response, while conscious animals reacted in an all-or-none fashion. The increased pressor responsiveness of rats under pentobarbital can not be ascribed to its cardiac parasympatholytic effects, since sensitivity was not conferred upon conscious rats when pretreated with atropine at a dose producing even greater tachycardia than that caused by pentobarbital. Nifedipine, which blocks calcium entry into smooth muscle cells, prevented the pressor response to cadmium when given as pretreatment and terminated an ongoing response when give intercurrently. Possible mechanisms to account for the observed behavior are considered.« less

  14. Transcriptome of intraperitoneal organs of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus challenged by Edwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yanli; Sun, Xiuqin; Wang, Bo; Wang, Ling; Li, Yan; Tian, Jinhu; Zheng, Fengrong; Zheng, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    Platichthys stellatus is an economically important marine bony fish species that is cultured in China on a large scale. However, very little is known about its immune-related genes. In this study, the transcriptome of the immune organs of P. stellatus that were intraperitoneally challenged with the pathogen E dwardsiella ictaluri JCM1680 is analyzed. Total RNA from four tissues (spleen, kidney, liver, and intestine) was mixed equally and then sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Overall, 28 465 813 quality reads were generated and assembled into 43 061 unigenes. Similarity searches against public protein sequence databases were used to annotate 28 291 unigenes (65.7% of the total), 368 of which were associated with immunoregulation, including 188 related to immunity response. Additionally, the transcript levels of immunity response unigenes annotated as related to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), TNF receptor, chemokine, major histocompatibility complex, and interleukin-6 were investigated in the different tissues of normal and infected P. stellatus by real-time quantitative PCR. The results confirmed that the unigenes identified in the transcriptome database were indeed expressed and up-regulated in infected P. stellatus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the sequencing and analysis of the transcriptome of P. stellatus. These findings provide insights into the transcriptomics and immunogenetics of bony fish.

  15. Multimodality animal rotation imaging system (Mars) for in vivo detection of intraperitoneal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pizzonia, John; Holmberg, Jennie; Orton, Sean; Alvero, Ayesha; Viteri, Oscar; McLaughlin, William; Feke, Gil; Mor, Gil

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM Ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) have been postulated as the potential source of recurrence and chemoresistance. Therefore identification of OvCSC and their complete removal is a pivotal stage for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The objective of the following study was to develop a new in vivo imaging model that allows for the detection and monitoring of OCSCs. METHOD OF STUDY  OCSCs were labeled with X-Sight 761 Nanospheres and injected intra-peritoneally (i.p.) and sub-cutaneously (s.c.) to Athymic nude mice. The Carestream In-Vivo Imaging System FX was used to obtain X-ray and, concurrently, near-infrared fluorescence images. Tumor images in the mouse were observed from different angles by automatic rotation of the mouse. RESULTS  X-Sight 761 Nanospheres labeled almost 100% of the cells. No difference on growth rate was observed between labeled and unlabeled cells. Tumors were observed and monitoring revealed strong signaling up to 21 days. CONCLUSION  We describe the use of near-infrared nanoparticle probes for in vivo imaging of metastatic ovarian cancer models. Visualization of multiple sites around the animals was enhanced with the use of the Carestream Multimodal Animal Rotation System. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. New Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Microparticles with Paclitaxel Sustained Release for Intraperitoneal Administration.

    PubMed

    Bonartsev, Anton P; Zernov, Anton L; Yakovlev, Sergey G; Zharkova, Irina I; Myshkina, Vera L; Mahina, Tatiana K; Bonartseva, Garina A; Andronova, Natalia V; Smirnova, Galina B; Borisova, Juliya A; Kalishjan, Mikhail S; Shaitan, Konstantin V; Treshalina, Helena M

    2017-01-01

    Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) have recently attracted increasing attention due to their biodegradability and high biocompatibility, which makes them suitable for the development of new prolong drug formulations. This study was conducted to develop new prolong paclitaxel (PTX) formulation based on poly(3- hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) microparticles. PHB microparticles loaded with antitumor cytostatic drug PTX were obtained by spray-drying method using Nano Spray Dryer B-90. The PTX release kinetics in vitro from PHB microparticles and their cytotoxity on murine hepatoma cell line MH-22a were studied. Microparticles antitumor activity in vivo was studied using intraperitoneally (i.p.) transplanted tumor models: murine Lewis lung carcinoma and xenografts of human breast cancer RMG1. Uniform PTX release from PHB-microparticles during 2 months was observed. PTX-loaded PHB microparticles have demonstrated a significant antitumor activity versus pure drug both in vitro in murine hepatoma cells and in vivo when administered i.p. to mice with murine Lewis lung carcinoma and xenografts of human breast cancer RMG1. The developed technique of PTX sustained delivery from PHB-microparticles has therapeutic potential as prolong anticancer drug formulation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotheprapy after misdiagnosed gastric cancer: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2018-05-21

    We report the first application of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) as a rescue therapy before palliative D2 gastrectomy combined with liver metastasectomy performed in a 49-year-old woman with peritoneal carcinomatosis who was primarily diagnosed with and underwent surgery for a Krukenberg tumor. The PIPAC procedure was performed with the use of cisplatin at 7.5 mg/m 2 and doxorubicin at 1.5 mg/m 2 for 30 min at 37 °C. Eight weeks after the PIPAC procedure, the patient underwent open classic D2 gastrectomy with the creation of a Roux-en-Y anastomosis (RNY) combined with liver metastasectomy. The patient underwent the classic protocol for chemotherapy combined with Xeloda. The patient felt better and returned to her daily activities. Multicenter data should be gathered to confirm the usefulness of PIPAC as a rescue or neoadjuvant supportive therapy in a very select group of patients who have been recently qualified to undergo classic chemotherapy or standard oncologic surgical procedures.

  18. Phenotypic Correction of Hemophilia A in Sheep by Postnatal Intraperitoneal Transplantation of FVIII-Expressing MSC

    PubMed Central

    Porada, Christopher D.; Sanada, Chad; Kuo, Chung-Jung; Colletti, Evan; Mandeville, Walter; Hasenau, John; Zanjani, Esmail D.; Moot, Robert; Doering, Christopher; Spencer, H. Trent; Almeida-Porada, Graça

    2011-01-01

    We recently re-established a line of sheep that accurately mimics the clinical symptoms and genetics of severe hemophilia A (HA). Herein, we tested a novel, non-ablative transplant therapy in 2 pediatric HA animals. Paternal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were transduced with a porcine FVIII-encoding lentivector, and transplanted via the intraperitoneal route, without preconditioning. At the time of transplantation, these animals had received multiple hFVIII treatments for various spontaneous bleeds, and had developed debilitating hemarthroses which produced severe defects in posture and gait. Transplantation of transduced MSC resolved all existent hemarthroses, and spontaneous bleeds ceased. Damaged joints recovered fully; the animals regained normal posture and gait and resumed normal activity. Despite achieving factor-independence, a sharp rise in pre-existent Bethesda titers occurred following transplantation, decreasing the effectiveness and duration of therapy. Post-mortem examination revealed widespread engraftment, with MSC present within the lung, liver, intestine, and thymus, but particularly within joints affected at the time of transplantation, suggesting MSC homed to sites of ongoing injury/inflammation to release FVIII, explaining the dramatic improvement in hemarthrotic joints. In summary, this novel, non-ablative MSC transplantation was straightforward, safe, and converted life-threatening, debilitating HA to a moderate phenotype in a large animal model. PMID:21906573

  19. Oxidative stress in blood and testicle of rat following intraperitoneal administration of aluminum and indium.

    PubMed

    Maghraoui, S; Clichici, Simona; Ayadi, A; Login, C; Moldovan, R; Daicoviciu, D; Decea, N; Mureşan, A; Tekaya, L

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (-SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

  20. Intraperitoneal carboplatin: favorable results in women with minimal residual ovarian cancer after cisplatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Speyer, J L; Beller, U; Colombo, N; Sorich, J; Wernz, J C; Hochster, H; Green, M; Porges, R; Muggia, F M; Canetta, R

    1990-08-01

    From August 1985 to November 1989 we conducted a trial of intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin including a dose-escalation design in 25 women with advanced gynecologic malignancies. All had extensive prior therapy with cisplatin (median cumulative dose, 525 mg/m2). Carboplatin was administered IP in 2 L of 1.5% dextrose with a 4-hour dwell time every 4 weeks for six cycles at a starting dose of 200 mg/m2. Patients with reduced creatinine clearance (30 to 60 cc/min) were escalated more slowly than those with high (greater than 60 cc/min) clearance. Thrombocytopenia was dose-limiting and often more severe in patients with compromised renal function; there was no local drug toxicity. The median time of follow-up is 25 months. Complete responses (CRs) were documented in six of 23 assessable patients (26%) by repeat laparotomy, and an additional 11 patients (48%) had no disease evident by noninvasive restaging. Five of the CRs and six of the patients with no clinically evident disease have relapsed from 3 to 40 months after therapy. Six patients (26%) are alive and free of disease 8 to 47 (median, 20) months after therapy. IP carboplatin is effective against relapsed ovarian cancer, even after prior cisplatin therapy.

  1. Detection of naproxen and its metabolites in fish bile following intraperitoneal and aqueous exposure.

    PubMed

    Brozinski, Jenny-Maria; Lahti, Marja; Oikari, Aimo; Kronberg, Leif

    2011-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (NPX) has been found as a micropollutant in river water downstream the discharge points of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was exposed to NXP and the uptake and metabolism of the drug was studied. Following exposure through intraperitoneal injection (i.p., 0.5 mg NPX/100 g fish biomass) and through water (1.6 μg L(-1)), the bile was collected and analyzed with various LC-MS/MS methods. The identification of the formed metabolites in i.p. injected fish was based on the exact mass determinations by a time-of-flight mass analyzer (Q-TOF-MS) and on the studies of fragments and fragmentation patterns of precursor ions by an ion trap mass analyzer (IT-MS). No matter the exposure route, the main metabolites were found to be acyl glucuronides of NPX and of 6-O-desmethylnaproxen. Also, unmetabolized NPX was detected in the bile. The total bioconcentration factors (BCF(total-bile)) of NPX and the metabolites in the bile of fish exposed through water ranged from 500 to 2,300. The findings suggest that fish living downstream WWTPs may take up NPX and metabolize the compound. Consequently, NPX and its metabolites in bile can be used to monitor the exposure of fish to NPX.

  2. Intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy for ovarian cancer: pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and efficacy of I-131 labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.S.; Hird, V.; Snook, D.

    Thirty-six patients with ovarian cancer were treated with intraperitoneal I-131 labeled monoclonal antibodies to tumor associated antigens. The activity of I-131 administered was increased from 20 mCi to 158 mCi and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity evaluated. Five patients who had developed HAMA (Human Antimouse Antibodies) were retreated, and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the first and second treatment compared. Patients receiving their first therapy (HAMA negative), had a maximum of 25% (range 19.8-39.8%) of the injected activity in their circulation. This was accompanied by severe marrow suppression at I-131 activities over 120 mCi. The 5 HAMA positive patients had onlymore » 5% injected activity in the systemic circulation (range 3.8-6%), with rapid urinary excretion and neglible marrow suppression. In 31 patients with assessable disease there were no responses in 8 patients with gross disease (nodules greater than 2 cms), partial responses in 2 out of 15 patients with nodules less than 2 cms, and complete responses in 3 out of 6 patients with microscopic disease. The non specific radiation dose to the peritoneal cavity was estimated to be less than 500 cGy by lithium fluoride TLD, and could not be expected to account for the responses seen.« less

  3. Calculation of Glucose Dose for Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Tests in Lean and Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Mikkel S; Tornqvist, Kristina S; Hvid, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Glucose tolerance tests are used frequently in nonclinical research with laboratory animals, for example during characterization of obese phenotypes. Despite published standard operating procedures for glucose tolerance tests in rodents, how glucose doses should be calculated when obese and lean animals are compared is not well documented. Typically the glucose dose is calculated as 2 g/kg body weight, regardless of body composition. With this approach, obese mice receive larger glucose doses than do lean animals, potentially leading to overestimation of glucose intolerance in obese animals. In this study, we performed intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests in mice with diet-induced obesity and their lean controls, with glucose doses based on either the total body weight or the lean body mass of the animals. To determine glucose tolerance, we determined the blood glucose AUC during the glucose tolerance test. We found that the blood glucose AUC was increased significantly in obese mice compared with lean mice by 75% on average when glucose was dosed according to the lean body mass and by 87% when the glucose dose was calculated according to total body weight. Therefore, mice with diet-induced obesity were approximately equally glucose intolerant between the 2 dose-calculation protocols. However, we recommend calculating the glucose dose according to the lean body mass of the mice, because doing so eliminates the concern regarding overdosing of obese animals.

  4. Nutrition and the brain.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E

    2010-02-01

    Severe nutritional deficiencies, such as protein energy malnutrition and deficiency of nicotinamide, vitamin B(12), folate, and thiamine, have long been recognized to cause severe confusion. Lesser vitamin deficiencies have been linked to the pathogenesis of delirium. Hypo- and hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia can cause cognitive deficits. Epidemiologic and animal studies have linked several other nutrients (omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, alpha-lipoic acid, and the Mediterranean diet) to cognitive performance and the prevention of dementia.

  5. Experience from a long-term carcinogenicity study with intraperitoneal injection of biosoluble synthetic mineral fibers.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Hans G; Bernstein, David M; Attia, Mahmoud; Richard, Jacques; De Reydellet, Aymon

    2002-08-01

    The carcinogenic potential in the intraperitoneal cavity of three newly developed biosoluble insulation glass wool fibers (M, P, and V) and one newly developed biosoluble insulation stone wool fiber (O) was investigated and compared to that of a previously developed soluble glass fiber (B). The in vitro dissolution coefficient of the three glass wool fibers ranged from 450 to 1037 ng/cm(2) x h and was 523 ng/cm(2) x h for the stone wool fiber. The in vitro dissolution coefficient of the B fiber was 580 ng/cm(2) x h. Groups of female Wistar rats (strain Crl: Wi BR) were exposed by repeated injections to doses of 0.5, 2, and 5 x 10(9) WHO fibers, which corresponds to between 41 mg to 724 mg fiber injected. In addition, 2 groups of crocidolite were used as positive controls at doses of 0.1 x 10(9) and 1 x 10(9) WHO fibers (0.5 and 5 mg). The in vitro dissolution coefficient of crocidolite is estimated to be approximately 1 ng/cm(2) x h. The protocol of the study and the size distribution of the test samples conformed to the European Commission Protocol EUR 18748 EN, and the study was executed under Good Laboratory Practice conditions. Two of the new insulation wools, fibers M and 0, showed no statistically significant tumorigenic response even at the very high dose of 5 x 10(9) WHO fibers injected. Fibers P and V showed a small tumorigenic response in the ip cavity similar in magnitude to the B fiber, which has been declared in the German fiber regulations as a noncarcinogenic fiber. The response to the soluble insulation fibers was notably different from that of the known carcinogen crocidolite, which produced 53% tumors at a comparatively low dose of 0.1 x 10(9) WHO fibers. The incidence of mesothelioma was found to be highly correlated to the incidence of intra-abdominal nodules and masses at different sites. The incidence of abdominal nodules and masses was highly correlated to the number of animals with ascites. The incidence of chronic peritonitis with fibrotic

  6. Editor's Highlight: Effects of Intraperitoneal Injection of SnS2 Flowers on Mouse Testicle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Disi; Li, Qingzhao; Xiong, Yanjie; Zhao, Junjian; Bai, Liyuan; Shen, Peijun; Yuan, Lu; Wu, Ping

    2018-02-01

    SnS2 nanoflowers (SnS2 NFs) have been widely used in photoelectric and catalytic applications. However, its explosure and reproductive toxicity is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to 3 different sized-SnS2 flowers (dose: 38 mg/kg; size: 50, 80, and 200 nm) in testes of mice for 4 weeks by intraperitoneal injection. Though the body weight of mice treated or not with SnS2 NFs was not different, and SnS2 NFs were distributed to the organs including liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain, and testis, more distribution SnS2 NFs (50 and 80 nm) were found in testicle tissues compared with SnS2 flowers (200 nm) in those tissues. The results of sperm count and survival analysis, histopathological evaluation, and qRT-PCR detection showed that there was moderate reproductive toxicity induced by the small-sized SnS2 NFs in testicle tissues. Furthermore, elevated malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase activity were also observed in the SnS2 NFs (dose: 38 mg/kg; size: 50 and 80 nm) treated groups. Likewise, the qRT-PCR data indicated that SnS2 NFs can induce apoptosis and inflammation responses. Although the pro-inflammation marker of TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS, and COX-2 at the mRNA levels were higher expression in 50 and 80 nm groups than that in control and 200 nm group, no statistical significance existed between 50 and 80 nm groups. Accordingly, the repeated-dose toxicity of SnS2 NFs in testicle tissues was also observed in a dose-dependent manner by intraperitoneal injection of SnS2 NFs (size: 50 nm; 0.38, 3.8, and 38 mg/kg) for 4 weeks, when determined by sperm count, survival rate, and qRT-PCR analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed that the ultrastructural abnormalities formed by the small-sized SnS2 NFs in testes were more severe than those formed by the large-sized SnS2 in testes. Taken together, these findings implied that the SnS2 NFs activated inflammation responses

  7. Systemic and intraperitoneal proinflammatory cytokines profiles in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Maksić, Doko; Colić, Miodrag; Stanković-Popović, Verica; Radojević, Milorad; Bokonjić, Dubravko

    2007-01-01

    IL-1 levels in patients on CAPD within one and longer than one year of dialysation did not significantly differ, but the effluent IL-6 levels were significantly higher than in the serum of both groups of patients, that is, effluent IL-6 levels in CAPD patients dialysed more than one year was significantly higher in comparison with those in patients dialysed within a year. Both serum and intraperitoneal levels of the examined cytokines did not significantly differ in patients on the standard and biocompatible solutions, regardless of the present trend toward decrease of intraperitoneal IL-6 levels in patients on biocompatible solutions. Residual renal funcion and number of CAPD peritonitis did not have any important impact upon the serum and IP levels of the examined ctokynes. Elevated serum TNF levels and significant local IL-6 production in our CAPD patients indirectly confirm importance of peritoneal dialysis in amplification of the chronic inflammation substantially depend on the duration of dialysis treatment.

  8. Evaluation of botulinum toxin type A effectiveness in preventing postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions (PIAs) are one of the most important problems surgeons have to face after laparotomies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of local application of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) in various dosages on the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions in rats with experimental intra-abdominal adhesions. Methods Forty Wistar Albino female rats were randomly separated into 4 groups. The 4 groups were determined as follows: Control (group 1, n = 10); Sham (group 2, n = 10); 10-µg/kg low-dose BoNT-A (group 3, n = 10) and 30-µg/kg high-dose BoNT-A (group 4, n = 10). Subserosal injuries were created on the caecum of all rats. Laparotomy was performed on the fifth day. Adhesion scores, histopathological examination, and E-cadherin expression levels were evaluated. Results General adhesion scores for groups 1 and 2 were determined to be significantly high when compared to group 4 (P < 0.001). A significant difference was also determined between groups 3 and 4 in terms of general adhesion scores (P < 0.05). In pair comparisons, a significant decrease in high-dose BoNT-A group (group 4) when compared to groups 1 and 2 in terms of neovascularization, fibroblast density, collagen deposition and inflammatory cell count was determined (P < 0.05). Conclusion A significant decrease was observed only in postoperative PIAs in the high-dose BoNT-A group between all 4 rat-groups with experimentally created postoperative PIAs. In this study, high-dose BoNT-A is determined to be an effective agent in preventing postoperative PIAs. PMID:28706891

  9. Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion in Adolescent and Young Adults with Peritoneal Metastases.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Mashaal; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Shuai, Yongli; Pakrafter, Sam; Jones, Heather L; Hogg, Melissa E; Zureikat, Amer H; Holtzman, Matthew P; Ahrendt, Steven A; Bahary, Nathan; Pingpank, James F; Zeh, Herbert J; Bartlett, David L; Choudry, Haroon A

    2017-04-01

    Several studies suggest that young patients may derive less oncologic benefit from surgical resection of cancers compared with older patients. We hypothesized that young patients may have worse outcomes following cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS/HIPEC) for peritoneal metastases. Perioperative and oncologic outcomes in adolescent and young adults (AYA), defined as younger than age 40 years (n = 135), undergoing CRS/HIPEC between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed and compared with middle-aged adults, defined as aged 40-65 years (n = 684). The two groups were similar with regards to perioperative characteristics except that AYA were more likely to be symptomatic at presentation (65.2 vs. 50.9%, p = 0.003), had lower Charleson comorbidity index (median 6 vs. 8, p < 0.001), were less likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (32.8 vs. 42.5%, p = 0.042), and had longer operative times (median 543 vs. 493 min, p = 0.010). Postoperative Clavien-Dindo grade 3-4 morbidity was lower in AYA (17 vs. 26%, p = 0.029), and they required fewer reoperations for complications (3.7 vs. 10.4%, p = 0.014). AYA had longer median overall survival (103.6 vs. 73.2 months, p = 0.053). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, age was an independent predictor of improved overall survival [hazard ratio 0.705; 0.516-0.963, p = 0.028]. Young patients with peritoneal metastases derive similar benefits from CRS/HIPEC as middle-aged patients. Young age should not be a deterrent to consideration of CRS/HIPEC for peritoneal metastases.

  10. Institutional learning curve of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion for peritoneal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Patricio M; Ding, Ying; Knox, Jordan M; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Jones, Heather; Hogg, Melissa E; Zureikat, Amer H; Holtzman, Matthew P; Pingpank, James; Ahrendt, Steven; Zeh, Herbert J; Bartlett, David L; Choudry, Haroon A

    2015-05-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) is routinely used to treat certain peritoneal carcinomatoses (PC), but it can be associated with relatively high complication rates, prolonged hospital length of stay, and potential mortality. Our objective was to determine the learning curve (LC) of CRS/HIPEC in our high-volume institution. A total of 370 patients with PC from mucinous appendiceal neoplasms (MAN = 282), malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM = 60), and gastric cancer (GC = 24) were studied. Outcomes analyzed included incomplete cytoreduction (IC), severe morbidity (SM), 60-day mortality, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Risk-adjusted sequential probability ratio test (RA-SPRT) was employed to assess the LC of CRS/HIPEC for IC and SM using prespecified odds ratio (OR) boundaries derived from previously published data. Risk adjusted-cumulative average probability (RA-CAP) was used to analyze 1-year PFS and 2-year OS. Complete cytoreduction, severe morbidity, and 60-day mortality were 84.2, 30, and 1.9 % respectively. Higher simplified peritoneal cancer index was the major independent risk factor for IC, whereas high-grade histology, IC, and diagnosis of MPM and GC (compared with MAN) were predictors of SM after CRS/HIPEC (p < 0.05). RA-SPRT showed that approximately 180 cases are needed to achieve the lowest risk of IC and SM. Ninety cases were needed to achieve a steady 1-year PFS and 2-year OS in RA-CAP plots. The completeness of cytoreduction, morbidity, and mortality rates for CRS/HIPEC at our institution are comparable to previously reported data. Approximately 180 and 90 procedures are required to improve operative and oncologic outcomes respectively.

  11. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in 1000 patients with perforated appendiceal epithelial tumours.

    PubMed

    Ansari, N; Chandrakumaran, K; Dayal, S; Mohamed, F; Cecil, T D; Moran, B J

    2016-07-01

    To report early and long term outcomes following cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in 1000 patients with perforated appendiceal epithelial tumours, predominantly with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1000 consecutive patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC for perforated appendiceal tumours between 1994 and 2014 in a UK National Peritoneal Malignancy unit. Overall 1000/1444 (69.2%) patients treated for peritoneal malignancy had appendiceal primary tumours. Of these 738/1000 (73.8%) underwent complete cytoreductive surgery (CCRS), 242 (24.2%) had maximal tumour debulking (MTD) and 20 (2%) had laparotomy and biopsies only. Treatment related 30-day mortality was 0.8% in CCRS and 1.7% in MTD group with major postoperative morbidity rates of 15.2% (CCRS) and 14.5% (MTD). Five- and 10-year overall survival was 87.4% and 70.3% in the 738 patients who had CCRS compared with 39.2% and 8.1% respectively in the MTD group. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of reduced overall survival were male gender (p = 0.022), elevated CEA (p = 0.001), elevated CA125 (p = 0.001) and high tumour grade or adenocarcinoma (p = 0.001). Perforated epithelial appendiceal tumours are rare, though may be increasing in incidence and can present unexpectedly at elective or emergency abdominal surgery, often with PMP. CRS and HIPEC results in good long term outcomes in most patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carcinogenicity studies after intraperitoneal injection of two types of stone wool fibres in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamstrup, O; Ellehauge, A; Collier, C G; Davis, J M G

    2002-03-01

    A summary is given of the pathology results after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in rats of insulation wool HT, representing the new biosoluble types. The pathology results are compared with a previously conducted i.p. study with traditional stone wool D6 (with similar chemical composition to MMVF21). The HT fibre is characterized by a relatively high content of aluminium and a relatively low content of silica compared to MMVF21. HT has a high in vitro dissolution rate at pH 4.5, a relatively low dissolution rate at pH 7.5 and is less biopersistent than the MMVF21 fibre. Female Wistar rats received a dose of 2 x 10(9) WHO HT fibres by i.p. injection. The fibres had been size-selected to be largely rat respirable. The negative control group was exposed to saline. Following exposure, the animals were maintained until survival in one group fell below 20%. At this time, all animals were killed. All animals were subjected to a necropsy examination; any gross abnormalities observed at necropsy were subjected to histopathological examination. In addition, histopathology was carried out on a predefined list of tissues. The incidences of lesions and survival in the control and fibre dosed animals were compared using appropriate statistical methods to determine whether the dosed animals showed adverse effects on survival or a positive carcinogenic response. The main protocol for the previously conducted study with D6 (MMVF21) was similar, but the animals were maintained as long as they survived, and the WHO fibre dose was lower. The results of the comparative study showed a marked difference in the i.p. pathogenicity of D6 (MMVF21) and HT in terms of their carcinogenic potential. D6 (MMVF21) caused a statistically significant increase of mesotheliomas in the peritoneal cavity compared to the negative control, but the HT fibre did not cause any mesotheliomas or any increase in other tumour types.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistulas After Surgery With and Without Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Downs-Canner, Stephanie; Ding, Ying; Magge, Deepa R.; Jones, Heather; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Zureikat, Amer; Holtzman, Matthew; Ahrendt, Steven; Pingpank, James; Zeh, Herbert J.; Bartlett, David L.; Choudry, Haroon A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPFs) are potentially morbid complications that often require therapeutic interventions. Distal pancreatectomy performed during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) puts patients at risk for POPF. The authors hypothesized that POPFs are more severe after CRS/HIPEC than after pancreatectomy alone. Methods Clinicopathologic and perioperative details, including POPF by International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula criteria (ISGPF), and oncologic outcomes for patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy during CRS/HIPEC for peritoneal carcinomatosis of appendiceal (n = 31) or colorectal (n = 23) origin (HIPEC group) were compared with those for patients undergoing minimally invasive or open distal pancreatectomy without HIPEC (n = 66) for locally resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (non-HIPEC group). Results The incidence of POPF was similar between the HIPEC and non-HIPEC groups (26 %). The severity of POPF according to the ISGPF criteria was significantly worse in the HIPEC group. The HIPEC patients had 13 grade B fistulas and 1 grade C fistula compared with 12 grade A fistulas and 4 grade B fistulas in the non-HIPEC group. The HIPEC patients with POPF did not differ in the extent of their CRS, peritoneal cancer index, length of hospital stay, or other postoperative complications from the the HIPEC patients without POPF. The HIPEC patients with colorectal carcinomatosis who experienced POPF had higher disease recurrence in the first year after CRS/HIPEC than those without POPF. Conclusion The findings showed that POPFs are more severe when distal pancreatectomy is combined with CRS/HIPEC. Moreover, selective use of distal pancreatectomy is important during CRS/HIPEC because POPFs may increase early disease recurrence for patients with colorectal carcinomatosis. PMID:25348781

  14. Pros and cons of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Alain G; Reimer, Daniel; Radl, Alice C; Reinthaller, Alexander; Schauer, Christian; Petru, Edgar; Concin, Nicole; Braun, Stephan; Marth, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Development of the pros and cons of intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer based on the most prominent data published on the evolution of IP chemotherapy and on experience with this therapeutic strategy in clinical routine. The literature published on IP chemotherapy in ovarian cancer between 1970 and 2008 was identified systematically by computer-based searches in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of data recorded during an observational nationwide multicenter study of the Austrian AGO on IP-IV chemotherapy using the GOG-172 treatment regimen was performed. The literature review unequivocally revealed a significantly greater toxicity for IP than for intravenous (IV) cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, according to a Cochrane meta-analysis, IP-IV administration of chemotherapy is associated with a 21.6% decrease in the risk for death. In agreement with earlier reports, the most frequently mentioned side-effects in the Austria-wide observational study were long-lasting neurotoxicity, abdominal pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal and metabolic toxicities, and catheter-related complications. Most of these toxicities were identified as mirroring the toxicity profile of high-dose IV cisplatin (>or=100 mg/m(2)). In some patients, the classic IP-IV regimen with cisplatin/paclitaxel was changed to an alternative schedule comprising carboplatin AUC 5 (d1) and weekly paclitaxel 60 mg/m(2) (d1, 8, 15) completely administered via the IP route. This treatment was better tolerated and quality of life was significantly less compromised. However, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were the limiting side-effects of this IP regimen. In cases where optimal cytoreduction with residual disease

  15. Intraperitoneal Administration of Ethanol as a Means of Euthanasia for Neonatal Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    de Souza Dyer, Cecilia; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O

    2017-05-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differently to euthanasia agents when compared with adults. The AVMA's Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals includes intraperitoneal injection of ethanol as "acceptable with conditions," and recent work confirmed that this method is appropriate for euthanizing adult mice, but neonatal mice have not been tested. To explore this method in neonatal mice, mouse pups (C57BL/6 and CD1, 162 total) were injected with 100% ethanol, a pentobarbital-phenytoin combination, or saline at 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d of age. Electrocardiograms, respiratory rates, and times to loss of righting reflex and death were recorded. Time to death (TTD) differed significantly between ethanol and pentobarbital-phenytoin at 7, 14, and 21 d and between ethanol groups at 7, 14, and 21 d compared with 35 d. The average TTD (± 1 SD) for ethanol-injected mice were: 7 d, 70.3 ± 39.8 min; 14 d, 51.7 ± 30.5 min; 21 d, 32.3 ± 20.8 min, 28 d, 14.0 ± 15.2; and 35 d, 4.9 ± 1.4. Mean TTD in pentobarbital-phenytoin-injected mice were: 7 d, 2.8 ± 0.4 min; 14 d, 2.9 ± 0.5 min; 21 d, 3.9 ± 1.2 min; 28 d, 3.9 ± 0.7 min; and 35 d, 4.4 ± 0.5. Although TTD did not differ between ethanol and pentobarbital-phenytoin at 28 d of age, the TTD in 3 of 12 mice was longer than 15 min after ethanol administration at this age. Therefore, ethanol should not be used as a method of euthanasia for mice younger than 35 d, because the criteria for humane euthanasia were met only in mice 35 d or older.

  16. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays

    PubMed Central

    Welkos, Susan L.; Klimko, Christopher P.; Kern, Steven J.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Bozue, Joel A.; Bernhards, Robert C.; Trevino, Sylvia R.; Waag, David M.; Amemiya, Kei; Worsham, Patricia L.; Cote, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP) infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational). Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b) were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains and in the

  17. Characterization of Burkholderia pseudomallei Strains Using a Murine Intraperitoneal Infection Model and In Vitro Macrophage Assays.

    PubMed

    Welkos, Susan L; Klimko, Christopher P; Kern, Steven J; Bearss, Jeremy J; Bozue, Joel A; Bernhards, Robert C; Trevino, Sylvia R; Waag, David M; Amemiya, Kei; Worsham, Patricia L; Cote, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium. This bacterium is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. It has also been estimated to present a considerable risk as a potential biothreat agent. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei, and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by nonspecific symptomology, the high incidence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains, and disease chronicity. Accordingly, there is a concerted effort to better characterize B. pseudomallei and its associated disease. Before novel vaccines and therapeutics can be tested in vivo, a well characterized animal model is essential. Previous work has indicated that mice may be a useful animal model. In order to develop standardized animal models of melioidosis, different strains of bacteria must be isolated, propagated, and characterized. Using a murine intraperitoneal (IP) infection model, we tested the virulence of 11 B. pseudomallei strains. The IP route offers a reproducible way to rank virulence that can be readily reproduced by other laboratories. This infection route is also useful in distinguishing significant differences in strain virulence that may be masked by the exquisite susceptibility associated with other routes of infection (e.g., inhalational). Additionally, there were several pathologic lesions observed in mice following IP infection. These included varisized abscesses in the spleen, liver, and haired skin. This model indicated that commonly used laboratory strains of B. pseudomallei (i.e., K96243 and 1026b) were significantly less virulent as compared to more recently acquired clinical isolates. Additionally, we characterized in vitro strain-associated differences in virulence for macrophages and described a potential inverse relationship between virulence in the IP mouse model of some strains and in the

  18. Intraperitoneal versus subcutaneous insulin therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, P R; Logtenberg, S J J; Hendriks, S H; Groenier, K H; Feenstra, J; Pouwer, F; Gans, R O B; Kleefstra, N; Bilo, H J G

    2015-11-01

    Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII), a last-resort type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treatment, has only been investigated in small or controlled studies. We aimed to investigate glycaemia and quality of life (QoL) with CIPII versus subcutaneous (SC) insulin therapy during usual T1DM care. A prospective, observational case-control study. CIPII-treated cases were matched to SC controls. The primary endpoint was a non-inferiority assessment (pre-defined margin of -5.5 mmol÷mol) of the baseline adjusted difference in HbA1c between groups during a 26-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes included QoL, clinical and biochemical measurements. In total, 183 patients were analysed (CIPII n = 39 and SC n = 144). The HbA1c difference between treatment groups was -3.0 mmol÷mol (95% CI -5.0, -1.0), being lower in the SC group. Patients using SC insulin therapy spent less percentage of time in hyperglycaemia (-9.3% (95% CI -15.8, -2.8)) and more in euglycaemia (6.9% (95% CI 1.2, 12.5) as compared with CIPII-treated patients. Besides a 3.6 U÷l (95% CI 1.2, 6.0) lower concentration of alanine aminotransferase with CIPII, no biochemical and clinical differences were present. Most QoL scores were lower at baseline among CIPII-treated patients. However, besides lower health status, there were no differences in the baseline-adjusted general and diabetes-specific QoL and treatment satisfaction. Although patients using CIPII had a higher glycaemic profile compared with patients using SC insulin therapy, the HbA1c difference was non-inferior. Overall, health status was lower among CIPII-treated patients, although diabetes-specific QoL and treatment satisfaction was similar to subcutaneously treated patients.

  19. A retrospective analysis of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Meiqin; Wang, Zeng; Hu, Guinv; Yang, Yunshan; Lv, Wangxia; Lu, Fangxiao; Zhong, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is a poor prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in patients with advanced gastric cancer with PM by retrospective analysis. A total of 54 gastric cancer patients with positive ascitic fluid cytology were included in this study: 23 patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy combined with HIPEC (HIPEC+ group) and 31 received systemic chemotherapy alone (HIPEC- group). The patients were divided into 4 categories according to the changes of ascites, namely disappear, decrease, stable and increase. The disappear + decrease rate in the HIPEC+ group was 82.60%, which was statistically significantly superior to that of the HIPEC- group (54.80%). The disappear + decrease + stable rate was 95.70% in the HIPEC+ group and 74.20% in the HIPEC- group, but the difference was not statistically significant. In 33 patients with complete survival data, including 12 from the HIPEC+ and 21 from the HIPEC- group, the median progression-free survival was 164 and 129 days, respectively, and the median overall survival (OS) was 494 and 223 days, respectively. In patients with ascites disappear/decrease/stable, the OS appeared to be better compared with that in patients with ascites increase, but the difference was not statistically significant. Further analysis revealed that patients with controlled disease (complete response + partial response + stable disease) may have a better OS compared with patients with progressive disease, with a statistically significant difference. The toxicities were well tolerated in both groups. Therefore, HIPEC was found to improve survival in advanced gastric cancer patients with PM, but the difference was not statistically significant, which may be attributed to the small number of cases. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm our data. PMID:27446587

  20. Analgesic effect of intraperitoneal local anesthetic in surgery: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Hamill, James K; Rahiri, Jamie-Lee; Hill, Andrew G

    2017-05-15

    Intraperitoneal local anesthetic (IPLA) reduces postoperative pain as shown by previous systematic reviews. The purpose of this review was to compare the efficacy of IPLA between different types of procedure and to formulate GRADE recommendations for the use of IPLA. A systematic search for systematic reviews of the effect of IPLA, versus no IPLA or placebo, on pain after any surgical procedure. Databases included in the study were MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDSR, and DARE. Two reviewers independently undertook searches, selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was by random effects. Recommendation was by GRADE. The main outcome measure was self-reported early postoperative pain scores. Searches uncovered nine systematic reviews. This study included randomized trials numbered 76, representing 4000 participants, 2022 in IPLA and 1978 in control groups. Six reviews scored at low risk of bias and three at high risk. Meta-analysis demonstrated that IPLA reduced the mean pain score (0-10 scale) by 0.95 point (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.17). Excluding laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the effect size increased to 1.52 (95% confidence interval: 1.15-1.88). Heterogeneity was high overall at I 2  = 91.7% but on excluding laparoscopic cholecystectomy trials reduced to I 2  = 31.3%. IPLA could be considered a viable option for early postoperative analgesia in certain laparoscopic operations. Further research on the effect of IPLA on procedures other than laparoscopic cholecystectomy would help clarify its place in a postoperative analgesia protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The cellular responses of the rat to an intraperitoneal inoculation of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis larvae

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Z.; Wertheim, Guta

    1973-01-01

    The cellular responses to intraperitoneal inoculation of infective (L3) or non-infective (L2) larvae of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were studied in unprimed rats. Peritoneal macrophages adhered to the larvae immediately after inoculation and the coated larvae became attached to the omentum. As additional inflammatory cells, appearing in the peritoneal exudate, adhered to the larvae, nodules were formed which with time organized into granulomas. The initial response was not specific and consisted of an intense neutrophilia which developed in all rats a few hours after inoculation and lasted 24 hours. Thereafter the cellular responses were distinctly different in the case of each larval stage. In rats receiving L3 larvae an intense eosinophilia in the peritoneal exudate began to develop 7 days after inoculation, and islands of numerous pyroninophilic blast- and plasma cells were present at the periphery of the granuloma. The L3 larvae survived in the granulomas for 7–10 days. The granulomas formed around the L2 larvae consisted mainly of macrophages; the number of eosinophils did not rise above normal and there were no pyroninophilic cells. The L2 larvae survived in the granuloma for 3 days. In control rats, in which an intestinal infection was established by subcutaneous administration of larvae, no changes were detected in the cellular composition of the peritoneal exudate. The significance of these responses is discussed in relation to recent reports about the cellular composition of antigenic and non-antigenic granulomas. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4705618

  2. Immunotoxicity of gallium arsenide on antigen presentation: comparative study of intratracheal and intraperitoneal exposure routes.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Constance B; Harrison, M Travis; McCoy, Kathleen L

    2005-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a semiconductor utilized in electronics and computer industries. GaAs exposure of animals causes local inflammation and systemic immune suppression. Mice were administered 2 to 200 mg/kg GaAs. On day 5, intratracheal instillation increased lung weights in a dose-dependent manner and induced pulmonary inflammation exemplified by mononuclear cell infiltration and mild epithelial hyperplasia. No fibrosis, pneumocyte hyperplasia, proteinosis, or bronchial epithelial damage was observed in the lungs. Splenic cellularity and composition were unaffected. GaAs' effect on antigen presentation by macrophages was similar after intratracheal and intraperitoneal exposure, although the lowest observable adverse effect levels differed. Macrophages from the exposure site displayed an enhanced ability to activate an antigen-specific CD4(+) helper T-cell hybridoma compared with vehicle controls, whereas splenic macrophages were defective in this function. The chemical's impact on peritoneal macrophages depended on the exposure route. GaAs exposure augmented thiol cathepsins B and L activities in macrophages from the exposure site, but decreased proteolytic activities in splenic macrophages. Alveolar macrophages had increased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II molecules, whereas MHC Class II expression on splenic and peritoneal macrophages was unaffected. Modified thiol cathepsin activities statistically correlated with altered efficiency of antigen presentation, whereas MHC Class II expression did not. Our study is the first one to examine the functional capability of alveolar macrophages after intratracheal GaAs instillation. Therefore, thiol cathepsins may be potential target molecules by which GaAs exposure modulates antigen presentation.

  3. Stoma Creation and Reversal After Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doud, Andrea N; Levine, Edward A; Fino, Nora F; Stewart, John H; Shen, Perry; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I

    2016-02-01

    Cytoreductive surgery with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) often includes stoma creation. We evaluated the indications, morbidity, and mortality associated with stoma creation and reversal after CRS/HIPEC. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1149 CRS-HIPEC procedures was performed. Patient demographics, type of malignancy, comorbidities, Clavien-graded morbidity, mortality, indications for stoma creation, and outcomes of subsequent reversal were abstracted. Sixteen percent (186/1149) of CRS/HIPEC procedures included stoma creation, whereas 1.1 % (11/963) of patients without initial stoma creation developed anastomotic leaks requiring stoma. Patients who required a stoma had worse preoperative performance status (ECOG 0/1: 77.2 vs. 86.1 %, p = 0.002), greater burden of disease (PCI 17.6 vs. 12.9, p < 0.0001), and were more likely to have R2 resections (74.5 vs. 48.8 %, p < 0.0001) than those without stoma creation. Stomas were intended to be permanent in 17.5 % (35/199). Of 164 patients with potentially reversible ostomies, only 26.2 % (43/164) underwent reversal. Disease progression (43/164, 26.2 %) and death (40/164, 24.3 %) most commonly precluded reversal. After reversal, 27.9 % (12/43) suffered a Clavien I/II morbidity, 27.9 % (12/43) suffered Clavien III/IV morbidity, and 30-day mortality was 4.7 % (2/43). Anastomotic leak occurred after 9 % (3/33) of ileostomy and 10 % (1/10) of colostomy reversals. Stomas are more common among CRS/HIPEC patients with a high burden of disease and poor functional status. Reversal is uncommon and is associated with significant major morbidity. Preoperative counseling for those with high disease burden and poor functional status should include the risk of permanent stoma.

  4. [Intraoperative chemotherapy against peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer with intraperitoneal activated carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C].

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Takahashi, T; Sawai, K; Yamaguchi, T; Iwamoto, A; Yoneyama, C

    1989-02-01

    For prevention and therapy of peritoneal dissemination, a new dosage from (MMC-CH) comprising carbon particles adsorbing mitomycin C was given to 44 patients (the MMC-CH group) undergoing gastrectomy for gastric cancer, of which advancing stage was classified into the category of H0, and S2 or S3, and P0, P1, P2 or P3 according to the General Rules for the Gastric Cancer Study. MMC-CH, principally at 50 mg person in terms of mitomycin C was administered intraperitoneally before the surgical wound was closed. Historical control group was composed of 53 patients not given MMC-CH, who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the same advancing stage as those of the 44 patients. There was statistically no significant difference of age, sex, depth of infiltration, macroscopically and microscopically defined progression of lymph-nodal metastases, between the MMC-CH group and the historical control group. The survival rate of the overall patients, and each group of the patients with the lesion defined as P0, P1, P2, or P3 was compared with Kaplan-Meier's method between the MMC-CH group and the historical control group. In the MMC-CH group, the survival rates of the overall patients and the patients with P0, P1, or P2 lesion were statistically significantly higher than those in the historical control group. However, the rate of the P3 patients in the MMC-CH group was statistically significantly lower than in the historical control group.

  5. Flow cytometric quantification of intraperitoneal free tumor cells in patients with peritoneal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Joji; Emoto, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Ishigami, Hironori; Kamei, Takao; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Seto, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Keisuke; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is the most life-threatening type of metastasis in abdominal malignancy. To improve the diagnostic accuracy of cytologic detection (CY) of free tumor cells (FTC) in the peritoneal cavity, we tried to quantify the FTC to leukocyte ratio using flow cytometry in patients with peritoneal metastasis. Cells were recovered from ascites or peritoneal lavages from 106 patients who underwent abdominal surgery and additional 89 samples which were obtained from peritoneal catheter or access port in patients with PM (+) gastric cancer. The cells were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies to CD45 and to CD326 (EpCAM). Using flow cytometry, CD326 (+) and CD45 (+) cells were classified as either tumor cells (T) or leukocytes (L) and the T/L ratio (TLR) was calculated. In 106 samples obtained by laparotomy, Median (M) of the TLR of PM (+) patients was 1.39% (0-807.87%) which was significantly higher than PM (-) patients (M=0%, 0-2.14%, P < 0.001). In PM (+) patients, 86 CY (+) samples showed higher TLR than 61 CY (-) samples (M=2.81%, 0.02-1868.44% vs. M=0%, 0-3.45%, p<0.0001). In all of the 24 patients who were monitored for TLR before and after intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, the TLR was reduced which was more dramatic than the results of the change in cytology. TLR measured with FACS is an excellent reflection of the tumor spread in the peritoneal cavity and could be a reliable diagnostic biomarker to determine the severity of PM as well as effectiveness of IP chemotherapy. © 2013 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Use and Effectiveness of Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Alexi A.; Cronin, Angel; Milne, Dana E.; Bookman, Michael A.; Burger, Robert A.; Cohn, David E.; Cristea, Mihaela C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Keating, Nancy L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Mantia-Smaldone, Gina; Matulonis, Ursula A.; Meyer, Larissa A.; Niland, Joyce C.; Weeks, Jane C.; O'Malley, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A 2006 randomized trial demonstrated a 16-month survival benefit with intraperitoneal and intravenous (IP/IV) chemotherapy administered to patients who had ovarian cancer, compared with IV chemotherapy alone, but more treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to examine the use and effectiveness of IP/IV chemotherapy in clinical practice. Patients and Methods Prospective cohort study of 823 women with stage III, optimally cytoreduced ovarian cancer diagnosed at six National Comprehensive Cancer Network institutions. We examined IP/IV chemotherapy use in all patients diagnosed between 2003 and 2012 (N = 823), and overall survival and treatment-related toxicities with Cox regression and logistic regression, respectively, in a propensity score–matched sample (n = 402) of patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2012, excluding trial participants, to minimize selection bias. Results Use of IP/IV chemotherapy increased from 0% to 33% between 2003 and 2006, increased to 50% from 2007 to 2008, and plateaued thereafter. Between 2006 and 2012, adoption of IP/IV chemotherapy varied by institution from 4% to 67% (P < .001) and 43% of patients received modified IP/IV regimens at treatment initiation. In the propensity score–matched sample, IP/IV chemotherapy was associated with significantly improved overall survival (3-year overall survival, 81% v 71%; hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.99), compared with IV chemotherapy, but also more frequent alterations in chemotherapy delivery route (adjusted rates discontinuation or change, 20.4% v 10.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.47 to 5.47). Conclusion Although the use of IP/IV chemotherapy increased significantly at National Comprehensive Cancer Network centers between 2003 and 2012, fewer than 50% of eligible patients received it. Increasing IP/IV chemotherapy use in clinical practice may be an important and underused strategy to improve ovarian cancer outcomes. PMID:26240233

  7. A pectin-honey hydrogel prevents postoperative intraperitoneal adhesions in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Giusto, Gessica; Vercelli, Cristina; Iussich, Selina; Audisio, Andrea; Morello, Emanuela; Odore, Rosangela; Gandini, Marco

    2017-02-17

    Adhesions are a common postoperative surgical complication. Liquid honey has been used intraperitoneally to reduce the incidence of these adhesions. However, solid barriers are considered more effective than liquids in decreasing postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation; therefore, a new pectin-honey hydrogel (PHH) was produced and its effectiveness was evaluated in a rat cecal abrasion model. Standardized cecal/peritoneal abrasion was performed through laparotomy in 48 adult Sprague-Dawley rats to induce peritoneal adhesion formation. Rats were randomly assigned to a control (C) and treatment (T) group. In group T, PHHs were placed between the injured peritoneum and cecum. Animals were euthanized on day 15 after surgery. Adhesions were evaluated macroscopically and adhesion scores were recorded and compared between the two groups. Inflammation, fibrosis, and neovascularization were histologically graded and compared between the groups. In group C, 17 of 24 (70.8%) animals developed adhesions between the cecum and peritoneum, while in group T only 5 of 24 (20.8%) did (p = 0.0012). In group C, one rat had an adhesion score of 3, sixteen had scores of 2, and seven rats had scores of 0. In group T, four rats had adhesion scores of 2, one rat had an adhesion score of 1 and nineteen have score 0 (p = 0.0003). Significantly lower grades of inflammation, fibrosis, and neovascularization were seen in group T (p = 0.006, p = 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). PHH is a novel absorbable barrier that is effective in preventing intra-abdominal adhesions in a cecal abrasion model in rats.

  8. Anaesthetic effects of alfaxalone administered intraperitoneally alone or combined with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in the rat.

    PubMed

    Arenillas, Mario; Gomez de Segura, Ignacio A

    2018-01-01

    Alfaxalone is a neuroactive steroid used as a general anaesthetic in several species including dogs, cats, rabbits and ferrets. It has a wide margin of safety and a similar anaesthetic profile to propofol. To increase its aqueous solubility, a new formulation with cyclodextrins has been marketed recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anaesthetic effect of several doses of alfaxalone alone, considering differences between sexes, and alfaxalone combined with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in the rat administered by the intraperitoneal route. A total of 40 Sprague Dawley rats, involved in three studies, were used. Firstly, 25, 35 and 45 mg kg -1 of alfaxalone alone were tested. In a second study, alfaxalone (25 mg kg -1 , females; 75 mg kg -1 , males) was combined with dexmedetomidine (0.05 mg kg -1 ). Finally, alfaxalone (20 mg kg -1 , females; 60 mg kg -1 , males) was combined with dexmedetomidine (0.05 mg kg -1 ) and fentanyl (0.1 mg kg -1 ). Times of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and analgesia, deemed as losing of withdrawal pedal reflex, were recorded. Alfaxalone alone produced a 2 - to 3-fold longer time of anaesthesia in females, although surgical anaesthesia was not achieved in either sex. The addition of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl to alfaxalone produced a similar time of analgesia as well as increased time of anaesthesia in both sexes. In conclusion, alfaxalone produces light anaesthesia in rats, and males required a higher dose. The combination with other sedatives or analgesics, such as dexmedetomidine or fentanyl, allows a more prolonged anaesthesia with analgesic effects, potentially suitable for invasive procedures.

  9. Importance of Absent Neoplastic Epithelium in Patients Treated With Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Enblad, Malin; Birgisson, Helgi; Wanders, Alkwin; Sköldberg, Filip; Ghanipour, Lana; Graf, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    The importance of absent neoplastic epithelium in specimens from cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of histopathology without neoplastic epithelium in patients treated with CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Data were extracted from medical records and histopathology reports for patients treated with initial CRS and HIPEC at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, between 2004 and 2012. Patients with inoperable disease and patients undergoing palliative non-CRS surgery were excluded from the study. Patients lacking neoplastic epithelium in surgical specimens from CRS, with or without mucin, were classified as "neoplastic epithelium absent" (NEA), and patients with neoplastic epithelium were classified as "neoplastic epithelium present" (NEP). The study observed NEA in 78 of 353 patients (22 %). Mucin was found in 28 of the patients with NEA. For low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and adenomas, the 5-year overall survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 84 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 59 % for NEP. For appendiceal/colorectal adenocarcinomas (including tumors of the small intestine), the 5-year overall survival rate was 61 % for NEA and 38 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 60 % for NEA and 14 % for NEP. Carcinoembryonic antigen level, peritoneal cancer index, and completeness of the cytoreduction score were lower in patients with NEA. A substantial proportion of patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC have NEA. These patients have a favorable prognosis and a decreased risk of recurrence. Differences in patient selection can affect the proportion of NEA and hence explain differences in survival rates between reported series.

  10. Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for the Elderly: Is It Reasonable? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gagnière, Johan; Veziant, Julie; Pereira, Bruno; Pezet, Denis; Le Roy, Bertrand; Slim, Karem

    2018-03-01

    Whether cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is safe and worthwhile for elderly patients remains unclear. This meta-analysis of outcomes after CRS plus HIPEC for the elderly aimed to generate a higher level of evidence and precise indications for these patients. A systematic literature search for studies reporting postoperative outcomes after CRS plus HIPEC for elderly patients was performed in the MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Knowledge Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, and Google Scholar databases. The included studies evaluated the overall 30-day postoperative morbidity, 90-day postoperative mortality, grade 3 or higher postoperative morbidity, rates of anastomotic leaks, reoperation and readmission, and length of hospital stay. The inclusion criteria were met by 13 retrospective studies involving 2544 patients. Considering only comparative studies, the 90-day postoperative mortality was significantly increased for elderly patients [odds ratio (OR), 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.88; I 2  = 79%]. The 30-day grade 3 or higher postoperative morbidity was increased in the patients 70 years of age or older (14.5%; 95% CI 8.1-24.4 vs. 32.3%; 95% CI 22.4-44.0%; p = 0.004; I 2  = 85%). The overall 30-day postoperative morbidity, rates of anastomotic leaks, reoperation and readmission, and length of hospital stay were not affected by age. Treatment of the elderly with CRS plus HIPEC was associated with increased severe postoperative morbidity and mortality. However, these conclusions should be weighted given the existence of major biases in the included studies. Age alone probably would not be a formal contraindication, but frailty should be taken into account. Further prospective studies are needed.

  11. Conflicting Data on the Incidence of Leukopenia and Neutropenia After Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy with Mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Feferman, Yael; Bhagwandin, Shanel; Kim, Joseph; Aycart, Samantha N; Feingold, Daniela; Labow, Daniel M; Sarpel, Umut

    2017-12-01

    During heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), neutropenia rates of 20 to 40% have been reported when mitomycin C (MMC) is dosed by weight or body surface area (BSA). This study investigated the authors' HIPEC experience using a fixed 40-mg dose of MMC, per consensus guidelines, and analyzed predictors for severe leukopenia and neutropenia. Patients who underwent MMC-HIPEC from 2007 to 2016 at a single tertiary care center were retrospectively reviewed. Among 314 MMC-HIPEC cases, 72 patients in the early era of the authors' program received routine prophylactic postoperative granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (GCSF). This early cohort had five severe leukopenic reactions and one neutropenic reaction. In the subsequent 242 cases without GCSF prophylaxis, severe leukopenia developed in 16 patients (7%), with neutropenia occurring in 11 (4.5%) of these cases. A history of prior systemic chemotherapy was noted in 9 (56%) of the 16 leukopenic patients compared with 112 (46%) of the patients who had no leukopenia (nonsignificant difference). The median nadir of leukopenia was 5 days (range 1-11 days). Of the 11 neutropenic patients, 6 received therapeutic GCSF, and 5 recovered without intervention. The 30-day postoperative mortality of the patients with leukopenia was 0%. In this study, the incidence of neutropenia after HIPEC with 40 mg of MMC was markedly lower than reported in the literature for doses adjusted by BSA or weight. The authors report that GCSF is not necessary for routine prophylaxis of all MMC-HIPEC patients. The findings suggest that a fixed 40-mg dose of MMC allows HIPEC to be performed with less risk of immunosuppression.

  12. Robotic-assisted cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Emmanuel; Elli, Enrique; Bagaria, Sanjay; Wasif, Nabil; Grotz, Travis; Stauffer, John; Kasi, Pashtoon M; Asbun, Horacio

    2018-05-05

    Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) is an appropriate treatment for select patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. While most commonly performed through an open incision, the laparoscopic approach has been reported and offers short-term benefits. A robotic-assisted approach for carcinomatosis of gastrointestinal origin, however, has not yet been described. We report our approach to robotic-assisted CRS-HIPEC for a patient with a perforated appendiceal mucocele. Our dynamic video highlights the advantages of this approach. Our patient was a 57-year-old woman with minimal residual disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), having a peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) score of 1. She had a previous surgical history of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A robotic-assisted approach was utilized using the Intuitive daVinci Xi robotic surgical system through 4 ports. No laparoscopic assistant port was required. The operative time was 426 min, and the estimated blood loss was 50 cc. The greater omentum, falciform ligament, bilateral ovaries, and two small areas of tumor implant were resected. The post-operative length of stay was 4 days, and the patient had regained bowel function by post-operative day 2. Our video demonstrates the feasibility of a robotic-assisted CRS-HIPEC in a patient with minimal, residual DPAM. Similar to a laparoscopic approach, the short-term outcomes are improved as compared to an open approach. An MIS approach to CRS-HIPEC, now with the first-reported robotic-assisted approach, is a viable option for select patients with peritoneal tumors.

  13. A review of 111 anaesthetic patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Thong, Sze Ying; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Ng, Oriana; Tan, Grace; Ong, Ee Teng; Soo, Khee Chee; Teo, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) along with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the treatment of choice for selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, a previously lethal condition with dismal survival rates. METHODS We reviewed CRS and HIPEC procedures performed at our centre from January 1997 to December 2012, focusing on perioperative events and anaesthetic implications. RESULTS In total, 111 patients underwent 113 procedures. Mean age of the patients was 51.7 (range 14–74) years and 84.1% were women. Mean duration of surgery was 9 hours 10 minutes ± 2 hours 56 minutes. Most tumours were ovarian or colorectal in origin, and the mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI) score was 14.3 ± 8.9. Mean estimated blood loss was 1,481 ± 1,064 mL. Mean total intravenous fluids and blood products administered was 8,498 ± 3,941 mL. Postoperatively, 79.5% of the patients needed intensive care, as 75.2% of the 113 procedures required interval extubation. Patients with lower PCI scores were more likely to be extubated immediately after surgery (p < 0.05). 80.0% of patients had coagulopathy postoperatively, and this was associated with longer HIPEC duration (p < 0.05). Median lengths of intensive care unit and hospital stays were two days and 14 days, respectively. Longer duration of surgery significantly correlated with longer hospitalisation. Prolonged hospitalisation was due to nosocomial pneumonia, pleural effusions, respiratory failure, sepsis, surgical complications (such as anastomotic or wound dehiscence), and intra-abdominal infections. CONCLUSION The CRS and HIPEC technique is a major surgery with significant morbidity, as highlighted by the perioperative concerns observed in our study. PMID:27121920

  14. Comparison of Intraperitoneal Honey and Sodium Hyaluronate-Carboxymethylcellulose (Seprafilm™) for the Prevention of Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akin, Murat; Isikgonul, Ipek; Yuksel, Osman; Anadol, Ahmet Ziya; Cifter, Cagatay

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal surgery can lead to postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions (PIAAs) with significant morbidity and mortality. This study compares the use of honey with a standard bioresorbable membrane (Seprafilm™) to prevent the formation of PIAAs in rats. METHODS: Thirty rats underwent laparotomy, and PIAAs were induced by scraping the cecum. The animals were divided into three groups, each containing ten rats. Group 1 (control) represented the cecal abrasion group, with no intraperitoneal administration of any substance. Group 2 (honey group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal administration of honey. Group 3 (Seprafilm™ group) underwent cecal abrasion and intraperitoneal Seprafilm™ application. RESULTS: Group 1 exhibited higher adhesion scores for adhesions between the abdominal wall and the organs. Groups 2 and 3 had decreased adhesive attachments to the intra-abdominal structures. Compared to group 1, the incidence of adhesion formation was lower in both group 2 (p=0.001) and group 3 (p=0.001). The incidence of fibrosis was also lower in group 2 (p=0.016) and group 3 (p=0.063) compared to group 1. There was no significant difference between the histopathological fibrosis scores for the rats in group 2 and those in group 3 (p= 0.688). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both honey and Seprafilm™ decrease the incidence of PIAAs in the rat cecal abrasion model. Although the mechanism of action is not clear, intraperitoneal administration of honey reduced PIAAs. The outcome of this study demonstrates that honey is as effective as Seprafilm™ in preventing PIAAs. PMID:19488596

  15. Intraperitoneal Administration of Silymarin Protects End Organs from Multivisceral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Koçarslan, Aydemir; Koçarslan, Sezen; Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Gunay, Şamil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Taşkın, Abdullah; Üstunel, Murat; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether intraperitoneal silymarin administration has favorable effects on the heart, lungs, kidney, and liver and on oxidative stress in a rat model of supraceliac aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury. Methods Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into three groups: sham, control, and silymarin. The control and silymarin groups underwent supraceliac aortic occlusion for 45 min, followed by a 60 min period of reperfusion under terminal anesthesia. In the silymarin group, silymarin was administered intraperitoneally during ischemia at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Rats were euthanized using terminal anesthesia, and blood was collected from the inferior vena cava for total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status, and oxidative stress index measurement. Lungs, heart, liver and kidney tissues were histologically examined. Results Ischemia/reperfusion injury significantly increased histopathological damage as well as the total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels in the blood samples. The silymarin group incurred significantly lesser damage to the lungs, liver and kidneys than the control group, while no differences were observed in the myocardium. Furthermore, the silymarin group had significantly lower total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels than the control group. Conclusion Intraperitoneal administration of silymarin reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver, kidney, and lungs from acute supraceliac abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat model. PMID:28076620

  16. Intraperitoneal Administration of Silymarin Protects End Organs from Multivisceral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Koçarslan, Aydemir; Koçarslan, Sezen; Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Gunay, Şamil; Karahan, Mahmut Alp; Taşkın, Abdullah; Üstunel, Murat; Aksoy, Nurten

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether intraperitoneal silymarin administration has favorable effects on the heart, lungs, kidney, and liver and on oxidative stress in a rat model of supraceliac aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into three groups: sham, control, and silymarin. The control and silymarin groups underwent supraceliac aortic occlusion for 45 min, followed by a 60 min period of reperfusion under terminal anesthesia. In the silymarin group, silymarin was administered intraperitoneally during ischemia at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Rats were euthanized using terminal anesthesia, and blood was collected from the inferior vena cava for total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status, and oxidative stress index measurement. Lungs, heart, liver and kidney tissues were histologically examined. Ischemia/reperfusion injury significantly increased histopathological damage as well as the total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels in the blood samples. The silymarin group incurred significantly lesser damage to the lungs, liver and kidneys than the control group, while no differences were observed in the myocardium. Furthermore, the silymarin group had significantly lower total oxidative status and oxidative stress index levels than the control group. Intraperitoneal administration of silymarin reduces oxidative stress and protects the liver, kidney, and lungs from acute supraceliac abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat model.

  17. Better Clinical Efficiency of TILs for Malignant Pleural Effusion and Ascites than Cisplatin Through Intrapleural and Intraperitoneal Infusion.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hongjin; Du, Fengcai; Gong, Zhaohua; Lian, Peiwen; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Peng; Hu, Baohong; Chi, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficiency of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) compared to cisplatin for malignant pleural effusion and ascites through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion. Thirteen patients with malignant pleural effusion and ascites were divided into a TIL-treated group and a cisplatin-treated group. Patients were given TILs or cisplatin, through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion respectively, after drainage of the malignant serous effusion by thoracentesis or abdominocentesis. The overall response rate and disease control rate of the TIL-treated group (33.33% and 83.33%) were higher than that of the cisplatin-treated group (28.57% and 71.43%). The progression-free survival for the TIL-treated group was significantly longer (p=0.002) and better than that of the cisplatin-treated group (66.67% vs. 28.57%). Quality of life apparently improved in the TIL-treated group and was clearly higher than that in the cisplatin-treated group. The use of TILs has a better clinical efficiency for malignant pleural effusion and ascites than cisplatin through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion without severe adverse effects. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin/trimethoprim combination following single-dose intraperitoneal and oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi Belew; Lee, Seung-Jin; Damte, Dereje; Kim, Jong-Choon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    The pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim was evaluated after single-dose intraperitoneal or oral co-administration in rats. Plasma concentrations of the two drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Following intraperitoneal combination, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of plasma half-life (t 1/2) and maximum plasma concentration (C max) was observed for enrofloxacin and trimethoprim, respectively. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in mean values of area under the plasma drug concentration versus time from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and C max between combined oral doses (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) of both antibacterial drugs. Also, after oral conjugation a significant difference in mean values of MRT0-∞ was observed between lower (10 mg/kg) and higher (100 mg/kg) doses of both drugs. A significant increase in pharmacokinetic parameters of both drugs in combined intraperitoneal and oral doses indicated pharmacokinetic interaction of enrofloxacin and trimethoprim. Further study is recommended in other species of animals.

  19. Effects of coffee intake and intraperitoneal caffeine on bone repair process--a histologic and histometric study.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rander Moreira; Brentegani, Luiz Guilherme; Lacerda, Suzie Aparecida de

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that caffeine acts on bone promoting an increase of calcium excretion, inhibition of osteoblast proliferation and delay in tissue repair process, raising the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, periodontal disease and affecting the success of bone reconstructive procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze histomorphometrically the process of alveolar bone healing after tooth extraction in rats subjected to daily intake of boiled coffee or intraperitoneal administration of caffeine. Forty-five male rats were divided according to the treatment in Control group (C); Coffee group (CO) - treated with coffee since birth; and Caffeine (CAF) - intraperitoneal injection of aqueous solution of caffeine 1.5% (0.2 mL/100g body weight) for 30 days. When weighing between 250-300 g they were anesthetized, subjected to extraction of the maxillary right incisor, and euthanized 7, 21 and 42 days after surgery for histological assessments of bone volume and the quality of formed bone in the dental socket. The qualitative results demonstrated larger amounts of blood clot and immature bone in animals under treatment of pure caffeine compared to coffee and control. Histometric analysis revealed that coffee treatment led to a 40% drop in bone formation, and caffeine a 60% drop in comparison to control animals (ANOVA p≤0.01). It was concluded that both the daily ingestion of coffee and the intraperitoneal administration of caffeine in rats delayed the alveolar bone reparative process after tooth extraction, and this effect was more aggressive when pure caffeine was used.

  20. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine with or without incisional bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Kalchofner Guerrero, Karin S; Campagna, Ivo; Bruhl-Day, Rodolfo; Hegamin-Younger, Cecilia; Guerrero, Tomas G

    2016-09-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) bupivacaine provides postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE) alone or in combination with incisional (INC) bupivacaine. This study investigated whether the combination of INC and IP bupivacaine is superior to IP bupivacaine alone. Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical study. Thirty-nine privately owned dogs undergoing OHE, aged 25 ± 23 months and weighing 11.8 ± 5.7 kg. Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1) ) and morphine (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) intramuscularly (IM); anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Carprofen (4 mg kg(-1) ) was administered subcutaneously (SC) after intubation. Bupivacaine (3 mg kg(-1) ) IP was administered before complete closure of the linea alba to all dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned into two groups: group B received bupivacaine (n = 20; 1 mg kg(-1) ) and group S received saline (n = 19; 0.2 mL kg(-1) ) INC as a subcutaneous 'splash' before skin closure. Postoperative analgesia was assessed with a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale, the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale, and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) measurement at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 hours after surgery by one blinded observer. Parametric data were tested using t-test; nonparametric data were analysed using the two-sample Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with regard to age, weight, surgical and anaesthetic duration, incision length, sedation and pain scores. MNT values decreased in both groups at all time points as compared with the baseline. No dog required rescue analgesia. No postoperative complications were observed. Bupivacaine IP and carprofen SC after morphine IM did provide satisfactory postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing OHE with the anaesthetic protocol used. There appears to be no clinical advantage to adding bupivacaine INC. Neither protocol could

  1. Interleukin-6 treatment reverses apoptosis and blunts susceptibility to intraperitoneal bacterial challenge following hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Ayse Akcan; Yu, Bi; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann; Tweardy, David J

    2006-03-01

    Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock (HS) predisposes to subsequent infections. Susceptibility to infection following sepsis has been attributed to apoptosis. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been shown to have antiapoptotic properties and to decrease postresuscitation inflammation in rodent and porcine models of HS. The objective was to determine if HS increases host susceptibility to infection, if IL-6 administration at resuscitation reduces this susceptibility, and if changes in susceptibility to infection are accompanied by parallel changes in apoptosis. Mice were randomized into three groups-HS, sham, and no-surgery control-and each group was further randomized to receive either IL-6 (3 microg/kg; HS/IL-6) or placebo (HS/P) at the start of resuscitation. In the HS-infection protocol, each mouse was challenged intraperitoneally the next day with a sublethal dose of Staphylococcus aureus (4x107 colony-forming units); 24 hrs later, the peritoneal cavity was lavaged and the major organs were harvested for culture. In the HS-apoptosis protocol, the livers were harvested the next day and analyzed by means of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. HS/P mice had a six- to eight-fold increase in total bacterial counts in comparison with sham and control mice that was attributable to a seven- to nine-fold increase in liver burden. IL-6 treatment reduced total and liver bacterial counts in HS/IL-6 mice by 62% and 69%, respectively, to levels statistically indistinguishable from IL-6-treated sham and control mice. The number of TUNEL-positive liver cells in the HS/P group was increased eight-fold vs. that in the sham group (p=.002); IL-6 resuscitation completely reversed the HS-induced increase in TUNEL-positive cells in the HS/IL-6 group (p=.002). IL-6 treatment at resuscitation eliminated the HS-mediated increase in total and liver bacterial burden and protected the liver from HS-induced apoptosis. Reduced liver apoptosis may

  2. Nutritional status, cachexia, and anorexia in women with peritoneal metastasis and intraperitoneal chemotherapy: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Ziad; Rezniczek, Günther A; Klenke, Robert; Dogan, Askin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-11-01

    To describe the nutritional status of women with peritoneal metastasis (PM) from recurrent ovarian, fallopian, or peritoneal cancer and to assess longitudinal variations of the cachexia-anorexia syndrome (CAS) during palliative pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC). Nutritional assessment included body mass index (BMI), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and blood chemistry. CAS presence/absence was recorded before and during repeated cycles (1-11) of PIPAC. Eighty-four patients with peritoneal cancer (n=5) or PM from recurrent ovarian (n=77) or fallopian tube (n=2) cancer were included. At baseline, resting metabolism (RM) (1,432±172 kcal/day), visceral fat level (7.5±3.2), skeletal muscle mass (27.2%±4.6%), upper arm circumference (27.9±4.6 cm), lower leg circumference (35.1±3.9 cm), serum parameters (albumin [3.5±0.7 g/dL], total protein [6.3±0.9 g/dL], and transferrin [202±60 mg/dL]) were below normal limits. C-reactive protein (CRP) (4.3±6.8 mg/dL), caliper body fat (35.7%±6.3%), and total body fat mass (35.6%±8.5%) were above normal limits. Nineteen/84 (23%) patients had CAS at baseline. Deterioration or stabilization/improvement of CAS was observed in 9/55 (16.4%) and 46/55 (83.6%) patients with follow-up data, respectively. Baseline body fat mass, visceral fat level, skeletal muscle mass, caliper body fat, BMI, ascites, Karnofsky index, RM, and CRP, as well as tumor response were not predictive of CAS deterioration. Nutritional decline and onset or deterioration of CAS are difficult to predict. Careful measuring and monitoring of nutritional parameters and CAS in all patients seems to be necessary in order to identify those patients in need of enteral/parenteral nutrition support. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Intraperitoneal Cefalothin and Cefazolin in Patients Being Treated for Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Darren M; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan; Wallis, Steven C; Varghese, Julie M; Kark, Adrian; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    ♦ The standard treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis (PD-peritonitis) is intraperitoneal (IP) administration of antibiotics. Only limited data on the pharmacokinetics and appropriateness of contemporary dose recommendations of IP cefalothin and cefazolin exist. The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of IP cefalothin and cefazolin in patients treated for PD-peritonitis. ♦ As per international guidelines, IP cefalothin or cefazolin 15 mg/kg once daily was dosed with gentamicin in a 6-hour dwell to patients with PD-peritonitis during routine care. Serial plasma and PD effluent samples were collected over the first 24 hours of therapy. Antibiotic concentrations were quantified using a validated chromatographic method with pharmacokinetic analysis performed using a non-compartmental approach. ♦ Nineteen patients were included (cefalothin n = 8, cefazolin n = 11). The median bioavailability for both antibiotics exceeded 92%, but other pharmacokinetic parameters varied markedly between antibiotics. Both antibiotics achieved high PD effluent concentrations throughout the antibiotic dwell. Cefazolin had a smaller volume of distribution compared with cefalothin (14 vs 40 L, p = 0.003). The median trough total plasma antibiotic concentration for cefazolin and cefalothin during the dwell differed (plasma 56 vs 13 mg/L, p < 0.0001) despite a similar concentration in PD effluent (37 vs 38 mg/L, p = 0.58). Lower antibiotic concentrations were noted during PD dwells not containing antibiotic, particularly cefalothin, which was frequently undetectable in plasma and PD effluent. The median duration that the unbound antibiotic concentration was above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was approximately 13% (plasma) and 25% (IP) for cefalothin, and 100% (plasma and IP) for cefazolin, of the dosing interval. ♦ When IP cefalothin or cefazolin is allowed to dwell for 6 hours, sufficient PD effluent concentrations are present for

  4. Refinement of intraperitoneal injection of sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Zatroch, Katie K; Knight, Cameron G; Reimer, Julie N; Pang, Daniel S J

    2017-02-21

    The Canadian Council on Animal Care and American Veterinary Medical Association classify intraperitoneal (IP) pentobarbital as an acceptable euthanasia method in rats. However, national guidelines do not exist for a recommended dose or volume and IP euthanasia has been described as unreliable, with misinjections leading to variable success in ensuring a timely death. The aims of this study were to assess and improve efficacy and consistency of IP euthanasia. In a randomized, blinded study, 51 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (170-495 g) received one of four treatments: low-dose low-volume (LL) IP pentobarbital (n = 13, 200 mg/kg pentobarbital), low-dose high-volume (LH) IP pentobarbital (n = 14, 200 mg/kg diluted 1:3 with phosphate buffered saline), high-dose high-volume (HH, n = 14, 800 mg/kg pentobarbital), or saline. Times to loss of righting reflex (LORR) and cessation of heartbeat (CHB) were recorded. To identify misinjections, necropsy examinations were performed on all rats. Video recordings of LL and HH groups were analyzed for pain-associated behaviors. Between-group comparisons were performed with 1-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc tests. Variability in CHB was assessed by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV). The fastest euthanasia method (CHB) was HH (283.7 ± 38.0 s), compared with LL (485.8 ± 140.7 s, p = 0.002) and LH (347.7 ± 72.0 s, p = 0.039). Values for CV were: HH, 13.4%; LH, 20.7%; LL, 29.0%. LORR time was longest in LL (139.5 ± 29.6 s), compared with HH (111.6 ± 19.7 s, p = 0.046) and LH (104.2 ± 19.3 s, p = 0.01). Misinjections occurred in 17.0% (7/41) of euthanasia attempts. Pain-associated behavior incidence ranged from 36% (4/11, LL) to 46% (5/11, HH). These data illustrate refinement of the IP pentobarbital euthanasia technique. Both dose and volume contribute to speed of death, with a dose of 800 mg/kg (HH) being the most effective method. An increase in volume alone does not significantly reduce variability. The

  5. Intraperitoneal Administration of Ethanol as a Means of Euthanasia for Neonatal Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Cecilia de Souza; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O

    2017-01-01

    The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differently to euthanasia agents when compared with adults. The AVMA's Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals includes intraperitoneal injection of ethanol as “acceptable with conditions,” and recent work confirmed that this method is appropriate for euthanizing adult mice, but neonatal mice have not been tested. To explore this method in neonatal mice, mouse pups (C57BL/6 and CD1, 162 total) were injected with 100% ethanol, a pentobarbital–phenytoin combination, or saline at 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d of age. Electrocardiograms, respiratory rates, and times to loss of righting reflex and death were recorded. Time to death (TTD) differed significantly between ethanol and pentobarbital–phenytoin at 7, 14, and 21 d and between ethanol groups at 7, 14, and 21 d compared with 35 d. The average TTD (± 1 SD) for ethanol-injected mice were: 7 d, 70.3 ± 39.8 min; 14 d, 51.7 ± 30.5 min; 21 d, 32.3 ± 20.8 min, 28 d, 14.0 ± 15.2; and 35 d, 4.9 ± 1.4. Mean TTD in pentobarbital–phenytoin-injected mice were: 7 d, 2.8 ± 0.4 min; 14 d, 2.9 ± 0.5 min; 21 d, 3.9 ± 1.2 min; 28 d, 3.9 ± 0.7 min; and 35 d, 4.4 ± 0.5. Although TTD did not differ between ethanol and pentobarbital–phenytoin at 28 d of age, the TTD in 3 of 12 mice was longer than 15 min after ethanol administration at this age. Therefore, ethanol should not be used as a method of euthanasia for mice younger than 35 d, because the criteria for humane euthanasia were met only in mice 35 d or older. PMID:28535865

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime lysine after single intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intramuscular administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long-shan; Yin, Ran; Wei, Bin-bin; Li, Qing; Jiang, Zhen-yuan; Chen, Xiao-hui; Bi, Kai-shun

    2012-11-01

    To compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine, a new second-generation of cephalosporin antibiotics, after intravenous (IV), intraperitoneal (IP), or intramuscular (IM) administration. Twelve male and 12 virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were divided into three groups (n=4 for each gender in each group). The rats were administered a single dose (67.5 mg/kg) of cefuroxime lysine via IV bolus or IP or IM injection. Blood samples were collected and analyzed with a validated UFLC-MS/MS method. The concentration-time data were then calculated by compartmental and non-compartmental pharmacokinetic methods using DAS software. After IV, IP or IM administration, the plasma cefuroxime lysine disposition was best described by a tri-compartmental, bi-compartmental or mono-compartmental open model, respectively, with first-order elimination. The plasma concentration profiles were similar through the 3 administration routes. The distribution process was rapid after IV administration [t(1/2(d)), 0.10 ± 0.11 h vs 1.36 ± 0.65 and 1.25 ± 1.01 h]. The AUMC(0-∞) is markedly larger, and mean residence time (MRT) is greatly longer after IP administration than that in IV, or IM routes (AUMC(0-∞): 55.33 ± 20.34 vs 16.84 ± 4.85 and 36.17 ± 13.24 mg·h(2)/L; MRT: 0.93 ± 0.10 h vs 0.37 ± 0.07 h and 0.65 ± 0.05 h). The C(max) after IM injection was significantly higher than that in IP injection (73.51 ± 12.46 vs 49.09 ± 7.06 mg/L). The AUC(0-∞) in male rats were significantly higher than that in female rats after IM administration (66.38 ± 16.5 vs 44.23 ± 6.37 mg·h/L). There was no significantly sex-related difference in other pharmacokinetic parameters of cefuroxime lysine between male and female rats. Cefuroxime lysine shows quick absorption after IV injection, a long retension after IP injection, and a high C(max) after IM injection. After IM administration the AUC(0-∞) in male rats was significantly larger than that in

  7. Establishment of intraperitoneal germ cell transplantation for critically endangered Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huan; Li, Chuang-Ju; Yue, Hua-Mei; Du, Hao; Yang, Xiao-Ge; Yoshino, Tasuku; Hayashida, Takao; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Wei, Qi-Wei

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in germ cell transplantation techniques in fish has paved the way for the conservation of endangered species. Here, we developed an intraperitoneal germ cell transplantation procedure using Chinese and Dabry's sturgeon as donor and recipient species, respectively. Histological analysis revealed that primordial germ cells migrated on the peritoneal wall at 16 days post-hatch (dph) in Dabry's sturgeon. The genital ridges of Dabry's sturgeon (recipient) first formed at 28 dph, suggesting that for successful colonization of donor germ cells in the recipient gonads, the transplantation should be performed earlier than this age. Sexual dimorphism of gonadal structure was first observed at 78 dph. Gonadal germ cell proliferation was not seen in either sex during this period. Immunohistochemistry using the anti-Vasa antibody found that donor testes from 2-year-old Dabry's sturgeon mainly consisted of single- or paired-type A spermatogonia, while donor ovaries from 11.5-year-old Chinese sturgeon had perinucleolus stage oocytes and clusters of oogonia. Donor cells isolated from Dabry's sturgeon testes or Chinese sturgeon ovary labeled with PKH26 fluorescent dye were transplanted into the peritoneal cavity of the 7- or 8-dph Dabry's sturgeon larvae. More than 90% and 70% of transplanted larvae survived after 2 days post-transplantation (dpt) and 51 dpt, respectively. At 51 dpt, PKH26-labeled cells exhibiting germ cell-specific nuclear morphology and diameter were observed in excised recipient gonads by fluorescent and confocal microscopy. The colonization rate of allogeneic testicular germ cell transplantation (Group 1) was 70%, while that of two batches of xenogeneic ovarian germ cell transplantation (Group 2 and Group 3) were 6.7% and 40%, respectively. The ratio of colonized germ cells to endogenous germ cells was 11.96%, 5.35% and 3.56% for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. Thus, we established a germ cell transplantation technique for the

  8. Prognostic Factors and Significance of Gastrointestinal Leak After Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) with Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Chouliaras, Konstantinos; Levine, Edward A; Fino, Nora; Shen, Perry; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I

    2017-04-01

    Gastrointestinal leak (GIL) after cytoreductive surgery with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify GIL prognostic factors and its impact on overall survival. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database comprising 1270 CRS/HIPEC procedures was performed. Type of GIL, functional and resection status, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed. Gastrointestinal leaks were identified in 8.7% (110/1270) of CRS/HIPEC procedures, including 53 anastomotic leaks (4.2%), 53 hollow viscus perforations (4.2%), and four leaks at unknown sites. The multivariate predictors of leak were Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) functional status (ECOG 1 vs. 0: odds ratio [OR] 2.12, p = 0.009; ECOG 2 vs. 0: OR 2.90, p = 0.004), and number of anastomoses (OR 5.34; p < 0.0001). The in-hospital mortality rate for the GIL cohort was 21.8% (24/110), with a 72% (80/110) reoperation rate. The leak cohort had a higher major morbidity rate (88.3 vs. 23.3%; p < 0.0001), a longer hospital stay (39.0 vs. 9.9 days; p < 0.0001), and a longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay (7.7 vs. 1.7 days; p = 0.0003). After surgical mortality was excluded, the overall survival periods for the leak and no-leak patients with complete cytoreduction were respectively 1.5 and 4.98 years (p = 0.0001). Clinically significant decreases in survival were observed for all primary malignancies. Gastrointestinal leak after CRS/HIPEC is a source of significant mortality, with a decrease in overall survival even after complete CRS. Preoperative functional status and number of anastomoses are predictors of leak for CRS/HIPEC patients.

  9. Effect of intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of cholecystokinin-8 and apolipoprotein AIV on intestinal lymphatic CCK-8 and apo AIV concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chun-Min; Xu, Min; Yang, Qing; Zheng, Shuqin; Carey, Katherine M.; Tubb, Matthew R.; Davidson, W. Sean; Liu, Min; Woods, Stephen C.; Tso, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    CCK and apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) are gastrointestinal satiety signals whose synthesis and secretion by the gut are stimulated by fat absorption. Intraperitoneally administered CCK-8 is more potent in suppressing food intake than a similar dose administered intravenously, but the reason for this disparity is unclear. In contrast, both intravenous and intraperitoneally administered apo AIV are equally as potent in inhibiting food intake. When we compared the lymphatic concentration of CCK-8 and apo AIV, we found that neither intraperitoneally nor intravenously administered CCK-8 or apo AIV altered lymphatic flow rate. Interestingly, intraperitoneal administration of CCK-8 produced a significantly higher lymphatic concentration at 15 min than did intravenous administration. Intraperitoneal injection of apo AIV also yielded a higher lymphatic concentration at 30 min than did intravenous administration. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK-8 and apo AIV also resulted in a much longer period of elevated CCK-8 and apo AIV peptide concentration in lymph than intravenous administration. Furthermore, enzymatic activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and aminopeptidase was higher in plasma than in lymph during fasting, and so, satiation peptides, such as CCK-8 and apo AIV in the lymph, are protected from degradation by the significantly lower DPPIV and aminopeptidase activity levels in lymph than in plasma. Therefore, the higher potency of intraperitoneally administered CCK-8 compared with intravenously administered CCK-8 in inhibiting food intake may be explained by both its higher concentration in lymph and the prolonged duration of its presence in the lamina propria. PMID:19020287

  10. Effect of intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of cholecystokinin-8 and apolipoprotein AIV on intestinal lymphatic CCK-8 and apo AIV concentration.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chun-Min; Xu, Min; Yang, Qing; Zheng, Shuqin; Carey, Katherine M; Tubb, Matthew R; Davidson, W Sean; Liu, Min; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    CCK and apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) are gastrointestinal satiety signals whose synthesis and secretion by the gut are stimulated by fat absorption. Intraperitoneally administered CCK-8 is more potent in suppressing food intake than a similar dose administered intravenously, but the reason for this disparity is unclear. In contrast, both intravenous and intraperitoneally administered apo AIV are equally as potent in inhibiting food intake. When we compared the lymphatic concentration of CCK-8 and apo AIV, we found that neither intraperitoneally nor intravenously administered CCK-8 or apo AIV altered lymphatic flow rate. Interestingly, intraperitoneal administration of CCK-8 produced a significantly higher lymphatic concentration at 15 min than did intravenous administration. Intraperitoneal injection of apo AIV also yielded a higher lymphatic concentration at 30 min than did intravenous administration. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK-8 and apo AIV also resulted in a much longer period of elevated CCK-8 and apo AIV peptide concentration in lymph than intravenous administration. Furthermore, enzymatic activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and aminopeptidase was higher in plasma than in lymph during fasting, and so, satiation peptides, such as CCK-8 and apo AIV in the lymph, are protected from degradation by the significantly lower DPPIV and aminopeptidase activity levels in lymph than in plasma. Therefore, the higher potency of intraperitoneally administered CCK-8 compared with intravenously administered CCK-8 in inhibiting food intake may be explained by both its higher concentration in lymph and the prolonged duration of its presence in the lamina propria.

  11. Elimination of Mycoplasma Contamination from Infected Human Hepatocyte C3A Cells by Intraperitoneal Injection in BALB/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jun; Li, Yang; Cai, Lei; Li, Ting; Peng, Gongze; Fu, Chaoyi; Han, Xu; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Zesheng; Zhang, Zhi; Du, Jiang; Peng, Qing; Gao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: The use of antibiotics to eliminate Mycoplasma contamination has some serious limitations. Mycoplasma contamination can be eliminated by intraperitoneal injection of BALB/c mice with contaminated cells combined with screening monoclonal cells. However, in vivo passage in mice after injection with contaminated cells requires a long duration (20-54 days). Furthermore, it is important to monitor for cross-contamination of mouse and human cells, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) infection, and altered cell function after the in vivo treatment. The present study aimed to validate a reliable and simplified method to eliminate mycoplasma contamination from human hepatocytes. BALB/c mice were injected with paraffin oil prior to injection with cells, in order to shorten duration of intraperitoneal passage. Cross-contamination of mouse and human cells, XMRV infection and cell function-related genes and proteins were also evaluated. Methods: PCR and DNA sequencing were used to confirm Mycoplasma hyorhinis ( M. hyorhinis ) contamination in human hepatocyte C3A cells. Five BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 ml paraffin oil 1 week before injection of the cells. The mice were then intraperitoneally injected with C3A hepatocytes (5.0 × 10 6 /ml) contaminated with M. hyorhinis (6.2 ± 2.2 × 10 8 CFU/ml). Ascites were collected for monoclonal cell screening on the 14th day after injection of contaminated cells. Elimination of mycoplasma from cells was determined by PCR and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Human-mouse cell and XMRV contamination were also detected by PCR. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and western blotting were used to compare the expression of genes and proteins among treated cells, non-treated infected cells, and uninfected cells. Results: Fourteen days after injection with cells, 4 of the 5 mice had ascites. Hepatocyte colonies extracted from the ascites of four mice were all mycoplasma

  12. Intraperitoneal injection of neuropeptide Y (NPY) alters neurotrophin rat hypothalamic levels: Implications for NPY potential role in stress-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gelfo, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Tirassa, Paola; Croce, Nicoletta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco

    2011-06-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide which exerts several regulatory actions within peripheral and central nervous systems. Among NPY actions preclinical and clinical data have suggested that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions of NPY may be related to its antagonist action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are proteins involved in the growth, survival and function of neurons. In addition to this, a possible role of neurotrophins, particularly BDNF, in HPA axis hyperactivation has been proposed. To characterize the effect of NPY on the production of neurotrophins in the hypothalamus we exposed young adult rats to NPY intraperitoneal administration for three consecutive days and then evaluated BDNF and NGF synthesis in this brain region. We found that NPY treatment decreased BDNF and increased NGF production in the hypothalamus. Given the role of neurotrophins in the hypothalamus, these findings, although preliminary, provide evidence for a role of NPY as inhibitor of HPA axis and support the idea that NPY might be involved in pathologies characterized by HPA axis dysfunctions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic antioxidant therapy reduces oxidative stress in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Siedlak, Sandra L; Casadesus, Gemma; Webber, Kate M; Pappolla, Miguel A; Atwood, Craig S; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George

    2009-02-01

    Oxidative modifications are a hallmark of oxidative imbalance in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and prion diseases and their respective animal models. While the causes of oxidative stress are relatively well-documented, the effects of chronically reducing oxidative stress on cognition, pathology and biochemistry require further clarification. To address this, young and aged control and amyloid-beta protein precursor-over-expressing mice were fed a diet with added R-alpha lipoic acid for 10 months to determine the effect of chronic antioxidant administration on the cognition and neuropathology and biochemistry of the brain. Both wild type and transgenic mice treated with R-alpha lipoic acid displayed significant reductions in markers of oxidative modifications. On the other hand, R-alpha lipoic acid had little effect on Y-maze performance throughout the study and did not decrease end-point amyloid-beta load. These results suggest that, despite the clear role of oxidative stress in mediating amyloid pathology and cognitive decline in ageing and AbetaPP-transgenic mice, long-term antioxidant therapy, at levels within tolerable nutritional guidelines and which reduce oxidative modifications, have limited benefit.

  14. Clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with acute abdominal pain and incidental findings of free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Matz, Samantha; Connell, Mary; Sinha, Madhumita; Goettl, Christopher S; Patel, Palak C; Drachman, David

    2013-09-01

    The presence of free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging (sonography or computed tomography [CT]) may indicate an acute inflammatory process in children with abdominal pain in a nontraumatic setting. Although clinical outcomes of pediatric trauma patients with free fluid on diagnostic examinations without evidence of solid-organ injury have been studied, similar studies in the absence of trauma are rare. Our objective was to study clinical outcomes of children with acute abdominal pain of nontraumatic etiology and free intraperitoneal fluid on diagnostic imaging (abdominal/pelvic sonography, CT, or both). We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of children aged 0 to 18 years presenting to a pediatric emergency department with acute abdominal pain (nontraumatic) between April 2008 and March 2009. Patients with intraperitoneal free fluid on imaging were divided into 2 groups: group I, imaging suggestive of an intra-abdominal surgical condition such as appendicitis; and group II, no evidence of an acute surgical condition on imaging, including patients with equivocal studies. Computed tomograms and sonograms were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist, and the free fluid volume was quantitated. Of 1613 patients who underwent diagnostic imaging, 407 were eligible for the study; 134 (33%) had free fluid detected on diagnostic imaging. In patients with both sonography and CT, there was a significant correlation in the free fluid volume (r = 0.79; P < .0005). A significantly greater number of male patients with free fluid had a surgical condition identified on imaging (57.4% versus 25%; P < .001). Children with free fluid and an associated condition on imaging were more likely to have surgery (94.4% versus 6.3%; P < .001). We found clinical outcomes (surgical versus nonsurgical) to be most correlated with a surgical diagnosis on diagnostic imaging and not with the amount of fluid present.

  15. Oral and intraperitoneal LD50 of thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa, in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, Amein; Alkhawajah, Abdul Aziz; Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Shaikh, Nisar Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Thymoquinone is the major active principle of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) and constitutes about 30% of its volatile oil or ether extract. N. sativa oil and seed are commonly used as a natural remedy for many ailments. Using modern scientific techniques, a number of pharmacological actions of N. sativa have been investigated including immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, antihistaminic, antiasthmatic, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic. There are only few reports regarding the toxicity of thymoquinone. The present study was carried out to determine LD50 of thymoquinone both in mice and rats, orally as well as intraperitoneall, by the method of Miller and Tainter. Autopsy and histopathology of liver, kidney, heart and lungs were also determined. The LD50 in mice after intraperitoneal injection was determined to be 104.7 mg/kg (89.7-119.7, 95% confidence interval) and after oral ingestion was 870.9 mg/kg (647.1-1094.8, 95% confidence interval). Whereas, LD50 in rats after intraperitoneal injection was determined to be 57.5 mg/kg (45.6-69.4, 95% confidence intervals) and after oral ingestion was 794.3 mg/kg (469.8-1118.8, 95% confidence intervals). The LD50 values presented here after intraperitoneal injection and oral gavages are 10-15 times and 100-150 times greater than doses of thymoquinone reported for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer effects. Thymoquinone is a relatively safe compound, particularly when given orally to experimental animals.

  16. Antiviral Activity of Polyacrylic and Polymethacrylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    De Somer, P.; De Clercq, E.; Billiau, A.; Schonne, E.; Claesen, M.

    1968-01-01

    A marked virus-inhibiting potency is obtained in the serum after intraperitoneal injection of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) in mice. Much higher antiviral levels were reached than for other related polymers including dextran sulfate, heparin, polyvinyl sulfate, pyran copolymer, polystyrene sulfonate, and macrodex. The broad antiviral action of PAA and PMAA was attributed both to a direct interference with the virus-cell interaction and the viral ribonucleic acid metabolism and to the formation of an interferon-like factor. Both polyanions differed in interferon-inducing ability: highest serum interferon titer was obtained 18 hr after the intraperitoneal injection of PAA. The mechanism of interferon production by PAA and PMAA is discussed. As described previously for Sindbis virus and endotoxin, the animals also became hyporeactive after injection of PAA. PMID:5725320

  17. The Toxicology of Perfluorodecanoic Acid in Rodents,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Perfluoro -n-decanoic acid or nonadecafluoro-n-decanoic acid (NDFDA) is a straight chain, perfluorinated , ten-carbon acid. Experiments were conducted...to determine the LD50 and to evaluate survival times of rats after single intraperitoneal (IP) injections of NDFDA or of Fluorooctanoic acid ( PFOA ...experimental animals. With NDFDA, the LD50/14 days was 63.6 mg/kg, and the LD50/30 days was 41.4 mg/kg. With PFOA , there was no mortality after the 5th day following injection, and both the LD50/14 and LD50/30 were 188.7 mg/kg.

  18. Establishment and characterization of intraperitoneal xenograft models by co-injection of human tumor cells and extracellular matrix gel

    PubMed Central

    YAO, YUQIN; ZHOU, YONGJUN; SU, XIAOLAN; DAI, LEI; YU, LIN; DENG, HONGXIN; GOU, LANTU; YANG, JINLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a feasible intraperitoneal (i.p.) xenograft model in nude mice is a good strategy to evaluate the antitumor effect of drugs in vivo. However, the manipulation of human cancer cells in establishing a stable peritoneal carcinomatosis model in nude mice is problematic. In the present study, the ovarian and colorectal peritoneal tumor models were successfully established in nude mice by co-injection of human tumor cells and extracellular matrix gel. In ovarian tumor models, the mean number tumor nodes was significantly higher in the experimental group (intraperitoneal tumor cell co-injection with ECM gel) compared with the PBS control group on the 30th day (21.0±3.0 vs. 3.6±2.5; P<0.05). The same results were observed in the colorectal peritoneal tumor models on the 28th day. The colorectal peritoneal tumor model was further used to evaluate the chemotherapy effect of irinotecan (CPT-11). The mean weight of peritoneal tumor nodes in CPT-11 treatment group was significantly less than that of the control group (0.81±0.16 vs. 2.18±0.21 g; P<0.05). The results confirmed the value of these i.p. xenograft models in nude mice as efficient and feasible tools for preclinical evaluation. PMID:26788149

  19. Adjuvant intraperitoneal chromic phosphate therapy for women with apparent early ovarian carcinoma who have not undergone comprehensive surgical staging

    SciTech Connect

    Soper, J.T.; Berchuck, A.; Clarke-Pearson, D.L.

    1991-08-15

    Forty-nine women with apparent Stage 1 and 2 ovarian carcinoma received intraperitoneal phosphate 32 as the only adjuvant therapy after primary surgery. In addition to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, 40 (82%) had analysis of peritoneal cytology, and 35 (71%) underwent omentectomy. Random peritoneal biopsies and retroperitoneal lymph node sampling were not done in any of these patients. The overall and disease-free survival rates were 86% and 75%, respectively, with no significant differences by stage, histologic grade, histologic type, or low-risk versus high-risk subsets recognized in patients who received comprehensive surgical staging. Seven (58%) of 12 patients had lymph node metastasis as themore » first site of recurrence, including two of three with late recurrences. Significant morbidity related to intraperitoneal chromic phosphate (32P) occurred in one (2%) woman. These results emphasize the need for comprehensive surgical staging of women with apparent early ovarian carcinoma to aid in the selection of appropriate initial adjuvant therapy.« less

  20. Assessment of Ovarian Cancer Tumors Treated with Intraperitoneal Cisplatin Therapy by Nanoscopic X-ray Fluorescence Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laforce, Brecht; Carlier, Charlotte; Vekemans, Bart; Villanova, Julie; Tucoulou, Rémi; Ceelen, Wim; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is amongst the most common types of cancer in women, with a relatively low overall cure rate of approximately 30%. This is therefore an important incentive to urge for further research in order to maximize the chances of survival for these patients. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy with Cisplatin is an effective treatement for ovarian cancer; however, many questions still remain concerning the ideal treatment protocol and tumor resistance towards the drug, which should be resolved for optimal application of this therapy. For the first time in-vivo grown tumors treated with both hyper- and normothermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy have been studied using nano-XRF spectroscopy to examine the platinum (Pt) distribution within the analyzed tissues. These measurements prove Pt resides predominantly outsides the cancer cells in the stroma of the tissue. These findings indicate the resistance mechanism of the cancer cells prevents Cisplatin from diffusing through their cell membranes. This is an important addition to the existing knowledge on the resistance mechanism providing insights which might help to overcome this effect. In our aim to find the optimal treatment protocol, no significant differences were found between the two examined procedures. A more extensive data set will be needed to draw definite conclusions.

  1. [A case report of the combination therapy with S-1 plus CDDP intraperitoneal chemotherapy for CY positive cancer patient].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yasushi; Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Manabu; Iwanaga, Tomohiro; Ohinata, Ryouki; Takahashi, Keiichi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tatsurou; Nakano, Daisuke

    2011-11-01

    A male patient in his 50s underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. In operation, there was no peritoneal dissemination. But peritoneal lavage cytology revealed positive peritoneal dissemination. Thus, we set an intraperitoneal infuser port to this patient. On specimen, a type-3 tumor was located in the gastric lesser of antrum to angle. Microscopic examination of specimens revealed a signet ring cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma under serosa, and positive of lymph node metastasis. The diagnosis was pT4N2M1P0CY1H0, Stage IV( Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma The 14 Edition). CDDP was administered through the infuser port (on day 7, a first dose of 60 mg/m2 and 30 mg/m2 for second) combined with oral administration of S-1 (100 mg/body) for two weeks, with one week of drug withdrawal. This chemotherapy was repeated for 11 courses. After that, peritoneal lavage cytology became negative. S-1 oral administration was continued for four years, and this patient has been well for five years and six months after the surgery. Therefore, it is suggested that intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cisplatin is an effective treatment for microscopical peritoneal dissemination.

  2. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Biodistribution of a High Dose of Diamond, Graphite, and Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles After Multiple Intraperitoneal Injections in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Lipińska, Ludwika; Mitura, Katarzyna; Chwalibog, André

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanoparticles have recently drawn intense attention in biomedical applications. Hence, there is a need for further in vivo investigations of their biocompatibility and biodistribution via various exposure routes. We hypothesized that intraperitoneally injected diamond, graphite, and graphene oxide nanoparticles may have different biodistribution and exert different effects on the intact organism. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the control and treated with nanoparticles by intraperitoneal injection (4 mg of nanoparticles/kg body weight) eight times during the 4-week period. Blood was collected for evaluation of blood morphology and biochemistry parameters. Photographs of the general appearance of each rat's interior were taken immediately after sacrifice. The organs were excised and their macroscopic structure was visualized using a stereomicroscope. The nanoparticles were retained in the body, mostly as agglomerates. The largest agglomerates (up to 10 mm in diameter) were seen in the proximity of the injection place in the stomach serous membrane, between the connective tissues of the abdominal skin, muscles, and peritoneum. Numerous smaller, spherical-shaped aggregates (diameter around 2 mm) were lodged among the mesentery. Moreover, in the connective and lipid tissue in the proximity of the liver and spleen serosa, small aggregates of graphite and graphene oxide nanoparticles were observed. However, all tested nanoparticles did not affect health and growth of rats. The nanoparticles had no toxic effects on blood parameters and growth of rats, suggesting their potential applicability as remedies or in drug delivery systems.

  4. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides leads to control of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Barrier, Mathieu; Lacroix-Lamandé, Sonia; Mancassola, Roselyne; Auray, Gaël; Bernardet, Nelly; Chaussé, Anne-Marie; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Laurent, Fabrice

    2006-05-15

    Neonates are particularly vulnerable to infections, in part because of the incomplete development of their immune system. Recent advances in immunostimulatory treatments based on conserved microbial components led us to assess the potential of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) for decreasing the sensitivity of neonates to Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Neonate mice were treated orally or intraperitoneally (ip) with CpG ODNs or non-CpG ODNs 24 h before C. parvum infection, and parasite load and cytokine up-regulation were evaluated. CpG ODN 1668 and non-CpG ODN 1668 administered orally, as well as CpG ODN 1668 administered ip, induced an 80%-95% decrease in intestinal parasite load 6 days after infection. Intraperitoneal and oral pretreatment with CpG ODN 1668 led to a strong initial up-regulation of cytokines and CD69 messenger RNA in the intestine and a decrease in parasite load by a Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-dependent mechanism. By contrast, oral administration of non-CpG ODN 1668 decreased parasite load by a TLR9-independent mechanism. The control of neonatal C. parvum infection by ip or oral administration of ODNs is feasible by 2 different mechanisms: (1) the well-known interaction involving CpG/TLR9, leading to the production of cytokines and lymphocyte activation, and (2) a new unknown mechanism that is independent of TLR9 and effective orally.

  5. Intraperitoneal curcumin decreased lung, renal and heart injury in abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion model in rat.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Caliskan, Ahmet; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Yildiz, Ali; Günay, Samil; Savik, Emin; Hazar, Abdussemet; Yalcin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. We aimed to determine whether CUR has favorable effects on tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham, control and treatment (CUR) group. Control and CUR groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 60 min followed by a 120 min period of reperfusion. In the CUR group, CUR was given 5 min before reperfusion at a dose of 200 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured, and lung, renal and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. TOS and OSI activity in blood samples were statistically decreased in sham and CUR groups compared to the control group (p < 0.001 for TOS and OSI). Renal, lung, heart injury scores of sham and CUR groups were statistically decreased compared to control group (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Histopathological examination revealed less severe lesions in CUR group than in the control group. CUR administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta I/R rat model. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Efficacy of Dextran-40 as a Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Strategy in Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jason M; Sleightholm, Richard; Watley, Duncan; Wahlmeier, Steven; Patel, Asish

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in peritoneal malignancies can approach 30 to 50 per cent without prophylaxis. Prophylaxis in cytoreductive surgeries (CRS) presents a challenge to preoperative heparin-based therapy because of an increased risk of coagulopathy and potential for bleeding. Herein, we report the large series of CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy receiving dextran-40 prophylaxis. Retrospective chart review of peritoneal malignancies patients undergoing CRS at University of Nebraska Medical Center identified 69 individuals who received dextran-40 between 2010 and 2013. The incidences of VTEs, perioperative bleeding, complications, morbidity, and mortality were determined in-hospital and at 90 days. Of the 69 patients treated, the 30-day VTE rate was 8.7 per cent, and no pulmonary embolisms, bleeding, anaphylactoid reaction, or mortality were observed with dextran usage. The specific VTE events included three upper extremity and three lower extremity VTEs. No additional VTE events were identified between 30 and 90 days. In conclusion, dextran-40 prophylaxis was not associated with any perioperative bleeding events, and the observed incidence of VTE was comparable to reported heparin-based prophylaxis in CRS/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy patients. This data supports further exploration of dextran-40 as a VTE prophylactic agent in complex surgical oncology cases.

  7. The frequently used intraperitoneal hyponatraemia model induces hypovolaemic hyponatraemia with possible model-dependent brain sodium loss.

    PubMed

    Overgaard-Steensen, Christian; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Larsson, Anders; Tønnesen, Else; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Ring, Troels

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? The brain response to acute hyponatraemia is usually studied in rodents by intraperitoneal instillation of hypotonic fluids (i.p. model). The i.p. model is described as 'dilutional' and 'syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)', but the mechanism has not been explored systematically and might affect the brain response. Therefore, in vivo brain and muscle response were studied in pigs. What is the main finding and its importance? The i.p. model induces hypovolaemic hyponatraemia attributable to sodium redistribution, not dilution. A large reduction in brain sodium is observed, probably because of the specific mechanism causing the hyponatraemia. This is not accounted for in current understanding of the brain response to acute hyponatraemia. Hyponatraemia is common clinically, and if it develops rapidly, brain oedema evolves, and severe morbidity and even death may occur. Experimentally, acute hyponatraemia is most frequently studied in small animal models, in which the hyponatraemia is produced by intraperitoneal instillation of hypotonic fluids (i.p. model). This hyponatraemia model is described as 'dilutional' or 'syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)', but seminal studies contradict this interpretation. To confront this issue, we developed an i.p. model in a large animal (the pig) and studied water and electrolyte responses in brain, muscle, plasma and urine. We hypothesized that hyponatraemia was induced by simple water dilution, with no change in organ sodium content. Moderate hypotonic hyponatraemia was induced by a single i.v. dose of desmopressin and intraperitoneal instillation of 2.5% glucose. All animals were anaesthetized and intensively monitored. In vivo brain and muscle water was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and related to the plasma sodium concentration. Muscle water content increased less than expected as a result of pure dilution, and muscle sodium content decreased significantly (by 28

  8. Uric acid ameliorates indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice through its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Yuichi; Tomita, Kengo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Shirakabe, Kazuhiko; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Kurihara, Chie; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Nagao, Shigeaki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Miura, Soichiro; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-11-01

    Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. The study aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce end points associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally. A group of mice treated with indomethacin was also concurrently administered inosinic acid, a uric acid precursor, and potassium oxonate, an inhibitor of uric acid metabolism, intraperitoneally. For in vitro analysis, Caco-2 cells treated with indomethacin were incubated in the presence or absence of uric acid. Oral administration of uric acid ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice even though serum uric acid levels did not increase. Intraperitoneal administration of inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly elevated serum uric acid levels and ameliorated NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice. Both oral uric acid treatment and intraperitoneal treatment with inosinic acid and potassium oxonate significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in the ileum of mice with NSAID-induced enteropathy. Treatment with uric acid protected Caco-2 cells from indomethacin-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and cytotoxicity. Uric acid within the intestinal lumen and in serum had a protective effect against NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice, through its antioxidant activity. Uric acid could be a promising therapeutic target for NSAID-induced enteropathy. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Pathological complete response following neoadjuvant radiotherapy and intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy for recurrent colon carcinoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    BIAN, XINYU; LIU, BAORUI; YANG, YANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the case of a 28-year-old male who was diagnosed with sigmoid colon carcinoma and exhibited local recurrence following radical surgery and 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. The primary surgery consisted of a partial sigmoidectomy and bladder repair. At 8 months post-chemotherapy, the patient was referred to Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (Nanjing, China) due to local recurrence at the anastomotic site, which was confirmed by colonoscopy and total abdominal computed tomography. Synchronous intensity modulation radiation therapy and intraperitoneal (IP) perfusion chemotherapy with irinotecan (100 mg/m2) was administered. Following treatment, the object efficacy evaluation revealed a complete response and a second resection of the remaining sigmoid colon was performed. The post-operative results showed a pathological complete response. This case indicated that a combination of therapies, including radiotherapy, IP perfusion chemotherapy and surgery, may be beneficial and effective in patients with recurrent colon cancer. PMID:27073546

  10. Safety and feasibility of pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) associated with systemic chemotherapy: an innovative approach to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Robella, Manuela; Vaira, Marco; De Simone, Michele

    2016-04-29

    Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a new treatment that applies chemotherapeutic drugs into the peritoneal cavity as an aerosol under pressure. It improves local bioavailability of chemotherapeutic drugs as compared with conventional intraperitoneal chemotherapy. It has been proved to be safe and feasible if performed as an exclusive treatment in patients affected by peritoneal carcinomatosis. The first results in patients treated with PIPAC associated with systemic chemotherapy are presented. Between June 2015 and February 2016, 57 PIPAC applications with oxaliplatin or cisplatin + doxorubicin every 6 weeks at 37 °C and 12 mmHg for 30 min were performed. Forty PIPAC procedures performed in 14 patients were included in this study; thirteen patients were undergoing systemic chemotherapy with a wash-out interval of at least 2 weeks before and 1 week after each PIPAC. Safety, tolerability, and postoperative complications were assessed by collection of adverse events according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) 2. Forty PIPAC administrations were performed in 14 patients with no major perioperative complications. CTCAE grades 1 and 2 were observed after six and eight procedures, respectively, for abdominal pain and nausea. Renal and hepatic functions were not impaired; no cumulative renal toxicity was observed after repeated PIPAC procedures in association with systemic chemotherapy. These preliminary data show that the association of PIPAC and systemic chemotherapy does not induce significant hepatic and renal toxicity. It allows inclusion of patients with extraperitoneal disease or at a high risk of developing it. Further studies are needed to assess whether this combination therapy could become part of the standard treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  11. Prognostic significance of peritoneal cytology in patients with endometrial cancer and preliminary data concerning therapy with intraperitoneal radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Creasman, W.T.; Disaia, P.J.; Blessing, J.

    1981-12-15

    One hundred sixty-seven patients with clinical State I carcinoma of the endometrium were treated primarily by operation consisting of total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, selective pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, and cytologic testing of peritoneal washings. Twenty-six (15.5%) of the 167 patients had malignant cells identified on cytologic examinations of peritoneal washings. Recurrence developed in 10 of these 26 (34.0%) compared to 14/141 (9.9%) patients with negative cytologic testing. Of the 26 patients, 13 (50%) had disease outside of the uterus at operation and seven have died of disease (54%). Thirteen patients had malignant cells in the peritoneal washings but nomore » disease outside of the uterus and six (46%) of these have died of disseminated intra-abdominal carcinomatosis. On the basis of the poor outcome of those patients who had malignant cells in the peritoneal washings in the 167 patients studied, a plan of treating such patients with intraperitoneal radioactive chromic phosphate suspension (P-32) was instituted. Twenty-three subsequent patients with clinical Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium were found to have malignant cells in the peritoneal fluid. All 23 received intra-abdominal P-32 suspension instillation after operation. There have been three recurrences with two patients dying of disease. All of the three recurrences appeared at sites distant from the abdominal cavity. Peritoneal cytologic examination appears to be an important factor in the prognosis of endometrial cancer and, when the washings are positive for malignant cells, intraperitoneal chronic phosphate therapy appears to be efficacious.« less

  12. Intraperitoneal injections as a possible means of generating varied levels of methylmercury in the eggs of birds in field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2010-01-01

    The ideal study of the effects of methylmercury on the reproductive success of a species of bird would be one in which eggs contained mercury concentrations ranging from controls to very heavily contaminated, all at the same site. Such a study cannot be realized at a mercury contaminated area or under laboratory conditions, but could be achieved by introducing methylmercury into breeding females and allowing them to deposit mercury in their eggs. Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were intraperitoneally injected with solutions of methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil, propylene glycol, dimethyl sulfoxide, mineral oil, Olestra, Crisco, lard, hard paraffin, and a combination of hard and soft paraffin. In some cases, egg laying was delayed, either due to the solvent itself (in the case of Olestra, Crisco, and lard) or to the highest concentration of methylmercury chloride (500 μg/g) in some of the solvents. Mercury in eggs ranged from a control level (< 0.1 μg/g) to approximately 14 μg/g on a wet weight basis, which more than covers the range of concentrations reported in wild bird eggs. Mercury concentrations in a series of eggs from the same female declined mostly due to excretion of mercury in prior eggs and not because of the length of time since the injection. Intraperitoneal injections hold promise in field studies where one would like to study the reproductive effects of a wide range of methylmercury levels in the eggs of a wild bird and under the natural conditions that exist in the field.

  13. Is there a difference in outcome when treating traumatic intraperitoneal bladder rupture with or without a suprapubic tube?

    PubMed

    Volpe, M A; Pachter, E M; Scalea, T M; Macchia, R J; Mydlo, J H

    1999-04-01

    Primary bladder repair with a suprapubic tube is considered to be effective for managing intraperitoneal bladder injury. We compared the outcomes of suprapubic tube placement and no suprapubic tube for this injury. We reviewed the charts of 31 men and 3 women with a mean age of 28.5 years who required emergency operative repair without a cystogram of traumatic bladder injury from 1992 to 1997. Patient characteristics, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, and short and long-term complications were reviewed. Penetrating and blunt trauma occurred in 28 (82%) and 5 (15%) patients, respectively, while 1 had spontaneous bladder rupture. After primary bladder repair the bladder was drained with a suprapubic tube in 18 cases (53%) and a urethral catheter only in 16 (47%). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with respect to mechanism of injury, patient age, location of injury in the bladder, coexisting medical illnesses, stability in the field or emergency room, or the bladder repair technique. The 18 patients treated with a suprapubic tube had an associated injury that resulted in 2 deaths, while 13 of the 16 treated with urethral catheter drainage only had an associated injury and 1 died. Urological and nonurological complications in the suprapubic tube versus urethral catheter only group developed in 28 and 33 versus 19 and 19% of the cases, respectively (p <0.05). Followup ranged from 1 month to 4 years. No significant long-term morbidity was noted in either group. These data indicate that intraperitoneal bladder injuries may be equally well managed by primary bladder repair and urethral catheter drainage only versus suprapubic tube drainage.

  14. Low-dose pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) as an alternative therapy for ovarian cancer in an octogenarian patient.

    PubMed

    Giger-Pabst, Urs; Solass, Wiebke; Buerkle, Bernd; Reymond, Marc-André; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2015-04-01

    Octogenarians with ovarian cancer limited to the abdomen may not be willing or able to undergo systemic chemotherapy. Low-dose pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) with cisplatin and doxorubicin is a form of intra-abdominal chemotherapy which can be applied repeatedly and potentially prevents from the systemic side-effects of chemotherapy. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed ovarian cancer who refused to undergo systemic chemotherapy. She was treated with eight courses q 28-104 days of low-dose PIPAC with cisplatin at 7.5 mg/m(2) and doxorubicin at 1.5 mg/m(2) at 12 mmHg and 37 °C for 30 min. Objective tumor response was noted, defined as tumor regression on histology, and stable disease noted by peritoneal carcinomatosis index on repeated video-laparoscopy and abdominal computed tomographic scan. The treatment was well-tolerated with no Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) CTCAE >2. With a follow-up of 15 months, the patient is alive and clinically stable. The quality of life measured by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 demonstrated improvement over 5-6 months (global physical score, global health score, global quality of live) without cumulative increase of gastrointestinal toxicity. Low-dose PIPAC is a new form of intraperitoneal chemotherapy which may be applied repeatedly in octogenarian patients. PIPAC may be an alternative and well-tolerated treatment for selected octogenarian patients with ovarian cancer limited to the abdomen who cannot be treated with systemic chemotherapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Intraperitoneal prophylaxis with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides protects neutropenic mice against intracerebral Escherichia coli K1 infection.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Sandra; Meister, Tanja; Ott, Martina; Redlich, Sandra; Janova, Hana; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Nessler, Stefan; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-23

    Prophylaxis with unmethylated cytosine phosphate guanidine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) protects against several systemic experimental infections. Escherichia coli is a major cause of Gram-negative neonatal bacterial meningitis and also causes meningitis and meningoencephalitis in older and immunocompromised patients. Wild-type (wt) and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-deficient mice were rendered neutropenic by intraperitoneal administration of the anti-Ly-6G monoclonal antibody. Immunocompetent and neutropenic mice received intraperitoneal CpG ODN or vehicle 72 h prior to induction of E. coli K1 meningoencephalitis. Pre-treatment with CpG ODN significantly increased survival of neutropenic wt mice from 33% to 75% (P = 0.0003) but did not protect neutropenic TLR9-/- mice. The protective effect of CpG ODN was associated with an enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23p40 with sustained increased levels in serum and spleen at least for 17 days after conditioning compared to buffer-treated animals. CpG-treated neutropenic wt mice showed reduced bacterial concentrations and increased recruitment of Ly6ChighCCR2+ monocytes in brain and spleen 42 h after infection. The levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in spleen were higher 42 h after infection in CpG-treated compared to buffer-treated neutropenic animals. In immunocompetent mice, prophylaxis with CpG ODN did not significantly increase survival compared to the buffer group (60% vs. 45%, P = 0.2). These findings suggest that systemic administration of CpG ODN may help to prevent bacterial CNS infections in immunocompromised individuals.

  16. Direct intraperitoneal resuscitation with lidocaine, methylene blue and pentoxiphylline combination does not decreases inflammation after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Gandini, Marco; Cerri, Simona; Pregel, Paola; Giusto, Gessica; Vercelli, Cristina; Iussich, Selina; Tursi, Massimiliano; Farca, Anna Maria

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of an intraperitoneal solution of methylene blue (MB), lidocaine and pentoxyphylline (PTX) on intestinal ischemic and reperfusion injury. Superior mesenteric artery was isolated and clamped in 36 adult male Sprague Dawley rats. After 60 minutes, clamp was removed and a group received intraperitoneally UNITO solution (PTX 25mg/kg + lidocaine 5mg/kg + MB 2mg/kg), while the other group was treated with warm 0.9% NaCl solution. Rats were euthanized 45 min after drug administration. Lung and bowel were collected for histological evaluation (using Park's score) and determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Control samples showed lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate and crypt necrosis of villi. MPO and MDA measurements shown no differences between treated and control groups. The combination of lidocaine, methylene blue and pentoxyphylline administered intraperitoneally at the studied dose, did not decreased histological lesion scores and biochemical markers levels in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  17. Drugs, doses, and durations of intraperitoneal chemotherapy: standardising HIPEC and EPIC for colorectal, appendiceal, gastric, ovarian peritoneal surface malignancies and peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Lieselotte; Sugarbaker, Paul; Van der Speeten, Kurt

    2017-08-01

    Peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM) is a common manifestation of digestive and gynaecologic malignancies alike. At present, patients with isolated PSM are treated with a combination therapy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic peroperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The combination of CRS and intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy should now be considered standard of care for PSM from appendiceal epithelial cancers, colorectal cancer and peritoneal mesothelioma. Although there is a near universal standardisation regarding the CRS, we are still lacking a much-needed standardisation amongst the various IP chemotherapy treatment modalities used today in clinical practice. Pharmacologic evidence should be generated to answer important questions raised by the myriad of variables associated with IP chemotherapy.

  18. Inhibition of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer by hyperthermic CO2 insufflation: A novel approach to prevent intraperitoneal tumor spread

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Houming; Zheng, Minhua

    2017-01-01

    Background The increasing use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastrointestinal cancer raises concerns about intra-peritoneal tumor spread. Prevention of peritoneal dissemination is extremely important but a preventive modality is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine a novel approach (hyperthermic CO2 insufflation, HT-CO2) for preventing peritoneal dissemination during laparoscopic surgery. Methods A peritoneal dissemination model was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells (SW1116, 1×106). The mice (n = 48) were subsequently randomized into two groups and subjected to hyperthermic CO2 (43°C, >95% humidity, HT-CO2 group) or standard normothermic CO2 (21°C, <1% relative humidity, NT-CO2 group) insufflation for 3 hours. The mice were sacrificed 28 days later. The peritoneal dissemination was quantitatively analyzed by counting and weighing the peritoneal nodules. The port sites and ascites volume were measured. The peritoneal damage of HT-CO2 was histologically examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated 4 weeks later. Results The number of peritoneal nodules in the HT-CO2 group was significantly less than that in the NT-CO2 group (10.21±3.72 vs. 67.12±5.49, P<0.01). The mean weight of metastatic tumors in the HT-CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the NT-CO2 group (0.31±0.10g vs. 2.16±0.31g, P<0.01). Massive ascites were found in the NT-CO2 group while significantly less ascites developed in HT-CO2- treated mice (8.26±0.31ml vs. 1.27±0.28ml, P<0.01). No port-site metastases were detected in the HT-CO2 group while the incidence of the NT-CO2 group was 12.5% (3/24). HT-CO2 subjection resulted in slight peritoneal damage; the peritoneum returned to normal within five days. No adhesions formed after HT-CO2 treatment. Conclusions HT-CO2 can suppress peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer cells and only causes slight and

  19. Inhibition of peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer by hyperthermic CO2 insufflation: A novel approach to prevent intraperitoneal tumor spread.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuanfei; Yang, Hua; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Houming; Zheng, Minhua; Shi, Yinghong

    2017-01-01

    The increasing use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced gastrointestinal cancer raises concerns about intra-peritoneal tumor spread. Prevention of peritoneal dissemination is extremely important but a preventive modality is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine a novel approach (hyperthermic CO2 insufflation, HT-CO2) for preventing peritoneal dissemination during laparoscopic surgery. A peritoneal dissemination model was established in Balb/c nu/nu mice by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells (SW1116, 1×106). The mice (n = 48) were subsequently randomized into two groups and subjected to hyperthermic CO2 (43°C, >95% humidity, HT-CO2 group) or standard normothermic CO2 (21°C, <1% relative humidity, NT-CO2 group) insufflation for 3 hours. The mice were sacrificed 28 days later. The peritoneal dissemination was quantitatively analyzed by counting and weighing the peritoneal nodules. The port sites and ascites volume were measured. The peritoneal damage of HT-CO2 was histologically examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Intra-abdominal adhesions were evaluated 4 weeks later. The number of peritoneal nodules in the HT-CO2 group was significantly less than that in the NT-CO2 group (10.21±3.72 vs. 67.12±5.49, P<0.01). The mean weight of metastatic tumors in the HT-CO2 group was significantly lower than that in the NT-CO2 group (0.31±0.10g vs. 2.16±0.31g, P<0.01). Massive ascites were found in the NT-CO2 group while significantly less ascites developed in HT-CO2- treated mice (8.26±0.31ml vs. 1.27±0.28ml, P<0.01). No port-site metastases were detected in the HT-CO2 group while the incidence of the NT-CO2 group was 12.5% (3/24). HT-CO2 subjection resulted in slight peritoneal damage; the peritoneum returned to normal within five days. No adhesions formed after HT-CO2 treatment. HT-CO2 can suppress peritoneal dissemination of colon cancer cells and only causes slight and transient peritoneal damage. HT-CO2 may serve

  20. Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis: evidence from an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been considered as a promising treatment modality for gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, there have also been many debates regarding the efficacy and safety of this new approach. Results from experimental animal model study could help provide reliable information. This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CRS + HIPEC to treat gastric cancer with PC in a rabbit model. Methods VX2 tumor cells were injected into the gastric submucosa of 42 male New Zealand rabbits using a laparotomic implantation technique, to construct rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC. The rabbits were randomized into control group (n = 14), CRS alone group (n = 14) and CRS + HIPEC group (n = 14). The control group was observed for natural course of disease progression. Treatments were started on day 9 after tumor cells inoculation, including maximal removal of tumor nodules in CRS alone group, and maximal CRS plus heperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion with docetaxel (10 mg/rabbit) and carboplatin (40 mg/rabbit) at 42.0 ± 0.5°C for 30 min in CRS + HIPEC group. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The secondary endpoints were body weight, biochemistry, major organ functions and serious adverse events (SAE). Results Rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC was successfully established in all animals. The clinicopathological features of the model were similar to human gastric PC. The median OS was 24.0 d (95% confidence interval 21.8 - 26.2 d ) in the control group, 25.0 d (95% CI 21.3 - 28.7 d ) in CRS group, and 40.0 d (95% CI 34.6 - 45.4 d ) in CRS + HIPEC group (P = 0.00, log rank test). Compared with CRS only or control group, CRS + HIPEC could extend the OS by at least 15 d (60%). At the baseline, on the day of surgery and on day 8 after surgery, the peripheral blood cells counts, liver and kidney functions, and biochemistry parameters

  1. Intraperitoneal (188)Re-Liposome delivery switches ovarian cancer metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation and effectively controls ovarian tumour growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yao An; Lan, Keng Li; Chang, Chih Hsien; Lin, Liang Ting; He, Chun Lin; Chen, Po Hung; Lee, Te Wei; Lee, Yi Jang; Chuang, Chi Mu

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells exhibit distinctive cellular metabolism compared with the more differentiated counterparts or normal cells. We aimed to investigate the impact of a novel radionuclide anti-cancer agent (188)Re-Liposome on stemness markers' expression and cellular metabolism in an ovarian cancer model. A 2×2 factorial experiment was designed in which factor 1 represented the drug treatment comparing (188)Re-BMEDA, a free form of (188)Re, with (188)Re-Liposome, a nanoparticle-encapsulated form of (188)Re. Factor 2 represented the delivery route, comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal delivery. Intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome predominantly killed the CSCs-like cells in tumours and switched metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation. Further, intraperitoneal delivery of (188)Re-Liposome treatment was able to block epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reactivate p53 function. Collectively, these molecular changes led to a striking tumour-killing effect. Radionuclides encapsulated in liposomes may represent a novel treatment for ovarian cancer when delivered intraperitoneally (a type of loco-regional delivery). In the future, this concept may be further extended for the treatment of several relevant cancers that have been proved to be suitable for loco-regional delivery of therapeutic agents, such as colon cancer, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen-binding cells in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum, induced by immersion or intraperitoneal injection of Vibrio languilarum bacterin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1981-01-01

    We used an immunocytoadherence assay to monitor the response of antigen-binding cells (ABC) in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, after immersion in, or intraperitoneal injection of, Vibrio anguillarum LS 1–74 bacterin. Both methods initiated an elevated ABC response in less than one day; this response persisted one week longer in the injected than in the immersed fish.

  3. [Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion for peritoneal carcinomatosis caused by recurrent inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Péley, Gábor; Kovács, Tibor; Rényi, Vámos Ferenc; Szívós, Edit; Szabó, Eszter; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Török, Klára; Köves, István

    2006-01-29

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a fatal diagnosis, associated with poor prognosis and quality of life. Survival is usually estimated in month. Traditionally surgery for peritoneal carcinomatosis was indicated only for palliative effort. Advances in tumour biology, cytoreductive surgery and pharmacology have improved the approach for this condition. An aggressive combined approach to peritoneal surface malignancy involves peritonectomy and intraperitoneal perioperative hyperthermic chemotherapy. Cytoreductive surgery reduces carcinomatosis to microscopic residual disease so that intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy is able to eradicate cancer. Hyperthermic chemotherapy enhances the cytotoxicity of the drugs and increases their penetration into the cancerous tissue. Careful patient selection is crucial for this multimodality approach. Quantitative prognostic indicators are useful in the assessment of outcome, like peritoneal cancer index and completeness of cytoreduction score. Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy improves survival but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This review is based on a case report of a 22-year-old female patient who had peritoneal carcinomatosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma and was treated by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy at our department.

  4. Intraperitoneal Injection Is Not a Suitable Administration Route for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Guo, Qing; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Li, Rui; Wu, Yang; Ma, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Given the extensive application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biomedical fields, there is increasing concern regarding unintentional health impacts. Research into safe usage is therefore increasingly necessary. This study investigated the responses of the mouse brain to single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) delivered via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and compared these results with the previous study where SWCNTs were delivered via intravenous (IV) injection so as to explore which administration route is potentially better for SWCNTs application. This study suggests SWCNTs delivered via IP injection can have negative effects on the mouse brain through oxidative stress and inflammation at high concentration exposure, but these responses were not consistent and showed no dose-dependent effect. In a previous study, the results showed that IV-delivered SWCNTs induced a more consistent and dose-dependent effect. The comparison of the 2 studies suggested that using SWCNTs at a safe dosage delivered via IV injection may be a better administration route for SWCNTs in biomedical applications.

  5. Vinclozolin--no transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects after maternal exposure during organogenesis via the intraperitoneal route.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Steffen; Marxfeld, Heike; Gröters, Sibylle; Buesen, Roland; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the potential transgenerational inheritance of anti-androgenic effects induced by Vinclozolin administered intraperitoneally to pregnant Wistar rats (Crl:WI[Han]). Dams were dosed with Vinclozolin at 0, 4 or 100mg/kg bw/d on gestation days 6-15. Male offspring of F1-F3 generations were bred with untreated females to yield F2-F4 offspring. No evident anti-androgenic effects were observed at 4mg/kg bw/d, but a case of hypospadias as well as delayed sexual maturation in F1 male offspring was observed as a sign of anti-androgenicity at 100mg/kg bw/d. However, F1-F3 males developed normally to sexual maturity and were able to mate and to generate healthy progeny. Sperm count, morphology and motility were not affected in F1-F4 generation male offspring. In conclusion, transgenerational inheritance of Vinclozolin's anti-androgenic effects was not evident in outbred Wistar rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of acute multiple intraperitoneal injections of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-12-28

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of acute repeated administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake in rats. In Experiment 1, the effects of repeated intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (1 and 2 mg/kg) at 2 h intervals were investigated on food intake in non-deprived male Wistar rats. Both doses of baclofen significantly increased food intake after the 1st injection (P<0.05), but had no effects on intake following the 2nd and 3rd injections. By contrast, in Experiment 2, diazepam (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased food intake (at least, P<0.05) after each of 3 injection separated by 2 h in non-deprived rats. These data show that tolerance occurs to the hyperphagic effects of baclofen with acute multiple injections, and may have important implications for future studies investigating the effects of GABA(B) receptor agonists on food intake and energy homeostasis.

  7. Immunization of pacific salmon: comparison of intraperitoneal injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida bacterins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antipa, Ross; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of immunizing fish, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and hyperosmotic infiltration, were compared for control of vibriosis and furunculosis in pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Both methods provided significant protection against vibriosis under field test conditions. In coho salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration provided the best protection and fastest rise in antibody titer of seven treatments tested. In chinook salmon, hyperosmotic infiltration of Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines resulted in 83.3% survival in comparison with 28.7% survival in controls. Both i.p. injection and hyperosmotic infiltration of V. anguillarum and A. salmonicida bacterins resulted in production of serum antibodies specific for each respective pathogen. Vaccination with bivalent V. anguillarum–A.salmonicida vaccines produced antibodies to both pathogens, and provided protection against vibriosis. Growth rates of vaccinated coho salmon were not significantly different from controls.

  8. Intraperitoneal immunotherapy with T cells stably and transiently expressing anti-EpCAM CAR in xenograft models of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Zhixia; Du, Shou-Hui; Chen, Can; Tay, Johan C.K.; Toh, Han Chong; Connolly, John E.; Xu, Xue Hu; Wang, Shu

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed in a wide variety of tumor types, including peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies. To develop a chimeric antigen receptor T (CART) cell therapy approach to treat patients with end-stage PC, we constructed third generation CARs specific to EpCAM using the 4D5MOC-B single chain variable fragment. CART cells were generated with lentiviral transduction and exhibited specific in vitro killing activity against EpCAM-positive human ovarian and colorectal cancer cells. A single intraperitoneal injection of the CART cells eradicated established ovarian xenografts and resulted in significantly prolonged animal survival. Since EpCAM is also expressed on normal epithelium, anti-EpCAM CART cells were generated by mRNA electroporation that display a controlled cytolytic activity with a limited CAR expression duration. Multiple repeated infusions of these RNA CAR-modified T cells delayed disease progression in immunodeficient mice bearing well-established peritoneal ovarian and colorectal xenografts. Thus, our study demonstrates the effectiveness of using anti-EpCAM CAR-expressing T cells for local treatment of PC in mice. The possibility of using this approach for clinical treatment of EpCAM-positive gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies warrants further validation. PMID:28088790

  9. Second-Line Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Tubal and Peritoneal Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matching Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chien-Hsing; Chang, Yen-Hou; Lee, Wai-Hou; Chang, Yi; Peng, Chia-Wen; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2016-01-01

    The superiority of frontline intraperitoneal (IP) over intravenous (IV) chemotherapy is well established in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, the role of IP chemotherapy in the second-line setting has rarely been investigated. Consecutive patients diagnosed with recurrent epithelial, tubal and peritoneal cancers between January 2000 and December 2012 were recruited using a propensity score-matching technique to adjust relevant risk factors. In total, 310 patients were included in the final analysis (94 for platinum-refractory/resistant disease and 216 for platinum-sensitive disease). IP chemotherapy demonstrated significantly longer median progression-free survival than IV chemotherapy (4.9 vs. 2.4 months, p < 0.001, for platinum-refractory/resistant disease, and 9.8 vs. 6.9 months, p < 0.001, for platinum-sensitive disease). Second-line IP chemotherapy confers longer progression-free survival than IV chemotherapy. Large-scale clinical trials should be conducted to validate the true efficacy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Cytoreductive surgery with a hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy program: Safe after 40 cases, but only controlled after 140 cases.

    PubMed

    Voron, T; Eveno, C; Jouvin, I; Beaugerie, A; Lo Dico, R; Dagois, S; Soyer, P; Pocard, M

    2015-12-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), used to treat peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM), is a complex procedure with significant major morbidity (MM). To investigate the learning curve (LC) of CRS with HIPEC in a new specialized surgical unit with a fully trained senior surgeon and individualize the variables associated with morbidity and oncological results. A total of 290 consecutive patients with PSM were included. Complete CRS with HIPEC was performed in 204 patients. A risk-adjusted sequential probability ratio test was used to assess the LC on the basis of rates of incomplete cytoreduction (IC) and MM. Complete CRS, MM, and mortality rates were 70.4%, 30.4%, and 2.5%, respectively. Tumor histotype, a high peritoneal cancer index (PCI) and the invaded region were the major independent risk factors for IC, whereas previous surgery, high PCI, stomia realization and blood transfusion were predictors of MM. RA-SPRT showed that 140 and 40 cases were needed to achieve the lowest risk of IC and MM, respectively. CRS with HIPEC to treat PSM has a steep LC. Drastic selection has to be made at the beginning, excluding high PCI, rare peritoneal disease and patients previously operated on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intra-abdominal temperature distribution during consolidation hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with carboplatin in the treatment of advanced stage ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rettenmaier, Mark A; Mendivil, Alberto A; Gray, Crystal M; Chapman, Amber P; Stone, Michelle K; Tinnerman, Erin J; Goldstein, Bram H

    2015-06-01

    Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) involves the continuous heating and circulation of chemotherapy throughout the abdominal cavity in an attempt to enhance cytotoxicity. Despite the potential of this chemotherapy procedure, there are scant anatomical temperature distribution studies reporting on this therapeutic process. We prospectively evaluated the temperature of select anatomical (e.g. upper abdominal, mid-abdominal and supra-pubic) sites in 11 advanced stage ovarian cancer patients who were treated with consolidation HIPEC carboplatin (AUC 10). The temperature of the aforementioned anatomical regions and the inflow/outflow tubing was measured at baseline and at 15-min intervals until the procedure's completion. The lowest observed mean composite temperature was 41.1 °C at the supra-pubic site whereas the highest temperature was 42.6 °C, in association with the inflow/outflow tubing. During the various time intervals we also ascertained that the lowest composite temperature was 40.9 °C at baseline (i.e. time 0), whereas the highest value (41.8 °C) occurred at multiple time periods (e.g., 15, 45 and 60 min). The HIPEC temperature variation amongst the various abdominal sites and time intervals was minimal. We also discerned that uniform temperature distribution throughout the abdominal cavity was facilitated when the abdomen was both maximally distended with fluid and a high flow rate was maintained.

  12. [Effect of acute intra-peritoneal infection on leptin expression levels in peripheral blood and vital organs of rats].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji; Yan, Guang-Tao; Wang, Lu-Huan

    2008-02-01

    To explore the effect of acute intra-peritoneal infection on leptin expression levels in peripheral blood and vital organs, and find out the role leptin plays in acute inflammation. A cecal ligation and perforation model of rats was established, setting groups of sham-operation, intralipid injection, injury, estradiol injection and insulin injection. A rat leptin radioimmunoassay was used to check serum leptin concentrations at 12 h after the injury, and RT-PCR was also used to detect leptin mRNA expressions in adipose tissue, lung and liver. Compared with serum leptin level of sham-operation group after injury, that of all the other four groups showed no significant difference, while the level of intralipid group was significantly higher than that of injury group and estradiol group. Compared with leptin mRNA expression level of sham-operation group after injury, that of the other four groups had different changes. Leptin mRNA expression of intralipid group was significantly increased in adipose tissue but decreased in lung and liver. Leptin expression levels may be affected by the changes of energy metabolism and neuroendocrine function after injury, which suggests a possible protective role for leptin in the recovery of body homeostasis.

  13. A comparison of the results from intra-pleural and intra-peritoneal studies with those from inhalation and intratracheal tests for the assessment of pulmonary responses to inhalable dusts and fibres.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Gail; Bevan, Ruth; Harrison, Paul

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare results from inhalation studies with those from intraperitoneal and intrapleural tests, where available, for a number of fibrous and particulate test materials. The objective is to determine how well intraperitoneal/intrapleural studies predict the pathological responses observed in more standard in vivo studies of pulmonary toxicity, with a particular focus on carcinogenicity. Published toxicity data was obtained for a number of materials including asbestos, wollastonite, MMVFs (including glass fibres, stone wools and RCF), silicon carbide whiskers, potassium octatitanate, quartz, kevlar, polypropylene and titanium dioxide. For some of the fibrous material reviewed, there is conformity between the results of intraperitoneal and inhalation tests such that they are either consistently positive or consistently negative. For the remaining fibrous materials reviewed, intraperitoneal and inhalation tests give different results, with positive results in the intraperitoneal test not being reflected by positive inhalation results. It is suggested that the intraperitoneal test can be used to exonerate a dust or fibre (because if negative in the intraperitoneal test it is extremely unlikely to be positive in either inhalation or intratracheal tests) but should not be used to positively determine that a dust or fibre is carcinogenic by inhalation. We would argue against the use of intraperitoneal tests for human health risk assessment except perhaps for the purpose of exoneration of a material from classification as a carcinogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The use of cardiac output monitoring to guide the administration of intravenous fluid during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thanigaimani, K; Mohamed, F; Cecil, T; Moran, B J; Bell, J

    2013-12-01

    The optimal strategy for intravenous (IV) fluid management during administration of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is unclear. In this prospective study we describe the use of a LiDCOrapid™ (LiDCO, Cambridge, UK) cardiac output monitor to guide IV fluid management during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with HIPEC. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiac output monitoring will allow close maintenance of physiological parameters during the HIPEC phase. Twenty-five patients who underwent CRS combined with HIPEC were included in the study. Intra-operative IV fluid boluses were titrated using parameters measured by the LiDCOrapid™ monitor. Stroke volume variation was maintained below 10% with fluid boluses and mean arterial pressure was maintained within 20% of the baseline figure with vasopressors. There was no significant change in heart rate and cardiac output. The systemic vascular resistance dropped from an average of 966 dyn.s/cm-5 to 797 dyn s/cm(5) at 60 min during the HIPEC phase (P = 0.62) despite an increase in the dose of phenylepherine. The average total volume of fluid given was 748 ml in the first 30 min and 630 ml in the second 30 min with an average urine output of 307 and 445 ml, respectively. The change in lactate levels was not statistically or clinically significant. LiDCOrapid™ is an effective noninvasive tool for guiding fluid management in this population. It allows the anaesthesiologist to maintain tight control of essential physiological parameters during a phase of the procedure in which there is a risk of renal injury. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Significance of Urinary Tract Involvement in Patients Treated with Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)

    PubMed Central

    Randle, Reese W.; Craven, Brandon; Swett, Katrina R.; Levine, Edward A.; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H.; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background Urinary tract involvement in patients with peritoneal surface disease treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) often requires complex urologic resections and reconstruction to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The impact of these combined procedures on surgical outcomes is not well defined. Methods A prospective database of CRS/HIPEC procedures was analyzed retrospectively. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were reviewed. Results A total of 864 patients underwent 933 CRS/HI-PEC procedures, while 64 % (550) had preoperative ureteral stent placement. A total of 7.3 % had an additional urologic procedure without an increase in 30-day (p = 0.4) or 90-day (p = 1.0) mortality. Urologic procedures correlated with increased length of operating time (p < 0.001), blood loss (p < 0.001), and length of hospitalization (p = 0.003), yet were not associated with increased overall 30-day major morbidity (grade III/IV, p = 0.14). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of additional urologic procedures were prior surgical score (p < 0.001), number of resected organs (p = 0.001), and low anterior resection (p = 0.03). Long-term survival was not statistically different between patients with and without urologic resection for low-grade appendiceal primary lesions (p = 0.23), high-grade appendiceal primary lesions (p = 0.40), or colorectal primary lesions (p = 0.14). Conclusions Urinary tract involvement in patients with peritoneal surface disease does not increase overall surgical morbidity. Patients with urologic procedures demonstrate survival patterns with meaningful prolongation of life. Urologic involvement should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC in patients with resectable peritoneal surface disease. PMID:24217789

  16. Tumor Penetrating Theranostic Nanoparticles for Enhancement of Targeted and Image-guided Drug Delivery into Peritoneal Tumors following Intraperitoneal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ning; Bozeman, Erica N; Qian, Weiping; Wang, Liya; Chen, Hongyu; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Staley, Charles A; Wang, Y Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2017-01-01

    The major obstacles in intraperitoneal (i.p.) chemotherapy of peritoneal tumors are fast absorption of drugs into the blood circulation, local and systemic toxicities, inadequate drug penetration into large tumors, and drug resistance. Targeted theranostic nanoparticles offer an opportunity to enhance the efficacy of i.p. therapy by increasing intratumoral drug delivery to overcome resistance, mediating image-guided drug delivery, and reducing systemic toxicity. Herein we report that i.p. delivery of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) led to intratumoral accumulation of 17% of total injected nanoparticles in an orthotopic mouse pancreatic cancer model, which was three-fold higher compared with intravenous delivery. Targeted delivery of near infrared dye labeled IONPs into orthotopic tumors could be detected by non-invasive optical and magnetic resonance imaging. Histological analysis revealed that a high level of uPAR targeted, PEGylated IONPs efficiently penetrated into both the peripheral and central tumor areas in the primary tumor as well as peritoneal metastatic tumor. Improved theranostic IONP delivery into the tumor center was not mediated by nonspecific macrophage uptake and was independent from tumor blood vessel locations. Importantly, i.p. delivery of uPAR targeted theranostic IONPs carrying chemotherapeutics, cisplatin or doxorubicin, significantly inhibited the growth of pancreatic tumors without apparent systemic toxicity. The levels of proliferating tumor cells and tumor vessels in tumors treated with the above theranostic IONPs were also markedly decreased. The detection of strong optical signals in residual tumors following i.p. therapy suggested the feasibility of image-guided surgery to remove drug-resistant tumors. Therefore, our results support the translational development of i.p. delivery of uPAR-targeted theranostic IONPs for image-guided treatment of peritoneal tumors.

  17. Significance of urinary tract involvement in patients treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

    PubMed

    Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I; Randle, Reese W; Craven, Brandon; Swett, Katrina R; Levine, Edward A; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract involvement in patients with peritoneal surface disease treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) often requires complex urologic resections and reconstruction to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The impact of these combined procedures on surgical outcomes is not well defined. A prospective database of CRS/HIPEC procedures was analyzed retrospectively. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were reviewed. A total of 864 patients underwent 933 CRS/HIPEC procedures, while 64 % (550) had preoperative ureteral stent placement. A total of 7.3 % had an additional urologic procedure without an increase in 30-day (p = 0.4) or 90-day (p = 1.0) mortality. Urologic procedures correlated with increased length of operating time (p < 0.001), blood loss (p < 0.001), and length of hospitalization (p = 0.003), yet were not associated with increased overall 30-day major morbidity (grade III/IV, p = 0.14). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of additional urologic procedures were prior surgical score (p < 0.001), number of resected organs (p = 0.001), and low anterior resection (p = 0.03). Long-term survival was not statistically different between patients with and without urologic resection for low-grade appendiceal primary lesions (p = 0.23), high-grade appendiceal primary lesions (p = 0.40), or colorectal primary lesions (p = 0.14). Urinary tract involvement in patients with peritoneal surface disease does not increase overall surgical morbidity. Patients with urologic procedures demonstrate survival patterns with meaningful prolongation of life. Urologic involvement should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC in patients with resectable peritoneal surface disease.

  18. Patients with Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Gastric Cancer Treated with Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: Is Cure a Possibility?

    PubMed

    Chia, C S; You, B; Decullier, E; Vaudoyer, D; Lorimier, G; Abboud, K; Bereder, J-M; Arvieux, C; Boschetti, G; Glehen, O

    2016-06-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is an increasingly common finding in gastric carcinoma. Previously, patients were treated as terminal, and median survival was poor. The use of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in this context is still highly debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes associated with CRS and HIPEC, and define prognostic factors for cure, if possible. All patients with gastric carcinomatosis from five French institutions who underwent combined complete CRS and HIPEC and had a minimum follow-up of 5 years were included in this study. Cure was defined as a disease-free interval of more than 5 years from the last treatment until the last follow-up. Of the 81 patients who underwent CRS and HIPEC from 1989 to 2009, 59 had a completeness of cytoreduction score (CCS) of 0 (complete macroscopic resection), and the median Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI) score was 6. Mitomycin C was the most commonly used drug during HIPEC (88 %). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 18 %, with nine patients still disease-free at 5 years, for a cure rate of 11 %. All 'cured' patients had a PCI score below 7 and a CCS of 0. Factors associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis were synchronous resection (p = 0.02), a lower PCI score (p = 0.12), and the CCS (p = 0.09). The cure rate of 11 % for patients with gastric carcinomatosis who are deemed terminal emphasizes that CRS and HIPEC should be considered in highly selected patients (low disease extent and complete CRS).

  19. Generation of juvenile rainbow trout derived from cryopreserved whole ovaries by intraperitoneal transplantation of ovarian germ cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungki; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2016-09-23

    Cryopreservation of fish sperm offers the practical applications in the selective breeding and biodiversity conservation. However, because of the lack of cryopreservation methods for fish eggs and embryos, maternally inherited cytoplasmic compartments cannot be successfully preserved. We previously developed an alternative method to derive functional eggs and sperm from cryopreserved whole testis by transplanting testicular cells into female and male recipients. However, if target fish had ovaries, the previous method employing male-derived germ cells would be ineffective. Here, we aimed to generate functional gametes from cryopreserved whole ovaries by transplanting ovarian germ cells into peritoneal cavity of sterile hatchlings. Cryopreservation conditions for rainbow trout ovaries (1.0 M DMSO, 0.1 M trehalose, and 10% egg yolk) were optimized by testing several different cryoprotective agents. Ovarian germ cells from thawed ovaries were intraperitoneally transplanted into allogeneic triploid hatchlings. Transplanted germ cells migrated toward and were incorporated into recipient gonads, where they underwent gametogenesis. Transplantation efficiency of ovarian germ cells remained stable after cryopreservation period up to 1185 days. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 5 of 25 female recipients and 7 of 25 male recipients reached sexual maturity at 2.5 years post-transplantation. Inseminating the resultant eggs and sperm generated viable offspring displaying the donor characteristics of orange body color, green fluorescence, and chromosome numbers. This method is thus a breakthrough tool for the conservation of endangered fish species that are crucial to cryopreserve the genetic resources of female fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gut vagal afferents are necessary for the eating-suppressive effect of intraperitoneally administered ginsenoside Rb1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ling; Wang, David Q-H; Lo, Chunmin C; Arnold, Myrtha; Tso, Patrick; Woods, Stephen C; Liu, Min

    2015-12-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) reduces food intake in both lean and high-fat diet induced-obese rats; however, the sites and/or mediation of the eating-suppressive effect of Rb1 have not previously been identified. We hypothesized that intraperitoneally (ip) administered Rb1 exerts its anorectic action by enhancing sensitivity to satiation signals, such as cholecystokinin (CCK), and/or that it acts through vagal afferent nerves that relay the satiating signaling to the hindbrain. To test these hypotheses, we gave ip bolus doses of Rb1 (2.5-10.0mg/kg) and CCK-8 (0.125-4.0μg/kg) alone or in combination and assessed food intake in rats. Low doses of Rb1 (2.5mg/kg) or CCK-8 (0.125μg/kg) alone had no effect on food intake whereas higher doses did. When these subthreshold doses of Rb1 and CCK-8 were co-administered, the combination significantly reduced food intake relative to saline controls, and this effect was attenuated by lorglumide, a selective CCK1-receptor antagonist. Interestingly, lorglumide blocked food intake induced by an effective dose of CCK-8 alone, but not by Rb1 alone, suggesting that Rb1's anorectic effect is independent of the CCK1 receptor. To determine whether peripherally administered Rb1 suppresses feeding via abdominal vagal nerves, we evaluated the effect of ip Rb1 injection in subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) and control rats. Rb1's effect on food intake was significantly attenuated in SDA rats, compared with that in SHAM controls. These data indicate that the vagal afferent system is the major pathway conveying peripherally administered Rb1's satiation signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multicenter Phase II Study of Intravenous and Intraperitoneal Paclitaxel With S-1 for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Patients With Peritoneal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Satoi, Sohei; Fujii, Tsutomu; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Kurata, Masanao; Takahara, Naminatsu; Yamada, Suguru; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Mizuma, Masamichi; Honda, Goro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Unno, Michiaki; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Ishigami, Hironori; Kon, Masanori

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) paclitaxel combined with S-1, "an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative containing tegafur, gimestat, and otastat potassium" in chemotherapy-naive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients with peritoneal metastasis. PDAC patients with peritoneal metastasis (peritoneal deposits and/or positive peritoneal cytology) have an extremely poor prognosis. An effective treatment strategy remains elusive. Paclitaxel was administered i.v. at 50 mg/m and i.p. at 20 mg/m on days 1 and 8. S-1 was administered at 80 mg/m/d for 14 consecutive days, followed by 7 days of rest. The primary endpoint was 1-year overall survival (OS) rate. The secondary endpoints were antitumor effect and safety (UMIN000009446). Thirty-three patients who were pathologically diagnosed with the presence of peritoneal dissemination (n = 22) and/or positive peritoneal cytology (n = 11) without other organ metastasis were enrolled. The tumor was located at the pancreatic head in 7 patients and the body/tail in 26 patients. The median survival time was 16.3 (11.47-22.57) months, and the 1-year survival rate was 62%. The response rate and disease control rate in assessable patients were 36% and 82%, respectively. OS in 8 patients who underwent conversion surgery was significantly higher than that of nonsurgical patients (n = 25, P = 0.0062). Grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities occurred in 42% of the patients and nonhematologic adverse events in 18%. One patient died of thrombosis in the superior mesenteric artery. This regimen has shown promising clinical efficacy with acceptable tolerability in chemotherapy-naive PDAC patients with peritoneal metastasis.

  2. Baclofen-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: preparation, electrophysiological assessment of efficacy, pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution in rats after intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Priano, Lorenzo; Zara, Gian Paolo; El-Assawy, Nadia; Cattaldo, Stefania; Muntoni, Elisabetta; Milano, Eva; Serpe, Loredana; Musicanti, Claudia; Pérot, Chantal; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Miscio, Giacinta; Mauro, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    Intrathecal baclofen administration is the reference treatment for spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin, but the risk of infection or catheter dysfunctions are important limits. To explore the possibility of alternative administration routes, we studied a new preparation comprising solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) incorporating baclofen (baclofen-SLN). We used SLN because they are able to give a sustained release and to target the CNS. Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with baclofen-SLN or baclofen solution (baclofen-sol group) at increasing dosages. At different times up to 4 h, efficacy was tested by the H-reflex and two scales evaluating sedation and motor symptoms due to spinal lesions. Rats were killed and baclofen concentration determined in blood and tissues. Physiological solution or unloaded SLN was used as controls. After baclofen-SLN injection, the effect, consisting in a greater and earlier reduction of the H/M ratio than baclofen-sol group and controls, was statistically significant from a dose of 5 mg/kg and was inversely correlated with dose. Clinical effect of baclofen-SLN on both the behavioral scales was greater than that of baclofen-sol and lasted until 4th hour. Compared with baclofen-sol, baclofen-SLN produced significantly higher drug concentrations in plasma from 2nd hour until 4th hour with a linear decrement and in the brain at all times. In conclusion, our study demonstrated the efficacy of a novel formulation of baclofen, which exploits the advantages of SLN preparations. However, for clinical purposes, high baclofen concentrations in brain tissue and sedation may be unwanted effects, requiring further studies and optimization of dosages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytoreductive Surgery Plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Peritoneal Metastases From a Small Bowel Adenocarcinoma: Multi-Institutional Experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Yonemura, Yutaka; Levine, Edward A; Glehen, Olivier; Goere, Diane; Elias, Dominique; Morris, David L; Sugarbaker, Paul H; Tuech, Jean J; Cashin, Peter; Spiliotis, John D; de Hingh, Ignace; Ceelen, Wim; Baumgartner, Joel M; Piso, Pompiliu; Katayama, Kanji; Deraco, Marcello; Kusamura, Shigeki; Pocard, Marc; Quenet, François; Fushita, Sachio

    2018-05-01

    The multi-institutional registry in this study evaluated the outcome after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for patients with peritoneal metastases (PM) from small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). A multi-institutional data registry including 152 patients with PM from SBA was established. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) after CRS plus HIPEC. Between 1989 and 2016, 152 patients from 21 institutions received a treatment of CRS plus HIPEC. The median follow-up period was 20 months (range 1-100 months). Of the 152 patients, 70 (46.1%) were women with a median age of 54 years. The median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 10 (mean 12; range 1-33). Completeness of cytoreduction (CCR) 0 or 1 was achieved for 134 patients (88.2%). After CRS and HIPEC, the median OS was 32 months (range 1-100 months), with survival rates of 83.2% at 1 year, 46.4% at 3 years, and 30.8% at 5 years. The median disease-free survival after CCR 0/1 was 14 months (range 1-100 months). The treatment-related mortality rate was 2%, and 29 patients (19.1%) experienced grades 3 or 4 operative complications. The period between detection of PM and CRS plus HIPEC was 6 months or less (P = 0.008), and multivariate analysis identified absence of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.037), well-differentiated tumor (P = 0.028), and PCI of 15 or lower (P = 0.003) as independently associated with improved OS. The combined treatment strategy of CRS plus HIPEC achieved prolonged survival for selected patients who had PM from SBA with acceptable morbidity and mortality.

  4. Port-Site Metastases and Chimney Effect of B-Ultrasound-Guided and Laparoscopically-Assisted Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Perfusion Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-Liang; Gong, Yuan-Feng; Yan, Zhao-Fei; Wang, Shuai; Tang, Yun-Qiang; Cui, Shu-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose CO2 leakage along the trocar (chimney effect) has been proposed to be an important factor underlying port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgery. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the incidence of port-site metastasis between B-ultrasound-guided and laparoscopically-assisted hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (HIPPC). Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients with malignant ascites induced by gastrointestinal or ovarian cancer were divided into two groups to receive either B-ultrasound-guided or laparoscopically-assisted HIPPC. Clinical efficacy was assessed from the objective remission rate (ORR), the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score, and overall survival. The incidence of port-site metastasis was compared between the two groups. Results Patients in the B-ultrasound (n=32) and laparoscopy (n=30) groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, primary disease type, volume of ascites, and free cancer cell (FCC)-positive ascites. After HIPPC, there were no significant differences between the B-ultrasound and laparoscopy groups in the KPS score change, ORR, and median survival time. The incidence of port-site metastasis after HIPPC was not significantly different between the B-ultrasound (3 of 32, 9.36%) and laparoscopy (3 of 30, 10%) groups, but significantly different among pancreatic, gastric, ovarian, and colorectal cancer (33.33, 15.79, 10.00, and 0.00%, p<0.001). Conclusion The chimney effect may not be the key reason for port-site metastasis after laparoscopy. Other factors may play a role, including the local microenvironment at the trocar site and the delivery of viable FCCs (from the tumor or malignant ascites) to the trauma site during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:28332353

  5. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion versus subcutaneous insulin therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes: effects on glycemic variability.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Peter R; Groenier, Klaas H; DeVries, J Hans; Gans, Reinold O B; Kleefstra, Nanno; Bilo, Henk J G; Logtenberg, Susan J J

    2015-06-01

    As continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) results in a more physiologic action of insulin than subcutaneous (SC) insulin administration, we hypothesized that CIPII would result in less glycemic variability (GV) than SC insulin therapy among type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Data from 5-day blind continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) measurements performed during a 26-week, prospective, observational case-control study were analyzed. The coefficient of variation (CV) was the primary measure of GV. In addition, the SD of the mean glucose level, mean of daily differences, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions were calculated. In total, 176 patients (36% male; mean age, 49 [SD 13] years; median diabetes duration, 24 [interquartile range, 17, 35] years; glycated hemoglobin level, 63 [10] mmol/mmol), of which 37 used CIPII and 139 SC insulin therapy, were analyzed. CGM data were available for 169 patients at baseline (CIPII, n=35; SC, n=134) and for 164 patients at 26 weeks (CIPII, n=35; SC, n=129). After adjustment for baseline differences, the CV was 4.9% (95% confidence interval, 1.0, 8.8) lower with CIPII- compared with SC-treated patients, irrespective of the use of multiple daily injections or continuous SC insulin infusion. There were no differences in other indices of GV between groups. Despite higher blood glucose, the CV was slightly lower with CIPII compared with SC insulin therapy in T1DM patients, and other measures of GV were identical. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and investigate whether this results in prevention of hypoglycemia and even perhaps (less) microvascular complications.

  6. Clinical features of pulmonary emboli in patients following cytoreductive surgery (peritonectomy) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (hipec), a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Vukadinovic, V; Chiou, J D; Morris, D L

    2015-05-01

    Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) can be complicated by pulmonary emboli (PE). Patients are at high risk due to surgery, underlying malignancy, immobility and indwelling lines. This paper aims to identify clinically significant signs and symptoms preceding acute PE in post CRS-HIPEC patients, assess the PE investigative approach in this population and the significance of PE on patient management. 25 cases with a positive and 50 controls with a negative CTPA for PE were isolated from the peritonectomy database at St George Hospital Sydney, January 2006 to July 2013. Vital signs, patient symptoms, adjunct investigation findings and patient outcomes were collected and graphed in Microsoft Excel. P values and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using GraphPad Prism version 6. 25 of 562 (4.4%) CRS-HIPEC patients were diagnosed with acute PE. Raised body temperature was the only statistically significant clinical finding that differentiated cases from controls (p value 0.02). Arterial blood gas results did not correlate with PE (p values 0.62; 0.29; 0.55, 0.84). Troponin, ECG and CXR were not routinely conducted. CXR and CTPA findings were similar between cases and controls (Table 4). PE patients required lower supplementary oxygen and escalation of care. Body temperature is the only statistically significant clinical finding observed with PE. We recommend a standardised investigative approach consisting of troponin, ECG and CXR. PE in CRS-HIPEC does not cause significant cardio-respiratory dysfunction, or escalation of care. PE rates are higher than other major surgeries, thus we propose a trial with increased chemical prophylaxis in CRS-HIPEC patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [A study on residual strain of abdominal aortic aneurysm after intraperitoneal administration of saturated hydrogen saline in rats].

    PubMed

    Song, Yuxiang; Chen, Feng; Xiong, Jiang; Guo, Wei; Pan, Xiujie; Jia, Senhao; Liu, Jie

    2013-07-01

    By observation of the diameter, progression rate, wall thickness, and the opening angle of the abnormal aortic of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in rats, to observe the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on residual strain of AAA rats, and to investigate its inhibition effect on AAA formation. Twenty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats (weighing, 200-220 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups, which was made the AAA model by infiltration of the abdominal arota with 0.5 mol/L calcium chloride. Saturated hydrogen saline (5 mL/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) was injected intraperitoneally in the experimental group or control group respectively, every day for 28 days. At 28 days, the diameter, progression rate, wall thickness, and opening angle of the abnormal aorta were mearsured. The aortic tissue was harvested for histological examination (HE staining and aldehyde-fuchsin staining). At 28 days after operation, the diameter of abnormal aorta in 2 groups were significantly higher than preoperative ones (P < 0.05), the progression rate in experimental group (65% +/- 15%) was significantly lower than that in control group (128% +/- 54%) (t=3.611, P=0.005). The opening angle and the wall thickness in experimental group were (88.78 +/- 29.20) degrees and (0.14 +/- 0.03) mm respectively, had significant differences when compared with the values in control group [(44.23 +/- 28.52) degrees and (0.36 +/- 0.05) mm respectively] (P < 0.01). The integrity and continuity of the aortic wall in experimental group were superior to that in the control group. Compared with the control group, the injury of elastic fiber in aortic wall and the infiltration of inflammation were all reduced. Saturated hydrogen saline can maintain good mechanical properties and reduce dilatation of the aorta by increasing residual strain and reducing the remodeling of it.

  8. Prevention of parastomal hernias with 3D funnel meshes in intraperitoneal onlay position by placement during initial stoma formation.

    PubMed

    Köhler, G; Hofmann, A; Lechner, M; Mayer, F; Wundsam, H; Emmanuel, K; Fortelny, R H

    2016-02-01

    In patients with terminal ostomies, parastomal hernias (PSHs) occur on a frequent basis. They are commonly associated with various degrees of complaints and occasionally lead to life-threatening complications. Various strategies and measures have been tested and evaluated, but to date there is a lack of published evidence with regard to the best surgical technique for the prevention of PSH development. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of eighty patients, who underwent elective permanent ostomy formation between 2009 and 2014 by means of prophylactic implantation of a three-dimensional (3D) funnel mesh in intraperitoneal onlay (IPOM) position. PSH developed in three patients (3.75%). No mesh-related complications were encountered and none of the implants had to be removed. Ostomy-related complications had to be noted in seven (8.75%) cases. No manifestation of ostomy prolapse occurred. Follow-up time was a median 21 (range 3-47) months. The prophylactical implantation of a specially shaped, 3D mesh implant in IPOM technique during initial formation of a terminal enterostomy is safe, highly efficient and comparatively easy to perform. As opposed to what can be achieved with flat or keyhole meshes, the inner boundary areas of the ostomy itself can be well covered and protected from the surging viscera with the 3D implants. At the same time, the vertical, tunnel-shaped part of the mesh provides sufficient protection from an ostomy prolapse. Further studies will be needed to compare the efficacy of various known approaches to PSH prevention.

  9. Long-term Quality of Life After Cytoreductive Surgery and Heated Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Adam T; Malcomson, Lee; Punnett, Grant; Abudeeb, Haytham; Aziz, Omer; Selvasekar, Chelliah R; Fulford, Paul E; Wilson, Malcolm S; Renehan, Andrew G; O'Dwyer, Sarah T

    2018-04-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are an established treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), but it is a major surgical procedure and may be associated with long-term morbidity. To date, health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) data among survivors are lacking. A two-period qualitative study investigated patients undergoing CRS-HIPEC for PMP at a national peritoneal tumor center between 2003 and 2011. First, the European Organization for Research and Treatment (EORTC)-QLQ C30 HRQL questionnaire was used longitudinally preoperatively and at postoperative months 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24, then yearly thereafter. Second, it was updated in 2016 as a cross-sectional study. Both studies were compared with age- and sex-matched reference populations (one-way t tests). A total of 553 longitudinal HRQL questionnaires were completed for 137 patients, truncated at 60 months. In the 2016 update, 85 responses were received from 103 survivors (mean follow-up period, 8.11 years). Patients' physical, role, and social function scores were impaired until 12 months postoperatively, after which the scores did not differ significantly from those of with reference populations. Similarly, fatigue, appetite loss, insomnia, and financial difficulties worsened significantly compared with reference populations in the first 12-months and then normalized. In contrast, impaired cognitive function (82.3 vs 88.5; P = 0.017), constipation (13.7 vs 7.3; P = 0.032), and diarrheal symptoms (15.1 vs 4.9; P = 0.0006) persisted through both periods. Global health scores did not differ significantly from those of the reference population. Beyond 12 months postoperatively, CRS-HIPEC for PMP is associated with a good quality of life except for some cognitive functional impairment and bowel disturbances.

  10. Low minute ventilation episodes during anesthesia recovery following intraperitoneal surgery as detected by a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Alexandre N; Martin, Yvette N; Sprung, Juraj; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Weingarten, Toby N

    2017-12-20

    An electrical impedance-based noninvasive respiratory volume monitor (RVM) accurately reports minute volume, tidal volume and respiratory rate. Here we used the RVM to quantify the occurrence of and evaluate the ability of clinical factors to predict respiratory depression in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). RVM generated respiratory data were collected from spontaneously breathing patients following intraperitoneal surgeries under general anesthesia admitted to the PACU. Respiratory depression was defined as low minute ventilation episode (LMVe, < 40% predicted minute ventilation for at least 2 min). We evaluated for associations between clinical variables including minute ventilation prior to opioid administration and LMVe following the first PACU administration of opioid. Also assessed was a low respiratory rate (< 8 breaths per minute) as a proxy for LMVe. Of 107 patients, 38 (36%) had LMVe. Affected patients had greater intraoperative opioid dose, P = 0.05. PACU opioids were administered to 45 (42.1%) subjects, of which 27 (25.2%) had LMVe (P = 0.42) within 30 min following opioid. Pre-opioid minute ventilation < 70% of predicted normal value was associated with LMVe, P < 0.01, (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 81%).Low respiratory rate was a poor predictor of LMVe (sensitivity = 11.8%). Other clinical variables (e.g., obstructive sleep apnea) were not found to be predictors of LMVe. Using RVM we identified that mild, clinically nondetectable, respiratory depression prior to opioid administration in the PACU was associated with the development of substantial subsequent respiratory depression during the PACU stay.

  11. A randomized trial of goal directed vs. standard fluid therapy in cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Colantonio, Luca; Claroni, Claudia; Fabrizi, Luana; Marcelli, Maria Elena; Sofra, Maria; Giannarelli, Diana; Garofalo, Alfredo; Forastiere, Ester

    2015-04-01

    The use of adequate fluid therapy during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to assess whether the use of fluid therapy protocol combined with goal-directed therapy (GDT) is associated with a significant change in morbidity, length of hospital stay, and mortality compared to standard fluid therapy. Patients American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III undergoing CRS and HIPEC were randomized into two groups. The GDT group (N = 38) received fluid therapy according to a protocol guided by monitored hemodynamic parameters. The control group (N = 42) received standard fluid therapy. We evaluated incidence of major complications, total length of hospital stay, total amount of fluids administered, and mortality rate. The incidence of major abdominal complications was 10.5% in GDT group and 38.1% in the control group (P = 0.005). The median duration of hospitalization was 19 days in GDT group and 29 days in the control group (P < 0.0001). The mortality rate was zero in GDT group vs. 9.5% in the control group (P = 0.12). GDT group received a significantly (P < 0.0001) lower amount of fluid (5812 ± 1244 ml) than the control group (8269 ± 1452 ml), with a significantly (P < 0.0001) lower volume of crystalloids (3884 ± 1003 vs. 68,528 ± 1413 ml). In CRS and HIPEC, the use of a GDT improves outcome in terms of incidence of major abdominal and systemic postoperative complications and length of hospital stay, compared to standard fluid therapy protocol.

  12. Antibacterial efficacy and pharmacokinetic evaluation of sanguinarine in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration.

    PubMed

    Ling, F; Wu, Z-Q; Jiang, C; Liu, L; Wang, G-X

    2016-08-01

    Sanguinarine (SA), with antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities against fish pathogens, exhibits great potential commercial use in aquaculture. However, little information on pharmacokinetics of SA restricts further application in aquaculture. In this study, pharmacokinetics of SA in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following a single intraperitoneal administration [10 mg kg(-1) BW (body weight)] was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peak concentration (Cmax ) of SA in kidney was 11.8 μg g(-1) , which was higher than in other tissues and plasma. The terminal half-life in fish tissue and plasma was as follows: 42.3 h (kidney) > 37.2 h (liver) > 20.1 h (gill) > 18.8 h (muscle) > 10.9 h (spleen) > 10.0 h (plasma). Additionally, we determined the bacterial loads in tissues of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila after i.p. administration of SA at 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) BW. The results showed that i.p. administration of SA at 10 mg kg(-1) BW significantly enhanced antibacterial efficacy against A. hydrophila, where the antibacterial ratio in the gill, kidney, spleen and liver on day 5 was 95.13%, 93.33%, 90.09% and 92.82%, respectively. Overall, these results suggested the potential of SA to treat A. hydrophila infection in common carp farming industry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Antioxidant supplementation upregulates calbindin expression in cerebellar Purkinje cells of rat pups subjected to post natal exposure to sodium arsenite.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Pushpa; Kaushal, Parul; Kumar, Pavan

    2018-07-01

    Optimal cytoplasmic calcium (Ca 2+ ) levels have been associated with adequate cell functioning and neuronal survival. Altered intracellular Ca 2+ levels following impaired Ca 2+ homeostasis could induce neuronal degeneration or even cell death. There are reports of arsenite induced oxidative stress and the associated disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The present study focused on determining the strategies that would modulate tissue redox status and calcium binding protein (CaBP) (Calbindin D28k-CB) expression affected adversely by sodium arsenite (NaAsO 2 ) exposure (postnatal) of rat pups. NaAsO 2 alone or along with antioxidants (AOXs) (alpha lipoic acid or curcumin) was administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (covering rapid brain growth period - RBGP) to experimental groups and animals receiving sterile water by the same route served as the controls. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were subjected to euthanasia and the cerebellar tissue obtained therefrom was processed for immunohistochemical localization and western blot analysis of CB protein. CB was diffusely expressed in cell body as well as dendritic processes of Purkinje cells (PCs) along the PC Layer (PCL) in all cerebellar folia of the control and the experimental animals. The multilayered pattern of CB +ve cells along with their downregulated expression and low packing density was significantly evident in the arsenic (iAs) alone exposed group as against the controls and AOX supplemented groups. The observations are suggestive of AOX induced restoration of CaBP expression in rat cerebellum following early postnatal exposure to NaAsO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of experimental tumors formed by mouse and human embryonic stem and teratocarcinoma cells after subcutaneous and intraperitoneal transplantations into immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Gordeeva, O F; Nikonova, T M

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells represent an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine. However, the risk of teratoma formation after transplantation restricts their clinical application. Therefore, to adequately evaluate the potential risk of tumorigenicity after cell transplantation into human tissues, effective animal transplantation assays need to be developed. We performed a multiparameter (cell number, transplantation site, cell type, host) comparative analysis of the efficiency of tumor development after transplantation of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells and their malignant counterparts, teratocarcinoma (EC) cells, into animal recipients and revealed several key correlations. We found that the efficiency of tumor growth was higher after intraperitoneal than after subcutaneous transplantations of all cell lines studied. The minimal cell numbers sufficient for tumor growth in immunodeficient nude mice were 100-fold lower for intraperitoneal than for subcutaneous transplantations of mouse and human ES cells (10(3) vs. 10(5) and 10(4) vs. 10(6), respectively). Moreover, mouse ES and EC cells formed tumors in immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice more effectively than human ES and EC cells. After intraperitoneal transplantation of 10(3), 10(4), and 10(5) mouse ES cells, teratomas developed in 83%, 100%, and 100% of nude mice, whereas after human ES cell transplantation, teratomas developed in 0%, 17%, and 60%, respectively. In addition, malignant mouse and human EC cells initiated tumor growth after intraperitoneal transplantation significantly faster and more effectively than ES cells. Mouse and human ES cells formed different types of teratomas containing derivatives of three germ layers but different numbers of undifferentiated cells. ES cell-like sublines with differentiation potential similar to the parental cell line were recloned only from mouse, but not from human, ES cell teratomas. These findings provide new information about the possibility

  15. [Analgesic efficacy and clinical safety of intraperitoneal instillation combined with rectus sheath block using ropivacaine for pain relief after laparoscopic gynecological surgery].

    PubMed

    Yakoshi, Chihiro; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Niwa, Hidetomo; Kitayama, Masatou; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of rectus sheath block combined with intraperitoneal instillation using two doses of ropivacaine in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery. Altogether 53 consenting women were randomized to receive intraperitoneal infiltration with 0.25% ropivacaine or 0.5% ropivacaine followed by rectus sheath block with 0.375% ropivacaine. The outcomes of clinical safety were measured using plasma concentration of local anesthetics and occurrence of toxic symptoms. The analgesic efficacy was assessed using numerical rating scales for pain and morphine consumption up to 24 hours after surgery. Patients' baseline characteristics, surgical factors, and analgesic outcomes were comparable between the two groups. Although peak plasma concentration of ropivacaine was significantly higher in patients receiving 0.5% ropivacaine, none of analyzed concentrations was above the toxic ones. Besides, no patients showed any symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity. The present study showed that the combination of rectus sheath block with intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine was safe and potent enough to relieve pain after laparoscopic surgery.

  16. [Combination Chemotherapy Including Intraperitoneal(IP)Administration of Paclitaxel(PTX)followed by PTX, CDDP and S-1Triplet Chemotherapy for CY1P0 Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Masayuki; Imano, Motohiro; Hiraki, Yoko; Kato, Hiroaki; Iwama, Mitsuru; Shiraishi, Osamu; Yasuda, Atsushi; Kimura, Yutaka; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Takushi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of combination chemotherapy including single intraperitoneal( IP)administration of paclitaxel(PTX), followed by triplet chemotherapy(PTX, cisplatin[CDDP]and S-1: PCS)for CY1P0 gastric cancer. First of all, we performed staging laparoscopy and confirmed CY1P0, and secondary, administrated PTX intraperitoneally. Thirdly, patients received PCS chemotherapy for 2 courses. After antitumor effect had been confirmed, we performed second look laparoscopy. In the case of CY0P0, we performed gastrectomy with D2 lymph nodes dissection. Total 4 patients were enrolled. Grade 3 leukopenia and neutropenia were observed in one patient while intraperitoneal and systemic-chemotherapy. One patients showed PR and 3 patients showed SD. All patients underwent second look laparoscopy. CY0P0 was observed in all patients and gastrectomy with D2 dissection was performed for all patients. Postoperative complications were observed in 2 patients. Two patients were still alive without recurrence, while the remaining 2 had died of liver metastasis and #16 LN metastasis. Combination chemotherapy including single IP PTX followed by PCS systemic-chemotherapy for CY1P0 gastric cancer is feasible and efficient.

  17. Enterocutaneous fistula in patients with peritoneal malignancy following cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy: Incidence, management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Valle, Sarah J; Alzahrani, Nayef; Alzahrani, Saleh; Traiki, Thamer Bin; Liauw, Winston; Morris, David L

    2016-09-01

    Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) is an effective treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from multiple origins, however is associated with increased complications compared to conventional gastrointestinal surgery. The aetiology of enterocutaneous fistulas (ECF) in most cases is a result of various contributing factors and therefore remains a major clinical problem, occurring in 4-34% of patients post-CRS. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and outcome of ECF following CRS/HIPEC. From April 1999 to September 2015, 53 patients of 918 CRS/HIPEC procedures developed an ECF. Patient, operative and postoperative data were retrospectively analyzed to determine aetiology, classification outcome and possible contributing factors were reviewed on univariate and multivariate analysis. We report a 5.8% ECF rate, diagnosed at a median of 13 days. The mortality rate was 5.7% and other morbidity was significantly increased (p = 0.0001). Twenty-five (47.2%), 8 (15.1%) and 20 patients (37.7%) had low, moderate and high output ECF respectively. Patients that had a CC2 cytoreduction, abdominal VAC or smoked had a higher risk of fistula (p = 0.004, p < 0.0001, p = 0.008). Spontaneous closure was achieved in 49.2% with conservative treatment (median 29 days) and 33.9% underwent surgical intervention. Preoperative serum albumin <35 g/L (p = 0.04), PCI>17 (p = 0.025) and operation >8.6 h s (p = 0.001) were independent risk factors on multivariate analysis. Overall and 5-year survival was significantly reduced (p < 0.0001,p = 0.016). CRS/HIPEC remains an effective treatment modality for PC in selected patients with a comparable ECF incidence to reported elective gastrointestinal surgery rates. This study identifies multiple risk factors that should be considered in patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High pressure does not counterbalance the advantages of open techniques over closed techniques during heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy with oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Facy, Olivier; Combier, Christophe; Poussier, Matthieu; Magnin, Guy; Ladoire, Sylvain; Ghiringhelli, François; Chauffert, B; Rat, Patrick; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treats residual microscopic disease after cytoreductive surgery. In experimental models, the open HIPEC technique has shown a higher and more homogenous concentration of platinum in the peritoneum than achieved using the closed technique. A 25-cm H2O pressure enhances the penetration of oxaliplatin. Because pressure is easier to set up with the closed technique, high pressure may counterbalance the drawbacks of this technique versus open HIPEC, and a higher pressure may induce a higher penetration. Because higher concentration does not mean deeper penetration, a study of tissues beneath the peritoneum is required. Finally, achieving a deeper penetration (and a higher concentration) raises the question of the passage of drugs through the surgical glove and the surgeon's safety. Four groups of pigs underwent HIPEC with oxaliplatin (150 mg/L) for 30 minutes in open isobaric pressure and pressure at 25 cm H2O, and closed pressure at 25 and 40 cm H2O. Systemic absorption and peritoneal mapping of the concentration of platinum were analyzed, as well as in the retroperitoneal tissue and the surgical gloves. Blood concentrations were higher in open groups. In the parietal surfaces, the concentrations were not different between the isobaric and the closed groups (47.08, 56.39, and 48.57 mg/kg, respectively), but were higher in the open high-pressure group (85.93 mg/kg). In the visceral surfaces, they were lower in the closed groups (3.2 and 3.05 mg/kg) than in the open groups (7.03 and 9.56 mg/kg). Platinum concentrations were similar in the deep retroperitoneal tissue when compared between isobaric and high-pressure procedures. No platin was detected in the internal aspect of the gloves. The use of high pressure during HIPEC does not counterbalance the drawbacks of closed techniques. The tissue concentration of oxaliplatin achieved with the open techniques is higher, even if high pressure is applied during a closed technique

  19. Obesity and Peritoneal Surface Disease: Outcomes after Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Appendiceal and Colon Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Swords, Douglas S.; Swett, Katrina R.; Randle, Reese W.; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H.; Levine, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 37 % of the U.S. population is obese. It is unknown how obesity influences the operative and survival outcomes of cytoreductive surgery (CRS)/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) procedures. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1,000 procedures was performed. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, comorbidities, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed. Results A total of 246 patients with body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m2 underwent 272 CRS/HIPEC procedures. Ninety-five (38.6 %) were severely obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2). A total of 135 (49.6 %) procedures were performed for appendiceal and 60 (22.1 %) for colon cancer. Median follow-up was 52 months. Both major and minor morbidity were similar for obese and non-obese patients. The 30-day mortality rates for obese and nonobese patients were 1.5 and 2.5 %, respectively. Median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1 and 9 days, regardless of BMI. The 30-day readmission rate was similar between obese and non-obese patients (24.8 vs. 19.4 %, p = 0.11). Median survival for low-grade appendiceal cancer (LGA) was 76 months for obese patients and 107 months for non-obese patients (p = 0.32). Survival was worse for severely obese patients (median survival 54 months) versus non-obese patients with LGA (p = 0.04). Survival was similar for obese and non-obese patients with peritoneal surface disease (PSD) from colon cancer or high-grade appendiceal cancer. Conclusions Obesity does not influence postoperative morbidity or mortality of patients with PSD, regardless of primary tumor. Severe obesity is associated with decreased long-term survival only in patients with LGA primary disease; however, application of CRS/HIPEC still offers meaningful prolongation of life. Obesity should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC procedures. PMID:23800899

  20. Biodistribution and toxicity assessment of europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes in mice after intraperitoneal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huifang; Zhang, Cuimiao; Tan, Yanli; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Ke; Zhao, Yanyan; Jia, Guang; Hou, Yingjian; Wang, Shuxian; Zhang, Jinchao

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the biodistribution and toxicity of europium-doped Gd2O3 nanotubes, we synthesized Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes via a simple wet-chemical route at ambient pressure. The as-obtained Gd2O3:Eu3+ sample is composed of uniform and well-dispersed nanotubes. The diameters and lengths of the nanotubes are about 50 and 300 nm, respectively. All mice of the experimental groups were administered by intraperitoneal injection everyday over a period of 60 days at doses ranging from 1.25 to 125 mg/kg. Haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology were examined, and the biodistribution of Gd element in different organs was analyzed. The results indicate that the spleen shows significant higher coefficient than the control, and other organs have no obvious difference from the control in the middle-dose and high-dose groups. There was no significant difference in the blood-elements between the control group and the experimental groups, and no significant change of all parameters can be observed in both low-dose and middle-dose groups. However, in the high-dose group, the ALT, AST, the ratio of AST/ALT, UA, LDH, and HBDH levels was increased significantly in comparison with the control group. The pathology results show that the ischemia of myocardial cell, hemorrhage of lung tissue, hepatocyte necrosis, congestion of renal interstitium, mesangial cell proliferation, and congestion of spleen sinus were induced by high-dose Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes. Biodistribution experiment exhibits that Gd mainly accumulates in spleen, lung, and liver. Therefore, it can be concluded that high-dose Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes were toxic, but low-dose and middle-dose groups did not show significant toxicity. The results provide novel toxicology data of Gd2O3:Eu3+ nanotubes and may be helpful for more rational applications of Gd-based compounds in the future.

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Patients Scheduled for Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy With Cytoreductive Surgery: Prospective Associations With Morbidity and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Ahrendt, Steven; Alhelo, Sara; Choudry, Haroon; Holtzman, Matthew; Jones, Heather L.; Pingpank, James F.; Ramalingam, Lekshmi; Zeh, Herbert J.; Zureikat, Amer H.; Bartlett, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined prospective relationships between preoperative depressive symptoms and short-term (30-day morbidity and readmission) and long-term (overall survival) outcomes after hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with cytoreductive surgery (HIPEC + CS). Methods Ninety-eight patients scheduled for HIPEC + CS completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression (CES-D) scale before surgery. Demographic and disease-specific factors and information about morbidity and readmission within 30 days after discharge were gathered from medical records. Survival was measured from date of surgery to death. Results Twenty-eight percent of patients had CES-D scores indicative of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Thirty-day morbidity occurred in 31.9% of patients and readmission in 22.2%. At the time of analysis (median follow-up of 49 months), 71.6% of patients were deceased, with median survival time of 11 months for those who died. After adjusting for relevant preoperative demographic and disease-specific factors, depressive symptoms were associated with greater odds of 30-day morbidity (n = 68; odds ratio, 5.50; 95% CI, 1.23 to 24.73; P = .03) and greater likelihood of 30-day readmission (n = 72; odds ratio, 5.92; 95% CI, 1.27 to 27.64; P = .02). Depressive symptoms were associated with shorter survival after adjustment for preoperative demographic and disease-specific factors (n = 87; hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.31; P = .03). This association was no longer significant when intraoperative/postoperative prognostic variables were added to the statistical model (n = 87; hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.72 to 2.37; P = .37). Conclusion Patients with clinically significant levels of preoperative depressive symptoms are at risk for poor clinical outcomes after HIPEC + CS, including greater risk of 30-day morbidity and readmission. Further research is warranted to determine biobehavioral mechanisms and examine whether effective

  2. Evaluation of the Lethal Potency of Scorpion and Snake Venoms and Comparison between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Injection Routes

    PubMed Central

    Oukkache, Naoual; Jaoudi, Rachid El; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD50) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD50 values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD50 values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD50 values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the nature of toxins

  3. Evaluation of the lethal potency of scorpion and snake venoms and comparison between intraperitoneal and intravenous injection routes.

    PubMed

    Oukkache, Naoual; El Jaoudi, Rachid; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-06-12

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD₅₀) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD₅₀ values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD₅₀ values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD₅₀ values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the

  4. The Effects of Prone Position Ventilation on Experimental Mild Acute Lung Injury Induced by Intraperitoneal Lipopolysaccharide Injection in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Aydra Mendes Almeida; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Lucinda, Leda Marília Fonseca; Reis, Fernando Fonseca; Silva, Manfrinni Vinícius Alves; Rabelo, Maria Aparecida Esteves; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara; Oliveira, Júlio César Abreu; Lorente, José Ángel; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle

    2016-04-01

    The benefits of prone position ventilation are well demonstrated in the severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome, but not in the milder forms. We investigated the effects of prone position on arterial blood gases, lung inflammation, and histology in an experimental mild acute lung injury (ALI) model. ALI was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg). After 24 h, the animals with PaO2/FIO2 between 200 and 300 mmHg were randomized into 2 groups: prone position (n = 6) and supine position (n = 6). Both groups were compared with a control group (n = 5) that was ventilated in the supine position. All of the groups were ventilated for 1 h with volume-controlled ventilation mode (tidal volume = 6 ml/kg, respiratory rate = 80 breaths/min, positive end-expiratory pressure = 5 cmH2O, inspired oxygen fraction = 1) RESULTS: Significantly higher lung injury scores were observed in the LPS-supine group compared to the LPS-prone and control groups (0.32 ± 0.03; 0.17 ± 0.03 and 0.13 ± 0.04, respectively) (p < 0.001), mainly due to a higher neutrophil infiltration level in the interstitial space and more proteinaceous debris that filled the airspaces. Similar differences were observed when the gravity-dependent lung regions and non-dependent lung regions were analyzed separately (p < 0.05). The BAL neutrophil content was also higher in the LPS-supine group compared to the LPS-prone and control groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the wet/dry ratio and gas exchange levels. In this experimental extrapulmonary mild ALI model, prone position ventilation for 1 h, when compared with supine position ventilation, was associated with lower lung inflammation and injury.

  5. Front-line intraperitoneal versus intravenous chemotherapy in stage III-IV epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancer with minimal residual disease: a competing risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yen-Hou; Li, Wai-Hou; Chang, Yi; Peng, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2016-03-17

    In the analysis of survival data for cancer patients, the problem of competing risks is often ignored. Competing risks have been recognized as a special case of time-to-event analysis. The conventional techniques for time-to-event analysis applied in the presence of competing risks often give biased or uninterpretable results. Using a prospectively collected administrative health care database in a single institution, we identified patients diagnosed with stage III or IV primary epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers with minimal residual disease after primary cytoreductive surgery between 1995 and 2012. Here, we sought to evaluate whether intraperitoneal chemotherapy outperforms intravenous chemotherapy in the presence of competing risks. Unadjusted and multivariable subdistribution hazards models were applied to this database with two types of competing risks (cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality) coded to measure the relative effects of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A total of 1263 patients were recruited as the initial cohort. After propensity score matching, 381 patients in each arm entered into final competing risk analysis. Cumulative incidence estimates for cancer-specific mortality were statistically significantly lower (p = 0.017, Gray test) in patients receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy (5-year estimates, 34.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29.5-39.6%, and 10-year estimates, 60.7%; 95% CI, 52.2-68.0%) versus intravenous chemotherapy (5-year estimates, 41.3%; 95% CI, 36.2-46.3%, and 10-year estimates, 67.5%, 95% CI, 61.6-72.7%). In subdistribution hazards analysis, for cancer-specific mortality, intraperitoneal chemotherapy outperforms intravenous chemotherapy (Subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96) after correcting other covariates. In conclusion, results from this comparative effectiveness study provide supportive evidence for previous published randomized trials that intraperitoneal chemotherapy

  6. Comparison of 0.25% Ropivacaine for Intraperitoneal Instillation v/s Rectus Sheath Block for Postoperative Pain Relief Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Naithani, Udita; Singariya, Geeta; Gupta, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) is not a totally pain free procedure, with the pain being most intense on the day of surgery and on the following day. Various techniques are available for postoperative pain relief like intraperitoneal instillation of local anaesthetics and rectus sheath block (RSB)which may provide effective pain relief. Aim To compare the efficacy of preemptive administration (initiated before the surgical procedure) of intraperitoneal instillation and rectus sheath block using ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods A total of 75 selected patients were randomly assigned to three equal groups as Group R, who received bilateral RSB with 0.25 % ropivacaine 15 ml on either side; Group I, who received intraperitoneal instillation of 0.25% ropivacaine 50 ml and Group C (Control group), who received only rescue analgesic on pain. These were compared regarding postoperative analgesia in terms of Visual Analog Scale (0-10 cm), Prince Henry Hospital Pain Score (0-3), time to first dose of rescue analgesic (tramadol), total rescue analgesic consumption in 48 hours, patient satisfaction scores (1-7) and adverse effects. Results The time to first rescue analgesic was significantly longer in Group R (16.16±4.73h) and Group I (7.84±1.34h) as compared to Group C (1.72±0.67h), p<0.001. Mean tramadol consumption in 48h for each patient was significantly less in Group R (148±54.92mg) and Group I (202±33.78mg) as compared to Group C (298±22.73mg) p<0.001. Postoperative pain scores were also significantly less in Group R and Group I as compared to Group C during first 6 hours, p<0.05. The difference in above parameters was also significant between Group R and Group I, p<0.05. Thus order of postoperative analgesia effect was: Group R > Group I > Group C. Rescue analgesic requirement showed a 32.21% reduction in Group I and 50.33% reduction in Group R as compared to Group C. Patient