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Sample records for intrathoracic gastric volvulus

  1. Primary intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period: a differential diagnosis of esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    El Azzouzi, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in the neonatal period is a rare surgical emergency. Delays in diagnosis and treatment are life-threatening due to progressive deterioration of the gastric walls. Presentation in this period can be confused with the possibility of esophageal atresia or esophageal web. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic in this disease. The authors report a case of acute intrathoracic gastric volvulus diagnosis by radiologic-contrast-study in 1-day-old girl that was confirmed at surgery. The physiopathology, classification and different presentations of this entity are briefly reviewed. PMID:25309661

  2. [Gastric volvulus].

    PubMed

    Solórzano, J; Acosta, D; Morales, H; Vásquez, F; Mora, G; Chávez, M; Andrade, D; Joutteaux, R; Sánchez, I; García, D; Valenzuela, E

    2006-10-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in pediatric population in which there is an abnormal rotation of one part of the stomach around itself. It's a surgical emergency. We report a six year old female admitted in the emergency due to upper abdominal distention, nausea without vomiting, physical exam revealed upper abdominal distention and abdominal tenderness, no bowel sounds. Laparotomy was performed and a gastric volvulus with occlusive vascular involvement was found. In the post operative period she required a second laparotomy due to adhesions in small bowel.

  3. Volvulus of the liver with intrathoracic herniation

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, PM; Bohra, A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We present a rare case of a liver volvulus, stomach and transverse colon herniating through the diaphragm. This scenario has not been reported previously. We discuss the presentation and management of this interesting case. Case history A 65-year-old woman with a history of sarcoidosis and recurrent pericardial effusions, treated previously with a subxiphoid pericardial oval window fenestration, presented with acute upper abdominal pain radiating to the chest. High contrast computed tomography showed a volvulus of the liver with consequent venous congestion, and herniation of the liver, stomach and transverse colon through an anterior diaphragmatic defect. With liver perfusion threatened, an urgent laparoscopic repair was performed. The stomach and transverse colon were reduced, and the twisted left lobe of the liver was unrotated and reduced into the abdominal cavity. A double-sided synthetic mesh was used to repair the defect. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Conclusions This is a novel complication of a patient presenting with abdominal pain with a previous history of pericardial window fenestration. A laparoscopic reduction and repair can be performed safely with excellent postoperative results. PMID:25245721

  4. Wandering Spleen and Organoaxial Gastric Volvulus after Morgagni Hernia Repair: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cantone, Noemi; Gulia, Caterina; Miele, Vittorio; Trinci, Margherita; Briganti, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen and gastric volvulus are two rare entities that have been described in association with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The diagnosis is difficult and any delay can result in ischemia and necrosis of both organs. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl, previously operated on for anterior diaphragmatic hernia and intrathoracic gastric volvulus, that presented to our service for a subdiaphragmatic gastric volvulus recurrence associated with a wandering spleen. In this report we reviewed the literature, analyzing the clinical presentation, diagnostic assessment, and treatment options of both conditions, in particular in the case associated with diaphragmatic hernia.

  5. Wandering Spleen and Organoaxial Gastric Volvulus after Morgagni Hernia Repair: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gulia, Caterina; Miele, Vittorio; Trinci, Margherita; Briganti, Vito

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen and gastric volvulus are two rare entities that have been described in association with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. The diagnosis is difficult and any delay can result in ischemia and necrosis of both organs. We present a case of a 13-year-old girl, previously operated on for anterior diaphragmatic hernia and intrathoracic gastric volvulus, that presented to our service for a subdiaphragmatic gastric volvulus recurrence associated with a wandering spleen. In this report we reviewed the literature, analyzing the clinical presentation, diagnostic assessment, and treatment options of both conditions, in particular in the case associated with diaphragmatic hernia. PMID:27703832

  6. Gastric Volvulus Following Left Pneumonectomy in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Benjamin A.; Lim, Irene Isabel P.; Murphy, Jennifer M.; Price, Anita P.; Abramson, Sara J.; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare post-pneumonectomy complication. Although it has been described previously, published cases are limited to an older patient population. We report the youngest case of postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus to date, occurring in an 18-year-old male with a history of inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumor who underwent left intrapericardial pneumonectomy, and presented 13 years later with chronic intermittent mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. While postpneumonectomy gastric volvulus is a rare occurrence, it should remain in the differential diagnosis in postoperative thoracic surgical patients presenting with chest pain. PMID:26504742

  7. Difficulties in diagnosing an intermittent mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, David J.; D'Alessio, Matthew; Pan, Andrew S.; Jaffe, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteroaxial volvulus is a form of gastric volvulus that rotates around the short axis of the stomach. Mesenteroaxial volvulus typically presents secondary to an anatomical defect with symptoms that include epigastric pain, retching, dysphagia and early satiety. Our patient presented with episodic abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for 2 years. Previous imaging was unremarkable but an esophagogastroduodenoscopy done when the patient most recently presented with abdominal pain revealed a mesenteroaxial volvulus. He underwent a laparoscopic gastrostomy-tube gastropexy and has not had any recurrence of his symptoms to date. This case illustrates the difficulties in diagnosing an intermittent volvulus as untimely imaging of a temporarily unfolded volvulus can delay diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24964322

  8. Delayed diaphragmatic rupture presenting with acute gastric volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, R; Hollowood, A

    2014-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare complication of diaphragmatic rupture. We report the case of an 82-year-old man who presented following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Chest radiography and thoracic computed tomography revealed an acute gastric volvulus and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia containing transverse colon and abdominal viscera. He had complained of retching and associated epigastric pain prior to collapse, and had sustained a motorcycle accident approximately 60 years earlier. Insertion of a nasogastric tube was unsuccessful (completing Borchardt’s diagnostic triad) and his condition prevented both operative and endoscopic reduction of his volvulus. He died soon afterwards. PMID:25245717

  9. Pancreatic Volvulus with Wandering Spleen and Gastric Volvulus: An Unusual Triad for Acute Abdomen in a Surgical Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Gorsi, Ujjwal; Bhatia, Anmol; Gupta, Rajesh; Bharathi, Saranga; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which occurs due to laxity or absence of the normal intraperitoneal ligaments that hold the spleen in place. Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology of absence or laxity of intraperitoneal ligaments. The occurrence of simultaneous pancreatic volvulus has never been described before in adolescence. Herein, we report a case having wandering spleen with torsion, and gastric and distal pancreatic volvulus, an unusual triad in acute abdomen in an emergency setting, which has never been described before to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24976284

  10. Pancreatic volvulus with wandering spleen and gastric volvulus: an unusual triad for acute abdomen in a surgical emergency.

    PubMed

    Gorsi, Ujjwal; Bhatia, Anmol; Gupta, Rajesh; Bharathi, Saranga; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which occurs due to laxity or absence of the normal intraperitoneal ligaments that hold the spleen in place. Gastric volvulus and wandering spleen share a common etiology of absence or laxity of intraperitoneal ligaments. The occurrence of simultaneous pancreatic volvulus has never been described before in adolescence. Herein, we report a case having wandering spleen with torsion, and gastric and distal pancreatic volvulus, an unusual triad in acute abdomen in an emergency setting, which has never been described before to the best of our knowledge.

  11. Chronic Gastric Volvulus with Laparoscopic Gastropexy after Endoscopic Reduction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Yeon; Park, Jung Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon clinical entity. There are three types of gastric volvulus; organoaxial, mesenteroaxial and combined type. This condition can lead to a closed-loop obstruction or strangulation. Traditional surgical therapy for gastric volvulus is based on an open approach. Here we report a successful case of a patient with chronic gastric volvulus with a laparoscopic treatment. A 79-year-old woman came to the emergency department with epigastric pain accompanied by nausea for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography revealed markedly distended stomach with transposition of gastroesophageal Junction and gastric antrum. Barium meal study revealed presence of the antrum was folded over 180 degrees that was located above gastroesophageal junction. We attempted an endoscopic reduction, but it was unsuccessful. The patient got laparoscopic anterior gastropexy. Based on our result, laparoscopic gastropexy can be considered as a good choice of the treatment for gastric volvulus. PMID:26161290

  12. Laparoscopic splenopexy and gastropexy for wandering spleen associated with gastric volvulus.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Tadaharu; Ohata, Rumi; Miyano, Go; Lane, Geoffrey J; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Yamataka, Atsuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Wandering spleen is not a common condition in childhood and has been described only rarely in association with gastric volvulus. The authors report the successful management of wandering spleen associated with gastric volvulus using laparoscopic splenopexy and gastropexy in a 4-year-old girl.

  13. Spontaneous Acute Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus Diagnosed by Computed Tomography Scan in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Gaby; Afifi, Ibrahim; Ellabib, Mohamed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 Final Diagnosis: Acute spontaneous gastric volvulus Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency that requires early recognition and treatment. Acute idiopathic mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is a rare sub-type and there are few cases reported in children and there are even fewer reports in adults. Case Report: We report a rare case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of vomiting, epigastric pain, distention, and constipation. The diagnosis for mesenteroaxial type gastric volvulus was confirmed by abdominal radiography and computed tomography. The patient was successfully treated by laparotomy with resection of the ischemic stomach wall and anastomosis. Acute spontaneous mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus is rare in adults and early diagnosis is challenging due to non-specific symptoms. A missed or delayed diagnosis may result in serious complications due to gastric obstruction. Conclusions: A patient presenting with severe epigastric pain and clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered as a surgical emergency to rule out gastric volvulus. High index of suspicion, early diagnosis and prompt surgical management are important for favorable outcome in patients with acute spontaneous gastric volvulus. PMID:27112797

  14. A rare case of acute on chronic gastric volvulus with Borchardt's triad.

    PubMed

    Senior, Andrew; Hari, Churunal

    2014-11-20

    Gastric volvulus is a rare condition with two forms of presentation, either acute or chronic. Since its discovery, there have been no cases of acute on chronic volvulus discussed in the literature. Its vague presentation makes diagnosis and subsequent management difficult. The diagnosis of acute gastric volvulus is made on clinical grounds via Borchardt's triad; however, barium swallow and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy have been shown to play a role. We describe a case of a 95-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with worsening dysphagia, epigastric pain, retching without vomiting and hiccups of 5 months. Initially diagnosed as a hiatus hernia, the patient subsequently died following an acute on chronic gastric volvulus. This rare, life-threatening diagnosis provides an opportunity to discuss characteristics of gastric volvulus and the difficulties in management.

  15. A rare case of post-splenectomy gastric volvulus managed by laparoscopic anterior gastropexy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rahul Amreesh; Das, Rinki; Verma, Ganga Ram

    2017-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of recurrent gastric volvulus after open splenectomy for hereditary spherocytosis. The initial episode was managed by endoscopic derotation. Later, for recurrent symptoms, she was successfully managed by laparoscopic anterior gastropexy. PMID:28281486

  16. Acute Gastric Volvulus and Atrial Fibrillation with RVR: A Coincidence or Association

    PubMed Central

    Salh, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a rare and life-threatening condition that involves the abnormal rotation of the stomach around its axis by more than 180°. The association between acute gastric volvulus and atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response is rare with only few cases that have been reported. Our patient was an 86-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, distension, nausea, and shortness of breath. Clinical and laboratory workup revealed acute gastric volvulus with diaphragmatic hernia. On presentation, she was also in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. She was successfully treated by laparotomy with reduction of the gastric volvulus and repair of the diaphragmatic hernia, with significant improvement. PMID:28373916

  17. Gastric dilitation-volvulus in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Agnew, Dalen; Paperd, Deborah W; Harrison, Tara M

    2014-06-01

    A 10-year-old male red panda presented acutely with symptoms of shock due to acute abdominal distress and respiratory compromise. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed a severely distended stomach for which passage of an orogastric tube for relief was unsuccessful. Intra-operatively, the stomach was found to be distended and torsed around its long axis supporting the diagnosis of Gastric dilitation-volvulus (GDV). The animal arrested and died intra-operatively and was submitted for necropsy with lesions supportive of the diagnosis of GDV. No risk factors for GDV were found to correlate between the panda and those described in domestic dogs. This case suggests that red pandas can be susceptible to this condition in captive settings.

  18. Laparoscopic repair of hiatal hernia with mesenterioaxial volvulus of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kazuki; Sakurai, Yoichi; Isogaki, Jun; Komori, Yoshiyuki; Uyama, Ichiro

    2011-04-21

    Although mesenterioaxial gastric volvulus is an uncommon entity characterized by rotation at the transverse axis of the stomach, laparoscopic repair procedures have still been controversial. We reported a case of mesenterioaxial intrathoracic gastric volvulus, which was successfully treated with laparoscopic repair of the diaphragmatic hiatal defect using a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh associated with Toupet fundoplication. A 70-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of upper abdominal pain. An upper gastrointestinal series revealed an incarcerated intrathoracic mesenterioaxial volvulus of the distal portion of the stomach and the duodenum. The complete laparoscopic approach was used to repair the volvulus. The laparoscopic procedures involved the repair of the hiatal hernia using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh and Toupet fundoplication. This case highlights the feasibility and effectiveness of the laparoscopic procedure, and laparoscopic repair of the hiatal defect using a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh associated with Toupet fundoplication may be useful for preventing postoperative recurrence of hiatal hernia, volvulus, and gastroesophageal reflux.

  19. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female. PMID:26629290

  20. Wandering spleen, gastric and pancreatic volvulus and right-sided descending and sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ríos, Enrique; Méndez-Díaz, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Esther; Pérez-Ramos, Tania

    2015-10-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition, characterized by a mobile spleen that is attached only by an elongated vascular pedicle, allowing it to migrate to any part of the abdomen or pelvis. Mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus usually occurs in children and may be associated with wandering spleen. Both entities result from abnormal laxity or absence of the peritoneal attachments due to abnormal fusion of the peritoneal mesenteries. Pancreatic volvulus is a very rare anomaly, with only a few isolated case reports described in association with wandering spleen. Anomalous right sided descending and sigmoid colon is a very rare entity and its association with wandering spleen has not been previously reported. We report a case of wandering spleen associated with mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus, pancreatic volvulus and rightward shift of the splenic flexure of the colon and right sided descending and sigmoid colon in a young female.

  1. Laparoscopic repair of a gastric volvulus occurring as a long-term complication of left pneumonectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Batirel, Hasan Fevzi; Uygur-Bayramicli, Oya; Guler, Sevgi; Yildizeli, Bedrettin; Yuksel, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is an extremely rare late complication of pneumonectomy. We report the case of a 61-year-old man who presented with a 1-year history of progressive intolerance of solids and weight loss 33 years after a left pneumonectomy. Preoperative examinations showed a mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. We performed a laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication and anterior gastropexy, following which his symptoms disappeared.

  2. [The gastric volvulus as a cause of dyspnea. A case report].

    PubMed

    León Valdivies, Yusbiel José; Saínz Menéndez, Benito; Fernández García, Sergio; Osés Herrera, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    The gastric volvulus is a not very frequent entity that can show up in acute form or chronic. The acute volvulus can show up with the triad of Borchardt, the chronic one can be asymptomatic and its diagnosis is usually incidental. We present shows a case of an airplane pilot that presents dyspnea to the medium efforts with cough related with episodes of gastric acidity mainly after profuse foods. The diagnostic confirmation was carried out by means of radiological simple and contrasted studies. A surgical intervention was performed and the symptoms disappeared without other alterations in a period of pursuit of one year.

  3. Gastric volvulus with diaphragmatic hernia presenting with unexplained weight loss: a delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, S

    2011-01-01

    Gastric volvulus (GV) is a rare condition that presents with epigastric pain, retching and at times, vomiting. There are two types of GV: organoaxial and mesenteroaxial. We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with chronic mesenteroaxial volvulus with left-sided diaphragmatic defect. She presented with significant weight loss over a period of two years, with nonspecific symptoms of heartburn, occasional mild epigastric pain and anorexia. The patient was diagnosed with barium meal and contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging. She was treated with open repair of diaphragmatic defect and anterior gastropexy. She was asymptomatic and had gained weight at the six-month follow-up.

  4. Laparoscopic gastropexy for the treatment of gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen.

    PubMed

    François-Fiquet, Caroline; Belouadah, Mohamed; Chauvet, Philippe; Lefebvre, Francis; Lefort, Gérard; Poli-Merol, Marie Laurence

    2009-04-01

    A 2.5-year-old boy was referred to the emergency room for a sudden onset of diffuse and increasing abdominal pain with lethargy, abdominal distension, and vomiting, all in the past 24 hours. A plain abdominal X-ray showed gastric distension. Two liters of gastric contents were evacuated by suction. The abdominal sonogram showed an unusual position of the spleen in the left-lower quadrant, with no splenic ischemia. The diagnosis of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen was then evoked. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a nonischemic spleen, absence of normal supporting ligaments for the spleen, and gastric distension with flaccid gastric walls. The spleen was then easily moved in the left-under quadrant. A parietal peritoneal posterolateral incision was made, opposite the large gastric curve, up to the diaphragm (7 cm). This delimitated a sharp demarcation zone between the two edges of the incised peritoneum. The stomach was fixed to the peritoneal incision, covering and anchoring the spleen in a good position. Recovery was uneventful, and an abdominal sonogram performed 4 years after the surgery shows a viable spleen in its correct location. The rarity of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen and its fast clinical improvement with medical treatment often delays the diagnosis and the surgical treatment. Laparoscopy in this case has a dual relevance: diagnosis and therapeutic management (splenectomy or gastropexy). Laparoscopic gastropexy for the treatment of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen is an easy procedure and combines the advantages of all the surgical techniques previously described.

  5. Intrathoracic gastric perforation secondary to corrosive ingestion: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Arora, Richa; Varma Gunturi, Surya Ramachandra; Arora, Abhishek; Parmar, Abhijot

    2016-04-01

    This case report describes a rare and serious case of acid ingestion in a 50-year-old man who developed necrosis and perforation of gastric fundus and diaphragm with extension of air and fluid collection in the thorax. To the best of our knowledge, this complication has not been described so far in the literature.

  6. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    PubMed

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency.

  7. Struggling with a Gastric Volvulus Secondary to a Type IV Hiatal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    George, Dafnomilis; Apostolos, Pappas V.; Athanasios, Panoutsopoulos; Emmanuel, Lagoudianakis E.; Nikolaos, Koronakis E.; Nikolaos, Panagiotopoulos; Charalampos, Seretis; George, Karanikas; Andreas, Manouras J.

    2010-01-01

    Type IV hiatal hernias are characterized by herniation of the stomach along with associated viscera such as the spleen, colon, small bowel, and pancreas through the esophageal hiatus. They are relatively rare, representing only about 5%–7% of all hernias, and can be associated with severe complications. We report a 71-year-old veteran wrestler who presented to our department with a type IV paraesophageal hernia containing a gastric volvulus and treated successfully with emergency operation. PMID:20981251

  8. Gastric dilatation-volvulus as complication after surgical removal of a splenic haemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Marconato, L

    2006-09-01

    An 8-year-old crossbreed dog presented after one episode of acute collapse due to rupture of a splenic haemangiosarcoma. Following splenectomy the dog recovered well. Two days after discharge the dog re-presented because of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) that eventually led to his death. Splenectomy to remove a voluminous splenic tumour may predispose to GDV and dogs may benefit from concurrent prophylactic gastropexy.

  9. Laparoscopic repair of a late-presenting Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia with acute gastric volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Hadjittofi, Christopher; Matter, Ibrahim; Eyal, Ori; Slijper, Nadav

    2013-01-01

    An otherwise healthy 17-year-old boy presented to the paediatric emergency department with acute severe epigastric pain. An admission abdominal radiograph demonstrated gastric dilation, associated with an elevated left hemidiaphragm. Subsequent barium contrast imaging confirmed the diagnosis of organoaxial acute gastric volvulus (AGV). Emergent exploratory laparoscopy revealed AGV with migration of the stomach, spleen, pancreatic tail, splenic flexure, left kidney and adrenal through a left-sided Bochdalek diaphragmatic hernia. Following careful mobilisation of the displaced structures, a mesh closure of the diaphragmatic defect was performed. The patient's postoperative chest radiograph was unremarkable, and he was discharged on the sixth postoperative day after an uneventful recovery. At 2 months the patient was well and asymptomatic, with normal barium contrast imaging results. PMID:23519514

  10. Acute gastric dilatation and volvulus in a free-living polar bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Nielsen, Carol A.

    1989-01-01

    A large, adult male polar bear (Ursus maritimus) was found dead on a barrier island north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (USA), in June 1987. There were no external signs of trauma. A twisted distended stomach, distinctive parenchymal and fascial congestion, and significant difficulty in repositioning the anterior abdominal organs, indicated that gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) was the proximate cause of death. Polar bears frequently consume large quantities of food at one time and have large stomachs that are well adapted to periodic gorging. The scarcity of food in winter and early spring, combined with voluntary fasting and protracted vigorous activity during the breeding season in late spring may have predisposed this bear to GDV. The relationship between GDV and postprandial exercise emphasizes the need for a better understanding of how the present human invasion of arctic habitats may influence polar bear activities.

  11. Cardiovascular and systemic effects of gastric dilatation and volvulus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) is a common emergency condition in large and giant breed dogs that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dogs with GDV classically fulfill the criteria for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and can go on to develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Previously reported organ dysfunctions in dogs with GDV include cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, coagulation and renal dysfunction. Cardiovascular manifestations of GDV include shock, cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial dysfunction. Respiratory dysfunction is also multifactorial, with contributory factors including decreased respiratory excursion due to gastric dilatation, decreased pulmonary perfusion and aspiration pneumonia. Gastrointestinal dysfunction includes gastric necrosis and post-operative gastrointestinal upset such as regurgitation, vomiting, and ileus. Coagulation dysfunction is another common feature of MODS in dogs with GDV. Disseminated intravascular coagulation can occur, putting them at risk of complications associated with thrombosis in the early hypercoagulable state and hemorrhage in the subsequent hypocoagulable state. Acute kidney injury, acid-base and electrolyte disturbances are also reported in dogs with GDV. Understanding the potential for systemic effects of GDV allows the clinician to monitor patients astutely and detect such complications early, facilitating early intervention to maximize the chance of successful management.

  12. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  13. Meteorological influence on the occurrence of gastric dilatation-volvulus in military working dogs in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, George E.; Levine, Michael; Anderson, Johnna D.; Trapp, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening condition in dogs and other species in which the stomach dilates and rotates on itself. The etiology of the disease is multi-factorial, but explicit precipitating causes are unknown. This study sought to determine if there was a significant association between changes in hourly-measured temperature and/or atmospheric pressure and the occurrence of GDV in the population of high-risk working dogs in Texas. The odds of a day being a GDV day, given certain temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions for that day or the day before, was estimated using logistic regression models. There were 57 days in which GDV(s) occurred, representing 2.60% of the days in the 6-year study period. The months of November, December, and January collectively accounted for almost half (47%) of all cases. Disease risk was negatively associated with daily maximum temperature. An increased risk of GDV was weakly associated with the occurrence of large hourly drops in temperature that day and of higher minimum barometric pressure that day and the day before GDV occurrence, but extreme changes were not predictive of the disease.

  14. Effects of flunixin meglumine on dogs with experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J R; Lantz, G C; Salisbury, S K; Kazacos, E A; Bottoms, G D

    1992-01-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) was created experimentally and maintained for 90 minutes in 16 anesthetized, mixed-breed dogs. After the GDV was corrected, normal saline solution (0.044 mL/kg intravenously [IV]) was administered to eight dogs (controls), and flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg IV) was administered to eight dogs. Microspheres labeled with radioactive cobalt, scandium, tin, or niobium were injected intravenously at baseline (before GDV) and minutes 90, 100, and 270, respectively, to determine tissue blood flows. Plasma endotoxin and prostacyclin were measured at the same intervals. Electrocardiogram, mean arterial pressure, portal pressure, and cardiac output were recorded continuously. Dogs were euthanatized at minute 270 and necropsied. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for any measured variable at any time. Endotoxin levels increased significantly during GDV. Prostacyclin levels were lower in dogs treated with flunixin meglumine than in controls at minutes 210 and 270. Histopathologic findings were similar for all dogs and consistent with those associated with endotoxemia. Flunixin meglumine treatment did not alter cardiac indices or tissue blood flows significantly. However, elevation of prostacyclin was inhibited by flunixin meglumine, which suggested that continued effects of endotoxic damage might be attenuated or inhibited.

  15. Concurrent gall bladder, liver lobe torsion, and bile peritonitis in a German shepherd dog 2 months after gastric dilatation/volvulus gastropexy and splenectomy.

    PubMed

    Tubby, Kurtis G

    2013-08-01

    Postmortem examination of a 7-year-old German shepherd dog which had gastric dilatation/volvulus and splenectomy 2 months earlier revealed that the right middle and quadrate liver lobes were diffusely congested and torsed. The gall bladder was grossly distended and torsed along its long axis and there was evidence of bile peritonitis.

  16. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Mohamed Ali, Elouer; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome. PMID:23785565

  17. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus.

    PubMed

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Ali, Elouer Mohamed; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome.

  18. Sigmoid volvulus complicating pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Atamanalp, Sabri Selcuk; Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Ozogul, Bunyami; Kantarci, Mecit; Disci, Esra; Bulut, O Hakan; Aksungur, Nurhak; Atamanalp, Refik Selim

    2015-02-01

    Sigmoid volvulus during pregnancy is a rare complication, and as of 2012, fewer than 100 cases had been reported. In this report, we present a 30 year-old pregnant woman with sigmoid volvulus, and we discuss this rare entity.

  19. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Erin; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pieracci, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:28251004

  20. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  1. Computed tomography of intrathoracic goiters

    SciTech Connect

    Bashist, B.; Ellis, K.; Gold, R.P.

    1983-03-01

    Ten patients with intrathoracic goiters were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). In comparison with chest radiographs, CT showed additional features helpful in suggesting the correct diagnosis. These observations included: (1) clear continuity with the cervical thyroid gland (8/10 cases); (2) well defined borders (9/10); (3) punctate, coarse, or ringlike calcifications (8/10); (4) nonhomogeneity (9/10) often with discrete, nonenhancing, low-density areas (6/10); (5) precontrast attenuation values at least 15 H greater than adjacent muscles (4/10) with more than 25 H after contrast enhancement (8/8); and (6) characteristic patterns of goiter extension into mediastinum.

  2. Undiagnosed hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Meytes, Vadim; Schulberg, Steven P.; Morin, Nicholas; Glinik, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of hypothyroidism presenting with sigmoid volvulus, a phenomenon known as myxedema pseudovolvulus, is exceedingly rare. A male in his late thirties presented to our institution with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. The patient underwent CT scan, which was consistent with massive colonic dilatation with sigmoid volvulus. He was taken to the operating room for exploration and was found to have sigmoid volvulus and underwent a segmental resection. Postoperatively, the patient was newly diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism. PMID:27106615

  3. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  4. Management and outcome of cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Peter S N; Haverkamp, Leonie; Carvello, Michele; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-02-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate management strategies and related outcomes for cervical versus intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer with gastric conduit reconstruction. Patients with esophageal cancer undergoing transthoracic esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis from October 2003 to December 2014 were identified from a prospectively acquired database. Management strategies and related outcomes among patients with anastomotic leakage confined to the neck were compared to patients with intrathoracic manifestation of anastomotic leakage. From a total of 286 patients, leakage of the cervical anastomosis occurred in 60 patients (21%) at a median time of 7 days after esophagectomy. Leakage was confined to the neck in 23 of 60 patients (38%), whereas 37 of 60 patients (62%) presented with intrathoracic spread. Leakages with intrathoracic manifestation were more frequently accompanied by a positive SIRS score compared to leakages confined to the neck (73% vs. 35%, respectively; P = 0.004). Drainage of the anastomotic leakage through the neck wound was effective in all of 23 patients (100%) with cervical manifestation. In patients with intrathoracic manifestation, mediastinal drainage through the neck was successful in 15 of 37 patients (41%), whereas 22 patients (59%) required an intervention through the thoracic cavity. Compared to patients with leakage confined to the neck, patients with intrathoracic manifestation showed prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay (median 6 vs. 2 days, respectively; P = 0.001), hospital stay (median 34 vs. 19 days, respectively; P < 0.001), and time to oral intake (32 vs. 23 days, respectively; P = 0.018). Intrathoracic manifestation of cervical anastomotic leakage occurs in more than half of patients with anastomotic leakage after transthoracic esophagectomy for cancer. A SIRS reaction should raise the suspicion of intrathoracic spread of leakage

  5. The Role of Clinical Symptoms in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Tameris, Michele D.; Luabeya, Kany Kany A.; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hussey, Gregory D.; Mahomed, Hassan; Landry, Bernard S.; Hanekom, Willem A.; McShane, Helen; Hatherill, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture negative. Furthermore, clinical presentation may be altered by active case finding, isoniazid prophylaxis and early treatment. We aimed to establish the value of presenting symptoms for intrathoracic TB case diagnosis among young children. Methods: Healthy, HIV-uninfected, South African infants in an efficacy trial of a novel TB vaccine (MVA85A) were followed for 2 years for suspected TB. When suspected, investigation followed a standardized algorithm comprising symptom history, QuantiFERON Gold-in-Tube, chest radiography (CXR), MTB culture and Xpert MTB/RIF from paired gastric lavage and induced sputa. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals describe the associations between symptoms and positive MTB culture or Xpert MTB/RIF, and CXR compatible with intrathoracic TB. Results: Persistent cough was present in 172/1017 (16.9%) of the children investigated for TB. MTB culture/Xpert MTB/RIF was positive in 38/1017 children (3.7%); and CXR was positive, that is, compatible with intrathoracic TB, in 131/1017 children (12.9%). Children with persistent cough had more than triple the odds of a positive MTB culture/Xpert MTB/RIF (adjusted odds ratios: 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.5–7.0) and positive CXR (adjusted odds ratios: 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.2–5.5). Persistent cough was the only symptom that differentiated children with severe (56.5%) from nonsevere intrathoracic TB disease (28.2%; P = 0.001). Conclusion: Persistent cough was the cardinal diagnostic symptom associated with microbiologic and radiologic evidence, and disease severity, of intrathoracic TB. Symptom-based definitions of TB disease for diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic studies should prioritize persistent cough above other symptoms compatible with childhood TB. PMID:26226446

  6. Intrathoracic goitre associated with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Tinu; Gera, Kamal; Modi, Nikhil; Shah, Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic goitre is an uncommon condition which usually occurs in females in the fifth decade. It can cause compression of several mediastinal structures. A 42-year-old female with goitre since childhood was evaluated for dry cough, occasional wheezing and low grade fever. Imaging showed patchy airspace opacities with cavitation in left lung. Imaging of the neck revealed retrosternal extension of the goitre. Stains and cultures of bronchial aspirate were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis with intrathoracic goitre was established, an unusual association.

  7. Cytoprotective agents in experimental small bowel volvulus.

    PubMed

    Goldman, C D; Rudloff, M A; Ternberg, J L

    1987-03-01

    An accepted experimental model for midgut volvulus was used to produce small bowel strangulation obstruction of 48 hours duration in Sprague-Dawley rats. A 93% perioperative mortality rate resulted after release of the volvulus. Treatment with three cytoprotective agents at the time of volvulus release resulted in the following mortality rates: superoxide dismutase, 89%; ibuprofen, 50%; prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, 11%. The predominant cause of death in all treatment groups was bowel infarction, with a smaller number succumbing to either sepsis or circulatory collapse. Concomitant administration of ephedrine or indomethacin to suppress prostaglandin E1's splanchnic vasodilatory activity did not cause any increase in mortality. A trial of aspirin, to simulate PGE's antiplatelet actions, showed no reduction in mortality when compared with detorsion alone. Prostaglandin E1 and, to a lesser extent, ibuprofen, appear to have cytoprotective effects during reperfusion of bowel compromised by volvulus, independent of their influence on the mesenteric vasculature and thrombogenesis.

  8. Intestinal obstruction from midgut volvulus after laparoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, S A; Khalife, M E; Char, D J; Wax, M R; Halpern, D

    2002-01-01

    We present the case of a 30-year-old man who developed a small bowel obstruction from an acute midgut volvulus 8 days after undergoing a laparoscopic appendectomy. There was no evidence of congenital malrotation or midgut volvulus on the initial computed tomography (CT) scan or at laparoscopy. Subsequently, a midgut volvulus developed in the absence of congenital malrotation.

  9. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  10. Asbestos-induced intrathoracic tissue reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, P.; Harley, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Research tested the trace metal hypothesis for the development of asbestos-related lung cancer while also documenting the occurrence of malignant intrathoracic tumors resulting following intrathoracic injections of different types of asbestos in rats and hamsters. Rats and hamsters were injected with amosite, chrysotile or crocidolite prepared by one of five methods. Animals injected with dusts that had been heated (dust treated or untreated with aqua-regia) demonstrated a low tumor incidence, around 2%, whereas animals treated with dusts which had not been heated or treated demonstrated a 21% tumor rate in hamsters and 33% in mice. The incidence of tumors in both species was least with chrysotile. The other two types of asbestos caused similar incidences of tumors in rats, but in hamsters amosite caused a higher incidence of tumors than crocidolite.

  11. Efficacy of thyroid scintigraphy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Tarver, R.D.; Siddiqui, A.R.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Wellman, H.N.

    1987-03-01

    For evaluation of the usefulness of thyroid scintigraphy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic goiter, we analyzed the results of radionuclide thyroid scintigraphy in 54 consecutive cases with suspected upper mediastinal masses. Intrathoracic goiters were found in 42. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the scintigraphy for intrathoracic goiter were 93% (39/42), 100% (12/12), and 94% (51/54), respectively. Scintigraphic morphology, scanning technique, and pitfalls are discussed. The results show that most intrathoracic goiters do have thyroid function and that radioiodine scintigraphy is a definitive and cost-effective diagnostic procedure for this disease.

  12. Malrotation and volvulus associated with heterotaxy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalik, Santosh K.; Khanna, Sanat; Menon, Prema

    2012-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy with heterotaxy syndrome with associated polysplenia, ventricular septal defect, and malrotation of gut with volvulus is presented. There was delay in diagnosis due to the unusual plain abdominal radiography findings. At laparotomy, the midgut was also found to be enclosed in a thin transparent cocoon. PMID:22869985

  13. Wandering spleen with volvulus of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Ali Devrim; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Karcaaltıncaba, Musturay

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal location of the spleen, which is called wandering spleen, results from laxity or absence of the splenic pedicle. In the presence of an elongated splenic pedicle, torsion of the spleen or neighboring organs may occur, which results in acute or chronic abdominal pain. In this case report, we present imaging findings of a wandering spleen that manifested with volvulus of the pancreas.

  14. Four accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Prados, Jose; Archilla, Francisco; Melguizo, Consolación; Aranega, Antonia

    2013-09-01

    Accessory (supernumerary) intrathoracic ribs are a very rare congenital disorder. Here, we present the first case of multiple supernumerary intrathoracic ribs in an adult, which are present consecutively between ribs 1 and 4 and without articulation with the vertebrae. Despite this, anatomical variation is usually silent and accidentally discovered; its knowledge can prevent confusion with other structures during imaging diagnostic techniques of thoracic pathologies.

  15. Intrathoracic Kidney after Blunt Abdominal Trauma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Halis, Fikret; Amasyali, Akin Soner; Yucak, Aysel; Yildiz, Turan; Gokce, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal trauma is responsible for most genitourinary injuries. The incidence of renal artery injury and intrathoracic kidney is quite low in patients who present with blunt trauma experiencing damage. There are four defined etiologies for intrathoracic kidney, which include real intrathoracic ectopic kidney, eventration of the diaphragm, congenital diaphragmatic herniation, and traumatic diaphragmatic rupture. The traumatic intrathoracic kidney is an extremely rare case. We presented intrathoracic kidney case after traumatic posterior diaphragmatic rupture. PMID:26881170

  16. Misidentification of Onchocerca volvulus as guinea worm.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Melemoko, G; Zee, A K; Weisskopf, M G; Ruiz-Tiben, E

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, the status of human infection with guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) in the Central African Republic (CAR) has been difficult to ascertain. It is unclear if indigenous cases are occurring and whether cases are migrating into the CAR from surrounding countries. A team of investigators visited the CAR in July-August 2000, to attempt to ascertain the presence of indigenous transmission. No cases of true guinea-worm infection (i.e. dracunculiasis) were detected, but three cases of human infection with Onchocerca volvulus, each of which had been misidentified as dracunculiasis, were detected. The unusual presentation of skin blisters and extraction of an intact female O. volvulus are described. As a result of this investigation, and the confusion of onchocerciasis being misidentified as dracunculiasis, the presence of endemic transmission of guinea worm in the CAR remains in question.

  17. Intrathoracic caecal perforation presenting as dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Granier, Vincent; Coche, Emmanuel; Hantson, Philippe; Thoma, Maximilien

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis.

  18. Intrathoracic Caecal Perforation Presenting as Dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Granier, Vincent; Coche, Emmanuel; Hantson, Philippe; Thoma, Maximilien

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that is usually diagnosed in the neonatal period and incidentally in asymptomatic adults. Small bowel incarceration in a right-sided Bochdalek hernia is exceptional for an adult. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman was admitted for acute dyspnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and fever. Five days before, she had been experiencing an episode of diffuse abdominal pain. The admission chest X-ray was interpreted as right pleural effusion and pneumothorax with left mediastinal shift. Chest tube drainage was purulent. The thoracoabdominal CT examination suspected an intestinal incarceration through a right diaphragmatic defect. At laparotomy, a right-sided Bochdalek hernia was confirmed with a complete necrosis of the incarcerated caecum. Ileocaecal resection was performed, but the patient died from delayed septic complications. Conclusion. Intrathoracic perforation of the caecum is a rare occurrence; delayed diagnosis due to misleading initial symptoms may lead to severe complications and poor prognosis. PMID:21331329

  19. Colon cancer presented with sigmoid volvulus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aras, Abbas; Kızıltan, Remzi; Batur, Abdussamet; Çelik, Sebahattin; Yılmaz, Özkan; Kotan, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sigmoid volvulus is the most prevalent type of colonic volvulus. Colon cancer is seen less where sigmoid volvulus is common, so it is rare to see that colon cancer is synchronous with sigmoid volvulus. Presentation of case We would like to present a case of sigmoid volvulus caused by colon cancer in a male patient aged 80 who was referred to the hospital with toxaemic shock presentation. Discussion Sigmoid cancer can be presented as sigmoid volvulus to the emergency department. In intestinal obstruction early diagnosis is of crucial importance. Computarized tomography is a diagnosis tool that should be preferred both in the diagnosis of obstruction and in detecting its cause, localisation, degree and complications. Conclusion When surgery is performed due to the urgent colonic obstruction in colonic volvulus diagnosed patients, a colon tumour should be considered in the same column loops or in the distal colon. We believe that CT is the method that should be preferred in large-bowel obstruction suspected patients. PMID:26519810

  20. High Intrathoracic Anastomosis with Thoracoscopy Is Safe and Feasible for Treatment of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyun Woo; Park, Jae Kil; Song, Kyo Young; Sung, Sook Whan

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) has the potential to reduce the morbidity and mortality of esophageal cancer surgery. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a high incidence of earlier lymphatic spread and is usually located more proximal to the incisor than esophageal adenocarcinoma; consequently, the anastomosis should be made more proximal in the thorax or in the neck. We adopted the proximal intrathoracic anastomotic technique using thoracoscopy for mid-to-lower ESCC. Methods From October 2010 to August 2014, fifty-eight consecutive patients underwent MIE for ESCC. After laparoscopic gastric tubing, thoracoscopic esophageal resection and reconstruction were performed using a 28-mm circular stapler following radical mediastinal lymph node dissection. We tried to make an anastomosis at the apex of the chest. Postoperative outcomes, including overall survival and recurrence, were assessed. Results The mean patient age was 64.3±9 years. The mean operative time was 371.8±51.6 minutes, and the duration of the thorax procedure was 254.8±38.3 minutes. The mean number of lymph nodes dissected was 31±11.7. The mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital stay were 3.5±8.2 hours and 13.6±7.4 days, respectively. The level of anastomosis was 22.3±1.8cm from the incisor. One patient died of uncontrolled sepsis due to necrosis of the gastric graft. Two patients developed small contained leakage. Nine patients exhibited distant metastasis during the follow-up period. Conclusion Thoracoscopic intrathoracic anastomosis at the proximal esophagus is feasible and safe. PMID:27011160

  1. Intrathoracic Involvements of Immunoglobulin G4-Related Sclerosing Disease.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yunyun; Shi, Juhong; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yu; Feng, Ruie; Wu, Qingjun; Gao, Xin; Xu, Wenbing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xuan; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

    2015-12-01

    To investigate clinical and radiological features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) patients with intrathoracic involvement. A prospective cohort study was performed and IgG4-RD patients were enrolled from January 2011 to March 2015 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, in which the clinical and radiological characteristics of IgG4-RD patients with intrathoracic involvement were summarized. Out of total 248 cases with IgG4-RD, 87 cases had intrathoracic lesions, including 58 male cases and 29 female cases, with average age of 54.19 ± 13.80 years. Hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were the most common manifestations of IgG4-related intrathoracic disease, accounting for 52.9% (46/87). Other imaging findings of pulmonary disease included: solid nodular (25.3%), round-shaped ground-glass opacities (9.2%), alveolar-interstitial type (20.7%), bronchovascular type (23.0%), pleural effusion (4.6%), and pleural nodules or thickening (16.1%). Only 27 patients presented with respiratory symptoms, including cough, breathless, chest pain, and asthma. Compared with patients without intrathoracic disease, IgG4-related intrathoracic disease had higher IgG4 and C-reactive protein level, and higher incidence of allergy, fever, and multi-organ involvement. Most of lung interstitial disease, mediastinal mass, and bronchial thickening were sensitive to corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy, while 36.3% (8/22) of solitary nodular lesions were unresponsive to treatment. Eight patients were on no treatment, with 5 cases remained stable, 2 patients improved spontaneously, and 1 patient was lost follow-up. Intrathoracic lesions are not rare in patients with IgG4-RD, involving bronchial thickening, nodules, ground glass opacity, pleural thickening/effusion, lymphadenopathy, etc. Efficacy of corticosteroid and immunosuppressant therapy were noted in most of patients with lung interstitial disease, mediastinal mass, and bronchial thickening.

  2. Intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with cardiac resynchronisation therapy and advanced lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cvijić, Marta; Zižek, David; Antolič, Bor; Zupan, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The intrathoracic impedance monitor system measures impedance between the device case and the right ventricular coil and reflects intrathoracic fluid status. It is used to detect early volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure. We report a case of inappropriate activation of the intrathoracic impedance monitor alarm in a patient with epidermoid lung cancer and pleural carcinosis.

  3. Intrathoracic airway measurement: ex-vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Raab, Stephen A.; D'Souza, Neil D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1997-05-01

    High-resolution x-ray CT (HRCT) provides detailed images of the lungs and bronchial tree. HRCT-based imaging and quantitation of peripheral bronchial airway geometry provides a valuable tool for assessing regional airway physiology. Such measurements have been sued to address physiological questions related to the mechanics of airway collapse in sleep apnea, the measurement of airway response to broncho-constriction agents, and to evaluate and track the progression of disease affecting the airways, such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Significant attention has been paid to the measurements of extra- and intra-thoracic airways in 2D sections from volumetric x-ray CT. A variety of manual and semi-automatic techniques have been proposed for airway geometry measurement, including the use of standardized display window and level settings for caliper measurements, methods based on manual or semi-automatic border tracing, and more objective, quantitative approaches such as the use of the 'half-max' criteria. A recently proposed measurements technique uses a model-based deconvolution to estimate the location of the inner and outer airway walls. Validation using a plexiglass phantom indicates that the model-based method is more accurate than the half-max approach for thin-walled structures. In vivo validation of these airway measurement techniques is difficult because of the problems in identifying a reliable measurement 'gold standard.' In this paper we report on ex vivo validation of the half-max and model-based methods using an excised pig lung. The lung is sliced into thin sections of tissue and scanned using an electron beam CT scanner. Airways of interest are measured from the CT images, and also measured with using a microscope and micrometer to obtain a measurement gold standard. The result show no significant difference between the model-based measurements and the gold standard; while the half-max estimates exhibited a measurement bias and were significantly

  4. Pictorial essay of radiological features of benign intrathoracic masses

    PubMed Central

    Suut, Syahminan; Al-Ani, Zeid; Allen, Carolyn; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Durr-e-Sabih; AL-Harbi, Abdullah; AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    With increased exposure of patients to routine imaging, incidental benign intrathoracic masses are frequently recognized. Most have classical imaging features, which are pathognomonic for their benignity. The aim of this pictorial review is to educate the reader of radiological features of several types of intrathoracic masses. The masses are categorized based on their location/origin and are grouped into parenchymal, pleural, mediastinal, or bronchial. Thoracic wall masses that invade the thorax such as neurofibromas and lipomas are included as they may mimic intrathoracic masses. All examples are illustrated and include pulmonary hamartoma, pleural fibroma, sarcoidosis, bronchial carcinoid, and bronchoceles together with a variety of mediastinal cysts on plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sometimes a multimodality approach would be needed to confirm the diagnosis in atypical cases. The study would include the incorporation of radionuclide studies and relevant discussion in a multidisciplinary setting. PMID:26664560

  5. Jejunoileal perforation and volvulus caused by multiple magnet ingestion.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Serkan; Basuguy, Erol; Zeytun, Hikmet; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; Aydogdu, Bahattin; Arslan, Mehmet Serif

    2015-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a common problem in children, but magnet ingestion is relatively rare. However, when it occurs, it tends to have a high rate of complications. This is a case report of a 3-year-old child who swallowed multiple magnetic toys, subsequently developing jejunoileal perforation and volvulus. This case report indicates that it is best to surgically remove multiple ingested magnets without delay to avoid intestinal perforation, fistula, and other complications such as volvulus.

  6. [Cytological examination of the intrathoracic lymph nodes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simeĉek, C

    1978-01-01

    During the last few years, cytological examinations of the intrathoracic lymph nodes have become a usual method of bronchological examinations, being applied by way of routine. Taking the analysis of 3408 perbronchial and pertracheal lymph node punctions as a basis, the author discusses the results. Mostly the intrathoracic nodes of lung cancer patients were examined. A metastasization could be detected in 58 per cent. At sarcoidosis and tuberculosis the results correspond to those of mediastinoscopy. The occurrence of the cholesterol crystals is mentioned. Occasionally, megacaryocytes and immature cells of the hematopoiesis are found in the lymph nodes. Due to the favourable anatomic conditions, also normal lymph nodes are accessible to perbronchial punction.

  7. Endoscopic management of sigmoid volvulus in children

    PubMed Central

    Parolini, Filippo; Orizio, Paolo; Bulotta, Anna Lavinia; Garcia Magne, Miguel; Boroni, Giovanni; Cengia, Gianpaolo; Torri, Fabio; Alberti, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is extremely uncommon in children and is usually associated with a long-standing history of constipation or pseudo-obstruction. An early diagnosis and management are crucial in order to prevent the appearance of hemorrhagic infarction of the twisted loop, avoiding further complications such as necrosis, perforation and sepsis. In patients with no evidence of peritonitis or ischemic bowel, treatment starts with resuscitation and detorsion of the SV, accomplished by means of sigmoidoscopy and concomitant rectal tube placement. The bowel is then prepared and surgery is undertaken electively during the same hospitalization. We report a detailed review of the literature focusing on technical details, risks and benefits of endoscopic management of SV in childhood. PMID:27358669

  8. Recurrent Sigmoid Volvulus Associated With Eventration of Diaphragm in a Twenty-Six-Year-Old Man

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Shailesh Mukund; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Shetty, Gurucharan; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Chauhan, Udit; Udiya, Alok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent sigmoid volvulus is a clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete sigmoid volvulus. Although it is commonly seen in the elderly, it can be occasionally seen in younger patients. Patients with recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus are relatively asymptomatic or present with mild abdominal pain. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent conversion to acute gangrenous volvulus. We present a case of recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus in association with eventration of diaphragm in a 26-year-old man. PMID:25901269

  9. Occurrence of small intestinal volvulus in a terrier puppy-a case report

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Hannaneh; Tavasoly, Abbas; Namjoo, Abdolrasol; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Volvulus is the torsion of an organ around its root. In dogs, volvulus of the stomach is well known, but volvulus of the small intestine is rare. A dead 3-month-old female terrier puppy was presented for postmortem examination. According to owner statements, the puppy was depressed, lethargic and had abdominal pain, abdominal distension, severe diarrhea and vomiting a few hours before death. With gross and histopathologic studies, the death of this puppy was indorsed to small intestinal volvulus, subsequent infarction, peritonitis and likely acute toxaemia and/or septicaemia. The present case is going to be the first recorded case of small intestinal volvulus in dog in Iran.

  10. [Prenatal discovery of Joubert syndrome associated with small bowel volvulus].

    PubMed

    Aurégan, C; Donciu, V; Millischer, A-E; Khen-Dunlop, N; Deloison, B; Sonigo, P; Magny, J-F

    2016-03-01

    Joubert syndrome and prenatal volvulus are difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. Joubert syndrome and related diseases should be considered in case of prenatal abnormal features of the fourth ventricle. Small bowel volvulus is also a surgical emergency because of the risk of intestinal necrosis before or after delivery. This type of condition justifies the transfer of pregnant women to a specialized hospital where the newborn may receive appropriate care. We report the case of a 31-week and 4-day gestational-age fetus in whom intrauterine growth retardation and small-bowel volvulus were diagnosed. Additional imaging revealed associated Joubert syndrome. This highlights the need for regular ultrasound monitoring during pregnancy and the comanagement of obstetricians and pediatricians to provide appropriate care before and after delivery.

  11. Serum Potassium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090

  12. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    PubMed Central

    Crainey, James L; da Silva, Túllio RR; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio LB

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  13. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    PubMed

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  14. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  15. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-09-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of (/sup 131/I) and (99mTc)pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter.

  16. The effects of drugs on Onchocerca volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O. L.

    1968-01-01

    Suramin and Mel W are the only two drugs at present known to be effective against the adult worms of Onchocerca volvulus, but in view of the unpredictable occurrence of fatal arsenical encephalopathy in a small proportion of patients receiving Mel W, suramin remains the preferred macrofilaricide in the treatment of onchocerciasis. It is therefore important to determine the suramin dosage schedules that will produce parasitological cures with minimal concomitant risks of toxic reactions. The criteria by which cures should be judged must also be appreciated. Courses of different duration and employing doses of 1.0 g, 0.5 g and 0.25 g suramin have been investigated for their action on adult worms and microfilariae, for the toxic reactions which they produce on the kidney, and for the level of suramin reached in the serum during treatment. A course of 5 or 6 weekly doses of 1.0 g has been shown to be the optimum for adults. It is sometimes stated without good foundation that different brands of suramin differ in their purity and chemical composition, thus producing inconsistent effects on the parasites and grave risks of toxic manifestations. The three main brands in current use in Africa (Antrypol, Moranyl and Naganol) have therefore been compared in a group of patients, using the same optimum dosage schedule for each preparation and recording the action of the various brands on the parasites, as well as their comparative toxicities and the serum suramin levels achieved. No significant differences between the brands were recorded. PMID:4881068

  17. Congenital intrathoracic kidney in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Darwazah, Ahmad K; Yosri, Ahmad

    2011-03-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital anomaly. It appears as a posterior mediastinal mass on chest X-ray. Most cases are asymptomatic and are discovered accidentally. We present a 48-year-old male patient with intrathoracic kidney discovered during routine investigation for coronary artery bypass surgery.

  18. [Intrathoracic giant peripheral nerve sheath tumor during Von Recklinghausen disease].

    PubMed

    Ngabou, U D; Mounguengui, D; Owono Mbouengou, J P; El Wali, A; Nguema Edzang, B; Boguikouma, J B; Tchoua, R; Aziz, N E

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a patient aged 23, admitted for bilateral intrathoracic tumor, including a giant right. Surgery was performed by right sternothoracotomy. After 7 days, she presented an irreversible cardiac arrest. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rare and aggressive. Their incidence is 0.001% in the general population and 0.16% in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. These tumors are characterized by their risk of recurrence and poor prognosis. The treatment is the surgical resection. We analyze incidence, diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors.

  19. An observational study addressing the anatomic basis of mesosigmoidopexy as a rational treatment of non-gangrenous sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jonathan C; Msiska, Nelson; Muyco, Arturo P; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

    2012-01-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a common cause of bowel obstruction. We describe mesosigmoidopexy, an accepted surgical technique for the management of non-gangrenous sigmoid volvulus, and provide anatomic correlations supporting the therapy. Mesosigmoidopexy should be considered as a rational alternative to resection and anastomosis when operating on non-gangrenous sigmoid volvulus.

  20. The genome of Onchocerca volvulus, agent of river blindness.

    PubMed

    Cotton, James A; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Grote, Alexandra; Harsha, Bhavana; Tracey, Alan; Beech, Robin; Doyle, Stephen R; Dunn, Matthew; Hotopp, Julie C Dunning; Holroyd, Nancy; Kikuchi, Taisei; Lambert, Olivia; Mhashilkar, Amruta; Mutowo, Prudence; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Rogers, Matthew B; Stanley, Eleanor; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S; Tsai, Isheng J; Unnasch, Thomas R; Voronin, Denis; Parkinson, John; Nutman, Thomas B; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew; Lustigman, Sara

    2016-11-21

    Human onchocerciasis is a serious neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that can lead to blindness and chronic disability. Control of the disease relies largely on mass administration of a single drug, and the development of new drugs and vaccines depends on a better knowledge of parasite biology. Here, we describe the chromosomes of O. volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. We provide the highest-quality sequence assembly for any parasitic nematode to date, giving a glimpse into the evolution of filarial parasite chromosomes and proteomes. This resource was used to investigate gene families with key functions that could be potentially exploited as targets for future drugs. Using metabolic reconstruction of the nematode and its endosymbiont, we identified enzymes that are likely to be essential for O. volvulus viability. In addition, we have generated a list of proteins that could be targeted by Federal-Drug-Agency-approved but repurposed drugs, providing starting points for anti-onchocerciasis drug development.

  1. The genome of Onchocerca volvulus, agent of river blindness

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, James A.; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Grote, Alexandra; Harsha, Bhavana; Tracey, Alan; Beech, Robin; Doyle, Stephen R.; Dunn, Matthew; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C.; Holroyd, Nancy; Kikuchi, Taisei; Lambert, Olivia; Mhashilkar, Amruta; Mutowo, Prudence; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Rogers, Matthew B.; Stanley, Eleanor; Swapna, Lakshmipuram S.; Tsai, Isheng J.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Voronin, Denis; Parkinson, John; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew; Lustigman, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis is a serious neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that can lead to blindness and chronic disability. Control of the disease relies largely on mass administration of a single drug, and the development of new drugs and vaccines depends on a better knowledge of parasite biology. Here, we describe the chromosomes of O. volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. We provide the highest-quality sequence assembly for any parasitic nematode to date, giving a glimpse into the evolution of filarial parasite chromosomes and proteomes. This resource was used to investigate gene families with key functions that could be potentially exploited as targets for future drugs. Using metabolic reconstruction of the nematode and its endosymbiont, we identified enzymes that are likely to be essential for O. volvulus viability. In addition, we have generated a list of proteins that could be targeted by Federal-Drug-Agency-approved but repurposed drugs, providing starting points for anti-onchocerciasis drug development. PMID:27869790

  2. The association of adult Onchocerca volvulus with lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, C D; Huntington, M K; Wanji, S; Lovato, R V; Eversole, R R; Geary, T G

    2010-02-01

    Immunocytochemical examination of onchocercal nodule tissues containing adult Onchocerca volvulus using immuno-markers for blood and lymphatic vessels (vWF, D2-40, podoplanin, Prox-1, and Lyve1) shows a distinct pattern of distribution of these vessels within nodules. Blood vessels were commonly seen associated with organized lymphoid cellular aggregates in the both the outer and inner areas of the nodules. In contrast, the majority of the lymphatic vessel positivity was seen in the central zone in close apposition to the adult parasites, and the remainder usually associated with microfilariae in the outer areas of the nodule. These findings suggest an intimate relationship between adult O. volvulus and lymphatic vessels, including the likely proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells (lymphangectasia) akin to that seen with other filariae. These findings indicate that adult O. volvulus may migrate via the lymphatic system, and that clinical manifestations of this disease that involve tissue edema may be the result of the location of these worms in the lymphatic system.

  3. Caecal volvulus in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Tatterton, M; El-Khatib, C

    2011-10-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterised by recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without an underlying mechanical cause. Caecal volvulus remains a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that often requires operative intervention. We describe the previously unreported case of caecal volvulus occurring in an adult patient with CIPO, together with his subsequent management.

  4. A Case of Fetal Intestinal Volvulus Without Malrotation Causing Severe Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Tachibana, Daisuke; Kitada, Kohei; Kurihara, Yasushi; Terada, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Masayasu; Sakae, Yukari; Morotomi, Yoshiki; Nomura, Shiho; Saito, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Fetal intestinal volvulus without malrotation is a rare, life-threatening disease. Left untreated, hemorrhage from necrotic bowel tissue will lead to severe fetal anemia and even intrauterine death. We encountered a case of fetal intestinal volvulus causing severe anemia, which was diagnosed postnatally and successfully treated with surgical intervention. PMID:25628516

  5. Small intestinal volvulus in a free-ranging female dugong (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Gillespie, A; Burgess, E; Lanyon, J; Owen, H

    2011-07-01

    An adult female dugong (Dugong dugon) was found dead and floating in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. This animal was found to have a 360° mesenteric volvulus with infarction of the associated segment of small intestine, and fibrinous peritonitis. Mortality was attributed to the volvulus and its sequelae. The cause was not apparent on gross or histological examination.

  6. Pictorial review of intrathoracic manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Allen, Carolyn; Koteyar, Shyam Sunder; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2014-10-01

    Intra-thoracic manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) are not well known particularly the imaging features, which forms the basis of accurate and timely diagnosis. The aim of this study is to familiarize the physicians and radiologists with these features. The diagnosis can remain elusive because of the non-specific nature of symptoms which mimic many common conditions. Thus, the diagnosis of PSS can be missed leading to continuous morbidity if the correct imaging is not pursued. The authors examined the records of rheumatology patient referrals of over a 5 year period. A hundred and seventy patients with systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disorders were chosen for detailed study of the imaging available, which form the basis of this review. The images included conventional chest radiographs, digital radiographs computed radiography (CT) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Where applicable computed pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and radionuclide scans were also interrogated.

  7. Is intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility correlated to clinical phenotypes and sex in patients with COPD?

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Diciotti, Stefano; Bigazzi, Francesca; Lombardo, Simone; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Paoletti, Matteo; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develops various degree of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility. We studied whether the magnitude of intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility could be different across clinical phenotypes and sex in COPD. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility measured at paired inspiratory–expiratory low dose computed tomography (CT) and its correlation with clinical, functional, and CT-densitometric data were investigated in 69 patients with COPD according to their predominant conductive airway or emphysema phenotypes and according to sex. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was higher in patients with predominant conductive airway disease (n=28) and in females (n=27). Women with a predominant conductive airway phenotype (n=10) showed a significantly greater degree of collapsibility than women with predominant emphysema (28.9%±4% versus 11.6%±2%; P<0.001). Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was directly correlated with inspiratory–expiratory volume variation at CT and with forced expiratory volume (1 second), and inversely correlated with reduced CT lung density and functional residual capacity. Intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility was not correlated with cough and wheezing; however, intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility and clinical phenotypes of COPD are closely correlated. In patients with a predominant emphysematous phenotype, a reduced collapsibility may reflect the mechanical properties of the stiff hyperinflated emphysematous lung. The high collapsibility in patients with predominant airway disease, mild airway obstruction, and in women with this phenotype may reflect chronic airway inflammation. The lack of relationship with such symptoms as wheezing, cough, and dyspnea could indicate that intrathoracic tracheal collapsibility itself should be considered neither an abnormal feature of COPD nor a relevant clinical finding. PMID:25960647

  8. Compensatory quadrant-hyperhidrosis after contralateral intrathoracic surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral hyperhidrosis can be a neurological manifestation of irritations of the central or peripheral nervous system. Case presentation We present the case of a 67-year-old German man who had hyperhidrosis of his right upper body quadrant (including face, arm, and chest) following intrathoracic surgery of a left-sided pleural lipoma. Conclusion An isolated unilateral hyperhidrosis might occur after intrathoracic surgery. Besides anticholinergic drugs the use of botulinum toxin should be considered. PMID:23331641

  9. Immune recognition of Onchocerca volvulus proteins in the human host and animal models of onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Manchang, T K; Ajonina-Ekoti, I; Ndjonka, D; Eisenbarth, A; Achukwi, M D; Renz, A; Brattig, N W; Liebau, E; Breloer, M

    2015-05-01

    Onchocerca volvulus is a tissue-dwelling, vector-borne nematode parasite of humans and is the causative agent of onchocerciasis or river blindness. Natural infections of BALB/c mice with Litomosoides sigmodontis and of cattle with Onchocerca ochengi were used as models to study the immune responses to O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins (OvALT-2, OvNLT-1, Ov103 and Ov7). The humoral immune response of O. volvulus-infected humans against OvALT-2, OvNLT-1 and Ov7 revealed pronounced immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres which were, however, significantly lower than against the lysate of O. volvulus adult female worms. Sera derived from patients displaying the hyperreactive form of onchocerciasis showed a uniform trend of higher IgG reactivity both to the single proteins and the O. volvulus lysate. Sera derived from L. sigmodontis-infected mice and from calves exposed to O. ochengi transmission in a hyperendemic area also contained IgM and IgG1 specific for O. volvulus-derived recombinant proteins. These results strongly suggest that L. sigmodontis-specific and O. ochengi-specific immunoglobulins elicited during natural infection of mice and cattle cross-reacted with O. volvulus-derived recombinant antigens. Monitoring O. ochengi-infected calves over a 26-month period, provided a comprehensive kinetic of the humoral response to infection that was strictly correlated with parasite load and occurrence of microfilariae.

  10. Small bowel volvulus in pregnancy with associated superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Esterson, Yonah B; Villani, Robert; Dela Cruz, Ronald A; Friedman, Barak; Grimaldi, Gregory M

    Here we report the case of a pregnant 28-year-old who presented with acute upper abdominal pain. CT demonstrated midgut volvulus with short segment occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Emergent detorsion of the small bowel was performed, at which time underlying intestinal malrotation was discovered. Following detorsion, the SMA had a bounding pulse and did not require thrombectomy or revascularization. Fewer than 25 cases of midgut volvulus during pregnancy have been reported over the past 20years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of maternal midgut volvulus in which imaging captures the resultant occlusion of the SMA.

  11. Utility of the CT Scan in Diagnosing Midgut Volvulus in Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Morshedi, Mehdi; Baradaran Jamili, Mohammad; Shafizadeh Barmi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Symptomatic intestinal malrotation first presenting in the adults is rare. Midgut volvulus is the most common complication of malrotation in the adults. Because of more differential diagnosis, Computed Tomography (CT) scan can play an important role in the evaluation of patients with this abnormality. The whirl pattern around the superior mesenteric artery found on CT scan in patients with midgut volvulus is pathognomonic and diagnostic. We describe a case of intestinal malrotation complicated by midgut volvulus in an adult patient. The preoperative CT findings were pathognomonic. PMID:28182093

  12. Genomic diversity in Onchocerca volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Jun; Tyagi, Rahul; McNulty, Samantha N; Rosa, Bruce A; Ozersky, Philip; Martin, John; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Unnasch, Thomas R; Norice, Carmelle T; Nutman, Thomas B; Weil, Gary J; Fischer, Peter U; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-11-21

    Ongoing elimination efforts have altered the global distribution of Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of river blindness, and further population restructuring is expected as efforts continue. Therefore, a better understanding of population genetic processes and their effect on biogeography is needed to support elimination goals. We describe O. volvulus genome variation in 27 isolates from the early 1990s (before widespread mass treatment) from four distinct locales: Ecuador, Uganda, the West African forest and the West African savanna. We observed genetic substructuring between Ecuador and West Africa and between the West African forest and savanna bioclimes, with evidence of unidirectional gene flow from savanna to forest strains. We identified forest:savanna-discriminatory genomic regions and report a set of ancestry informative loci that can be used to differentiate between forest, savanna and admixed isolates, which has not previously been possible. We observed mito-nuclear discordance possibly stemming from incomplete lineage sorting. The catalogue of the nuclear, mitochondrial and endosymbiont DNA variants generated in this study will support future basic and translational onchocerciasis research, with particular relevance for ongoing control programmes, and boost efforts to characterize drug, vaccine and diagnostic targets.

  13. Complicated Jejunal Diverticulosis: Small Bowel Volvulus with Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mohi, Rommel Singh; Moudgil, Ashish; Bhatia, Suresh Kumar; Seth, Kaushal; Kaur, Tajinder

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of the diverticulum of the small bowel varies from 0.2-1.3% in autopsy studies to 2.3% when assessed on enteroclysis. It occurs mostly in patients in the 6th decade of their life. Of all the small bowel diverticuli, jejunal diverticulum is the most common type. This rare entity is usually asymptomatic. However, they may cause chronic non-specific symptoms for a long period of time like dyspepsia, chronic postprandial pain, nausea, vomiting, borborgymi, alternating diarrhoea and constipation, weight loss, anaemia, steatorrhea or rarely lead to complications like haemorrhage, obstruction, perforation. Obstruction can be due to enterolith, adhesions, intussusception, and volvulus. The condition is difficult to diagnose because patients are generally presented with symptoms that mimic other diseases. It is important for clinicians to have awareness of this entity. Here, we present a case of multiple jejunal diverticuli with a history of repeated attacks of diverticulitis over past 20 years, which were misdiagnosed and now presented with intestinal obstruction due to volvulus of the involved segment along with mesentery around its axis. Resection of the diverticuli segment of jejunum was done with end-to-end jejuno-jejunal anastomosis. The patient is asymptomatic since 10 months of follow-up. PMID:27853337

  14. Effects of positive intrathoracic pressure on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Tyberg, J V; Grant, D A; Kingma, I; Moore, T D; Sun, Y; Smith, E R; Belenkie, I

    2000-02-01

    The Frank-Starling Law accounts for many changes in cardiac performance previously attributed to changes in contractility in that changes in contractility might have been incorrectly inferred from changing ventricular function curves (i.e. systolic performance plotted against filling pressure) if diastolic compliance also changed. To apply the Frank-Starling Law in the presence of changing diastolic compliance, it is necessary to measure end-diastolic volume directly or to calculate end-diastolic transmural pressure, which requires that pericardial pressure be known. Under most normal circumstances, increased intrathoracic pressure (and other interventions, such as vasodilators or lower-body negative pressure, that decrease central blood volume) decreases the transmural end-diastolic pressures of both ventricles, their end-diastolic volumes and stroke work. However, when ventricular interaction is significant, the effects of these interventions might be quite different; this may be important in patients with heart-failure. Although these interventions decrease RV transmural pressure, they may increase LV transmural pressure, end-diastolic volume, and thus stroke work by the Frank-Starling mechanism.

  15. Molecular cloning of an Onchocerca volvulus extracellular Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    James, E R; McLean, D C; Perler, F

    1994-01-01

    Onchocerca volvulus, a human parasitic nematode, is the third leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. This study describes the molecular cloning of a novel superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the parasite. This putative O. volvulus extracellular SOD (OvEcSOD) is 628 nucleotides (nt) long, including a 22-nt 5' spliced leader (SL1) and a portion encoding an N-terminal hydrophobic 42-amino-acid signal peptide. The remainder of the cDNA shares 71% identity with an O. volvulus cytosolic SOD sequence and is 3 nt longer. All residues involved in metal ion binding, active site formation, folding, and dimer formation in SODs are conserved. Data indicate the OvEcSOD and O. volvulus cytosolic SOD are separate gene products and that the OvEcSOD appears to possess the characteristics of a membrane-bound or secreted enzyme which may be involved in the parasite defense against phagocyte-generated reactive oxygen species. Images PMID:8300230

  16. Small bowel volvulus in mid and late pregnancy: can early diagnosis be established to avoid catastrophic outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Qing; Li, Xilian; Ye, Xuping; Sun, Li; Jiang, Wei; Han, Zhigang; Lu, Weiqi; Xu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Volvulus in pregnancy is rare and difficult to diagnose. Delayed diagnosis would result in high maternal and fetal mortality. Here we present an unusual case of small bowel volvulus in late pregnancy timely managed by emergency Cesarean section and derotation with excellent maternal and fetal outcomes. Volvulus should be considered in patients complaining ongoing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation even diarrhea. Imaging is essential for early and precise diagnosis, including plain abdominal film, MRI and/or ultrasound. Once highly suspected or diagnosed of volvulus or ileus, emergency laparotomy should be performed immediately to avoid catastrophic outcomes, because the maternal and fetal prognosis is dependent on the interval from volvulus to operation apart from the degree of volvulus. PMID:25550984

  17. Gastric giardiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Doglioni, C.; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; Braidotti, P.; Viale, G.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens from patients harbouring G lamblia infection, who repeated endoscopy before treatment, were also examined electron microscopically. RESULTS: Forty one patients (0.37% of the population study) harboured gastric giardiasis. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of dyspepsia, epigastric pain, or abdominal distension. Only two patients had diarrhoea at the time of investigation. Giardiasis was clinically unsuspected in all cases, although the nine patients who also had duodenal biopsies performed had concomitant intestinal giardiasis. Gastric giardiasis was invariably associated with chronic atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa and Helicobacter pylori infection were found in 32 and 37 of the 41 patients with gastric giardiasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The invariable association of gastric giardiasis with chronic atrophic gastritis, most often showing intestinal metaplasia and H pylori infection, indicates that a decreased gastric acidity is a prerequisite for localisation of G lamblia to the gastric mucosa. Though its possible role as a gastric pathogen remains to be elucidated, these findings suggest that trophozoites should be carefully searched for when examining gastric biopsy specimens showing chronic atrophic gastritis. Images PMID:1452790

  18. Single-port laparoscopic surgery for sigmoid volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Jo; Jeong, Won Jun; Kim, Say-June; Lee, Sang Chul

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report our experience with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) for sigmoid volvulus (SV). METHODS: Between October 2009 and April 2013, 10 patients underwent SPLS for SV. SPLS was performed transumbilically or through a predetermined stoma site. Conventional straight and rigid-type laparoscopic instruments were used. After intracorporeal, segmental resection of the affected sigmoid colon, the specimen was extracted through the single-incision site. Patient demographics and perioperative data were analyzed. RESULTS: SPLS for SV was successful in all 10 patients (4, resection and primary anastomosis; 6, Hartmann’s procedure). The median operative time and postoperative hospitalization period were 168 (range, 85-315) min and 6.5 (range, 4-29) d, respectively. No intraoperative complications were noted; there were 2 postoperative complications, including 1 anastomotic leak. CONCLUSION: SPLS was a safe and feasible therapeutic approach for SV, when performed by a surgeon experienced in conventional laparoscopic surgery. PMID:25741145

  19. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  20. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  1. High-resolution manometry findings in patients with an intrathoracic stomach.

    PubMed

    Martinelo, Vanderlei; Mardiros Herbella, Fernando Augusto; Patti, Marco G

    2015-04-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare finding. The real value of the high-resolution manometry (HRM) in the preoperative evaluation of these patients has not yet being fully tested. This study aims to evaluate: 1) the HRM pattern of patients with an intrathoracic stomach; and 2) HRM findings as predictors for prosthetic reinforcement of the hiatus. We reviewed 33 patients (27 women, mean age 66 years) with an intrathoracic stomach who underwent HRM. Fifteen patients did the HRM as part of preoperative workup and were operated on in our institution. All patients were submitted to a laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. HRM results show that the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was transposed in all patients. Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in 21 (63%) patients. The length of the hernia was 4 ± 2 cm (range, 1 to 9 cm). LES oscillation was observed in 23 (69%) patients with a mean of 1 ± 0.4 cm (range, 0.4 to 2 cm). Hiatal mesh reinforcement was necessary in five (33%) of the operated patients. HRM findings did not predict hiatal mesh reinforcement. Our results show that: 1) HRM has a poor sensibility for hiatal hernia diagnosis; 2) half of the patients with an intrathoracic stomach have a normal HRM; and 3) HRM does not predict mesh hiatal hernia repair.

  2. A cluster of Teflon pledgets manifesting as an intrathoracic cavitary mass following lung resection.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-I; Park, K-Y; Park, C-H

    2010-06-01

    Teflon pledgets are widely used for hemostasis and the reinforcement of friable tissue in surgery. However, rare but serious complications caused by the erosion of Teflon pledgets have been reported. We present an unusual case of an intrathoracic cavitary mass that was formed by the erosion of a cluster of Teflon pledgets into the lung parenchyma eight years after a lung resection.

  3. Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children: An Update.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stephen M; Cuevas, Luis E; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Browning, Renee; Casenghi, Martina; Detjen, Anne K; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Hesseling, Anneke C; Kampmann, Beate; Mandalakas, Anna; Marais, Ben J; Schito, Marco; Spiegel, Hans M L; Starke, Jeffrey R; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J

    2015-10-15

    Consensus case definitions for childhood tuberculosis have been proposed by an international expert panel, aiming to standardize the reporting of cases in research focusing on the diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. These definitions are intended for tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation studies of symptomatic children with clinical suspicion of intrathoracic tuberculosis, and were not intended to predefine inclusion criteria into such studies. Feedback from researchers suggested that further clarification was required and that these case definitions could be further improved. Particular concerns were the perceived complexity and overlap of some case definitions, as well as the potential exclusion of children with acute onset of symptoms or less severe disease. The updated case definitions proposed here incorporate a number of key changes that aim to reduce complexity and improve research performance, while maintaining the original focus on symptomatic children suspected of having intrathoracic tuberculosis. The changes proposed should enhance harmonized classification for intrathoracic tuberculosis disease in children across studies, resulting in greater comparability and the much-needed ability to pool study results.

  4. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjustable gastric banding; Bariatric surgery - laparoscopic gastric banding; Obesity - gastric banding; Weight loss - gastric banding ... gastric banding is not a "quick fix" for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. You must ...

  5. An unexpected cause of small bowel obstruction in an adult patient: midgut volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Söker, Gökhan; Yılmaz, Cengiz; Karateke, Faruk; Gülek, Bozkurt

    2014-01-01

    The most important complication of intestinal malrotation is midgut volvulus because it may lead to intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography (US), colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS), CT and barium studies were carried out. On US and CDUS, twisting of intestinal segments around the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and alteration of the SMA–SMV relationship were detected. CT demonstrated that the small intestine was making a rotation around the SMA and SMV, which amounted to more than 360°. The upper gastrointestinal barium series revealed a corkscrew appearance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum, which is a pathognomonic finding of midgut volvulus. Prior knowledge of characteristic imaging findings of midgut volvulus is essential in order to reach proper diagnosis and establish proper treatment before the development of intestinal ischaemia and necrosis. PMID:24811563

  6. Hydropneumopericardium Presenting as an Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vidi, Venkatesan; Singh, Premranjan P.; Alhumaid, Alia C.; Lee, Richard S.; Kinnunen, Paula M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydropneumopericardium is a very rare complication of long-standing paraesophageal hernia, occurring as a result of rupture of the intrathoracic gastric volvulus into the pericardium. A chronic paraesophageal hernia that is complicated by gastric volvulus can develop into such surgical emergencies as acute gastric obstruction, strangulation, perforation, and rupture into adjacent structures. Subsequent hydropneumopericardium constitutes an acute emergency that requires immediate surgical treatment and pericardial drainage. Herein, we discuss what we believe to be the 1st reported case of hydropneumopericardium that presented as an acute coronary syndrome in a patient who had a chronic paraesophageal hernia (as a result of rupture of the gastric volvulus into the pericardium). The 80-year-old patient did not survive the condition. PMID:19568401

  7. Analysis of different device-based intrathoracic impedance vectors for detection of heart failure events (from the Detect Fluid Early from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring study).

    PubMed

    Heist, E Kevin; Herre, John M; Binkley, Philip F; Van Bakel, Adrian B; Porterfield, James G; Porterfield, Linda M; Qu, Fujian; Turkel, Melanie; Pavri, Behzad B

    2014-10-15

    Detect Fluid Early from Intrathoracic Impedance Monitoring (DEFEAT-PE) is a prospective, multicenter study of multiple intrathoracic impedance vectors to detect pulmonary congestion (PC) events. Changes in intrathoracic impedance between the right ventricular (RV) coil and device can (RVcoil→Can) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy ICDs (CRT-Ds) are used clinically for the detection of PC events, but other impedance vectors and algorithms have not been studied prospectively. An initial 75-patient study was used to derive optimal impedance vectors to detect PC events, with 2 vector combinations selected for prospective analysis in DEFEAT-PE (ICD vectors: RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 13 days; CRT-D vectors: left ventricular ring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 14 days). Impedance changes were considered true positive if detected <30 days before an adjudicated PC event. One hundred sixty-two patients were enrolled (80 with ICDs and 82 with CRT-Ds), all with ≥1 previous PC event. One hundred forty-four patients provided study data, with 214 patient-years of follow-up and 139 PC events. Sensitivity for PC events of the prespecified algorithms was as follows: ICD: sensitivity 32.3%, false-positive rate 1.28 per patient-year; CRT-D: sensitivity 32.4%, false-positive rate 1.66 per patient-year. An alternative algorithm, ultimately approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can, detection threshold 14 days), resulted in (for all patients) sensitivity of 21.6% and a false-positive rate of 0.9 per patient-year. The CRT-D thoracic impedance vector algorithm selected in the derivation study was not superior to the ICD algorithm RVring→Can + RVcoil→Can when studied prospectively. In conclusion, to achieve an acceptably low false-positive rate, the intrathoracic impedance algorithms studied in DEFEAT-PE resulted in low sensitivity for the prediction of heart

  8. The effects of altered intrathoracic pressure on resting cerebral blood flow and its response to visual stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hayen, Anja; Herigstad, Mari; Kelly, Michael; Okell, Thomas W.; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G.; Pattinson, Kyle T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating how intrathoracic pressure changes affect cerebral blood flow (CBF) is important for a clear interpretation of neuroimaging data in patients with abnormal respiratory physiology, intensive care patients receiving mechanical ventilation and in research paradigms that manipulate intrathoracic pressure. Here, we investigated the effect of experimentally increased and decreased intrathoracic pressures upon CBF and the stimulus-evoked CBF response to visual stimulation. Twenty healthy volunteers received intermittent inspiratory and expiratory loads (plus or minus 9 cmH2O for 270 s) and viewed an intermittent 2 Hz flashing checkerboard, while maintaining stable end-tidal CO2. CBF was recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and whole-brain pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (PCASL MRI). Application of inspiratory loading (negative intrathoracic pressure) showed an increase in TCD-measured CBF of 4% and a PCASL-measured increase in grey matter CBF of 5%, but did not alter mean arterial pressure (MAP). Expiratory loading (positive intrathoracic pressure) did not alter CBF, while MAP increased by 3%. Neither loading condition altered the perfusion response to visual stimulation in the primary visual cortex. In both loading conditions localized CBF increases were observed in the somatosensory and motor cortices, and in the cerebellum. Altered intrathoracic pressures, whether induced experimentally, therapeutically or through a disease process, have possible significant effects on CBF and should be considered as a potential systematic confound in the interpretation of perfusion-based neuroimaging data. PMID:23108273

  9. The effects of altered intrathoracic pressure on resting cerebral blood flow and its response to visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hayen, Anja; Herigstad, Mari; Kelly, Michael; Okell, Thomas W; Murphy, Kevin; Wise, Richard G; Pattinson, Kyle T S

    2013-02-01

    Investigating how intrathoracic pressure changes affect cerebral blood flow (CBF) is important for a clear interpretation of neuroimaging data in patients with abnormal respiratory physiology, intensive care patients receiving mechanical ventilation and in research paradigms that manipulate intrathoracic pressure. Here, we investigated the effect of experimentally increased and decreased intrathoracic pressures upon CBF and the stimulus-evoked CBF response to visual stimulation. Twenty healthy volunteers received intermittent inspiratory and expiratory loads (plus or minus 9cmH2O for 270s) and viewed an intermittent 2Hz flashing checkerboard, while maintaining stable end-tidal CO2. CBF was recorded with transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and whole-brain pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (PCASL MRI). Application of inspiratory loading (negative intrathoracic pressure) showed an increase in TCD-measured CBF of 4% and a PCASL-measured increase in grey matter CBF of 5%, but did not alter mean arterial pressure (MAP). Expiratory loading (positive intrathoracic pressure) did not alter CBF, while MAP increased by 3%. Neither loading condition altered the perfusion response to visual stimulation in the primary visual cortex. In both loading conditions localized CBF increases were observed in the somatosensory and motor cortices, and in the cerebellum. Altered intrathoracic pressures, whether induced experimentally, therapeutically or through a disease process, have possible significant effects on CBF and should be considered as a potential systematic confound in the interpretation of perfusion-based neuroimaging data.

  10. The clinical application of pulse contour cardiac output and intrathoracic volume measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicky A; Braaf, Sandra C

    2006-08-01

    Cardiac output (CO) determination by pulmonary artery (PA) catheter has increasingly been criticised within the literature due to its invasive nature and poor correlation between the pressure measurements and intravascular volume status in mechanically ventilated patients. Consequently, alternative less invasive technologies to PA catheterisation are emerging within intensive care. One such novel technology are pulse contour CO (PCCO) systems. They establish comprehensive and continuous haemodynamic monitoring utilising a central venous catheter (CVC) and an arterial line. Furthermore, a key feature of this technology is its ability to produce intrathoracic volume measurements which may provide a better estimation of cardiac preload as well as indicate the presence and severity of pulmonary oedema. This article aims to discuss the theoretical basis and clinical application of PCCO systems, how PCCO systems differ from PA catheters and how the intrathoracic volume measurements are derived. Understanding these advanced concepts will ensure that clinicians are able to employ this innovative monitoring technology more effectively.

  11. Large hiatal hernia in infancy with right intrathoracic stomach along with left sided morgagni hernia.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Uzma; Mazhar, Naveed; Zameer, Shahla

    2014-11-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a very common intrathoracic fetal anomaly with Morgagni hernia typically seen on right side anteriorly and Bochdalek hernia on left side posteriorly, because of the protective effects of liver and heart on either side respectively. Hiatal hernias range from herniation of a small portion of stomach into thoracic cavity to herniation of entire stomach into the left thoracic cavity. Very rarely the herniated stomach has been reported in the right thoracic cavity. Early diagnosis and treatment of all diaphragmatic hernias is essential to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. We present a very rare and interesting case of an 18 months old baby girl with reverse scenarios. She had a large hiatal hernia with right intrathoracic stomach along with a left sided Morgagni hernia in combination.

  12. Intra-thoracic rheumatoid arthritis: Imaging spectrum of typical findings and treatment related complications

    PubMed Central

    Chansakul, Thanissara; Dellaripa, Paul F.; Doyle, Tracy J.; Madan, Rachna

    2015-01-01

    Non-cardiac thoracic manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cause significant morbidity and mortality among RA patients. Essentially all anatomic compartments in the chest can be affected including the pleura, pulmonary parenchyma, airway, and vasculature. In addition, treatment-related complications and opportunistic infections are not uncommon. Accurate diagnosis of intra-thoracic disease in an RA patient can be difficult as the radiologic findings may be nonspecific and many of these conditions may coexist. This review article serves to highlight the multitude of RA-related intra-thoracic pathological processes, emphasize differential diagnosis, diagnostic conundrums and discuss how tailoring of CT imaging and image-guided biopsy plays a key role in the management of RA-related pulmonary disease. PMID:26210094

  13. A new marking technique for peripheral lung nodules avoiding pleural puncture: the intrathoracic stamping method.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Masaya; Okubo, Tetsuyuki; Poudel, Saseem; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawarada, Yo; Kitashiro, Shuji; Okushiba, Shunichi; Katoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    While performing thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung, the location of the lesion is generally identified by visual inspection or palpation. When difficulty in identification of the lesion by thoracoscopy is anticipated, preoperative marking is performed. However, complications and technical difficulties plague current marking techniques. To overcome this problem, we designed a new, safe and easy marking technique that avoids pleural puncture, called the intrathoracic stamping method.

  14. Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Huehuetenango Focus of Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Richards, Frank O.; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Dominguez, Alfredo; Oliva, Orlando; Catú, Eduardo; Rizzo, Nidia

    2012-01-01

    In Latin America, onchocerciasis is targeted for elimination by 2012 through twice-yearly mass treatment of the eligible population with ivermectin. In Guatemala, two of the four historical endemic foci have demonstrated elimination of transmission, following World Health Organization guidelines. Using established guidelines ophthalmological, serological, and entomological evaluations were conducted in 2007-8 to determine the transmission status of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus. The prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 365 residents was 0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.8%), the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus in Simulium ochraceum among 8252 flies collected between November 2007 and April 2008 was 0% (95% CI 0–0.02%), and the prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen in 3118 school age children was 0% (95% CI 0–0.1%). These results showed transmission interruption; thus, in 2009 mass treatment was halted and posttreatment surveillance began. To verify for potential recrudescence an entomological evaluation (from December 2010 to April 2011) was conducted during the 2nd and 3rd year of posttreatment surveillance. A total of 4587 S. ochraceum were collected, and the prevalence of infection of O. volvulus was 0% (95% CI 0–0.04%). Transmission of onchocerciasis in the Huehuetenango focus has been eliminated. PMID:22970346

  15. [Management of sigmoid volvulus in the tropical area of Thies (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Ba, P A; Diop, B; Soumah, S A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report our experience in the management of sigmoid volvulus in a tropical environment. This retrospective study covers the period from June 1, 2010, to December 31, 2013, in the department of emergency surgery at the regional hospital of Thiés: 40 patients were admitted with sigmoid volvulus: 36 men and 4 women, with a mean age of 45 years (20-89 years). Twelve had chronic constipation. All four signs of occlusion were present in 72.5% of cases. Abdominal radiography confirmed the diagnosis in all cases. The volvulus resolved spontaneously in one patient, while the other 39 required laparotomy: 25 had a one-stage colectomy, and 11 patients a sigmoidectomy with a temporary colostomy. Two patients underwent a sigmoidopexy, one with a simple closure of a perforated duodenal ulcer. The morbidity rate was 7.5%, due mainly to complications of infection. The mortality rate was 10%. After a mean follow-up of 2.77 months (range: 15 days-12 months), no recurrences were observed. Sigmoid volvulus is a common condition in Africa especially in younger patients. The diagnosis is easy, based on clinical and abdominal radiography findings. Several procedures have been described but the one-stage colectomy remains the method of choice, especially in tropical areas where socioeconomic conditions are difficult.

  16. Recurrent Intrathoracic Locking of the Scapula after Lung Cancer Resection and Combined Rib Resection

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Akinori; Ajiki, Takashi; Sekiya, Hitoshi; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent locking of the scapula in the thorax after combined lobectomy and thoracic wall resection for advanced lung cancer. The patient was a 52-year-old man with advanced spindle cell carcinoma in his right lung. He had undergone right lung lobectomy and thoracic wall excision (Th1–5). Intrathoracic repair had not been performed to address the defect in the thoracic wall. Two months after the operation he experienced sudden acute pain in the right shoulder. Three-dimensional computed tomography revealed locking of the scapula intrathoracically. The diagnosis was recurrent locking of the scapula in the thorax. He underwent conservative treatment. Because his symptoms were not alleviated and he continued to experience recurrent locking, we performed partial resection of the inferior part of the scapula. Although scapular locking diminished after this procedure, there were still some pain and “catching” between the scapula and the thoracic wall (T6) when he undertook certain movements. No further surgery could be performed, however, because the cancer from the primary lesion had recurred near the previously operated thoracic wall. A procedure for recurrent intrathoracic locking of the scapula was not successful in this case. PMID:28348908

  17. An intra-thoracic follicular carcinoma of thyroid: An uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kant, Surya; Srivastava, Anand; Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Husain, Nuzhat

    2017-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of thyroid is the second most common type of carcinoma of thyroid, and it may metastasize to bone, lung, brain, and skin. However, the initial presentation of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid as a large intrathoracic mass without any symptoms of thyroid gland enlargement and dysfunction is very rare. We hereby report a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with chief complaints of chest and low back pain. Preliminary evaluation led to the provisional diagnosis of left-sided intrathoracic mass with vertebral metastasis which was suspected to be a case of bronchogenic carcinoma with distant metastasis. Surprisingly, transthoracic biopsy and histopathology revealed metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid. This prompted us for a retrograde evaluation for a primary thyroid malignancy for which an ultrasound and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the neck was done which confirmed the presence of a solitary thyroid nodule. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed follicular carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological evaluation subsequent to total thyroidectomy revealed follicular carcinoma thyroid, further confirming the diagnosis. The patient was then referred to Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy for radionuclide ablation and chemotherapy. We chose to report this case because of its rare presentation as a large intrathoracic mass and the retrograde diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a rare case.

  18. An intra-thoracic follicular carcinoma of thyroid: An uncommon presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Surya; Srivastava, Anand; Kumar, Rahul; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Mishra, Anand Kumar; Husain, Nuzhat

    2017-01-01

    Follicular carcinoma of thyroid is the second most common type of carcinoma of thyroid, and it may metastasize to bone, lung, brain, and skin. However, the initial presentation of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid as a large intrathoracic mass without any symptoms of thyroid gland enlargement and dysfunction is very rare. We hereby report a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with chief complaints of chest and low back pain. Preliminary evaluation led to the provisional diagnosis of left-sided intrathoracic mass with vertebral metastasis which was suspected to be a case of bronchogenic carcinoma with distant metastasis. Surprisingly, transthoracic biopsy and histopathology revealed metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid. This prompted us for a retrograde evaluation for a primary thyroid malignancy for which an ultrasound and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the neck was done which confirmed the presence of a solitary thyroid nodule. Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed follicular carcinoma of thyroid. Histopathological evaluation subsequent to total thyroidectomy revealed follicular carcinoma thyroid, further confirming the diagnosis. The patient was then referred to Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy for radionuclide ablation and chemotherapy. We chose to report this case because of its rare presentation as a large intrathoracic mass and the retrograde diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of thyroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such a rare case. PMID:28360474

  19. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided aspiration and biopsy of intrathoracic lesions: Results of 265 procedures

    PubMed Central

    Neyaz, Zafar; Lal, Hira; Thakral, Anuj; Nath, Alok; Rao, Ram Naval; Verma, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Context: Percutaneous computed tomography (CT)-guided needle aspiration and biopsy technique have developed over time as a method for obtaining tissue specimen. Although this is a minimally invasive procedure, complications do occasionally occur. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and complications of 265 percutaneous CT-guided aspiration and biopsy procedures performed on various intrathoracic lesions. Settings and Design: Data of percutaneous CT-guided aspiration and biopsy procedures of intrathoracic lesions performed over a 4 year period were retrospectively analyzed. Subjects and Methods: Procedure details, radiological images, and pathological and microbiological reports were retrieved from radiology records and hospital information system. Technical success, diagnostic yield, and complication rates were calculated. Results: Total 265 procedures were performed for lung (n = 179), mediastinum (n = 73), and pleural lesions (n = 13). Diagnostic yield for lung, mediastinal, and pleural lesions was 80.7%, 74.2, and 75%, respectively, for core biopsy specimens. Major complication was noted in only one procedure (0.4%). Minor complications were noted in 13.6% procedures which could be managed conservatively. Conclusions: Percutaneous CT-guided aspiration and biopsy procedures for intrathoracic lesions are reasonably safe with good diagnostic yield. Complications are infrequent and conservatively managed in most of the cases. PMID:27890990

  20. Successful Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala Focus, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Rodrigo J.; Cruz-Ortiz, Nancy; Rizzo, Nidia; Richards, Jane; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Domínguez, Alfredo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Catú, Eduardo; Oliva, Orlando; Richards, Frank O.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of endemic foci. We evaluated whether transmission of onchocerciasis has been interrupted in the endemic focus of Escuintla-Guatemala in Guatemala, based on World Health Organization criteria for the certification of elimination of onchocerciasis. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted evaluations of ocular morbidity and past exposure to Onchocerca volvulus in the human population, while potential vectors (Simulium ochraceum) were captured and tested for O. volvulus DNA; all of the evaluations were carried out in potentially endemic communities (PEC; those with a history of actual or suspected transmission or those currently under semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin) within the focus. The prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior segment of the eye in 329 individuals (≥7 years old, resident in the PEC for at least 5 years) was 0% (one-sided 95% confidence interval [CI] 0–0.9%). The prevalence of antibodies to a recombinant O. volvulus antigen (Ov-16) in 6,432 school children (aged 6 to 12 years old) was 0% (one-sided 95% IC 0–0.05%). Out of a total of 14,099 S. ochraceum tested for O. volvulus DNA, none was positive (95% CI 0–0.01%). The seasonal transmission potential was, therefore, 0 infective stage larvae per person per season. Conclusions/Significance Based on these evaluations, transmission of onchocerciasis in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus has been successfully interrupted. Although this is the second onchocerciasis focus in Latin America to have demonstrated interruption of transmission, it is the first focus with a well-documented history of intense transmission to have eliminated O. volvulus. PMID:19333366

  1. Gastric suction

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric lavage; Stomach pumping; Nasogastric tube suction; Bowel obstruction - suction ... A tube is inserted through your nose or mouth, down the food pipe (esophagus), and into the stomach. Your ...

  2. Gastric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Rohewal, Upinder; Tangorra, Matthew; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Jamaican male presented with acute-onset, right-sided facial droop and slurred speech. He had an episode of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed on the second day of admission and endoscopy with biopsy of antral ulcer revealed gastric sarcoidosis. This case demonstrates the rare entity of gastric sarcoidosis presenting acutely with an upper GI bleed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16775918

  3. Rare small intestinal volvulus from entrapment in hepato-diaphragmatic adhesions in a 45-year-old lady

    PubMed Central

    Olaoye, Iyiade Olatunde; Adesina, Micheal Dapo

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal volvulus is rare in adults and rarely caused by string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Similar adhesions were described in Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. We report a 45-year-old lady with small intestinal volvulus from entrapment of a loop in string adhesions between the liver and the diaphragm. Her plain radiographs showed a significant shadow of the trapped loop. PMID:28003317

  4. Gastric involvement of sarcoidosis in a patient with multiple lung nodules

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Emel; Şen, Serdar; Coşkun, Adil; Meteoğlu, İbrahim; Demirtaş, Nimet; Çildağ, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder mostly could involve intrathoracic structures. The gastric involvement is rare and the symptoms may be non-specific. We herein report a case of a 56-year-old female patient who was admitted due to chest tightness and discomfort. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed bilaterally nodular lesions in the lower lobes of the lung and pleural effusion on the left side. Positron emission tomography/CT showed lung nodules and gastric involvement with mesenteric lymphadenomegalies with pathological uptake of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. Pathological examination of the lung biopsy taken by thoracotomy demonstrated non-caseating granulomas. The gastric biopsies taken by endoscopy also showed non-caseating granulomas consistent with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:26487882

  5. Spectrum of intra-thoracic lesion detected by computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration biopsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive procedure for diagnosing benign and malignant palpable lesions. For lesions that are not palpable or deep seated, FNAB can be performed under the guidance of radiological imaging. Our basic objective was to evaluate the spectrum of intrathoracic lesions by using Computed Tomography guided fine needle aspiration biopsy and evaluate its diagnostic yield. Methodology It was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Histopathology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, during the months of August 2011 and August 2012. All patients with pulmonary, mediastinal or paravertebral mass who underwent CT guided intrathoracic biopsy were included in this study. Fine needle aspiration biopsies were performed in the Radiology Department and specimen retrieved was sent in 10% buffered Formalin to the Histopathology Department. All the data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19.0. Results A total of 130 cases were evaluated, out of which 108 (83.1%) were pulmonary, 16 (12.3%) were mediastinal and 6 (4.6%) were paravertebral. Conclusive biopsies were possible in 113 cases, while 17 biopsies were inconclusive. In those that showed a conclusive diagnosis, 83.1% were neoplastic and 16.9% were non neoplastic. Of the neoplastic cases, 27 (20.8%) were adenocarcinomas, followed by squamous cell carcinomas (15.4%) and large cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified, (12.3%). Conclusion CT guided fine needle aspiration biopsy is a reliable tool for examination of intrathoracic lesions, with a high rate of conclusive diagnosis. PMID:23402220

  6. Radiographic, computed tomographic, and ultrasonographic findings with migrating intrathoracic grass awns in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Ryan M; Zwingenberger, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical, radiographic, and computed tomographic findings in dogs and cats with migrating intrathoracic grass awns. Thirty-five dogs and five cats with visual confirmation of a grass awn following surgery, endoscopy or necropsy, and histology were assessed. The medical records and all diagnostic imaging studies were reviewed retrospectively. Labrador Retrievers or English Pointers < 5 years of age, with a history of coughing and hyperthermia, were the most common presentations. Seventeen animals had an inflammatory leukogram of which 14 had a left shift or toxic neutrophils. Radiographs were performed in 38 animals and computed tomography (CT) in 14. Thoracic radiographs were characterized by focal pulmonary interstitial to alveolar opacities (n = 26) that occurred most commonly in the caudal (n = 19) or accessory lobes (n = 8). Additional findings included pneumothorax (n = 9), pleural effusion (n = 8), and pleural thickening (n = 7). Pulmonary opacities identified on radiographs correlated to areas of pneumonia and foreign body location. CT findings included focal interstitial to alveolar pulmonary opacities (n = 12) most commonly in the right caudal lung lobe (n = 9), pleural thickening (n = 11), mildly enlarged intrathoracic lymph nodes (n = 10), soft tissue tracking (n = 7) with enhancing margins (n = 4), pneumothorax (n = 6), pleural effusion (n = 4), and foreign body visualization (n = 4). Histologic diagnoses included pulmonary and mediastinal granulomas or abscesses, bronchopneumonia, and pleuritis. Migrating intrathoracic grass awns should be considered as a differential diagnosis in coughing, febrile animals with focal interstitial to alveolar pulmonary opacities, pleural effusion, pleural thickening, and/or pneumothorax on radiographs or CT.

  7. Gangrenous intrathoracic appendicitis, a rare cause of right-sided chest pain: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Schellhaas, Elisabeth; Döbler, Oliver; Kroesen, Anton-J; Buhr, Heinz-J; Hotz, Hubert G

    2010-09-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias are becoming increasingly common due to radiofrequency ablation of malignant liver tumors. Most patients eventually present with symptoms caused by bowel obstruction. A 54-year-old woman with pleuritic pain and fever had a right-sided enterothorax probably caused by hemihepatectomy several years before. The patient was diagnosed with perforated gangrenous intrathoracic appendicitis during an emergency laparotomy for suspected incarceration of her diaphragmatic hernia. She was treated with an appendectomy and suturing of her right hemidiaphragm. An acquired diaphragmatic hernia should therefore be surgically repaired as soon as it is diagnosed in order to avoid complications.

  8. [Tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes in children and adolescents: diagnosis and surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Kessel', M M; Perel'man, M I

    2008-01-01

    A hundred and seven children and adolescents with intrathoracic lymph node (LTLN) tuberculosis were operated on. Late diagnosis and long-term ineffective antituberculous therapy lead to the development of complicated forms of ITLN tuberculosis in 44% of children. Computed tomography significantly determines extent, localization, the state of the adjacent tissue, and the phase of a tuberculous process, evaluates the efficiency of antituberculosis therapy, and ascertains the optimum time of a surgical intervention. Surgical removal of the involved ITLN is a highly effective operation causing the minimum number of complications. Bilateral successive one-stage removal of the involved lymph nodes is possible in children with bilateral ITLN tuberculosis.

  9. [Surgical treatment for tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Kessel', M M; Agkatsev, T V; Lazareva, Ia V; Perel'man, M I

    2006-01-01

    Ninety-four children and adolescents with tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes (TITLN) were operated on. Late diagnosis and long-term ineffective antituberculous therapy (chemotherapy lasted 2-3 years in 29.8% and 4-5 years in 19.1%) lead to the occurrence of complicated forms of TITLN in 34% of children. Computed tomography (CT) reliably determines the extent, site, and phase of a tuberculous process, assesses the time course of changes in the efficiency of antituberculous therapy. CT aids in defining the optimal time of surgical interventions. Bilateral consecutive one-stage removal of affected lymph nodes is possible in children with bilateral TITLN.

  10. [Volvulus of the small bowel due to ascaris lumbricoides package: about a case].

    PubMed

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We report an exceptional case of a 7 year-old patient with necrotic small bowel volvulus due to adult ascaris lumbricoides. At the admission, the child had intestinal obstruction evolving since two days with alteration of general state. Abdominal radiography without preparation showed small bowel air-fluid levels and tiger-stripe appearance evoking the diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction associated with abdominal mass. After resuscitation, the surgical treatment consisted of laparotomy which showed necrotic volvulus of the terminal ileum containing adult ascaris lumbricoides. The patient underwent small bowel resection, approximately one meter of affected section was removed and then an ileostomy was performed. The evolution was favorable. The patient underwent ileorectal anastomosis four weeks later. After a 2 year follow-up period the child had no symptoms.

  11. Intussusception and volvulus secondary to jejunal adenocarcinoma in an adult Nigerian male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Okolo, C A; Afolabi, A O; Sahabi, S M

    2010-12-01

    A 31 year-old Nigerian man with jejuno-jejunal intussusception with the lead point being an adenocarcinoma complicated by small intestinal volvulus is presented. The subtle clinical features of an underlying small bowel malignancy were masked by the overwhelming clinical and radiological features of intussusception. rare case is reported to remind clinicians to have an increased index of suspicion of malignancy in patients who present with the usual features of chronic anemia, weight loss and loss of appetite with an intra-abdominal mass. The presentation of acute intestinal obstruction, with mesenteric vein thrombosis probably due to intussusception or volvulus should not however lower the suspicion. Histological evaluation of surgical biopsies is of immense importance.

  12. Volvulus de la vésicule biliaire: à propos d'une observation

    PubMed Central

    Tandian, Foulaké; Cissé, Mamadou; Touré, Alpha Oumar; Seck, Mamadou; Thiam, Ousmane; Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine

    2015-01-01

    Le volvulus de la vésicule biliaire (VVB) est une affection rare et de diagnostic difficile; le plus souvent per opératoire. Nous rapportons 1 cas de VVB avec gangrène de la vésicule biliaire chez un enfant de 10 ans. Le diagnostic a été porté à l'exploration chirurgicale réalisée en urgence pour un syndrome occlusif fébrile. Il s'agissait d'un volvulus total de la vésicule biliaire. A cette occasion, nous rappelons les aspects diagnostiques et thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:26140071

  13. [Gastric lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    1997-04-15

    The stomach is the most common site involved in primary gastrointestinal lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma originates from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue so called MALT. It comprises a group of distinctive clinicopathological entities which are important to take in account for clinical behavior. In recent years, new diagnostic tools and modern modes of treatment have improved their overall prognosis. One of the most exciting recent discoveries is the hypothesis that an infection by a bacterium. Helicobacter pylori has a decisive role in gastric lymphoma.

  14. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  15. [Gastric cleansing].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann Serret, Alina; Alcaraz Bravo, Judit; Carballo Alvarez, Montse; Fernández Vargas, Carmen

    2006-10-01

    Numerous cases in emergency wards are due to the ingestion of potentially toxic substances. One of the most utilized procedures under these circumstances is gastric cleansing. This procedure is a technique habitually practiced by nursing personnel but is not without its risks. Therefore, the motive of this article is to make known the indications, contraindications, related complications of gastric cleansing and its integral patient care process in order to offer quality care methods which enable their being performed in an effective and efficient manner, under the maximum security conditions with the minimum inconveniences for the patient while at the same time describing the system most commonly used by our service.

  16. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT), a resuscitation option for intra-thoracic foetal pathologies.

    PubMed

    Kern, C; Ange, M; Morales; Peiry, B; Pfister, R E

    2007-05-19

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is designed to guarantee sufficient oxygenation for a foetus at risk of airway obstruction. This is achieved by improving lung ventilation, usually by establishing an airway during caesarean delivery whilst preserving the foetal-placental circulation temporarily. Indications for the EXIT procedure have extended from its original use in reversing iatrogenic tracheal obstruction in congenital diaphragmatic hernia to naturally occurring upper airway obstructions. We report our experience with a new and rarely mentioned indication for the EXIT procedure, intra-thoracic volume expansions. The elaboration of lowest risk scenarios through balancing risks with alternative options, foetal or neonatal intervention and coordination between professionals from various disciplines are the most important conditions for a successful EXIT procedure. The EXIT procedure requires a caesarean section that specifically differs from the traditional caesarean section during which uterine tone is maintained to minimize maternal bleeding. To guarantee foetal oxygenation during the EXIT procedure, profound uterine relaxation is desired. To gain time with optimal placental oxygenation in order to safely perform an airway intervention in a baby at risk of hypoxia may require deep inhalation anaesthesia and/or tocolytic agents. We review the EXIT procedure and present a case series from the University Hospital of Geneva that contrasts with the common indication for the EXIT procedure usually based on upper airway obstruction by its exclusive indication for intra-thoracic malformations/diseases.

  17. Anaesthetic management of cytoreductive surgery followed by hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy perfusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Macroscopic cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy perfusion (HITHOC) is a new multimodal approach for selected patients with primary and secondary pleural tumors, which may provide the patient with better local tumor control and increased overall survival rate. Methods We present a single-center study including 20 patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and HITHOC between September 2008 and April 2013 at the University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany. Objective of the study was to describe the perioperative, anaesthetic management with special respect to pain and complication management. Results Anaesthesia during this procedure is characterized by increased intrathoracic airway and central venous pressure, hemodynamic alterations and the risk of systemic hypo- and hyperthermia. Securing an adequate intravascular volume is one of the primary goals to prevent decreased cardiac output as well as pulmonary edema. Transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) was necessary in seven of 20 (35%) patients. Only two patients (10%) showed an impairment of coagulation in postoperative laboratory analysis. Perioperative forced diuresis is recommended to prevent postoperative renal insufficiency. Supplementary thoracic epidural analgesia in 13 patients (65%) showed a significant reduction of post-operative pain compared with peroral administration of opioid and non-opioid analgesics. Conclusion This article summarizes important experiences of the anaesthesiological and intensive care management in patients undergoing HITHOC. PMID:25059994

  18. Development of a gastric pouch-aorto-colic fistula as a complication of a revisionary open roux-en-y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Mario Raul; Villalba, Mario Ramon

    2009-02-01

    A 45-year-old female presented with an enterocutaneous fistula and intraabdominal abscesses weeks after undergoing an open roux-en-y gastric bypass 20 years after a previous bariatric procedure. Initial management consisted of exploration with resection of the fistula, open abscess drainage, percutaneous drains, and culture-directed intravenous antibiotics. Months later, the patient developed a gastrocolic fistula and massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastro-aortic fistula. The patient underwent resection of the gastrocolic fistula followed by a damage control operation including a left thoracotomy with aortic cross-clamping for the gastro-aortic fistula. Final reconstruction necessitated an extra-anatomic opening in the diaphragm for creation of an intrathoracic esophagojejunostomy and marsupialization of the distal esophagus and gastric pouch with concomitant mucusectomy. This rare but devastating complication requires prompt surgical management. In the appropriate setting, a high suspicion must be maintained in order to act swiftly for the patient's benefit.

  19. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  20. An unusual case: a giant paraesophageal hiatal hernia with intrathoracic spleen, preduodenal portal vein, malrotation, and left inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Başaklar, A Can; Sönmez, Kaan; Karabulut, Ramazan; Türkyilmaz, Zafer; Moralioğlu, Serdar

    2007-12-01

    A giant paraesophageal hiatal hernia with preduodenal portal vein, nonrotating gut, intrathoracic spleen, and left inferior vena cava has not been reported to date. This set of complex anomalies can have significant clinical implications. Awareness of these anomalies is essential to avoid further complications.

  1. Characteristics of the turbulent laryngeal jet and its effect on airflow in the human intra-thoracic airways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Long; Tawhai, Merryn H; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A

    2007-08-01

    A computational fluid dynamics technique is applied to understand the relative importance of the upper and intra-thoracic airways and their role in determining central airflow patterns with particular attention paid to the importance of turbulence. The geometry of the human upper respiratory tract is derived from volumetric scans of a volunteer imaged via multidetector-row computed tomography. Geometry 1 consists of a mouthpiece, the mouth, the oropharynx, the larynx, and the intra-thoracic airways of up to six generations. Geometry 2 comprises only the intra-thoracic airways. The results show that a curved sheet-like turbulent laryngeal jet is observed only in geometry 1 with turbulence intensity in the trachea varying from 10% to 20%, whereas the turbulence in geometry 2 is negligible. The presence of turbulence is found to increase the maximum localised wall shear stress by three-folds. The proper orthogonal decomposition analysis reveals that the regions of high turbulence intensity are associated with Taylor-Görtler-like vortices. We conclude that turbulence induced by the laryngeal jet could significantly affect airway flow patterns as well as tracheal wall shear stress. Thus, airflow modeling, particularly subject specific evaluations, should consider upper as well as intra-thoracic airway geometry.

  2. Intrathoracic impedance vs daily weight monitoring for predicting worsening heart failure events: results of the Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST).

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Compton, Steven; Haas, Garrie; Foreman, Blair; Canby, Robert C; Fishel, Robert; McRae, Scott; Toledo, Gloria B; Sarkar, Shantanu; Hettrick, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of changes in intrathoracic impedance has not been compared with standard heart failure (HF) monitoring using daily weight changes. The Fluid Accumulation Status Trial (FAST) prospectively followed 156 HF patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator devices modified to record daily changes in intrathoracic impedance in a blinded fashion for 537±312 days. Daily impedance changes were used to calculate a fluid index that could be compared with a prespecified threshold. True positives were defined as adjudicated episodes of worsening HF occurring within 30 days of a fluid index above threshold or an acute weight gain. Unexplained detections were defined as threshold crossings or acute weight gains not associated with worsening HF. Impedance measurements were performed on >99% of follow-up days, compared with only 76% of days for weight measurements. Sixty-five HF events occurred during follow-up (0.32/patient-year). Forty HF events were detected by impedance but not weight, whereas 5 were detected by weight but not impedance. Sensitivity was greater (76% vs 23%; P<.0001) and unexplained detection rate was lower (1.9 vs 4.3/patient-year; P<.0001) for intrathoracic impedance monitoring at the threshold of 60Ω days compared with acute weight increases of 3 lbs in 1 day or 5 lbs in 3 days and also over a wide range of fluid index and weight thresholds. The sensitivity and unexplained detection rate of intrathoracic impedance monitoring was superior to that seen for acute weight changes. Intrathoracic impedance monitoring represents a useful adjunctive clinical tool for managing HF in patients with implanted devices.

  3. Vascular conditioning of the stomach before esophageal reconstruction by gastric interposition.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Duranceau, A; Ferraro, P; Martin, J; Liberman, M

    2012-01-01

    Gastric interposition with intrathoracic or cervical esophagogastrostomy is currently the preferred operation for reconstruction after esophagectomy. Anastomotic leaks however result from poor vascular supply to the proximal stomach. They are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. 'Ischemic conditioning' of the interposed stomach has been proposed as a technique where the 'delay phenomenon' aims at improving the microcirculation of the gastric conduit and preventing anastomotic leakage. Experimental observations and clinical studies have been conducted to document the immediate effects and results of this approach. The aim of this work is to review the principles, pathophysiology, experimental, and clinical evidence related to vascular conditioning of the stomach prior to esophagectomy with gastric interposition and esophagogastric anastomosis. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched to identify articles related to vascular conditioning of the stomach. Cross references were added and reviewed to complete the reference list. The anatomic basis of ischemic conditioning, the prevalence of ischemic events on the gastric conduit, the methodology to assess the microcirculation before and after gastric devascularization, animal experiments, and clinical studies reported on this approach were reviewed. Ten experimental works, eleven clinical observations, four reviews, and two editorial commentaries addressing ischemic conditioning of the stomach were identified and reviewed. Experimental observations document improved microcirculation to the proximal stomach following partial gastric devascularization. Clinical reports show the feasibility and relative safety of gastric ischemic conditioning. Preliminary observations suggest potential improvements to the gastric microcirculation resulting from gastric ischemic conditioning. This approach may help prevent complications at the esophagogastric anastomosis. The actual level of evidence however cannot promote its use

  4. Intrathoracic and venous pressure relationships during responses to changes in body position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avasthey, P.; Wood, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    Simultaneous end-expiratory pressures, referred to midthoracic level, in the superior and abdominal venae cavae, pericardial space, and right and left heart, were recorded without thoracotomy in three anesthetized dogs during sudden changes from supine to vertical head-up or head-down body positions. Intrathoracic and dependent great vein pressures referred to midchest level (sixth thoracic vertebra) decreased and showed simple hydrostatic gradients in either vertical position. However, a discontinuity in the large vein hydrostatic gradient occurred just distal to the superior margin of the thorax in either body position and was resumed again above this level. It is concluded that, just as the cerebrospinal fluid and intraperitoneal pressures minimize the effects of gravitational and inertial forces on the cerebral and visceral circulations, the pericardial and pleural pressures have a similar role for the heart proper.

  5. Intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis: appearance on /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid marrow scan

    SciTech Connect

    Bronn, L.J.; Paquelet, J.R.; Tetalman, M.R.

    1980-06-01

    Imaging of the bone marrow by radionuclide scanning was performed using colloids, which are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial cells of the marrow, or radioiron, which is incorporated into reticulocytes. The use of the former radiopharmaceutical is based on the assumption, generally valid except in aplastic states or after irradiation, that the distribution of hematopoietic and reticuloendothelial tissue in the marrow is similar. Regardless of the method used, active adult marrow is normally distributed only in the axial skeleton and proximal humeri and femurs. Marrow imaging has been used in the evaluation of myeloproliferative disorders, leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic states, malignancy metastatic to marrow, and hemolytic anemia. We report a case of thalassemia major in which the diagnosis of intrathoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis was confirmed with the /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid bone marrow scan.

  6. Intrathoracic extramedullary haematopoiesis complicated by massive haemothorax in alpha-thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K.; Lai, R.; Lee, C.; Lu, J.; Chang, H.; Chiang, H.

    1999-01-01

    Intrathoracic extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) is a rare entity that is usually asymptomatic. A 44 year old man with alpha-thalassaemia is described who developed dyspnoea and massive left sided haemothorax. The haemoglobin disorder was established by Hgb H staining and haemoglobin electrophoretic studies. The DNA analysis revealed it to be a case of double heterozygous terminal codon mutation with the genotype ααCS/ααT. Computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax showed multiple paravertebral masses which were found by thoracoscopic biopsy to be extramedullary haematopoiesis. Although no additional sclerosing pleurodesis or low dose radiation therapy was given, the lung expanded well and there has been no recurrence of haemothorax to date.

 PMID:10212116

  7. EPR spectroscopy solutions for assessment of decellularization of intrathoracic organs and tissues.

    PubMed

    Gubareva, E A; Kuevda, E V; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Sotnichenko, A S; Bolotin, S N; Gilevich, I V; Gumenyuk, I S; Macchiarini, P

    2016-03-01

    Using EPR spectroscopy it was established that the determination of the concentration of paramagnetic centers in lyophilized tissues allows indirect evaluation of the quality of decellularization of intrathoracic organs (diaphragm, heart, and lungs), since the content of paramagnetic particles in them can serve as a criterion of cell viability and points to the necessity to repeat decellularization. Experiments in rats showed that the EPR spectra of the native thoracic organs contained paramagnetic centers with g-factor values ranging from 2.007 to 2.011 at a concentration of 10(-8) to 6.62 × 10(-7) mol/g of lyophilized tissue, whereas in all decellularized tissues of the same organs paramagnetic particles were not detected.

  8. Volvulus du mesentere sur lipome mesenterique: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Dème, Hamidou; Badji, Nfally; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Draha, Ronald; Niang, Fallou Gallas; Diop, Abdoulaye Dione; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente de 7 ans qui a consulté pour une douleur abdominale aigue paroxystique siégeant au niveau de l'épigastre associée à des vomissements sans arrêt des matières et des gaz. L'examen clinique ainsi que le bilan biologique étaient sans particularité. L'échographie abdominale demandée en première intention a montré une masse du flanc et de la fosse iliaque droite échogène, homogène à contours réguliers sans signal vasculaire au Doppler associée à un signe du tourbillon des vaisseaux mésentériques. A la tomodensitométrie cette masse correspondait à une formation lipomateuse, bien limitée, exerçant un effet de masse sur le cœcum avec volvulus du mésentère au contact. La disposition des vaisseaux mésentériques à leur origine était normale. Le diagnostic de volvulus du mésentère sur lipome a été retenu. La prise en charge chirurgicale et l'analyse anatomopathologique de la pièce opératoire a confirmé le diagnostic. Nous allons à travers ce cas clinique revoir l'apport de l'échographie et du scanner dans le diagnostic de volvulus du mésentère. PMID:28250879

  9. Acute gastric incarceration from thoracic herniation in pregnancy following laparoscopic antireflux surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brygger, Louise; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Harbo, Frederik Severin Gråe; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2013-01-01

    Diaphragmatic hernia is a rare complication in pregnancy which due to misdiagnosis or management delays may be life-threatening. We report a case of a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy who presented with sudden onset of severe epigastric and thoracic pain radiating to the back. Earlier in the index pregnancy, she had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery (ARS) for a hiatus hernia because of severe gastro-oesophageal reflux. Owing to increasing epigastric pain a CT scan was carried out which diagnosed wrap disruption with gastric herniation into the thoracic cavity and threatened incarceration. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of severe adverse outcome after ARS during pregnancy, with acute intrathoracic gastric herniation. We recommend the avoidance of ARS in pregnancy, and the need to advise women undergoing ARS of the postoperative risks if pregnancy occurs within a few years of ARS. PMID:23378556

  10. Neonatal intestinal volvulus and preduodenal portal vein associated with situs ambiguus: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Nakano, Miwako; Yamazawa, Kazuki; Maeyama, Katsuhiro; Endo, Masao

    2011-05-01

    Situs ambiguus is a rare lateralization anomaly that is frequently associated with other malformations, including preduodenal portal vein (PDPV), intestinal malrotation, and cardiovascular anomalies. This is a case report on a newborn that was clinically diagnosed with situs ambiguus and midgut volvulus. During surgery the patient was found to have intestinal malrotation, Meckel's diverticulum, and PDPV that was not a direct cause of duodenal obstruction. The patient was treated with Ladd's procedure and resection of Meckel's diverticulum. It is important to be familiar with the spectrum of situs anomalies to prevent trauma to the portal vein with serious complications during surgery.

  11. Imperforate Anus with Jejunal Atresia Complicated by Intestinal Volvulus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Hae Soo; Guerrero, Alexandra Leon; Tomita, Sandra; Kuenzler, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal malformations (ARMs) commonly co-occur with other congenital anomalies, particularly VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheal, esophageal, renal, limb, and duodenal) associations. However, this collection of associations is not comprehensive, and other concurrent anomalies may exist that can be missed during the standard work-up of patients with ARMs. We present a rare case of a neonate with a low ARM with concurrent jejuno-ileal atresia that was diagnosed after the correction of the ARM when the patient developed segmental volvulus. This case illustrates the importance of having a high index of suspicion when deviation from a classic presentation occurs. PMID:27896167

  12. Total management of short gut secondary to midgut volvulus without prolonged total parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Tepas, J J; MacLean, W C; Kolbach, S; Shermeta, D W

    1978-12-01

    Absorption studies in rats have shown that intestinal adaptation after catastrophic injury can be stimulated by early enteral feeding. Using this concept, we have devised a technique of early initiation and advancement of oral feedings that begins with Cho-Free and Polycose and gradually adds sucrose and MCT in increasing proportions. The increasing complexity and caloric density of this diet provide sufficient nutrition to allow weaning from total parenteral alimentation within 2--3 wk. Our preliminary experience in babies with midgut volvulus, necrotizing enterocolitis, and gastroschisis has been successful and uncomplicated. These patients have demonstrated consistent weight gain and have been spared the complications associated with prolonged parenteral alimentation.

  13. Gallbladder Volvulus in a Patient with Type I Choledochal Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Younan, George; Schumm, Max

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Gallbladder volvulus is a rare, potentially fatal condition unless diagnosed and treated early. Choledochal cysts are rare congenital malformations of the biliary tree predisposing to different pathologies and posing the risk of degradation into cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer. Dealing with both diseases at once has not been published yet in the literature. Presentation of Case. We report a case of gallbladder volvulus in an elderly female who happened to have a concomitant type I choledochal cyst. Treatment was achieved with a cholecystectomy and observation and follow-up of the choledochal cyst. Discussion. Prompt diagnosis and surgical management of gallbladder volvulus is important to avoid the morbidity and mortality of gangrenous cholecystitis and biliary peritonitis in a frail old population of patients. Precise clinical diagnosis, supplemented with specific imaging clues, helps in the diagnosis. Management of choledochal cysts is also surgical; however the timing of surgery is still a matter of debate. Conclusion. We describe in this report the first case of gallbladder volvulus in a patient with a choledochal cyst and propose a management algorithm of a very rare biliary tree pathology combination. PMID:27747125

  14. Prevalence of Antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus in Residents of Oaxaca, Mexico, Treated for 10 Years with Ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Priego, Alberto; Mendoza, Raymundo; de-la-Rosa, Jorge-Luis

    2005-01-01

    Studies to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus, prior to and after actions carried out to interrupt transmission, are scarce in Mexico. Here we report the prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG4 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against a crude extract of O. volvulus adult worm in serum samples from persons under noninterrupted biannual treatment with ivermectin in areas of onchocercosis endemicity in Mexico. To perform the prevalence studies, the ELISA procedures were first evaluated. Serological studies were performed with serum samples from skin microfilaria carriers from Guatemala and from people microfilariodermic negative living in the same area as the Guatemalan patients. Sensitivity values for IgG or IgG4 detection were 71 and 86%, while specificities were 92 and 100%, respectively. No anti-O. volvulus antibodies were found in samples from nonendemic controls from Mexico, but 3 of 71 samples from residents in the onchocercosis area of Oaxaca, Mexico, and who have been under ivermectin treatment during the last 10 years were only positive to IgG. Notwithstanding that the IgG4 isotype was not detected and a low (4.2%) anti-O. volvulus IgG antibody prevalence was found, a seroepidemiological follow-up must be performed in order to confirm interruption of onchocercosis transmission in the area of Oaxaca, Mexico, in which onchocercosis is endemic. PMID:15642982

  15. Volvulus du grêle sur paquet d’ascaris: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Cheikh; Kane, Ahmed; Ndoye, Ndeye Aby; Ndour, Oumar; Faye-Fall, Aimé Lakh; Fall, Mbaye; Alumeti, Désiré Munyali; Ngom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel de volvulus nécrosé de l'intestin grêle dû à des ascaris adultes chez un enfant de 7 ans. A l'admission, l'enfant présentait le tableau d'occlusion intestinale qui évoluait depuis deux jours avec altération de l'état général. La radiographie de l'abdomen sans préparation retrouvait des niveaux hydroaériques de type grêlique et un aspect tigré évoquant le diagnostic d'une occlusion intestinale haute sur masse abdominale. Après la réanimation, le traitement chirurgical consistait en une laparotomie qui avait retrouvé un volvulus nécrosé de l'iléon terminale contenant des ascaris adultes. Une résection du grêle sur environ un mètre emportant le segment nécrosé suivie d'une iléostomie était réalisée. L'évolution a été favorable, l'anastomose iléo-colique fut réalisée quatre semaines plus tard. Au recul de deux ans l'enfant est indemne de tout symptôme. PMID:27795803

  16. Criteria for the differentiation between young and old Onchocerca volvulus filariae.

    PubMed

    Specht, Sabine; Brattig, Norbert; Büttner, Marcelle; Büttner, Dietrich W

    2009-11-01

    Drugs exist that show long-lasting inhibition of embryogenesis and microfilaria production or macrofilaricidal activity against Onchocerca volvulus. Therefore, the patients have to be followed-up for several years. Clinical drug trials have to be performed in areas with ongoing transmission to assess the efficacy on younger worms. In addition, future vaccine trials may also require demonstrating efficacy against establishment of new worms. For the evaluation of the efficacy, it is necessary to differentiate between older worms, which were exposed to the drug, and younger worms newly acquired after drug treatment or vaccination. Here, we describe criteria for the differentiation between young and old filariae based on histological studies of worms with a known age from travellers, or from children, or patients living in areas with interrupted transmission in Burkina Faso, Ghana or Uganda. Older worms were larger and presented degenerated tissues. Gomori's iron stain showed that the worms accumulated more iron with increasing age, first in the gut and later in other organs. Using an antibody against O. volvulus lysosomal aspartic protease, the gut of young worms was stained only weakly; whereas, it was stronger labelled in older worms, accompanied by additional staining of hypodermis and epithelia. Using morphological and immunohistological criteria, it was possible to differentiate young (1-3 years old) from older females and to identify young males.

  17. Efficacy of intrathoracic impedance and remote monitoring in patients with an implantable device after the 2011 great East Japan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shinya; Kamiyama, Yoshiyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have revealed that stress after catastrophic disasters can trigger cardiovascular events, however, little is known about its association with the occurrence of heart failure in past earthquakes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, increased the incidence of worsening heart failure in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with implantable devices. Furthermore, we examined whether intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring was effective for the management of CHF.We enrolled 44 CHF patients (32 males, mean age 63 ± 12 years) with implantable devices that can check intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring. We defined the worsening heart failure as accumulated impedance under reference impedance exceeding 60 ohms-days (fluid index threshold), and compared the incidence of worsening heart failure and arrhythmic events 30 days before and after March 11.Within the 30 days after March 11, 10 patients exceeded the threshold compared with only 2 patients in the preceding 30 days (P < 0.05). Although 9 patients using remote monitoring among the 10 patients with threshold crossings were not hospitalized, one patient without the system was hospitalized due to acute decompensated heart failure. On the contrary, arrhythmic events did not change between before and after March 11.Our results suggest that earthquake-induced stress causes an increased risk of worsening heart failure without changes in arrhythmia. Furthermore, intrathoracic impedance using remote monitoring may be a useful tool for the management of CHF in catastrophic disasters.

  18. Contribution of rostral fluid shift to intrathoracic airway narrowing in asthma.

    PubMed

    Bhatawadekar, Swati A; Inman, Mark D; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Tarlo, Susan M; Lyons, Owen D; Keller, Gabriel; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2017-04-01

    In asthma, supine posture and sleep increase intrathoracic airway narrowing. When humans are supine, because of gravity fluid moves out of the legs and accumulates in the thorax. We hypothesized that fluid shifting out of the legs into the thorax contributes to the intrathoracic airway narrowing in asthma. Healthy and asthmatic subjects sat for 30 min and then lay supine for 30 min. To simulate overnight fluid shift, supine subjects were randomized to receive increased fluid shift out of the legs with lower body positive pressure (LBPP, 10-30 min) or none (control) and crossed over. With forced oscillation at 5 Hz, respiratory resistance (R5) and reactance (X5, reflecting respiratory stiffness) and with bioelectrical impedance, leg and thoracic fluid volumes (LFV, TFV) were measured while subjects were seated and supine (0 min, 30 min). In 17 healthy subjects (age: 51.8 ± 10.9 yr, FEV1/FVC z score: -0.4 ± 1.1), changes in R5 and X5 were similar in both study arms (P > 0.05). In 15 asthmatic subjects (58.5 ± 9.8 yr, -2.1 ± 1.3), R5 and X5 increased in both arms (ΔR5: 0.6 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 0.8 cmH2O·l(-1)·s(-1), ΔX5: 0.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.9 cmH2O·l(-1)·s(-1)). The increases in R5 and X5 were 2.3 and 3.7 times larger with LBPP than control, however (P = 0.008, P = 0.006). The main predictor of increases in R5 with LBPP was increases in TFV (r = 0.73, P = 0.002). In asthmatic subjects, the magnitude of increases in X5 with LBPP was comparable to that with posture change from sitting to supine (1.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 0.9 cmH2O·l(-1)·s(-1), P = 0.32). We conclude that in asthmatic subjects fluid shifting from the legs to the thorax while supine contributed to increases in the respiratory resistance and stiffness.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In supine asthmatic subjects, application of positive pressure to the lower body caused appreciable increases in respiratory system resistance and stiffness. Moreover, these changes in respiratory mechanics correlated positively with

  19. Chronic Gastric Ischemia Leading to Gastric Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Lundsmith, Emma; Zheng, Matthew; McCue, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension presented with 3 months of diffuse abdominal pain that worsened with meals, weight loss, and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography revealed findings consistent with chronic gastric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis. Gastric ischemia eventually led to perforation. We discuss causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of gastric ischemia, an underdiagnosed and potentially fatal condition that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28119945

  20. [Acute gastric volvulus: late complication of Nissen fundoplication. Report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zamorano, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el vólvulo gástrico puede clasificarse por su etiología en primario o secundario, por su anatomía en órgano axial o mesentérico axial y por su presentación en crónico o agudo. El tratamiento del vólvulo gástrico secundario agudo siempre debe ser quirúrgico y la elección del procedimiento basarse en la etiología y en los casos asociados con cirugía previa será importante la lisis de adherencias y el retiro de cuerpos extraños (material de sutura, mallas, banda gástrica). La funduplicatura Nissen es un procedimiento seguro y efectivo que rara vez puede tener complicaciones tardías severas entre las que se encuentran el vólvulo gástrico. Objetivo: comunicar 2 casos y revisar la bibliografía médica. Casos clínicos: se describen 2 casos de vólvulo gástrico agudo secundarios a funduplicatura tipo Nissen laparoscópica, con síntomas de dolor epigástrico y vómito no productivo, ambos tratados por laparoscopia. Se revisan los síntomas de presentación, incidencia, diagnóstico, tratamiento y los factores predisponentes de vólvulo gástrico postfunduplicatura. Conclusión: el vólvulo gástrico rara vez puede ser una complicación de una funduplicatura Nissen con incidencia similar a la de otras de sus complicaciones tardías. Los mecanismos descritos que lo originan se relacionan con adherencias postquirúrgicas, material de sutura (poliéster), mallas, tubos de gastrostomía, gastropexia y por herniación gástrica interna a través del túnel "transfunduplicatura." En pacientes con síntomas de obstrucción gástrica dentro del primer año posterior a una funduplicatura Nissen laparoscópica se requiere un alto índice de sospecha. El tratamiento quirúrgico laparoscópico es seguro con o sin gastropexia para corregir los mecanismos que lo originan.

  1. Spiral computed tomographic scanning of the chest with three dimensional imaging in the diagnosis and management of paediatric intrathoracic airway obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Sagy, M.; Poustchi-Amin, M.; Nimkoff, L.; Silver, P.; Shikowitz, M.; Leonidas, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The usefulness of spiral computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest with three dimensional imaging (3D-CT) of intrathoracic structures in the diagnosis and management of paediatric intrathoracic airway obstruction was assessed. METHODS: A retrospective review was made of five consecutive cases (age range six months to four years) admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit and paediatric radiology division of a tertiary care children's hospital with severe respiratory decompensation suspected of being caused by intrathoracic large airway obstruction. Under adequate sedation, the patients underwent high speed spiral CT scanning of the thorax. Non-ionic contrast solution was injected in two patients to demonstrate the anatomical relationship between the airway and the intrathoracic large vessels. Using computer software, three-dimensional images of intrathoracic structures were then reconstructed by the radiologist. RESULTS: In all five patients the imaging results were useful in directing the physician to the correct diagnosis and appropriate management. In one patient, who had undergone repair of tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve, the 3D-CT image showed bilateral disruptions in the integrity of the tracheobronchial tree due to compression by a dilated pulmonary artery. This patient underwent pulmonary artery aneurysmorrhaphy and required continued home mechanical ventilation via tracheostomy. In three other patients with symptoms of lower airway obstruction the 3D-CT images showed significant stenosis in segments of the tracheobronchial tree in two of them, and subsequent bronchoscopy established a diagnosis of segmental bronchomalacia. These two patients required mechanical ventilation and distending pressure to relieve their bronchospasm. In another patient who had undergone surgical repair of intrathoracic tracheal stenosis three years prior to admission the 3D-CT scan ruled out restenosis as the reason for her acute respiratory

  2. Immunoglobulin G subclass responses of children during infection with Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed Central

    Gbakima, A A; Nutman, T B; Bradley, J E; McReynolds, L A; Winget, M D; Hong, Y; Scott, A L

    1996-01-01

    To characterize the patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass and IgE reactivity during the early stages of onchocerciasis, sera were collected from 224 children (age groups, 2 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years) residing in a region of Sierra Leone where Onchocerca volvulus is endemic, and these samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for their reactivity to adult antigens (OvAg) and against four recombinant proteins (OV11, OV27, OV29, and OV16). Over 88% of the samples contained detectable levels of anti-OvAg IgG. In samples from microfilaria (MF)-positive children, IgG4 responses were significantly elevated and constituted on average 39, 35 and 28% of the total IgG responses for the age groups of 2 to 5, 6 to 10, and 11 to 15 years, respectively. For MF-negative individuals, the mean contributions of IgG4 to the total IgG response were 11% (2 to 5 years), 27% (6 to 10 years), and 56% (11 to 15 years). OvAg-specific IgE was detectable in the sera from both MF-negative and MF-positive individuals. To increase the specificity of the response, recombinant antigens OV11, OV27, and OV29 were tested individually or as a cocktail. Nearly 50% of the MF-negative children and 85% of the MF-positive children had detectable levels of IgG against at least one of the recombinant antigens. Only a small portion of the IgG against the recombinant peptides was IgG4. The prevalence of IgG against OV16 in samples from MF-negative children was 51%, and that for MF-positive children was 75%. The general profile of the humoral immune responses mounted by both MF-positive and a large percentage of the MF-negative children during the initial phases of infection with O. volvulus is similar to the profile reported for adults harboring chronic O. volvulus infections. These results suggest that very quickly after infection, the interactions between parasite and host result in an immunological environment that may contribute to the maintenance of a long-term, chronic

  3. Surgical treatment of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome with intra-thoracic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Hang, Junbiao; Che, Jiaming; Chen, Zhongyuan; Qiu, Weicheng; Ren, Jian; Yang, Xiaoqing; Xiang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The study was to review the clinical manifestations and laboratory examinations of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, and to analyze the efficacy of surgical treatment. Methods The clinical data, surgical therapy, and outcome of 23 cases of ectopic ACTH syndrome accompanied by intra-thoracic tumors were reviewed. The tumors were removed from all the patients according to the principles of radical resection. Results The tumors were confirmed as associated with ectopic ACTH secretion in 19 cases. Hyperglycemia and hypokalemia were recovered, while plasma cortisol, plasma ACTH and 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels were significantly reduced after surgery in these 19 cases. Recurrences of the disease were found in six cases during following-up, and five of them died. Conclusions The thoracic cavity should be a focus in routine examinations of patients with symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome (CS), because ectopic ACTH-producing tumors are commonly found in bronchus/lung and mediastinum. Despite the incidence of the pulmonary nodule secondary to opportunistic infection in some cases, surgery is still the first choice if the tumor is localized. The surgical procedure should be performed according to the principles in resection of lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. The surgical efficacy is significant for short-term periods; however, the recurrence of the disease in long-term periods is in great part related to distal metastasis or relapse of the tumor. PMID:27162663

  4. Necrotic gangrenous intrathoracic appendix in a marfanoid adult patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Mohannad J; Vickers, Jon H

    2005-01-01

    Background A diaphragmatic hernia is defined as a defect in part of the diaphragm through which abdominal contents can protrude into the thorax. It may be congenital or acquired. In this case report, we aim to demonstrate a congenital diaphragmatic hernia in an adult marfanoid patient which required emergency treatment Case presentation A 43 year old woman was admitted with classical appendicitis requiring surgery. She incidentally had Marfan's clinical features with a positive family history for the syndrome. At operation she had grossly abnormal abdominal anatomy. Radiological investigations demonstrated a large right congenital diaphragmatic hernia with an intrathoracic hernial sac containing a perforated gangrenous appendix. The hernial sac was opened surgically and the appendix excised. The patient made a full recovery. Conclusion Diaphragmatic hernias are usually congenital in nature often requiring early corrective surgery for future survival. We have demonstrated the presence of an unusually large diaphragmatic defect, almost a hemidiaphragmatic defect, of unknown direct etiology, but of some possible association with Marfan's syndrome in an adult patient presenting with an acute perforated gangrenous appendix requiring emergency life-saving surgery. PMID:15762981

  5. Prediction of quantitative intrathoracic fluid volume to diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Urooj, Shabana; Khan, M; Ansari, A Q; Lay-Ekuakille, Aimé; Salhan, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is a life-threatening disease that requires special attention in the area of research and clinical diagnosis. Computer-based techniques are rarely used to quantify the intrathoracic fluid volume (IFV) for diagnostic purposes. This paper discusses a software program developed to detect and diagnose pulmonary oedema using LabVIEW. The software runs on anthropometric dimensions and physiological parameters, mainly transthoracic electrical impedance (TEI). This technique is accurate and faster than existing manual techniques. The LabVIEW software was used to compute the parameters required to quantify IFV. An equation relating per cent control and IFV was obtained. The results of predicted TEI and measured TEI were compared with previously reported data to validate the developed program. It was found that the predicted values of TEI obtained from the computer-based technique were much closer to the measured values of TEI. Six new subjects were enrolled to measure and predict transthoracic impedance and hence to quantify IFV. A similar difference was also observed in the measured and predicted values of TEI for the new subjects.

  6. Recurrent pleural effusion without intrathoracic migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chuen-im, Piyaporn; Smyth, Matthew D; Segura, Bradley; Ferkol, Thomas; Rivera-Spoljaric, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting, usually due to the migration of the VP shunt catheter into the thorax. Herein we report a neurologically disadvantaged child with a lobar holoprosencephaly and hydrocephalus, initially treated with a VP shunt, who years later developed recurrent right-sided pleural effusion ultimately confirmed to be a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrothorax without intra-thoracic migration of the distal shunt catheter. Thoracentesis was compatible with a transudative effusion. Given the presence of a persistent pleural effusion, beta-2 transferrin concentrations were measured, which yielded a positive result. Plain radiographs and head computed tomography (CT) showed a normally positioned, functional VP shunt. A spine CT myelogram to look for a spinal dural-thoracic CSF fistula was negative. A radionuclide CSF shunt study demonstrated normal functioning VP shunt with radiotracer accumulation within the peritoneum, with subsequent tracer rapidly accumulating in the right hemithorax. Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) exploration with drainage of the pleural effusion and pleurodesis was then performed. No diaphragmatic defect or shunt tubing within the thorax was found and the procedure failed to resolve the effusion. The patient's recurrent effusion was ultimately resolved with intracranial endoscopic choroid plexus coagulation to decrease CSF output.

  7. Effect of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) on the malignant pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Wu, Wei; Tang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Jianying; Shen, Yihong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been widely used to treat malignant ascites or as a preventive strategy for microscopic carcinomatosis following surgical resection of abdominal tumors, application of hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion is limited. The objective of the current study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the application of HITHOC in the palliative treatment of malignant pleural effusion. Methods: After thorough searching of online databases, total 27 articles were included into qualitative systematic review and 5 of them were used to conduct qualitative meta-analysis. Results: It was found that most of HITHOC was used in combination of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) including pleurectomy/decortication or after surgical resection of primary tumors, which mainly were lung cancer, thymoma or thymic carcinoma, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Patients who received HITHOC had significantly longer median survival length compared to the patients without HITHOC (Hedges g = 0.763, P < 0.001). In addition, HITHOC therapy was favored (Hedges g = 0.848, P < 0.001) in terms of median survival length, tumor-free survival rate, with tumor survival rate or Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scale. Conclusion: HITHOC is a safe and effective therapy in controlling pleural effusion and increasing patient's survival rate. PMID:28072694

  8. [Effectiveness of chemotherapy of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children: late follow-up data].

    PubMed

    Iukhimenko, N V

    2001-01-01

    Clinical and X-ray studies were made in 148 children 2-10 years after hospital treatment to evaluate the stability of clinical recovery by the frequency of relapses in relation to the use of different drug treatment regimens. Children from an experimental group (n = 75) received shorter chemotherapy with 3-4 drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide in uncomplicated tuberculosis plus streptomycin in complicated one) in the intensive phase of chemotherapy. Pyrazinamide was not used in the intensive phase in the control group (n = 73). Long-term follow-ups showed a high efficiency of shorter chemotherapy regimens in treating intrathoracic tuberculosis in children since they do not lead to the higher incidence of recurrences--2.7% in both groups. The latter occurred in adolescents who had severe residual changes, who had been irregularly followed up at the tuberculosis control dispensary after hospital discharge, who had not received seasonal preventive chemotherapy courses, and who had experienced complicated, generalized or acute tuberculosis.

  9. Gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Ovali, Gülgün Yilmaz; Tarhan, Serdar; Serter, Selim; Pabuşçu, Yüksel

    2005-06-01

    Gastric stromal tumors are rare neoplasms of the stomach. In this report we present a gastric stromal tumor with an exophytic growth pattern, and describe magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography findings.

  10. Differential cytokine and antibody responses to adult and larval stages of Onchocerca volvulus consistent with the development of concomitant immunity.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Angus J; Turaga, Prasad S D; Harmon-Brown, Carolyn; Tierney, Tracy J; Bennett, Kristine E; McCarthy, Maggie C; Simonek, Scott C; Enyong, Peter A; Moukatte, Daniel W; Lustigman, Sara

    2002-06-01

    The possibility of concomitant immunity and its potential mechanisms in Onchocerca volvulus infection were examined by analyzing cytokine and antibody responses to infective larval (third-stage larvae [L3] and molting L3 [mL3]), adult female worm (F-OvAg), and skin microfilaria (Smf) antigens in infected individuals in a region of hyperendemicity in Cameroon as a function of age. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell interleukin 5 (IL-5) responses to F-OvAg and Smf declined significantly with age (equivalent to years of exposure to O. volvulus). In contrast, IL-5 secretion in response to L3 and mL3 remained elevated with increasing age. Gamma interferon responses to L3, mL3, and F-OvAg were low or suppressed and unrelated to age, except for responses to Smf in older subjects. IL-10 levels were uniformly elevated, regardless of age, in response to L3, mL3, and F-OvAg but not to Smf, for which levels declined with age. A total of 49 to 60% of subjects had granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor responses to all O. volvulus antigens unrelated to age. Analysis of levels of stage-specific immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) and IgE revealed a striking, age-dependent dissociation between antibody responses to larval antigens (L3 and a recombinant L3-specific protein, O. volvulus ALT-1) which were significantly increased or maintained with age and antibody responses to F-OvAg, which decreased. Levels of IgG1 to L3 and F-OvAg were elevated regardless of age, and levels of IgG4 increased significantly with age, although not to O. volvulus ALT-1, which may have unique L3-specific epitopes. Immunofluorescence staining of whole larvae showed that total anti-L3 immunoglobulin levels also increased with the age of the serum donor. The separate and distinct cytokine and antibody responses to adult and infective larval stages of O. volvulus which are age related are consistent with the acquisition of concomitant immunity in infected individuals.

  11. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Justin L, Regner Angela, Lomas

    2016-03-25

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.

  12. Interruption of Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Rodríguez-Morales, Kristel B.; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel C.; Prado-Velasco, Francisco Gibert

    2013-01-01

    Background The Southern Chiapas focus of onchocerciasis in Southern Mexico represents one of the major onchocerciasis foci in Latin America. All 559 endemic communities of this focus have undergone semi-annual mass treatment with ivermectin since 1998. In 50 communities of this focus, ivermectin frequency shifted from twice to four times a year in 2003; an additional 113 communities were added to the quarterly treatment regimen in 2009 to achieve a rapid suppression of transmission. Methodology/Principal findings In-depth epidemiologic and entomologic assessments were performed in six sentinel communities (which had undergone 2 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year) and three extra-sentinel communities (which had undergone 4 rounds of ivermectin treatment per year). None of the 67,924 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected from this focus during the dry season of 2011 were found to contain parasite DNA when tested by polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA), resulting in an upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (95%-ULCI) of the infective rate in the vectors of 0.06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age group) revealed that 2/4,230 individuals were exposed to O. volvulus (0.05%; one sided 95% confidence interval = 0.08%). Conclusions/Significance The in-depth epidemiological and entomological findings from the Southern Chiapas focus meet the criteria for interruption of transmission developed by the international community. PMID:23556018

  13. [Gastric and intestinal bezoars].

    PubMed

    Larbi, Noureddine; Kaâbi, Samarra; Ben Salah, Khiareddine

    2003-12-01

    The authors report a retrospective study of 10 cases of gastric and small bowel bezoars. There was one gastric trichobezoar diagnosed by an abdominal mass and 9 small bowel obstruction due to phytobezoars. All patients underwent surgery: the gastric trichobezoar was removed through a gastrotomy; small bowel bezoars were treated either by enterotomy (n = 3), fragmentation (n = 5) or bowel resection (n = 1). Non operative treatment is efficient in gastric phytobezoars. Surgery is advisable for trichobezoars and small bowel bezoars. Prevention is main and patients who have gastric surgery must be alarmed from consumption of cactus in our country Tunisia.

  14. Intrathoracic and intraabdominal wall implantation of a centrifugal blood pump for circulatory assist.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Y; Taenaka, Y; Chikanari, K; Okuzono, Y; Nishimura, T; Endo, S; Nakatani, T; Takano, H

    1998-06-01

    An implantable centrifugal pump (ICP) 320 ml in volume and 830 g in weight has been developed for prolonged circulatory assist. The antithrombogenicity of the ICP is provided by a balancing hole in the center of the impeller. The watertightness and histocompatibility of the ICP are supported by its silicone ring seal and its casing of titanium and acrylic resin, respectively. The total efficiency of the ICP was 30% at a 5 L/min flow rate and a 100 mm Hg head. The heat generation, watertightness, and anatomical fitting of the ICP were assessed in an intrathoracic implantation in a goat (66 kg) and in an intraabdominal wall implantation in a goat (70 kg). Warfarin was given for anticoagulation in each experiment to keep the prothrombin time around 1.7 times that of the control. The temperatures of the pump surface, the pleura, and the room were measured every 3 h. Anatomical fitting was evaluated by pathological observation after the termination of the experiment. The ICP could run for 40 days in the chest cavity and for 11 days in the abdominal wall. The temperature of the motor remained about 1.8 degrees C higher than the reference in both experiments. The ICP was completely covered by a layer of smooth fibrous tissue. The moisture content of the seals remained normal. Although a small amount of atelectasis was found in the lingula, neither lung adhesion nor necrotic change of the chest wall was observed. The inflammation of the surrounding tissue including foreign body reaction and thermal burn was minimal. In conclusion, the ICP has satisfied in vivo testing of its watertightness, exothermicity, and anatomical fitting.

  15. The mitochondrial heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is up-regulated in Onchocerca volvulus after the depletion of Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Pfarr, K M; Heider, U; Schmetz, C; Büttner, D W; Hoerauf, A

    2008-04-01

    Wolbachia, a genus of endosymbiotic bacteria of filarial worms, represent novel targets for anti-filarial therapy. The efficacy of compounds against Wolbachia has been evaluated using antiserum raised against the 60 kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) which binds specifically to this protein in both Wolbachia and mitochondria. It has been shown that Wolbachia stains (using such specific probes) stronger than the mitochondria in untreated Onchocerca volvulus, whereas after the depletion of Wolbachia (with drugs) staining of the mitochondria is increased. Herein, immunogold electron microscopy showed that specific anti-HSP60 serum specifically labelled Wolbachia and filarial mitochondria, and that both have distinct localization patterns, thus allowing them to be differentiated. Immunohistochemistry of O. volvulus showed that HSP60 staining is increased in the mitochondria after Wolbachia depletion in the hypodermis, epithelia, muscles, oocytes, embryos, and developing spermatozoa. This could have been the result of the antiserum preferentially binding to the Wolbachia when they are present or due to increased expression of the protein in the absence of the bacteria. To address this, mRNA levels of filarial hsp60 in O. volvulus were measured. After the depletion of Wolbachia, the transcription of hsp60 was significantly greater (7.7 fold) compared with untreated worms. We hypothesize that the increased expression of HSP60 in the absence of Wolbachia is due to a disruption of the homeostasis of the endosymbiosis.

  16. Fetal Midgut Volvulus with a Cystic Appearance, Accompanying a Sinus Rhythm and an Increased Peak Systolic Velocity without Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Metin; Oksuzoglu, Aysegul; Kaba, Gokcen; Timur, Hakan; Akbaba, Eren; Turgut, Kadriye

    2015-01-01

    A midgut volvulus rarely occurs in a fetus; however, when it does, it requires an immediate diagnosis and surgery. Thirty-week pregnant was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of a fetal abdominal cystic mass and preterm labor. The initial ultrasound examination revealed a female fetus with a 55 × 50 mm cystic mass in the lower abdomen, which was preliminarily diagnosed as an ovarian cyst. There was a sinusoidal rhythm on cardiography. The middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity was 60.4 cm/sec, compatible with 1.49 MoMs that suggested fetal anemia on Doppler examination. Uterine contractions were observed with tocography and maternal hydration was administered for tocolytic treatment. Despite hydration, uterine contractions continued and the infant was delivered. A newborn ultrasonographic evaluation revealed a 6 cm abdominal cyst, and plain abdominal radiographs revealed distended loops of the small bowel on the left side. Emergency surgery was performed. A midgut volvulus leading to dilatation and necrosis of the small bowel without anatomical causes was observed during laparotomy. The necrotic bowel loop was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The newborn died due to multiorgan failure. Obstetricians should be familiar with the appropriate diagnosis and management of a fetal volvulus. PMID:26779358

  17. Immunological crossreactivity between a cloned antigen of Onchocerca volvulus and a component of the retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major blinding disease in Africa, Central America, and South America. Loss of vision can be due to corneal change, optic atrophy, or chorioretinal disease. It has been suggested that autoimmunological reactions resulting from crossreactivity between parasite antigens and components of eye tissues contribute to development of ocular pathology. Using sera collected from onchocerciasis patients as a screening reagent, a cDNA clone (Ov39) has been isolated from a lambda gt11 expression library of Onchocerca volvulus. This antigen exhibits immunological crossreactivity with a component of retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE). Antiserum raised against this recombinant peptide immunoprecipitates a 22,000 Mr antigen of adult O. volvulus and recognizes a 44,000 Mr component of bovine RPE by Western blotting. A 44,000 Mr antigen of cultured human RPE metabolically labeled with 35S- methionine can be immunoprecipitated with the same antiserum. An antigen of the same size is recognized by a rabbit antiserum raised against whole O. volvulus extract. Immunocytochemical studies on cryostat sections of the bovine eye using the antirecombinant sera localizes this antigen to the RPE. PMID:2056276

  18. Sigmoid volvulus during pregnancy: A rare non-obstetric complication. Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al Maksoud, Ahmed M.; Barsoum, Adel K.; Moneer, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sigmoid volvulus is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction during pregnancy associated with high maternal and foetal mortality. Effective management represents a challenge due to delayed presentation, obstructive symptoms regarded as pregnancy-related and hesitation in using radiological evaluation. Presentation of case We report a case of a lady, pregnant for 26 weeks and with a 5 day history of abdominal pain and constipation. She underwent concomitant caesarean section and laparotomy for intestinal obstruction. Intra-operatively, the sigmoid colon was extensively dilated and gangrenous. The ischemic colon was resected and a Hartmann’s procedure was performed. A preterm male child was delivered and admitted to neonatal intensive care. The post operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged home on the 9th post-operative day. Six months later she underwent an uneventful reversal of the Hartmann’s procedure. Discussion Sigmoid volvulus is the most common cause of bowel obstruction during pregnancy, accounting for up to 44% of reported cases. We have reviewed the available literature on this topic and present another case managed at our institution. Conclusion Diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus in pregnancy is a challenge, but a delay in diagnosis increases the rates of feto-maternal mortality. A high incidence of clinical suspicion and timely surgical intervention are the key to a favourable outcome. PMID:26551555

  19. Volvulus - childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the abdomen Nausea or vomiting Shock Vomiting green material Symptoms are very often severe. The infant in such cases is taken to the emergency room. Early treatment can be critical for survival.

  20. Gastric syphilis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Tais Ferreira; Novis, Camila Freitas Lobo; Bottino, Caroline Bertolini; D'Acri, Antonio Macedo; Lima, Ricardo Barbosa; Martins, Carlos José

    2016-01-01

    Gastric syphilis is an uncommon extracutaneous manifestation of syphilis, occurring in less than 1% of patients, presenting nonspecific clinical manifestations. In general, it occurs on secondary stage. The critical point is the recognition of the syphilitic gastric involvement, without which there may be incorrect diagnosis of malignancy of the digestive tract. In this report, a case of secondary syphilis with gastric involvement that had complete remission with benzathine penicillin will be described. PMID:27828649

  1. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  2. Cross-sectional study of the association of abomasal displacement or volvulus with serum electrolyte and mineral concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Lecaroz, R; Warnick, L D; Guard, C L; Smith, M C; Barry, D A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate serum mineral and electrolyte concentrations at the time of on-farm diagnosis of left displaced abomasum, right displaced abomasum, or abomasal volvulus in dairy cows. Data were collected from 104 affected cows and 96 control cows matched with cases, based on herd, parity, and stage of lactation. Cows with abomasal displacement or volvulus had significantly lower calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride concentrations and increased anion gap at the time of diagnosis compared with control cows from the same herds. The percentages of cases and controls with total serum calcium concentrations below the lower limit of the laboratory reference range (2.08 mmol/L [8.3 mg/dL]) were 70% and 23%, respectively. Based on the large percentage of cases with hypocalcemia, administering calcium salts at the time of treatment of field cases of abomasal displacement or volvulus may be beneficial. PMID:10769767

  3. Lack of Active Onchocerca volvulus Transmission in the Northern Chiapas Focus of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Morales-Castro, Alba L.; Richards, Frank; Peña-Flores, Graciela P.; Orozco-Algarra, María Eugenia; Prado-Velasco, Gibert

    2010-01-01

    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment. No evidence of microfilariae in the cornea and/or anterior chamber of the eye or in skin snips was seen in residents examined in 2006 in two sentinel communities (upper limit of the 95% confidence interval [UL 95% CI] = 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively). In children 10 and under, 0 of 305 were found to harbor antibodies to Ov16, a marker of parasite exposure; 0 of 4,400 Simulium ochraceum s.l. collected in 2005 contained parasite DNA, giving an UL 95% CI for the infective rate of 0.9/2,000, and an UL 95% CI of the seasonal transmission potential of 1.2 L3/person. These data, assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus. Community-wide treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2008, and a post-treatment surveillance phase was initiated. PMID:20595471

  4. Identification of three immunodominant motifs with atypical isotype profile scattered over the Onchocerca volvulus proteome

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Stuyver, Lieven J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune response upon infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the mechanisms that evolved in this parasite to evade immune mediated elimination is essential to expand the toolbox available for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines development. Using high-density peptide microarrays we scanned the proteome-wide linear epitope repertoire in Cameroonian onchocerciasis patients and healthy controls from Southern Africa which led to the identification of 249 immunodominant antigenic peptides. Motif analysis learned that 3 immunodominant motifs, encompassing 3 linear epitopes, are present in 70, 43, and 31 of these peptides, respectively and appear to be scattered over the entire proteome in seemingly non-related proteins. These linear epitopes are shown to have an atypical isotype profile dominated by IgG1, IgG3, IgE and IgM, in contrast to the commonly observed IgG4 response in chronic active helminth infections. The identification of these linear epitope motifs may lead to novel diagnostic development but further evaluation of cross-reactivity against common co-infecting human nematode infections will be needed. PMID:28125577

  5. Identification of three immunodominant motifs with atypical isotype profile scattered over the Onchocerca volvulus proteome.

    PubMed

    Lagatie, Ole; Van Dorst, Bieke; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune response upon infection with the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the mechanisms that evolved in this parasite to evade immune mediated elimination is essential to expand the toolbox available for diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines development. Using high-density peptide microarrays we scanned the proteome-wide linear epitope repertoire in Cameroonian onchocerciasis patients and healthy controls from Southern Africa which led to the identification of 249 immunodominant antigenic peptides. Motif analysis learned that 3 immunodominant motifs, encompassing 3 linear epitopes, are present in 70, 43, and 31 of these peptides, respectively and appear to be scattered over the entire proteome in seemingly non-related proteins. These linear epitopes are shown to have an atypical isotype profile dominated by IgG1, IgG3, IgE and IgM, in contrast to the commonly observed IgG4 response in chronic active helminth infections. The identification of these linear epitope motifs may lead to novel diagnostic development but further evaluation of cross-reactivity against common co-infecting human nematode infections will be needed.

  6. Viability of adult Onchocerca volvulus after six 2-weekly doses of ivermectin.

    PubMed Central

    Duke, B. O.; Pacqué, M. C.; Muñoz, B.; Greene, B. M.; Taylor, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Ivermectin is a safe, effective microfilaricide and microfilarial suppressant for Onchocerca volvulus; but in single doses of 100-200 micrograms/kg body weight it has no macrofilaricidal action. The present trial aimed to determine whether 6 doses of 100 micrograms/kg ivermectin, given at 2-week intervals, would kill the adult worms. Eighty-two nodules from 28 otherwise healthy adult male Liberian patients treated with this ivermectin schedule, and 102 nodules from a similar group of 25 control patients, were removed four months after the last dose of ivermectin. They were coded and assessed in a masked fashion either by routine histology or by examination of whole worms extracted from the nodules after collagenase digestion. The drug had no visible effect on adult male worms. More adult female worms were assessed as moribund or dead in the ivermectin-treated group than in the control group (for the collagenase digests P = 0.09; for the histological assessment P = 0.47). The data suggest that repeated dosage with ivermectin may lead to a slow attrition of some female worms and this possibility should be investigated in patients receiving regular doses every 3, 6 or 12 months as part of onchocerciasis control programmes. PMID:1860146

  7. [The epidemiological significance of neo-natal parasitism with microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Prost, A; Gorim de Ponsay, E

    1979-12-01

    Between April 1977 and June 1978, 214 babies born of 210 mothers infected with Onchocerciasis, were examined at the maternity of Po Hospital (Upper Volta). In four of them (1.9%) dermal microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus were found during the first week after birth. In two other cases microfilariae were seen in the tissue of the umbilical cord. All specimens from placentas and amniotic fluid gave negative results. The infected babies were reexamined monthly monthly from 2 to 18 months, depending on the cases. One child remained positive until the 6th month follow-up. The base-line examination of 5.757 children less than 2 years old from different villages in the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin Area showed that 1% of children less than one year old and 2% of children of 12 to 23 months old were carriers of dermal microfilariae. These results indicate that in meso- or hyperendemic areas children less than one year old and carriers of microfilariae of Onchocerca volbulus may have been infected in utero. The existence of such cases, in an area of vector control, does not prove a residual vector borne transmission.

  8. Pediatric primary gastric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Laszewski, M J

    1992-04-01

    Primary gastric lymphoma in the pediatric population is rare. We have described a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Burkitt's type) manifested as a gastric mass. Despite its rarity in children, this tumor should be treated aggressively, since long-term survival has been reported.

  9. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  10. Oligonucleotide Based Magnetic Bead Capture of Onchocerca volvulus DNA for PCR Pool Screening of Vector Black Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Hemavathi; Hassan, Hassan K.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Toé, Laurent D.; Lustigman, Sara; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Entomological surveys of Simulium vectors are an important component in the criteria used to determine if Onchocerca volvulus transmission has been interrupted and if focal elimination of the parasite has been achieved. However, because infection in the vector population is quite rare in areas where control has succeeded, large numbers of flies need to be examined to certify transmission interruption. Currently, this is accomplished through PCR pool screening of large numbers of flies. The efficiency of this process is limited by the size of the pools that may be screened, which is in turn determined by the constraints imposed by the biochemistry of the assay. The current method of DNA purification from pools of vector black flies relies upon silica adsorption. This method can be applied to screen pools containing a maximum of 50 individuals (from the Latin American vectors) or 100 individuals (from the African vectors). Methodology/Principal Findings We have evaluated an alternative method of DNA purification for pool screening of black flies which relies upon oligonucleotide capture of Onchocerca volvulus genomic DNA from homogenates prepared from pools of Latin American and African vectors. The oligonucleotide capture assay was shown to reliably detect one O. volvulus infective larva in pools containing 200 African or Latin American flies, representing a two-four fold improvement over the conventional assay. The capture assay requires an equivalent amount of technical time to conduct as the conventional assay, resulting in a two-four fold reduction in labor costs per insect assayed and reduces reagent costs to $3.81 per pool of 200 flies, or less than $0.02 per insect assayed. Conclusions/Significance The oligonucleotide capture assay represents a substantial improvement in the procedure used to detect parasite prevalence in the vector population, a major metric employed in the process of certifying the elimination of onchocerciasis. PMID:22724041

  11. [A case of intrathoracic dumb-bell ganglioneuroma and a surgical approach using spinal evoked potentials (SEP)].

    PubMed

    Ojika, T; Imaizumi, M; Watanabe, H; Nishimura, M; Sakakibara, M; Mizuno, S; Watanabe, T; Hiroura, M; Abe, T; Kato, F

    1993-10-01

    A successfully treated case of a seven-year-old girl with a left intrathoracic Dumb-bell ganglioneuroma is reported. The tumor was 10 cm in diameter. Preoperative angiography revealed that the location of tumor was very close to the Adamkiewicz artery. In order to prevent the artery from damaging, spinal evoked potentials (SEP) was used during the surgery and was very useful for monitoring the spinal cord. Although SEP has often been employed in spine surgery, the literature on the use of it for posterior mediastinal tumor is scarce. It is considered that SEP is very useful for not damaging the feeding artery to the spinal cord, and for preventing the postoperative neurologic complications.

  12. A dose-response curve for the negative bias pressure of an intrathoracic pressure regulator during CPR.

    PubMed

    Babbs, Charles F; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2006-12-01

    An intrathoracic pressure regulator (ITPR) is a device that can be added to the external end of a tracheal tube to create controlled negative airway pressure between positive pressure ventilations. The resulting downward bias of the airway pressure baseline promotes increased venous return and enhanced circulation during CPR and also during hypovolemic shock. In the present study, we exercised a mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system, including airways, lungs, a four chambered heart, great vessels, peripheral vascular beds, and the biomechanics of chest compression and recoil, to determine the relationship between systemic perfusion pressure during CPR and the value of baseline negative airway pressure in an ITPR. Perfusion pressure increases approximately 50% as baseline airway pressure falls from zero to -10 cm H2O. Thereafter perfusion pressure plateaus. Negative bias pressures exceeding -10 cm H2O are not needed in ITPR-CPR.

  13. Imaging Review of Procedural and Periprocedural Complications of Central Venous Lines, Percutaneous Intrathoracic Drains, and Nasogastric Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Irion, Klaus L.; Allen, Carolyn; de Godoy, Daniel Marafiga; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2012-01-01

    Placements of central venous lines (CVC), percutaneous intrathoracic drains (ITDs), and nasogastric tubes (NGTs) are some of the most common interventional procedures performed on patients that are unconscious and in almost all intensive care/high dependency patients in one form or the other. These are standard procedures within the remit of physicians, and other trained health professionals. Procedural complications may occur in 7%–15% of patients depending upon the intervention and experience of the operator. Most complications are minor, but other serious complications may add significantly to morbidity and even mortality of already compromised patients. Imaging findings are the key to the detection of misplaced lines, and tubes and their prompt recognition are vital to avoid harm to the patient. It is, therefore, pertinent that healthcare professionals who perform these procedures are familiar with imaging complications of these procedures. Here, we present the imaging characteristics of procedural complications. PMID:22970363

  14. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies.

  15. Stage-Specific Transcriptome and Proteome Analyses of the Filarial Parasite Onchocerca volvulus and Its Wolbachia Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Cotton, James A.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Grote, Alexandra; Harsha, Bhavana; Holroyd, Nancy; Mhashilkar, Amruta; Molina, Douglas M.; Randall, Arlo Z.; Shandling, Adam D.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Ghedin, Elodie; Berriman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a neglected tropical disease that has been successfully targeted by mass drug treatment programs in the Americas and small parts of Africa. Achieving the long-term goal of elimination of onchocerciasis, however, requires additional tools, including drugs, vaccines, and biomarkers of infection. Here, we describe the transcriptome and proteome profiles of the major vector and the human host stages (L1, L2, L3, molting L3, L4, adult male, and adult female) of Onchocerca volvulus along with the proteome of each parasitic stage and of its Wolbachia endosymbiont (wOv). In so doing, we have identified stage-specific pathways important to the parasite’s adaptation to its human host during its early development. Further, we generated a protein array that, when screened with well-characterized human samples, identified novel diagnostic biomarkers of O. volvulus infection and new potential vaccine candidates. This immunomic approach not only demonstrates the power of this postgenomic discovery platform but also provides additional tools for onchocerciasis control programs. PMID:27881553

  16. Modulation of human T cell responses and macrophage functions by onchocystatin, a secreted protein of the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed

    Schönemeyer, A; Lucius, R; Sonnenburg, B; Brattig, N; Sabat, R; Schilling, K; Bradley, J; Hartmann, S

    2001-09-15

    Immune responses of individuals infected with filarial nematodes are characterized by a marked cellular hyporesponsiveness and a shift of the cytokine balance toward a Th2/Th3 response. This modulation of cellular immune responses is considered as an important mechanism to avoid inflammatory immune responses that could eliminate the parasites. We investigated the immunomodulatory potential of a secreted cysteine protease inhibitor (onchocystatin) of the human pathogenic filaria Onchocerca volvulus. Recombinant onchocystatin (rOv17), a biologically active cysteine protease inhibitor that inhibited among others the human cysteine proteases cathepsins L and S, suppressed the polyclonally stimulated and the Ag-driven proliferation of human PBMC. Stimulated as well as unstimulated PBMC in the presence of rOv17 produced significantly more IL-10, which was paralleled in some situations by a decrease of IL-12p40 and preceded by an increase of TNF-alpha. At the same time, rOv17 reduced the expression of HLA-DR proteins and of the costimulatory molecule CD86 on human monocytes. Neutralization of IL-10 by specific Abs restored the expression of HLA-DR and CD86, whereas the proliferative block remained unaffected. Depletion of monocytes from the PBMC reversed the rOv17-induced cellular hyporeactivity, indicating monocytes to be the target cells of immunomodulation. Therefore, onchocystatin has the potential to contribute to a state of cellular hyporesponsiveness and is a possible pathogenicity factor essential for the persistence of O. volvulus within its human host.

  17. Quantitative aspects of the infection of Simulium ochraceum by Onchocerca volvulus: the relation of skin microfilarial density to vector infection.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C C; Collins, R C; Huong, A Y; Marroquin, H F

    1980-12-01

    In Guatemala, 16 wild Simulium ochraceum were permitted to feed on a 15" x 15" grid on the back of each of 13 persons infected with Onchocerca volvulus. Based on 6 skin biopsies, the mean microfilarial density (mfd) in these study participants ranged from 1.256 mf/mg of skin to 111.824 mf/mg. The files were dissected 6 to 10 hours after feeding and the number of microfilariae in the blood meal and escaping the midgut into the thoracic musculature were counted. A nearly linear relationship was found between the mean skin mfd and the mean microfilarial uptake by S. ochraceum (rs = 0.868). An even stronger relation existed between the mean mfd and the mean number of microfilariae escaping the midgut (rs = 0.915). Because the approximate 1:1 relationship observed between the number of microfilariae escaping the midgut and the subsequent number of infective (L3) larvae has been previously demonstrated, it can be concluded that a similar linear relationship exists between microfilarial skin densities and the number of L3 larvae available for transmission of O. volvulus by the Guatemalan vector.

  18. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  19. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... or "sleeve" out of the rest. The new, banana-shaped stomach is much smaller than the original ... of your stomach, leaving you with a smaller banana-shaped stomach called the gastric sleeve. Because it's ...

  20. Gastric bypass surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... your legs to help prevent blood clots from forming. You will receive shots of medicine to prevent ... diversion with duodenal switch Dumping syndrome References Buchwald H. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. In: Buchwald ...

  1. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  2. Ongoing Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus after 25 Years of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatments in the Vina du Nord River Valley, in North Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Albert; Achukwi, Mbunkah Daniel; Renz, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports of transmission interruption of Onchocerca volvulus, the causing agent of river blindness, in former endemic foci in the Americas, and more recently in West and East Africa, raise the question whether elimination of this debilitating disease is underway after long-term treatment of the population at risk with ivermectin. The situation in Central Africa has not yet been clearly assessed. Methods and findings Entomologic data from two former endemic river basins in North Cameroon were generated over a period of 43 and 48 months to follow-up transmission levels in areas under prolonged ivermectin control. Moreover, epidemiologic parameters of animal-borne Onchocerca spp. transmitted by the same local black fly vectors of the Simulium damnosum complex were recorded and their impact on O. volvulus transmission success evaluated. With mitochondrial DNA markers we unambiguously confirmed the presence of infective O. volvulus larvae in vectors from the Sudan savannah region (mean Annual Transmission Potential 2009–2012: 98, range 47–221), but not from the Adamawa highland region. Transmission rates of O. ochengi, a parasite of Zebu cattle, were high in both foci. Conclusions/significance The high cattle livestock density in conjunction with the high transmission rates of the bovine filaria O. ochengi prevents the transmission of O. volvulus on the Adamawa plateau, whereas transmission in a former hyperendemic focus was markedly reduced, but not completely interrupted after 25 years of ivermectin control. This study may be helpful to gauge the impact of the presence of animal-filariae for O. volvulus transmission in terms of the growing human and livestock populations in sub-Saharan countries. PMID:26926855

  3. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  4. A Recombinant Positive Control for Serology Diagnostic Tests Supporting Elimination of Onchocerca volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric J.; Yokobe, Lindsay; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Peck, Roger; Valdez, Melissa; Steel, Cathy; Karabou, Potochoziou; Banla, Méba; Soboslay, Peter T.; Adade, Kangi; Tekle, Afework H.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Fischer, Peter U.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Serological assays for human IgG4 to the Onchocerca volvulus antigen Ov16 have been used to confirm elimination of onchocerciasis in much of the Americas and parts of Africa. A standardized source of positive control antibody (human anti-Ov16 IgG4) will ensure the quality of surveillance data using these tests. Methodology/Principal Findings A recombinant human IgG4 antibody to Ov16 was identified by screening against a synthetic human Fab phage display library and converted into human IgG4. This antibody was developed into different positive control formulations for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) platforms. Variation in ELISA results and utility as a positive control of the antibody were assessed from multiple laboratories. Temperature and humidity conditions were collected across seven surveillance activities from 2011–2014 to inform stability requirements for RDTs and positive controls. The feasibility of the dried positive control for RDT was evaluated during onchocerciasis surveillance activity in Togo, in 2014. When the anti-Ov16 IgG4 antibody was used as a standard dilution in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) ELISAs, the detection limits were approximately 1ng/mL by HRP ELISA and 10ng/mL by AP ELISA. Positive control dilutions and spiked dried blood spots (DBS) produced similar ELISA results. Used as a simple plate normalization control, the positive control antibody may improve ELISA data comparison in the context of inter-laboratory variation. The aggregate temperature and humidity monitor data informed temperature parameters under which the dried positive control was tested and are applicable inputs for testing of diagnostics tools intended for sub-Saharan Africa. As a packaged positive control for Ov16 RDTs, stability of the antibody was demonstrated for over six months at relevant temperatures in the laboratory and for over 15 weeks under field conditions. Conclusions The

  5. A review on gastric diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The gastric fundal diverticulae are rare. They can present with variable symptoms. We are enclosing a literature review on gastric fundal diverticulum. Lessons have emerged which may help in the management of this rare condition in future. PMID:22257431

  6. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  7. Primary gastric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Akwaa, Ahmad M; Siddiqui, Neelam; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this review is to describe the various aspects of primary gastric lymphoma and the treatment options currently available. METHODS: After a systematic search of Pubmed, Medscape and MDconsult, we reviewed and retrieved literature regarding gastric lymphoma. RESULTS: Primary gastric lymphoma is rare however, the incidence of this malignancy is increasing. Chronic gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been considered a major predisposing factor for MALT lymphoma. Immune histochemical marker studies and molecular biology utilizing polymerase chain reaction have facilitated appropriate diagnosis and abolished the need for diagnostic surgical resection. Advances in imaging techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Endoscopic Ultrasonography (EUS) have helped evaluation of tumor extension and invasion. The clinical course and prognosis of this disease is dependent on histopathological sub-type and stage at the time of diagnosis. Controversy remains regarding the best treatment for early stages of this disease. Chemotherapy, surgery and combination have been studied and shared almost comparable results with survival rate of 70%-90%. However, chemotherapy possesses the advantage of preserving gastric anatomy. Radiotherapy alone has been tried and showed good results. Stage IIIE, IVE disease treatment is solely by chemotherapy and surgical resection has been a remote consideration. CONCLUSION: We conclude that methods of diagnosis and staging of the primary gastric lymphoma have dramatically improved. The modalities of treatment are many and probably chemotherapy is superior because of high success rate, preservation of stomach and tolerable complications. PMID:14695759

  8. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  9. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  10. Intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with transhiatal herniation of the pancreas and duodenum: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Tarkan; Neureiter, Daniel; Nawara, Clemens; Dinnewitzer, Adam; Öfner, Dietmar; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is an extremely rare condition. In the published literature we found only eleven cases reported in the period of 1958 to 2011. A coincidental hiatal herniation of the duodenum is described in two cases only. To our knowledge, we report the first case with a hiatal herniation of the complete duodenum and proximal pancreas presenting an intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with consecutive intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis. A 72-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our department with a hiatal hernia grade IV for further evaluation. According to our recommendation of surgical hernia repair soon after the diagnosis of a transhiatal herniation of the proximal pancreas and entire duodenum, we had to respect the declared intention of the patient for a conservative procedure. So we were forced to wait for surgical repair within an emergency situation complicated by a myocardial infarction and reduced general condition. We discuss the therapeutic decision making process and a complete literature review of this rare entity. PMID:23805366

  11. Insights from internet-based remote intrathoracic impedance monitoring as part of a heart failure disease management program.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Wilfried; Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Verga, Tanya; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Changes in intrathoracic impedance (Z) leading to crossing of a derived fluid index (FI) threshold has been associated with heart failure (HF) hospitalization. The authors developed a remote monitoring program as part of HF disease management and prospectively examined the feasibility and resource utilization of monitoring individuals with an implanted device capable of measuring Z. An HF nurse analyzed all transmitted data daily, as they were routinely uploaded as part of quarterly remote device monitoring, and called the patient if the FI crossed the threshold (arbitrarily defined at 60 Omega) to identify clinically relevant events (CREs) that occurred during this period (eg, worsening dyspnea or increase in edema or weight). A total of 400 uploads were completed during the 4-month study period. During this period, 34 patients (18%) had an FI threshold crossing, averaging 0.52 FI threshold crossings per patient-year. Thirty-two of 34 patients contacted by telephone (94%) with FI threshold crossing had evidence of CREs during this period. However, only 6 (18%) had HF hospitalizations, 19 (56%) had reported changes in HF therapy, and 13 (38%) reported drug and/or dietary plan nonadherence. The average data analysis time required was 30 min daily when focusing on those with FI threshold crossing, averaging 8 uploads for review per working day and 5 telephone follow-ups per week. Our pilot observations suggested that Internet-based remote monitoring of Z trends from existing device interrogation uploads is feasible as part of a daily routine of HF disease management.

  12. Enteric Duplication Cyst Leading to Volvulus: An Unusual Cause of Acute Intestinal Obstruction – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nyuwi, Kuotho T; Singh, Chabungbam Gyan; Sangtam, Ty Apila; Varte, Lalhruaitluanga

    2016-01-01

    Enteric Duplication Cysts (EDC) is a rare congenital malformation, usually found in mesenteric side of Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Generally patients present with non-specific symptoms depending on size and location of the cyst in GI tract. EDC presenting as small bowel volvulus is a rare clinical entity. Herein, we are reporting a 16-year-old adolescent girl who presented to Emergency Department (ED) with the features of acute bowel obstruction with septicemia. Patient underwent exploratory laparotomy which revealed dilated, twisted, gangrenous bowel due to a cystic lesion adjacent to the mesenteric side. Resection of the cystic lesion along with the affected gangrenous segment of bowel with an end to end anastomosis performed. PMID:28208934

  13. Sigmoid colon morphology in the population groups of Durban, South Africa, with special reference to sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Madiba, T E; Haffajee, M R

    2011-05-01

    Sigmoid volvulus demonstrates geographical, racial, and gender variation. This autopsy study was undertaken to establish morphological differences of the sigmoid colon and its mesocolon in which the length and other characteristics were assessed. A total of 590 cadavers were examined (403 African, 91 Indian, and 96 White). Length and height of the sigmoid colon and mesocolon were significantly longer in Africans, and mesocolon root was significantly narrower in Africans. Mesocolic ratio for Africans, Indians, and Whites was 1.1 ± 0.8, 1.8 ± 0.7, and 1.9 ± 1.0, respectively. Africans had a significantly high incidence of redundant sigmoid colon with the long-narrow type and suprapelvic position predominating (P = 0.003); the opposite applied to the classic type. There was no difference in sigmoid colon length, mesocolon height, and width between males and females in all population groups. Among Africans, the long-narrow type was more common in males, and the classic and long-broad types were more common in females. Splaying of teniae coli and thickening of the mesentery were more common in Africans. Tethering of the sigmoid colon to the posterior abdominal wall was less common in Africans compared with other population groups. In conclusion, the sigmoid colon was longer, and the sigmoid mesocolon root was narrower in Africans compared with the other population groups, and the sigmoid colon had a suprapelvic disposition among Africans. In Africans, the sigmoid colon was longer in males with a long-narrow shape. These differences may explain geographical and racial differences in sigmoid volvulus.

  14. Detection and comparison of nitric oxide in clinically healthy horses and those with naturally acquired strangulating large colon volvulus

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) is present in clinically healthy horses (control) under basal conditions, and if it increases secondary to naturally acquired strangulating large colon volvulus (affected). Eleven affected horses and 10 controls were studied. Jugular venous blood, abdominal fluid, and urine were collected. The NO concentrations were standardized to the creatinine concentration in the respective samples. A biopsy specimen collected from the large colon pelvic flexure at surgery was divided into subsections for processing for inducible nitric synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NT) immunohistochemical staining and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase histochemical staining. There were no significant differences in plasma, abdominal fluid, or urine NO concentrations between affected and control horses. There was a significant decrease in submucosal arteriolar and venular endothelium, submucosal plexus, mucosal leukocyte, mucosal and musclaris vasculature, and myenteric plexus NADPH diaphorase staining in affected versus control horses. There was a significant increase in iNOS staining in mucosal leukocytes and vasculature in affected versus control horses. Other than a greater number of positively stained mucosal leukocytes in affected horses, there were no significant differences between affected and control horses for NT staining. The presence of NADPH diaphorase staining in the endothelium and submucosal neurons suggests endothelial and neuronal NOS are present under basal conditions in the large colon of horses. Increased iNOS and NT staining in mucosal leukocytes of affected horses suggests involvement of the NO pathway in large colon volvulus. The reasons for the lack of a significant difference in plasma, abdominal fluid, and urine NO concentrations between affected and control horses are unknown. PMID:15971674

  15. The secretory omega-class glutathione transferase OvGST3 from the human pathogenic parasite Onchocerca volvulus.

    PubMed

    Liebau, Eva; Höppner, Jana; Mühlmeister, Mareike; Burmeister, Cora; Lüersen, Kai; Perbandt, Markus; Schmetz, Christel; Büttner, Dietrich; Brattig, Norbert

    2008-07-01

    Onchocerciasis or river blindness, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is the second leading cause of blindness due to infectious diseases. The protective role of the omega-class glutathione transferase 3 from O. volvulus (OvGST3) against intracellular and environmental reactive oxygen species has been described previously. In the present study, we continue our investigation of the highly stress-responsive OvGST3. Alternative splicing of two exons and one intron retention generates five different transcript isoforms that possess a spliced leader at their 5'-end, indicating that the mechanism of mature mRNA production involves alternative-, cis- and trans-splicing processes. Interestingly, the first two exons of the ovgst3 gene encode a signal peptide before sequence identity to other omega-class glutathione transferases begins. Only the recombinant expression of the isoform that encodes the longest deduced amino acid sequence (OvGST3/5) was successful, with the purified enzyme displaying modest thiol oxidoreductase activity. Significant IgG1 and IgG4 responses against recombinantly expressed OvGST3/5 were detected in sera from patients with the generalized as well as the chronic hyperreactive form of onchocerciasis, indicating exposure of the secreted protein to the human host's immune system and its immunogenicity. Immunohistological localization studies performed at light and electron microscopy levels support the extracellular localization of the protein. Intensive labeling of the OvGST3 was observed in the egg shell at the morula stage of the embryo, indicating extremely defined, stage-specific expression for a short transient period only.

  16. Mouse Models of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sungsook; Yang, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Animal models have been used to elucidate the details of the molecular mechanisms of various cancers. However, most inbred strains of mice have resistance to gastric carcinogenesis. Helicobacter infection and carcinogen treatment have been used to establish mouse models that exhibit phenotypes similar to those of human gastric cancer. A large number of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have been developed using genetic engineering. A combination of carcinogens and gene manipulation has been applied to facilitate development of advanced gastric cancer; however, it is rare for mouse models of gastric cancer to show aggressive, metastatic phenotypes required for preclinical studies. Here, we review current mouse models of gastric carcinogenesis and provide our perspectives on future developments in this field. PMID:25061535

  17. Volvulus gastrique aigu sur éventration diaphragmatique de l'adulte: à propos d'un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Guèye, Mohamadou Lamine; Touré, Alpha Oumar; Thiam, Ousmane; Seck, Mamadou; Cissé, Mamadou; Kâ, Ousmane; Dieng, Madieng; Touré, Cheikh Tidiane

    2015-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique aigu sur éventration diaphragmatique est une affection rare et une urgence diagnostique et thérapeutique. Sa présentation clinique est peu spécifique et la tomodensitométrie abdominale permet de confirmer le diagnostic. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 22 ans qui présentaitun syndrome occlusif et une voussure épigastrique. A la radiographie de l'Abdomen Sans Préparation, on notait 2 niveaux hydro-aériques sous la coupole diaphragmatique gauche qui était surélevée. Une dévolvulation et une gastrectomie atypique ont été réalisées devant un volvulus gastrique aigu avec nécrose du fundus mis en évidence à la laparotomie. Les suites opératoires ont été simples. PMID:26161223

  18. Models of gastric emptying.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, D F

    1977-01-01

    Some empirical and theoretical models of the emptying behaviour of the stomach are presented. The laws of Laplace, Hooke, and Poisseuille are used to derive a new model of gastric emptying. Published data on humans are used to test the model and evaluate empirical constants. It is shown that for meals with an initial volume of larger than or equal to 300 ml, the reciprocal of the cube root of the volume of meal remaining is proportional to the time the meal is in the stomach.For meals of initial volume of less than 300 ml the equation has to be corrected for the fact that the 'resting volume' of gastric contents is about 28 ml. The more exact formula is given in the text. As this model invokes no neural or hormonal factors, it is suggested that the gastric emptying response to the volume of a meal does not depend on these factors. The gastric emptying response to the composition of the meal does depend on such factors and a recent model of this process is used to evaluate an empirical constant. PMID:856678

  19. Melanoma with gastric metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Katherine; Serafi, Sam W.; Bhatia, Abhijit S.; Ibarra, Irene; Allen, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman with a history of malignant melanoma who presented with dyspnea and fatigue was found to have metastases to the stomach detected on endoscopy. Primary cutaneous malignant melanoma with gastric metastases is a rare occurrence, and it is often not detected until autopsy because of its non-specific manifestations. PMID:27609722

  20. Comparative analysis of macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Kurosinski, Marc Andre; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Ndjonka, Dieudonne; Tanyi, Manchang Kingsley; Achukwi, Mbunkah; Eisenbarth, Albert; Ajonina, Caroline; Lüersen, Kai; Breloer, Minka; Brattig, Norbert W; Liebau, Eva

    2013-09-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvMIF) were compared to the MIFs from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CeMIF) with respect to molecular, biochemical and immunological properties. Except for CeMIF-4, all other MIFs demonstrated tautomerase activity. Surprisingly, OvMIF-1 displayed oxidoreductase activity. The strongest immunostaining for OvMIF-1 was observed in the outer cellular covering of the adult worm body, the syncytial hypodermis; moderate immunostaining was observed in the uterine wall. The generation of a strong humoral immune response towards OvMIF-1 and reduced reactivity to OvMIF-2 was indicated by high IgG levels in patients infected with O. volvulus and cows infected with the closely related Onchocerca ochengi, both MIFs revealing identical amino acid sequences. Using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice, a laboratory model for filarial infection, MIFs derived from the tissue-dwelling O. volvulus, the rodent gut-dwelling Strongyloides ratti and from free-living C. elegans were recognized, suggesting that L. sigmodontis MIF-specific IgM and IgG1 were produced during L. sigmodontis infection of mice and cross-reacted with all MIF proteins tested. Thus, MIF apparently functions as a target of B cell response during nematode infection, but in the natural Onchocerca-specific human and bovine infection, the induced antibodies can discriminate between MIFs derived from parasitic or free-living nematodes.

  1. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  2. Venoconstrictor agents mobilize blood from different sources and increase intrathoracic filling during epidural anesthesia in supine humans

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton-Hicks, M.; Hoeck, A.S.; Stuehmeier, K.D.A.; Arndt, J.O.

    1987-03-01

    The authors studied the effects of dihydroergotamine (DHE) and etilefrine hydrochloride (E) on the regional distribution of /sup 99m/Tc-marked erythrocytes during epidural anesthesia in eight supine men to determine if vasoactive agents with venoconstrictor action would enhance cardiac filling during epidural anesthesia. Radioactivity was recorded with a gamma camera, and its distribution determined in the thorax, abdomen, and limbs. Arterial and central venous pressure, heart rate, and calf volume by plethysmography were measured. During epidural anesthesia with a sensory block up to T4/5, DHE (7.5 micrograms/kg) reduced the radioactivity, i.e., blood volume, in both the innervated (-5.9 +/- 3.5%) and denervated muscle/skin (-16.9 +/- 7%) regions, and increased it in both the intrathoracic (+7.0 +/- 2.3%), and splanchnic vasculature (+4.2 +/- 3.2). In contrast, E (6 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1) decreased the blood volume most markedly in the splanchnic region (-5.4 +/- 0.7%) and increased it in the thorax (+2 +/- 0.6%). All these changes were statistically significant. The combined effects were estimated to be equivalent to a transfusion of nearly 1.01 of blood. Both drugs reversed the hypotensive action of epidural anesthesia. During epidural anesthesia, DHE preferentially constricted the capacitance vessels in skeletal muscle and skin irrespective of the state of innervation, whereas E preferentially constricted the splanchnic vasculature. In the doses used, the two agents replenished in an additive fashion the central circulation during epidural anesthesia.

  3. Tandem insults of prenatal ischemia plus postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure in a novel rat model of encephalopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Koltz, Michael T.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Coksaygan, Turhan; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2012-01-01

    Object Encephalopathy of prematurity (EP) is common in preterm, low birth weight infants who require postnatal mechanical ventilation. The worst types of EP are the hemorrhagic forms, including choroid plexus, germinal matrix, periventricular, and intraventricular hemorrhages. Survivors exhibit life-long cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities. Available preclinical models do not fully recapitulate the salient features of hemorrhagic EP encountered in humans. In this study, the authors evaluated a novel model using rats that featured tandem insults of transient prenatal intrauterine ischemia (IUI) plus transient postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure (RIP). Methods Timed-pregnant Wistar rats were anesthetized and underwent laparotomy on embryonic Day 19. Intrauterine ischemia was induced by clamping the uterine and ovarian vasculature for 20 minutes. Natural birth occurred on embryonic Day 22. Six hours after birth, the pups were subjected to an episode of RIP, induced by injecting glycerol (50%, 13 µl/g intraperitoneally). Control groups included naive, sham surgery, and IUI alone. Pathological, histological, and behavioral analyses were performed on pups up to postnatal Day 52. Results Compared with controls, pups subjected to IUI+RIP exhibited significant increases in postnatal mortality and hemorrhages in the choroid plexus, germinal matrix, and periventricular tissues as well as intraventricularly. On postnatal Days 35–52, they exhibited significant abnormalities involving complex vestibulomotor function and rapid spatial learning. On postnatal Day 52, the brain and body mass were significantly reduced. Conclusions Tandem insults of IUI plus postnatal RIP recapitulate many features of the hemorrhagic forms of EP found in humans, suggesting that these insults in combination may play important roles in pathogenesis. PMID:22132923

  4. Intrapericardial extralobar pulmonary sequestration detected as an intrathoracic cystic mass by using prenatal ultrasonography: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Satohiko; Maeda, Kosaku; Tazuke, Yuko; Baba, Katsuhisa; Tuji, Yuki; Kawahara, Insu; Nakagami, Tomokazu

    2012-12-01

    Intrapericardial extralobar pulmonary sequestration is a very rare congenital lung anomaly. We report a case of this condition, detected as an intrathoracic cystic lesion by using prenatal ultrasonography. The neonate was born at 38 weeks of gestation with no progression of the lesion and no respiratory or cardiac symptoms. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) revealed a 40 × 17 × 17-mm intrapericardial lesion, composed of cystic components and a solid component. Intrapericardial extrapulmonary sequestration was suspected largely because CT showed a vague aberrant artery. At the age of 3 months, elective surgery was performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful.

  5. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  6. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  7. A gastric acid secretion model.

    PubMed Central

    de Beus, A M; Fabry, T L; Lacker, H M

    1993-01-01

    A theory of gastric acid production and self-protection is formulated mathematically and examined for clinical and experimental correlations, implications, and predictions using analytic and numerical techniques. In our model, gastric acid secretion in the stomach, as represented by an archetypal gastron, consists of two chambers, circulatory and luminal, connected by two different regions of ion exchange. The capillary circulation of the gastric mucosa is arranged in arterial-venous arcades which pass from the gastric glands up to the surface epithelial lining of the lumen; therefore the upstream region of the capillary chamber communicates with oxyntic cells, while the downstream region communicates with epithelial cells. Both cell types abut the gastric lumen. Ion currents across the upstream region are calculated from a steady-state oxyntic cell model with active ion transport, while the downstream ion fluxes are (facilitated) diffusion driven or secondarily active. Water transport is considered iso-osmotic. The steady-state model is solved in closed form for low gastric lumen pH. A wide variety of previously performed static and dynamic experiments on ion and CO2 transport in the gastric lumen and gastric blood supply are for the first time correlated with each other for an (at least) semiquantitative test of current concepts of gastric acid secretion and for the purpose of model verification. Agreement with the data is reported with a few outstanding and instructive exceptions. Model predictions and implications are also discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8396457

  8. Rett syndrome and gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Malay B; Bittner, James G; Edwards, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    Rett Syndrome is associated with decreased peristaltic esophageal waves and gastric dysmotility, resulting in swallowing difficulties and gastric dilation. Rarely, gastric necrosis and perforation occur. Our case represents the third reported case of gastric necrosis and perforation associated with Rett Syndrome. A 31-year-old female after 11 hours of intermittent emesis and constant, sharp abdominal pain presented with evidence of multiorgan system failure including hypovolemic shock, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, and hepatorenal failure. A chest radiograph revealed intra-abdominal free air necessitating emergent laparotomy. During exploration, a severely dilated, thin-walled stomach with an area of necrosis and gross perforation was noted. Wedge resection of the necrotic tissue and primary closure were performed. Despite aggressive perioperative resuscitation and ventilation support, the patient died 3 hours postoperatively secondary to refractory shock and hypoxemia. Severe gastric dilation can occur with Rett Syndrome and may cause gastric necrosis and perforation. Prolonged elevated gastric pressures can decrease perfusion and may contribute to perforation. Timely decompression via percutaneous endoscopic or surgical gastrostomy could decrease the risk of perforation particularly when significant gastric distention is present. Consideration of gastric necrosis and perforation in patients with Rett Syndrome may lead to earlier intervention and decreased mortality.

  9. Endoscopic Vacuum-Assisted Closure (E-VAC) Treatment in a Patient with Delayed Anastomotic Perforation following a Perforated Gastric Conduit Repair after an Ivor-Lewis Esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hyo Chul; Kwon, Se Hwan

    2016-12-20

    It has been reported that intrathoracic esophageal leakages occur at a rate of 4%-17% after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. There has been no consensus on a specific treatment for the post-operative anastomotic leakage. Recently, endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (E-VAC) has been introduced as a novel treatment for the post-operative anastomotic leakage. We herein report the case of a patient with early perforation of the gastric conduit followed by late esophagogastric anastomotic leakage who was successfully treated with early surgical repair and subsequent E-VAC. The patient had been previously diagnosed with achalasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and undergone an Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.

  10. Computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspirate and tissue-core biopsy of intrathoracic lesions in thirty dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Zekas, Lisa J; Crawford, Jason T; O'Brien, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    Medical records and computed tomography (CT) images were reviewed retrospectively for 30 animals (27 dogs, two cats, one cougar) in which CT-guided intrathoracic fine-needle aspirates (FNA) (12), core biopsies (10) or both (8) were performed. Sample interpretation was listed as diagnostic or nondiagnostic and nonneoplasia or neoplasia. Diagnostic results were inconclusive in 35% FNA and 17% biopsies. FNA and biopsy interpretations were in agreement in seven patients, one nonneoplasia, and six neoplasia. A clinical diagnosis was made in 65% FNA and 83% biopsies. When 18 patients with confirmed diagnoses were used, overall accuracy for diagnosis was 92% for FNA and biopsy and the sensitivity for neoplasia was 91% using fine needle aspirate and 80% using biopsy. Complications seen on CT images were noted in 43% of patients, four pneumothorax, five pulmonary hemorrhage, and four with both. No clinical manifestations were noted and treatment was not necessary. Significant correlation was noted between complications and penetration of aerated lung, but not with lesion location, type of disease, method of sampling, width of mass and depth of aerated lung penetrated. CT-guided sampling is relatively safe and useful in the diagnosis of intra-thoracic lesions, especially neoplasia. FNA samples are nondiagnostic more often than biopsy samples. Sub-clinical pneumothorax and hemorrhage are common when aerated lung is penetrated.

  11. Malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs (C30-C39) in the Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milas, Josip; Samardzić, Senka; Milas, Vesna; Miskulin, Maja; Males, Josip; Mihaljević, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    The Institute of Public Health of the Osijek-Baranja County in collaborate with different county institutes provide updated information on the cancer occurrence and trends in the Osijek-Baranja County (OBC). The cancers were defined according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10), codes of malignant neoplasms of respiratory and intrathoracic organs (C30-C39). The aim of this article was to show the size of cancer problem with the C30-C39 cancer group in the Osijek-Baranja County (OBC). This article processes data on cancer incidence and mortality, appertaining age distribution, median age, cancer survival and length of stay in hospital collected in period 2001-2009. Out of all patients diagnosed with C30-C39 cancers, there were 18.2% of females and 81.8% of males. The total incidence rate in males (119.5/100,000) decreases while the total mortality rate (110.9/100,000) does not change in 9-year period. In the same period, the total mortality rate in females (15.7/100,000) increase moderately. The age-standardized incidence rate was six times higher in males than in females. The overall median age at diagnosis of C30-C39 cancers of both genders was 64.5 years, which exceeds the average age at diagnosis of cancer in general in the OBC by 4.8 years. Five-year relative survival rate was 14.8%, 19.7% for females and 13.7% for males. Male lung and bronchus cancer patients (C34) were 1 year younger at diagnosis of cancer than the respective female patients. An average C30-C39 cancer patient was hospitalized 2.0 times during the course of their illness while the median length of stay in hospital amounted to 16.1 days. The number of hospital admissions in both genders decreased over the 2001-2009 period. In both genders, the total length of stay in hospitals was slightly reduced. Females spent 0.4 days more in hospital than males. The overall incidence and mortality rate in the OBC were among the

  12. Gut microbiota and gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Dolores; Miranda, Agnese; Romano, Lorenzo; Romano, Marco

    2017-02-15

    The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other. In fact microscopic structures of gastric mucosa (mucus layer and luminal contents) influence local microflora and vice versa. In this article our attention is directed specifically to explain the effects of this "cross-talk" on gastric homeostais. The gastric microbiota grossly consists of two macrogroups: HP and non-HP bacteria. Here, we review the relationship between these two populations and their role in the development of the different gastric disorders: functional dyspepsia, gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and gastric cancer. Moreover we focus on the effects on the gastric microbiota of exogenous interference as diet and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).

  13. Proximal duodenoileal anastomosis for treatment of small intestinal obstruction and volvulus in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Wills, Sarah; Beaufrère, Hugues; Watrous, Gwyneth; Oblak, Michelle L; Smith, Dale A

    2016-11-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory laparotomy confirmed a diagnosis of small intestinal entrapment and 170° volvulus involving approximately 80% (20 to 30 cm) of the small intestine. The portion of the small intestine extending from the middle portion of the duodenum to the caudal extent of the ileum was resected, and end-to-end anastomosis of the remaining small intestine was performed. The iguana recovered without apparent complications and was reportedly doing well 1 year after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that iguanas, as hindgut fermenters, may tolerate > 70% resection of the small intestine with a good outcome and no clinical evidence of residual gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  15. Pediatric Gastric Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Ramos, Marco Cesar; Mendizábal-Méndez, Ana Luisa; Ríos-Contreras, Carlos Alberto; Rodríguez-Montes, Claudia Esther

    2010-01-01

    Neoplasms from germ cell origin are a heterogeneous group of tumors rarely seen in the pediatric population, teratoma is the most frequent among them. They can occur in either gonadal or extragonadal locations. Extragonadal teratoma arising from abdominal viscera is very unusual. There are less than a hundred reported cases of gastric teratoma in the worldwide literature. Since the occurrence of this pathology in the pediatric age group is quite rare, we describe a case of a teratoma located in the lesser curvature of the stomach in an infant with an emphasis in radiologic-pathologic correlation. PMID:22470691

  16. INTRATHORACIC COMBAT WOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THORAX, BATTLES), (*BATTLES, THERAPY), (*MILITARY MEDICINE, BATTLES), SURGERY, WARFARE, VIETNAM, ETIOLOGY, WEAPONS, HEMORRHAGE, MORTALITY RATES , LUNG, SPLEEN, LIVER, PATHOLOGY, WOUNDS AND INJURIES, CASUALTIES, (U)CASUALTIES

  17. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  18. Ultrastructure study of the excretory system and the genital primordium of the infective stage of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda:Filarioidea).

    PubMed

    Strote, G; Bonow, I

    1995-01-01

    The electron microscopic investigation of the anterior part of the infective third-stage juvenile of Onchocerca volvulus provides first insights into the structure of the excretory system of this developmental stage of the parasite. The most anterior part of this system consists of a cell process of the syncytial excretory cells. At this height the excretory cells enclose the cuticle-lined excretory channel. The channel is in the process of elongation in the anterior-posterior direction, indicated by cell division in this region. More posteriad an ampulla-like structure is forming in the cytoplasm of the excretory cells. The inner surface of this ampulla is lined with a small number of single microvilli. In this part of the system the cytoplasm of the excretory cells is rich in Golgi bodies and endocytic vesicles. The ampulla has direct access to the exterior by the excretory duct. The excretory duct is a cuticle-lined structure surrounded by supporting fibres of an additional cell. This duct cell connects the excretory duct to the body-wall cuticle at the excretory pore. Adjacent to the region of the excretory system a cell is found that resembles a gland cell. This cell is in close contact to the ventral nerve cord. The genital primordia of the third-stage juvenile consist of several dividing cells. The female genital primordium is seen at the junction of the muscular with the glandular oesophagus and the male primordium can be found at the junction of the glandular oesophagus with the gut.

  19. Suspected involvement of EPTFE membrane in sterile intrathoracic abscess and pericardial empyema in a multi-allergic LVAD recipient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kornberger, A; Walter, V; Khalil, M; Therapidis, P; Assmus, B; Moritz, A; Beiras-Fernandez, A; Stock, U A

    2015-07-17

    Device-related infections in recipients of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have been recognized as a major source of morbidity and mortality. They require a high level of diagnostic effort as part of the overall burden resulting from infectious complications in LVAD recipients. We present a multi-allergic patient who was treated for persistent sterile intrathoracic abscess formation and pericardial empyema following minimally invasive LVAD implantation including use of a sheet of e-polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane to restore pericardial integrity. Sterile abscess formation and pericardial empyema recurred after surgical removal until the ePTFE membrane was removed, suggesting that in disposed patients, ePTFE may be related to sterile abscess formation or sterile empyema.

  20. Late presentation of massive pleural effusion from intrathoracic migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Roth, Jonathan; Scolnik, Dennis; Haham, Alon; Rimon, Ayelet; Koren, Lea; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-02-01

    We report an unusual case of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt intrathoracic migration, associated with massive symptomatic hydrothorax. The VP shunt was inserted 10 years before presentation, after hemorrhagic hydrocephalus caused by prenatal intraventricular hemorrhage. The pleural fluid was drained via tube thoracostomy and the shunt was externalized, with full resolution of symptoms and signs. The patient was subsequently managed with shunt revision with drainage into the abdominal cavity. We review the 10 pediatric cases of cerebrospinal fluid hydrothorax reported in the literature and discuss the mechanism of shunt tip migration. Pleural effusion secondary to VP shunt insertion is a rare and potentially life-threatening occurrence, and it should be suspected in any patient with a VP shunt and respiratory distress.

  1. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment. PMID:17200707

  2. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Biopsy Peptic Ulcer Stomach Cancer Stomach Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  3. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

  4. Endovascular management of gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E

    2014-11-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices is a major complication of portal hypertension. Although less common than bleeding associated with esophageal varices, gastric variceal bleeding has a higher mortality. From an endovascular perspective,transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) to decompress the portal circulation and/or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) are utilized to address bleeding gastric varices. Until recently, there was a clear medical cultural divide between the strategy of decompressing the portal circulation (TIPS creation, for example) and transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices. However, the practice of BRTO is gaining acceptance in the United States and its practice is spreading rapidly. Recently, the American College of Radiology has identified BRTO to be a viable alternative to TIPS in particular anatomical and clinical scenarios. However, the anatomical and clinical applications of BRTO were not defined beyond the conservative approach of resorting to BRTO in non-TIPS candidates. The article discusses the outcomes of BRTO and TIPS for the management of gastric varices individually or in combination. Definitions, endovascular technical concepts and contemporary vascular classifications of gastric variceal systems are described in order to help grasp the complexity of the hemodynamic pathology and hopefully help define the pathology better for future reporting and lay the ground for more defined stratification of patients not only based on comorbidity and hepatic reserve but on anatomy and hemodynamic classifications.

  5. Successful nutritional support for a dysphagic patient with massive cirrhotic ascites and intrathoracic stomach using percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Otani, Jun; Okuda, Junzo; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Sawada, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Tachiko; Ohshima, Chiaki

    2014-01-01

    Although massive cirrhotic ascites is generally considered a contraindication for the placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), such patients are usually poorly nourished. Preceding paracentesis of ascites is one method for controlling ascites and allowing the safe placement of PEG, but it often results in overuse of albumin. Preceding peritoneal-venous (P-V) shunting can avoid excessive use of albumin, but this introduces the risk of infectious contamination. We encountered an 88-y-old woman with massive cirrhotic ascites, a giant esophageal hernia with dislocation of the proximal stomach into the mediastinum, hypertrophy of the lateral segment of the liver, and malnutrition who had suffered from appetite loss and a swallowing disorder for 4 mo. She underwent PEG using a staged sequential introduction method using a Funada-style gastric wall fixation kit as follows: 1) full stretching and pushing out of the stomach from the mediastinum into the peritoneal cavity by deep insertion and a turning-over procedure of the endoscope, 2) full distention by air to adhere the gastric wall to the peritoneal wall without migration of the colon, 3) four-point square fixation under gastroenterological endoscopy without migration of the visceral organ, and 4) puncture of the needle introducer of the PEG tube in the center of the fixations under repeated gastroenterological endoscopy 3 d after the fixation. She underwent P-V shunting under local anesthesia on the 28th day after placement of PEG and enteral nutrition. Her case shows that we can achieve proper enteral nutritional support even for patients with massive cirrhotic ascites.

  6. Quantitative studies on the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium damnosum s.l. in the Tukuyu Valley, South West Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E M; Maegga, B T

    1985-12-01

    A survey of the Simulium breeding and the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus was carried out in and around the Tukuyu valley, S.W. Tanzania, S. damnosum s.l. was found breeding in the midstretches of the main rivers in the valley and their bigger tributaries, and also in the boundary river to Malawi and the most northerly of the three rivers draining the Livingstone Mts. to Lake Nyasa (L. Malawi). A total of 19,500 S. damnosum s.l. females was caught and 13,200 dissected. The annual biting rate varied between 2,000 and 23,800. 7.6% of all the flies were infected with O. volvulus and 1.5% carried infective larvae in the head capsule, on average 2.7 per fly. The transmission was mainly in the dry season and the annual transmission potential varied between 0 and 1,120. The entomological data showed many similarities to those from the Mahenge Mts., Tanzania, and correlation of places with comparable transmission potentials suggests a similarity in the relationship parasite-human host between the West African rain forest and the two Tanzanian foci.

  7. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  8. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  9. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-30

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  10. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  11. The electrophoresis of human gastric juice

    PubMed Central

    Piper, D. W.; Stiel, Mirjam C.; Builder, Janet E.

    1962-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of normal human gastric juice is described. The effect of autodigestion of gastric juice and of the peptic digestion of albumin is described. The fallacies involved in the study of gastric juice proteins where peptic digestion of the protein constituent has not been prevented are emphasized. In this study the gastric juice was neutralized within the stomach to prevent changes due to autodigestion. PMID:13943717

  12. Gastric juice miR-129 as a potential biomarker for screening gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Luo, Lin; Wu, Yibo; Yu, Xiuchong; Liu, Yang; Yu, Xuelin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinjun; Cui, Long; Ye, Guoliang; Le, Yanping; Guo, Junming

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles during the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Conventional serological tests for screening gastric cancer have limits on sensitivity and specificity. Several miRNAs in peripheral blood have been used as biomarkers of gastric cancer. However, most of these miRNAs are shared by several types of cancer. Thanks to the tissue specificity of gastric juice, here we examined the feasibility of using gastric juice miR-129-1/2, which are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer, to screen gastric cancer. Total of 141 gastric juices samples from gastric cancer, gastric ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and minimal gastritis patients or subjects with normal mucosa were collected by gastroscopy. The gastric juice miR-129-1/2 levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. We showed that, compared with patients with benign gastric diseases, patients with gastric cancer had significantly lower levels of gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p. The areas under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.639 and 0.651 for miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p, respectively. Using the parallel combination test, the AUC was up to 0.656. In summary, our results suggest that gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p are potential biomarkers for the screening gastric cancer, and the detection of gastric juice miRNAs is a convenient non-invasion method for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  13. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies.

  14. Visualization of gastric bands on radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; McIntyre, B.; Elgin, D.; Christian, P.; Moore, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the course of performing many gastric emptying studies with radionuclide labeled solid and liquid meals, the authors have noted the appearance of gastric ''bands'' on images. These bands do not appear to be peristaltic contractions because they persist in individual subjects for hours of imaging. Peristaltic contraction waves move and change appearance within a few seconds. Bands have been described in humans at autopsy and in dogs, pigs, and monkeys, typically in transverse and mid-gastric locations. However, because the bands have not been seen on radiographic studies with barium meals, the finding has been ignored in gastro-intestinal and radiologic textbooks. An anatomic basis or physiologic role in regulating gastric emptying is unknown. SPECT imaging of 5 normal subjects after ingestion of Tc-99m sulfur colloid labeled chicken liver meals on two separate study days was performed. Linear photon deficient regions (''bands'') were identified on gastric images in all subjects. Multiple bands were sometimes seen, including a transverse band across the mid lower body of the stomach and a vertical longitudinal band which appeared to bisect the fundus in three subjects. In one subject, multiple body positions including upright, upside-down, and supine, did not alter the appearance or location of the transverse gastric band. Conventional imaging did not always demonstrate presence of the band, since the optimal projection for imaging the band may not have been part of the planar imaging routine. Sixty-four acquisitions over 360/sup 0/ of SPECT imaging showed that bands were seen in some projections and not in others.

  15. Gastric ulceration in an equine neonate

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susan

    2003-01-01

    A 24-hour-old colt presented with clinical signs consistent with gastric ulceration. Treatment was initiated with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist and clinical signs resolved. Gastroscopy at 16 d confirmed the presence of a gastric ulcer. Although gastric ulceration is common in foals, it is rarely reported in foals this young. PMID:12757136

  16. Esophageal motility disorders after gastric banding.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, R W; Deveney, C W; McConnell, D B; Wolfe, B M; Jobe, B A

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of gastric banding on esophageal function are not well described. This report describes a 28-year-old woman who developed signs and symptoms of abnormal esophageal motility and lower esophageal sphincter hypotension after gastric banding for morbid obesity. The current literature addressing the effects of gastric banding on esophageal function in light of this case report is discussed.

  17. Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. Summary Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle, including high-salt food, smoking and drinking, are able to induce genotypic and phenotypic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Gene mutations (such as E-cadherin) in stomach epithelial cells are major genetic causes for gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Increased intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits as well as smoking cessation have been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. The secondary prevention strategy is to screen premalignant gastric lesions by endoscopy. Biomarker tests are also reliable methods to identify gastric precancerous lesions. Endoscopy screening is still the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Key Message H. pylori infection, a diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, as well as gene mutations are major risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Practical Implications The eradication of H. pylori is a major primary preventive strategy of gastric cancer. A healthy lifestyle, including increased intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, reduced intake of salted and smoked food and red meat, a reduction of alcohol intake as well as smoking cessation will be effective approaches for the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27722154

  18. Primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Petranovic, Duska; Pilcic, Gorazd; Peitl, Milena; Cubranic, Aleksandar; Valkovic, Toni; Nacinovic, Antica Duletic; Lucin, Ksenija; Jonjic, Nives

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma represents 2.5–7% all of non Hodgkin's lymphomas. Stomach is the most common site of extranodal lymphoma. However, that is not the case with mantle cell lymphoma, which is extremely rare. We present a case of 71-year-old woman admitted to the Internal Clinic of the University Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, because of stomach discomfort and melena. Endoscopy and computed tomography revealed a polyp in gastric antrum. Histopathologic, immunohistochemic and genetic methods were also performed and the results were consistent with primary gastric mantle cell lymphoma without periepigastric and/or local or distant abdominal lymph node involvement. PMID:22567215

  19. Gastric lymphoma: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Doglioni, Claudio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Savio, Antonella

    2011-03-01

    The diagnosis of gastric MALT lymphoma is frequently difficult for the general histopathologist. During recent years there have been relevant changes in the therapeutic approach to gastric MALT lymphoma and our knowledge about its pathogenesis has greatly improved. The management of this disease actually requires a close cooperation between the histopathologist and the clinicians. The histology report of biopsies of a newly diagnosed or of an already treated case implies information of clinical and therapeutical relevance. This paper aims at giving the histopathologist a general knowledge about the state of art of this disease and its management. The diagnostic process leading to a complete and competent report is then described step by step.

  20. Gastric cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

    1991-01-01

    Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.

  1. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  2. Can transcutaneous recordings detect gastric electrical abnormalities?

    PubMed Central

    Familoni, B O; Bowes, K L; Kingma, Y J; Cote, K R

    1991-01-01

    The ability of transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity to detect gastric electrical abnormalities was determined by simultaneous measurements of gastric electrical activity with surgically implanted serosal electrodes and cutaneous electrodes in six patients undergoing abdominal operations. Transient abnormalities in gastric electrical activity were seen in five of the six patients during the postoperative period. Recognition of normal gastric electrical activity by visual analysis was possible 67% of the time and with computer analysis 95% of the time. Ninety four per cent of abnormalities in frequency were detected by visual analysis and 93.7% by computer analysis. Abnormalities involving a loss of coupling, however, were not recognised by transcutaneous recordings. Transcutaneous recordings of gastric electrical activity assessed by computer analysis can usually recognise normal gastric electrical activity and tachygastria. Current techniques, however, are unable to detect abnormalities in electrical coupling. PMID:1864531

  3. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  4. Volvulus du grêle sur mésentère commun incomplet - une redoutable complication rare chez l'adulte: à propos de 1 cas

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Mahamadoun; Boukatta, Brahim; Derkaoui, Ali; Sbai, Hicham; Ousadden, Abdelmalek; Kanjaa, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Le mésentère commun résulte d'une anomalie de rotation du tube digestif. Il est caractérisé par la persistance d'une disposition anatomique embryonnaire secondaire à une anomalie de rotation de l'anse ombilicale primitive, constituant ainsi un méso commun à toute l'anse intestinale et une racine du mésentère extrêmement courte. Cette insuffisance de rotation est le plus souvent associée à un défaut d'accolement. Ces anomalies de rotation intestinale peuvent aboutir à des complications redoutables parfois mortelles, qui surviennent généralement au cours de la période néonatale où à l’âge pédiatrique. On estime que la prévalence de ces malformations congénitales à l’âge adulte est de l'ordre de 0,2% à 0,5% âge auquel elles demeurent très souvent asymptomatiques et donc non diagnostiquées. Le diagnostic de volvulus total du grêle peut se faire dans des circonstances très variées: en urgence devant un tableau d'occlusion intestinale aiguë, voire un état de choc pouvant conduire au décès, devant un tableau de douleurs abdominales répétées plus ou moins associées à des troubles du transit. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient de 18 ans admis pour volvulus total du grêle sur mésentère commun incomplet chez qui l’évolution était favorable. PMID:26113900

  5. DNA vaccine encoding the moonlighting protein Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) leads to partial protection in a mouse model of human filariasis.

    PubMed

    Steisslinger, Vera; Korten, Simone; Brattig, Norbert W; Erttmann, Klaus D

    2015-10-26

    River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. We report that in a laboratory model for filariasis, immunization with Ov-GAPDH led to a significant reduction of adult worm load and microfilaraemia in BALB/c mice after challenge infection with the filarial parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice were either vaccinated with Ov-GAPDH.DNA plasmid (Ov-pGAPDH.DNA) alone or in combination with recombinantly expressed Ov-GAPDH protein (Ov-rGAPDH). During the following challenge infection of immunized and control mice with L. sigmodontis, those formulations which included the DNA plasmid, led to a significant reduction of adult worm loads (up to 57% median reduction) and microfilaraemia (up to 94% reduction) in immunized animals. In a further experiment, immunization with a mixture of four overlapping, synthetic Ov-GAPDH peptides (Ov-GAPDHpept), with alum as adjuvant, did not significantly reduce worm loads. Our results indicate that DNA vaccination with Ov-GAPDH has protective potential against filarial challenge infection in the mouse model. This suggests a transfer of the approach into the cattle Onchocerca ochengi model, where it is possible to investigate the effects of this vaccination in the context of a natural host-parasite relationship.

  6. Gastric Schwannoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Mzoughi, Zeineb; Slama, Sana Ben; Ennaifer, Rym; Belhadj, Najet

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are generally benign, slow growing tumors. They are rarely observed in the gastrointestinal tract with the most common site being the stomach. These tumors are usually asymptomatic. The preoperative diagnosis via endoscopy is a challenging issue due to the difficulty of differentiation from other submucosal tumors. A 54-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain persisting for the last 10 months. Upper endoscopy revealed an elevated submucosal mass of the gastric antrum. The overlying mucosa was normal. Biopsy specimens yielded only unspecific signs of mild inactive chronic inflammation. Endoscopic ultrasound examination noted a hypoechoic homogeneous mass lesion located in the gastric antrum. The mass appeared to arise from the muscularis propria, and there was no perigastric lymphadenopathy. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan identified a homogeneous round mass and arising from the antrum of the stomach. Submucosal tumor was suspected and surgical intervention was recommended. The patient underwent an elective laparoscopic partial gastrectomy. The histopathologic features and immunohistochemical-staining pattern were consistent with a benign gastric schwannoma. Our patient shows no recurrence with a follow-up of one year. The definitive diagnosis of gastric schwannomas requires immunohistochemical studies. Complete margin negative surgical resection, as in this case, is the curative treatment of choice. The clinical course is generally benign. PMID:28028429

  7. Familial gastric cancer - clinical management.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Caldas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The clinical management of familial gastric cancer is the same as that for sporadic gastric cancer at the current time. As the causative mutations for these cases are identified this should lead to the development of specific treatments which target the molecular abnormality. The only germline mutations identified so far occur within the E-cadherin gene (CDHI) and they account for approximately 30% of familial gastric cancer cases. When index patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome have a CDHI mutation identified then genetic testing of asymptomatic relatives should be considered. The clinical sequelae of testing positive for such a mutation are profound and therefore it is essential that counselling is given prior to genetic testing. The management options are surveillance endoscopy and prophylactic gastrectomy. In this chapter the practicalities of genetic testing are discussed as well as the pros and cons of the two management options. It is essential that experience of these rare families is pooled so that surveillance and treatment can be optimised in the future.

  8. Gastrin and gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabri, P J; McGuigan, J E

    1976-01-01

    data are present. These differential tests are of value in identifying the Zollinger-Ellison patient who has borderline serum gastrin levels and in differentiation from the syndrome of the retained antrum. 6. In a patient with a recurrent ulcer following surgery in whom a drug-induced ulcer can be excluded and gastric outlet obstruction cannot be demonstrated, a serum gastrin level may be indicated. A serum gastrin value greater than 300 pg. per ml. (normal less than 200 pg. per ml.) in a fasting morning serum sample is significantly elevated, even after vagotomy, and warrants further investigation. Provocative testing of the gastrin response to calcium and secretin should elucidate the etiology of the recurrent ulceration in this type of patient.

  9. BLR1 and FCGR1A transcripts in peripheral blood associate with the extent of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children and predict treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Synne; Bakken, Rasmus; Dhanasekaran, S.; Mukherjee, Aparna; Lodha, Rakesh; Singh, Sarman; Singh, Varinder; Haks, Marielle C.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Kabra, S. K.; Doherty, T. Mark; Ritz, Christian; Grewal, Harleen M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers reflecting the extent of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced pathology and normalization during anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) would considerably facilitate trials of new treatment regimens and the identification of patients with treatment failure. Therefore, in a cohort of 99 Indian children with intrathoracic tuberculosis (TB), we performed blood transcriptome kinetic analysis during ATT to explore 1) the association between transcriptional biomarkers in whole blood (WB) and the extent of TB disease at diagnosis and treatment outcomes at 2 and 6 months, and 2) the potential of the biomarkers to predict treatment response at 2 and 6 months. We present the first data on the association between transcriptional biomarkers and the extent of TB disease as well as outcome of ATT in children: Expression of three genes down-regulated on ATT (FCGR1A, FPR1 and MMP9) exhibited a positive correlation with the extent of TB disease, whereas expression of eight up-regulated genes (BCL, BLR1, CASP8, CD3E, CD4, CD19, IL7R and TGFBR2) exhibited a negative correlation with the extent of disease. Baseline levels of these transcripts displayed an individual capacity >70% to predict the six-month treatment outcome. In particular, BLR1 and FCGR1A seem to have a potential in monitoring and perhaps tailoring future antituberculosis therapy. PMID:27941850

  10. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis with midgut volvulus, distributed in a patchy fashion, is reversible with moderate blood flow: resumption of normal function to non-viable intestine.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hizuru; Uchida, Hiroo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yujiro; Kishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Midgut volvulus is a highly life-threatening condition that carries a high risk of short gut syndrome. We report a case of catastrophic neonatal midgut volvulus in which second-look laparotomy revealed apparently non-viable remnant small intestine but with a moderate blood supply. Full-thickness small intestine necrosis was distributed in a patchy fashion, with non-viable and necrotic areas distributed so widely that no portion of the intestine could be resected. A section of full-thickness necrotic intestine preserved at surgery was able to regenerate, and normal function was restored over a period of 1 month. This case indicated that intestinal resumption may be dependent on blood flow. Even when intestinal viability is questionable, preservation enables the chance of regeneration if moderate blood flow is present.

  11. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  12. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  13. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  14. Phase II Study of Oxaliplatin, Irinotecan, and Capecitabine in Advanced Gastric/Gastroesophageal Junction Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-15

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  15. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  16. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is associated with gastric dysplasia but is inversely correlated with esophageal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Justin M; Patrie, James T; Bleibel, Wissam; Frye, Jeanetta W; Sauer, Bryan G; Shami, Vanessa M; Stelow, Edward B; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Wang, Andrew Y

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine which clinical factors might be associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a North American population. METHODS Pathology and endoscopy databases at an academic medical center were reviewed to identify patients with and without gastric IM on biopsies for a retrospective cohort study. Patient demographics, insurance status, and other clinical factors were reviewed. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-eight patients with gastric IM (mean age: 61.0 years ± 14.4 years, 55.5% female) and 171 without gastric IM (mean age: 48.8 years ± 20.8 years, 55.0% female) were compared. The endoscopic appearance of atrophic gastritis correlated with finding gastric IM on histopathology (OR = 2.05, P = 0.051). Gastric IM was associated with histologic findings of chronic gastritis (OR = 2.56, P < 0.001), gastric ulcer (OR = 6.97, P = 0.015), gastric dysplasia (OR = 6.11, P = 0.038), and gastric cancer (OR = 6.53, P = 0.027). Histologic findings of Barrett’s esophagus (OR = 0.28, P = 0.003) and esophageal dysplasia (OR = 0.11, P = 0.014) were inversely associated with gastric IM. Tobacco use (OR = 1.73, P = 0.005) was associated with gastric IM. CONCLUSION Patients who smoke or have the endoscopic finding of atrophic gastritis are more likely to have gastric IM and should have screening gastric biopsies during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients with gastric IM are at increased risk for having gastric dysplasia and cancer, and surveillance EGD with gastric biopsies in these patients might be reasonable. PMID:28250898

  17. Percutaneous drainage of gastric remnant dilatation after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Bibyan, M; Khandelwal, R G; Parmar, A K; Reddy, P K

    2012-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Gastric remnant dilatation is an uncommon early complication of this procedure that can be fatal if treatment is delayed, as it can cause peritonitis and death. Herein we report a gastric bypass patient who presented with profound shock 3 months after the surgery. After resuscitation and evaluation, she was diagnosed as having a massive dilatation of gastric remnant, which we managed with percutaneous drainage.

  18. Gastric Hamartomatous Polyps—Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Monika; Yang, Xiu; Zhang, Xuchen

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps are frequently encountered on endoscopic examinations. While many of these represent true epithelial lesions, some of the polyps may result from underlying stromal or lymphoid proliferations or even heterotopic tissue. Histologic examination is essential for accurate typing of the polyps to predict malignant potential and underlying possible genetic abnormalities. The focus of this review is on gastric hamartomatous polyps, which are relatively rare and diagnostically challenging. Though most of the gastric hamartomatous polyps are benign, certain types are associated with increased malignant potential. These include certain polyps associated with specific genetic familial polyposis syndromes and gastric inverted hamartomatous polyps. Identification of these polyps can result in the prevention or early diagnosis of gastric carcinoma and also help in the identification of family members with polyposis syndromes. The aim of this review is to categorize gastric hamartomatous polyps and aid in the identification of high-risk categories. PMID:27081323

  19. [Intra-gastric penetration of an adjustable gastric band].

    PubMed

    Ablassmaier, B; Opitz, I; Jacobi, C A; Müller, J M

    2001-07-01

    Between November 1995 and August 2000 we performed adjustable silicone gastric banding laparoscopically in 252 patients. The body mass index varied from 37 to 86 kg/m2. We report on a 38-year-old woman who was operated on in 1997 with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 (167 cm, 132 kg). The postoperative follow-up was uneventful until January 2000. The patient lost weight until she weighed 78 kg. Then she complained of diffuse epigastric pain. Gastroscopy revealed gastritis. Omeprazol was prescribed. No amelioration occurred. Endoscopic control showed partial intragastric migration of the band. After laparoscopic removal of the band, the patient was free of symptoms. Band erosion is a possible complication of adjustable gastric banding. As is known from intragastric penetration of the Angelchik prosthesis, the clinical symptoms of this complication may be mild. Since the follow-up of most patients with gastric banding is less than 5 years, more complications similar to that one described may be diagnosed in the future.

  20. Human gastric epithelial cells contribute to gastric immune regulation by providing retinoic acid to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, D; Kao, J Y; Zhang, M; Cochrun, S; Mannon, P; Peter, S; Wilcox, C M; Mönkemüller, K E; Harris, P R; Grams, J M; Stahl, R D; Smith, P D; Smythies, L E

    2015-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule retinol (ROL), and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of ROL synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric dendritic cells (DCs). Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation.

  1. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  2. Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review. PMID:25320518

  3. Selected Endoscopic Gastric Devices for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Kartik; Rothstein, Richard I

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on the stomach target devices that are currently in various stages of development. Approved intragastric balloons, devices targeting small bowel and aspiration techniques, are described in other contributions to this issue. Bariatric endoscopic devices targeting the stomach directly alter gastric physiology and promote weight loss by potentially changing functional gastric volume, gastric emptying, gastric wall compliance, neurohormonal signaling, and, thereby, satiety. Many stomach-targeting devices are on the horizon for clinical use, and further study will determine the safety and efficacy for clinical use.

  4. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  5. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir; Khoury, Tawfik

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.

  6. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Craanen, M E; Blok, P; Dekker, W; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal metaplasia were significantly more common in intestinal type early gastric cancer compared with diffuse type early gastric cancer (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). H pylori was found in 61.3% of intestinal type early gastric cancer and in 54.5% of diffuse type early gastric cancer (NS). The age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia in the patients with antral gastritis was higher in H pylori positive patients in all age groups studied. Comparing gastritis patients with patients with intestinal type early gastric cancer showed the age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia to be significantly higher in the patients with early gastric cancer in all age groups studied. In conclusion, H pylori is associated with both types of early gastric carcinoma. Intestinal metaplasia formation seems to be a multifactorial process in which H pylori may play a part. These findings suggest that gastric cancer may be included in the spectrum of H pylori associated diseases, although many questions about causality remain to be answered. PMID:7959189

  7. Acupuncture and gastric acid studies.

    PubMed

    Sodipo, J O; Falaiye, J M

    1979-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic acupuncture on gastric acid secretion on pain relief in chronic duodenal ulcer patients were studied. Ten adult Nigerian patients with clinical, endoscopic as well as radiological evidence of duodenal ulcer constituted the "Ulcer Group." Four other patients who gave history of dyspepsia formed the "Dyspeptic Group." Pentagastrin stimulation test was performed on all subjects pre- and post-acupuncture therapy. The classical Chinese acupuncture loci were employed. The mean Basal Acid Output (BAO) in the duodenal ulcer group was markedly reduced from 4.04 +/- 1.01 mMols/hour to 1.05 +/- 2.5 mMols/hour. The mean Maximal Acid Output (MAO) was lowered from 34.72 +/- 13.81 mMols/hour to 15.34 +/- 4.01 mMols/hour. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). It is more probable, therefore, that the relief of pain is attributable to the therapeutic inhibition of gastric hyperacidity in our patients. Thus, though pain relief has been previously demonstrated in response to acupuncture, the results of this investigation have gone further to show that acupunture achieves symptomatic relief through therapeutic gastric depression in duodenal ulcer patients.

  8. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer. From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed. Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474). The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer. PMID:27828865

  9. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer.From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed.Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474).The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer.

  10. Significance of Epicardial and Intrathoracic Adipose Tissue Volume among Type 1 Diabetes Patients in the DCCT/EDIC: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Budoff, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). This pilot study sought to evaluate the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and intra-thoracic adipose tissue (IAT) volumes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in T1DM. Method EAT/IAT volumes in 100 patients, underwent non-contrast cardiac computed tomography in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial /Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) study were measured by a certified reader. Fat was defined as pixels’ density of -30 to -190 Hounsfield Unit. The associations were assessed using–Pearson partial correlation and linear regression models adjusted for gender and age with inverse probability sample weighting. Results The weighted mean age was 43 years (range 32–57) and 53% were male. Adjusted for gender, Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between age and EAT/IAT volumes (both p<0.001). After adjusting for gender and age, participants with greater BMI, higher waist to hip ratio (WTH), higher weighted HbA1c, elevated triglyceride level, and a history of albumin excretion rate of equal or greater than 300 mg/d (AER≥300) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) had significantly larger EAT/IAT volumes. Conclusion T1DM patients with greater BMI, WTH ratio, weighted HbA1c level, triglyceride level and AER≥300/ESRD had significantly larger EAT/IAT volumes. Larger sample size studies are recommended to evaluate independency. PMID:27459689

  11. NERP-2 regulates gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying via the orexin pathway.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Cherl; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ueta, Yoichi; Kim, Min-Seon; Minamino, Naoto; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-02-16

    Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of NERP-2 to rats increased gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying, whereas peripheral administration did not affect gastric function. NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying were blocked by an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, SB334867. NERP-2 also induced Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus and the dorsomotor nucleus of the vagus X, which are key sites in the central nervous system for regulation of gastric function. Atropine, a blocker of vagal efferent signal transduction, completely blocked NERP-2-induced gastric acid secretion. These results demonstrate that central administration of NERP-2 activates the orexin pathway, resulting in elevated gastric acid secretion and gastric emptying.

  12. Duodeno-gastric reflux and gastric adenomas: a scintigraphic study in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed Central

    Spigelman, A D; Granowska, M; Phillips, R K

    1991-01-01

    To test whether the presence of gastric adenomas (dysplasia) was associated with gastric reflux of duodenal contents, six patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) who had gastric adenomas and nine matched FAP patients without gastric adenomas underwent scintigraphic duodeno-gastric reflux scanning. Reflux was graded 0-6, where 0 = no reflux, 1 = intermittent reflux into antrum only, 2 = prolonged reflux into antrum only, 3 = intermittent reflux into body, 4 = prolonged reflux into body, 5 = intermittent reflux into body and fundus, and 6 = prolonged reflux into body and fundus. FAP patients with gastric adenomas had more severe reflux (median 6, range 4-6) than did controls (median 3, range 0-6; P = 0.009, Mann-Whitney U test). These results are consistent with a role for bile in the development of gastric adenomatous polyps and suggest that bile is involved in the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. PMID:1653358

  13. A computational analysis of the binding mode of closantel as inhibitor of the Onchocerca volvulus chitinase: insights on macrofilaricidal drug design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Bocanegra-García, Virgilio; Lizarazo-Ortega, Cristian; Guo, Xianwu; Correa-Basurto, José; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.

    2011-12-01

    Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness with at least 37 million people infected and more than 120 million people at risk of contracting the disease; most (99%) of this population, threatened by infection, live in Africa. The drug of choice for mass treatment is the microfilaricidal Mectizan® (ivermectin); it does not kill the adult stages of the parasite at the standard dose which is a single annual dose aimed at disease control. However, multiple treatments a year with ivermectin have effects on adult worms. The discovery of new therapeutic targets and drugs directed towards the killing of the adult parasites are thus urgently needed. The chitinase of filarial nematodes is a new drug target due to its essential function in the metabolism and molting of the parasite. Closantel is a potent and specific inhibitor of chitinase of Onchocerca volvulus (OvCHT1) and other filarial chitinases. However, the binding mode and specificity of closantel towards OvCHT1 remain unknown. In the absence of a crystallographic structure of OvCHT1, we developed a homology model of OvCHT1 using the currently available X-ray structures of human chitinases as templates. Energy minimization and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the model led to a high quality of 3D structure of OvCHIT1. A flexible docking study using closantel as the ligand on the binding site of OvCHIT1 and human chitinases was performed and demonstrated the differences in the closantel binding mode between OvCHIT1 and human chitinase. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculation were employed to determine and compare the detailed binding mode of closantel with OvCHT1 and the structure of human chitinase. This comparative study allowed identification of structural features and properties responsible for differences in the computationally predicted closantel binding modes. The homology model and the closantel binding mode reported herein might help guide the rational development of

  14. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θYC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  15. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  16. Spontaneous Gastric Perforation in Two Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Akalonu, Amaka; Yasrebi, Mona; Rios, Zarela Molle

    2016-01-01

    Case series Patients: Female, 11 • Male, 15 Final Diagnosis: Spontaneous gastric perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain • distention • vomiting • leukocytosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Both patients had surgery Specialty: Gastroenterology Objective: Rare etiology Background: Spontaneous gastric perforation is a rare clinical disorder. The majority of the available data have been reported in the neonatal age group. There are a few cases of spontaneous gastric perforation in preschool children. To our knowledge, there is no published information on spontaneous gastric perforation in older children and adolescents. Case Report: We describe the presentation and clinical course of two adolescent children who presented with spontaneous gastric perforation. Both children presented with acute onset abdominal pain, which progressively worsened. In both cases, the patient were taken urgently to the operating room after imaging studies had shown pneumoperitoneum. In both cases, surgery revealed gastric perforation with no obvious etiology, specifically no ulcer, inflammation, or other pathology. Conclusions: These two cases highlight the importance of including spontaneous gastric perforation, not just the typical duodenal/gastric ulcer, in the differential of a patient with severe abdominal pain and distension, who has imaging showing pneumoperitoneum. PMID:27686129

  17. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  18. Factors controlling gastric-glucagon release.

    PubMed Central

    Lefèbvre, P J; Luyckx, A S

    1977-01-01

    A system consisting of an isolated dog stomach perfused with whole blood has been designed to study gastric glucagon secretion. Under basal conditions, gastric glucagon release was 0.0-3.1 ng glucagon/100g of stomach per min. Arginine, at an arterial plasma concentration averaging 10 mM, elicited a rapid glucagon release. This gastric glucagon release was almost completely abolished by somatostatin (100 ng/ml). The release of gastric glucagon was not affected by hyperglycemia alone but was reduced by about 40% when hyperglycemia was concomitant with an hyperinsulinemia within the physiological range. These observations support the concept that adequate concentrations of insulin are necessary in order for hyperglycemia to inhibit gastric glucagon secretion. Furthermore, it is suggested that the isolated perfused dog stomach might provide a unique tool permitting investigation of alpha-cell function in the absence of endogenously released insulin. PMID:845258

  19. Anticancer Effect of Lycopene in Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer ranks as the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Risk factors of gastric carcinogenesis include oxidative stress, DNA damage, Helicobacter pylori infection, bad eating habits, and smoking. Since oxidative stress is related to DNA damage, smoking, and H. pylori infection, scavenging of reactive oxygen species may be beneficial for prevention of gastric carcinogenesis. Lycopene, one of the naturally occurring carotenoids, has unique structural and chemical features that contributes to a potent antioxidant activity. It shows a potential anticancer activity and reduces gastric cancer incidence. This review will summarize anticancer effect and mechanism of lycopene on gastric carcinogenesis based on the recent experimental and clinical studies. PMID:26151041

  20. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer.

  1. Gastric Pneumatosis in a Premature Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Yuk Joseph; Chan, Kwong-leung; Wong, Siu-chun Mabel; Chim, Stella; Wong, Kar-yin

    2011-01-01

    Gastric pneumatosis is extremely rare during infancy. It has been reported in association with necrotizing enterocolitis or congenital abnormalities such as pyloric stenosis. Here, we report a case of gastric pneumatosis in a premature neonate on synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. No pneumatosis was noted in the rest of the bowel or esophagus. There could have been mild damage in the gastric mucosa, either related to the placement of the feeding tube or secondary to the use of indomethacin or both. The condition was further aggravated by noninvasive ventilation. An increase in intragastric pressure resulted in the submucosal dissection of air followed by the development of gastric pneumatosis. Conservative management strategies, including the use of a nasogastric tube for decompression and the withholding of feeding, successfully managed the gastric pneumatosis in our patient. An uneventful recovery was made after conservative management. Prompt recognition and evaluation of this condition were essential for making the diagnosis. PMID:23705077

  2. Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

    1982-03-01

    The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

  3. Gastric acid secretion: changes during a century.

    PubMed

    Di Mario, Francesco; Goni, Elisabetta

    2014-12-01

    The advances in knowledge of gastric physiology within the past century have been the most exciting and important in this area of interest for many decades. The aim of this presentation consists of a comprehensive review of the extensive recent literature on this topic in order to highlight milestones in the field of gastric physiology, in particular in gastric acid secretion, gastric pathophysiology, acid-related diseases and use of acid regulatory drugs. Moreover, in the 21st century there have been many epidemiologic changes as well as a decrease of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer together with an increase of gastroesophageal reflux disease and the related increase of pomp proton inhibitor wide use.

  4. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  5. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    PubMed

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking.

  6. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  7. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Skin Snips by Microscopy and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Implications for Monitoring and Evaluation Activities.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cama, Vitaliano A; Lakwo, Thomson; Mekasha, Sindeaw; Abanyie, Francisca; Sleshi, Markos; Kebede, Amha; Cantey, Paul T

    2016-04-01

    Microscopic evaluation of skin biopsies is the monitoring and evaluation (M and E) method currently used by multiple onchocerciasis elimination programs in Africa. However, as repeated mass drug administration suppresses microfilarial loads, the sensitivity and programmatic utility of skin snip microscopy is expected to decrease. Using a pan-filarial real-time polymerase chain reaction with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA), we evaluated 1) the use of a single-step molecular assay for detecting and identifying Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in residual skin snips and 2) the sensitivity of skin snip microscopy relative to qPCR-MCA. Skin snips were collected and examined with routine microscopy in hyperendemic regions of Uganda and Ethiopia (N= 500 each) and "residual" skin snips (tissue remaining after induced microfilarial emergence) were tested with qPCR-MCA. qPCR-MCA detected Onchocerca DNA in 223 residual snips: 139 of 147 microscopy(+) and 84 among microscopy(-) snips, suggesting overall sensitivity of microscopy was 62.3% (139/223) relative to qPCR-MCA (75.6% in Uganda and 28.6% in Ethiopia). These findings demonstrate the insufficient sensitivity of skin snip microscopy for reliable programmatic monitoring. Molecular tools such as qPCR-MCA can augment sensitivity and provide diagnostic confirmation of skin biopsies and will be useful for evaluation or validation of new onchocerciasis M and E tools.

  8. One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Frank; Rizzo, Nidia; Espinoza, Carlos Enrique Diaz; Monroy, Zoraida Morales; Valdez, Carol Guillermina Crovella; de Cabrera, Renata Mendizabal; de Leon, Oscar; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Morales, Alba Lucia; Rios, Dalila; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Klein, Robert; Eberhard, Mark; Cupp, Ed; Domínguez, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000–2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s.l. showed transmission interruption by 2007. These assessments, together with a 2010 serological survey in children 9–69 months of age that showed Ov16 IgG4 antibody prevalence to be < 0.1%, meeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for stopping MDA, and treatment was halted after 2011. After 3 years an entomological assessment showed no evidence of vector infection or recrudescence of transmission. In 2015, 100 years after the discovery of its presence, the Ministry of Health of Guatemala declared onchocerciasis transmission as having been eliminated from the CEZ. PMID:26503275

  9. One Hundred Years After Its Discovery in Guatemala by Rodolfo Robles, Onchocerca volvulus Transmission Has Been Eliminated from the Central Endemic Zone.

    PubMed

    Richards, Frank; Rizzo, Nidia; Diaz Espinoza, Carlos Enrique; Monroy, Zoraida Morales; Crovella Valdez, Carol Guillermina; de Cabrera, Renata Mendizabal; de Leon, Oscar; Zea-Flores, Guillermo; Sauerbrey, Mauricio; Morales, Alba Lucia; Rios, Dalila; Unnasch, Thomas R; Hassan, Hassan K; Klein, Robert; Eberhard, Mark; Cupp, Ed; Domínguez, Alfredo

    2015-12-01

    We report the elimination of Onchocerca volvulus transmission from the Central Endemic Zone (CEZ) of onchocerciasis in Guatemala, the largest focus of this disease in the Americas and the first to be discovered in this hemisphere by Rodolfo Robles Valverde in 1915. Mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin was launched in 1988, with semiannual MDA coverage reaching at least 85% of the eligible population in > 95% of treatment rounds during the 12-year period, 2000-2011. Serial parasitological testing to monitor MDA impact in sentinel villages showed a decrease in microfilaria skin prevalence from 70% to 0%, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based entomological assessments of the principal vector Simulium ochraceum s.l. showed transmission interruption by 2007. These assessments, together with a 2010 serological survey in children 9-69 months of age that showed Ov16 IgG4 antibody prevalence to be < 0.1%, meeting World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for stopping MDA, and treatment was halted after 2011. After 3 years an entomological assessment showed no evidence of vector infection or recrudescence of transmission. In 2015, 100 years after the discovery of its presence, the Ministry of Health of Guatemala declared onchocerciasis transmission as having been eliminated from the CEZ.

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta expression by host cells is elicited locally by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus in hyporeactive patients independently from Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Korten, Simone; Kaifi, Jussuf T; Büttner, Dietrich W; Hoerauf, Achim

    2010-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a key cytokine in immune regulation, cell differentiation, development, wound healing, and tissue remodelling. It mediates immunosuppression in filarial infections facilitating parasite persistence, while attenuating immunopathology, which is induced by migrating microfilariae. Immunosuppression rises with parasite burden, but it remains unknown whether filariae elicit local release of immunosuppressive cytokines. Therefore, using immunohistology, we investigated the expression of stable, released latent TGF-beta1 in subcutaneous nodules from highly infected, hyporeactive onchocerciasis patients, harbouring adult Onchocerca volvulus. Since many cell types produce TGF-beta, we elucidated the cellular source, distribution and dependency on the worms' sex, productivity and vitality. We found TGF-beta1 to be abundantly expressed by T cells, plasma/B cells, macrophages, mast cells, fibrocytes, and vascular endothelial cells, particularly in onchocercomas with productive or previously productive females, damaged, dead and resorbed adult worms or microfilariae. We conclude TGF-beta to be antigen induced by the filariae since expression was scarce around subcutaneous arthropods or cholesterol crystals in onchocercomas. Enhanced expression after ivermectin or endobacteria-depleting doxycycline treatment indicates induction to depend on filariae and not on Wolbachia endobacteria. TGF-beta(+) cells were reduced in HIV co-infection. This finding of local and sustained TGF-beta induction by vital and dead filariae, untreated and after treatment, adds new aspects to immunomodulation by helminths.

  11. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  12. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents.

    PubMed

    Bynum, L J; Pierce, A K

    1976-12-01

    A retrospective analysis of 50 patients who had been observed to aspirate gastric contents was performed to define better the course of patients with this syndrome. The patients invariably had a disturbance of consciousness, most commonly due to sedative drug overdose or general anesthesia. The onset of clinical signs occurred prompty after aspiration and tended to be similar in all patients, irrespective of their subsequent course or outcome. These findings usually included fever, tachypnea, diffuse rales, and serious hypoxemia. Cough, cyanosis, wheezing, and apnea were each seen in approximately one third of the cases. Apena, shock, and early severe hypoxemia were particularly ominous events. Initial roentgenograms revealed diffuse or localized alveolar infiltrates, which progressed during the next 24 to 36 hours. Subsequent clinical courses followed 3 patterns: 12 per cent of the patients died shortly after aspiration; 62 per cent had rapid clinical and radiologic improvement, with clearing, on average, within 4.5 days; 26 per cent demonstrated rapid improvement, but then had clinical and radiographic progression associated with recovery of bacterial pathogens from the sputum and a fatal outcome in more than 60 per cent. Treatment from the outset by adrenocortical steroids or antimicrobial agents had no demonstrable effect on the outcome. The clinical features of aspiration of gastric contents are characteristic and distinguish it from other forms of aspiration-related lung disease.

  13. Gastric cancer and related epigenetic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Trupti N; Roy, Soumyadipta; Ravi, Revathi

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a malignant and highly proliferative condition, has significantly affected a large population around the globe and is known to be caused by various factors including genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Though the global trend of these cancers is declining, an increase in its frequency is still a threat because of changing lifestyles and dietary habits. However, genetic and epigenetic alterations related to gastric cancers also have an equivalent contribution towards carcinogenic development. DNA methylation is one of the major forms of epigenetic modification which plays a significant role in gastric carcinogenesis. Methylation leads to inactivation of some of the most important genes like DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators, apoptotic genes, transcriptional regulators, and signalling pathway regulators; which subsequently cause uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Mutations in these genes can be used as suitable prognostic markers for early diagnosis of the disease, since late diagnosis of gastric cancers has a huge negative impact on overall patient survival. In this review, we focus on the important epigenetic mutations that contribute to the development of gastric cancer and the molecular pathogenesis underlying each of them. Methylation, acetylation, and histone modifications play an integral role in the onset of genomic instability, one of the many contributory factors to gastric cancer. This article also covers the constraints of incomplete knowledge of epigenetic factors influencing gastric cancer, thus throwing light on our understanding of the disease. PMID:28144288

  14. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  15. Current status of proximal gastric vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, B D

    1989-01-01

    Proximal gastric vagotomy is nearing its twentieth year in clinical use as an operation for peptic ulcer disease. No other acid-reducing operation has undergone as much scrutiny or study. At this time, the evidence of such studies and long-term follow-up strongly supports the use of proximal gastric vagotomy as the treatment of choice for chronic duodenal ulcer in patients who have failed medical therapy. Its application in treating the complications of peptic ulcer disease, which recently have come to represent an increasingly greater percentage of all operations done for peptic ulcer disease, is well-tested. However, initial series suggest that it should probably occupy a prominent role in treating some of these complications, particularly in selected patients, in the future. The operation has the well-documented ability to reduce gastric acid production, not inhibit gastric bicarbonate production, and also minimally inhibit gastric motility. The combination of these physiologic results after proximal gastric vagotomy, along with preservation of the normal antropyloroduodenal mechanism of gastrointestinal control, serve to allow patients with proximal gastric vagotomy the improved benefits of significantly fewer severe gastrointestinal side effects than are seen after other operations for peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2644897

  16. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.

  17. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  18. Diabetes and gastric cancer: the potential links.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

    2014-02-21

    This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be

  19. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  20. Infantile Feeding Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Venkedesh; Kandikattu, Bhavana S.; Mitchell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Gastric volvulus refers to a torsion of all or part of the stomach that may cause an obstruction of the foregut. The clinical symptoms of gastric volvulus range from asymptomatic to life-threatening and thus must be rapidly diagnosed. However, the presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus vary widely, which may cause diagnosis to be delayed or missed. Objective. Describe varying presentations of gastric volvulus (including a case report of a rare presentation), pathophysiology of the entity, and how to diagnose/treat the phenomenon. Design/Method. Article review and case presentation. Results. Our patient was taken to the operating room for a gastropexy and G-tube placement. During surgery, the stomach was redundant and large, but not currently torsed, consistent with intermittent organoaxial volvulus. There are several approaches to classifying gastric volvulus as well as different theories on how to treat the volvulus based on type and degree of rotation that this article aims to detail more thoroughly. Conclusion. There are a growing number of case reports describing gastric volvulus, which had historically been viewed as a rare finding. The presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus commonly mimic other, more benign newborn diagnoses, and thus can be difficult to diagnose. We present our patient as well as an article review of other cases to highlight the diverse presentations of gastric volvulus so this potentially devastating disease can be diagnosed quickly with prompt treatment initiation. PMID:27335912

  1. [Lymphoma of the residual gastric stump].

    PubMed

    La Torre, F; Nicastro, A; Crescenzi, U; Persico Stella, L; Clarioni, A; Pontone, P; Montori, A

    1993-03-01

    The authors report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (lymphoplasmocytoid type) arisen on the gastric stump of a patient operated 18 years before according to Billroth II gastric resection for peptic ulcer. They underline the extraordinary rarity of the event because this type of neoplasia never arises on the gastric stump, where would be more likely to find, due to irritative chemical stimuli of the biliary reflux, phenomena of intestinal metaplasia or severe dysplasia highly predisposing to adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, they stress the importance of a "deep" bioptic examination for a diagnosis as early as possible of this type of pathology.

  2. Early gastric cancer in Menetrier's disease.

    PubMed

    Remes-Troche, Jose Maria; Zapata-Colindres, Juan Carlos; Starkman, Ivethe; De Anda, Jazmin; Arista-Nasr, Julian; Valdovinos-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    Uncommon conditions such as pernicious anaemia and hypertrophic gastropathies have been considered as risk factors for gastric cancer; however, the exact increase in risk is unknown. Menetrier's disease is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the stomach caused by an overexpression of tumour growth factor α, a ligand for the tyrokinase epidermal growth factor receptor, resulting in a selective expansion of surface mucous cells in the body and fundus of the stomach. There have been nearly 200 cases of Menetrier's disease reported in the literature yet less than 15 have been associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. Here, we report an early stage gastric adenocarcinoma detected incidentally in a patient recently diagnosed with Menetrier's disease.

  3. Gastric rupture after the Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Bintz, M; Cogbill, T H

    1996-01-01

    Since 1975, the Heimlich maneuver has been widely applied to relieve upper airway obstruction caused by aspirated material. Life-threatening complications have been documented following this simple procedure. We report two cases of gastric rupture after use of the Heimlich maneuver. Both patients experienced pulmonary and abdominal symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by the demonstration of free intraperitoneal air on an upright chest roentgenogram. Full-thickness gastric rupture along the lesser curvature of the stomach was repaired in both patients; one patient died. Abdominal pain or persistent abdominal distention despite nasogastric suction after the Heimlich maneuver should prompt evaluation for possible gastric rupture.

  4. Three aromatic amino acids in gastric juice as potential biomarkers for gastric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Lin, Sanren; Zhou, Liya; Geng, Qiuming; Li, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Na, Renhua

    2011-05-23

    For screening early-stage gastric malignancies, the existing serum biomarkers have limited sensitivity and specificity. Gastric juice biomarkers are scarce and require further investigation. We divided this study on searching potential biomarkers into four parts: (1) detection of differential fluorescence spectrum and peaks in the gastric juice from patients using fluorescence spectroscopy and HPLC, (2) identification and validation of differential peaks using LC/MS and NMR, (3) quantification of potential biomarkers, and (4) establishment of diagnostic detection. The fluorescence intensity (FI), tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and total protein content were significantly higher in the gastric juice of patients with gastric malignancies (all P<0.01). With all P<0.001, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the biomarkers were tyrosine, 0.838; phenylalanine, 0.856; and tryptophan, 0.816. At a specificity of 79.4%, the sensitivity for gastric malignancy detection with phenylalanine was 87.9% only. Aromatic amino acids in gastric juices could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers to screen gastric malignancies. It is a less-invasive and economical method compared to gastric biopsy.

  5. [Effect of Saussurea lappa on gastric functions].

    PubMed

    Chen, S F; Li, Y Q; He, F Y

    1994-07-01

    The patients with chronic superficial gastritis were selected in the study. The variation in gastric acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration were observed during the Saussurea lappa decoction (SLD) perfusion into the stomach. There was no significant changes in acidity output, serum gastrin and plasma somatostatin concentration after the perfusion of SLD (P > 0.05). Changes in gastric emptying and plasma motilin concentration were observed after oral administration of the SLD in 5 healthy volunteers. The time of gastric emptying was markedly shortened after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). A significant increase occurred in plasma motilin concentration at 30 min. after oral administration of SLD (P < 0.01). It revealed that SLD could accelerate the gastric emptying and increase the endogenous motilin release.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:27672425

  7. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. PMID:27217796

  8. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  9. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Translating gastric cancer genomics into targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Ang, Yvonne L E; Yong, Wei Peng; Tan, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a common disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. Many gastric cancers harbour potentially actionable targets, including over-expression and mutations in tyrosine kinase pathways. Agents have been developed against these targets with varying success- in particular, the use of trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers has resulted in overall survival benefits. Gastric cancers also have high levels of somatic mutations, making them candidates for immunotherapy; early work in this field has been promising. Recent advances in whole genome and multi-platform sequencing have driven the development of molecular classification systems, which may in turn guide the selection of patients for targeted treatment. Moving forward, challenges will include the development of appropriate biomarkers to predict responses to targeted therapy, and the application of new molecular classifications into trial development and clinical practice.

  11. Computed tomographic recognition of gastric varices

    SciTech Connect

    Balthazar, E.J.; Megibow, A.; Naidich, D.; LeFleur, R.S.

    1984-06-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 13 consecutive patients with proven gastric varices were analyzed and correlated with the radiographic, angiographic, and gastroscopic evaluations. In 11 patients, CT clearly identified large (five) or smaller (six) varices located mainly along the posteromedial wall of the gastric fundus and proximal body of the stomach. Well defined rounded or tubular densities that enhanced during intravenous administration of contrast material and could not be distinguished from the gastric wall were identified. Dense, enhancing, round or tubular, intraluminal filling defects were seen in the cases where the stomach was distended with water. In seven patients, the CT examination correctly diagnosed the pathogenesis of gastric varices by identifying hepatic cirrhosis, calcific pancreatis, and carcinoma of the pancreas.

  12. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  13. Considerations about gastric cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; McCormick, Thaís Messias; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Fischer, Juliana DE Saldanha DA Gama; Aquino, Priscila Ferreira DE; Bravo, Guilherme Pinto; Carvalho, Maria DA Glória DA Costa

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of molecular studies aimed to analyze promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes and global proteomics in gastric carcinogenesis is increasing. Nonetheless, only a few considered the different types of stomach cells, the tumor location and the influence of Helicobacter pylori and Epstein Barr virus infection (EBV). Molecular differences relating to anatomical and histological tumor areas were also recently described. The authors propose a molecular classification of gastric cancer, dividing it into four subtypes: tumors positive for EBV; microsatellite unstable tumors; genomically stable tumors and tumors with chromosomal instability. RESUMO A frequência de estudos moleculares visando a analisar os promotores de metilação de genes supressores de tumor e proteômica globais na carcinogênese gástrica está aumentando. No entanto, apenas alguns consideraram os diferentes tipos de células do estômago, a localização do tumor e a influência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e pelo vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV). Diferenças moleculares relacionadas com áreas tumorais anatômicas e histológicas também foram recentemente descritas. Os autores propõem uma classificação molecular de câncer gástrico, dividindo-o em quatro subtipos: tumores positivos para o EBV; tumores microssatélite instáveis; tumores genomicamente estáveis ​​e tumores com instabilidade cromossômica.

  14. Familial Clustering of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Jang, Woncheol; Seo, Bochang; Oh, Sooyeon; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This comprehensive cross-sectional study aimed to identify factors contributing to familial aggregation of gastric cancer (GC). A total of 1058 GC patients and 1268 controls were analyzed separately according to the presence or absence of a first-degree relative of GC (GC-relative). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, residence during childhood, smoking, alcohol intake, monthly income, spicy food ingestion, Helicobacter pylori status and host cytokine polymorphisms was performed. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) positivity was a distinctive risk factor for GC in the family history (FH)-positive group (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.00), while current/ex-smoker, moderate to strong spicy food ingestion, and non-B blood types were more closely associated with GC in the FH-negative group. Among the FH-positive group, alcohol consumption showed a synergistic carcinogenic effect in the at least 2 GC-relatives group compared to the 1 GC-relative group (1.71 vs. 9.58, P for interaction = 0.026), and this was dose-dependent. In the subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives, TGFB1-509T/T was a risk factor for GC (OR 23.74; 95% CI 1.37–410.91), as were rural residency in childhood, alcohol consumption, spicy food ingestion, and cagA positivity. These results suggest that subjects with FH may be a heterogeneous group in terms of gastric cancer susceptibility. Especially, subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives should undergo risk stratification including TGFB1-509T/T and alcohol consumption. PMID:27196462

  15. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. RESULTS Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach (P = 0.14), at 20 min (P = 0.38), 30 min (P = 0.30), 40 min (P = 0.43), 50 min (P = 0.50), 60 min (P = 0.81), 90 min (P = 0.25) and 120 min (P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample (n = 11) showed no significant difference (P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo (P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score (P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). CONCLUSION Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD. PMID:28217377

  16. Gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Giovanni; Bella, Camillo Di; Cambareri, Antonino Roberto; Buda, Carmelo Antonio; Corti, Gianluigi; Magri, Filippo; Crippa, Stefano; Baldini, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are rare. We describe a case of gastric metastasis due to primary lung cancer, revealed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE). Haematogenous metastases to the stomach are a rare event. To our knowledge, only 55 cases have been described in the international literature. In these patients, the prognosis is very poor. We report herein a case of gastric metastasis by lung small cell carcinoma, with a review of the literature about this rare entity. PMID:16810769

  17. [Gastritis associated with duodeno-gastric reflux].

    PubMed

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Traore, C B; Drabo, M; Soukho, A espouse Diarra; Kalle, A; Dembele, M; Traore, H A; Maiga, M Y

    2007-01-01

    Our main objective was to study gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. It is about a longitudinal study case/witness, paired according to the sex and the age. It was unrolled from February 2005 to January 2006 in the digestive diseases department of the hospital Gabriél Touré, and endoscopic centers of Promenade des Angevins, and clinique Farako. The patients profited from an upper digestive endoscopy to appreciate endoscopic aspect of gastritis associated to bile in the stomach mucus lake. The gastric biopsies were systematic. This study included 50 patients having gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake compared to 50 patients having gastritis associated to clearly gastric mucus lake. The sex-ratio was 1.26 in favour of men. The average age of the patients was of 41.30 +/- 15.43 years. On the symptomatic hand, fetid breath was significantly met in duodeno-gastric reflux (p = 0.013). Potash consumption in the "tô" (millet cake) was significantly reported in gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake (p = 0.042). The endoscopic aspects were comparable. Histological aspects of nonatrophic chronic gastritis were significantly mint in witnesses as well into the antrum as into the fundus (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.00023). The reactional gastritis aspect was the prerogative of duodenogastric reflux (p ranging between 10(-6) and 3.10 (-6). Helicobacter pylori infection was found comparable in the two groups (p = 0.297). Dysplasia although rare was found only in gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. Gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus does not se,nm to have specific clinical, endoscopic and histological presentation. However the presence of dysplasia must have an attentive monitoring.

  18. Iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuchen; Ouyang, Jie; Wieczorek, Rosemary; DeSoto, Fidelina

    2009-01-01

    Severe gastrointestinal erosion, ulcer, necrosis and strictures after an acute iron overdose are well described. However, gastric mucosal injury in patients receiving therapeutic iron has received only scant recognition despite its wide use. We report a case of iron medication-induced gastric mucosal injury in a 76-year-old male who presented with iron deficiency anemia and had been taking ferrous sulfate tablet for 4 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a pale, villous appearing flat lesion along the lesser curvature of gastric body. Histopathologic examination of EGD biopsies of the flat lesion showed brown crystalline materials deposited in the lamina propria of gastric mucosa, which was accompanied with fibrosis, chronic inflammation, and foreign body reaction. The crystalline materials were covered and admixed with gastric epithelium. Prussian blue iron stain confirmed that the brown crystalline materials were iron. The iron and hemosiderin accumulation was also seen in cytoplasm of epithelial cells and lumen of fundic gastric glands. The recognition and reporting by pathologists of iron-induced changes in EGD biopsies will alert clinicians to this underrecognized but easily correctable complication by alternative forms of iron therapy, such as liquid preparation.

  19. Epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Fu, Du-Guan

    2015-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. An increasing number of recent studies have confirmed that gastric cancer is a multistage pathological state that arises from environmental factors; dietary factors in particulary are considered to play an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. Improper dietary habits are one of the primary concerns as they influence key molecular events associated with the onset of gastric carcinogenesis. In the field of genetics, anticancer research has mainly focused on the various genetic markers and genetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of this of this disease. Some of this research has proven to be very fruitful, providing insight into the possible mechamisms repsonsible for this disease and into possible treatment modalities. However, the mortality rate associated with gastric cancer remains relatively high. Thus, epigenetics has become a hot topic for research, whereby genetic markers are bypassed and this research is directed towards reversible epigenetic events, such as methylation and histone modifications that play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. The present review focuses on the epigenetic events which play an important role in the development and progression of this deadly disease, gastric cancer.

  20. Gastric cáncer: Overview.

    PubMed

    Piazuelo, M Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2013-07-01

    Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidence in some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases being diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is a complex and multifactorial process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and in a small percentage of patients, a familial genetic component. More than 95% of stomach cancer cases are adenocarcinomas, which are classified into two major histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesions known as Correa´s cascade and is the histologic type associated with the global decrease in gastric cancer rates. Diffuse type adenocarcinomas have a more aggressive behavior and worse prognosis than those of the intestinal type. According to the anatomical location, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originating in the cardia) and distal (originating in the body and antrum). This classification seems to recognize two different clinical entities. Surgical resection of the tumor at an early stage is the only effective treatment method. Therefore, the identification and surveillance of patients at risk may play a significant role in survival rates. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer.

  1. Epstein-barr virus in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  2. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  3. Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy With Gastric Tube Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Norio; Toujigamori, Manabu; Shiroshita, Hidefumi; Etoh, Tsuyoshi; Inomata, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There is no standardized method of reconstruction in laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG). We present a novel technique of reconstruction with a long, narrow gastric tube in LPG for early gastric cancer (EGC). Methods: During the laparoscopic procedure, the upper part of the stomach is fully mobilized with perigastric and suprapancreatic lymphadenectomy, and then the abdominal esophagus is transected. After a minilaparotomy is created, the entire stomach is pulled outside. A long, narrow gastric tube (20 cm long, 3 cm wide) is created with a linear stapler. The proximal part of the gastric tube is formed into a cobra head shape for esophagogastric tube anastomosis, which is then performed with a 45-mm linear stapler under laparoscopic view. The end of the esophagus is fixed on the gastric tube to prevent postoperative esophageal reflux. Results: Thirteen patients with early proximal gastric cancer underwent the procedure. The mean operative time was 283 min, and median blood loss was 63 ml. There were no conversions to open surgery, and no intraoperative complications. Conclusion: This new technique of reconstruction after LPG is simple and feasible. The procedure has the potential of becoming a standard reconstruction technique after LPG for proximal EGC. PMID:27547027

  4. Downregulated MicroRNA-133a in Gastric Juice as a Clinicopathological Biomarker for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Fang, Peng-Hua; He, Biao; Guo, Li-Li; Shi, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhen-Wen, Zhen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Circulatory miR-133a is a marker shared by several types of cancer. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using miR-133a levels in gastric juice to screen for gastric cancer. A total of 204 samples of gastric juice and mucosa from gastric cancer, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, superficial gastritis and healthy cases were collected by gastroscopy. The results showed that miR-133a levels in gastric juice and carcinoma tissues of patients with gastric cancer were significantly downregulated and positively correlated. Moreover, miR-133a in gastric juice has high operability, high reliability, high sensitivity, high specificity and relative stability, fit for clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  5. The Immunomodulatory Role of Adjuvants in Vaccines Formulated with the Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jessica A.; Zhan, Bin; Torigian, April R.; Patton, John B.; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Zhan, Tingting; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.; Klei, Thomas R.; Lustigman, Sara; Abraham, David

    2016-01-01

    Background In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types of antigen-specific immune responses. Methodology/ Principal Findings Immunizing mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with alum, Advax 2 and MF59 induced significant levels of larval killing and host protection. The immune response was biased towards Th2 with all three of the adjuvants, with IgG1 the dominant antibody. Improved larval killing and host protection was observed in mice immunized with co-administered Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with each of the three adjuvants as compared to single immunizations. Antigen–specific antibody titers were significantly increased in mice immunized concurrently with the two antigens. Based on chemokine levels, it appears that neutrophils and eosinophils participate in the protective immune response induced by Ov-103, and macrophages and neutrophils participate in immunity induced by Ov-RAL-2. Conclusions/Significance The mechanism of protective immunity induced by Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, with the adjuvants alum, Advax 2 and MF59, appears to be multifactorial with roles for cytokines, chemokines, antibody and specific effector cells. The vaccines developed in this study have the potential of reducing the morbidity associated with onchocerciasis in humans. PMID:27387453

  6. The ultrastructure of the anterior end of male Onchocerca volvulus: papillae, amphids, nerve ring and first indication of an excretory system in the adult filarial worm.

    PubMed

    Strote, G; Bonow, I; Attah, S

    1996-07-01

    A detailed morphological investigation of the anterior sensory organs, the nerve ring and a glomerulus-like structure in male Onchocerca volvulus was performed by means of electron microscopy. The 8 head papillae are arranged in the common 4 + 4 pattern of most filarial worms in circles around the mouth opening. The amphidial openings are found between the circles of inner and outer papillae on both sides of the mouth. Inside, several additional nerve axons are seen in the tissue of the anterior tip not related to one of the identified papillar structures. The inner and outer papillae exhibit a remarkably different fine structure, and are part of a complex system of at least 2 different receptor cell types at the anterior tip of the worm. The amphidial channel contains 8 modified cilia; accessory axons are associated with the cytoplasm of the sheath cell. The anterior nerve ring of male worms is located about 150 micrometers posterior from the outermost tip of the head region. It consists of several fibres coiled around the oesophagus. The comparison of the fine structure of the central nervous system did not show the expected morphological differences associated with the heterogeneous age distribution in the natural worm population. This was in contrast to previous findings with respect to tissues in different parts of the worm. The study also provides the first evidence that suggests the existence of an excretory organ in a filarial worm in the region of the anterior nerve ring. Paired glomerulus-like structures in the lateral chords and a canal formed by a projection of the basal zone of the cuticles were identified.

  7. Importance of migrants infected with Onchocerca volvulus in west African river valleys protected by 14 to 15 years of Simulium control.

    PubMed

    De Sole, G; Remme, J

    1991-06-01

    A study was done to determine the importance of human migration from non-controlled endemic onchocerciasis foci to the river valleys that have been protected for the past 14 to 15 years by the vector control operations of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of migrants to the prevalence and intensity of infection in villages from 5 major river valleys and their potential role in causing relapse of transmission once the vector is allowed to return. In Burkina Faso the migrant population varied from 0.0% to 18.1% of the village population, and averaged 4.9%. Migrants accounted only for 0.6% of the population in Ghanaian and Ivorian villages along the Black Volta river. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in migrants (8.2%) than in non migrants (1.1%) in the surveyed villages in Burkina Faso, and 1.5% of migrants had infections with more than 16 microfilariae per snip as against 0.2% of non migrants. Nearly all infected migrants came from the south of the Côte d'Ivoire. The study shows that human migration has caused the importation of Onchocerca volvulus from non-controlled areas. However, the epidemiological importance of this phenomenon is limited because of the very small number of infected migrants per village while two-third of the infected migrants are believed to be infected with the less pathogenic forest strain of the parasite. Because migration patterns changes geographically and over time similar studies will be continued on a regular basis.

  8. Extended Result Reading Window in Lateral Flow Tests Detecting Exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: A New Technology to Improve Epidemiological Surveillance Tools

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Allison; Steel, Cathy; Yokobe, Lindsay; Jackson, Emily; Barney, Rebecca; Kubofcik, Joseph; Peck, Roger; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Nutman, Thomas B.; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov). An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa. A lateral flow-based assay to detect human IgG4 antibodies to the Ov-specific antigen Ov-16 was developed as a rapid tool to detect exposure to Ov. The test, when performed on 449 sera specimens from patients with microfiladermia and Ov-negative patients, has a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% confidence interval: 86.2%–92.0%), and specificity of 97% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%–98.6%). Because the intended use of the test is for surveillance, it is highly desirable to have a stable, long-lasting result. An extended read window is thus desirable for a high-volume, busy workflow and facilitates post-surveillance quality assurance. The main restriction on achieving an extended read window for this assay was the erythrocyte lysis that can alter the signal-to-noise ratio, especially in those with low IgG4 levels (weak positives). We describe a test housing that incorporates a user-independent feature driven by assay fluid and an expanding wick that detaches the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose used in the assay, but before hemolysis occurs. We demonstrated material functionality at extreme operational conditions (37°C, 80% relative humidity) and a read window of a minimum of 70 days. The fluid-driven assay device performs equally as well with whole blood as with plasma, as demonstrated with 100 spiked clinical specimens (with a correlation coefficient of 0.96). We show a novel, inexpensive, and simple approach to actuating the detachment of the blood separation membrane from the nitrocellulose test with no impact on the performance characteristics of the test. PMID:23935960

  9. Intrathoracic pseudocyst in a kitten.

    PubMed

    Zemer, Orly; Brenner, Ori; Ginnsburg, Roni; Cohen, Liat; Milgram, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    A 2-month-old, intact, female domestic shorthair kitten presented with a history of acute-onset dyspnoea. Severe dyspnoea and tachypnoea were noted on physical examination. Serosanguinous fluid, consistent with a modified transudate, was aspirated from the pleural cavity immediately after the physical examination, with an immediate decrease in respiratory rate and effort. The thorax was radiographed and the entire left hemithorax appeared to be filled with a large soft tissue density mass. Thoracic ultrasound was performed and a cystic structure, measuring 3.0 cm × 1.5 cm, was seen in the left hemithorax. An explorative thoracotomy was performed and a mass obliterating the left hemithorax was found. The mass was removed by a combination of blunt and sharp dissection. A final diagnosis of thoracic pseudocyst was made on histological examination of the tissue. The mass was described as a sterile process characteristic of an organised seroma or haematoma. Recovery from surgery was uneventful and the kitten was discharged 48 h postoperatively. The kitten was still alive with no recurrence of clinical signs at the time of writing this report, 8 months postoperatively.

  10. Alterations in Gastric Microbiota After H. Pylori Eradication and in Different Histological Stages of Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tung Hiu; Qin, Youwen; Sham, Pak Chung; Lau, K S; Chu, Kent-Man; Leung, Wai K

    2017-03-21

    The role of bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the stomach remains elusive. We characterized the gastric microbiota in individuals with different histological stages of gastric carcinogenesis and after receiving HP eradication therapy. Endoscopic gastric biopsies were obtained from subjects with HP gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM), gastric cancer (GC) and HP negative controls. Gastric microbiota was characterized by Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the 16 S rDNA. Apart from dominant H. pylori, we observed other Proteobacteria including Haemophilus, Serratia, Neisseria and Stenotrophomonas as the major components of the human gastric microbiota. Although samples were largely converged according to the relative abundance of HP, a clear separation of GC and other samples was recovered. Whilst there was a strong inverse association between HP relative abundance and bacterial diversity, this association was weak in GC samples which tended to have lower bacterial diversity compared with other samples with similar HP levels. Eradication of HP resulted in an increase in bacterial diversity and restoration of the relative abundance of other bacteria to levels similar to individuals without HP. In conclusion, HP colonization results in alterations of gastric microbiota and reduction in bacterial diversity, which could be restored by antibiotic treatment.

  11. Alterations in Gastric Microbiota After H. Pylori Eradication and in Different Histological Stages of Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tung Hiu; Qin, Youwen; Sham, Pak Chung; Lau, K.S.; Chu, Kent-Man; Leung, Wai K.

    2017-01-01

    The role of bacteria other than Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the stomach remains elusive. We characterized the gastric microbiota in individuals with different histological stages of gastric carcinogenesis and after receiving HP eradication therapy. Endoscopic gastric biopsies were obtained from subjects with HP gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM), gastric cancer (GC) and HP negative controls. Gastric microbiota was characterized by Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the 16 S rDNA. Apart from dominant H. pylori, we observed other Proteobacteria including Haemophilus, Serratia, Neisseria and Stenotrophomonas as the major components of the human gastric microbiota. Although samples were largely converged according to the relative abundance of HP, a clear separation of GC and other samples was recovered. Whilst there was a strong inverse association between HP relative abundance and bacterial diversity, this association was weak in GC samples which tended to have lower bacterial diversity compared with other samples with similar HP levels. Eradication of HP resulted in an increase in bacterial diversity and restoration of the relative abundance of other bacteria to levels similar to individuals without HP. In conclusion, HP colonization results in alterations of gastric microbiota and reduction in bacterial diversity, which could be restored by antibiotic treatment. PMID:28322295

  12. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse. PMID:24155420

  13. Gastric bezoar after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ertugrul, Ismail; Tardum Tardu, Ali; Tolan, Kerem; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Karagul, Servet; Kirmizi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to present a patient with gastric pouch bezoar after having a bariatric surgery. Presentation of case Sixty-three years old morbid obese female had a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 14 months ago. She has lost 88% of her excess body mass index; but started to suffer from nausea, abdominal distention and vomiting lately, especially for the last two months. The initial evaluation by endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and an upper gastrointestinal contrast series overlooked the pathology in the gastric pouch and did not display any abnormality. However, a second endoscopy revealed a 5 cm in diameter phytobezoar in the gastric pouch which was later endoscopically removed. After the bezoar removal, her complaints relieved completely. Discussion The gastric bezoars may be confused with the other pathologies because of the dyspeptic complaints of these patients. The patients that had a bariatric surgery; are more prone to bezoar formation due to their potential eating disorders and because of the gastro-enterostomy made to a small gastric pouch after the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Conclusion Possibility of a bezoar formation should be kept in mind in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who has nausea and vomiting complaints. Removal of the bezoar provides a dramatic improvement in the complaints of these patients. PMID:27107501

  14. Massive gastric dilatation and anuria resolved with naso-gastric tube decompression.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Vega, Cristina; Peces, Carlos; Trébol, Julio; González, Juan A

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time a case of acute kidney injury associated with severe gastric distention after a laparoscopic Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication of the stomach for hiatal hernia. An abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to intra-abdominal hypertension was suspected. Naso-gastric tube decompression resulted in immediate resaturation of the diuresis and progressive recovery of renal function.

  15. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E C

    2013-10-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse.

  16. [Enzymes in gastric juice. An aid in the diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Marino Alarcón, O; Concho Lugo, H; Silva Larralte, T; Tauil Bsereni, E; Solano Nava, P; Machado, D; Chacón Patiño, A

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we measured the activities of the following enzymes: LDH (lactic dehydrogenase), beta-glucuronidase, acid maltase, phosphohexoseisomerase (PHI) and acid proteases in the gastric juice of patients with gastric cancer (n = 50) (Case Group), in endoscopically normal subjects (n = 50) and in subjects with different non tumor-like digestive pathologies (n = 55) (Control Groups). In the patients with gastric carcinoma we found a significant increase in LDH, beta-glucuronidase, PHI and acid maltase activities and a decreased activity of acid proteases. The results agree with previous findings from other workers. The variations of enzyme activities in gastric juice can help to differentiate between malignant and benign processes of the gastric mucosa.

  17. Gastric Leiomyosarcoma as a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction and perforation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours are the most common mesenchymal malignancies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and gastric leiomyosarcoma represent 1-3% of gastric malignancies. Case presentation We report a case of a 69-year- old black African man who presented with a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction and duodenal perforation. A Billroth- II gastrectomy was performed and histology confirmed a gastric leiomyosarcoma. Conclusions It is important to identify the gastric leiomyosarcoma which is a variant of the more common malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumours as the pathogenesis and management are currently well established. As the facilities for differentiating these are not easily available in resource-limited areas gastrointestinal stromal tumours may remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:25069607

  18. Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding α4GnT, and then demonstrated that αGlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that αGlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for αGlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

  19. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  20. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  1. Challenges of deciphering gastric cancer heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hudler, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is in decline in most developed countries; however, it still accounts for a notable fraction of global mortality and morbidity related to cancer. High-throughput methods are rapidly changing our view and understanding of the molecular basis of gastric carcinogenesis. Today, it is widely accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity, both inter- and intra-tumour, of gastric adenocarcinomas present significant obstacles in elucidating specific biomarkers for early detection of the disease. Although genome-wide sequencing and gene expression studies have revealed the intricate nature of the molecular changes that occur in tumour landscapes, the collected data and results are complex and sometimes contradictory. Several aberrant molecules have already been tested in clinical trials, although their diagnostic and prognostic utilities have not been confirmed thus far. The gold standard for the detection of sporadic gastric cancer is still the gastric endoscopy, which is considered invasive. In addition, genome-wide association studies have confirmed that genetic variations are important contributors to increased cancer risk and could participate in the initiation of malignant transformation. This hypothesis could in part explain the late onset of sporadic gastric cancers. The elaborate interplay of polymorphic low penetrance genes and lifestyle and environmental risk factors requires additional research to decipher their relative impacts on tumorigenesis. The purpose of this article is to present details of the molecular heterogeneity of sporadic gastric cancers at the DNA, RNA, and proteome levels and to discuss issues relevant to the translation of basic research data to clinically valuable tools. The focus of this work is the identification of relevant molecular changes that could be detected non-invasively. PMID:26457012

  2. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation.

    PubMed

    Krasniqi, Avdyl-Selmon; Hoxha, Faton-Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik-Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin-Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa-Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik-Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije-Hasan

    2008-10-14

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed.

  3. Chronic myelocytic leukemia and gastric cancer in the same patient.

    PubMed Central

    Butala, A.; Kalra, J.; Rosner, F.

    1989-01-01

    The association of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and gastric cancer is very rare. We report a case of CML associated with gastric cancer and review the pertinent literature of 15 previously reported cases. PMID:2661837

  4. Biochemical changes induced by Campylobacter pylori in the gastric juice.

    PubMed

    Andreica, V; Suciu, A; Dumitraşcu, D; Drăghici, A; Pascu, O; Suciu, M; Ban, A

    1990-01-01

    The biochemical changes induced in the gastric juice by the presence of Campylobacter pylori (CP) were followed up in 151 patients with various gastric and duodenal diseases. The diagnosis of CP infection was made by the urease test. In the presence of CP urea decreased in the gastric juice and ammonia increased. The sialic acid, fucose and hexoses, glucide components of the mucus glycoproteins dissolved in the gastric juice, underwent no change in the presence of CP. The hexosamines in the gastric mucus increased significantly in CP patients. Urease activity is present in the gastric juice even in the absence of CP, probably due to other microorganisms present in the human stomach. This does not exclude the use of the urease test for the diagnosis of CP infection. However the test can only be used in the bioptically removed gastric mucosa samples, not in the gastric juice.

  5. Targeting Smoothened Sensitizes Gastric Cancer to Chemotherapy in Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huifa; Tian, Yongsheng; Yu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog pathway receptor smoothened (SMO) has critical roles in tumor progression. However, whether SMO is a key factor regulating gastric cancer chemotherapy resistance is unknown. Material/Methods We investigated the potential functions of SMO in inducing gastric cancer paclitaxel resistance in clinical samples, gastric cancer cell lines (424GC and AGS), and subcutaneous syngeneic mouse models. Results We found high SMO expression in paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer clinical samples. Paclitaxel gastric cancer cells had higher SMO expression than in drug-sensitive cells. Upregulating SMO expression induced paclitaxel resistance in gastric cells lines via enhancing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. The combination of IPI-926, an inhibitor of SMO, with paclitaxel decreased cell viability of paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer cells in vitro and controlled tumor growth in animal models. Conclusions The Hedgehog pathway receptor SMO is an important regulator of gastric cancer paclitaxel resistance and could be a target for sensitizing paclitaxel-resistant tumors. PMID:28350784

  6. Endoscopic retrieval of gastric trichophytobezoar

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiu-ling; Zhao, Wei-chuan; Wang, Yu-shui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Trichophytobezoars, which are composed of hair and plant fibers, are usually located in the stomach. They are often associated with trichophagia and trichotillomania. The most commonly reported methods of trichophytobezoar treatment are open surgery and laparoscopic retrieval; there are few reports of endoscopic removal of trichophytobezoars. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: Twelve-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of increasing upper abdominal pain, anorexia, and postprandial emesis. She had a 3-year history of pulling out and eating her own hair. Endoscopic examination showed a large intragastric trichophytobezoar measuring 10.5 cm × 3.5 cm in size, with extension of a few hairs through the pylorus. Interventions and Outcomes: The trichophytobezoar was packed with hair fibers and contained a hard core of mixed hair and vegetable fibers. After the core was cut, the trichophytobezoar was fragmented into pieces with the alternating use of a polypectomy snare and argon plasma coagulation. A small amount of hair and nondigestible food fibers was removed with grasping forceps during the initial procedure. The remaining hairball was loosened with biopsy forceps and was injected with sodium bicarbonate solution. The trichophytobezoar was removed completely at repeat endoscopy 5 days later. After 6 months of psychological intervention, the patient had no recurrence of trichophagia or trichophytobezoar. Lessons: Endoscopy with sodium bicarbonate injection is an effective and minimally invasive method of retrieving a gastric trichophytobezoar. PMID:28099364

  7. Brainstem Circuits Regulating Gastric Function

    PubMed Central

    Travagli, R. Alberto; Hermann, Gerlinda E.; Browning, Kirsteen N.; Rogers, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Brainstem parasympathetic circuits that modulate digestive functions of the stomach are comprised of afferent vagal fibers, neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the efferent fibers originating in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). A large body of evidence has shown that neuronal communications between the NTS and the DMV are plastic and are regulated by the presence of a variety of neurotransmitters and circulating hormones as well as the presence, or absence, of afferent input to the NTS. These data suggest that descending central nervous system inputs as well as hormonal and afferent feedback resulting from the digestive process can powerfully regulate vago-vagal reflex sensitivity. This paper first reviews the essential “static” organization and function of vago-vagal gastric control neurocircuitry. We then present data on the opioidergic modulation of NTS connections with the DMV as an example of the “gating” of these reflexes, i.e., how neurotransmitters, hormones, and vagal afferent traffic can make an otherwise static autonomic reflex highly plastic. PMID:16460274

  8. Gastric lipase secretion in children with gastritis.

    PubMed

    Tomasik, Przemyslaw J; Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Rogatko, Iwona; Zając, Andrzej; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Sztefko, Krystyna

    2013-07-29

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14) and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14). Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005) and the control group (p < 0.005). Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003) and the HPG group (p < 0.01). We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  9. [Ways to personalized medicine for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Röcken, C

    2013-09-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common tumor and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Approximately 70 % of the patients already have lymph node metastases at the time of the diagnosis leading to a median overall survival time of 16.7 months. Complete resection of the primary tumor with D2 lymphadenectomy offers the only chance of cure in the early stages of the disease. Survival of more locally advanced gastric cancer was improved by the introduction of perioperative, adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy of gastric cancer; however, the identification of novel predictive and diagnostic targets is urgently needed. Our own studies on gastric cancer biology identified several putative tumor biologically relevant G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g. AT1R, AT2R, CXCR4, FZD7, LGR4, LGR5, LGR6). Some of these receptors are also putative stem cell markers and may serve as future targets of an individualized therapy of gastric cancer.

  10. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  11. Gastric carcinoma: is radical gastrectomy worth while?

    PubMed Central

    Longmire, William P

    1980-01-01

    Total gastrectomy as the treatment of choice for gastric carcinoma was evaluated by a number of centres during the decade 1945-55. The operative mortality was found to be higher, the 5-year survival rate was lower, and the undesirable digestive side effects were greater than those following subtotal resection. The very radical subtotal resections with miniature gastric remnants were also found to result in postgastrectomy symptoms quite similar to those of total gastrectomy. Technical refinements of oesophagojejunal anastomoses and the use of nutritional supplements and antianaemic therapy have reduced but have not eliminated the sequelae of radical gastrectomy. A review of 15 reports of gastric cancer treatment from 8 countries suggests that in recent years total gastrectomy has been utilised in 25.4% of resections, with an average operative mortality of 21.7% and a 5-year survival of 12.3%. Radical resection or total gastrectomy is recommended for certain specific conditions, but for the usual antral gastric cancer subtotal resection distal to the vasa brevia with preservation of the gastric fundus and spleen is recommended PMID:7362184

  12. Association of adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus, "gastroesophageal junction," and "gastric cardia" with gastric pathology.

    PubMed

    Wijetunge, Sulochana; Ma, Yanling; DeMeester, Steve; Hagen, Jeffrey; DeMeester, Tom; Chandrasoma, Parakrama

    2010-10-01

    Controversy exists as to whether adenocarcinomas occurring in the gastroesophageal junctional region and gastric cardia originate in the esophagus or the stomach. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is known to be strongly associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease; gastric adenocarcinoma with Helicobacter pylori gastritis, and gastric intestinal metaplasia. This study evaluates the association of these tumors with pathologic findings in the biopsies of the gastric body and the antrum. It is hypothesized that if these malignancies are esophageal, they should have little or no significant association with gastric pathology; if they are gastric, these patients should have a high prevalence of gastric pathology. Between 2004 and 2008, 234 patients were diagnosed with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and/or adenocarcinoma; 107 were distal esophageal, 79 straddled the distal end of the tubular esophagus, and 48 were in the "gastric cardia." Simultaneous biopsies of the distal body and antrum were present in 185 patients; 49 had biopsy of either antrum or body. Gastric biopsies were assessed for inflammation, H. pylori infection, and intestinal metaplasia. During this period, 2146 patients had nonmalignant columnar epithelia in the esophagus with similar assessment of the stomach; these acted as a control group. The gastric biopsy was normal in 201/234 (85.9%) patients and showed significant inflammation, H. pylori infection, and/or gastric intestinal metaplasia in 33/234 (14.1%) patients. There was no gastritis, H. pylori infection, or intestinal metaplasia in 88/107 (82.2%) of the patients with distal esophageal HGD and/or adenocarcinoma, 70/79 (88.6%) with junctional HGD and/or adenocarcinoma, and 43/48 (85.9%) with "gastric cardiac" HGD and/or adenocarcinoma. The incidence of gastritis was significantly higher in the patients with HGD and/or adenocarcinoma (33/234 or 14.1%) than in the control population (146/2146 or 9.0%; P=0.01). This difference was largely the result of a

  13. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  14. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  15. Gastric cancer stem cells in gastric carcinogenesis, progression, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Dan, Zeng; Nie, Yu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the study of the mechanism of tumorigenesis has brought much progress to cancer treatment. However, cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has changed previous views of tumors, and has provided a new method for treatment of cancer. The discovery of CSCs and their characteristics have contributed to understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor genesis and development, resulting in a new effective strategy for cancer treatment. Gastric CSCs (GCSCs) are the basis for the onset of gastric cancer. They may be derived from gastric stem cells in gastric tissues, or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As with other stem cells, GCSCs highly express drug-resistance genes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase and multidrug resistance, which are resistant to chemotherapy and thus form the basis of drug resistance. Many specific molecular markers such as CD44 and CD133 have been used for identification and isolation of GCSCs, diagnosis and grading of gastric cancer, and research on GCSC-targeted therapy for gastric cancer. Therefore, discussion of the recent development and advancements in GCSCs will be helpful for providing novel insight into gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833872

  16. Current status of randomized controlled trials for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxin; Hu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    China alone accounts for nearly 42% of all new gastric cancer cases worldwide, and gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in China nowadays. Without mass screening programs, unfortunately over 80% of all Chinese patients have been diagnosed as advanced diseases. As in other Asian countries, especially Japan and Korea, laparoscopic gastrectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer has gained increasingly popularity in China during the past decade. Whether laparoscopic surgery can be safely and effectively performed in the treatment of gastric cancer remains controversial, particularly with regard to curative intent in advanced diseases. Given the high incidence of these cancers, and their advanced stage at diagnosis, China has a significant interest in determining the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic gastrectomy. A well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the only feasible way to provide conclusive evidence. To date, China has not played a significant role in terms of conducting RCT concerning laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer. However, an effort has been made by the Chinese researchers, with the great help from our colleagues in neighboring countries such as Korea and Japan, through the establishment of the Chinese Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group. In this review, we present the current status of RCT for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China, including published and ongoing registered RCT.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastric Adenoma and Gastric Cancer in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. To evaluate the incidence of gastric adenoma and gastric cancer in colorectal cancer patients, as well as the clinicopathological features that affect their incidence. Methods. Among patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer between January 2004 and December 2013 at Chungnam National University Hospital, 142 patients who underwent follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were assigned to the patient group. The control group included 426 subjects randomly selected. The patient group was subdivided into two: one that developed gastric adenoma or cancer and one that did not. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between these groups. Results. In total, 35 (24.6%) colorectal cancer patients developed a gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, which was higher than the number in the control group (20 [4.7%] patients; p < 0.001). Age, alcohol history, and differentiation of colorectal cancer were associated with higher risks of gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, with odds ratios of 1.062, 6.506, and 5.901, respectively. Conclusions. In colorectal cancer patients, screening with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is important, even if no lesions are noted in the upper gastrointestinal tract at colorectal cancer diagnosis. Endoscopic screening is particularly important with increasing age, history of alcohol consumption, and poor cancer differentiation. PMID:28105047

  18. Pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage: Importance of cyclooxygenase inhibition and gastric hypermotility

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the pathogenic mechanism of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric damage, focusing on the relation between cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and various functional events. NSAIDs, such as indomethacin, at a dose that inhibits prostaglandin (PG) production, enhance gastric motility, resulting in an increase in mucosal permeability, neutrophil infiltration and oxyradical production, and eventually producing gastric lesions. These lesions are prevented by pretreatment with PGE2 and antisecretory drugs, and also via an atropine-sensitive mechanism, not related to antisecretory action. Although neither rofecoxib (a selective COX-2 inhibitor) nor SC-560 (a selective COX-1 inhibitor) alone damages the stomach, the combined administration of these drugs provokes gastric lesions. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, decreases prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and causes gastric hypermotility and an increase in mucosal permeability. COX-2 mRNA is expressed in the stomach after administration of indomethacin and SC-560 but not rofecoxib. The up-regulation of indomethacin-induced COX-2 expression is prevented by atropine at a dose that inhibits gastric hypermotility. In addition, selective COX-2 inhibitors have deleterious influences on the stomach when COX-2 is overexpressed under various conditions, including adrenalectomy, arthritis, and Helicobacter pylori-infection. In summary, gastric hypermotility plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastric damage, and the response, causally related with PG deficiency due to COX-1 inhibition, occurs prior to other pathogenic events such as increased mucosal permeability; and the ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs require the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2, the inhibition of COX-1 upregulates COX-2 expression in association with gastric hypermotility, and PGs produced by COX-2 counteract the deleterious effect of COX-1 inhibition. PMID:22611307

  19. Gastric heterotopia in the rectum. A rare cause of ectopic gastric tissue.

    PubMed

    Salem, George A; Fazili, Javid; Ali, Tauseef

    2017-02-17

    Gastric heterotopia refers to the discovery of normal gastric tissue at foreign, unexpected sites. It has been described anywhere in the alimentary tract, even in the mediastinum, scrotum, and spinal cord. It is not uncommonly seen in the oesophagus or small intestine. However, large bowel lesions are rare, with the most common location of colonic lesions is the rectum. Although it is a rare entity, it may be the source for significant problems such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, deep rectal pain, and malignancy. Here, we report an additional case of gastric heterotopia in the rectum of a 56year old gentleman, and review the literature.

  20. Percutaneous gastrostomy of the excluded gastric segment after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Stein, Evan G; Cynamon, Jacob; Katzman, Marc Joshua; Goodman, Elliott; Rozenblit, Alla; Wolf, Ellen L; Jagust, Marcy B

    2007-07-01

    A new technique for percutaneous gastrostomy of a decompressed excluded gastric segment after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery is described and the results in a single institution are reviewed. Computed tomography guidance was used to place a 21- or 22-gauge needle into the lumen of the stomach and distend it to allow placement of a feeding catheter. Ten women underwent the procedure, and despite only three patients having clear access windows, gastrostomy placement was ultimately successful in all 10 patients. Percutaneous gastrostomy of the decompressed excluded gastric segment after RYGBP surgery can be challenging, but a high rate of success can be achieved.

  1. Primary Gastric Burkitt’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Swarupa; Mehta, Anurag; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Anila; Louis, A. Robert; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Saxena, Upasna; Simson, David K.; Dewan, Abhinav

    2014-01-01

    The primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, although rare, is among the most common extra-nodal lymphomas, considering that gastric lymphomas are more common than intestinal lymphomas. Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma that is typically endemic in Africa, while non-endemic cases are found in the rest of the world. Primary gastric BL is extremely rare and only around 50 cases have been reported worldwide. Here we present the case of a young HIV-negative male, who was referred to our department with a stage IV gastric BL. He was planned for palliative chemotherapy, but after the first cycle of chemotherapy he succumbed to the progression of the disease. PMID:25568743

  2. Laparoscopic Resection of Symptomatic Gastric Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Zelisko, Andrea; Rodriguez, John; El-Hayek, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Gastric diverticula are rare and usually asymptomatic. This report, however, describes two examples of symptomatic gastric diverticula successfully treated by laparoscopic resection. Both patients were male and in their sixth decade of life. One patient was relatively healthy with no past medical history, whereas the other patient had chronic pain issues and at presentation was also undergoing evaluation for hyperaldosteronism. The patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, and change in bowel function. In both cases, a gastric diverticulum was identified by CT scan, and precise anatomic position was determined by upper endoscopy. After discussion with the treating teams, including a gastroenterologist and surgeon, surgical treatment and resection was elected. Successful laparoscopic removal was accomplished in both patients, and they were discharged home after tolerating liquid diets. Both patients reported resolution of their abdominal symptoms at follow-up. PMID:24680154

  3. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets.

  4. [Primary gastric lymphoma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Rassu, P C; Bronzino, P; Strata, F; Cassinelli, G; Arena, E; La Spisa, C; Ronzitti, F; Ieracitano, V M; Casaccia, M

    2002-03-01

    In this case report the Authors describe a case of primary gastric lymphoma in a 62 years old patient who presented with dyspepsia and weigh loss. Primary gastric lymphoma is a rare neoplasm which of 1-10% of the malignant gastric neoplasms in the gastroenteric tract. The clinic presentation is usually aspecific. The infection by H. pylori is a factor of predisposition for this kind of disease. The diagnostic pathway consists in x-ray examination of the gastrointestinal tract, the endoscopy with biopsies, the computerized tomography and the echo-endoscopy. However obtaining a preoperative diagnosis is often difficult because of the submucosal localization of the lymphoma. There is not a common strategy among the Authors for the treatment of the disease, which can be surgical, radiotherapic or chemotherapic.

  5. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    PubMed

    Castrup, H J

    1979-05-10

    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  6. Gastric mucormycosis: Diagnosis by imprint cytology.

    PubMed

    Tathe, Shilpa P; Dani, Aarti A; Chawhan, Sanjay M; Meshram, Saroj A; Randale, Archana A; Raut, Waman K

    2016-10-01

    The fungi in the order of Mucorales commonly target diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts, producing fatal respiratory and or CNS infections. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is uncommon and seldom diagnosed in living patients due to nonspecific clinical manifestations. We report a case of gastric mucormycosis in an immmunocompetent male patient, diagnosed by imprint cytology-a rare site and a rare setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of gastric mucormycosis being diagnosed on cytology. As the disease is rapidly progressive and often fatal, early diagnosis is critical to the patient survival. Imprint cytology or brush cytology is extremely useful for the rapid diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis as these organisms are morphologically distinct. Familiarity with the cytomorphology of these organisms assists in the correct diagnosis of this disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:820-822. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Endoscopic resection (ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with “standard” criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet “expanded” criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer. PMID:26380052

  8. Classification of nodal stations in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Guido; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Alfieri, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic drainage from the stomach is anatomically elaborate and it is very hard to predict the pattern of lymph node (LN) metastases from gastric cancer (GC). However, there are LN stations metastases that are more frequently observed depending on the tumor location. Furthermore, the incidence of metastasis to various regional LN stations depends on the depth of gastric-wall invasion. The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) classifies the regional LNs draining the stomach into 33 regional lymphatic stations. These are distinguished into three (N1–N3) groups with respect to the location of the primary tumor. The aim of this classification is to provide a common language for the clinical, surgical, and pathological description of GC. PMID:28217752

  9. Gastric vascular lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Solej, Mario; Bertoldo, Ugo; Enrico, Stefano; Marci, Valerio; Raggio, Eleonora; Nano, Mario; Gasparri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are a known but rare cause of bleeding. Those of the stomach are the rarest if compared with other causes of gastric bleeding. The aetiology is still unknown, but senile age is considered an important cause, as are the degenerative processes connected with old age. These lesions are diagnosed by endoscopy which, with a haematostatic intent, often is not sufficient to stop the bleeding. Angiography is necessary for patients with massive bleeding whose endoscopy results are negative. The surgical treatment of gastric arteriovenous malformations requires excision of the lesion and part or all of the stomach. We report the case of a 57-year-old patient admitted to the Casualty Department with haematemesis and anaemia caused by acute gastric bleeding.

  10. Decreased expression of TLR7 in gastric cancer tissues and the effects of TLR7 activation on gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, JIONG; DONG, LEI; QIN, BIN; SHI, HAITAO; GUO, XIAOYAN; WANG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in gastric cancer tissues and investigate the effects of its activation on gastric cancer cells. Patients with gastric cancer (n=30) and patients without gastric cancer (control; n=14) who underwent gastroscopy were enrolled in the study. Gastric cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues were obtained from the patients with gastric cancer, and normal gastric epithelial tissues were obtained from the control patients. The TLR7 mRNA and protein expressions in different tissues were investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The present study also determined the effects of TLR7 activation by the agonist imiquimod on TLR7 protein expression, proinflammatory cytokine secretion and viability in SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR7 were significantly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with cancer-adjacent and normal gastric epithelial tissues (P<0.01). Imiquimod significantly increased TLR7 protein expression levels, and promoted the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in SGC-7901 cells. Furthermore, imiquimod inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thus, the present study identified that the expression of TLR7 was decreased in gastric cancer tissues, and TLR7 activation enhanced TLR7 expression, promoted the production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells. PMID:27347192

  11. The adjuvanticity of an O. volvulus-derived rOv-ASP-1 protein in mice using sequential vaccinations and in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Tricoche, Nancy; Du, Lanying; Hunter, Meredith; Zhan, Bin; Goud, Gaddam; Didier, Elizabeth S; Liu, Jing; Lu, Lu; Marx, Preston A; Jiang, Shibo; Lustigman, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvants potentiate antigen-specific protective immune responses and can be key elements promoting vaccine effectiveness. We previously reported that the Onchocerca volvulus recombinant protein rOv-ASP-1 can induce activation and maturation of naïve human DCs and therefore could be used as an innate adjuvant to promote balanced Th1 and Th2 responses to bystander vaccine antigens in mice. With a few vaccine antigens, it also promoted a Th1-biased response based on pronounced induction of Th1-associated IgG2a and IgG2b antibody responses and the upregulated production of Th1 cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6. However, because it is a protein, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant may also induce anti-self-antibodies. Therefore, it was important to verify that the host responses to self will not affect the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 when it is used in subsequent vaccinations with the same or different vaccine antigens. In this study, we have established rOv-ASP-1's adjuvanticity in mice during the course of two sequential vaccinations using two vaccine model systems: the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV spike protein and a commercial influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine comprised of three virus strains. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 was retained with an efficacy similar to that obtained when it was used for a first vaccination, even though a high level of anti-rOv-ASP-1 antibodies was present in the sera of mice before the administration of the second vaccine. To further demonstrate its utility as an adjuvant for human use, we also immunized non-human primates (NHPs) with RBD plus rOv-ASP-1 and showed that rOv-ASP-1 could induce high titres of functional and protective anti-RBD antibody responses in NHPs. Notably, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant did not induce high titer antibodies against self in NHPs. Thus, the present study provided a sound scientific foundation for future strategies in the development of this novel protein adjuvant.

  12. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Tegels, Juul J W; De Maat, Michiel F G; Hulsewé, Karel W E; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stoot, Jan H M B

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain.

  13. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tegels, Juul JW; De Maat, Michiel FG; Hulsewé, Karel WE; Hoofwijk, Anton GM; Stoot, Jan HMB

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain. PMID:25320507

  14. Giardia lamblia trophozoites in gastric biopsies.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Misra, S P; Dwivedi, Manisha; Singh, P A

    2006-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in gastric biopsies of patients with carcinoma stomach and in patients taking treatment for duodenal ulcer. Gastric biopsy specimens from 54 patients of carcinoma stomach and 100 antral biopsies from patients taking treatment for duodenal ulcer were included in the study. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, methylene blue and May Grunwald-Giemsa stains and examined for presence of Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Eight out of 54 (14.9%) biopsies of gastric carcinoma patients harboured trophozoites of Giardia lamblia. Associated H. pylori infection was present in all biopsies (8/8; 100%). Atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was present in 62.5% (5/8) and 25% (2/8) cases respectively. Sections from seven out of 35 patients (20%) taking treatment for duodenal ulcer showed presence of G. lamblia. H. pylori infection, gastritis and atrophy were found in 85.7% (6/7), 71.4% (5/7) and 28.6% (2/7) cases respectively. First gastric biopsy in these patients was negative for G. lamblia but 2nd and 3rd biopsies were positive. A careful search for G. lamblia trophozoites should be made while examining the gastric biopsies, especially in patients with carcinoma stomach, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and those taking treatment for duodenal ulcer. This may help in indirect diagnosis of clinically unsuspected cases of intestinal giardiasis and may explain persistence of vague upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) symptoms despite clearance of H. pylori in patients on anti-ulcer therapy.

  15. Origin of Microsatellite Instability in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Halling, Kevin C.; Harper, Jeffrey; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Petroni, Gina R.; Yustein, Aron S.; Tosi, Piero; Minacci, Chiara; Roviello, Franco; Piva, Paolo; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Jackson, Charles E.; Powell, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is observed in 13–44% of gastric carcinoma. The etiology of MSI in gastric carcinoma has not been clearly defined. To assess the role of mismatch repair in the development of MSI in gastric cancer, expression of hMSH2 and hMLH1 was explored. We examined 117 gastric carcinomas for MSI and observed instability at one or more loci in 19 (16%) of these tumors. Of the 19 tumors with MSI, nine exhibited low-rate MSI (MSI-L) with instability at <17% of loci, whereas the remaining 10 exhibited high-rate MSI (MSI-H) with instability at >33% of loci examined. Immunohistochemical staining for hMLH1 and hMSH2 was performed on eight of the tumors with MSI-H, five with MSI-L, and 15 tumors without MSI. All eight tumors with MSI-H showed loss of staining for either hMLH1 (n = 5) or hMSH2 (n = 3). In contrast, tumors with MSI-L or without MSI all showed normal hMSH2 and hMLH1 protein expression patterns. Moreover, all eight of the tumors with MSI-H also showed instability at BAT-26, whereas none of the MSI-L tumors or tumors without instability showed instability at BAT-26. These findings suggest that the majority of high-level MSI in gastric cancer is associated with defects of the mismatch repair pathway. Although larger studies are needed, BAT-26 appears to be a sensitive and specific marker for the MSI-H phenotype in gastric carcinoma. PMID:10393852

  16. Gastric tonometry: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M A; Mythen, M G

    2001-04-01

    Gastric tonometry has proved to be a sensitive but not specific predictor of outcome in the critically ill. The data accumulated to date indicate that those patients able to achieve or maintain a normal gastric mucosal pH do better than those who do not. In addition, therapy aimed at improving an abnormal gastric mucosal pH has proved to be less successful. These findings may simply indicate that tonometry identifies those "responders" and "nonresponders," as becomes increasingly apparent in populations of critical care patients receiving interventional therapy. Gastric tonometry has undergone a number of methodologic changes over the last decade, seeing a switch from saline to automated gas tonometry. Along with this switch of methodology has come a deeper scrutiny of the indices used to assess gut perfusion. Most studies (including all the interventional ones) have used gastric mucosal pH. The newer indices of gut luminal PCO2 (PgCO2) referenced to arterial CO2 (PgCO2-PaCO2) or end tidal CO2 (PgCO2-PeCO2), although relatively well validated, remain to be proven as predictors of outcome or guides to interventional therapy. If we take a fresh look at the interventional trials in intensive care patients, there is a very definite trend toward benefit in the protocol groups, although they are generally reported as negative studies. There is much to be accomplished, however, before we accept the gastric tonometer as a routine tool with which to guide therapy based on gastrointestinal perfusion, including a greater understanding of gastrointestinal physiology and, as ever, the call for an adequately powered prospective randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical utility of gas tonometry.

  17. [Gastric epithelial polyps (part two)].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, Luis Hernán; Navarrete Siancas, Jesús

    2004-01-01

    The following is a statistical report regarding gastric polyps: Frequency determined through endoscopic examinations was 3.6%. The terms hyperplastic polyps and adenomas were used for the classification of epithelial polyps, considering the suprafoveal hyperplasias within the hyperplastic polyps, provided they were elevated lesions. Out of 2,283 polyps, 1,959 were hyperplastic (86%) and 324 were adenomas (14%). When analyzing 780 polyps, 86 (11%) were found to have the Nakamura III category. With regard to topography, in an examination of 2253 polyps, hyperplastic polyps were located as follows: 325 (17%) in the antrum, 1402 (73%) in the body and 202 (10%) in the fundus. Adenomas had a different distribution: 212 (65%) in the antrum, 100 (31%) in the body and 12 (4%) in the fundus. Out of 371 hyperplastic polyps examined, 49% were pediculate and 51% were sessile; on the contrary, 86 % of adenomas were sessile. The average age was 66.2 years in adenoma carriers, 58.5 in those having hyperplastic polyps, and 57.4 for suprafoveal hyperplasias. In 287 adenomas, 94.1% of carriers were over 40 years old. Out of 92 adenomas examined, 21.7% evidenced adenoma metaplasia and 72.8% evidenced metaplasia in adjacent areas. Only 5.5% had no metaplasia. In 105 hyperplastic polyps studied, intestinal metaplasia was found: 16.7% in the polyp and 60% in adjacent areas. No metaplasia was found in the remaining 23.3%. Average size of the adenomas was 14 mm and of hyperplastic polyps, 11 mm. A total of 195 adenomas were smaller than 10 mm. The percentage of malignization in 288 adenomas examined was closely related to their size: 214 (66%) smaller than 20 mm, had a malignization percentage of 7%; 74 (34%) larger than 20 mm, had 51% malignization, and 86.2% malignization was found in adenomas of over 40 mm. Global malignization percentage of adenomas was 18%. However, when adenomas with high grade dysplasia in the 4.1 category of the Viena classification (non-invasive high grade

  18. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrak, Dilsa; Alkan, Ali; Erdogdu, Batuhan; Utkan, Gungor

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancy is rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement was unsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapy was given after assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the first report of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI. PMID:25874139

  19. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael S; Williamson, Katherine K

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies.

  20. Isolated diffuse hyperplastic gastric polyposis presenting with severe anemia

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Anandacoomaraswamy, Dharshan; Burzyantseva, Olga; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Gastric polyps exist in a wide variety of types, most of which are small and often benign. Discovery of gastric polyps during Endoscopy necessitates biopsies. Case presentation We present a case report of an isolated diffuse hyperplastic gastric polyposis in a 26 years old Hispanic female when she was investigated for profound anemia. The Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed numerous gastric polyps filling the entire stomach. She was treated with near-total gastrectomy and her anemia resolved Conclusion Isolated diffuse hyperplasic gastric polyposis with normal gastrin level is a rare entity and can present with severe anemia. PMID:18755016

  1. Primary gastric tuberculosis – report of 5 cases

    PubMed Central

    Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Patel, Nikhil D; Amarapurkar, Anjali D

    2003-01-01

    Background Gastric tuberculosis is rare, and usually associated with pulmonary tuberculosis or an immunodeficient state. Here, we report five cases of gastric tuberculosis in immunocompetent patients without evidence of pulmonary involvement. Case presentation Three patients presented with gastric outlet obstruction that required surgery to relieve the obstruction as well as to confirm the diagnosis. The remaining two had involvement of gastroesophageal junction. All of them responded well to standard antitubercular treatment. Conclusion Though gastric tuberculosis is rare, it should be considered a possibility when patients present with gastric outlet obstruction or with endoscopic evidence of diffuse chronic inflammatory activity, particularly in areas endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:12703983

  2. Incidence and surgical importance of the posterior gastric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Prates, J C; DiDio, L J

    1978-01-01

    In a series of 61 adult cadavers, the posterior gastric artery was found in 38 (62.3%), originating from the superior aspect of the mid-third of the splenic artery. The posterior gastric artery, running behind the parietal peritoneum of the omental bursa, produced a peritoneal fold before reaching the posterior wall of the superior portion of the gastric body, near the cardiac region, and the fundus. Its high incidence, hidden origin, deep course, and distribution make this artery very important for surgical procedures relating to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, and celiac region. It may be crucial, especially if partial gastric resection of splenectomy have obliterated other gastric vessels. PMID:629615

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection, gastrin and cyclooxygenase-2 in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun; Sun, Kun; Xu, Wei; Li, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Hong; Sun, Wei-Hao

    2014-09-28

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent neoplasms and a main cause of death worldwide, especially in China and Japan. Numerous epidemiological, animal and experimental studies support a positive association between chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and the development of gastric cancer. However, the exact mechanism whereby H. pylori causes gastric carcinogenesis remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in gastric carcinomas and in their precursor lesions. In this review, we present the latest clinical and experimental evidence showing the role of gastrin and COX-2 in H. pylori-infected patients and their possible association with gastric cancer risk.

  4. Canine gastric mucosal vasodilation with prostaglandins and histamine analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, J.G.; Nies, A.S.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of direct intragastric artery infusion of prostaglandins E2 and I2, arachidonic acid, dimaprit (histamine H2 agonist), and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine (histamine H1 agonist) on gastric mucosal blood flow was examined in dogs to elucidate the relationship between gastric secretory state and mucosal blood flow in dogs. These compounds were chosen because of their diverse effect on gastric acid secretion. Gastric fundus blood flow was measured both electromagnetically with a flow probe around the left gastric artery which supplies the fundus almost exclusively, and by the radioactive microsphere technique. Intraarterial infusion of all the compounds resulted in gastric mucosal vasodilation even though PGE2, PGI2, and arachidonic acid inhibit gastric acid secretion, dimaprit stimulated gastric acid secretion, and 2',2'-pyridylethylamine does not affect gastric acid secretion. There was total agreement in the blood flow measurements by the two different techniques. Our data suggest that gastric acid secretion and gastric vasodilation are independently regulated. In addition, the validity of the studies in which the aminopyrine clearance indicates that prostaglandins are mucosal vasoconstrictors needs to be questioned because of the reliance of those measurements on the secretory state of the stomach.

  5. Management of gastric subepithelial tumors: The role of endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Young; Kim, Kyoung Oh

    2016-01-01

    With the wide use of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, the incidence of gastric subepithelial tumor (SET) diagnosis has increased. While the management of large or symptomatic gastric SETs is obvious, treatment of small (≤ 3 cm) asymptomatic gastric SETs remains inconclusive. Moreover, the presence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with malignant potential is of concern, and endoscopic treatment of gastric SETs remains a subject of debate. Recently, numerous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of endoscopic treatment of gastric SETs, and have proposed various endoscopic procedures including endoscopic submucosal dissection, endoscopic muscularis dissection, endoscopic enucleation, endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and a hybrid approach (the combination of endoscopy and laparoscopy). In this review article, we discuss current endoscopic treatments for gastric SETs as well as the advantages and limitations of this type of therapy. Finally, we predict the availability of newly developed endoscopic treatments for gastric SETs. PMID:27298713

  6. Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer: The cutting-edge

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lian-Wen; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer cells differs from that of normal epithelial cells. Upregulated aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in gastric cancer meeting the demands of cell proliferation is associated with genetic mutations, epigenetic modification and proteomic alteration. Understanding the mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis may contribute to our knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis. Metabolomic studies offer novel, convenient and practical tools in the search for new biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and chemosensitivity prediction of gastric cancer. Interfering with the process of glycolysis in cancer cells may provide a new and promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. In this article, we present a brief review of recent studies of glucose metabolism in gastric cancer, with primary focus on the clinical applications of new biomarkers and their potential therapeutic role in gastric cancer. PMID:26877609

  7. [Matrix metalloproteases as molecular markers in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara L; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-02-06

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Prognosis in patients with gastric cancer is difficult to establish because it is commonly diagnosed when gastric wall invasion and metastasis have occurred. Currently, some members of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases have been identified, whose expression in gastric tumor tissue is significantly elevated compared to healthy gastric tissue. Matrix metalloproteinases are 24 zinc-dependent endopeptidases that catalyze the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. This degradation allows the cancer cells invade the surrounding stroma and trigger metastasis. Upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis and elevated invasive capacity. This review compiles evidence about the genetic expression of matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer and their role in tumour invasion and metastasis, emphasizing their potential as molecular markers of prognosis.

  8. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  9. Percutaneous gastric drainage as a treatment for small bowel obstruction after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Hamoui, Nahid; Crookes, Peter F; Kaufman, Howard S

    2007-10-01

    The authors report the case of a patient who developed small bowel obstruction after laparoscopic gastric bypass. Imaging revealed an obstruction at the enteroenterostomy resulting in dilation of the bypassed stomach and proximal small bowel. The bypassed stomach was percutaneously drained using CT guidance, leading to resolution of the small bowel obstruction. Biliopancreatic limb obstructions can be successfully treated non-operatively after gastric bypass.

  10. Experimental studies of gastric dysfunction in motion sickness: The effect of gastric and vestibular stimulation on the vagal and splanchnic gastric efferents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niijima, A.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    The experiments were conducted in anaesthetized rats. In the first part of the experiments, the effect of CuSO4 on the afferent activity in the gastric branch of the vagus nerve was investigated. Gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution (0.04 percent and 0.08 percent) provoked an increase in afferent activity. In the second part of the experiments, the reflex effects of gastric perfusion of CuSO4 solution, repetitive stimulation of the gastric vagus nerve, and caloric stimulation of the right vestibular apparatus (5-18 C water) on gastric autonomic outflow were investigated. The results of these experiments showed that these three different types of stimulation caused an inhibition in efferent activity of the gastric vagus nerve and a slight activation of the splanchnic gastric efferents. The summation of the effect of each stimulation was also observed. These results, therefore, provide evidence for a possible integrative inhibitory function of the vagal gastric center as well as an excitatory function of gastric sympathetic motoneurons in relation to motion sickness.

  11. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  12. Laparoscopy in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, E C; Karpeh, M S; Conlon, K C; Brennan, M F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the accuracy of laparoscopy in detecting metastatic disease in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The majority of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma in the United States present with advanced disease. They are at high risk for intraabdominal metastatic spread. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients with gastric adenocarcinoma underwent laparoscopy at Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from December 1991 to December 1995. All were judged to be free of intra-abdominal metastatic disease on preoperative computed tomographic scan imaging. RESULTS: Laparoscopic exploration was successful in 110 of 111 patients and accurately staged 94% of the patients with respect to metastatic disease with a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 100%. The prevalence rate of metastatic disease was 37%. Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopy only and were discharged in an average 1.4 days versus 6.5 days in patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy without resection (p < 0.05). No patients undergoing laparoscopy only have returned for palliative surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy should be performed in nonobstructed, nonbleeding patients with advanced gastric cancer in the United States. More than one third of these patients have unsuspected metastatic disease at time of operation. Laparoscopy is highly accurate in detecting occult metastases and identifies a unique population of stage IV patients who may benefit from newer induction chemotherapeutic approaches while avoiding unnecessary laparotomy. Images Figure 4. PMID:9060581

  13. [Volumes of lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Cherniavskiĭ, A A; Lavrov, N A

    2015-01-01

    It is summarized an experience of 1528 resections for gastric cancer supplemented by D1-, D2-, D2,5- and D3-lymphadenectomy in 751, 241, 359 and 177 patients resrectively. Unconventional type D2.5 means D2-lymphodis section with additional lymphadenectomy along hepatoduodenal ligament and superior retropancreatic nodes as well as omental bursa removal with lymphodis section of esophageal opening crura. Analysis of immediate and remote results is presented. It is concluded that D3-lymphadenectomy is minimally preferred over D2.5-type in gastric cancer staging. D3-lymphodis section has the largest number of especially purulent and pancreatogenic postoperative complications. D2.5-lymphadenectomy significantly increases 5-year survival in comparison with D2-lymphodis section (from 51.2 ± 4.9 to 64.0 ± 4.1%; p<0.001) and may be chosen for any radical surgery for gastric cancer including early forms. Localized proximal tumors which are in distinctive for metastasis into hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes are exception. D3-lymphodis section did not impact on survival in comparison with D2,5-lymphadenectomy. Only patients with antral cancer after distal subtotal gastric resection had 5-year survival increasing on 8 % (from 60.6 ± 7.5 to 68.5 ± 6.3%).

  14. [Gastric adenomyoma clinically simulating hypertrophic pyloric stenosis].

    PubMed

    Sánchez García, S; Rubio Solís, D; Anes González, G; González Sánchez, S

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenomyomas are extremely uncommon benign tumors in children. On histologic examination, these tumors have an epithelial component similar to pancreatic ducts. We present a case of a pyloric adenomyoma that clinically simulated hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a newborn girl. Imaging tests, fundamentally magnetic resonance imaging, were very important in the characterization and diagnosis of this entity.

  15. Sensor capsule for diagnosis of gastric disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holen, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Motility and pH sensor capsule is developed to monitor gastric acidity, pressure, and temperature. Capsule does not interfere with digestion. Sensor is capsule which includes pH electrode, Pitran pressure transducer, and thermistor temperature sensor all potted in epoxy and enclosed in high density polyethylene sheath.

  16. Technical considerations in radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1987-12-01

    This is the final article in a four-part Continuing Education series on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) identify proper use of radiopharmaceuticals and meal composition for gastric emptying studies; 2) discuss appropriate imaging techniques; and 3) discuss methods of data analysis.

  17. Gastric electromechanical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Krygowska-Wajs, A; Lorens, K; Thor, P; Szczudlik, A; Konturek, S

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gastric myoelectrical and mechanical activities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients. Twenty patients with IPD (14 male and 6 female, mean age 42 +/- 9 years) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group A--early stage of disease (no. = 6) and group B--advanced IPD (no. = 14). Electrogastrography (EGG) was performed in fasting and postprandial conditions (Synectics system). The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured by sonography (Hitachi EUB-240). The antral area in fasting conditions was 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 cm2 and gastric emptying was 75 +/- 5 and 125 +/- 12 min in groups A and B respectively. EGG showed dysrhythmias (range 1-6 cycles per minute) in about 75% of both groups of IPD patients without increase in signal amplitude after a meal. Our results suggest that gastric motility is particularly impaired in patients with advanced IPD. It may be caused by the primary degenerative process in the autonomic nervous system of the gut.

  18. Gastric bezoar with small bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Urgancı, Ayvaz Ulaş; Akıncılar, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    In the operation performed on a patient with a history of abdominal surgery, a gastric bezoar and a small bowel bezoar were detected. Adhesive bowel obstruction was suspected; however, the patient was diagnosed with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Small bowel bezoar has resulted in intestinal obstruction. This case was discussed in accordance with the literature. PMID:28149129

  19. [Image processing of early gastric cancer cases].

    PubMed

    Inamoto, K; Umeda, T; Inamura, K

    1992-11-25

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Gery scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions.

  20. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID

  1. Doxycycline Leads to Sterility and Enhanced Killing of Female Onchocerca volvulus Worms in an Area With Persistent Microfilaridermia After Repeated Ivermectin Treatment: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Specht, Sabine; Klarmann-Schulz, Ute; Batsa, Linda; Mand, Sabine; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Fimmers, Rolf; Dubben, Bettina; Kwarteng, Alexander; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Boakye, Daniel; Ricchiuto, Arcangelo; Büttner, Marcelle; Adjei, Ohene; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Hoerauf, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Ivermectin (IVM) has been the drug of choice for the treatment of onchocerciasis. However, there have been reports of persistent microfilaridermia in individuals from an endemic area in Ghana after many rounds of IVM, raising concerns of suboptimal response or even the emergence of drug resistance. Because it is considered risky to continue relying only on IVM to combat this phenomenon, we assessed the effect of targeting the Onchocerca volvulus Wolbachia endosymbionts with doxycycline for these individuals with suboptimal response. Methods. One hundred sixty-seven patients, most of them with multiple rounds of IVM, were recruited in areas with IVM suboptimal response and treated with 100 mg/day doxycycline for 6 weeks. Three and 12 months after doxycycline treatment, patients took part in standard IVM treatment. Results. At 20 months after treatment, 80% of living female worms from the placebo group were Wolbachia positive, whereas only 5.1% in the doxycycline-treated group contained bacteria. Consistent with interruption of embryogenesis, none of the nodules removed from doxycycline-treated patients contained microfilariae, and 97% of those patients were without microfilaridermia, in contrast to placebo patients who remained at pretreatment levels (P < .001). Moreover, a significantly enhanced number of dead worms were observed after doxycycline. Conclusions. Targeting the Wolbachia in O. volvulus is effective in clearing microfilariae in the skin of onchocerciasis patients with persistent microfilaridermia and in enhanced killing of adult worms after repeated standard IVM treatment. Strategies can now be developed that include doxycycline to control onchocerciasis in areas where infections persist despite the frequent use of IVM. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN 66649839. PMID:25948064

  2. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an “unsupervised” and a “supervised” approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach. PMID:28249050

  3. Exploring gastric bacterial community in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Motta, Vincenzo; Trevisi, Paolo; Bertolini, Francesca; Ribani, Anisa; Schiavo, Giuseppina; Fontanesi, Luca; Bosi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Microbiota plays an important role in the homeostasis of the gastrointestinal tract. Understanding the variations of the commensal microbiota composition is crucial for a more efficient control of enteric infectious diseases and for the reduction of the use of antibiotics in animal production, which are the main points of interest for improved animal healthcare and welfare and for consumer health protection. Even though the intestinal microbiota has been extensively studied, little is known about the gastric microbiota. This pilot study was aimed at a descriptive analysis of the gastric microbiota in healthy pigs and at the identification of any differences among four potentially distinct microbial niches in the stomach. Gastric mucosal samples from the oxyntic area, the pylorus and the gastric groove, and a sample of gastric contents were collected from four healthy weaned pigs. Bacterial DNA was isolated and extracted from each sample and amplicons from the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM. The data were analysed by an "unsupervised" and a "supervised" approach in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) pipeline. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in all the samples. Differences in bacterial community composition were found between mucosal and content samples (one-way ANOSIM pairwise post hoc test, p < 0.05); instead, the different mucosal regions did not show differences between them. The mucosal samples were characterised by Herbiconiux and Brevundimonas, two genera which include cellulolytic and xylanolytic strains. Nevertheless, additional larger trials are needed to support the data presented in this pilot study and to increase the knowledge regarding the resident microbiota of the stomach.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sanghoon; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2014-01-01

    Gastric remnants are an inevitable consequence of partial gastrectomy following resection for gastric cancer. The presence of gastric stumps is itself a risk factor for redevelopment of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is also a well-known characteristic of gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization in the remnant stomach therefore draws special interest from clinicians in terms of stomach cancer development and pathogenesis; however, the H. pylori-infected gastric remnant is quite different from the intact organ in several aspects and researchers have expressed conflicting opinions with respect to its role in pathogenesis. For instance, H. pylori infection of the gastric stump produced controversial results in several recent studies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the gastric stump has varied among recent reports. Gastritis developing in the remnant stomach presents with a unique pattern of inflammation that is different from the pattern seen in ordinary gastritis of the intact organ. Bile refluxate also has a significant influence on the colonization of the stomach stump, with several studies reporting mixed results as well. In contrast, the elimination of H. pylori from the gastric stump has shown a dramatic impact on eradication rate. H. pylori elimination is recognized to be important for cancer prevention and considerable agreement of opinion is seen among researchers. To overcome the current discrepancies in the literature regarding the role of H. pylori in the gastric stump, further research is required. PMID:24659869

  5. Gastric sensitivity and reflexes: basic mechanisms underlying clinical problems.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Fernando; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Grundy, David; Tack, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Both reflex and sensory mechanisms control the function of the stomach, and disturbances in these mechanisms may explain the pathophysiology of disorders of gastric function. The objective of this report is to perform a literature-based critical analysis of new, relevant or conflicting information on gastric sensitivity and reflexes, with particular emphasis on the comprehensive integration of basic and clinical research data. The stomach exerts both phasic and tonic muscular (contractile and relaxatory) activity. Gastric tone determines the capacity of the stomach and mediates both gastric accommodation to a meal as well as gastric emptying, by partial relaxation or progressive recontraction, respectively. Perception and reflex afferent pathways from the stomach are activated independently by specific stimuli, suggesting that the terminal nerve endings operate as specialized receptors. Particularly, perception appears to be related to stimulation of tension receptors, while the existence of volume receptors in the stomach is uncertain. Reliable techniques have been developed to measure gastric perception and reflexes both in experimental and clinical conditions, and have facilitated the identification of abnormal responses in patients with gastric disorders. Gastroparesis is characterised by impaired gastric tone and contractility, whereas patients with functional dyspepsia have impaired accommodation, associated with antral distention and increased gastric sensitivity. An integrated view of fragmented knowledge allows the design of pathophysiological models in an attempt to explain disorders of gastric function, and may facilitate the development of mechanistically orientated treatments.

  6. Gastric physiology and function: effects of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Moukarzel, A A; Sabri, M T

    1996-10-01

    The stomach stores food and starts digesting protein and fat. Lipids, sugars, certain amino acids, and nutrients of high osmolality trigger sensory mechanisms from the intestine which inhibit gastric emptying. Food rich in carbohydrates leaves the stomach slower than protein-rich food, and emptying is slowest after a meal containing lipid. For carbohydrate beverages, the gastric emptying rate is primarily determined by the volume, caloric content, and osmolality of fluid ingested. Gastric emptying rates vary among isocaloric beverages of different type (e.g., sucrose, fructose, galactose) or forms (e.g., maltodextrins, starches) of carbohydrate. For instance, gastric emptying is faster for a fructose solution compared with isocaloric glucose and galactose solutions. A maltodextrin or a sucrose solution empties faster than a glucose solution. This is possibly due to the greater inhibitory feedback associated with the introduction of glucose in the duodenum. In addition, fruit juices contain soluble fibers which further modulate the gastric emptying. Noninvasive methods to study gastric emptying have recently been developed. The pattern of the myoelectric activity of the gastric contraction and the effect of meals on this pattern can now be recorded by cutaneous electrodes. In healthy children ingesting different juices, the myoelectric pattern of the stomach (indicator of the gastric emptying) correlates with the carbohydrate absorption (measured by breath hydrogen excretion). Fast gastric emptying was associated with greater production of breath hydrogen. The malabsorption of juice carbohydrates may in part be related to their effect on gastric motility.

  7. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okada, Katsuo; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening, we undertook a population-based cohort study in which both radiographic and endoscopic screenings for gastric cancer have been carried out. The subjects were selected from the participants of gastric cancer screening in two cities in Japan, Tottori and Yonago, from 2007 to 2008. The subjects were defined as participants aged 40-79 years who had no gastric cancer screening in the previous year. Follow-up of mortality was continued from the date of the first screening to the date of death or up to December 31, 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer incidence, gastric cancer death, all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and all-causes death except gastric cancer death. The number of subjects selected for endoscopic screening was 9950 and that for radiographic screening was 4324. The subjects screened by endoscopy showed a 67% reduction of gastric cancer compared with the subjects screened by radiography (adjusted RR by sex, age group, and resident city = 0.327; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.118-0.908). The adjusted RR of endoscopic screening was 0.968 (95%CI, 0.675-1.387) for all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and 0.929 (95%CI, 0.740-1.168) for all-causes death except gastric cancer death. This study indicates that endoscopic screening can reduce gastric cancer mortality by 67% compared with radiographic screening. This is consistent with previous studies showing that endoscopic screening reduces gastric cancer mortality.

  8. Helicobacter pylori invades the gastric mucosa and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Uchida, Keisuke; Takemura, Tamiko; Nagaoka, Sakae; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Ishige, Ikuo; Ishige, Yuki; Ishida, Noriko; Furukawa, Asuka; Muraoka, Hiroe; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Masaki; Ando, Noboru; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Takashige; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been considered to be non-invasive and to rarely infiltrate the gastric mucosa, even though there is an active Th1 immune response in the lamina propria of the H. pylori-infected stomach. To elucidate whether H. pylori invades the lamina propria and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes, we examined H. pylori in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of stomach and gastric lymph nodes obtained from 51 cancer patients using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a novel anti-H. pylori monoclonal antibody that recognizes lipopolysaccharides. Fresh gastric lymph nodes were used to culture for H. pylori. In 46 patients with H. pylori in the stomach, the bacterium was found in the lymph nodes from 21 patients by culture, 37 patients by PCR, and 29 patients by IHC. H. pylori captured by macrophages was found in the lamina propria of 39 patients. In the lymph nodes, the bacterium was found in many macrophages and a few interdigitating dendritic cells at the paracortical areas. H. pylori was also found in the intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells in 21 patients, but intracytoplasmic invasion into gastric epithelial cells was not identified. When compared to the commercially available anti-H. pylori antibodies, the novel antibody showed the highest sensitivity to detect H. pylori-positive macrophages, whereas no difference was found for H. pylori in the mucous layer. The H. pylori-positive macrophages in the lamina propria correlated with chronic gastritis as well as translocation of such cells to the lymph nodes. These results suggest that H. pylori-induced gastric epithelial damage allows the bacteria to invade the lamina propria and translocate to the gastric lymph nodes, which may chronically stimulate the immune system. The bacteria captured by macrophages, whether remaining alive or not, may contribute to the induction and development of H. pylori-induced chronic gastritis.

  9. Gastric duplication cyst: A cause of rectal bleeding in a young child.

    PubMed

    Surridge, Clare A; Goodier, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon congenital anomaly and rectal bleeding is a rare presentation of a complicated gastric duplication cyst. This case report describes the radiological findings in a child with a complicated gastric duplication cyst.

  10. [Rare complication of a post-traumatic left diaphragmatic hernia].

    PubMed

    Aissa, A; Hassine, A; Hajji, H; Ben Salah, K; Morjène, A; Alouini, R

    2013-12-01

    Diaphragmatic hernia is a post-traumatic lesion specific trauma that may go unnoticed. The left hemidiaphragm is the most frequently affected. The diagnosis is then made at the occasion of a complication, especially gastric volvulus. The authors report the case of a young man aged 26 years old with a gastric volvulus on post-traumatic diaphragmatic hernia diagnosed by CT.

  11. High Hepsin expression predicts poor prognosis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Wenyi; Wang, Yanru; Peng, Peike; Li, Lili; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Li, Can; Yang, Caiting; Wang, Xuefei; Zhang, Chunyi; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Hepsin, a membrane-associated serine protease, is frequently upregulated in epithelial cancers and involved in cancer progression. Our study aims to describe the expression pattern and evaluate the clinical implication of hepsin in gastric cancer patients. The mRNA expression of hepsin was analyzed in 50 gastric cancer and matched non-tumor tissues, which was downregulated in 78% (39/50) of gastric cancer. By searching and analyzing four independent datasets from Oncomine, we obtained the similar results. Furthermore, we evaluated the hepsin expression by IHC in tissue microarray (TMA) containing 220 Gastric Cancer specimens. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were taken to access the prognosis of gastric cancer and predicted that hepsin protein expression was one of the significant and independent prognostic factors for overall survival of Gastric Cancer. PMID:27841306

  12. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  13. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-05-07

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer.

  14. Using gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 as a novel type of biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunben; Shao, Yongfu; Zhu, Mengying; Li, Qier; Yang, Fang; Lu, Xuwen; Xu, Chunjing; Xiao, Bingxiu; Sun, Yanke; Guo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in tumorigenesis. However, the diagnostic values of most lncRNAs are largely unknown. To investigate whether gastric juice lncRNA-ABHD11-AS1 can be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer, 173 tissue samples and 130 gastric juice from benign lesion, gastric dysplasia, gastric premalignant lesions, and gastric cancer were collected. ABHD11-AS1 levels were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between ABHD11-AS1 levels and clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were investigated. The results showed that ABHD11-AS1 levels in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in other tissues. Its levels in gastric juice from gastric cancer patients were not only significantly higher than those from cases of normal mucosa or minimal gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and gastric ulcers but also associated with gender, tumor size, tumor stage, Lauren type, and blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. More importantly, when using gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 as a marker, the positive detection rate of early gastric cancer patients was reached to 71.4 %. Thanks to the special origin of gastric juice, these results indicate that gastric juice ABHD11-AS1 may be a potential biomarker in the screening of gastric cancer.

  15. Fatal submucosal invasive gastric adenosquamous carcinoma detected at surveillance after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Shirahige, Akinori; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Mori, Genki; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Sekine, Shigeki; Kushima, Ryoji; Saito, Yutaka; Fukagawa, Takeo; Katai, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man was under annual surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC). Two years after the initial ESD, a 0-IIc type metachronous EGC lesion, 8 mm in size, without an ulcer scar, was found in the gastric antrum. The estimated tumor depth was up to the mucosa, and biopsy revealed well and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. ESD was performed for this lesion and en bloc resection with negative margins was achieved. Histopathological examination revealed an adenosquamous carcinoma 8 mm in size invading the deep submucosal layer (1600 μm), with lymphovascular invasion, consistent with the diagnosis of non-curative resection. Additional gastrectomy was recommended for this patient; however, two months after the ESD, preoperative computed tomography revealed multiple liver metastases, and the patient was considered as an unsuitable candidate for surgical resection. Systemic chemotherapy was therefore started; however, the patient died of gastric cancer 27 mo after the second ESD. Early gastric adenosquamous carcinoma localized to the mucosa and submucosa is extremely rare and its clinical behavior is not well known. The present report is very significant in that it underscores the distinct possibility of gastric adenosquamous carcinoma being very aggressive and fatal even when detected at an early cancer. PMID:25892891

  16. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions are altered after subtotal gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Hung; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ho, Hsiu J; Lai, Zi-Lun; Wang, Chang-Bi; Tang, Sen-Lin; Wu, Chun-Ying

    2016-02-10

    Subtotal gastrectomy (i.e., partial removal of the stomach), a surgical treatment for early-stage distal gastric cancer, is usually accompanied by highly selective vagotomy and Billroth II reconstruction, leading to dramatic changes in the gastric environment. Based on accumulating evidence of a strong link between human gut microbiota and host health, a 2-year follow-up study was conducted to characterize the effects of subtotal gastrectomy. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequencing were analyzed before and after surgery. The results demonstrated that gastric microbiota is significantly more diverse after surgery. Ralstonia and Helicobacter were the top two genera of discriminant abundance in the cancerous stomach before surgery, while Streptococcus and Prevotella were the two most abundant genera after tumor excision. Furthermore, N-nitrosation genes were prevalent before surgery, whereas bile salt hydrolase, NO and N2O reductase were prevalent afterward. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document changes in gastric microbiota before and after surgical treatment of stomach cancer.

  17. Molecular classifiers for gastric cancer and nonmalignant diseases of the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Sibele I; Cristo, Elier B; Carvalho, Alex F; Hirata, Roberto; Pelosof, Adriane; Gomes, Luciana I; Martins, Waleska K; Begnami, Maria D; Zitron, Cláudia; Montagnini, André L; Soares, Fernando A; Neves, E Jordão; Reis, Luiz F L

    2004-02-15

    High incidence of gastric cancer-related death is mainly due to diagnosis at an advanced stage in addition to the lack of adequate neoadjuvant therapy. Hence, new tools aimed at early diagnosis would have a positive impact in the outcome of the disease. Using cDNA arrays having 376 genes either identified previously as altered in gastric tumors or known to be altered in human cancer, we determined expression signature of 99 tissue fragments representing normal gastric mucosa, gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and adenocarcinomas. We first validated the array by identifying molecular markers that are associated with intestinal metaplasia, considered as a transition stage of gastric adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type as well as markers that are associated with diffuse type of gastric adenocarcinomas. Next, we applied Fisher's linear discriminant analysis in an exhaustive search of trios of genes that could be used to build classifiers for class distinction. Many classifiers could distinguish between normal and tumor samples, whereas, for the distinction of gastritis from tumor and for metaplasia from tumor, fewer classifiers were identified. Statistical validations showed that trios that discriminate between normal and tumor samples are powerful classifiers to distinguish between tumor and nontumor samples. More relevant, it was possible to identify samples of intestinal metaplasia that have expression signature resembling that of an adenocarcinoma and can now be used for follow-up of patients to determine their potential as a prognostic test for malignant transformation.

  18. Localization of gastric peroxidase and its inhibition by mercaptomethylimidazole, an inducer of gastric acid secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, U; Bhattacharyya, D K; Chatterjee, R; Banerjee, R K

    1992-01-01

    Mercaptomethylimidazole (MMI) is a potent inducer of gastric acid secretion which is associated with significant inhibition of peroxidase activity of rat gastric mucosa in vivo. A time-dependent increase in acid secretion correlates well with time-dependent decrease in the peroxidase activity. In a chamber experiment in vitro using isolated gastric mucosa, MMI stimulates acid secretion, showing an almost linear response up to 600 microM. The time-dependent increase in acid secretion is also correlated with time-dependent inhibition of the peroxidase activity. This effect is not mediated through oxidation of MMI by flavin-containing mono-oxygenase, which is absent from gastric mucosa. The peroxidase has been localized mainly in parietal cells isolated and purified from gastric mucosa by controlled digestion with collagenase followed by Percoll-density-gradient centrifugation. Peroxidase activity was further localized in the outer membrane of the purified mitochondria of the parietal cell by some membrane-impermeant reagents, indicating outward orientation of the enzyme. MMI can inhibit the peroxidase activity of both the parietal cell and its mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner. The possible involvement of the parietal-cell peroxidase-H2O2 system in MMI-induced acid secretion may be suggested. PMID:1318028

  19. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R; Murugesan, Senthil V; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2015-07-15

    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling.

  20. Gastrin, gastric acid secretion, and gastric microflora in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, K; Uvnäs-Moberg, K; Nord, C E; Johansson, C; Gullberg, R

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion, plasma gastrin, and the gastric microflora was examined in 45 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Sixteen patients (36%) had basal achlorhydria, and of these, 10 (22%) had achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria after stimulation with pentagastrin. The peak acid output and acidity showed inverse correlation with the disease duration but were not associated with age or with the degree of physical disability. Hypergastrinaemia was found in nine patients (20%), of whom 6 (13%) had significant titres of parietal cell antibody. The acidity of the peak acid output showed negative correlation with plasma gastrin. It was confirmed that the gastric secretory state is a determinant of plasma gastrin levels and in addition influences the growth of micro-organisms in the gastric lumen. The type of microflora in the non-acid stomach was similar to that found in the saliva. A subgroup of eight females was identified who showed low gastric acid secretion rates, positive bacterial cultures, and atlantoaxial subluxation. Gastrin- and insulin-like immunoreactivities were found in joint fluid. The concentrations reflected their plasma levels, suggesting that the peptides are not released at the inflammatory site, but rather that they reach synovial fluid from circulating blood. PMID:3524480

  1. Gastropericardial Fistula as a Late Complication of Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Adam A; Lall, Chandana; Deodhar, Ajita; Chang, Kenneth J; Smith, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a bariatric procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency as an alternative management option for morbid obesity. Several common complications have been reported including gastric band slippage and associated pouch dilatation, intragastric erosion of the band, gastric wall perforation, and abscess formation. We present a case of gastropericardial fistula occurring nine years after an LAGB. There have been no previous documented cases of the complication after this procedure. PMID:28217406

  2. Influence of experimental hypokinesia on gastric secretory function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, O. O.; Vavryshchuk, V. I.; Rozvodovskyy, V. I.; Proshcheruk, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    The gastric secretory function of rats was studied in 4, 8, 16 and 30 day hypokinesia. Inhibition of both the gastric juice secretory and acid producing functions was found. The greatest inhibition was observed on day 8 of limited mobility. By days 16 and 30 of the experiment, a tendency of the gastric secretory activity to return to normal was observed, although it remained reduced.

  3. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  4. Postoperative Gastric Perforation in a Newborn with Duodenal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Antabak, Anko; Bogović, Marko; Vuković, Jurica; Grizelj, Ruža; Babić, Vinka Barbarić; Papeš, Dino; Luetić, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Gastric perforation (GP) in neonates is a rare entity with high mortality. Although the etiology is not completely understood, it mostly occurs in premature neonates on assisted ventilation. Combination of duodenal atresia and gastric perforation is very rare. We present a case duodenal atresia who developed gastric perforation after operetion for duodenal atresia. Analysis of the patient medical record and histology report did not reveal the etiology of the perforation. PMID:27896170

  5. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  6. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile. PMID:28105078

  7. The Clinical Evidence Linking Helicobacter pylori to Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moss, Steven F

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer has long been recognized to be accompanied and preceded by chronic gastritis, lasting decades. Arguably, the most important development in our understanding of gastric cancer pathogenesis over the past 50 years has been the realization that, for most cases of gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori is the cause of the underlying gastritis. Gastritis can promote gastric carcinogenesis, typically via the Correa cascade of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Nested case-control studies have shown that H pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer significantly, both of the intestinal and diffuse subtypes, and that H pylori is responsible for approximately 90% of the world's burden of noncardia gastric cancer. Based largely on randomized studies in high gastric cancer prevalence regions in East Asia, it appears that primary and tertiary intervention to eradicate H pylori can halve the risk of gastric cancer. Some public health authorities now are starting screening and treatment programs to reduce the burden of gastric cancer in these high-risk areas. However, there is currently much less enthusiasm for initiating similar attempts in the United States. This is partially because gastric cancer is a relatively less frequent cause of cancer in the United States, and in addition there are concerns about theoretical downsides of H pylori eradication, principally because of the consistent inverse relationship noted between H pylori and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Nevertheless, establishing a link between chronic H pylori infection and gastric cancer has led to novel insights into cancer biology, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and on individual and population-based gastric cancer prevention strategies.

  8. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment.

    PubMed

    Gambaracci, Giulio; Mecarini, Eleonora; Franceschini, Maria Silvia; Scialpi, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies - like chicken and fish bones - can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  9. Missed Gastric Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Naiem, Ahmed A.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Kendi, Badriya H.; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Hollow viscus injuries of the digestive tract are an uncommon occurrence in blunt abdominal trauma. We report a 39-year-old male who was hit by a vehicle as a pedestrian and admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy which revealed injuries to the distal stomach, liver and descending colon. Postoperatively, the patient was febrile, tachycardic and hypotensive. Abdominal examination revealed distention and tenderness. The next day, a repeat laparotomy identified a gastric injury which had not been diagnosed during the initial laparotomy. Although the defect was repaired, the patient subsequently died as a result of multiorgan failure. Missed gastric injuries are rare and are associated with a grave prognosis, particularly for trauma patients. Delays in diagnosis, in addition to associated injuries, contribute to a high mortality rate. PMID:28003902

  10. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years.

  11. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years. PMID:25361760

  12. [Surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma: lymphadenectomy].

    PubMed

    Crucitti, F; Pacelli, F; Doglietto, G B; Crucitti, P; Alfieri, S; Caprino, P

    1997-01-01

    The review of the literature shows the improvement of outcome of patients with gastric cancer after resection and extended lymphadenectomy. Lymphadenectomy D2/D3 was performed in 206 out of 639 patients with gastric cancer: 5-year survival was 66.3% versus 41.5% of the 121 patients that underwent D1 resection (p < 0.0001). Univariate and multivariate analyses show that proximal location of the cancer, advanced stage and lymphadenectomy limited to perigastric stations are negative prognostic factors. Although there are still different opinions regarding D2 or D3 lymphadenectomies for the operative risks, pancreatic resection (preferring pancreas sparing techniques) and splenectomy is subtotal gastrectomy for antral carcinoma, extended lymphadenectomy remains an important point to improve survival.

  13. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael S.; Williamson, Katherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies. PMID:27092307

  14. Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp: A rare cause of iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jin Tak; Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Dong Pil; Choi, Seung Hwa; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Park, Jun Kyu; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Yun Jung; Sung, Ye Gyu; Sul, Hae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric inverted hyperplastic polyp (IHP) is a rare gastric polyp characterized by the downward growth of hyperplastic mucosal components into the submucosal layer. Macroscopically, a gastric IHP resembles a subepithelial tumor (SET); as a result, accurately diagnosing gastric IHP is difficult. This issue has clinical significance because gastric IHP can be misdiagnosed as SET or as malignant neoplasm In addition, adenocarcinoma can accompany benign gastric IHP. Although in most cases, gastric IHPs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally, these polyps may cause anemia secondary to chronic bleeding. Here, we report one case involving gastric IHP accompanied by chronic iron deficiency anemia that was successfully managed using endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:27099452

  15. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen k

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case. PMID:27900279

  16. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  17. Advanced endoscopic imaging in gastric neoplasia and preneoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jonathan W J; Lim, Lee Guan; Yeoh, Khay Guan

    2017-01-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy remains the current standard in routine clinical practice for early detection of gastric cancer. However, it may not accurately diagnose preneoplastic gastric lesions. The technological advancements in the field of endoscopic imaging for gastric lesions are fast growing. This article reviews currently available advanced endoscopic imaging modalities, in particular chromoendoscopy, narrow band imaging and confocal laser endomicroscopy, and their corresponding evidence shown to improve diagnosis of preneoplastic gastric lesions. Raman spectrometry and polarimetry are also introduced as promising emerging technologies. PMID:28176895

  18. Effect of sulglycotide on gastric bicarbonate secretion in humans.

    PubMed

    Guslandi, M; Nannini, D; Tittobello, A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of sulglycotide, a cytoprotective agent with a healing effect on ulcers, on gastric bicarbonate secretion in humans was evaluated. Fifteen healthy volunteers were treated with sulglycotide 400 mg t.i.d. for 10 days. Before and after treatment the bicarbonate content of basal gastric juice was determined by Feldman and Barnett's method. Sulglycotide was found to increase significantly (p less than 0.0001) basal HCO3- production from the human stomach, thus strengthening the gastric mucosal defences. It was concluded that the cytoprotective and therapeutic properties of the drug are partially related to stimulation of gastric alkaline secretion.

  19. Cutaneous metastasis revealing a relapse of gastric linitis: Another case

    PubMed Central

    Kairouani, Mouna; Perrin, Julie; Dietemann-Barabinot, Anne; Diab, Rafiq; Ruck, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cutaneous metastasis from gastric cancer is a rare occurrence. The linitis gastric carcinoma accounts only 8.7% of all gastric cancers. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of female patient who was followed for linits cancer with peritoneal metastasis treated by six cycles of chemotherapy. After seventeen months of control, the relapse of the disease revealed by occurrence of cutaneous metastatsis. DISCUSSION Cutaneous metastasis from linit gastric is rare and the prognostic remains poor. The treatment is palliative. CONCLUSION This rare presentation should encourage the practitioners to biopsy any suspicion skin lesion. PMID:23276763

  20. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  1. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  2. The Impact of Gastric Atrophy on the Incidence of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tse-Ya; Wei, Jung-Nan; Kuo, Chun-Heng; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Mao-Shin; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Hua, Cyue-Huei; Hsein, Yenh-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lee, Mei-Kuei; Hsiao, Ching-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Li, Hung-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Gastric atrophy results in lower plasma ghrelin, higher gastrin secretion, a change in gut microbiota, and altered dietary nutrient absorption, which may be associated with the incidence of diabetes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major cause of gastric atrophy and is associated with diabetes in some reports. Since there is no study which investigates the impact of gastric atrophy on diabetes, we conduct a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and incident diabetes. In this study, subjects with gastric atrophy had a lower risk of incident diabetes, compared to those without gastric atrophy. The extent of gastric atrophy, measured by serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio, was correlated with age, H. pylori IgG titer, HOMA2-IR, and HOMA2%B. When gastric atrophy is more extensive, presented as a lower serum PG I/II ratio, the risk of incident diabetes is lower. On the other hand, there was no significant association between H. pylori infection and the incidence of diabetes. In conclusion, the presence and the extent of gastric atrophy, but not H. pylori infection, are associated with incident diabetes. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms and the potential applications of the findings to guide diabetes screening and treatment strategies. PMID:28045079

  3. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-11-04

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  4. E-Cadherin and Gastric Cancer: Cause, Consequence, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial-cadherin), encoded by the CDH1 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein playing a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and to be down regulated in gastric cancer. Besides genetic mutations in CDH1 gene to induce hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), epigenetic factors such as DNA hypermethylation also contribute to the reduction of E-cadherin in gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, expression of E-cadherin could be mediated by infectious agents such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). As E-cadherin is vitally involved in signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and migration, dysregulation of E-cadherin leads to dysfunction of gastric epithelial cells and contributes to gastric cancer development. Moreover, changes in its expression could reflect pathological conditions of gastric mucosa, making its role in gastric cancer complicated. In this review, we summarize the functions of E-cadherin and the signaling pathways it regulates. We aim to provide comprehensive perspectives in the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin and its involvement in gastric cancer initiation and progression. We also focus on its applications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in gastric cancer in order to open new avenues in this field. PMID:25184143

  5. Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second highest cause of global cancer mortality. To explore the complete repertoire of somatic alterations in gastric cancer, we combined massively parallel short read and DNA paired-end tag sequencing to present the first whole-genome analysis of two gastric adenocarcinomas, one with chromosomal instability and the other with microsatellite instability. Results Integrative analysis and de novo assemblies revealed the architecture of a wild-type KRAS amplification, a common driver event in gastric cancer. We discovered three distinct mutational signatures in gastric cancer - against a genome-wide backdrop of oxidative and microsatellite instability-related mutational signatures, we identified the first exome-specific mutational signature. Further characterization of the impact of these signatures by combining sequencing data from 40 complete gastric cancer exomes and targeted screening of an additional 94 independent gastric tumors uncovered ACVR2A, RPL22 and LMAN1 as recurrently mutated genes in microsatellite instability-positive gastric cancer and PAPPA as a recurrently mutated gene in TP53 wild-type gastric cancer. Conclusions These results highlight how whole-genome cancer sequencing can uncover information relevant to tissue-specific carcinogenesis that would otherwise be missed from exome-sequencing data. PMID:23237666

  6. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric adenomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sinan; Cao, Hailong; Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Mengque; Chen, Xue; Piao, Meiyu; Wang, Bangmao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric adenomyoma (GA) is a kind of rare gastric submucosal eminence lesions. As the malignant transformation cannot be ruled out, surgery and laparoscopic resection are usually considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for GA. All of the patients with gastric submucosal eminence lesions who underwent ESD from June 2008 to June 2015 in General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, China, were identified, and patients with GA, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation, were enrolled for further analysis. Among the 571 patients who received ESD, 15 cases with uncertain diagnosis before the procedure were finally confirmed as GA. The mean age of these 15 patients was 46.93 ± 15.56 years (range: 18–73). Most of the lesions were located in antrum (12/15 patients), with 2 in the body of stomach and 1 in cardia, respectively. The mean size of the lesions was 1.47 ± 0.67 cm (range: 0.4–3.0). According to the endoscopic ultrasonography, the lesions of 14 patients originated from submucosa and 1 originated from superficial muscularis, totally with mixed echoes changes. En bloc complete resection was achieved in all of the lesions. No perforation, intraoperative bleeding, delayed bleeding, and mortalities occurred. No recurrence or metastasis was found during 1 to 67 months. ESD appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for GA with clinical presentation of gastric submucosal eminence lesions. PMID:28248886

  7. Gastric spiral bacteria in small felids.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, M J; Kovarik, P; Murnane, R D

    1998-06-01

    Nine small cats, including one bobcat (Felis rufus), one Pallas cat (F. manul), one Canada lynx (F. lynx canadensis), two fishing cats (F. viverrina), two margays (F. wiedii), and two sand cats (F. margarita), necropsied between June 1995 and March 1997 had large numbers of gastric spiral bacteria, whereas five large cats, including one African lion (Panthera leo), two snow leopards (P. uncia), one Siberian tiger (P. tigris altaica), and one jaguar (P. onca), necropsied during the same period had none. All of the spiral organisms from the nine small cats were histologically and ultrastructurally similar. Histologically, the spiral bacteria were 5-14 microm long with five to nine coils per organism and were located both extracellularly within gastric glands and surface mucus, and intracellularly in parietal cells. Spiral bacteria in gastric mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx, one fishing cat, and the two sand cats were gram negative and had corkscrewlike to tumbling motility when viewed with phase contrast microscopy. The bacteria were 0.5-0.7 microm wide, with a periodicity of 0.65-1.1 microm in all cats. Bipolar sheathed flagella were occasionally observed, and no periplasmic fibrils were seen. The bacteria were extracellular in parietal cell canaliculi and intracellular within parietal cells. Culture of mucosal scrapings from the Canada lynx and sand cats was unsuccessful. Based on morphology, motility, and cellular tropism, the bacteria were probably Helicobacter-like organisms. Although the two margays had moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis, the other cats lacked or had only mild gastric lymphoid infiltrates, suggesting that these organisms are either commensals or opportunistic pathogens.

  8. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Young; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  9. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of an Inverted Early Gastric Cancer-Forming False Gastric Diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-il; Lee, Sang-kil

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a standard treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC) that does not have any risk of lymph node or distant metastases. Here, we report a case of EGC resembling a diverticulum. Diverticular formation makes it difficult for endoscopists to determine the depth of invasion and to subsequently perform ESD. Because the false diverticulum does not have a muscular layer, this lesion can be treated with ESD. Our case was successfully treated with ESD. After ESD, the EGC was confined to the submucosal layer without vertical and lateral margin involvement. This is the first case in which ESD was successfully performed for a case of EGC that coexisted with a false gastric diverticulum. An additional, larger study is needed to determine the efficacy of ESD in various types of EGC, such as a false gastric diverticulum. PMID:26855930

  10. Successful endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer adjacent to gastric cardia varix

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Nakamura, Jun; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A 58-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and renal failure was diagnosed with esophageal varices (EVs) and a gastric cardia varix (GCV) by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The patient also exhibited early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper gastric body adjacent to the GCV. The EVs and GCV were treated using endoscopy before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of the EGC to prevent variceal bleeding during ESD. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) was performed to treat the EVs. In addition, extra-variceal polidocanol injection and argon plasma coagulation (APC) were performed after EVL. Follow-up EGD two months after APC revealed that the GCV had diminished in size. Then, ESD was performed with polidocanol injection into the submucosa around the GCV to prevent bleeding. During ESD, the EGC was resected en bloc without severe bleeding. Complications were not observed after ESD. Histopathological examination of the ESD specimens indicated that the resection was curative. PMID:27477990

  11. A case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a Shih Tzu dog: successful treatment of early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Chun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jee, Cho-Hee; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Moon, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Cho, Kyu-Woan; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Ha, Jeongim; Jung, Dong-In

    2014-07-01

    A 9-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu dog was referred to us, because of chronic vomiting. The patient's hematological, radiographic, ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological examinations were evaluated for diagnosis. Hematologic analysis indicated moderate anemia and azotemia. Based on the imaging studies, an oval-shaped mass was identified in the gastric pylorus area. A proliferative mass was found on endoscopic examination, and we performed biopsy using grasping forceps. The histopathological findings of the biopsy specimens indicated hypertrophic gastritis, and Y-U pyloroplasty was performed. However, histopathological examination of the surgically resected mass revealed tubular adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Then, carboplatin chemotherapy was performed 4 times for 13 weeks. Clinical signs, such as vomiting, were resolved gradually after surgery and chemotherapy, and the patient's condition was managed favorably until recently (30 months after surgery). This case report describes clinical features, imaging studies, endoscopic characteristics and histopathological and immunohistochemical features of gastric tubular adenocarcinoma as early gastric cancer in a dog.

  12. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jan C. . E-mail: beckeja@uni-muenster.de; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian; Schulz, Stephanie; Erdmann, Kati; Domschke, Wolfram; Schroeder, Henning; Pohle, Thorsten

    2006-07-07

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidant defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection.

  13. A new approach for treatment of gastro-gastric fistula after gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Leslie, Daniel; Kellogg, Todd; Andrade, Rafael; Maddaus, Michael; Hunter, David; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2007-02-01

    We report a novel technique for gastro-gastric fistula (GGF) repair. A 44-year-old woman was found to have a fistula between her gastric pouch and bypassed stomach 18 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) for morbid obesity. She underwent an attempted open surgical repair, which was complicated by postoperative abdominal sepsis. An upper gastrointestinal series, abdominal CT scan and upper endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of failed surgery with recurrent GGF. Under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, two ports were inserted percutaneously into the stomach. The fistula was closed with a percutaneous, transgastric, totally extraperitoneal approach. She remains well 7 months after this intervention. This procedure appears to be a safe and effective minimally invasive approach for closure of GGF after RYGBP. This is the first description of an intragastric, percutaneous closure of a GGF after RYGBP in the medical literature. Further experience with this technique is needed to define the selection criteria, limitations, advantages, and disadvantages.

  14. Relationship of ECL cells and gastric neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, H. L.; Brenna, E.; Sandvik, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    The enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell in the oxyntic mucosa has a key role in the regulation of gastric secretion since it synthesizes and releases the histamine regulating the acid secretion from the parietal cell. Gastrin is the main regulator of the ECL cell function and growth. Long-term hypergastrinemia induces ECL cell hyperplasia, and if continued, neoplasia. ECL cell carcinoids occur in man after long-term hypergastrinemia in conditions like pernicious anemia and gastrinoma. There is also accumulating evidence that a proportion of gastric carcinomas of the diffuse type is derived from the ECL cell. Furthermore, the ECL cell may, by producing substances with angiogenic effects (histamine and basic fibroblast growth factor), be particularly prone to develop malignant tumors. Although the general opinion is that gastrin itself has a direct effect on the oxyntic mucosal stem cell, it cannot be excluded that the general trophic effect of gastrin on the oxyntic mucosa is mediated by histamine or other substances from the ECL cell, and that the ECL cell, therefore, could play a role also in the tumorigenesis/carcinogenesis of gastric carcinomas of intestinal type. PMID:10461363

  15. Microvasculature of the gastric mucosa in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martín-Alguacil, N; Gaspar-Simón, I; Martín, R; Gomez-García, J; Martín-Orti, R

    1997-01-01

    A corrosion casting technique was used to study differences in the microvascular architecture of the pars cardiaca, the fundus ventriculi, the corpus ventriculi and the pars pylorica of the canine gastric mucosa. This technique revealed an unusual arrangement of the microvascular architecture in the nonglandular region surrounding the esophageal opening. Capillaries run tortuously along the mucosal surface parallel to the long axis of the esophagus, and some capillaries form a polygonal network that extends around the seromucous glands. In contrast, the mucosal capillaries of the glandular regions of the stomach are arranged in a symmetric pattern associated with the gastric glands. There are also differences in the mucosal microvessels of the cardiac and fundic areas compared to the corpus and the antrum. In the cardiac and fundic regions, a sparse microvascular pattern was observed and fewer capillaries drained into a single venule. However, the vessels surrounding the gastric glands in the corpus and antral areas drained into venules perpendicular to the hexagonal arrangement of the capillaries.

  16. Comprehensive molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Adam J.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Shmulevich, Ilya; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Miller, Michael; Bernard, Brady; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Curtis, Christina; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Weinhold, Nils; Kelsen, David P.; Bowlby, Reanne; Chu, Andy; Kasaian, Katayoon; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Cherniack, Andrew; Getz, Gad; Liu, Yingchun; Noble, Michael S.; Pedamallu, Chandra; Sougnez, Carrie; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Akbani, Rehan; Lee, Ju-Seog; Liu, Wenbin; Mills, Gordon B.; Yang, Da; Zhang, Wei; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Gulley, Margaret; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Schneider, Barbara G.; Kim, Jihun; Boussioutas, Alex; Sheth, Margi; Demchok, John A.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Willis, Joseph E.; Ng, Sam; Garman, Katherine; Beer, David G.; Pennathur, Arjun; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Odze, Robert; Kim, Hark K.; Bowen, Jay; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Weaver, Stephanie; McLellan, Michael; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Sakai, Ryo; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lichtenstein, Lee; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Lander, Eric S.; Ding, Li; Niu, Beifang; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chu, Andy; Chu, Justin; Chuah, Eric; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Clarke, Amanda; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan A.; Lim, Emilia; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen L.; Nip, Ka Ming; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Carter, Scott L.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cho, Juok; Cibulskis, Kristian; DiCara, Daniel; Frazer, Scott; Fisher, Sheila; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Heiman, David I.; Jung, Joonil; Kim, Jaegil; Lander, Eric S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Meyerson, Matthew; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Schumacher, Steven E.; Sougnez, Carrie; Stojanov, Petar; Tabak, Barbara; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Voet, Doug; Rosenberg, Mara; Zack, Travis I.; Zhang, Hailei; Zou, Lihua; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Parfenov, Michael; Lee, Semin; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Xi, Ruibin; Bristow, Christopher A.; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Laird, Peter W.; Hinoue, Toshinori; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Shen, Hui; Triche, Timothy; Van Den Berg, David J.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Herman, James G.; Getz, Gad; Chin, Lynda; Liu, Yingchun; Murray, Bradley A.; Noble, Michael S.; Askoy, B. Arman; Ciriello, Giovanni; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Sinha, Rileen; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Weinhold, Nils; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Bernard, Brady; Iype, Lisa; Kramer, Roger W.; Kreisberg, Richard; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rovira, Hector; Tasman, Natalie; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ng, Santa Cruz Sam; Haussler, David; Stuart, Josh M.; Akbani, Rehan; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Rao, Arvind; Weinstein, John N.; Verhaak, Roeland G.W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Leiserson, Mark D. M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Taylor, Barry S.; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Carney, Julie Ann; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Helsel, Carmen; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; McAllister, Cynthia; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Tabler, Teresa R.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Penny, Robert; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Curely, Erin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Benz, Christopher; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Fedosenko, Konstantin; Manikhas, Georgy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Belyaev, Smitry; Dolzhansky, Oleg; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brzezinski, Jakub; Ibbs, Matthew; Korski, Konstanty; Kycler, Witold; ŁaŸniak, Radoslaw; Leporowska, Ewa; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Murawa, Dawid; Murawa, Pawel; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Suchorska, Wiktoria M.; Tatka, Honorata; Teresiak, Marek; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Abdel-Misih, Raafat; Bennett, Joseph; Brown, Jennifer; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Kwon, Sun-Young; Penny, Robert; Gardner, Johanna; Kemkes, Ariane; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Shelton, Troy; Shelton, Candace; Curley, Erin; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Engel, Jay; Bartlett, John; Albert, Monique; Park, Do-Youn; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Landreneau, Rodney; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Kelsen, David P.; Cho, Eunjung; Ladanyi, Marc; Tang, Laura; McCall, Shannon J.; Park, Young S.; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Ajani, Jaffer; Camargo, M. Constanza; Alonso, Shelley; Ayala, Brenda; Jensen, Mark A.; Pihl, Todd; Raman, Rohini; Walton, Jessica; Wan, Yunhu; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Sheth, Margi; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Davidsen, Tanja; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Burton, Robert; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes: tumours positive for Epstein–Barr virus, which display recurrent PIK3CA mutations, extreme DNA hypermethylation, and amplification of JAK2, CD274 (also known as PD-L1) and PDCD1LG2 (also knownasPD-L2); microsatellite unstable tumours, which show elevated mutation rates, including mutations of genes encoding targetable oncogenic signalling proteins; genomically stable tumours, which are enriched for the diffuse histological variant and mutations of RHOA or fusions involving RHO-family GTPase-activating proteins; and tumours with chromosomal instability, which show marked aneuploidy and focal amplification of receptor tyrosine kinases. Identification of these subtypes provides a roadmap for patient stratification and trials of targeted therapies. PMID:25079317

  17. The history and role of gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Gastric banding has emerged in the development of bariatric surgery as an important therapeutic option for morbidly obese patients. Following the major pioneering milestones of Wilkinson and Peloso, who placed a nonadjustable band around the upper part of a patient's stomach in 1978, and Hallberg and Forsell, as well as Kuzmak, who worked on separate continents to develop the clinical application of adjustable gastric bands in the early 1980s, banding entered into widespread use in the mid 1990s, when the innovation of the laparoscopic technique made it possible to insert adjustable bands without open surgery. Today, several institutions have reported long-term (> or =5-year) results with laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). With a small number of exceptions, LAGB efficacy data range from satisfactory to excellent, with some institutions noting annual reoperation rates in the vicinity of 5%, and quality of life scores using the Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System in the good-to-excellent range in up to 70% of patients. These outcomes, coupled with the fact that LAGB has the best record of safety among the bariatric operations, is reversible, and can be performed at a relatively low cost, have established LAGB as an important tool in the long-term management of morbid obesity.

  18. Overdiagnosis of gastric cancer by endoscopic screening

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening. PMID:28250897

  19. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Ruo-Lin; Xu, A-Man

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis for lack of early detection and effective treatment modalities. The significant influence of tumor microenvironment on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this targeted-therapy era. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved and fundamental process that is critical for embryogenesis and some other pathophysiological processes, especially tumor genesis and progression. Aberrant gastric EMT activation could endow gastric epithelial cells with increased mesenchymal characteristics and less epithelial features, and promote cancer cell stemness, initiation, invasion, metastasis, and chemo-resistance with cellular adhesion molecules especially E-cadherin concomitantly repressed, which allows tumor cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body. Some pathogens, stress, and hypoxia could induce and aggravate GC via EMT, which is significantly correlated with prognosis. GC EMT is modulated by diverse micro-environmental, membrane, and intracellular cues, and could be triggered by various overexpressed transcription factors, which are downstream of several vital cross-talking signaling pathways including TGF-β, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, etc. microRNAs also contribute significantly to GC EMT modulation. There are currently some agents which could suppress GC EMT, shedding light on novel anti-malignancy strategies. Investigating potential mechanisms modulating GC cell EMT and discovering novel EMT regulators will further elucidate GC biology, and may provide new biomarkers for early GC detection and potentially efficient targets for preventative and curative anti-GC intervention approaches to prevent local and distant invasions. PMID:26807164

  20. Overdiagnosis of gastric cancer by endoscopic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2017-02-16

    Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening.

  1. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion via gastro-gastric fistula in a gastric bypass patient.

    PubMed

    Antanavicius, Gintaras; Leslie, Daniel; Torres-Villalobos, Gonzalo; Kellogg, Todd; Ikramuddin, Sayeed

    2010-07-01

    Enteral feedings are the preferred route of nutritional support for malnourished or critically ill patients. Recent progress in flexible endoscopic and interventional radiological techniques has allowed adaptation of numerous new procedures. Anatomic and functional rearrangement of the gastrointestinal tract often precludes traditional percutaneus endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement. Insertion of a gastroscope through the nose, via open pharynx, or neck fistula have been described, but there are no reports in the English literature describing introduction of the gastroscope through a dilated gastro-gastric fistula in a patient with previous open Roux en Y gastric bypass.

  2. Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy

  3. Gastric Emptying and Vagus Nerve Function After Laparoscopic Partial Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, Maud Y. A.; Ringers, Jan; van Rijn, Pieter J. J.; Neijenhuis, Peter; Stokkel, Marcel P. M.; Masclee, Ad A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish the relation between vagus nerve dysfunction, gastric emptying, and antireflux surgery. Summary Background Data: Delayed gastric emptying occurs in up to 40% of reflux patients. After antireflux surgery, gastric emptying becomes normal or is even accelerated. Occasionally, severe gastric stasis is found and is associated with a negative outcome of the antireflux procedure. It has been suggested that injury to the vagus nerve could be the cause of this delayed emptying. Methods: We evaluated in a prospective study gastric emptying of solids and vagus nerve function (pancreatic polypeptide response to hypoglycemia) before and after surgery in 41 patients (22 women; age 43 ± 1.6 years) who underwent laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Results: All patients had relief of reflux symptoms varying from adequate (n = 8) to complete relief (n = 33). Gastric emptying of solids increased significantly (P < 0.001) after operation: lag phase from 19 ± 2 to 10 ± 1 minute, emptying rate (%/h) from 37 ± 2 to 48 ± 5 and half emptying time from 110 ± 8 to 81 ± 4 minutes. Gastric emptying improved to a similar extent in patients with delayed and normal preoperative gastric emptying. Postoperative signs of vagus nerve damage (PP peak < 47pmol/L) were present in 4 patients (10%). In these 4 patients gastric emptying both before and after operation did not differ from patients with normal vagus nerve function. In fact, none of the 41 patients had severely delayed emptying after laparoscopic hemifundoplication. Conclusions: Laparoscopic hemifundoplication affects vagus nerve integrity in 10% of patients, but this does not lead to a delay in gastric emptying. In fact, gastric emptying improved significantly after fundoplication. PMID:15492559

  4. Changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels after laparoscopic gastric stapling procedures versus laparoscopic gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, Alana; Young, Monica; Villamere, James; Shih, Anderson; Nguyen, Ninh T

    2014-10-01

    Obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an inflammatory biomarker that has been shown to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. The aim of the current study was to examine the changes in cardiovascular risk profile in morbidly obese patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric stapling procedures (bypass and sleeve) compared with laparoscopic gastric banding. Levels of hs-CRP were measured preoperatively and at 12 to 24 months postoperatively. Based on hs-CRP levels, cardiovascular risk was categorized as low (less than 1 mg/L), moderate (1 to 3 mg/L), or high (greater than 3 mg/L). A total of 52 patients underwent gastric stapling procedures and 49 underwent gastric banding and both had preoperative and postoperative hs-CRP levels measured. There were no significant differences in age, gender, or preoperative body mass index (BMI) between groups. At baseline, 48.0 per cent of patients undergoing gastric stapling and 38.8 per cent of patients undergoing gastric banding had moderate or high cardiovascular risk. BMI at 24 months was significantly lower in the gastric stapling compared with the gastric banding group (30.4 ± 5.4 vs 36.1 ± 5.5 kg/m(2), respectively, P < 0.01). Of the patients with elevated cardiovascular risk, 64.0 per cent of gastric stapling versus 57.8 per cent of gastric banding patients had a reduction in risk category at 12 to 24 months follow-up, whereas 1.9 per cent of patients undergoing gastric stapling versus 4.1 per cent of patients undergoing gastric banding had an increase in risk category. The mean reduction in hs-CRP level for patients with elevated cardiovascular risk was greater for gastric stapling compared with gastric banding procedures (-1.10 ± 0.94 mg/L vs -0.67 ± 0.82 mg/L, respectively, P < 0.05). Cardiovascular risk improved in the majority of patients after bariatric surgery, but a more

  5. The chronological sequence of somatic mutations in early gastric carcinogenesis inferred from multiregion sequencing of gastric adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Rhee, Je-Keun; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug-Hyung; Kim, Tae-Min

    2016-01-01

    Mutation profiles and intratumoral heterogeneity are not well understood for benign gastric adenomas, some of which progress into malignant gastric adenocarcinomas. In this study, we performed whole-exome sequencing of three microsatellite stable (MSS) and two microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) gastric adenomas with three regional tumor biopsies per case. We observed that the mutation abundance of benign gastric adenomas was comparable to those of gastric adenocarcinomas, suggesting that the mutational makeup for gastric carcinogenesis may already be achieved in benign adenomas. The extent of intratumoral heterogeneity was more substantial for MSS genomes in that only 1% - 14% of somatic mutations were common across the regional biopsies or ‘public’, while 50% - 94% of mutations were public in MSI-H gastric adenomas. We observed biallelic, loss-of-functional events of APC with truncating mutations and/or 5q losses for all cases, mostly as public events. All MSS gastric adenomas also harbored ARID2 truncating mutations, often as multiple, region-specific ones indicative of convergent evolution. Hotspot missense mutations on known cancer genes such as ERBB2 and KRAS were largely observed as region-specific aberrations. These findings suggest that biallelic functional APC inactivation initiates the gastric carcinogenesis and is followed by mutations of histone modifiers and then activation of known cancer-related genes. As the first exome-wide multi-region mutational profiling of gastric adenomas, our study provides clues on the chronological sequence of somatic mutations and their clonal architectures in early gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27175599

  6. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and "screen and treat" method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening.

  7. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band (LAGB) Migration - Endoscopic Treatment Modalities.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Tomasz; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Janczak, Przemysław; Jurałowicz, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic adjustible gastric binding (LAGB) is one of most common surgical methods of treating obesity. Gastric band migration (erosion) is a typical LAGB complication, with a frequency of about 1-4%. The aim of the study was to present the possibilities of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of this complication.

  8. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of gastric hyperplastic polyps.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Markowska, Agnieszka; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-10-28

    Gastric polyps become a major clinical problem because of high prevalence and tendency to malignant transformation of some of them. The development of gastric hyperplastic polyps results from excessive proliferation of foveolar cells accompanied by their increased exfoliation, and they are macroscopically indistinguishable from other polyps with lower or higher malignant potential. Panendoscopy allows detection and differentiation of gastric polyps, usually after obtaining histopathological biopsy specimens. Unremoved gastric hyperplastic polyps may enlarge and sometimes spontaneously undergo a sequential progression to cancer. For this reason, gastric hyperplastic polyps larger than 5 mm in size should be removed in one piece. After excision of polyps with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested depending on histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of endoscopic resection. Because of the risk of cancer development also in gastric mucosa outside the polyp, neighboring fragments of gastric mucosa should undergo microscopic investigations. This procedure allows for identification of patients who can benefit most from oncological endoscopic surveillance. If Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa is confirmed, treatment strategies should include eradication of bacteria, which may prevent progression of intestinal metaplasia. The efficacy of H. pylori eradication should be checked 3-6 mo later.

  9. The Role of Preoperative TIPSS to Facilitate Curative Gastric Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.A.; Vickers, J.; Callaway, M.P. Alderson, D.

    2003-08-15

    The use of TIPSS to facilitate radical curative upper gastrointestinal surgery has not been reported. We describe a case in which curative gastric resection was performed for carcinoma of the stomach after a preoperative TIPSS and embolization of a large gastric varix in a patient with portal hypertension.

  10. Coexistence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, esophageal and gastric cardia carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xu-Dong; Shi, Quan; Jia, Jing

    2013-03-28

    Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma are distinct neoplasms originating from different cell layers; therefore, simultaneous development of such carcinomas is relatively rare. Auxiliary examinations revealed coexistence of esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma with lymph node metastasis in a 77-year-old man. Intraoperatively, an extraluminal tumor (about 6.0 cm × 5.0 cm × 6.0 cm) at the posterior wall of the gastric body, a tumor (about 2.5 cm × 2.0 cm) in the lower esophagus, and an infiltrative and stenosing tumor (about 1.0 cm × 2.0 cm) in the gastric cardia were detected. Wedge resection for extraluminal gastric tumor, radical esophagectomy for lower esophageal tumor, and cardiac resection with gastroesophageal (supra-aortic arch anastomoses) were performed. Postoperative histological examination showed synchronous occurrence of gastric GIST, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry indicated strong staining for c-Kit/CD117, Dog-1, Ki-67 and smooth muscle, while expression of S-100 and CD34 was negative.

  11. Effect of diazepam on unstimulated and on stimulated gastric secretion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P N; Davies, P; Frigo, G M; Weerasinghe, W M; Lennard-Jones, J E

    1975-01-01

    The effect of intravenous diazepam on unstimulated and on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion has been studied in normal subjects. No significant effect of diazapam was found on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion. Unstimulated secretion was reduced by diazepam. This action of diazepam may be useful in peptic ulcer therapy.

  12. Prolonged idiopathic gastric dilatation following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Julia L; Stoven, Samantha; Szarka, Lawrence; Papadakis, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old female presented with nausea, emesis, early satiety, and abdominal distension following revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography angiogram showed gastric dilatation. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, small bowel follow through, and paraneoplastic panel were negative. Gastric emptying was delayed. Despite conservative management, she required a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy. The development of a prolonged gastroparetic state has not been previously described.

  13. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of gastric hyperplastic polyps

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Markowska, Agnieszka; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Gastric polyps become a major clinical problem because of high prevalence and tendency to malignant transformation of some of them. The development of gastric hyperplastic polyps results from excessive proliferation of foveolar cells accompanied by their increased exfoliation, and they are macroscopically indistinguishable from other polyps with lower or higher malignant potential. Panendoscopy allows detection and differentiation of gastric polyps, usually after obtaining histopathological biopsy specimens. Unremoved gastric hyperplastic polyps may enlarge and sometimes spontaneously undergo a sequential progression to cancer. For this reason, gastric hyperplastic polyps larger than 5 mm in size should be removed in one piece. After excision of polyps with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested depending on histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of endoscopic resection. Because of the risk of cancer development also in gastric mucosa outside the polyp, neighboring fragments of gastric mucosa should undergo microscopic investigations. This procedure allows for identification of patients who can benefit most from oncological endoscopic surveillance. If Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the gastric mucosa is confirmed, treatment strategies should include eradication of bacteria, which may prevent progression of intestinal metaplasia. The efficacy of H. pylori eradication should be checked 3-6 mo later. PMID:27833379

  14. Gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid.

    PubMed

    Phelps, G; Srinivasa, A; Sengupta, S K

    1991-03-01

    The acute consequences of the ingestion of corrosive substances include acute necrosis of the upper gastrointestinal tract, haemorrhage and perforation. Late complications include the development of stenotic lesions. A case of fibrous gastric stenosis following the ingestion of car battery acid is presented. Endoscopically, the appearances were consistent with gastric carcinoma.

  15. [Esophageal reconstruction--using gastric tube instead of whole stomach].

    PubMed

    Chen, Keneng

    2014-09-01

    Stomach is the first choice for esophageal reconstruction following esophagectomy. In the earlier days, however, whole stomach pulling-up was the major surgery, which had some shortcomings. Recently, gastric tube has gained wide acceptance for esophageal reconstruction. This paper summarized the anatomical and physiological advantage of stomach, the disadvantage of whole stomach, and benefits of gastric tube for esophageal reconstruction.

  16. Association of caveolin-1 genotypes with gastric cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of tumor-related death worldwide, for which the prevalence and mortality rates are very high in developed countries. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the main protein in the caveolin family and plays a role in tumorigenesis signaling. The contribution of CAV1 genetic variants to gastric cancer is still largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of CAV1 genotypes in gastric cancer risk. We recruited 358 gastric patients and 358 cancer-free controls for CAV1 genotyping analysis. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAV1, C521A (rs1997623), G14713A (rs3807987), G21985A (12672038), T28608A (rs3757733), T29107A (rs7804372), and G32124A (rs3807992), were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. There was a significant difference between the gastric cancer and control groups in the genotypic frequency distribution of the CAV1 G14713A genotypes (p=1.24*10(-5)), with those carrying the A allele having a higher risk for gastric cancer compared to those with the GG genotype (p=0.0001). Our findings suggested that CAV1 genotype may determine the individual susceptibility to gastric cancer, and that the CAV1 G14713A genotype may serve as a novel biomarker for early detection and prediction of gastric cancer.

  17. Repression of PES1 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieping; Zhou, Xiaodong; Lan, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobin; Jiang, Xuping; Huang, Zongming

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlining its development are far from clear. We recently reported that PES1 promoted development of breast cancer and ovarian cancer as an oncogene. In this study, we reported that ablation of endogenous PES1 resulted in significant suppression of cell proliferation and growth and led to cell cycle arrest in G2 or G1 phase, respectively, in two gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and N87) in vitro. Meanwhile, silencing of PES1 obviously decreased expressions of cyclin D1, HIF-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions and increased p21WAF1 expression. Re-expression of PES1 in these two kinds of PES1 knockdown cells rescued these effects. In vivo, repression of endogenous PES1 expression suppressed gastric tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, 40.7 % (24/59) of gastric cancer tissues showed PES1 expression via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. However, there were not any positive PES1 stainings in matched adjacent tissues. Our results demonstrated that repression of PES1 changed expressions of some cell proliferation- and angiogenesis-related genes and inhibited gastric cancer growth, and PES1 expression increased in gastric cancer tissues. These results suggest that PES1 may play an important role in development of gastric cancer. PES1 may be a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

  18. Gastric blunt traumatic injuries: A computed tomography grading classification

    PubMed Central

    Solazzo, Antonio; Lassandro, Giulia; Lassandro, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    AIM To produce a radiological grading of gastric traumatic injuries. METHODS In our study, we retrospectively analyzed 32 cases of blunt gastric traumatic injuries and compared computed tomography (CT) data with patients’ surgical or medical development. In all cases, a basal phase was acquired, and an intravenous contrast material was administered via an antecubital venous catheter with acquisition in the venous phase (70-90 s). In addition, a further set of delayed scans was performed 4-5 min after the first scanning session, without supplementary intravenous contrast material, to identify or better define areas of active bleeding. All CT examinations were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, with more than 5 years of experience in emergency radiology, to detect signs of gastric injuries and/or associated abdominal lesions according to literature data. Specific CT findings for gastric rupture include luminal content extravasation and discontinuity of the gastric wall, while CT findings suggestive of injury consisted of free peritoneal fluid, extraluminal air, pneumatosis, and thickening and hematoma of gastric wall. RESULTS We found 32 gastric traumatic injuries. In 22 patients (68.8%), the diagnosis was based on the surgical findings; in the other 10 patients (31.2%), the diagnosis was based on the clinical and CT radiological data. We observed discontinuity of the gastric wall and luminal content extravasation in 1 patient (3.1%); in 10 patients (31.2%), there was extra-luminal air in the peritoneum. In 28 patients (87.5%), there was peritoneal fluid, which was blood in 14 patients (hematoma in 11 patients and contrast material extravasation from active bleeding in 3 patients). In 15 patients (46.9%), there was gastric wall thickening. In 3 patients, it was possible to identify a prevalent involvement of the external layer of the gastric wall, whereas, in 2 patients, the inner side of the gastric wall presented with major involvement. In 3 patients

  19. Induction of follistatin precedes gastric transformation in gastrin deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kang Weiqun; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Zavros, Yana; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2008-11-21

    We previously showed that antral gastric tumors develop in gastrin-deficient (Gas{sup -/-}) mice. Therefore Gas{sup -/-}mice were studied sequentially over 12 months to identify molecular mechanisms underlying gastric transformation. Fundic atrophy developed by 9 months in Gas{sup -/-} mice. Antral mucosal hyperplasia developed coincident with the focal loss of TFF1 and Muc5AC. Microarray analysis of 12 month Gas{sup -/-} tumors revealed an increase in follistatin, an activin/BMP antagonist. We found that elevated follistatin expression occurred in the proliferative neck zone of hyperplastic antrums, in antral tumors of Gas{sup -/-} mice, and also in human gastric cancers. Follistatin induced cyclin D1 and the trefoil factors TFF1 and TFF2 in a gastric cancer cell line. We concluded that antral hyperplasia in Gas{sup -/-} mice involves amplification of mucous cell lineages due to follistatin, suggesting its role in the development of antral gastric tumors.

  20. Abnormalities of esophageal and gastric emptying in progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maddern, G.J.; Horowitz, M.; Jamieson, G.G.; Chatterton, B.E.; Collins, P.J.; Roberts-Thomson, P.

    1984-10-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were assessed using scintigraphic techniques in 12 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis and 22 normal volunteers. Esophageal emptying was significantly delayed in the patient group, with 7 of the 12 patients beyond the normal range. Gastric emptying was slower in patients than in controls, with 9 patients being outside the normal range for solid emptying and 7 patients outside the normal range for liquid emptying. Findings from gastric and esophageal emptying tests generally correlated well with symptoms of dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux. However, 2 patients with normal emptying studies had symptomatic heartburn, and 2 patients with delay of both solid and liquid gastric emptying gave no history of gastroesophageal reflux. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the development of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.