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Sample records for intravenous contrast media

  1. Transient small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiu-Hua; Gong, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Peng

    2012-03-07

    Three cases of transient proximal small bowel angioedema induced by intravenous administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media (CM) are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images in the venous phase displayed the proximal small bowel with circumferential thickening of the wall including the duodenum and proximal segment of the jejunum. The bowel wall was normal in non-enhanced images, and normal or inconspicuous in arterial phase enhanced images. In one of the three cases, the bowel wall was thickened in venous phase but disappeared in the 40 s delayed phase images. No filling defect was seen in the lumen of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. No peritoneal effusion or mesentery abnormality was found. Each of these patients reported only mild abdominal discomfort and recovered without specific treatment within a short time. Only one patient suffered mild diarrhea after scanning which had resolved by the following day. The transient anaphylactic small bowel angioedema due to intravenous iodinated contrast media was easily diagnosed based on its characteristic CT findings and clinical symptoms. Differential diagnosis may include inflammatory and ischemic bowel disease, as well as neoplasms. A three-phase CT protocol and good understanding of this disorder are fundamentally important in the diagnosis of this condition. The supposed etiology behind the transient anaphylactic reaction to intravenous administration of iodinated CM in small bowel is similar to other CM-induced hypersensitive immediate reactions. The predilection location of transient anaphylactic bowel angioedema is the small intestine, particularly the proximal segment. A speculated cause may be the richer supply of vessels in the small intestine, ample mucous folds and loose connective tissue in the duodenum and the jejunum.

  2. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury After Intravenous Contrast Media Administration.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Jeremiah S; Ehmann, Michael R; Fine, Derek M; Fishman, Elliot K; Toerper, Matthew F; Rothman, Richard E; Klein, Eili Y

    2017-05-01

    The study objective was to determine whether intravenous contrast administration for computed tomography (CT) is independently associated with increased risk for acute kidney injury and adverse clinical outcomes. This single-center retrospective cohort analysis was performed in a large, urban, academic emergency department with an average census of 62,179 visits per year; 17,934 ED visits for patients who underwent contrast-enhanced, unenhanced, or no CT during a 5-year period (2009 to 2014) were included. The intervention was CT scan with or without intravenous contrast administration. The primary outcome was incidence of acute kidney injury. Secondary outcomes included new chronic kidney disease, dialysis, and renal transplantation at 6 months. Logistic regression modeling and between-groups odds ratios with and without propensity-score matching were used to test for an independent association between contrast administration and primary and secondary outcomes. Treatment decisions, including administration of contrast and intravenous fluids, were examined. Rates of acute kidney injury were similar among all groups. Contrast administration was not associated with increased incidence of acute kidney injury (contrast-induced nephropathy criteria odds ratio=0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.08; and Acute Kidney Injury Network/Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria odds ratio=1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.16). This was true in all subgroup analyses regardless of baseline renal function and whether comparisons were made directly or after propensity matching. Contrast administration was not associated with increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, dialysis, or renal transplant at 6 months. Clinicians were less likely to prescribe contrast to patients with decreased renal function and more likely to prescribe intravenous fluids if contrast was administered. In the largest well-controlled study of acute kidney injury following contrast

  3. Fixed drug eruption associated with intravenous contrast media: report in a woman receiving iohexol.

    PubMed

    Wright, Natalie A; Cohen, Philip R

    2011-07-01

    Fixed drug eruption, a medication-associated mucocutaneous reaction, rarely presents as a delayed adverse reaction to intravenous non-ionic contrast media. We describe a 57-year-old woman with a history of metastatic renal cell carcinoma who repeatedly developed a sharply demarcated, erythematous patch on her left breast after receiving the iodinated non-ionic contrast media iohexol for staging computed tomography scans. Recurrent fixed drug eruption may be avoided by using another contrast medium. Prophylactic treatment with systemic corticosteroids may prevent repeated fixed drug eruption if an alternative contrast agent cannot be used.

  4. Are intravenous injections of contrast media really less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial injections?

    PubMed

    Nyman, Ulf; Almén, Torsten; Jacobsson, Bo; Aspelin, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We oppose the opinion that the intra-arterial administration of iodine-based contrast media (CM) appears to pose a greater risk of contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) than intravenous administration since 1) in intra-arterial coronary procedures and most other intra-arterial angiographic examinations, CM injections are also intravenous relative to the kidneys, 2) there is a lack of comparative trials studying the risk of CIN between intra-arterial and intravenous procedures with matched risk factors and CM doses, 3) a bias selection of patients with fewer risk factors may explain the seemingly lower rate of CIN after CT in comparison with coronary interventions, 4) the rate of CIN following intra-arterial coronary procedures may also be exaggerated owing to other causes of acute kidney failure, such as haemodynamic instability and microembolisation, 5) roughly the same gram-iodine/GFR ratio (≈1:1) as a limit of relatively safe CM doses has preliminarily been found for both intravenous CT and intra-arterial coronary procedures and 6) the substantially higher injected intravenous CM dose rate during CT relative to an intra-arterial coronary procedure might actually pose a higher risk of CIN following CT. • Most intra-arterial injections of contrast media are intravenous relative to the kidneys. • No evidence that intravenous CM injections should be less nephrotoxic than intra-arterial. • Considerably higher dose rates of CM are used for CT relative to intra-arterial procedures. • Higher dose rates may pose higher nephrotoxic risk for intravenous based CT studies.

  5. The developmental history of the gadolinium chelates as intravenous contrast media for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M; Ai, Tao; Hao, Dapeng; Hu, Xuemei

    2011-12-01

    The developmental history of the gadolinium chelates, which spans 30 years, is described, focusing, in part, on the seminal work with each of the major agents in use today. By examining this history, insight is gained into important issues of efficacy and safety, with valuable lessons to be learned from the mistakes made during this period. An overview of physicochemical characteristics and chemical structures is also provided. The review concludes with a discussion of current research directions involving this field, which is that of the intravenous contrast media for magnetic resonance, in the past 5 years.

  6. Perfluoroctylbromide. Acute hemodynamic effects, in pigs, of intravenous administration compared with the standard ionic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Peck, W W; Mattrey, R F; Slutsky, R A; Higgins, C B

    1984-01-01

    Perfluoroctylbromide (PFOB) is a relatively new noniodinated contrast media that, after intravenous administration, produces prolonged opacification of the blood pool and subsequently selectively enhances the liver and spleen on computed tomography. There has been concern regarding the hemodynamic effect of this agent but little actual knowledge exists in this regard. Accordingly, the acute transient hemodynamic effects of PFOB emulsion were evaluated in five pigs and compared with the standard ionic contrast agent meglumine sodium diatrizoate (Renografin-76). Left ventricular (LV) pressure, internal diameter, and wall thickness were monitored during the alternate intravenous administration of 930 mg/ml PFOB and 370 mg/ml R-76 at a rate of 20 mls/second for a total volume of 1 ml/kg body weight. Renografin-76 caused a significant decrease in LV pressure and dp/dt (rate of change of LV pressure), and an increase in LV end-systolic diameter and a decrease in LV end-diastolic wall thickness. PFOB caused no change in LV pressure and dimensions. Thus, rapid intravenous administration of PFOB does not induce significant acute alterations in left ventricular pressure, dp/dt, dimension, or wall thickness.

  7. [Doppler evaluation of thyroid hemodynamics after intravenous administration of contrast media].

    PubMed

    Catalano, O; Lobianco, R; Maglione, M; Siani, A

    2001-01-01

    Duplex Doppler ultrasound allows the evaluation of thyroid gland vascular flow by spectral analysis assessment. The objective of this prospective study was to employ Doppler ultrasound to evaluate the possible functional changes produced in normal subjects following intravenous iodized contrast medium injection. The study was performed on 30 non-consecutive subjects, enrolled according to some inclusion criteria: male gender, age ranging between 19 and 70 years, absence of chronic liver disease, absence of thyroid disease, absence of sonographic changes in the thyroid gland, negative history for recent intravenous contrast medium administration. All patients were scheduled for a contrast-enhanced CT study. A non-ionic contrast medium (iomeprol) was employed at 350 mgI/mL concentration, 130-140 mL volume, and 2-4 mL/sec. injection rate. The Doppler ultrasound examination was carried out immediately before and about 30 minutes after the CT study. The systolic velocity, diastolic velocity, the resistive index, and the pulsatility index were measured at the level of one of the four thyroid arteries. In most cases a slightly increasing trend of the four parameters considered was noted but none of these showed a statistically significant change. The mean systolic velocity was of 33 cm/sec. in the basal measurement and of 39 cm/sec. in the post-contrast measurement. The variation was positive in 17 cases, negative in 12, and absent in 1. The mean diastolic velocity was of 13 cm/sec. in the pre-contrast evaluation and of 14 cm/sec. in the second evaluation. The change was positive in 14 cases, negative in 12, and absent in 4. The mean resistive index was of 0.55 in the basal analysis and of 0.59 in the post-contrast one. The variation was positive in 20 patients, negative in 9, and absent in 1. The mean pulsatility index was of 0.99 in the basal measurement and of 1.14 in the second measurement. The change was positive in 23 subjects, negative in 5, and absent in 2. Our

  8. Effect of Intravenous Administration of Contrast Media on Serum Creatinine Levels in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Maria A; White, Ammie M; Edgar, J Christopher; Pradhan, Madhura; Raab, Elisabeth L; Meyer, James S

    2017-08-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of intravenous contrast media on renal function in neonates. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained with waiver of consent. Electronic health records from January 2011 to April 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Measures of renal function were obtained in inpatient neonates who underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or computed tomography (CT) and for whom serum creatinine (Cr) levels were obtained within 72 hours before imaging and at least one time after imaging (>1 day after administration of contrast material). A total of 140 neonates who received contrast material (59 who underwent CT with iohexol or iodixanol and 81 who underwent MR imaging with gadopentetate dimeglumine) were identified. These neonates were frequency matched according to sex, gestational and postnatal age, and preimaging serum Cr levels with neonates who underwent unenhanced MR imaging or CT. Cr levels and glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) were grouped according to when they were obtained (before imaging, 1-2 days after imaging, 3-5 days after imaging, 6-9 days after imaging, 10-45 days after imaging, and more than 45 days after imaging). Serum Cr levels and GFRs for each time period were compared between groups by using hierarchic regressions or χ(2) or Fisher exact tests and with repeated-measures analysis of variance to compare groups on the rate of change in serum Cr levels and GFRs from before to after imaging. Results Cr levels decreased and GFRs increased in both groups from before to after imaging (CT group, P ≤ .01; MR imaging group, P ≤ .01). The neonates who underwent contrast material-enhanced imaging and the neonates who underwent unenhanced imaging showed similar serum Cr levels at all examined time periods. Groups also did not differ in the proportion of neonates with serum Cr levels higher than the reference range (>0.4 mg/dL) at any time point (iodine- [P > .12] or gadolinium-based [P > .13] contrast

  9. Influence of the intravenous contrast media on treatment planning dose calculations of lower esophageal and rectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Nasrollah, Jabbari; Mikaeil, Molazadeh; Omid, Esnaashari; Mojtaba, Seyed Siahi; Ahad, Zeinali

    2014-01-01

    The impact of intravenous (IV) contrast media (CM) on radiation dose calculations must be taken into account in treatment planning. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an intravenous contrast media on dose calculations in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for lower esophageal and rectal cancers. Seventeen patients with lower esophageal tumors and 12 patients with rectal cancers were analyzed. At the outset, all patients were planned for 3D-CRT based on the computed tomography (CT) scans with IV contrast media. Subsequently, all the plans were copied and replaced on the scans without intravenous CM. The radiation doses calculated from the two sets of CTs were compared. The dose differences between the planning image set using intravenous contrast and the image set without contrast showed an average increase in Monitor Units (MUs) in the lower esophageal region that was 1.28 and 0.75% for 6 and 15 MV photon beams, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference in the rectal region between the two sets of scans in the 3D-CRT plans. The results showed that the dose differences between the plans for the CT scans with and without CM were small and clinically tolerable. However, the differences in the lower esophageal region were significant in the statistical analysis.

  10. [Spinal myoclonus secondary to the intravenous administration of iodine contrast media].

    PubMed

    Micheli, F; Gatto, E; Lehkuniec, E

    1991-01-01

    We describe a patient with a longstanding paraplegia who developed spinal myoclonus on 3 different occasions spanning one year, once after an enhanced CT scan and twice after excretory urographies, one of which was also followed by a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. To our knowledge only one case of spinal myoclonus secondary to the administration of intravenous contrast material in a patient with a spinal arteriovenous malformation has yet been reported. Taken together, the findings in these cases suggest that spinal myoclonus following intravenous iodine administration is indicative of an underlying spinal cord lesion.

  11. Intravenous Imaging Contrast Media Complications: The Basics That Every Clinician Needs to Know.

    PubMed

    Rose, Trevor A; Choi, Jung W

    2015-09-01

    Intravenous contrast is commonly used in noninvasive imaging procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography and can evaluate blood vessels and better characterize soft-tissue lesions. Although the incidence of adverse events after administration of contrast is low, it is important that clinicians and radiologists minimize risks and respond quickly and effectively when reactions occur. We will discuss a range of adverse events to iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents, including allergic-like reactions, nephrotoxicity, extravasation, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. We will review risk stratification for patients, as well as premedication and treatment of adverse events.

  12. Effect of intravenous low-osmolality iodinated contrast media on patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Somashekar, Deepak K; Davenport, Matthew S; Cohan, Richard H; Dillman, Jonathan R; Ellis, James H

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether the intravenous administration of low-osmolality contrast material is associated with exacerbation of disease-related symptoms in patients with myasthenia gravis. This HIPAA-compliant, retrospective cohort study was approved by the institutional review board. The requirement to obtain patient consent was waived. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 267 patients with clinically confirmed myasthenia gravis between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2011. CT was performed without intravenous administration of contrast material in 155 patients and with intravenous administration of low-osmolality contrast material in 112. Electronic medical records were searched to identify myasthenia gravis-related symptoms before (≤ 14 days) and after (≤ 45 days) each CT examination. The Mantel-Cox log-rank test was used to compare the time to symptom progression between the two groups. The Fisher exact test was used to compare rates of disease-related symptoms during three time periods: (a) 0-1 day after CT, (b) 2-7 days after CT, and (c) 8-45 days after CT. The unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT groups had similar thymectomy rates (P = .97) and disease-related symptom trends before CT (P = .58). The contrast-enhanced CT group was associated with a significant reduction in time to disease-related symptom progression following CT (median time to onset of symptom progression, 2.5 days with contrast-enhanced CT vs 14.0 days with unenhanced CT; P = .05). There were significantly more disease-related symptom exacerbations within 1 day of CT in the contrast-enhanced CT group compared with the unenhanced CT group (6.3% [seven of 112 patients] vs 0.6% [one of 155 patients], respectively; P = .01). Acute exacerbations were primarily respiratory (five patients with new-onset dyspnea [four in contrast-enhanced CT group and one in unenhanced CT group], two patients with progressive dyspnea [both in the contrast-enhanced CT group], and one patient with progressive

  13. Intravenous contrast media application using cone-beam computed tomography in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Sung; Kim, Bok-Yeol; Choi, Hwa-Young; Choi, Yoon-Joo; Oh, Song-Hee; Kang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Sae-Rom; Kang, Ju-Han; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of visualizing soft tissue lesions and vascular structures using contrast-enhanced cone-beam computed tomography (CE-CBCT) after the intravenous administration of a contrast medium in an animal model. Materials and Methods CBCT was performed on six rabbits after a contrast medium was administered using an injection dose of 2 mL/kg body weight and an injection rate of 1 mL/s via the ear vein or femoral vein under general anesthesia. Artificial soft tissue lesions were created through the transplantation of autologous fatty tissue into the salivary gland. Volume rendering reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and multiplanar reconstruction images were reconstructed and evaluated in order to visualize soft tissue contrast and vascular structures. Results The contrast enhancement of soft tissue was possible using all contrast medium injection parameters. An adequate contrast medium injection parameter for facilitating effective CE-CBCT was a 5-mL injection before exposure combined with a continuous 5-mL injection during scanning. Artificial soft tissue lesions were successfully created in the animals. The CE-CBCT images demonstrated adequate opacification of the soft tissues and vascular structures. Conclusion Despite limited soft tissue resolution, the opacification of vascular structures was observed and artificial soft tissue lesions were visualized with sufficient contrast to the surrounding structures. The vascular structures and soft tissue lesions appeared well delineated in the CE-CBCT images, which was probably due to the superior spatial resolution of CE-CBCT compared to other techniques, such as multislice computed tomography. PMID:25793181

  14. Intravenous contrast media in uroradiology: evaluation of safety and tolerability in almost 50,000 patients.

    PubMed

    Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Rotert, Harald; Trojan, Lutz; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Peters, Candida R; Alken, Peter; Knoll, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency of adverse events and possible risk factors after the administration of an intravenous contrast medium (CM), iobitridol, in a large multicentre postmarketing surveillance study. A total of 49,975 patients undergoing intravenous urography were included in this study. A water-soluble, non-ionic CM (iobitridol, 1 ml/kg body weight) was administered. Age, sex, indication for the actual examination and adverse events were documented. Also, high-risk patients were identified. Of the 49,975 patients, 28,336 (56.7%) were males and 21,639 (43.3%) females. Indications for urography were mainly urolithiasis (39.1%), inflammatory diseases (25.6%) and tumours (13.9%). Additionally, 7.4% were risk patients: 1.9% with creatinine >1.5 mg/dl (0.1% were on haemodialysis); 0.8% had a history of previous allergic reactions to CM, 3.7% pre-existing asthma or allergies and 2% other risk factors against CM examination. Only 0.9% of the patients experienced acute adverse events that were non-serious and transient. Less than 0.1% of the patients experienced vomiting, dizziness or cardiovascular problems. Only 1 patient developed an anaphylactic shock but recovered fully under treatment. A chi(2) analysis revealed that adverse reactions occurred in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency or allergies. Significantly more females had contrast-agent-related symptoms compared to men. Patients undergoing urography for urolithiasis had significantly fewer symptoms compared to patients with other indications. Iobitridol is clinically safe and well tolerated in urography as demonstrated in this study of a large patient population, producing mainly minor symptoms as adverse events. However, caution is advised when administering iobitridol to high-risk patients.

  15. Renal-related adverse effects of intravenous contrast media in computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Kheng Song; Wu, Yi Wei; Tan, Cher Heng

    2015-01-01

    Renal-related adverse effects of intravascular contrast media (CM) include contrast-induced nephropathy in computed tomography and angiography. While large retrospective studies have been published, the exact pathogenesis of this condition is still unknown. We review the main international guidelines, including the American College of Radiology white paper and the guidelines of European Society of Urogenital Radiology, Royal College of Radiologists and Canadian Association of Radiologists, as well as their references, regarding this subject. We present a simplified, concise approach to renal-related adverse effects of CM, taking into consideration the basis for each recommendation in these published guidelines. This will allow the reader to better understand the rationale behind appropriate patient preparation for cross-sectional imaging. PMID:25917468

  16. Immediate hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media: diagnostic accuracy of skin tests and intravenous provocation test with low dose.

    PubMed

    Sesé, L; Gaouar, H; Autegarden, J-E; Alari, A; Amsler, E; Vial-Dupuy, A; Pecquet, C; Francès, C; Soria, A

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of HSR to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is challenging based on clinical history and skin tests. This study evaluates the negative predictive value (NPV) of skin tests and intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose ICM in patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to ICM. Thirty-seven patients with suspected immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM were included retrospectively. Skin tests and a single-blind placebo-controlled intravenous provocation test (IPT) with low-dose iodinated contrast media (ICM) were performed. Skin tests with ICM were positive in five cases (one skin prick test and five intradermal test). Thirty-six patients were challenged successfully by IPT, and only one patient had a positive challenge result, with a grade I reaction by the Ring and Messmer classification. Ten of 23 patients followed up by telephone were re-exposed to a negative tested ICM during radiologic examination; two experienced a grade I immediate reaction. For immediate hypersensitivity reaction to ICM, the NPV for skin tests and IPT with low dose was 80% (95% CI 44-97%). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Nagasawa, Naoki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations. 735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell. The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for other CM (p < 0.05). The highest incidence of the sensation of smell was medicine-ish, and the most frequently noted taste was bitterness. All radiological technologists could directly smell only iopromide, which has an ether group on a side chain and fewer hydroxyl groups. Iopromide showed a higher incidence of sensation of smell and taste than other CM. Advances in knowledge: This was the first investigation of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM, and a specific CM showed a higher incidence, which is suspected to be due to its chemical structure.

  18. The effect of arm positioning on timing and enhancement of intravenous contrast media at coronary computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anders; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Nyman, Ulf; Brismar, Torkel B

    2016-09-01

    Adequate intravenous contrast media (CM) enhancement is crucial for evaluation of the coronary arteries. To compare the timing and enhancement of intravenous CM at coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) when positioning the arms in the traditional superior direction with that of positioning them in the ventral direction during the CM injection. One hundred patients were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 50) had their arms positioned in the superior direction, resting on a head and arm support. Group B (n = 50) held their arms resting on the front panel of the computer tomography (CT) scanner. Scanning delay time was defined by test bolus technique. A total of 60 mL iodixanol, 320 mg/mL, was followed by a 50 mL saline flush at 6 mL/s. Cardiac output (CO) and heart rate (HR) were obtained before scanning. The attenuation was calculated by placing regions of interest (ROI) in ascending aorta, left atrium, and inferior vena cava. More patients in group A compared with group B (26 versus 14) showed a higher attenuation of the left atrium in comparison to the ascending aorta (P < 0.05). Body weight (BW) and CO were significantly related to the attenuation of ascending aorta (P < 0.01). By placing the arms in a ventral, instead of superior position the frequency of too early imaging at CCTA can be reduced. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  19. Adverse reactions to intravenous contrast media: an unexpected discrepancy between inpatient and outpatient cohorts.

    PubMed

    Dean, Kathryn E; Starikov, Anna; Giambrone, Ashley; Hentel, Keith; Min, Robert; Loftus, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reaction rates to computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents are well published. However, there is no literature regarding systems-based changes to improve contrast reaction management. As part of ongoing quality improvement monitoring at our institution, contrast reaction events were reviewed. Contrast reactions for CT and MRI were captured at lower rates for the inpatient setting compared to outpatient by an order of a magnitude. The documented inpatient events were more likely to be severe in nature. Given this discrepancy, focus is being placed upon identifying potential barriers to capturing and appropriately managing inpatient contrast reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Value of the technique of intravenous infusion of contrast media for the diagnosis of fluid processes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ramos, L; Marcos, L; Arenas de Pablo, A; Mora, M H; Illanas, M; Paya, F P; Picouto, P P

    1977-01-01

    The study covered 50 patients suffering from hepatic effusions; a solution used in contrast intravenous psychography was administered to them by the intravenous route, at similar doses to those used in intravenous psychography with infusions. This process which we have called Intravenous Viscerogramme, because of the similarity of the images obtained with those of the viscerographic phase of arteriography, has enabled the diagnosis of 35 hydatidiform cysts, one case of cholangiolar hamartoma and an abscess. Owing to the ease with which it can be carried out, we think that it can be used in the diagnosis of tumoral lesions of the liver. When the result is positive, radiological signs are obtained which enable identification of the lesion, thus avoiding resorting to more complex investigations such as angiography.

  1. Multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media concentrations in combined F-18-FDG PET/CT: Effect on quantitative and clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Rebière, Marilou; Verburg, Frederik A; Palmowski, Moritz; Krohn, Thomas; Pietsch, Hubertus; Kuhl, Christiane K; Mottaghy, Felix M; Behrendt, Florian F

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media on contrast enhancement, attenuation correction and image quality in combined PET/CT. 140 patients were prospectively enrolled for F-18-FDG-PET/CT including a low-dose unenhanced, arterial and venous contrast enhanced CT. The first (second) 70 patients, received contrast medium with 370 (300) mg iodine/ml. The iodine delivery rate (1.3mg/s) and total iodine load (44.4g) were identical for both groups. Contrast enhancement and maximum and mean standardized FDG uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were determined for the un-enhanced, arterial and venous PET/CT at multiple anatomic sites and PET reconstructions were visually evaluated. Arterial contrast enhancement was significantly higher for the 300mg/ml contrast medium compared to 370mgI/ml at all anatomic sites. Venous enhancement was not different between the two contrast media. SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher for the contrast enhanced compared to the non-enhanced PET/CT at all anatomic sites (all P<0.001). Tracer uptake was significantly higher in the arterial than in the venous PET/CT in the arteries using both contrast media (all P<0.001). No differences in tracer uptake were found between the contrast media (all P>0.05). Visual assessment revealed no relevant differences between the different PET reconstructions. There is no relevant qualitative influence on the PET scan from the use of different intravenous contrast media in its various phases in combined multiphase PET/CT. For quantitative analysis of tracer uptake it is required to use an identical PET/CT protocol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemodynamic and serum biochemical alterations associated with intravenous administration of three types of contrast media in anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Rachel E; Puchalski, Sarah M; Pascoe, Peter J

    2008-10-01

    To determine the incidence and type of alterations in heart rate (HR), peak systolic blood pressure (PSBP), and serum biochemical variables (total bilirubin, BUN, and creatinine concentrations) associated with IV administration of ionic-iodinated contrast (IIC), nonionic-iodinated contrast (NIC), and gadolinium dimeglumine (GD) contrast media in anesthetized dogs. 280 anesthetized dogs undergoing cross-sectional imaging. HR and PSBP were recorded at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes for untreated control dogs and dogs that received IIC, NIC, or GD contrast medium. The development of an HR of < 60 beats/min or > 130 beats/min that included a > or = 20% change from baseline was considered a response. The development of PSBP of < 90 mm Hg or > 160 mm Hg that included a > or = 20% change from baseline was considered a response. Pre- and postcontrast serum biochemical values were recorded. Results-Of dogs receiving IIC medium, 3% (3/91) had a response in HR and 4% (4/91) had a response in PSBP at > or = 1 time points. None of the dogs receiving NIC medium had a response in HR; 1 of 16 had a response in PSBP. Of dogs receiving GD contrast medium, 1% (1/92) had a response in HR and 4% (4/92) had a response in PSBP. Of control dogs, 2% (2/81) had a response in HR and 4% (3/81) had a response in PSBP. No serum biochemical alterations were observed. IV administration of contrast media in anesthetized dogs caused moderate bradycardia, tachycardia, hypotension, or hypertension.

  3. Prevalence of NSF following intravenous gadolinium-contrast media administration in dialysis patients with endstage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; Neruda, Anita; Watschinger, Bruno; Vychytil, Andreas; Geusau, Alexandra; Haumer, Markus; Weber, Michael

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in a patient population being at highest risk for developing this disease and to evaluate possible risk factors. The radiological records of 552 patients with ESRD being on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) were retrospectively reviewed to identify whether the patients underwent MR-examinations with or without intravenous administration of GBCA. In case of exposure to GBCA, the number of contrast injections, the benchmark and the cumulative doses of GBCA, and possible cofactors regarding pathogenesis of NSF were recorded. Diagnosis of NSF was confirmed either by deep skin biopsy or by review of medical and histopathological records. Data of NSF patients were compared with data of dialysis patients who did not develop NSF after MR-examinations. 146 dialysis patients underwent MRI without i.v.-administration of GBCA. No case of NSF was observed in this patient population. 195/552 patients proved to have a total number of 325 well-documented exposures to GBCA. Seven different types of GBCA were used during these MR-examinations. NSF prevalence rate was 1.6%. One patient died of NSF. Three different types of GBCA were involved in 6 NSF cases. 4/6 proved to be confounded cases. The cumulative dose of GBCA, history of thrombosis, recent surgery, and the combination of HD and PD proved to be significant cofactors for the development of NSF (p<.05). No significant difference regarding residual renal clearance (p=.898) and residual urine volume (p=.083) was found between NSF and non-NSF patients. The prevalence of NSF proved to be much lower in this high risk patient group being exposed to GBCA compared to the literature. NSF was not observed in ESRD patients undergoing MRI without administration of GBCA. Our data support a positive association between cumulative dose of GBCA and development of NSF. No positive association was found between residual renal clearance and residual urine volume and

  4. [Physiopathology of nephropathy studied with contrast media].

    PubMed

    Morales Buenrostro, L E; Tellez Zenteno, J F; Torre Delgadillo, A

    2000-01-01

    For the technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the use of intravenous contrast media in the hospital is more and more frequent. It can produce acute renal failure secondary to its nephrotoxicity known as contrast media nephropathy. This review describes the pathophysiologic mechanisms of contrast media injury, including cytotoxicity caused by hyperosmoloarity of contrast media, the hemodynamic factors and the role of the renin-angiotensin system, prostaglandins, oxygen free radicals, endothelin-1, adenosine, nitric oxide and others. The understanding of this information is of vital importance for the development of prophylactic strategies for contrast media nephropathy.

  5. Different intravenous contrast media concentrations do not affect clinical assessment of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans in an intraindividual comparison.

    PubMed

    Prechtel, Hans W E; Verburg, Frederik A; Palmowski, Moritz; Krohn, Thomas; Pietsch, Hubertus; Kuhl, Christiane K; Mottaghy, Felix M; Behrendt, Florian F

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform an intraindividual comparison of the influences of different iodine contrast media on tracer uptake, contrast enhancement, and image quality in combined positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Fifty-one patients underwent baseline and follow-up combined PET/CT consisting of low-dose unenhanced and venous contrast-enhanced CT with contrast media containing a high concentration of iodine (iopromide, 370 mg/mL) and a standard iodine concentration (iopromide, 300 mg/mL). The total iodine load (44.4 g) and the iodine delivery rate (1.29 g/s) were identical for the 2 protocols. The mean and maximum standard uptake values, as measures of tracer uptake and contrast enhancement for unenhanced and contrast-enhanced PET/CT, were quantified at 10 different anatomical sites, and images were analyzed for clinically relevant differences. The mean and maximum standard uptake values were significantly increased in contrast-enhanced PET/CT compared with unenhanced PET/CT at each anatomical site (P < 0.05). Comparison of tracer uptake between the 300- and 370-mg iodine contrast media showed no significant differences (all P > 0.05). Comparison of contrast enhancement between the 300- and 370-mg iodine contrast media showed no significant difference at any anatomical site (all P > 0.05). Analysis of image quality revealed no clinically relevant differences between the 2 different iodine contrast media (P = 0.739). The use of contrast-enhanced CT scans for attenuation correction in PET/CT does not cause clinically relevant artifacts in PET scan reconstruction, regardless of the iodine concentration used. Standard- and high-iodine contrast media can be used equivalently.

  6. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, H. D.; Siddons, D. P.

    1990-05-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. Gd-DTPA is already approved for use as a contrast agent for

  7. Intravenous injection of high and medium concentrations of computed tomography contrast media and related heat sensation, local pain, and adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Masui, Takayuki; Katayama, Motoyuki; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Sakahara, Harumi

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of acute adverse reactions and degrees of heat sensation and local pain after intravenous injection of high and medium concentrations of iodinated contrast medium for computed tomography (CT). A prospective study was performed involving 729 patients who underwent contrast CT scans. High-concentration (370 mgI/mL) and medium-concentration (300 mgI/mL) iodinated contrast medium was assigned to 342 patients (group H, aged 20-90 years, mean = 59.8 years) and to 387 patients (group M, aged 20-95 years, mean = 61.7 years), respectively. An injection rate of contrast medium (1, 2, or 4 mL/s) at a base volume of 2 mL/kg of body weight was selected according to the protocols for the evaluated diseases and regions. Each patient was assessed for heat sensation and local pain at the injection site using a visual analog scale (ranging from none for 0 to severe for 10). Acute adverse reactions were recorded when they occurred. There were no significant differences in patient background factors, including age, sex, history of prior adverse reactions, and allergies, between the 2 groups. The score for heat sensation was significantly higher in group H than in group M (4.46 +/- 2.44 vs. 3.44 +/- 2.45; P < 0.0001 for heat sensation). The data did not show a higher incidence of adverse reactions in group H than in group M (5 [1.46%] of 342 patients vs. 2 [0.52%] of 387 patients; P = 0.26) or a higher score for local pain in group H than in group M (0.98 +/- 1.70 vs. 0.88 +/- 1.49; P = 0.66), respectively. High and medium concentrations of iodinated contrast medium can be used for CT study with comparable safety profiles even though heat sensation produced by the high-concentration CM is greater than that produced by the medium-concentration CM.

  8. Nephrotoxicity related to contrast media.

    PubMed

    Berg, K J

    2000-10-01

    The numbers of contrast media (CM)-enhanced examinations are increasing. The annual sale of iodine for CM now represents 60 million CM doses a year world-wide. In spite of improvements in chemical structure, CM are still the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. The definition of contrast nephropathy (CN) is discussed, as well as the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. Low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) are less nephrotoxic than high osomolar contrast media (HOCM) and cause fewer osmotoxic side-effects such as pain and heat sensations. The non-ionic dimeric contrast media which are iso-osmolar to plasma (IOCM) cause even fewer haemodynamic side-effects and result in better opacification of the urinary tract than LOCM. The nephrotoxicity of IOCM is low. The risk factors for CN and methods for prevention of CN are discussed.

  9. Nonrenal Complications of Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Damien; Ziada, Khaled M

    2014-07-01

    Nonrenal complications of contrast media are caused by chemotoxic or anaphylactoid reactions related to the contrast agent used. Chemotoxicity is mainly attributed to ionic concentration and osmolality. Anaphylactoid reactions are typically caused by direct activation of basophils, mast cells, and complement rather than an observable antigen-antibody interaction, and may be acute or delayed. History of an adverse reaction following prior exposure is the strongest predictor of a subsequent adverse reaction to contrast. Premedication regimens of corticosteroids or antihistamines can lower the risk of repeat adverse reactions. Treatment of anaphylactoid reactions depends on the severity of symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrast Media: Are There Differences in Nephrotoxicity among Contrast Media?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast agents are usually classified based upon their osmolality—high, low, and isosmolar. Iodinated contrast agents are also nephrotoxic in some but not all patients resulting in loss of glomerular filtration rate. Over the past 30 years, nephrotoxicity has been linked to osmolality although the precise mechanism underlying such a link has been elusive. Improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity and prospective randomized clinical trials have attempted to further explore the relationship between osmolality and nephrotoxicity. In this review, the basis for our current understanding that there are little if any differences in nephrotoxic potential between low and isosmolar contrast media will be detailed using data from clinical studies. PMID:24587997

  11. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings.

  12. [Relationship between oral food intake and nausea caused by intravenous injection of iodinated contrast material].

    PubMed

    Oowaki, K; Saigusa, H; Ojiri, H; Ariizumi, M; Yamagisi, J; Fukuda, K; Tada, S

    1994-05-25

    From December, 1990 to July, 1992 we investigated the relationship between the time after oral food intake and nausea and vomiting caused by the intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in 2,414 patients who underwent contrast enhanced CT. The contrast media used were as follows: amidotrizoic acid (high-osmolality contrast medium, HOCM, iodine 292 mg/ml) in 1173 patients, iopamidol (low-osmolality contrast medium, LOCM, iodine 300m g/ml) in 641 patients, and iohexol (LOCM, iodine 300 mg/ml) in 600 patients. All the patients had an intravenous injection of 100ml in volume. The overall incidence of nausea and vomiting was 3.8% (96/2412 patients). The incidence was 6. 7% (79/1173 patients) in the HOCM group and 1.4% (17/1241 patients) in the LOCM group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting increased with the interval between the oral intake of food and the intravenous injection of contrast medium. It is concluded that fasting before contrast-enhanced CT enhances the adverse effect of nausea and vomiting.

  13. Renal Safety of Iodinated Contrast Media Depending on Their Osmolarity – Current Outlooks

    PubMed Central

    Mruk, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are commonly administered pharmaceutical agents. Most often they are used intravenously and intraarterially. Although iodinated contrast agents are relatively safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. The most important adverse effects of contrast media include hypersensitivity reactions, thyroid dysfunction, and contrast-induced nephropathy. Radiologists must be aware of the risk factors for reactions to contrast media. Nonionic iodinated contrast agents can be divided into monomeric, low-osmolar, and dimeric, iso-osmolar classes. The osmotic characteristics of contrast media have been a significant focus in many investigations of contrast-induced nephropathy. PMID:27141236

  14. Intravenous vs. left ventricular injection of ionic contrast material: hemodynamic implications for digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, G.B.; Ostrander, D.R.; Slutsky, R.A.; Shabetai, R.; Higgins, C.B.

    1983-03-01

    Because of the increased use of intravenous injection of contrast material for the evaluation of cardiac structure and function by digital subtraction techniques, a study was done to assess the hemodynamic effects of contrast material when used in this fashion in man. In 10 patients, with each serving as his own control, the effects of intravenous and intraventricular injections of sodium meglumine diatrizoate (Renografin 76) in the same dose were compared. There was no difference between these two methods with respect to changes in pulmonary wedge pressures, systemic pressures, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The elevation of mean pulmonary artery and right atrial pressure was greater after the intraventricular injection (p <0.05). The elevated cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance returned to control values somewhat more quickly after the intravenous injection (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively); and the increase in cardiac output was greater after the intravenous injection at 1 min (p<0.05), but less than after the intraventricular injection at 2 min (p<0.05). Despite the detection of these statistically significant differences, the magnitude and timing of these differences are too small to justify the notion that imaging by intravenous injections of standard ionic contrast media provides any substantial hemodynamic benefits or decreased risk to the patient.

  15. [Guideline 'Precautionary measures for contrast media containing iodine'].

    PubMed

    van Dijk Azn, R; Wetzels, J F M; ten Dam, M A G J; Aarts, N J M; Schimmelpenninck-Scheiffers, M L H H; Freericks, M P; Said, S A M; Geenen, R W F; Stuurman, A; van Everdingen, J J E

    2008-03-29

    Annually, 0.5-1 million injections of contrast media containing iodine are administered in the Netherlands. Almost all contrast media nowadays are low-osmolar and nonionic. Nevertheless, the development ofcontrast-induced nephropathy is still a relevant clinical problem. Through an initiative by the Radiological Society of the Netherlands and with aid of the Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement (CBO), a guideline was conceived for the intravascular use of iodine-containing contrast media, based on recent scientific literature. The guideline defines the risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy. One of the major risk factors is an impaired renal function. It is important to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with a possible impaired kidney function, preferably by using the 'Modification of diet in renal disease' (MDRD)-study formula. The key measures for avoidance of contrast nephropathy are: limiting the amount of contrast agent used and to assure good hydration, by infusion of sodium chloride 0.9% 12-16 ml/kg body weight, both prior to and after contrast infusion. If time is limited, intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate is an option. The guideline recommends discontinuation of metformin use from the day of contrast injection, if the GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and to restart metformin 2 days following contrast infusion providing the GFR has not significantly deteriorated. Only in the case of previous moderate or severe adverse reactions to contrast media, prophylaxis with corticosteroids and antihistamines is recommended. Iodine allergy or an atopic condition is not a contraindication for the use of iodine-containing contrast media, and no prophylaxis is required. No specific measures are indicated in case of hyperthyroidism, acute pancreatitis, or phaeochromocytoma. Injection of contrast media is not contraindicated in case of pregnancy or lactation.

  16. Advanced Techniques Using Contrast Media in Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Law, Meng

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of advanced MRI techniques using contrast media in neuroimaging, focusing on T2*-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC-MRI) and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI). Image acquisition and data processing methods as well as their clinical application in brain tumors, stroke, dementia and multiple sclerosis are discussed. PMID:23088946

  17. Iodine-based contrast media, multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies: literature review and ESUR Contrast Media Safety Committee guidelines.

    PubMed

    Stacul, Fulvio; Bertolotto, Michele; Thomsen, Henrik S; Pozzato, Gabriele; Ugolini, Donatella; Bellin, Marie-France; Bongartz, Georg; Clement, Olivier; Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; van der Molen, Aart; Reimer, Peter; Webb, Judith A W

    2017-08-30

    Many radiologists and clinicians still consider multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathies (MG) a contraindication for using iodine-based contrast media. The ESUR Contrast Media Safety Committee performed a systematic review of the incidence of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) in these patients. A systematic search in Medline and Scopus databases was performed for renal function deterioration studies in patients with MM or MG following administration of iodine-based contrast media. Data collection and analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement 2009. Eligibility criteria and methods of analysis were specified in advance. Cohort and case-control studies reporting changes in renal function were included. Thirteen studies were selected that reported 824 iodine-based contrast medium administrations in 642 patients with MM or MG, in which 12 unconfounded cases of PC-AKI were found (1.6 %). The majority of patients had intravenous urography with high osmolality ionic contrast media after preparatory dehydration and purgation. MM and MG alone are not risk factors for PC-AKI. However, the risk of PC-AKI may become significant in dehydrated patients with impaired renal function. Hypercalcaemia may increase the risk of kidney damage, and should be corrected before contrast medium administration. Assessment for Bence-Jones proteinuria is not necessary. • Monoclonal gammopathies including multiple myeloma are a large spectrum of disorders. • In monoclonal gammopathy with normal renal function, PC-AKI risk is not increased. • Renal function is often reduced in myeloma, increasing the risk of PC-AKI. • Correction of hypercalcaemia is necessary in myeloma before iodine-based contrast medium administration. • Bence-Jones proteinuria assessment in myeloma is unnecessary before iodine-based contrast medium administration.

  18. Contrast media-induced compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bettye G

    2011-01-01

    Intravascular (IV) contrast media are essential in many cases to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of medical imaging procedures. Much is known about the indications, contraindications, and adverse events associated with their use. This Directed Reading focuses on extravasation and IV contrast media-induced compartment syndrome, a less frequent, although serious, adverse event. In addition to describing the compartments within the forearm, wrist, and hand, the article explains how compartment syndrome develops, techniques used to treat the condition, and prevention strategies. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  19. Nanosized Ultrasound Enhanced-Contrast Agent for in Vivo Tumor Imaging via Intravenous Injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Manse; Lee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Se Eun; Kang, Seong Soo; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-04-06

    To enhance the detection limit of ultrasound (US) imaging, ultrasound enhanced-contrast agents (UECAs) that can go preferentially to the target tissue such as a tumor and amplify the US signal have been developed. However, nanosized UECAs among various UECAs developed are very limited to clearly demonstrate proper ability for selective tumor detection by US imaging upon their intravenous injection. In this study, we prepared CaCO3 nanoparticles that were formed inside a flexible and biocompatible pluronic-based nanocarrier. This nanosized UECA was stable in serum-containing media and generated CO2, more preferentially at low pH; thus, it could be detected by US imaging. After intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, this nanosized UECA showed a significant US contrast enhancement at the tumor site in 1 h, in contrast to no change in the liver, followed by a rapid clearance from the body in 24 h. Therefore, the present nanosized UECA could be applied as an effective diagnostic modality for in vivo tumor imaging by ultrasonography.

  20. Contrast media use in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Bickham, Peggy; Golembiewski, Julie

    2010-04-01

    Iodinated contrast media is frequently used in the OR, but often is not well understood by health care providers who are administering it. Although used for diagnosis rather than treatment, contrast media is classified as a drug by the FDA, and has indications, contraindications, adverse effects, drug interactions, disease interactions, and laboratory interference issues related to its use. Iodinated contrast media is classified according to osmolarity and ionicity, and these characteristics contribute to potential for adverse effects and choice of agent. Financial and safety concerns are factors to be considered when selecting an appropriate agent. Adverse effects can range from mild and self-limited to severe and life threatening; potentially the most serious of these are anaphylactoid reactions and contrast-induced acute renal failure. Knowledge of risk factors and preventive strategies is vital, as are issues related to substitution of gadolinium-based contrast, an off-label use. It is important for the perianesthesia nurse to become familiar with these commonly used imaging medications. Copyright 2010 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Morcos, S K; Thomsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are more likely to develop in patients with asthma, a history of allergy or contrast reaction and in those who are debilitated or medically unstable. These reactions can be divided into renal and general, and the latter are subdivided into acute and delayed. Acute general reactions can be minor, intermediate or severe. Fatal reactions are rare. The introduction of low-osmolality agents has caused an overall reduction in the number of non-fatal contrast reactions. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute adverse side effects to ICM is invaluable and may prevent a reaction from becoming severe. Familiarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation is essential for successful management of life-threatening reactions. Contrast-media-induced renal impairment can be reduced with the use of low-osmolality contrast media and extracellular volume expansion. The use of ICM in diabetic patients receiving metformin should be carried out with care to avoid metformin-induced lactic acidosis. However, this problem is mainly observed in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

  2. The discovery of renal contrast media in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, Klaus; Hierholzer, Johannes

    2002-07-01

    After X-rays were detected and cystoscopes had become available, progress in nephrology depended on the development of contrast media which would permit imaging of the kidneys and the urinary system. We describe how A. Binz and C. Räth, two chemists at the Agricultural Academy in Berlin, synthesized iodinated derivatives which were potent chemotherapeutics. Moses Swick tested the substances in the clinics of L. Lichtwitz (Hamburg) and A. von Lichtenberg (Berlin) and discovered a rapid renal excretion. He also observed that an iodinated N-acetylated derivative, later named Uro-Selectan, amplified X-ray contrast after intravenous application. With this substance and other derivatives which were produced by Schering-Kahlbaum AG, the door was open for excretion urography. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. In vivo differentiation of complementary contrast media at dual-energy CT.

    PubMed

    Mongan, John; Rathnayake, Samira; Fu, Yanjun; Wang, Runtang; Jones, Ella F; Gao, Dong-Wei; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using a commercially available clinical dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) scanner to differentiate the in vivo enhancement due to two simultaneously administered contrast media with complementary x-ray attenuation ratios. Approval from the institutional animal care and use committee was obtained, and National Institutes of Health guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were observed. Dual-energy CT was performed in a set of iodine and tungsten solution phantoms and in a rabbit in which iodinated intravenous and bismuth subsalicylate oral contrast media were administered. In addition, a second rabbit was studied after intravenous administration of iodinated and tungsten cluster contrast media. Images were processed to produce virtual monochromatic images that simulated the appearance of conventional single-energy scans, as well as material decomposition images that separate the attenuation due to each contrast medium. Clear separation of each of the contrast media pairs was seen in the phantom and in both in vivo animal models. Separation of bowel lumen from vascular contrast medium allowed visualization of bowel wall enhancement that was obscured by intraluminal bowel contrast medium on conventional CT scans. Separation of two vascular contrast media in different vascular phases enabled acquisition of a perfectly coregistered CT angiogram and venous phase-enhanced CT scan simultaneously in a single examination. Commercially available clinical dual-energy CT scanners can help differentiate the enhancement of selected pairs of complementary contrast media in vivo. © RSNA, 2012.

  4. In Vivo Differentiation of Complementary Contrast Media at Dual-Energy CT

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, John; Rathnayake, Samira; Fu, Yanjun; Wang, Runtang; Jones, Ella F.; Gao, Dong-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using a commercially available clinical dual-energy computed tomographic (CT) scanner to differentiate the in vivo enhancement due to two simultaneously administered contrast media with complementary x-ray attenuation ratios. Materials and Methods: Approval from the institutional animal care and use committee was obtained, and National Institutes of Health guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were observed. Dual-energy CT was performed in a set of iodine and tungsten solution phantoms and in a rabbit in which iodinated intravenous and bismuth subsalicylate oral contrast media were administered. In addition, a second rabbit was studied after intravenous administration of iodinated and tungsten cluster contrast media. Images were processed to produce virtual monochromatic images that simulated the appearance of conventional single-energy scans, as well as material decomposition images that separate the attenuation due to each contrast medium. Results: Clear separation of each of the contrast media pairs was seen in the phantom and in both in vivo animal models. Separation of bowel lumen from vascular contrast medium allowed visualization of bowel wall enhancement that was obscured by intraluminal bowel contrast medium on conventional CT scans. Separation of two vascular contrast media in different vascular phases enabled acquisition of a perfectly coregistered CT angiogram and venous phase–enhanced CT scan simultaneously in a single examination. Conclusion: Commercially available clinical dual-energy CT scanners can help differentiate the enhancement of selected pairs of complementary contrast media in vivo. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22778447

  5. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds.

  6. Contrast Media: History and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Buschur, Michael; Aspelin, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Contrast media are essential for cardiac catheterization, and the evolution of these agents has had a significant role in cardiology. Contrast agents are classified as ionic or nonionic based on water solubility and as monomers or dimers based on their chemical structures. Furthermore, these agents are classified on osmolality as high osmolar, low osmolar, or iso-osmolar. The last century has seen a rapid evolution of these agents from their discovery during the search for syphilis treatments to advancements in their chemical properties, making them safer for patients and improving tissue visualization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contrast Media Extravasation of Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Management Guidelines for the Radiologist.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Refky; Shaqdan, Khalid Wael; Aran, Shima; Prabhakar, Anand M; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous contrast administration has been of great importance in diagnostic radiology, but it is not without risks either due to the local, systemic allergic reactions or due to subcutaneous extravasation of contrast media. Subcutaneous contrast medium extravasationis an infrequent, yet a well-recognized complication. However, most incidents are minor and can be managed conservatively, but there are a few cases that require immediate surgical intervention. This article discusses the risks factors, clinical manifestations, and conservative and surgical approaches of subcutaneous contrast media extravasation for both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Thyroid function in very low birthweight infants after intravenous administration of the iodinated contrast medium iopromide

    PubMed Central

    Dembinski, J; Arpe, V; Kroll, M; Hieronimi, G; Bartmann, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Thyroid function disorders have often been observed in preterm infants after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast medium. The effect on thyroid function depends on the dosage, but the choice of the contrast medium may be equally important, as there are appreciable pharmacological differences between them.
METHOD—Thyroid function was analysed in 20 very low birthweight infants of gestational age less than 30 weeks after injection of iopromide, a monomeric non-ionic iodinated contrast medium. Levels of free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone were compared with those in 26 control infants.
RESULTS—Free thyroxine levels in all study infants ranged from 9.0 to 25.7 pmol/l (days 14-21) and 9.0 to 23.2 pmol/l (days 35-49), and thyroid stimulating hormone levels ranged from 0.13 to 0.26mU/l (days 14-21) and 0.26 to 11.11 mU/l (days 35-49). These levels were not altered after injection of iopromide.
CONCLUSION—The risk of transient hypothyroidism or hyperthyrotropinaemia may be reduced with the use of iopromide compared with other contrast media.

 PMID:10794789

  9. Correlation Between Bile Reflux Gastritis and Biliary Excreted Contrast Media in the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Yeom, Suk Keu; Shim, Euddeum; Cha, Jaehyung; Choi, Inyoung; Lee, Seung Hwa; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Cha, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach and the presence of bile reflux gastritis. Consecutive 111 patients who underwent both gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (gadoxetic MRC) and gastric endoscopy were included in this study. We performed a review of the gadoxetic-MRC image sets acquired 60 minutes after intravenous injection of contrast media and endoscopic images. We recorded amount of contrast media in the stomach. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of duodenogastric bile reflux diagnosis were evaluated for the gadoxetic MRC. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test and the linear-by-linear association test. Among the 111 patients, 39 had 60-minute delayed images showing the presence of contrast media in the stomach. Of these 39 patients, 13 had bile reflux gastritis and 5 showed bile in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Of the 72 patients who did not show contrast media in the stomach, none had bile reflux gastritis and 2 patients showed bile staining in the stomach without evidence of erythematous gastritis. Bile reflux gastritis was significantly more frequent in patients with contrast media in the stomach on gadoxetic MRC than in those without. Patients with high-grade extension of contrast media in the stomach had significantly frequent bile reflux gastritis than did those with low-grade extension. Biliary excreted contrast media in the stomach on 60-minute delayed gadoxetic MRC has a correlation with the presence of bile reflux gastritis on endoscopic examination.

  10. Acute adverse reactions to magnetic resonance contrast media--gadolinium chelates.

    PubMed

    Li, A; Wong, C S; Wong, M K; Lee, C M; Au Yeung, M C

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical safety of intravenous gadolinium-based contrast media used in patients who underwent MRI at a single institution. Acute adverse reactions to intravenous gadolinium-based contrast media used for MRI at the Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, from January 1999 to November 2004 were recorded in an incidence log book. The medical records of patients' demographics were retrospectively reviewed and the nature, frequency and severity of the adverse reactions were investigated and documented. The incidence of acute adverse reactions to intravenous gadolinium-based contrast media was 0.48% (45 patients with 46 adverse reactions). The severity of these adverse reactions were 96% mild, 2% moderate (one patient developed shortness of breath that required oxygen supplementation and intravenous steroidal management) and 2% severe (one patient developed an anaphylactoid reaction, but successfully recovered through timely resuscitation). No patients were recorded as having contrast extravasation and none died as a result of any adverse reaction. Among the 45 patients who developed adverse reactions, three patients (6.7%) had prior adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, three (6.7%) had prior reactions to a different gadolinium-based contrast agent, one (2%) had asthma and nine (20%) had a history of drug/food allergy. Overall, 41% of the adverse reactions were not documented in the final MRI report or the clinical medical records. Gadolinium-based contrast media are safe and well tolerated by the vast majority of patients. In our study, the adverse reaction rate (0.48%) and the incidence of severe anaphylactoid reaction (0.01%) concur with those reported in the literature. Although most of the symptoms are mild and transient, these adverse reactions must be accurately documented and managed.

  11. Contrast media: quantitative criteria for designing compounds with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levitan, H; Rapoport, S I

    1976-01-01

    Toxicity of contrast media that are ionized iodobenzoic acids or their derivatives is highly correlated with lipid solubility, as measured by the octanol/water partition coefficient. New contrast media have been designed with lower lipid solubility than media in current use, taking into account the additive-constitutive nature of the partition coefficient of an organic compound. If these contrast media are chemically stable, they should also be less toxic. It remains to be tested whether the relation between clinical toxicity and lipid solubility applies to non-ionized contrast media as well.

  12. Survey of contrast media used in coronary angiograph

    SciTech Connect

    Weikl, A.; Hubmann, M.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, various contrast media have been developed for use in coronary angiography. These contrast media may be divided into ionic contrast media of high osmolality, those of low osmolality, and nonionic contrast materials. We conducted our own clinical studies with 40 patients. In random succession a standard contrast medium (ionic, of high osmolality) and a new-generation contrast medium (either nonionic or ionic with low osmolality) were injected into the right and left coronary arteries. After each injection we measured the systolic and diastolic blood pressure using a liquid-filled coronary catheter. In addition, the change in the length of the cardiac cycle was registered in terms of the R-R interval (in ms) and at the same time, leads I, II, and III of the ECG were recorded. We studied the influence of the various contrast media on the activity of ATPase in in vitro experiments, using Lasser and Lang's. When ionic contrast media of low osmolality and nonionic contrast media were utilized the heart rate showed no change. Disturbances of rhythm such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation were not observed. All of the contrast media used produced the same ECG changes. These changes can be ascribed to the inhibition of ATPase. The arterial blood pressure was lowered significantly only by ionic contrast media of high osmolality only.

  13. Contrast media triggering cutaneous graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Vavricka, S R; Halter, J; Furrer, K; Wolfensberger, U; Schanz, U

    2002-06-01

    Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media are varied and known to develop in patients with asthma and a history of allergy. We describe three successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients, who all developed dermal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after receiving contrast media. Cutaneous GVHD triggered by contrast media has not been reported to date and has implications for the assessment, monitoring and treatment of patients during the post-transplant period.

  14. [Hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media: diagnosis, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Herskovitz, Pearl; Sthoeger, Zev

    2012-07-01

    More than 70 million radiographic examinations with radio contrast media are performed worldwide each year. The incidence of adverse reactions to radio contrast media is 5-13%. Adverse reactions include hypersensitivity reactions, chemotoxic reactions and renal toxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media range from mild pruritus to life-threatening emergency. The differential diagnosis between hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media and chemotoxic reaction is challenging. The incidence of chemotoxic reactions is mainly affected by the chemical structure of the radio contrast media and the rate of infusion. The incidence of hypersensitivity radio contrast media reaction is affected by age and by the presence of asthma and other atopic diseases. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media is based on clinical manifestations. The additional value of laboratory tests is limited and questionable. In case of hypersensitivity radio contrast reaction, the infusion should be stopped immediately, airways should be protected and fluids, oxygen and drugs should be given. Prophylactic treatment before its administration may prevent hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media.

  15. Diazepam prophylaxis of contrast media-induced seizures during computed tomography of patients with brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Pagani, J.J.; Hayman, L.A.; Bigelow, R.H.; Libshitz, H.I.; Lepke, R.A.; Wallace, S.

    1983-04-01

    The effect of 5 mg of intravenous diazepam (Valium) on contrast media-associated seizer incidence was studied in a randomized controlled trial involving 284 patients with known or suspected brain metastases undergoing cerebral computed tomography. Of these patients, 188 were found to have brain metastases, and it is estimated that for this subgroup prophylactic diazepam reduces the risk of contrast-assocated seizure by a factor of 0.26. Seizures occurred in three of 96 patients with metastases on diazepam and in 14 of 92 patients with metastases but without diazepam. Factors related to increased risk of contrast media-associated seizures are: (1) prior seizure history due to brain metatases and/or prior contrast, (2) progressive cerebral metastases, and (3) prior or concurrent brain antineoplastic therapy. Factors not related to an increased risk of these seizures are: (1) contrast media dosage, chemical composition, or osmolarity, (2) computed tomographic appearance of metastases, and (3) type of primary malignancy. Concomitant therapeutic levels of diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) do not protect completely against contrast media-associated seizures. Pathophysiology of contrast media-associated seizures is discussed in view of the risk factors determined by this study.

  16. Safety of intravenous application of second-generation ultrasound contrast agent in children: prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Piskunowicz, Maciej; Kosiak, Wojciech; Batko, Tomasz; Piankowski, Arkadiusz; Połczyńska, Katarzyna; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta

    2015-04-01

    The goal of the work described here was to assess the safety profile of intravenous second-generation ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) containing sulfur hexafluoride in pediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 167 examinations were performed in 137 children referred by the Oncology Department. Approval by an Independent Ethical Review Board on Scientific Research for the intravenous use of an UCA containing sulfur hexafluoride in children with oncologic diseases was obtained. Consent for UCA administration was acquired from the parents or legal guardians. Severe anaphylactic reaction was observed in 0.6% (n = 1). No other adverse events during or after intravenous administration of contrast were observed in the examined group (no changes in heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, oxygen saturation or respiratory rate). There were no reports of subjective flushing, nausea, transient headaches or altered taste. Although second-generation ultrasound contrast agents are considered potentially safe, all investigators should be prepared for the development of adverse reactions and have provisions in place for all pediatric intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations. More multicenter studies are essential to determination of an accurate UCA safety profile. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  18. Safe Use of Contrast Media: What the Radiologist Needs to Know.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Katrina R; Moriarity, Andrew K; Langer, Jessica M

    2015-10-01

    Iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast media are used on a daily basis in most radiology practices. These agents often are essential to providing accurate diagnoses, and are nearly always safe and effective when administered correctly. However, reactions to contrast media do occur and can be life threatening. Therefore, it is critical for faculty and staff to know how reactions to contrast agents manifest and how to treat them promptly. The decline in renal function seen occasionally after intravenous administration of iodinated contrast agents is poorly understood and likely multifactorial, and its association with the contrast medium may be overemphasized. However, it is important that radiologists be aware of current understanding and strategies to decrease the incidence of renal dysfunction. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a skin disease, is an adverse reaction related to use of some gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with chronic renal failure. The types of gadolinium most often associated with this condition and the indications for withholding gadolinium are important and are discussed in this article. The use of enteric contrast agents and contrast agents during pregnancy and nursing are reviewed briefly. Current knowledge for safe use of contrast media and key concepts that all radiologists should know are summarized in this review.

  19. Endothelial safety of radiological contrast media: why being concerned.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Montinari, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Iodinated radiocontrast media have been the most widely used pharmaceuticals for intravascular administration in diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures. Although they are regarded as relatively safe drugs and vascular biocompatibility of contrast media has been progressively improved, severe adverse reactions may occur, among which acute nephropathy is one of the most clinically significant complications after intravascular administration of contrast media and a powerful predictor of poor early and long-term outcomes. Since radiocontrast media are given through the arterial or the venous circulation in vascular procedures, morphological and functional changes of the microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of organ-specific and systemic adverse reactions of contrast media. Endothelial toxicity of contrast media seems to be the result of both direct proapoptotic effects and morphological derangements, as well as endothelial dysfunction and induction of inflammation, oxidative stress, thrombosis, and altered vasomotor balance, with predominant vasoconstrictive response in atherosclerotic coronary arteries and kidney microcirculation. Further understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying contrast media-induced adverse reactions in cellular targets, including endothelial cells, will hopefully lead to the development of novel preventive strategies appropriately curbing the pathogenesis of contrast media vasotoxicity.

  20. Extravasation Risk Using Ultrasound-guided Peripheral Intravenous Catheters for Computed Tomography Contrast Administration.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Jordan D; Ferre, Robinson M; Boyd, Jeremy S; Dearing, Elizabeth; McNaughton, Candace D; Liu, Dandan; Jarrell, Kelli L; McWade, Conor M; Self, Wesley H

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-guided intravenous catheter (USGIV) insertion is increasingly being used for administration of intravenous (IV) contrast for computed tomography (CT) scans. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the risk of contrast extravasation among patients receiving contrast through USGIV catheters. A retrospective observational study of adult patients who underwent a contrast-enhanced CT scan at a tertiary care emergency department during a recent 64-month period was conducted. The unadjusted prevalence of contrast extravasation was compared between patients with an USGIV and those with a standard peripheral IV inserted without ultrasound. Then, a two-stage sampling design was used to select a subset of the population for a multivariable logistic regression model evaluating USGIVs as a risk factor for extravasation while adjusting for potential confounders. In total, 40,143 patients underwent a contrasted CT scan, including 364 (0.9%) who had contrast administered through an USGIV. Unadjusted prevalence of extravasation was 3.6% for contrast administration through USGIVs and 0.3% for standard IVs (relative risk = 13.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.9 to 24.6). After potential confounders were adjusted for, CT contrast administered through USGIVs was associated with extravasation (adjusted odds ratio = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.6 to 16.2). No patients required surgical management for contrast extravasation; one patient in the standard IV group was admitted for observation due to extravasation. Patients who received contrast for a CT scan through an USGIV had a higher risk of extravasation than those who received contrast through a standard peripheral IV. Clinicians should consider this extravasation risk when weighing the risks and benefits of a contrast-enhanced CT scan in a patient with USGIV vascular access. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. Contrast media: interactions with other drugs and clinical tests.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Sameh K; Thomsen, Henrik S; Exley, C M

    2005-07-01

    Many patients with multiple medical problems who are receiving a variety of drugs are investigated with imaging techniques which require intravascular contrast media. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology therefore decided to review the literature and to draw up simple guidelines on interactions between contrast media and other drugs. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela. Contrast media may interact with other drugs, and may interfere with isotope studies and biochemical measurements. Awareness of the patient drug history is important to avoid potential hazards. Simple guidelines are presented.

  2. Incidence of immediate gadolinium contrast media reactions.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin R; Zhang, Honglei; Zou, Zhitong; Staron, Ronald B; Brill, Paula W

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the incidence of immediate adverse events for gadolinium-based contrast agents. All gadolinium-based contrast agent adverse events reported to radiology quality assurance committees were graded according to American College of Radiology criteria and divided by the total number of injections to determine incidence during the past 10 years. For each event, an age- and examination-matched control patient was identified to compare sex, weight, creatinine, eosinophil count, allergic history and gadolinium-based contrast agent dose differences. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database was analyzed to compare local experience to national trends. Abdominal MRI had the highest rates of adverse events, 0.013% compared with brain (0.0045%, p < 0.001) or spine (0.0034%, p < 0.001). Adverse events were more likely in women, with a female to male ratio of 3.3, and in patients with history of prior allergic reactions (p < 0.001). Immediate adverse events rates were 0.2, 0.5, 1.2, and 3.3 per 1,000 injections for gadodiamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadoteridol, respectively. Gadobenate dimeglumine had more severe patient reactions, including three patients who arrested (defined as the patient becoming unresponsive and the code team being called), one of whom died. From 2004 to 2009, the FDA received reports on 40 gadolinium-based contrast agent U.S. deaths unrelated to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, with an incidence per million doses of 0.15, 0.19, 0.97, 2.7, and 0.7 for gadodiamide, gadoversetimide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadoteridol, respectively. This limited retrospective analysis shows that gadolinium-based contrast agents are very safe, with only rare reports of death, and raises the possibility that nonionic linear gadolinium-based contrast agents and gadopentetate dimeglumine may have fewer severe immediate adverse events

  3. Relative Nephrotoxicity of Different Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Iram; Garcha, Amarinder S; Rudnick, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury among hospitalized patients. High-osmolar contrast agents are associated with increased risk of CIN. Low-osmolar (LOCM) and iso-osmolar (IOCM) agents show no difference in the incidence of CIN, even among high-risk patients. This finding suggests that factors other than osmolality may play a role in the pathogenesis of CIN. The use of either LOCM or IOCM agents is recommended in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The impact on diagnostic quality of using contrast media in PET-CT studies].

    PubMed

    García García-Esquinas, M; Ortega Candil, A; Lapeña Gutierrez, L; Mucientes Rasilla, J; Carreras Delgado, J L; Arrazola García, J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of using radiologic contrast media on the quality of PET-CT studies at our center. This is a retrospective observational study to evaluate the quality of the PET-CT studies carried out with radiologic contrast media and the presence of artifacts due to these contrast agents. Oncologic patients in whom PET was indicated according to the manufacturer's specifications for FDG ((18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) underwent PET-CT study on a PET-CT system with a six-detector-row CT scanner. Between February 2009 and June 2009, we performed 612 PET-CT examinations in 369 male patients and 243 female patients. Iodinated contrast media were administered intravenously in 48% and orally in 18%. Diagnostic quality was considered high in 93.5% of the studies, intermediate in 4.3%, and low in 2.2%. In the CT studies performed using intravenous contrast agents, artifacts were identified in 8% and resulted in diagnostic uncertainty in the PET study in 1.4%. We found no diagnostic problems caused by oral contrast agents in any case. The use of radiologic contrast agents in PET-CT studies does not negatively affect diagnostic quality or workflow. Given that we can improve the ability of PET-CT to detect lesions by enhancing the diagnostic quality of the CT study, we consider it appropriate to include the administration of contrast agents in protocols for PET-CT studies. Copyright © 2009 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in equine computed tomography and use of contrast media.

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Sarah M

    2012-12-01

    Advances in equine computed tomography have been made as a result of improvements in software and hardware and an increasing body of knowledge. Contrast media can be administered intravascularly or intrathecally. Contrast media is useful to differentiate between tissues of similar density. Equine computed tomography can be used for many different clinical conditions, including lameness diagnosis, fracture identification and characterization, preoperative planning, and characterization of skull diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative tolerability of contrast media used for coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Esplugas, Enrique; Cequier, Angel; Gomez-Hospital, Joan A; Del Blanco, Bruno García; Jara, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Radiographic contrast media (CM) are necessary to provide x-ray absorption of the bloodstream; all other observed effects need to be regarded as adverse. Four types of CM are currently used in diagnostic and interventional cardiology: ionic high-osmolar CM (HOCM), either ionic or non-ionic low-osmolar CM (LOCM), and non-ionic iso-osmolar CM (IOCM). Focusing on the potential cardiovascular effects caused by the CM, there is a clear difference between HOCM and the LOCM or IOCM. HOCM have a poorer profile due to a higher incidence of hypotension and electrophysiological effects. To prevent contrast-induced nephropathy, HOCM should be avoided and patients should receive the minimal dose of LOCM or IOCM with intravenous hydration before and after the procedure. Clinical hyperthyroidism has been detected after CM use, but the condition appears, ultimately, to be self-limited and to occur mainly in elderly patients. When assessing the need for a CM in terms of improved patient safety, preventing serious complications should be the major factor determining the choice. CM should not be selected on the basis of minor adverse effects since these are, ultimately, of low clinical relevance. Thrombotic events, in contrast, carry a high clinical relevance and we consider that these should be the main issue governing current choice. Ionic LOCM appear to have better profile than other CM with respect to interaction with platelet function and coagulation. In relation to thrombotic events in randomised clinical studies, ionic CM have been associated, mainly, with favourable and some neutral results compared with non-ionic agents. Only one trial indicated a more pronounced antithrombotic effect of the non-ionic IOCM relative to the ionic LOCM. The antithrombotic advantages of ionic over non-ionic LOCM are, in part, balanced by a greater frequency of minor adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting or cutaneous rashes. A matter of concern is the delayed adverse effects observed with non

  7. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media: updated ESUR Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K; Almén, Torsten; Bellin, Marie-France; Bertolotto, Michele; Bongartz, Georg; Clement, Olivier; Leander, Peter; Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; Reimer, Peter; Stacul, Fulvio; van der Molen, Aart; Webb, Judith A W

    2013-02-01

    To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the current understanding of its pathophysiology. The risk factors for NSF are discussed and prophylactic measures are recommended. The stability of the different gadolinium-based contrast media and the potential long-term effects of gadolinium in the body have also been reviewed.

  8. Sudden death after intravenous administration of a perflutren contrast agent: a case of pseudocomplication?

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, Haïfa; Roméo, Philippe; Leung, Tack-Ki; Burelle, Denis; Cartier, Raymond; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2009-06-01

    Perflutren cardiac ultrasound agents improve diagnostic accuracy in patients whose imaging is technically difficult. This report describes a case of sudden death approximately 5 minutes after the intravenous administration of 0.5 mL of perflutren contrast agent (Definity) during transthoracic echocardiography with suboptimal baseline images performed 10 days after coronary artery bypass graft surgery because of hypotension and tachycardia in a 73-year-old patient with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Autopsy did not reveal a clear direct relationship between perflutren and death. This is the first reported case of death related temporally to an echocardiographic contrast agent occurring in Canada and could represent a case of pseudocomplication.

  9. Safety profile and protocol prevention of adverse reactions to uroangiographic contrast media in diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Rossi, C; Reginelli, A; D'Amora, M; Di Grezia, G; Mandato, Y; D'Andrea, A; Brunese, L; Grassi, R; Rotondi, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the incidence of adverse reactions caused by non-ionic contrast media in selected patients after desensitization treatment and to evaluate the safety profile of organ iodine contrast media (i.c.m.) in a multistep prevention protocol. In a population of 2000 patients that had received a CT scan, 100 patients with moderate/high risk for adverse reactions against iodinated contrast agents followed a premedication protocol and all adverse reactions are reported and classified as mild, moderate or severe. 1.7 percent of the pre-treated patients reported a mild, immediate type reaction to iodine contrast; of these five patients with allergy 0.71 percent had received iomeprol, 0.35 percent received ioversol and 0.71 percent received iopromide. The incidence of adverse reactions was reported to be higher (4 out of 5 patients) among those that referred a history of hypersensitivity against iodinated i.c.m. Although intravenous contrast materials have greatly improved, especially in terms of their safety profile, they should not be administered if there isn't a clear or justified indication. In conclusion, even if we know that the majority of these reactions are idiosyncratic and unpredictable we propose, with the aim of improving our knowledge on this subject, a multicenter study, based on skin allergy tests (prick test, patch test, intradermal reaction) in selected patients that have had previous experiences of hypersensitivity against parenteral organ iodine contrast media.

  10. Intravenous ultrasound contrast agents versus other imaging methods in pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases - a comparison.

    PubMed

    Piskunowicz, Maciej; Kosiak, Wojciech; Batko, Tomasz; Adamkiewicz-Drożyńska, Elżbieta; Szarmach, Arkadiusz

    2013-12-01

    The lack of registration of ultrasound contrast agents for use in patients below the age of 18 is a significant limitation of their usage. Despite this, examinations with the use of contrast agents are conducted in numerous centers, mainly as part of the diagnostic process of vesicoureteral reflux. Examinations after an intravenous administration of contrast agents are conducted rarely. The reason for this is not only the lack of registration, but also the lack of studies on their safety profile in paediatric patients or no guidelines concerning the dosage. It seems that imaging with the use of such agents could help solve certain clinical problems when other diagnostic methods fail. The paper presents selected cases of pediatric patients treated in oncological departments, in whom the examination with the use of ultrasound contrast agents had a considerable influence on the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  11. Myasthenia Gravis following Low-Osmolality Iodinated Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Luca; Dalla Vestra, Michele; Zancanaro, Andrea; Presotto, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of 79-year-old man admitted to our general hospital for a 6-week history of progressive dysphagia to solids and liquids associated with weight loss. To reach a diagnosis a total body CT scan with low-osmolality iodinate contrast agent was performed. Two hours later the patient developed an acute respiratory failure requiring orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The laboratory and neurological tests allow formulating the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. In literature, other three case reports have associated myasthenic crisis with exposure to low-osmolality contrast media. This suggests being careful in administering low-osmolality contrast media in myasthenic patients.

  12. Intravenous application of second-generation ultrasound contrast agents in children: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Piskunowicz, M; Kosiak, W; Batko, T

    2012-04-01

    CEUS examinations using second-generation ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) are conducted in children, despite not being registered for individuals less than 18 years of age. We searched the Medline® database through Pubmed® and Scopus database, in order to find articles in which UCA were administered intravenously in patients under the age of 18. We analyzed in detail 9 papers (7 case reports, 2 original research studies), describing the examinations with intravenous administration of the UCA in children, and 23 original papers, in which the study group included at least one individual under the age of 18. Neither of the analyzed studies included any reports of adverse effects after UCA administration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Interaction between a perfluorocarbon emulsion and radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ralf-Peter; Reuter, Peter; Röhlke, Wolfgang; Matschke, Klaus; Keller, Steffi; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Mittermayer, Christian; Mrowietz, Christoph; Jung, Friedrich

    2004-03-01

    This study evaluated specially designed perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as blood substitutes in case of induced ischemia of the left heart ventricle in healthy farm pigs. Two hundred ml of perfluorocarbon emulsion were infused while 200 ml of blood were simultaneously drawn. Radiographic contrast media were given to aid placement of balloon catheters in the left coronary artery. Histopathological analysis showed that right heart failure caused the deaths of both pigs. Particles (up to>3 micro) of foreign body materials obstructed capillaries of all organs analyzed (heart, lung, liver, kidneys and spleen). Laboratory investigation showed severe interference between the PFC emulsion and radiographic contrast media, resulting in the deterioration of the PFC emulsion. The strongest interference occurred when PFC emulsion and Accupaque interacted; particle size started at an initial 311 nm and went up to >3 micro within seconds. Great care must be taken when PFC emulsions are used in combination with x-ray contrast media. None of the described radiographic contrast media should be used within 48 hours prior to the use of this PFC emulsion. Also, the use of these contrast media should be avoided for a certain period of time after using PFC emulsion. The mechanisms of elimination of PFC emulsions from the circulation are not completely understood and has yet to be evaluated.

  14. Immediate hypersensitivity reaction to gadolinium-based MR contrast media.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Whal; Min, Kyung-Up; Han, Moon-Hee; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2012-08-01

    To determine the incidence and risk factors of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to gadolinium-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. Institutional review board approval and a waiver of informed consent were obtained. A retrospective study of patients who had been given gadolinium-based MR contrast media between August 2004 and July 2010 was performed by reviewing their electronic medical records. In addition to data on immediate hypersensitivity reaction, the kinds of MR contrast media and demographic data including age, sex, and comorbidity were collected. To compare the groups, the χ(2) test, Fisher exact test, χ(2) test for trend, Student t test, analysis of variance test, and multiple logistic regression test were performed. A total of 112 immediate hypersensitivity reactions (0.079% of 141 623 total doses) were identified in 102 patients (0.121% of 84 367 total patients). Among the six evaluated MR contrast media, gadodiamide had the lowest rate (0.013%) of immediate hypersensitivity reactions, while gadobenate dimeglumine had the highest rate (0.22%). The rate for immediate hypersensitivity reactions was significantly higher in female patients (odds ratio = 1.687; 95% confidence interval: 1.143, 2.491) and in patients with allergies and asthma (odds ratio = 2.829; 95% confidence interval: 1.427, 5.610). Patients with a previous history of immediate hypersensitivity reactions had a higher rate of recurrence after reexposure to MR contrast media (30%) compared with the incidence rate in total patients (P < .0001). The incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions increased depending on the number of times patients were exposed to MR contrast media (P for trend = .036). The most common symptom was urticaria (91.1%), and anaphylaxis occurred in 11 cases (9.8%). The mortality rate was 0.0007% because of one fatality. The incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to MR contrast media was 0.079%, and the recurrence rate of hypersensitivity

  15. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Webb, Judith A W; Stacul, Fulvio; Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2003-01-01

    Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodinated contrast media are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after contrast medium injection. They have received increasing interest over the past decade, but their prevalence remains uncertain and their pathophysiology is not fully understood. The Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and to issue guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the available information, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa. Late adverse reactions after intravascular iodinated contrast medium include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. A significant proportion of these reactions is unrelated to the contrast medium; however, allergy-like skin reactions are well-documented side effects of contrast media with an incidence of approximately 2%. Late reactions appear to be commoner after non-ionic dimers. The majority of late skin reactions after contrast medium exposure are probably T-cell-mediated allergic reactions. Patients at increased risk of late skin reactions are those with a history of previous contrast medium reaction and those on interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are self-limiting and resolve within a week. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions.

  16. Paraplegia after contrast media application: a transient or devastating rare complication? Case report.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Dorothee; Kallenberg, Kai; Hartmann, Marius; Rohde, Veit

    2016-05-01

    The authors report the case of a 76-year-old man with a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. The patient suffered from sudden repeated reversible paraplegia after spinal digital subtraction angiography as well as CT angiography. Neurotoxicity of contrast media (CM) is the most probable cause for this repeated short-lasting paraplegia. Intolerance to toxicity of CM to the vulnerable spinal cord is rare, and probably depends on the individual patient. This phenomenon is transient and can occur after both intraarterial and intravenous CM application.

  17. [Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media: how to prevent them?].

    PubMed

    Berner, Jeanne; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Christoph D; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2009-10-14

    The incidence of acute iodine contrast media reactions, appearing within the first hour after the procedure, is low but clinically important due to their daily use. Previous adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, asthma and a history of allergic reaction are the most recognized risk factors, but the identification of patients at risk remains difficult. The efficacy of preventive measures such as corticosteroid and/or antihistaminic administration rests on low-level evidence. Practical recommendations are presented in this article. Rather than relying on the sole administration of a premedication, the importance of other measures must be stressed: assessing the relevance of the indication to the radiologic exam, use of low osmolarity contrast media, and ensuring a proper monitoring of the patient during and after the procedure.

  18. Intracellular penetration and accumulation of radiographic contrast media in the rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Nordby, A.; Tvedt, K.E.; Halgunset, J.; Haugen, O.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Radiographic iodine-containing contrast media (meglumine calcium metrizoate, iohexol and meglumine sodium ioxaglate) were injected intravenously in rats. At various intervals after exposure, in situ cryofixation of kidneys was performed. Thin, freeze-dried cryosections were examined by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. In endothelial cells, erythrocytes and tubular cells high dry weight concentrations of iodine were found. Twenty-four hours after iohexol was injected, no trace of iodine was found in the plasma, microvilli or the nuclei of the tubular cells. Small organelle-like compartments in the cytoplasm of the proximal tubular cells contained high concentrations of iodine, whereas no iodine was found in the surrounding cytoplasm. Since no metabolism of contrast medium has been demonstrated, the iodine signals must be emitted from contrast medium molecules. Other elements were also measured, with the concentrations being always within the ranges found in tubular cells of control animals. The detection of intracellular contrast thus does not seem to be an artifact due to cell injury, but rather represents a physiological event in healthy cells in the rat kidney. Our results are in contradiction to the prevailing opinion that contrast media do not enter healthy cells. However, previous conclusions have been based on the use of conventional preparation methods, and the highly water soluble contrast molecules may have been lost during the different steps of fixation and processing.

  19. Physicochemical properties of radiographic contrast media, potential nephrotoxicity and prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Hogstrom, Barry; Ikei, Nobuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a controversial topic. The clinical relevance of changes in laboratory parameters has been challenged; some authors have even suggested that CIN simply reflects natural fluctuations. Other areas of controversy include the pathophysiology of CIN, effectiveness of prophylactic approaches and differences in nephrotoxicity between individual contrast media (CM). The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of laboratory findings and explore its relationship to CM toxicity.

  20. Acute kidney injury by radiographic contrast media: pathogenesis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24-72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both.

  1. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  2. [Intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasound of metastatic lymph nodes in rabbit VX2 tongue carcinoma model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Shi, Fang; Li, Shi-min; Jin, Yun-jie; Wu, Hai-tao

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the sonographic features of the cervical lymph nodes in rabbit VX2 tongue carcinoma model and hyperplasia cervical lymph nodes model using gray scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) after intravenous administration of SonoVue (a sonographic contrast agent) and to evaluate the potential utility of CEUS in detecting early metastatic cervical lymph nodes in the rabbit VX2 tongue carcinoma model. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were placed into 2 groups, 12 for node metastasis and 18 for node hyperplasia. Cervical CEUS was performed in the rabbits of both groups before and after intravenous administration of SonoVue(0.6 ml). The phase, pattern, beginning area and echogenicity of enhancement of the lymph nodes on the right neck were observed and recorded. Dissection of the lymph nodes were guided by the marks made during CEUS and examined histopathologically. On the right side of each rabbit only one lymph node were detected in both groups. All 8 cases in the hyperplasia group showed homogeneous enhancement starting from central, while in the metastasis group one case showed homogeneous enhancement starting from the central, 3 cases showed inhomogeneous enhancement starting from periphery, and 8 cases showed inhomogeneous enhancement starting both from central and periphery. One lymph node was dissected on the right side of the neck in each rabbit in both groups. Pathological examination showed all 12 lymph nodes in the metastatic group were metastatic lymph nodes, and all 8 lymph nodes in the hyperplasia group were hyperplastic lymph nodes. After intravenous CEUS, metastatic lymph nodes show inhomogeneous enhancement starting from periphery/central or periphery area, while hyperplastic lymph nodes show homogeneous enhancement starting from central area. Metastatic lymph nodes can be characterized as being neoplastic or benign on the basis of the enhancement patterns evaluated by CEUS.

  3. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  4. Interference of medical contrast media on laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Daves, Massimo; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The use of contrast media such as organic iodine molecules and gadolinium contrast agents is commonplace in diagnostic imaging. Although there is widespread perception that side effects and drug interactions may be the leading problems caused by these compounds, various degrees of interference with some laboratory tests have been clearly demonstrated. Overall, the described interference for iodinate contrast media include inappropriate gel barrier formation in blood tubes, the appearance of abnormal peaks in capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins, and a positive bias in assessment of cardiac troponin I with one immunoassay. The interference for gadolinium contrast agents include negative bias in calcium assessment with ortho-cresolphthalein colorimetric assays and occasional positive bias using some Arsenazo reagents, negative bias in measurement of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and zinc (colorimetric assay), as well as positive bias in creatinine (Jaffe reaction), total iron binding capacity (TIBC, ferrozine method), magnesium (calmagite reagent) and selenium (mass spectrometry) measurement. Interference has also been reported in assessment of serum indices, pulse oximetry and methaemoglobin in samples of patients receiving Patent Blue V. Under several circumstances the interference was absent from manufacturer-supplied information and limited to certain type of reagents and/or analytes, so that local verification may be advisable to establish whether or not the test in use may be biased. Since the elimination half-life of these compounds is typically lower than 2 h, blood collection after this period may be a safer alternative in patients who have received contrast media for diagnostic purposes.

  5. 3D diffraction tomography for visualization of contrast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Vinay M.; Stein, Ashley; Kozlowski, Megan; George, Ashvin; Kopace, Rael; Bennett, Eric; Auxier, Julie A.; Wen, Han

    2011-03-01

    In x-ray CT, the ability to selectively isolate a contrast agent signal from the surrounding soft tissue and bone can greatly enhance contrast visibility and enable quantification of contrast concentration. We present here a 3D diffraction tomography implementation for selectively retaining volumetric diffraction signal from contrast agent particles that are within a banded size range while suppressing the background signal from soft tissue and bone. For this purpose, we developed a CT implementation of a single-shot x-ray diffraction imaging technique utilizing gratings. This technique yields both diffraction and absorption images from a single grating-modulated projection image through analysis in the spatial frequency domain. A solution of iron oxide nano-particles, having very different x-ray diffraction properties from tissue, was injected into ex vivo chicken wing and in vivo rat specimens respectively and imaged in a 3D diffraction CT setup. Following parallel beam reconstruction, it is noted that while the soft tissue, bone and contrast media are observed in the absorption volume reconstruction, only the contrast media is observed in the diffraction volume reconstruction. This 3D diffraction tomographic reconstruction permits the visualization and quantification of the contrast agent isolated from the soft tissue and bone background.

  6. Potential harmful effect of iodinated intravenous contrast medium on the clinical course of mild acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Uscanga, L; Bezaury-Rivas, P; Robles-Díaz, G; Suazo-Barahona, J; Vargas-Vorácková, F

    2000-11-01

    A worse clinical outcome might be expected in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) who receive intravenous contrast medium for a nondynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CECT) study early during hospital admission. Cohort analytic study. Tertiary care center. Of 126 patients with mild AP, 52 patients underwent CECT to establish AP diagnosis (group 1), and the remaining 74 did not (group 2). Survival and development of local or systemic complications during the hospital stay. Potential confounders were demographic, clinical, and biochemical data, as well as therapeutic measures. The Atlanta classification was used to define local and systemic complications. Mean age, etiology of AP, prognostic score on admission, and pharmacologic treatment were similar between groups. Local and systemic complications were more frequently observed in patients who underwent CECT (odds ratio, 11.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-64.8; P =.008). Six patients, all in group 1, developed a pancreatic abscess (odds ratio, 20.8; P =.004). In 5 of them, a second CECT showed more severe AP changes. The association between CECT and abscess development was more apparent in patients with a body mass index of 25 or more and/or nasogastric suction. Six patients in group 1 and 1 in group 2 had systemic complications (odds ratio, 9. 5; P =.01). There were no deaths. The observed increased incidence of local and systemic complications in patients with mild AP who undergo CECT, particularly in those with a body mass index of 25 or more, suggests a potentially harmful effect of intravenous contrast medium. Until this issue is clarified, it seems reasonable to restrict the use of dynamic CECT to patients with severe AP, protracted clinical course, or suspected local septic complication.

  7. Changes in transmural distribution of myocardial perfusion assessed by quantitative intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, S; Muro, T; Hozumi, T; Watanabe, H; Shimada, K; Yoshiyama, M; Takeuchi, K; Yoshikawa, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To clarify whether changes in transmural distribution of myocardial perfusion under significant coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by quantitative intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in humans. Methods: 31 patients underwent dipyridamole stress MCE and quantitative coronary angiography. Intravenous MCE was performed by continuous infusion of Levovist. Images were obtained from the apical four chamber view with alternating pulsing intervals both at rest and after dipyridamole infusion. Images were analysed offline by placing regions of interest over both endocardial and epicardial sides of the mid-septum. The background subtracted intensity versus pulsing interval plots were fitted to an exponential function, y = A (1 − e−βt), where A is plateau level and β is rate of rise. Results: Of the 31 patients, 16 had significant stenosis (> 70%) in the left anterior descending artery (group A) and 15 did not (group B). At rest, there were no differences in the A endocardial to epicardial ratio (A-EER) and β-EER between the two groups (mean (SD) 1.2 (0.6) v 1.2 (0.8) and 1.2 (0.7) v 1.1 (0.6), respectively, NS). During hyperaemia, β-EER in group A was significantly lower than that in group B (1.0 (0.5) v 1.4 (0.5), p < 0.05) and A-EER did not differ between the two groups (1.0 (0.5) v 1.2 (0.4), NS). Conclusions: Changes in transmural distribution of myocardial perfusion under significant coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by quantitative intravenous MCE in humans. PMID:12231594

  8. Intravenous contrast-enhanced CT of the postoperative lumbar spine: improved identification of recurrent disk herniation, scar, arachnoiditis, and diskitis

    SciTech Connect

    Teplick, J.G.; Haskin, M.E.

    1984-10-01

    Unsuccessful relief of symptoms after back surgery is usually attributable to hypertrophic extradural scar or recurrent herniated disk. Their clinical and myelographic differentiation is difficult, yet important because reoperation is not always beneficial for scar removal. This article examines the usefulness of intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography for this problem. Forty-five postsurgical patients were studied; eight had subsequent surgery. In the four with hypertrophic scars, intravenous contrast enhancement of the scar allowed its recognition in each case; in the four with hypertrophic scars, intravenous contrast enhancement of the scar allowed its recognition in each case; in the four with recurrent disk herniation, nonenhancement of the extruded disk allowed its recognition in three. In the other 37 patients who were not reoperated, 33 were believed to have scar on the basis of contrast enhancement. The method seems promising for more accurate evaluation of failed back surgery, including the recognition of diskitis.

  9. Flat detector computed tomography angiography with intravenous contrast application: feasibility for visualization of cerebral arterial vasculature.

    PubMed

    Saake, Marc; Breuer, Lorenz; Goelitz, Philipp; Ott, Sabine; Struffert, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd

    2013-07-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate flat detector computed tomography angiography with peripheral intravenous contrast material application (FD-CTA) for visualization of cerebral arteries in comparison with intravenous multidetector computed tomography angiography (CTA) and intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The study was approved by the local institutional review board and informed consent was obtained by all participants. Ten patients underwent FD-CTA, CTA, and DSA of the cerebral arterial vasculature for suspected cerebrovascular disease. The image data were evaluated by two readers in consensus for the visualization of cerebral arterial segments on a 5-point scale (0 = vessel cannot be distinguished; 4 = excellent image quality). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis. Note that P < .05 was considered to indicate a significant difference. The depiction of cerebral arterial segments with FD-CTA was significantly superior compared to CTA in most vessel segments (P < .05 in 20 of 23 anatomic regions) and was without significant difference compared with DSA in large and medium intracranial vessels. The results suggest that the cerebral arteries can be visualized by FD-CTA in high resolution, in many vessel segments comparable to DSA. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  10. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  11. A review: Radiographic iodinated contrast media-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Y; Rhee, Connie M; Leung, Angela M; Braverman, Lewis E; Brent, Gregory A; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed.

  12. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the role of gadolinium contrast media.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, A J

    2008-08-01

    Nephrogenic system fibrosis is a rare disease affecting patients with severe renal insufficiency or dialysis. Its aetiology is incompletely understood. Evidence is growing that gadolinium contrast media is a major risk factor, whereby risk increases with larger cumulative doses. The role of other risk factors, such as inflammation or electrolyte disturbances, is less clear. All published cases to date received gadodiamide, gadopentetate or gadoversetamide, which are considered to be less stable due to a linear molecular structure. The aetiological significance of stability differences between the non-ionic linear, ionic linear and macrocyclic agents remains to be shown. For prevention, strict indications for MRI in risk patients can be combined with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or European Medicines Agency (EMEA) guidelines. These recommend checking for renal impairment by history or laboratory tests. The FDA recommends avoidance of all gadolinium contrast media in patients with renal insufficiency grades 4 and 5 (glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) or any grade of acute renal failure in liver transplantation patients or candidates. The EMEA differentiates between agents and advises avoidance of only gadodiamide and gadopentetate in the same patient categories. Other gadolinium contrast media should only be used after careful consideration of risks versus benefits. Post-procedural haemodialysis is only indicated in patients on regular dialysis.

  13. Are contrast media required for (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT in patients with neuroendocrine tumours of the abdomen?

    PubMed

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Schuetz, Matthias; Magnaldi, Silvia; Weber, Michael; Trattnig, Siegfried; Karanikas, Georgios

    2012-04-01

    To determine the value of intravenous contrast medium in (68)Ga-DOTA-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide - (68)Ga-DOTATOC - PET/CT for the detection of abdominal neuroendocrine tumours (NET). In fifty-five patients with known or suspected NETs of the abdomen PET/CT was performed on a 64-row multi-detector hybrid system. For PET, 150 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTATOC were injected intravenously. Full-dose unenhanced, and arterial- and venous-phase contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced PET/CT images were evaluated separately for the presence of NETs on a per-region basis, by two separate teams with different experience levels. On unenhanced PET/CT, sensitivity and specificity ranged from 89.3% (junior team) to 92% (senior team), and 99.1% (junior team) to 99.2% (senior team), respectively. On contrast-enhanced PET/CT, sensitivity and specificity ranged from 92.3% (junior team) to 98.5% (senior team), and 99.4% (junior team) to 99.5% (senior team), respectively. These increases in sensitivity and specificity, due to the use of contrast-enhanced images, were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Intravenous contrast medium only moderately, aleit significantly, improves the sensitivity of (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for the detection of abdominal NETs, and hardly affects specificity. Thus, while contrast enhancement is justified to achieve maximum sensitivity, unenhanced images may be sufficient for routine PET/CT in NET patients. Contrast media moderately improve the sensitivity of (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for neuroendocrine tumours. Contrast media hardly affect the specificity of (68)Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT for neuroendocrine tumours. Unenhanced PET/CT is sufficient for routine imaging of patients with neuroendocrine tumours.

  14. Contrast media-doped hydrodissection during thermal ablation: optimizing contrast media concentration for improved visibility on CT images.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Calista; Lubner, Meghan G; Hinshaw, J Louis; Muñoz del Rio, Alejandro; Brace, Christopher L

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine a concentration of iodinated contrast media in saline and 5% dextrose in water (D5W) for organ hydrodissection, a technique used to physically separate and protect tissues adjacent to thermal ablations. A total of 28 samples were prepared from 1:1000-1:1 iohexol or iothalamate meglumine contrast media in either normal saline or D5W. Samples alone or juxtaposed with a homogeneous liver-mimicking phantom were imaged by CT using 80-120 kVp and 10-300 mAs. Mean CT numbers and noise were measured from the fluid, background air, phantom adjacent to the fluid, and phantom distant from the fluid. Visibility was determined from the contrast-to-noise ratio between the fluid and phantom, whereas streaking artifact was quantified by relative noise in the phantom. Measures were individually fit using multiple linear regression to determine an optimal contrast-to-fluid ratio for increased visualization without streaking. Contrast media- and blood-doped saline and D5W were also tested to determine whether such doping altered their electrical conductivity. Iohexol concentration most influenced CT number; volumetric ratios of 1:1000-1:1 produced 20 HU to over 3000 HU. CT numbers were weakly dependent on x-ray tube voltage, whereas contrast-to-noise ratio and streaking artifacts were somewhat dependent on tube output. An optimal ratio of iohexol in fluid was determined to be 1:50. There was no significant difference between the electrical impedances of doped and pure saline or D5W (p > 0.5, all cases). A 1:50 ratio of iohexol in saline or D5W provides an optimal combination of increased visibility on CT without streaking artifacts.

  15. Effect of contrast media on urinary cytopathology specimens

    PubMed Central

    Frees, Sebastian; Bidnur, Samir; Metcalfe, Michael; Raven, Peter; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Moskalev, Igor; Fazli, Ladan; So, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Urological dogma dictates that washings collected from the urinary tract for cytological assessment must be performed without interference from contrast agents that may alter cellular integrity and diagnostic interpretation. In practice, the initial contrast used to outline the upper tracts is commonly discarded with subsequent saline washings sent for cytology. We hypothesize that contrast washings do not affect the morphology of urothelial carcinoma cells or the integrity of cytology interpretation. Methods: Samples obtained from (1) human bladder cell lines; (2) urine from a human xenograft bladder cancer model using UC-3 cells; and (3) patients with urothelial carcinoma were subjected to various experimental solutions (water, saline, urine, and dilutions of contrast media) for different exposure times. After exposure to various different solutions, samples underwent cytological analysis to assess morphologic and degenerative changes. Results: No cytological differences were seen when cells were exposed to ionic, hyperosmolar, or non-ionic low-osmolar contrast agents for any exposures up to five minutes. Cells exposed to mixtures of contrast agents and urine also demonstrated no evidence of degenerative change. Cells exposed to water for greater than one minute demonstrated significant hydropic degeneration impacting cytological interpretation. At 40 minutes or later, all reagents caused severe degeneration when evaluating urine samples from the mouse bladder cancer model and from patients undergoing urothelial carcinoma. Conclusions: Commonly used contrast agents have no effect on urinary cytology up to five minutes. Contrast washings of the urinary tract should not be discarded and can be sent for cytological diagnosis if fixed within this time period. PMID:27878040

  16. Selective polarization imager for contrast enhancement in extended scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Darren Alexis

    Improved imaging and detection of objects through turbid obscurants is a vital problem of current interest to both military and civilian entities. Image quality is severely degraded when obscurant fields such as fog, smoke, dust, etc., lie between an object and the light-collecting optics. Conventional intensity imaging through turbid media suffers from rapid loss of image contrast due to light scattering from particles (e.g. in fog) or random variations of refractive index (e.g. in medical imaging). Intensity imaging does not differentiate between rays scattered off particles in the obscurant field and those reflected off objects within the field. Scattering degrades image quality in all spectral bands (UV, visible, and IR), although the amount of degradation is wavelength dependent. This dissertation features the development of innovative system designs and techniques that utilize scattered radiation's deterministic polarization state evolution to greatly enhance the image contrast of stand-off objects within obscurant fields such as smoke, fog, or dust using active polarized illumination in the visible. The produced sensors acquire and process image data in real time using computationally non-intensive algorithms that differentiate between radiation that scatters or reflects from obscured objects and the radiation from the scattering media, improving image contrast by factors of ten or greater for dense water vapor obscurants.

  17. Effect of Contrast Media on Megavoltage Photon Beam Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rankine, Ashley W. Lanzon, Peter J.; Spry, Nigel A.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in photon beam dosimetry caused by using contrast media during computed tomography (CT) simulation and determine if the resulting changes are clinically significant. The effect of contrast on dosimetry was first examined for a single 6-MV photon beam incident on a plane phantom with a structure of varying electron densities ({rho}{sub e}) and thickness. Patient studies were then undertaken in which CT data sets were collected with and without contrast for 6 typical patients. Three patients received IV contrast (Optiray-240{sup TM}) only and 3 received IV plus oral (Gastrograffin{sup TM}) contrast. Each patient was planned using conformal multifield techniques in accordance with the department standards. Two methods were used to compare the effect of contrast on dosimetry for each patient. The phantom analysis showed that the change in dose at the isocenter for a single 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} 6-MV photon beam traversing 10 cm of a contrast-enhanced structure with {rho}{sub e} 1.22 was 7.0% (1.22 was the highest average {rho}{sub e} observed in the patient data). As a result of using contrast, increases in {rho}{sub e} were observed in structures for the 6 patients studied. Consequently, when using contrast-enhanced CT data for multifield planning, increases in dose at the isocenter and in critical structures were observed up to 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. Planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in an increase in dose of up to 2.1% at the isocenter, which would generally be regarded as clinically insignificant. If, however, a critical organ is in close proximity to the planning target volume (PTV) and is planned to receive its maximum allowable dose, planning on contrast-enhanced CT images may result in that organ receiving dose beyond the recommended tolerance. In these instances, pre-contrast CT data should be used for dosimetry.

  18. Angiographic CT with intravenous contrast agent application for monitoring of intracranial flow diverting stents.

    PubMed

    Saake, Marc; Struffert, Tobias; Goelitz, Philipp; Ott, Sabine; Seifert, Frank; Ganslandt, Oliver; Doerfler, Arnd

    2012-07-01

    Intracranial flow diverting devices are increasingly used to treat cerebral aneurysms. A reliable, non-invasive follow-up modality would be desirable. Our aim was to compare intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (ia DSA) to angiographic computed tomography with intravenous contrast agent application (iv ACT) in the visualisation of flow diverting devices and aneurysm lumina. Follow-up monitoring by iv ACT (n = 36) and ia DSA (n = 25) in 14 patients treated with flow diverting devices for intracranial aneurysms was evaluated retrospectively. Images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists in anonymous consensus reading regarding the device deployment, wall apposition, neck coverage of the aneurysm, opacification of the vessel and device lumen, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion. Corresponding ia DSA and iv ACT images were scored identically in all patients regarding the stent deployment, wall apposition and neck coverage, as well as the degree of aneurysm occlusion and patency status of the device and parent artery. Opacification of the parent vessel lumen and perfused parts of the aneurysm was considered slightly inferior for iv ACT in comparison with ia DSA (seven of 36 cases), without impact on diagnosis. We demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic value of iv ACT in follow-up imaging of intracranial flow diverting devices. Due to its high spatial resolution and non-invasive character, this novel technique might become a valuable imaging modality in these patients.

  19. Injections of Intravenous Contrast for Computerized Tomography Scans Precipitate Migraines in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Subjects at Risk of Paradoxical Emboli: Implications for Right-to-Left Shunt Risks.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trishan; Elphick, Amy; Jackson, James E; Shovlin, Claire L

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate if injection of intravenous particles may provoke migraines in subjects with right-to-left shunts due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Migraine headaches commonly affect people with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), especially those with pulmonary AVMs that provide right-to-left shunts. In our clinical practice, patients occasionally reported acute precipitation of migraine headaches following injection of technetium-labeled albumin macroaggregates for nuclear medicine scans. Self-reported migraine features and exacerbations were examined in HHT subjects with and without pulmonary AVMs, for a series of noninvasive and invasive investigations, using an unbiased online survey. One hundred and sixty-six subjects were classified as having both HHT and migraines. HHT subjects with migraines were more likely to have pulmonary AVMs (P < .0001). HHT subjects with pulmonary AVMs were more likely to report photophobia (P = .010), "flashes of light" (P = .011), or transient visual loss (P = .040). Pulse oximetry, x-rays, ultrasound, and computerized tomography (CT) scans without intravenous contrast medium rarely, if ever, provoked migraines, but unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was reported to exacerbate migraines by 14/124 (11.2%) subjects. One hundred and fourteen subjects had both enhanced and unenhanced CT examinations: studies with contrast media were more commonly reported to start (9/114 [7.8%]), and/or worsen migraines (18/114 [15.7%]), compared to those undertaken without contrast medium (P < .01), or after simple blood tests (P < .05). Additionally, migraine exacerbation was reported by 9/90 (10%) after contrast echocardiography, 2/44 (4.5%) after nuclear medicine scans, and 10/154 (6.5%) after blood tests. HHT subjects frequently report migraine exacerbation following blood tests, contrast echocardiograms, MRI imaging, and CT studies performed with intravenous contrast medium. Since air

  20. Injections of Intravenous Contrast for Computerized Tomography Scans Precipitate Migraines in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Subjects at Risk of Paradoxical Emboli: Implications for Right‐to‐Left Shunt Risks

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Trishan; Elphick, Amy; Jackson, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if injection of intravenous particles may provoke migraines in subjects with right‐to‐left shunts due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Background Migraine headaches commonly affect people with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), especially those with pulmonary AVMs that provide right‐to‐left shunts. In our clinical practice, patients occasionally reported acute precipitation of migraine headaches following injection of technetium‐labeled albumin macroaggregates for nuclear medicine scans. Methods Self‐reported migraine features and exacerbations were examined in HHT subjects with and without pulmonary AVMs, for a series of noninvasive and invasive investigations, using an unbiased online survey. Results One hundred and sixty‐six subjects were classified as having both HHT and migraines. HHT subjects with migraines were more likely to have pulmonary AVMs (P < .0001). HHT subjects with pulmonary AVMs were more likely to report photophobia (P = .010), “flashes of light” (P = .011), or transient visual loss (P = .040). Pulse oximetry, x‐rays, ultrasound, and computerized tomography (CT) scans without intravenous contrast medium rarely, if ever, provoked migraines, but unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was reported to exacerbate migraines by 14/124 (11.2%) subjects. One hundred and fourteen subjects had both enhanced and unenhanced CT examinations: studies with contrast media were more commonly reported to start (9/114 [7.8%]), and/or worsen migraines (18/114 [15.7%]), compared to those undertaken without contrast medium (P < .01), or after simple blood tests (P < .05). Additionally, migraine exacerbation was reported by 9/90 (10%) after contrast echocardiography, 2/44 (4.5%) after nuclear medicine scans, and 10/154 (6.5%) after blood tests. Conclusions HHT subjects frequently report migraine exacerbation following blood tests, contrast echocardiograms, MRI imaging, and

  1. Low contrast media volume in pre-TAVI CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Kok, Madeleine; Turek, Jakub; Mihl, Casper; Reinartz, Sebastian D; Gohmann, Robin F; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kats, Suzanne; van Ommen, Vincent G; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate image quality using reduced contrast media (CM) volume in pre-TAVI assessment. Forty-seven consecutive patients referred for pre-TAVI examination were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 BMI < 28 kg/m(2) (n = 29); and group 2 BMI > 28 kg/m(2) (n = 18). Patients received a combined scan protocol: retrospective ECG-gated helical CTA of the aortic root (80kVp) followed by a high-pitch spiral CTA (group 1: 70 kV; group 2: 80 kVp) from aortic arch to femoral arteries. All patients received one bolus of CM (300 mgI/ml): group 1: volume = 40 ml; flow rate = 3 ml/s, group 2: volume = 53 ml; flow rate = 4 ml/s. Attenuation values (HU) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured at the levels of the aortic root (helical) and peripheral arteries (high-pitch). Diagnostic image quality was considered sufficient at attenuation values > 250HU and CNR > 10. Diagnostic image quality for TAVI measurements was obtained in 46 patients. Mean attenuation values and CNR (HU ± SD) at the aortic root (helical) were: group 1: 381 ± 65HU and 13 ± 8; group 2: 442 ± 68HU and 10 ± 5. At the peripheral arteries (high-pitch), mean values were: group 1: 430 ± 117HU and 11 ± 6; group 2: 389 ± 102HU and 13 ± 6. CM volume can be substantially reduced using low kVp protocols, while maintaining sufficient image quality for the evaluation of aortic root and peripheral access sites. • Image quality could be maintained using low kVp scan protocols. • Low kVp protocols reduce contrast media volume by 34-67 %. • Less contrast media volume lowers the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

  2. Effects of Intra-Arterial and Intravenous Iso-Osmolar Contrast Medium (Iodixanol) on the Risk of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Peter A.; Brown, Jeremiah R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The iso-osmolar contrast agent iodixanol may be associated with a lower incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) than low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM), but previous meta-analyses have yielded mixed results. Objectives: To compare the incidence of CI-AKI between iodixanol and LOCM. Methods Studies were identified from literature searches to December 2009, clinicaltrials.gov, and conference abstracts from the past 2 years including 2010. Only prospective, randomized comparisons between iodixanol and LOCM with CI-AKI [increase in serum creatinine (sCr) ≥0.5 mg/dl or ≥25% from baseline, as defined in the trial] as a primary and/or secondary endpoint and a Jadad score ≥2 were included. A random-effects model was used to obtain pooled relative risks (RRs) for CI-AKI in analyses based on route of administration [intra-arterial (IA) or intravenous (IV)], definition of CI-AKI, and timing of sCr measurements. Results 145 potential articles were identified, of which 25 were included in the meta-analysis. Following IA administration (n = 19), the RR for CI-AKI (≥0.5 mg/dl definition) with iodixanol, compared with LOCM, was 0.462 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.272–0.786, p = 0.004, 15 studies]. Using the ≥25% definition, there was a lower incidence of CI-AKI with iodixanol versus LOCM, but the difference was not statistically significant (RR: 0.577, 95% CI: 0.297–1.12, p = 0.104, 11 studies). In the IV trials, there was no significant difference in the incidence of CI-AKI using either definition (≥0.5 mg/dl definition: RR: 0.967, 95% CI: 0.188–4.972, p = 0.968, 3 trials; ≥25% definition: RR: 0.656, 95% CI: 0.316–1.360, p = 0.257, 4 trials). Conclusions IA but not IV administration of iodixanol is associated with a significantly lower risk of CI-AKI than LOCM. PMID:22164156

  3. Comparison of the Safety of Seven Iodinated Contrast Media

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Jong-Mi; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Ye-Jee; Yang, Bo Ram; Jin, Xue-Mei; Kim, Ju-Young

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine the characteristic adverse events (AEs) of iodinated contrast media (IOCM) and to compare the safety profiles of different IOCM. This study used the database of AEs reports submitted by healthcare professionals from 15 Regional Pharmacovigilance Centers between June 24, 2009 and December 31, 2010 in Korea. All reports of IOCM, including iopromide, iohexol, iopamidol, iomeprol, ioversol, iobitridol and iodixanol, were analyzed. Safety profiles were compared between different IOCM at the system organ level using the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Among a total of 48,261 reports, 6,524 (13.5%) reports were related to the use of IOCM. Iopromide (45.5%), iohexol (16.9%), iopamidol (14.3%) and iomeprol (10.3%) were identified as frequently reported media. 'Platelet, bleeding & clotting disorders' (PRR, 29.6; 95%CI, 1.9-472.6) and 'urinary system disorders' (PRR, 22.3; 95% CI, 17.1-29.1) were more frequently reported for iodixanol than the other IOCM. In conclusion, the frequency of AEs by organ class was significantly different between individual media. These differences among different IOCM should be considered when selecting a medium among various IOCM and when monitoring patients during and after its use to ensure optimum usage and patient safety. PMID:24339697

  4. Comparison of the safety of seven iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Seong, Jong-Mi; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Lee, Joongyub; Chang, Yoosoo; Kim, Ye-Jee; Yang, Bo Ram; Jin, Xue-Mei; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Byung-Joo

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to determine the characteristic adverse events (AEs) of iodinated contrast media (IOCM) and to compare the safety profiles of different IOCM. This study used the database of AEs reports submitted by healthcare professionals from 15 Regional Pharmacovigilance Centers between June 24, 2009 and December 31, 2010 in Korea. All reports of IOCM, including iopromide, iohexol, iopamidol, iomeprol, ioversol, iobitridol and iodixanol, were analyzed. Safety profiles were compared between different IOCM at the system organ level using the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Among a total of 48,261 reports, 6,524 (13.5%) reports were related to the use of IOCM. Iopromide (45.5%), iohexol (16.9%), iopamidol (14.3%) and iomeprol (10.3%) were identified as frequently reported media. 'Platelet, bleeding & clotting disorders' (PRR, 29.6; 95%CI, 1.9-472.6) and 'urinary system disorders' (PRR, 22.3; 95% CI, 17.1-29.1) were more frequently reported for iodixanol than the other IOCM. In conclusion, the frequency of AEs by organ class was significantly different between individual media. These differences among different IOCM should be considered when selecting a medium among various IOCM and when monitoring patients during and after its use to ensure optimum usage and patient safety.

  5. Intra-arterial and intravenous applications of Iosimenol 340 injection, a new non-ionic, dimeric, iso-osmolar radiographic contrast medium: phase 2 experience

    PubMed Central

    Laniado, Michael; Hosten, Norbert; Kelsch, Bettina; Hogstrom, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background Iosimenol 340 injection is a new, dimeric, iso-osmolar, iodinated contrast medium for X-ray angiography. Purpose To compare the safety and efficacy of iosimenol injection to iodixanol injection in two randomized, controlled phase 2 trials. Material and Methods One hundred and forty-four adult patients were enrolled in the two trials, one for evaluation during arteriography and the other for evaluation during computed tomography. Safety was compared by assessing adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, and laboratory parameters. Efficacy was assessed as X-ray attenuation in the computed tomography (CT) trial and as the quality of contrast enhancement in the arteriography trial. Results There were no statistically significant differences in terms of safety or efficacy between the two contrast media. Both were well tolerated upon intravenous as well as intra-arterial injection. The most common adverse event was a feeling of warmth (observed in 35.1% of the patients with Iosimenol injection and 44.3% with iodixanol injection). Conclusion Iosimenol upon intravenous as well as upon intra-arterial injection exhibits a safety profile and shows an efficacy similar to that of iodixanol. PMID:24938661

  6. Pharmacological prevention of serious anaphylactic reactions due to iodinated contrast media: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tramèr, Martin R; von Elm, Erik; Loubeyre, Pierre; Hauser, Conrad

    2006-01-01

    Objective To review the efficacy of pharmacological prevention of serious reactions to iodinated contrast media. Design Systematic review. Data sources Systematic search (multiple databases, bibliographies, all languages, to October 2005) for randomised comparisons of pretreatment with placebo or no treatment (control) in patients receiving iodinated contrast media. Review methods Trial quality was assessed by all investigators. Information on trial design, population, interventions, and outcomes was abstracted by one investigator and cross checked by the others. Data were combined by using Peto odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Results Nine trials (1975-96, 10 011 adults) tested H1 antihistamines, corticosteroids, and an H1-H2 combination. No trial included exclusively patients with a history of allergic reactions. Many outcomes were not allergy related, and only a few were potentially life threatening. No reports on death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, irreversible neurological deficit, or prolonged hospital stays were found. In two trials, 3/778 (0.4%) patients who received oral methylprednisolone 2×32 mg or intravenous prednisolone 250 mg had laryngeal oedema compared with 11/769 (1.4%) controls (odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.88). In two trials, 7/3093 (0.2%) patients who received oral methylprednisolone 2×32 mg had a composite outcome (including shock, bronchospasm, and laryngospasm) compared with 20/2178 (0.9%) controls (odds ratio 0.28, 0.13 to 0.60). In one trial, 1/196 (0.5%) patients who received intravenous clemastine 0.03 mg/kg and cimetidine 2-5 mg/kg had angio-oedema compared with 8/194 (4.1%) controls (odds ratio 0.20, 0.05 to 0.76). Conclusions Life threatening anaphylactic reactions due to iodinated contrast media are rare. In unselected patients, the usefulness of premedication is doubtful, as a large number of patients need to receive premedication to prevent one potentially serious reaction. Data supporting the

  7. Pharmacological prevention of serious anaphylactic reactions due to iodinated contrast media: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tramèr, Martin R; von Elm, Erik; Loubeyre, Pierre; Hauser, Conrad

    2006-09-30

    To review the efficacy of pharmacological prevention of serious reactions to iodinated contrast media. Systematic review. Systematic search (multiple databases, bibliographies, all languages, to October 2005) for randomised comparisons of pretreatment with placebo or no treatment (control) in patients receiving iodinated contrast media. Review methods Trial quality was assessed by all investigators. Information on trial design, population, interventions, and outcomes was abstracted by one investigator and cross checked by the others. Data were combined by using Peto odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Nine trials (1975-96, 10 011 adults) tested H1 antihistamines, corticosteroids, and an H1-H2 combination. No trial included exclusively patients with a history of allergic reactions. Many outcomes were not allergy related, and only a few were potentially life threatening. No reports on death, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, irreversible neurological deficit, or prolonged hospital stays were found. In two trials, 3/778 (0.4%) patients who received oral methylprednisolone 2x32 mg or intravenous prednisolone 250 mg had laryngeal oedema compared with 11/769 (1.4%) controls (odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.88). In two trials, 7/3093 (0.2%) patients who received oral methylprednisolone 2x32 mg had a composite outcome (including shock, bronchospasm, and laryngospasm) compared with 20/2178 (0.9%) controls (odds ratio 0.28, 0.13 to 0.60). In one trial, 1/196 (0.5%) patients who received intravenous clemastine 0.03 mg/kg and cimetidine 2-5 mg/kg had angio-oedema compared with 8/194 (4.1%) controls (odds ratio 0.20, 0.05 to 0.76). Life threatening anaphylactic reactions due to iodinated contrast media are rare. In unselected patients, the usefulness of premedication is doubtful, as a large number of patients need to receive premedication to prevent one potentially serious reaction. Data supporting the use of premedication in patients with a history of

  8. Prediction of infarct growth based on apparent diffusion coefficients: penumbral assessment without intravenous contrast material.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Charlotte; Hevia-Montiel, Nidiyare; Deltour, Sandrine; Bardinet, Eric; Dormont, Didier; Crozier, Sophie; Baillet, Sylvain; Samson, Yves

    2009-01-01

    To compare predicted and final infarct lesion volumes determined by processing apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps derived at admission diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with acute stroke and to verify that predicted areas of infarct growth reflect at-risk penumbral regions based on recanalization status. The French legislation waived the requirement for informed patient consent for the described research, which was based on patient medical files. However, patients and/or their relatives were informed that they could decline to participate in the research. Authors tested a semiautomated proprietary image analysis procedure in 98 patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke by modeling infarct growth on DW imaging-derived ADC maps. Predicted infarct growth (PIG) areas and predicted infarct volumes were correlated with final observed data. In addition, the effect of MCA recanalization on the correlation between predicted and observed infarct growth volumes was qualitatively assessed. Predicted and final infarct volumes (rho = 0.828; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.753, 0.882; P < .0001) and infarct growth volumes (rho = 0.506; 95% CI: 0.342, 0.640; P < .0001) were significantly correlated. Visual comparative examination revealed satisfactory qualitative consistency between predicted and follow-up lesion masks. In patients without MCA recanalization, PIG did not differ significantly from final observed infarct growth (median PIG obtained with 0.93 ADC ratio cutoff [PIG(ratio)] of 27.1 cm(3) vs median infarct growth of 19.8 cm(3), P = .17). MCA recanalization revealed an overestimation of PIG (median PIG(ratio) of 24.8 cm(3) vs median infarct growth of 12 cm(3), P = .005), suggesting that the PIG area was part of ischemic penumbra. Data show the feasibility of identifying at-risk ischemic tissue in patients with acute MCA stroke by using semiautomated analysis of ADC maps derived at DW imaging, without intravenous contrast

  9. Subarachnoid hemorrhage mimicking leakage of contrast media after coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Jee Eun; Kim, Kyung Jun; Jo, Joon Hwan; Min, Yun Ju; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Ho

    2012-03-01

    We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days.

  10. [Problems related to resuscitation in studies with contrast media].

    PubMed

    Pierdominici, S; Ferrari-Baliviera, E; Scalise, T; Domenici, R; Battisti, G; Sarcinelli, L

    1992-09-01

    This study has the purpose of describing indications and legal implications related to the intravascular use of contrast media (ICM) in order to provide useful guidelines to the intensivist, often involved in the treatment of adverse reactions. The structure of modern contrast media (CM), is a benzenic ring carrying steadily three iodine ions. Adverse reactions due to the use of ICM, are local or systemic ranging from skin rashes or flushes (urticaria et al.), to cardiovascular, respiratory and neurologic symptoms. The prevention of these reactions is mandatory in patients reporting a history of allergy or atopia disease. From a legal point of view, the contraindication to procedures involving i.v. use of CM are not clearly pointed out therefore several concerns have been expressed. The intensivist is not required to physically attend the procedure, in agreement with the circular #64 edited in 1979; on the other hand his prompt intervention should be granted if necessary. Furthermore every therapeutic supply suitable for any resuscitational intervention should be available in the area where the test is performed. In conclusion we would like to stress the financial and ethic implications related to the choice of ICM (ionic versus non-ionic). The use of non-ionic CM offers several advantages: among them the better tolerance for the patient and the lower incidence of adverse reactions. However non-ionic CM have a cost ten-fold higher and both groups of drugs have same incidence of fatal reactions, therefore the use of non-ionic ICM is recommended for high risk patients.

  11. Shellfish allergy and relation to iodinated contrast media: United Kingdom survey.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mudassar; Farag, Ahmad; Sajid, Jamal; Potluri, Rahul; Irwin, R Bruce; Khalid, Hafiz Mohammed Idrees

    2014-03-26

    To assess current practice of United Kingdom cardiologists with respect to patients with reported shellfish/iodine allergy, and in particular the use of iodinated contrast for elective coronary angiography. Moreover we have reviewed the current evidence-base and guidelines available in this area. A questionnaire survey was send to 500 senior United Kingdom cardiologists (almost 50% cardiologists registered with British Cardiovascular Society) using email and first 100 responses used to analyze practise. We involved cardiologists performing coronary angiograms routinely both at secondary and tertiary centres. Three specific questions relating to allergy were asked: (1) History of shellfish/iodine allergy in pre-angiography assessment; (2) Treatments offered for shellfish/iodine allergy individuals; and (3) Any specific treatment protocol for shellfish/iodine allergy cases. We aimed to establish routine practice in United Kingdom for patients undergoing elective coronary angiography. We also performed comprehensive PubMed search for the available evidence of relationship between shellfish/iodine allergy and contrast media. A total of 100 responses were received, representing 20% of all United Kingdom cardiologists. Ninety-three replies were received from consultant cardiologists, 4 from non-consultant grades and 3 from cardiology specialist nurses. Amongst the respondents, 66% routinely asked about a previous history of shellfish/iodine allergy. Fifty-six percent would pre-treat these patients with steroids and anti-histamines. The other 44% do nothing, or do nonspecific testing based on their personal experience as following: (1) Skin test with 1 mL of subcutaneous contrast before intravenous contrast; (2) Test dose 2 mL contrast before coronary injection; (3) Close observation for shellfish allergy patients; and (4) Minimal evidence that the steroid and anti-histamine regime is effective but it makes us feel better. There is no evidence that allergy to shellfish

  12. Nephrotoxic effects of X-ray contrast media.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Erik; Berg, Knut J

    2004-01-01

    The annual sale of x-ray contrast media (CM) now represents 60 million doses, and contrast nephropathy (CN) has been the third-leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. In this review article, physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of CM are surveyed. The definition of CN is presented, as well as the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. Low osmolar monomeric CM (LOCM) are less nephrotoxic than the older ionic high osmolar CM (HOCM), but in risk patients the incidence of CN is still high after intravascular administration of LOCM. Non-ionic dimeric CM are iso-osmolar to plasma (IOCM), and they have reduced the nephrotoxicity even more than LOCM. The most important risk factors for CN are diabetes mellitus and impaired renal function. Selection of patients, hydration, and type of CM are essential for prevention and prophylaxis of CN. We do not recommend routine prophylaxis with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during CM investigations, but its use in high-risk patients should be considered.

  13. Side Effects of Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Tasanarong, Adis

    2014-01-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) are medical drugs used to improve the visibility of internal organs and structures in X-ray based imaging techniques. They may have side effects ranging from itching to a life-threatening emergency, known as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We define CIN as acute renal failure occurring within 24–72 hrs of exposure to RCM that cannot be attributed to other causes. It usually occurs in patients with preexisting renal impairment and diabetes. The mechanisms underlying CIN include reduction in medullary blood flow leading to hypoxia and direct tubule cell damage and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Identification of patients at high risk for CIN is important. We have reviewed the risk factors and procedures for prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers a deep evaluation of them both. The first rule to follow in patients at risk of CIN undergoing radiographic procedure is monitoring renal function by measuring serum creatinine and calculating the eGFR before and once daily for 5 days after the procedure. It is advised to discontinue potentially nephrotoxic medications, to choose radiocontrast media at lowest dosage, and to encourage oral or intravenous hydration. In high-risk patients N-acetylcysteine may also be given. PMID:24895606

  14. Neurotolerability of nonionic x-ray contrast media: The role of chemotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Luzzani, F.; Morisetti, A.; Bussi, S.

    1996-06-01

    Because small quantities of x-ray contrast agents can cross the blood-brain barrier, the authors evaluate the properties that contribute to neurotoxicity. The acute toxicity of various monomer and dimer contrast media was assessed after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection to mice and intracisternal (ICI) injection to rats. In mice, median lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) values for monomer contrast media apart from iohexol were higher than those for dimer contrast media. In rats, iopentol and iopromide were more neurotoxic than all other contrast media. The signs of toxicity for all contrast media included convulsions, dyspnea, hypoactivity, and sedation. Hypertonic D-mannitol solution was tolerated as well as artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Neither the hydrophilicity of the molecules nor the physicochemical properties of their solutions explain the toxicities satisfactorily. Neurotoxicity of monomer or dimer contrast media depends more on chemical structure characteristics other than hydrophilicity than on the physicochemical characteristics of their solutions. 34 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Acceptability of oral iodinated contrast media: a head-to-head comparison of four media.

    PubMed

    Pollentine, A; Ngan-Soo, E; McCoubrie, P

    2013-05-01

    To assess the palatability of iodinated oral contrast media commonly used in abdominopelvic CT and CT colonography (CTC). 80 volunteers assessed the palatability of a 20-ml sample of a standard 30 mg ml(-1) dilution of Omnipaque® (iohexol; GE Healthcare, Cork, Ireland), Telebrix® (meglumine ioxithalamate; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France), Gastromiro® (iopamidol; Bracco, High Wycombe, UK) and Gastrografin® (sodium diatrizoate and meglumine diatrizoate; Bayer, Newbury, UK) in a computer-generated random order. Gastrografin is rated significantly less palatable than the remaining media (p<0.005). Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than Gastromiro. No difference existed between Omnipaque and Telebrix. 39% of participants would refuse to consume the quantities of Gastrografin required for a CTC examination compared with Telebrix (7%) and Omnipaque (9%) (p<0.05). Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, with participants more willing to ingest them in larger quantities as well as being less expensive. Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable iodinated oral contrast media than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, which has potential implications in compliance with both abdominopelvic CT and CTC.

  16. Acceptability of oral iodinated contrast media: a head-to-head comparison of four media

    PubMed Central

    Ngan-Soo, E; McCoubrie, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the palatability of iodinated oral contrast media commonly used in abdominopelvic CT and CT colonography (CTC). Methods: 80 volunteers assessed the palatability of a 20-ml sample of a standard 30 mg ml−1 dilution of Omnipaque® (iohexol; GE Healthcare, Cork, Ireland), Telebrix® (meglumine ioxithalamate; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France), Gastromiro® (iopamidol; Bracco, High Wycombe, UK) and Gastrografin® (sodium diatrizoate and meglumine diatrizoate; Bayer, Newbury, UK) in a computer-generated random order. Results: Gastrografin is rated significantly less palatable than the remaining media (p<0.005). Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than Gastromiro. No difference existed between Omnipaque and Telebrix. 39% of participants would refuse to consume the quantities of Gastrografin required for a CTC examination compared with Telebrix (7%) and Omnipaque (9%) (p<0.05). Conclusion: Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, with participants more willing to ingest them in larger quantities as well as being less expensive. Advances in knowledge: Omnipaque and Telebrix are significantly more palatable iodinated oral contrast media than both Gastromiro and Gastrografin, which has potential implications in compliance with both abdominopelvic CT and CTC. PMID:23564884

  17. Post-Hoc Study: Intravenous Hydration Treatment in Chinese Patients with High Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Weijie; Li, Hualong; Lin, Kaiyang; Wang, Kun; Chen, Shiqun; Guo, Xiaosheng; Liu, Yong; Tan, Ning; Chen, Jiyan; Yang, Xiangtai; Su, Xi; Du, Zhimin; Zeng, Qiutang; Fang, Zhenfei; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Longgen; Hou, Yuqing; Yuan, Yong; Li, Tianfa; Hong, Lang; Wu, Yanqing; Liu, Yin; Lin, Wenhua; Jiang, Tiemin; Fu, Junhua; An, Yi; Yu, Bo; Tian, Ye; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Bin; Yang, Ping; Jiang, Xianyan; Wang, Hao; Qu, Peng; Cui, Lianqun; Li, Xueqi; Qi, Xiaoyong; Ma, Zengcai; Li, Jifu; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Shengquan; Pang, Wenyue; Li, Yibo; Yang, Manguang; Ji, Zheng; Zhao, Pitian; Li, Lu; Ge, Junbo; Jin, Huigen; Pan, Weimin; Song, Yaoming; Li, Jianmei; Xiao, Jianming; Liu, Hanxiong; Tao, Jianhong; Wu, Zhongdong; Tuo, Buxiong; Li, Wei; Xu, Yixian; Zhang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Lefeng; Zhang, Jinying; Wang, Fengling; Jia, Yongping; Wang, Bin; Tang, Fakuan; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yuemin; Su, Weiqing

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) develops after the injection of iodinated contrast media. This is a post hoc analysis of the data obtained from the TRUST study, which was a prospective, multicentre, observational study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the contrast medium iopromide in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization from August 2010 to September 2011 in China, conducted to explore the current status, trends and risk predictors of hydration treatment. The status of hydration to prevent CIN in each patient was recorded. Of the total 17,139 patients from the TRUST study (mean age, 60.33 ± 10.38 years), the overall hydration usage was 46.1% in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 77.4%, 51.7%, and 48.5% in patients with pre-existing renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, respectively. The proportion of hydration use increased from 36.5% to 55.5% from August 2010 to September 2011, which was independently associated with risk predictors like older age, pre-existing renal disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prior myocardial infarction, ST segment elevation MI, high contrast dose, multi-vessel disease and reduced LVEF (<45%). Overall, the usage of intravenous hydration treatment for patients with a high risk of CIN following PCI was high in China. PMID:28337989

  18. Contrast Media for X-ray and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Development, Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Thomas; Lawaczeck, Rüdiger; Taupitz, Matthias; Jost, Gregor; Lohrke, Jessica; Sieber, Martin A; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 120 years, the extensive advances in medical imaging allowed enhanced diagnosis and therapy of many diseases and thereby improved the quality of life of many patient generations. From the beginning, all technical solutions and imaging procedures were combined with dedicated pharmaceutical developments of contrast media, to further enhance the visualization of morphology and physiology. This symbiosis of imaging hardware and contrast media development was of high importance for the development of modern clinical radiology. Today, all available clinically approved contrast media fulfill the highest requirements for clinical safety and efficacy. All new concepts to increase the efficacy of contrast media have also to consider the high clinical safety standards and cost of goods of current marketed contrast media. Nevertheless, diagnostic imaging will contribute significantly to the progresses in medicine, and new contrast media developments are mandatory to address the medical needs of the future.

  19. Monitoring non-immediate allergic reactions to iodine contrast media

    PubMed Central

    Torres, M J; Mayorga, C; Cornejo-Garcia, J A; Lopez, S; Chaves, P; Rondon, C; Fernandez, T; Blanca, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-immediate reactions to iodine contrast media (ICM) affect 2–5% of patients receiving these agents. We studied the immunological mechanisms involved in patients with a confirmed non-immediate reaction, maculopapular exanthema, after administration of ICM. The diagnosis was carried out by skin testing or drug provocation test. The immunological study was performed in sequential peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken from the onset of the reaction by flow cytometry and in skin biopsy by immunohistochemistry, with specific recognition by the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) with different ICM. Flow cytometry showed an increase in the different activation markers [CD69, CD25 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR)] and the skin homing receptor [cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)] in CD4 lymphocytes, whereas perforin was higher in the CD8 lymphocytes. The skin biopsy showed a perivascular mononuclear infiltrate composed of CD4 lymphocytes, expressing CD25, HLA-DR and CLA, with eosinophils. Intradermal skin tests and the LTT were positive to several ICM, including the culprit agent in four and three patients, respectively, with negative results in all 10 tolerant controls. We showed that a specific immunological mechanism was implicated in patients with non-immediate reactions to ICM. Moreover, the positive results in skin tests and lymphocyte proliferation tests indicated that an important cross-reactivity exists. PMID:18341616

  20. Effects of contrast media on erythrocyte aggregation during sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuequn; Yoshikoshi, Akio; Hirano, Kunihiro; Sakanishi, Akio

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of contrast media (CMs) on erythrocyte aggregation, we measured the erythrocyte sedimentation with Westergren method at 25 degrees C. CMs were diatrizoate (Urografin 76%) for ionic CM and iopamidol (Iopamiron 370) for nonionic CM. Swine red blood cells (RBCs) were suspended in autologous plasma containing diatrizoate (URO), iopamidol (IOP), and saline (SAL) at 6.7% w/w, as well as in plasma alone (PLA), at 40% of the hematocrit. Sigmoid sedimentation curves were fitted to the Puccini et al. (1977) equation, and the average number of RBCs per aggregate m was calculated by Stokes' law against the time t. According to the Murata-Secomb (1988) theory we estimated the collision rate K between two aggregates from dm/dt in the stationary phase during sedimentation. Corresponding to the maximal ESR, the dm/dt (in cells/s) was 0.52 in PLA, 0.09 in SAL, 0.06 in URO and 0.03 in IOP, so that K also decreased in proportion to dm/dt from 145 fL/s in PLA to 8 fL/s in IOP. Both the ionic and nonionic CMs tend to inhibit the RBC aggregation more than that in SAL; the latter iopamidol appears to be inhibitory more than the former diatrizoate in autologous plasma.

  1. Intravenous and Intracavitary Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Evaluation and Management of Complicated Pediatric Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Deganello, Annamaria; Rafailidis, Vasileios; Sellars, Maria E; Ntoulia, Aikaterini; Kalogerakou, Kleanthi; Ruiz, Gary; Cosgrove, David O; Sidhu, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric pneumonia can be complicated by necrotizing pneumonia or a parapneumonic effusion either in the form of an empyema or a clear effusion. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography represent well-established modalities for evaluation of complicated pediatric pneumonia. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was recently introduced and is gaining increasing acceptance in pediatric imaging. In this case series, we present our initial experience with both intravenous and intracavitary use of CEUS in children with complicated pneumonia. Intravenous CEUS accurately and confidently showed necrotizing pneumonia and delineated pleural effusions, whereas intracavitary CEUS accurately identified the chest catheter location and patency and showed the presence of loculations, suggesting the use of fibrinolytics. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Contrast-induced nephropathy: are there differences between low osmolar and iso-osmolar iodinated contrast media?

    PubMed

    Morcos, S K

    2009-05-01

    It is acknowledged that high osmolar contrast media are more nephrotoxic than low (LOCM) or iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM). However, it remains contentious whether the IOCM are less nephrotoxic in comparison with LOCM. This article reviews published clinical studies that investigated this issue and demonstrates there are no conclusive data to indicate that there is a definite difference in renal tolerance between LOCM and IOCM. All these agents are potentially nephrotoxic in patients with advanced renal impairment. In these patients the smallest possible dose of IOCM or LOCM should be used in addition to adequate hydration to minimize the risk of contrast nephropathy.

  3. Evaluation of adverse reactions to contrast media in the hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, J-H; Kim, E-Y

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and analyse the characteristics of contrast media adverse reactions (CM-ARs) reported in a hospital. Methods: A retrospective review of CM-ARs from the electronic spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) report system between January 2011 and August 2012 was conducted. CM-ARs were evaluated in terms of causality, severity, preventability and affected organs. Also, agreement and correlation among the tools used to evaluate CM-ARs were analysed. Results: The overall reaction rate was 1.5% (n = 286). In total, 269 CM-ARs were identified. For ADR causality, 96.7% (n = 260) and 98.5% (n = 265) were evaluated as “probable” ADR using the Naranjo probability scale and the World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality categories, whereas 98.1% (n = 264) were evaluated as “certain” with Korean algorithm v. II. Of these, 91.4% (n = 246) were mild in severity and 96.7% (n = 260) were unpreventable. Most patients (n = 233, 86.7%) could be managed with observation and/or simple treatment. The most frequent reaction (n = 383, 79.5%) was dermatological. Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.667 (p < 0.01), and the agreement was 98.1% between the Naranjo scale and the World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre categories. No relationship was seen between CM-AR severity and gender or between in- and outpatients. Conclusion: In our study, most CM-ARs were mild and managed with simple treatment. However, as the number of patients undergoing CT procedures continues to increase, it is essential to identify and observe patients at risk for CM-ARs to prevent severe ADRs. Advances in knowledge: Continuous careful review of reporting and treatment protocols of CM-ARs is needed to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:24191123

  4. A rat EEG model for evaluating contrast media neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Adams, M D; Hopkins, R M; Ferrendelli, J A

    1988-09-01

    The electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of intracisternally administered x-ray contrast media were evaluated in rats as a means of assessing neurotoxicity. Rats were ventilated with a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen (70/30) sufficient to maintain light anesthesia/analgesia and neuromuscular blockade was induced to prevent movement artifacts. A femoral artery was catheterized for monitoring arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, blood gases, and pH. Four 22-gauge stainless steel needle electrodes were inserted underneath the scalp for recording EEG. Approximately 1 hour after the start of EEG recording, test agents were injected via the cisterna magna and rats were placed in a 20 degrees head-down position. EEG and BP were monitored continuously for up to 160 minutes postinjection. Blood gases and pH were monitored periodically. The effects of meglumine iothalamate (IOT), metrizamide (MET), iogulamide (IOG), and ioversol (IOV) were compared at dose levels from 30 to 240 mgI/kg. Normal saline was injected as a control substance and caused no changes in EEG, blood gases, pH, and BP for up to 160 minutes postinjection. IOT (30 mg I/kg) produced profound EEG effects consistent with epileptogenic activity, followed by slowing and subsequent death in 3 of 4 animals. Metrizamide had minimal EEG effects at 30 mg I/kg but at 60 mg I/kg, and 120 mg I/kg produced moderate to severe EEG changes including epileptiform patterns and death in 33% of animals. IOV caused mild EEG abnormalities in 4 of 12 animals at 120 mg I/kg, mild EEG abnormalities in 6 of 11 animals, and moderate EEG abnormalities in 1 of 11 animals at 240 mg I/kg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Kidney injury biomarkers in hypertensive, diabetic, and nephropathy rat models treated with contrast media.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Rodney L; Stewart, Sharron R; Thompson, Karol L; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) refers to a decline in renal function following exposure to iodinated contrast media (CM). The present study was initiated to explore the role of known human risk factors (spontaneous hypertension, diabetes, protein-losing nephropathy) on CIN development in rodent models and to determine the effect of CM administration on kidney injury biomarkers in the face of preexisting kidney injury. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (hypertension), streptozotocin-treated Sprague Dawley rats (diabetes), and Dahl salt-sensitive rats (protein-losing nephropathy) were given single intravenous injections of the nonionic, low osmolar contrast medium, iohexol. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (sCr), and urinary biomarkers; albumin, lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2), osteopontin (Opn), kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1), renal papillary antigen 1 (Rpa-1), α-glutathione S-transferase (α-Gst), µ-glutathione S-transferase (µ-Gst), and beta-2 microglobulin (β2m) were measured in disease models and appropriate controls to determine the response of these biomarkers to CM administration. Each disease model produced elevated biomarkers of kidney injury without CM. Preexisting histopathology was exacerbated by CM but little or no significant increases in biomarkers were observed. When 1.5-fold or greater sCr increases from pre-CM were used to define true positives, receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of biomarker performance showed sCr was the best predictor of CIN across disease models. β2m, Lcn-2, and BUN were the best predictors of histopathology defined kidney injury.

  6. Off-Label Use of Ultrasound Contrast Agents for Intravenous Applications in Children: Analysis of the Existing Literature.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Elsa; Riccabona, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze the published data related to intravenous (IV) use of ultrasound (US) contrast agents in children. We searched the literature to collect all of the published studies reporting the IV administration of a second-generation US contrast agent in children. We analyzed 9 case series and 5 case reports, as well as 5 individual cases, of pediatric contrast-enhanced US use reported in a study group that also included adults. We found that 502 children underwent contrast-enhanced US examinations (mean age, 9.7 years; range, 1 day-18 years). Most patients (89%) were injected with the sulfur hexafluoride contrast agent SonoVue (Bracco SpA, Milan, Italy). The mean dose used was 1.5 mL (range, 0.1-9.6 mL). Only 10 patients (2%) had adverse reactions related to the contrast agent administration: 1 life-threatening anaphylactic shock and 9 mild transitory adverse effects. We additionally found 38 papers in which the study groups included at least 1 child; thus, we obtained a total of 540 reported cases of off-label use of IV US contrast agents in children. The most frequent target organ was the liver, and most indications were related to space-occupying lesion characterization and abdominal evaluations after blunt trauma. Some studies also evaluated the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced US in different clinical scenarios and found very good accuracy. Concordance between contrast-enhanced US imaging and the respective reference-standard imaging methods ranged between 83% and 100% in different studies. Our results support the idea that the IV use of US contrast agents in children is safe, feasible, diagnostically robust, and effective. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Salvage of nondiagnostic transthoracic echocardiograms on patients in intensive care units with intravenous ultrasound contrast.

    PubMed

    Nash, Patrick J; Kassimatis, Kathleen C; Borowski, Allen G; Martin, Maureen G; Reynolds, Kathleen M; Garcia, Cheryl A; Morehead, Annitta J; Thomas, James D

    2004-08-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is often technically difficult on patients in intensive care units. Contrast echocardiography can improve left ventricular wall visualization and the assessment of regional and global left ventricular wall motion. Our study undertook to determine what proportion of nondiagnostic TTE studies on patients in intensive care units could be salvaged (i.e., converted to diagnostic studies) with contrast. Ninety-two patients with nondiagnostic TTEs had a repeat study after contrast. Using predefined criteria, 51% of studies were salvaged with contrast. Female gender emerged as the only factor associated with less likelihood of salvaging a study.

  8. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  9. Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of X-ray Contrast Media, Chlorination, and Chloramination on Zebrafish Development Little is known about the vertebrate developmental toxicity of chlorinated or chloraminated drinking water (DW), iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM, a common contaminate of DW) or how the c...

  10. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media administered at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

    PubMed

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-03-01

    Adverse reactions after intravascular administration of iodine contrast media are common and prophylactic regiments consisting of the use of steroids and low osmolality contrast media are highly effective in significantly decreasing the adverse reactions rate. The same type of contrast media are also used for opacification of the biliary tree and the pancreatic duct at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Systemic absorption of contrast media after ERCP routinely occurs. Although the adverse reaction rate appears to be very low the exact incidence remains unknown due to the retrospective nature of all reports. Despite the lack of formal recommendations, numerous prophylactic regiments are routinely used prior to ERCP in patients with history of prior reaction to intravascular contrast media. Moreover, the use of prophylaxis has even expanded to patients with no prior reaction to intravascular contrast media who are somehow perceived to be at increase risk (e.g. shellfish allergy). Recently, the first large scale prospective study reported exceedingly low incidence of adverse reaction to high oslmolality iodine-containing contrast media administered at the time of ERCP done without prophylactic premedication even in patients considered to be at the highest risk (prior severe reaction to intravascular contrast media administration). These data suggest that the use of prophylactic regiments prior to ERCP appears to be unnecessary.

  11. The use of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Webb, Judith A W; Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K

    2005-06-01

    The use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast media in pregnant or lactating women often causes concerns in the radiology department because of the principle of not exposing a fetus or neonate to any drugs. Because of the uncertainty about the use of contrast media during pregnancy and lactation, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and draw up guidelines. An extensive literature search was carried out and summarized in a report. Based on the limited information available, simple guidelines have been drawn up. The report and guidelines were discussed at the 11th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Mutagenic and teratogenic effects have not been described after administration of gadolinium or iodinated contrast media. Free iodide in radiographic contrast medium given to the mother has the potential to depress fetal/neonatal thyroid function. Neonatal thyroid function should be checked during the 1st week if iodinated contrast media have been given during pregnancy. No effect on the fetus has been seen after gadolinium contrast media. Only tiny amounts of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast medium given to a lactating mother reach the milk, and only a minute proportion entering the baby's gut is absorbed. The very small potential risk associated with absorption of contrast medium may be considered insufficient to warrant stopping breast-feeding for 24 h following either iodinated or gadolinium contrast agents.

  12. Do Intravenous N-Acetylcysteine and Sodium Bicarbonate Prevent High Osmolal Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inda-Filho, Antonio Jose; Caixeta, Adriano; Manggini, Marcia; Schor, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), singly or combined, inconsistently prevent patients exposed to radiographic contrast media from developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Objective We asked whether intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 in 5% dextrose or else a high dose of NAC in 5% dextrose prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high-osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone. Methods This completed prospective, parallel, superiority, open-label, controlled, computer-randomized, single-center, Brazilian trial (NCT01612013) hydrated 500 adult outpatients (214 at high risk of developing CI-AKI) exposed to ioxitalamate during elective coronary angiography and ventriculography. From 1 hour before through 6 hours after exposure, 126 patients (group 1) received a high dose of NAC and saline, 125 (group 2) received NaHCO3 and saline, 124 (group 3) received both treatments, and 125 (group 4) received only saline. Results Groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, pre-existing renal dysfunction, hypertension, medication, and baseline serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, but diabetes mellitus was significantly less prevalent in group 1. CI-AKI incidence 72 hours after exposure to contrast medium was 51.4% (257/500), measured as serum creatinine > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) and/or serum cystatin C > (1.1· baseline), and 7.6% (38/500), measured as both serum creatinine and serum cystatin C > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) or > (1.25 · baseline). CI-AKI incidence measured less sensitively was similar among groups. Measured more sensitively, incidence in group 1 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than in groups 2 and 3 but not group 4; adjustment for confounding by infused volume equalized incidence in groups 1 and 3. Conclusion: We found no evidence that intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 or else a high dose of NAC prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high osmolal iodinated contrast

  13. Taxanes as a risk factor for acute adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Farolfi, Alberto; Della Luna, Corradina; Ragazzini, Angela; Carretta, Elisa; Gentili, Nicola; Casadei, Carla; Aquilina, Michele; Barone, Domenico; Minguzzi, Martina; Amadori, Dino; Nanni, Oriana; Gavelli, Giampaolo

    2014-08-01

    The impact of cytotoxic agents on the risk of acute allergy-like adverse reactions (ARs) to intravenous iodinated contrast media (ICM) injections is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed 13,565 computed tomography (CT) scans performed in a consecutive cohort of cancer patients from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012. Episodes of acute ICM-related ARs were reported to the pharmacovigilance officer. The following matched comparisons were made: tax code, gender, primary tumor, antineoplastic therapy, and date of last cycle. Concomitant antineoplastic treatment was classified into five groups: platinum, taxane, platinum plus taxane, other, and no treatment group (no therapy had been administered in the previous 24 months). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the risk of acute ICM-related ARs. Of 10,472 contrast-enhanced CT scans, 97 (0.93%; 95% CI: 0.74-1.11) ICM-related ARs were reported, 11 of which (0.1%) were severe, including one fatality. The overall incidence was significantly higher in patients aged <65 years (p = .0062) and in the platinum plus taxane and taxane groups (p = .007), whereas no correlation was found with gender, number of previous CT scans, site of disease, or treatment setting. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased risk for patients aged <65 years (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.14-2.63) and for the taxane group (in comparison with the no treatment group; OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.02-4.16). Among cancer patients, concomitant treatment with taxanes and younger age would seem to be risk factors for ICM-related ARs. ©AlphaMed Press.

  14. Taxanes as a Risk Factor for Acute Adverse Reactions to Iodinated Contrast Media in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Farolfi, Alberto; Della Luna, Corradina; Ragazzini, Angela; Carretta, Elisa; Gentili, Nicola; Casadei, Carla; Aquilina, Michele; Barone, Domenico; Minguzzi, Martina; Amadori, Dino; Nanni, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Background. The impact of cytotoxic agents on the risk of acute allergy-like adverse reactions (ARs) to intravenous iodinated contrast media (ICM) injections is unknown. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 13,565 computed tomography (CT) scans performed in a consecutive cohort of cancer patients from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012. Episodes of acute ICM-related ARs were reported to the pharmacovigilance officer. The following matched comparisons were made: tax code, gender, primary tumor, antineoplastic therapy, and date of last cycle. Concomitant antineoplastic treatment was classified into five groups: platinum, taxane, platinum plus taxane, other, and no treatment group (no therapy had been administered in the previous 24 months). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the risk of acute ICM-related ARs. Results. Of 10,472 contrast-enhanced CT scans, 97 (0.93%; 95% CI: 0.74–1.11) ICM-related ARs were reported, 11 of which (0.1%) were severe, including one fatality. The overall incidence was significantly higher in patients aged <65 years (p = .0062) and in the platinum plus taxane and taxane groups (p = .007), whereas no correlation was found with gender, number of previous CT scans, site of disease, or treatment setting. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased risk for patients aged <65 years (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.14–2.63) and for the taxane group (in comparison with the no treatment group; OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.02–4.16). Conclusion. Among cancer patients, concomitant treatment with taxanes and younger age would seem to be risk factors for ICM-related ARs. PMID:25063226

  15. [CT study of the cervical spine with intravenous administration of the contrast medium].

    PubMed

    Magnaldi, S; Pozzi-Mucelli, R S; Cova, M A; De Morpurgo, P

    1989-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) without contrast medium is largely applied to the study of intervertebral disk pathology in the lumbar spine, but has not been widely accepted in the cervical spine, due to technical and anatomical limitations. For these reasons many neuroradiologists still prefer myelography or myelo-CT. CT may yield better results if combined with iv contrast medium injection, which allows a better visualization of disk herniation. This technique is aimed at enhancing the density of the venous plexus which is located close to the intervertebral disk, the vertebral bodies and the neural foramina. A better contrast enhancement is thus obtained between the disk and the spinal cord. The authors' experience is based on 61 patients who underwent contrast enhanced CT; in 22 cases myelography and myelo-CT were also performed. The authors describe their technique and the most frequent CT findings of disk herniation: the typical finding includes a focal hypodensity surrounded by a linear blush, due to a posteriorly dislocated epidural vein. The posterior linear blush alone may be present in few cases. Contrast-enhanced CT is very useful in the study of disk pathology of the cervical spine, even when compared with myelography and myelo-CT, due the increase in the density of epidural plexus it allows. However, the technique must be very accurate if the same results as those of myelo-CT are to be obtained.

  16. Flat-detector computed tomography with intravenous contrast material application in experimental aneurysms: comparison with multislice CT and conventional angiography.

    PubMed

    Struffert, Tobias; Doelken, Marc; Adamek, Edyta; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Ott, Sabine; Doerfler, Arnd

    2010-05-01

    Despite limited soft tissue resolution flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT) provides substantial superior spatial resolution in comparison with multislice computed tomography (MS-CT). This may add value in the visualization of small vascular structures if intravenous contrast application leads to substantial opacification and visibility of intracranial vessels or aneurysms. To evaluate the feasibility of visualization of vascular structures by FD-CT angiography (FD-CTA) after intravenous contrast injection compared with MS-CTA and intra-arterial digital subtracted angiography (IADSA) in an animal model. Aneurysms were created in the right common carotid artery in six New Zealand White Rabbits using the elastase technique. Imaging was performed using FD-CTA, MS-CTA (injection of 1 ml/kg body weight) and IADSA. Anonymized volume rendering reconstruction (VRT), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images were reconstructed and evaluated by two experienced reviewers for aneurysm geometry and vascular structure anatomy using standard tools of a dedicated workstation. Aneurysms could be successfully created in all animals. Measurements of aneurysm geometry (aneurysm height, width, neck width) and vascular structures (brachiocephalic trunk, carotid artery diameter and plane) were nearly identical in all three modalities. Intra- and inter-observer correlations of the different parameters showed high r values between 0.83 and 0.99. Our results show the feasibility of FD-CTA in comparison with MS-CTA and IADSA in an animal model. Despite limited soft tissue resolution, opacification of vascular structures with sufficient contrast to the surrounding structures was possible in all animals. Vascular structures appeared better delineated in FD-CTA than in MS-CTA, probably due to the superior spatial resolution.

  17. Incidence of intravenous contrast extravasation: increased risk for patients with deep brachial catheter placement from the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Andrew D; Kereshi, Borko

    2014-06-01

    Deep brachial intravenous catheter (IV) placement can be performed in emergency department patients with difficult vascular access, but the safety of deep brachial IV for iodinated contrast administration has not been assessed. This study compares the relative risk for extravasation of deep brachial IV compared with antecubital IV during power injected computed tomography (CT) examinations. A departmental practice quality improvement was performed to assess the rate of IV extravasation for all CT examinations during a 1 year period. De-identified data was analyzed with a waiver of informed consent to identify the rate and relative risk of iodinated contrast extravasation by catheter type. A total of 10,750 injections were performed, with 82 extravasation events (0.8 %). There were 51 extravasations of antecubital IV from approximately 8,599 placed (0.6 %). For 123 deep brachial IV placed, there were eight extravasations (6.5 %). The relative risk of a deep brachial IV extravasation was 9.4 compared to 0.4 for antecubital placement. Deep brachial IV demonstrated a markedly higher rate of contrast extravasation than antecubital IV. For power injected iodinated contrast administration, it is recommended to avoid the use of deep brachial IV whenever possible.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intravenous administration of a microbubble contrast agent for differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules: assessment of diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F; Novotny, Clemens; Weber, Michael; Czerny, Christian; Krestan, Christian R

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy, through quantitative analysis, of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), using a microbubble contrast agent, in the differentiation of thyroid nodules. This prospective study enrolled 46 patients with solitary, scintigraphically non-functional thyroid nodules. These patients were scheduled for surgery and underwent preoperative CEUS with pulse-inversion harmonic imaging after intravenous microbubble contrast medium administration. Using histology as a standard of reference, time-intensity curves of benign and malignant nodules were compared by means of peak enhancement and wash-out enhancement relative to the baseline intensity using a mixed model ANOVA. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant nodules on CEUS. The complete CEUS data of 42 patients (31/42 [73.8%] benign and 11/42 [26.2%] malignant nodules) revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in enhancement between benign and malignant nodules. Furthermore, based on ROC analysis, CEUS demonstrated sensitivity of 76.9%, specificity of 84.8% and accuracy of 82.6%. Quantitative analysis of CEUS using a microbubble contrast agent allows the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules and may potentially serve, in addition to grey-scale and Doppler ultrasound, as an adjunctive tool in the assessment of patients with thyroid nodules. • Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) helps differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. • Quantitative CEUS analysis yields sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 84.8%. • CEUS may be a potentially useful adjunct in assessing thyroid nodules.

  19. Prospective evaluation of adverse reactions to iodine-containing contrast media after ERCP.

    PubMed

    Draganov, Peter V; Forsmark, Chris E

    2008-12-01

    The incidence of contrast media reactions administered at the time of ERCP is unknown. Despite the lack of formal recommendations, numerous types of prophylactic regimens are routinely used in patients with a history of prior reactions to intravascular contrast media. Our purpose was to document the incidence of contrast media reactions at the time of ERCP and to determine whether various perceived risk factors are predictive of adverse reactions. Prospective study. Tertiary academic center. A total of 601 patients undergoing ERCP as clinically indicated. ERCP done with full-strength high osmolality contrast media. No prophylactic medications were given to any patient. Adverse reactions to contrast media. Six hundred one patients were enrolled. Eighty patients had prior documented reactions to intravascular contrast media (39 mild, 21 moderate, 20 severe). Of the 80 patients, 15 additionally reported shellfish allergy, and 46 reported allergic diathesis. Of the 521 patients with no prior reaction to intravascular contrast, 215 reported other history of allergic reaction. Forty-nine were allergic to shellfish, and 166 had underlying allergic diathesis. At ERCP, 277 patients had cholangiograms, 48 pancreatograms, and 276 both. The average volume of contrast per ERCP was 22 mL. No adverse reactions associated with the administration of contrast media at the time of ERCP were observed in any of the patients. The incidence of adverse reaction to iodine-containing contrast media administered at the time of ERCP even in patients considered to be at high risk is exceedingly low. The use of prophylactic regimens before ERCP appears to be unnecessary.

  20. Contrast Media in PET/Computed Tomography Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dhull, Varun Singh; Rana, Neelima; Nazar, Aftab Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Is there a need for the contrast-enhanced PET/computed tomography (CT) scan or is the low-dose, non-contrast-enhanced PET/CT scan sufficient? The topic has been debated time and again. Although low-dose noncontrast CT serves the purpose of simple anatomic correlation and attenuation correction of PET images, many times patients have to undergo additional contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging modalities, which may lead to a delay in decision-making. In this review, the authors have addressed various such issues related to the use of contrast agents and special techniques of clinical interest based on their utility in dual-modality PET/CT.

  1. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR). The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. Methods All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. Results The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15–87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Conclusion Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma. PMID:25287952

  2. Breakthrough reactions of iodinated and gadolinium contrast media after oral steroid premedication protocol.

    PubMed

    Jingu, Akiko; Fukuda, Junya; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2014-10-06

    Adverse reactions to iodinated and gadolinium contrast media are an important clinical issue. Although some guidelines have proposed oral steroid premedication protocols to prevent adverse reactions, some patients may have reactions to contrast media in spite of premedication (breakthrough reaction; BTR).The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, type and severity of BTR when following an oral steroid premedication protocol. All iodinated and gadolinium contrast-enhanced radiologic examinations between August 2011 and February 2013 for which the premedication protocol was applied in our institution were assessed for BTRs. The protocol was applied to a total of 252 examinations (153 patients, ages 15-87 years; 63 males, 90 females). Of these, 152 were for prior acute adverse reactions to contrast media, 85 were for a history of bronchial asthma, and 15 were for other reasons. There were 198 contrast enhanced CTs and 54 contrast enhanced MRIs. There were nine BTR (4.5%) for iodinated contrast media, and only one BTR (1.9%) for gadolinium contrast media: eight were mild and one was moderate. No patient who had a mild index reaction (IR) had a severe BTR. Incidence of BTRs when following the premedication protocol was low. This study by no means proves the efficacy of premedication, but provides some support for following a premedication protocol to improve safety of contrast-enhanced examinations when prior adverse reactions are mild, or when there is a history of asthma.

  3. Beware of parotitis induced by iodine-containing contrast media.

    PubMed

    Kohat, A K; Jayantee, K; Phadke, R V; Muthu, R; Singh, V; Misra, U K

    2014-01-01

    Carotid stenting is being increasingly used for revascularization of the moderate to severe carotid stenosis and thus its complications are increasingly being recognized. We report a rare complication of induced by iodine contrast in a patient undergoing carotid stenting. s. A 51 year old man after the second stenting developed multiple small infarcts in spite of the distal device. He also had painful parotid swelling which improved within a week. One should be aware of iodine parotitis s in the patients undergoing iodinated contrast study.

  4. Allergic reactions to iodinated contrast media: premedication considerations for patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Schopp, Jennifer G; Iyer, Ramesh S; Wang, Carolyn L; Petscavage, Jonelle M; Paladin, Angelisa M; Bush, William H; Dighe, Manjiri K

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this article are to review allergy-type reactions to iodinated contrast media and the protocols utilized to prevent or reduce the occurrence of these adverse reactions in high-risk patients. We will begin by discussing the types or classifications of the adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media. We will then discuss reaction mechanisms, identify the patients at highest risk for adverse reactions, and clarify common misperceptions about the risk. Finally, we will discuss the actions of the medications used to help reduce or prevent allergy-type reactions to iodinated contrast media, the protocols used to help reduce or prevent contrast reactions in high-risk patients, and the potential side effects of these medications. We will also discuss the high-risk patient who has received premedication due to a prior index reaction and discuss the risk of having a subsequent reaction, termed "breakthrough reaction." Identifying patient at high risk for an "allergy-type" reaction to contrast media is an essential task of the radiologist. Prevention of or reduction of the risk of an adverse reaction is critical to patient safety. If an examination can be performed without contrast in a patient at high risk for an allergy-type reaction, it may be appropriate to avoid contrast. However, there are situations where contrast media is necessary, and the radiologist plays a vital role in preventing or mitigating an allergy-type reaction.

  5. A case of CTO treated with minimum use of contrast media.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Mitsuyuki; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2013-12-01

    The retrograde approach is a novel technique for improving the success rate of guidewire passage through chronic total occlusion (CTO). In addition, this technique, especially when intravascular ultrasound-guided reverse controlled antegrade and retrograde subintimal tracking is employed, may help the operator to save on the contrast media used. In the case reported here, only 10 ml of contrast media was used in percutaneous coronary intervention for CTO. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Differential phase contrast OCT in transparant and scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sticker, Markus; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Leitgeb, Rainer; Fercher, Adolf F.

    2001-05-01

    Many biological objects have a poor contrast in microscopy when they are imaged on the basis of the intensity of transmitted and reflected light. For pure phase objects the differential phase contrast technique increases the contrast of the images. We combined the differential phase contrast technique with optical coherence tomography. Our setup is based on a Michelson interferometer with a polarization sensitive detection unit. We scan the sample with two orthogonally polarized beams, which are separated by a distance of 17.5 micrometers . The full interferometric signal of each object beam is recorded by a separate detector. We calculate the phase functions of the interferometric signal through analytic continuation by use of the Hilbert transformation. Subtracting the two phase functions we get the phase difference between the object beams. Now we can derive the path length difference of the object beams at a certain depth in the object where the light was backscattered. The method is independent of variations in the backscattering coefficient, which was a problem in an earlier version of our setup. To investigate the performance of the technique we measured pure phase objects in the nm range. Differential phase measurements through scattering test samples quantified the influence of scattering on the phase measurement. First images of cell structures are presented.

  7. Determination of contrast media administration to achieve a targeted contrast enhancement in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahbaee, Pooyan; Li, Yuan; Segars, Paul; Marin, Daniele; Nelson, Rendon; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-03-01

    Contrast enhancement is a key component of CT imaging and offer opportunities for optimization. The design and optimization of new techniques however requires orchestration with the scan parameters and further a methodology to relate contrast enhancement and injection function. In this study, we used such a methodology to develop a method, analytical inverse method, to predict the required injection function to achieve a desired contrast enhancement in a given organ by incorporation of a physiologically based compartmental model. The method was evaluated across 32 different target contrast enhancement functions for aorta, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and liver. The results exhibited that the analytical inverse method offers accurate performance with error in the range of 10% deviation between the predicted and desired organ enhancement curves. However, this method is incapable of predicting the injection function based on the liver enhancement. The findings of this study can be useful in optimizing contrast medium injection function as well as the scan timing to provide more consistency in the way that the contrast enhanced CT examinations are performed. To our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts to predict the contrast material injection function for a desired organ enhancement curve.

  8. Shoulder arthrography: comparison of morbidity after use of various contrast media

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.M.; Goldberg, R.P.; Wyshak, G.; Kilcoyne, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    This prospective study compares immediate and delayed patient discomfort in 177 patients following shoulder arthrography using intraarticular combinations of metrizamide, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, meglumine diatrizoate, lidocaine, epinephrine, and air. Patients receiving conventional ionic monomeric positive contrast media had a 60% (90/150) incidence of moderate or severe delayed exacerbation of their baseline symptoms; only 14% (3/21) of patients receiving metrizamide, a nonionic contrast medium had similar levels of postprocedural discomfort. Morbidity was somewhat diminished with the use of double-contrast (45%, 34/75) rather than single-contrast (75%, 56/75) examinations, and with avoidance of sodium-containing contrast agents or epinephrine. Nonionic or monovalent polymeric contrast media, despite their present high cost, may be the agents of choice if single-contrast arthrography is performed in joints associated with a high incidence of postprocedural pain.

  9. Quantifying the effect of IV contrast media on integrated PET/CT: clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mawlawi, Osama; Erasmus, Jeremy J; Munden, Reginald F; Pan, Tinsu; Knight, Amy E; Macapinlac, Homer A; Podoloff, Donald A; Chasen, Marvin

    2006-02-01

    The use of IV contrast media in PET/CT can result in an overestimation of PET attenuation factors that potentially can affect interpretation. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of IV contrast media in PET/CT and assess its impact on patients with intrathoracic malignancies. Nine patients had CTs performed with and without IV contrast media followed by (18)F-FDG PET. PET images were reconstructed using contrast-enhanced and unenhanced CT. To quantify the effect of contrast media on standardized uptake values (SUV), similar regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on the subclavian vein, heart, liver, spleen, and site of malignancy on both CT and corresponding reconstructed PET images, and the mean and maximum values were compared. In addition, two physicians blinded to the imaging parameters that were used evaluated the reconstructed PET images to assess whether IV contrast media had an effect on clinical interpretation. For all patient studies, the subclavian vein region on the ipsilateral side of contrast media administration had the highest increase in CT numbers with a corresponding average SUV(max) increase of 27.1%. Similarly, ROIs of the heart and at the site of malignancy showed an increase in the maximum attenuation value with a corresponding average SUV(max) increase of 16.7% and 8.4%, respectively. Other locations had relatively small attenuation value differences with a correspondingly negligible SUV variation. Although there is a significant increase in SUV in regions of high-contrast concentration when contrast-enhanced CT is used for attenuation correction, this increase is clinically insignificant. Accordingly, in PET/CT, IV contrast-enhanced CT can be used in combination with the PET to evaluate patients with cancer.

  10. Differential MR Delayed Enhancement Patterns of Chronic Myocardial Infarction between Extracellular and Intravascular Contrast Media

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung Yu; Liu, Hongyu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C.; Tian, Ganghong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Because the distribution volume and mechanism of extracellular and intravascular MR contrast media differ considerably, the enhancement pattern of chronic myocardial infarction with extracellular or intravascular media might also be different. This study aims to investigate the differences in MR enhancement patterns of chronic myocardial infarction between extracellular and intravascular contrast media. Materials and Methods Twenty pigs with myocardial infarction underwent cine MRI, first pass perfusion MRI and delayed enhancement MRI with extracellular or intravascular media at four weeks after coronary occlusion. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined with microsphere measurement. The infarction histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome method. Results Cine MRI revealed the reduced wall thickening in chronic infarction compared with normal myocardium. Moreover, significant wall thinning in chronic infarction was observed in cine MRI. Peak first-pass signal intensity didn’t significantly differ between chronic infarction and normal myocardium no matter what kinds of contrast media. At the following delayed enhancement phase, extracellular media-enhanced signal intensity was significantly higher in chronic infarction than in normal myocardium. Conversely, intravascular media-enhanced signal intensity was almost equivalent among chronic infarction and normal myocardium. At four weeks after infarction, MBF in chronic infarction approached to that in normal myocardium. Large thick-walled vessels were detected at peri-infarction zones. The cardiomyocytes were replaced by scar tissue consisting of dilated blood vessels and discrete fibers of collagen. Conclusions Chronic infarction was characterized by the significantly reduced wall thickening and the definite wall thinning. First-pass myocardial perfusion defect was not detected in chronic infarction with two media due to the significantly

  11. Differential MR delayed enhancement patterns of chronic myocardial infarction between extracellular and intravascular contrast media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung Yu; Liu, Hongyu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C; Tian, Ganghong

    2015-01-01

    Because the distribution volume and mechanism of extracellular and intravascular MR contrast media differ considerably, the enhancement pattern of chronic myocardial infarction with extracellular or intravascular media might also be different. This study aims to investigate the differences in MR enhancement patterns of chronic myocardial infarction between extracellular and intravascular contrast media. Twenty pigs with myocardial infarction underwent cine MRI, first pass perfusion MRI and delayed enhancement MRI with extracellular or intravascular media at four weeks after coronary occlusion. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined with microsphere measurement. The infarction histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's trichrome method. Cine MRI revealed the reduced wall thickening in chronic infarction compared with normal myocardium. Moreover, significant wall thinning in chronic infarction was observed in cine MRI. Peak first-pass signal intensity didn't significantly differ between chronic infarction and normal myocardium no matter what kinds of contrast media. At the following delayed enhancement phase, extracellular media-enhanced signal intensity was significantly higher in chronic infarction than in normal myocardium. Conversely, intravascular media-enhanced signal intensity was almost equivalent among chronic infarction and normal myocardium. At four weeks after infarction, MBF in chronic infarction approached to that in normal myocardium. Large thick-walled vessels were detected at peri-infarction zones. The cardiomyocytes were replaced by scar tissue consisting of dilated blood vessels and discrete fibers of collagen. Chronic infarction was characterized by the significantly reduced wall thickening and the definite wall thinning. First-pass myocardial perfusion defect was not detected in chronic infarction with two media due to the significantly recovered MBF and well-developed collateral vessels

  12. Ablation margin assessment of liver tumors with intravenous contrast-enhanced C-arm computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Sung; Singh, Sarabjeet; Halpern, Elkan; Saini, Sanjay; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the influence of anthropomorphic parameters on the relationship between patient centering, mean computed tomography (CT) numbers and quantitative image noise in abdominal CT. METHODS: Our Institutional Review Board approved study included 395 patients (age range 21-108, years; male:female = 195:200) who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT on a 16-section multi-detector row scanner (GE LightSpeed 16). Patient centering in the gantry isocenter was measured from the lateral localizer radiograph (off center S = patient off centered superior to isocenter; off center I = patient off centered inferior to isocenter). Mean CT numbers (Hounsfield Units: HU) and noise (standard deviation of CT numbers: SD) were measured in the anterior (aHU, aSD) and posterior (pHU, pSD) abdominal wall subcutaneous fat and liver parenchyma (LivHU, LivSD) at the level of the porta hepatis. Patients’ age, gender, weight, body mass index and maximal anteroposterior diameter were recorded. The data were analyzed using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Most patients (81%; 320/395) were not correctly centered in the gantry isocenter for abdominal CT scanning. Mean CT numbers in the abdominal wall increased significantly with an increase in the off-centering distance, regardless of the direction of the off-center (P < 0.05). There was a substantial increase in pSD (P = 0.01) and LivSD (P = 0.017) with off-centering. Change in mean CT numbers and image noise along the off-center distance was influenced by the patient size (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Inappropriate patient centering for CT scanning adversely affects the reliability of mean CT numbers and image noise. PMID:22468191

  13. Intravenous contrast ultrasound examination using contrast-tuned imaging (CnTI) and the contrast medium SonoVue for discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses with solid components.

    PubMed

    Testa, A C; Timmerman, D; Van Belle, V; Fruscella, E; Van Holsbeke, C; Savelli, L; Ferrazzi, E; Leone, F P G; Marret, H; Tranquart, F; Exacoustos, C; Nazzaro, G; Bokor, D; Magri, F; Van Huffel, S; Ferrandina, G; Valentin, L

    2009-12-01

    To determine whether intravenous contrast ultrasound examination is superior to gray-scale or power Doppler ultrasound for discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses with complex ultrasound morphology. In an international multicenter study, 134 patients with an ovarian mass with solid components or a multilocular cyst with more than 10 cyst locules, underwent a standardized transvaginal ultrasound examination followed by contrast examination using the contrast-tuned imaging technique and intravenous injection of the contrast medium SonoVue(R). Time intensity curves were constructed, and peak intensity, area under the intensity curve, time to peak, sharpness and half wash-out time were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity with regard to malignancy were calculated and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves were drawn for gray-scale, power Doppler and contrast variables and for pattern recognition (subjective assignment of a certainly benign, probably benign, uncertain or malignant diagnosis, using gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound findings). The gold standard was the histological diagnosis of the surgically removed tumors. After exclusions (surgical removal of the mass > 3 months after the ultrasound examination, technical problems), 72 adnexal masses with solid components were used in our statistical analyses. The values for peak contrast signal intensity and area under the contrast signal intensity curve in malignant tumors were significantly higher than those in borderline tumors and benign tumors, while those for the benign and borderline tumors were similar. The area under the ROC curve of the best contrast variable with regard to diagnosing borderline or invasive malignancy (0.84) was larger than that of the best gray-scale (0.75) and power Doppler ultrasound variable (0.79) but smaller than that of pattern recognition (0.93). Findings on ultrasound contrast examination differed between benign and malignant tumors but there

  14. Classification of Inhomogeneous Media in Tomography Based on Their Contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Anikonov, D.S.; Nazarov, V.G.

    2005-10-15

    The classification of pairs of different substances in accordance with the degree of tomographic visibility of the interfaces between these substances is considered. The classification is performed without using tomographic information and can be considered as a prediction of the quality of the subsequent reconstruction of an unknown medium. The study is based on the solution of the problem of x-ray tomography aimed at the determination of the inner structure of an unknown medium by radiation probing. The classification involves finding the contrast coefficient and studying the character of its energy dependence. The results are illustrated by plots and tomograms obtained by computer simulation.

  15. Interindividual variability of arterial impulse response to intravenous injection of nonionic contrast agent (Iohexol) in DCE-CT study

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. M.; Haider, M. A.; Milosevic, M.; Yeung, I. W. T.

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: It is known that the arterial input function (AIF) in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-CT differs among patients even for fixed contrast injection protocols. Therefore, a study has been performed to investigate the interindividual variability of the AIF with respect to patient factors (such as weight, height, and age). In addition, it has been demonstrated that the relations from the interindividual variability investigation can be further used for the estimation of AIF for a patient without the requirement of measurement. Methods: DCE-CT data for a cohort of 34 patients with cervical carcinoma were used for the investigation of interindividual variability of the AIF. To dissociate the effect of different durations of contrast injection, the arterial impulse response (AIR) to intravenous contrast injection was calculated and examined for its correlations with these patient factors. An empirical functional form was proposed to model the AIR with temporal intensity of a first pass of contrast agent followed by recirculation and quasiequilibrium state of contrast concentration. Specific features (onset time, peak time, and amplitudes) of the AIR were tested for correlations with the patient factors. Linear regression was applied to cases that show significant strong correlation between the AIR amplitudes and patient factors. The results were then used to predict the AIR for any given patient based on the patient factors. It was shown that using the predicted AIR, the AIF of the patient can be estimated without the requirement of measurement given the injection protocol is known. The method of AIF estimation was tested in DCE-CT data from another group of 14 patients. The efficacy of individually estimated AIF on pharmacokinetic analysis was assessed against the use of measured AIF and population-averaged AIF as the latter is another possible strategy for AIF generation if AIF measurement is not available. Results: It was found that the amplitudes of AIR

  16. Value of MR contrast media in image-guided body interventions.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Maythem; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-28

    In the past few years, there have been multiple advances in magnetic resonance (MR) instrumentation, in vivo devices, real-time imaging sequences and interventional procedures with new therapies. More recently, interventionists have started to use minimally invasive image-guided procedures and local therapies, which reduce the pain from conventional surgery and increase drug effectiveness, respectively. Local therapy also reduces the systemic dose and eliminates the toxic side effects of some drugs to other organs. The success of MR-guided procedures depends on visualization of the targets in 3D and precise deployment of ablation catheters, local therapies and devices. MR contrast media provide a wealth of tissue contrast and allows 3D and 4D image acquisitions. After the development of fast imaging sequences, the clinical applications of MR contrast media have been substantially expanded to include pre- during- and post-interventions. Prior to intervention, MR contrast media have the potential to localize and delineate pathologic tissues of vital organs, such as the brain, heart, breast, kidney, prostate, liver and uterus. They also offer other options such as labeling therapeutic agents or cells. During intervention, these agents have the capability to map blood vessels and enhance the contrast between the endovascular guidewire/catheters/devices, blood and tissues as well as direct therapies to the target. Furthermore, labeling therapeutic agents or cells aids in visualizing their delivery sites and tracking their tissue distribution. After intervention, MR contrast media have been used for assessing the efficacy of ablation and therapies. It should be noted that most image-guided procedures are under preclinical research and development. It can be concluded that MR contrast media have great value in preclinical and some clinical interventional procedures. Future applications of MR contrast media in image-guided procedures depend on their safety, tolerability

  17. Value of MR contrast media in image-guided body interventions

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Maythem; Wilson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, there have been multiple advances in magnetic resonance (MR) instrumentation, in vivo devices, real-time imaging sequences and interventional procedures with new therapies. More recently, interventionists have started to use minimally invasive image-guided procedures and local therapies, which reduce the pain from conventional surgery and increase drug effectiveness, respectively. Local therapy also reduces the systemic dose and eliminates the toxic side effects of some drugs to other organs. The success of MR-guided procedures depends on visualization of the targets in 3D and precise deployment of ablation catheters, local therapies and devices. MR contrast media provide a wealth of tissue contrast and allows 3D and 4D image acquisitions. After the development of fast imaging sequences, the clinical applications of MR contrast media have been substantially expanded to include pre- during- and post-interventions. Prior to intervention, MR contrast media have the potential to localize and delineate pathologic tissues of vital organs, such as the brain, heart, breast, kidney, prostate, liver and uterus. They also offer other options such as labeling therapeutic agents or cells. During intervention, these agents have the capability to map blood vessels and enhance the contrast between the endovascular guidewire/catheters/devices, blood and tissues as well as direct therapies to the target. Furthermore, labeling therapeutic agents or cells aids in visualizing their delivery sites and tracking their tissue distribution. After intervention, MR contrast media have been used for assessing the efficacy of ablation and therapies. It should be noted that most image-guided procedures are under preclinical research and development. It can be concluded that MR contrast media have great value in preclinical and some clinical interventional procedures. Future applications of MR contrast media in image-guided procedures depend on their safety, tolerability

  18. Automatic Determination of the Need for Intravenous Contrast in Musculoskeletal MRI Examinations Using IBM Watson's Natural Language Processing Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Hari; Mesterhazy, Joseph; Laguna, Benjamin; Vu, Thienkhai; Sohn, Jae Ho

    2017-09-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocoling can be time- and resource-intensive, and protocols can often be suboptimal dependent upon the expertise or preferences of the protocoling radiologist. Providing a best-practice recommendation for an MRI protocol has the potential to improve efficiency and decrease the likelihood of a suboptimal or erroneous study. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a machine learning-based natural language classifier that can automatically assign the use of intravenous contrast for musculoskeletal MRI protocols based upon the free-text clinical indication of the study, thereby improving efficiency of the protocoling radiologist and potentially decreasing errors. We utilized a deep learning-based natural language classification system from IBM Watson, a question-answering supercomputer that gained fame after challenging the best human players on Jeopardy! in 2011. We compared this solution to a series of traditional machine learning-based natural language processing techniques that utilize a term-document frequency matrix. Each classifier was trained with 1240 MRI protocols plus their respective clinical indications and validated with a test set of 280. Ground truth of contrast assignment was obtained from the clinical record. For evaluation of inter-reader agreement, a blinded second reader radiologist analyzed all cases and determined contrast assignment based on only the free-text clinical indication. In the test set, Watson demonstrated overall accuracy of 83.2% when compared to the original protocol. This was similar to the overall accuracy of 80.2% achieved by an ensemble of eight traditional machine learning algorithms based on a term-document matrix. When compared to the second reader's contrast assignment, Watson achieved 88.6% agreement. When evaluating only the subset of cases where the original protocol and second reader were concordant (n = 251), agreement climbed further to 90.0%. The classifier was

  19. Prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media: a consensus report and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Morcos, S K; Thomsen, H S; Webb, J A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document, using consensus methodology, current practice for prevention of generalized reactions to contrast media, to identify areas where there is disagreement or confusion and to draw up guidelines for reducing the risk of generalized contrast media reactions based on the survey and a review of the literature. A document with 165 questions was mailed to 202 members of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology. The questions covered risk factors and prophylactic measures for generalized contrast media reactions. Sixty-eight members (34%) responded. The majority indicated that a history of moderate and severe reaction(s) to contrast media and asthma are important risk factors. The survey also indicated that patients with risk factors should receive non-ionic contrast media. In patients at high risk of reaction, if the examination is deemed absolutely necessary, a resuscitation team should be available at the time of the procedure. The majority (91%) used corticosteroid prophylaxis given at least 11 h before contrast medium to patients at increased risk of reaction. The frequency of the dosage varied from one to three times. Fifty-five percent also use antihistamine Hl, mainly administered orally and once. Antihistamine H2 and ephedrine are rarely used. All essential drugs are available on the emergency resuscitation trolley. Patients with risk factors are observed up to 30 min by 48% and up to 60 min by 43% of the responders. Prophylactic measures are not taken before extravascular use of contrast media. Prophylactic drugs are given to patients with a history of moderate or severe generalized reaction to contrast media. In patients with asthma, opinion is divided with only half of the responders giving prophylactic drugs. Aspirin, beta-blockers, interleukin-2 and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are not considered risk factors and therefore are not stopped before injection of contrast media. The survey showed some variability in

  20. Coronary computed tomography angiography - tolerability of β-blockers and contrast media, and temporal changes in radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Charlotte; Thomsen, Camilla F; Hosbond, Susanne E; Thomassen, Anders; Mickley, Hans; Diederichsen, Axel C P

    2014-10-01

    To determine the risk in administering β-blockers, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and the trend in X-ray use, during coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). A total of 416 patients were referred for elective CCTA. To achieve a resting heart rate below 60 beats per minute, oral and/or intravenous β-blockers were administered. Using questionnaires, information on the adverse effects of β-blockers was collected from the patients. The levels of s-creatinine and estimated GFR (eGFR) were measured before and after contrast enhanced CCTA. Radiation exposure was compared with the exposure 3 years earlier. There was no significant difference in the symptoms (dizziness, lipothymia and palpitations) between patients with and patients without β-blocker pretreatment. Compared to baseline values, the decrease in s-creatinine was not significant (75.2 vs. 74.6 μmol/L, p = 0.09), while the increase in eGFR was not significant (78 vs. 79 mL/min, p = 0.17). Also, subgroups of patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or pre-existing slight impairment in renal function did not develop CIN. The mean radiation exposure decreased from 17.5 to 6.7 mSv, p < 0.0001. In terms of the side effects of β-blockers and contrast media, there were no short term complications to CCTA. Furthermore, the radiation dose has been dramatically diminished over the last three years.

  1. High Atomic Number Contrast Media Offer Potential for Radiation Dose Reduction in Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Ann-Christin; Hupfer, Martin; Kolditz, Daniel; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus; Kalender, Willi A

    2016-04-01

    Spectral optimization of x-ray computed tomography (CT) has led to substantial radiation dose reduction in contrast-enhanced CT studies using standard iodinated contrast media. The purpose of this study was to analyze the potential for further dose reduction using high-atomic-number elements such as hafnium and tungsten. As in previous studies, spectra were determined for which the patient dose necessary to provide a given contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) is minimized. We used 2 different quasi-anthropomorphic phantoms representing the liver cross-section of a normal adult and an obese adult patient with the lateral widths of 360 and 460 mm and anterior-posterior heights of 200 and 300 mm, respectively. We simulated and measured on 2 different scanners with x-ray spectra from 80 to 140 kV and from 70 to 150 kV, respectively. We determined the contrast for iodine-, hafnium-, and tungsten-based contrast media, the noise, and 3-dimensional dose distributions at all available tube voltages by measurements and by simulations. The dose-weighted CNR was determined as optimization parameter. Simulations and measurements were in good agreement regarding their dependence on energy for all parameters investigated. Hafnium provided the best performance for normal and for obese patient phantoms, indicating a dose reduction potential of 30% for normal and 50% for obese patients at 120 kV compared with iodine; this advantage increased further with higher kV values. Dose-weighted CNR values for tungsten were always slightly below the hafnium results. Iodine proved to be the superior choice at voltage values of 80 kV and below. Hafnium and tungsten both seem to be candidates for contrast-medium-enhanced CT of normal and obese adult patients with strongly reduced radiation dose at unimpaired image quality. Computed tomography examinations of obese patients will decrease in dose for higher kV values.

  2. Contrast Media–Doped Hydrodissection During Thermal Ablation: Optimizing Contrast Media Concentration for Improved Visibility on CT Images

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Calista; Lubner, Meghan G.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; del Rio, Alejandro Muñoz; Brace, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to determine a concentration of iodinated contrast media in saline and 5% dextrose in water (D5W) for organ hydrodissection, a technique used to physically separate and protect tissues adjacent to thermal ablations. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 28 samples were prepared from 1:1000–1:1 iohexol or iothalamate meglumine contrast media in either normal saline or D5W. Samples alone or juxtaposed with a homogeneous liver-mimicking phantom were imaged by CT using 80–120 kVp and 10–300 mAs. Mean CT numbers and noise were measured from the fluid, background air, phantom adjacent to the fluid, and phantom distant from the fluid. Visibility was determined from the contrast-to-noise ratio between the fluid and phantom, whereas streaking artifact was quantified by relative noise in the phantom. Measures were individually fit using multiple linear regression to determine an optimal contrast-to-fluid ratio for increased visualization without streaking. Contrast media– and blood-doped saline and D5W were also tested to determine whether such doping altered their electrical conductivity. RESULTS Iohexol concentration most influenced CT number; volumetric ratios of 1:1000–1:1 produced 20 HU to over 3000 HU. CT numbers were weakly dependent on x-ray tube voltage, whereas contrast-to-noise ratio and streaking artifacts were somewhat dependent on tube output. An optimal ratio of iohexol in fluid was determined to be 1:50. There was no significant difference between the electrical impedances of doped and pure saline or D5W (p > 0.5, all cases). CONCLUSION A 1:50 ratio of iohexol in saline or D5W provides an optimal combination of increased visibility on CT without streaking artifacts. PMID:22915411

  3. [Tolerability of nonionic contrast media--results of a multicenter double blind study].

    PubMed

    Schmiedel, E

    1992-05-01

    The aim of the randomized multicentre double-blind study was to establish whether nonionic contrast media differ in tolerability. The controlled comparison was conducted at 4 centres on a total of 798 patients with indication for i.v. DSA and computed tomography. The nonionic contrast media Iopamidol and Iopromide with an iodine content of 300 mg/ml each were studied. The osmolality of both contrast media is virtually identical. Both groups of patients were largely homogeneous in terms of demographic data and case history. The history of allergies was positive in 32.4% of the Iopamidol group and in 32.3% of the Iopromide group. The arithmetic mean of the doses administered to each patients was 148.3 and 149.3 ml, respectively. At all 4 centres there was a higher incidence of adverse events with Iopromide than with Iopamidol. The main differences with regard to pseudo-allergic reactions was the incidence of urticarial reactions, pruritus, nausea, vomiting and coughing. 89 of the 399 patients (22.3%) receiving Iopamidol and 120 of the 399 patients (30.1%) receiving Iopromide experienced pseudo-allergic reactions. The difference between both contrast media is statistically significant (p less than 0.05). There is a 95% certainty that less pseudo-allergic reactions will occur after an Iopamidol injection than after Iopromide. Possible explanations for the differences in tolerability between the two nonionic contrast media with identical osmolality are discussed.

  4. Endolymphatic Hydrops Reversal following Acetazolamide Therapy: Demonstration with Delayed Intravenous Contrast-Enhanced 3D-FLAIR MRI.

    PubMed

    Sepahdari, A R; Vorasubin, N; Ishiyama, G; Ishiyama, A

    2016-01-01

    Endolymphatic hydrops, the primary pathologic alteration in Menière disease, can be visualized by using delayed intravenous contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR MR imaging. It is not known whether MR imaging-demonstrable changes of hydrops fluctuate with disease activity or are fixed. We describe the results of baseline and posttreatment MR imaging studies in a group of subjects with Menière disease with hydrops who were treated with acetazolamide. Seven subjects with untreated Menière disease with MR imaging evidence of hydrops had repeat MR imaging during acetazolamide treatment. Symptoms and imaging findings were assessed at each time point. Five subjects showed symptom improvement, of whom 3 had improvement or resolution of hydrops. One subject had recurrent symptoms with recurrent hydrops after discontinuing therapy. Two had unchanged hydrops despite symptom improvement. Subjects with unchanged symptoms had unchanged hydrops. Hydrops reversal may be seen with acetazolamide treatment in Menière disease. MR imaging may provide an additional biomarker of disease.

  5. Comparison of Non-contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography and Intravenous Pyelogram for Detection of Patients With Urinary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Go San; Jang, Seok Heun; Son, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Jae Won; Hwang, Jae Seung; Lim, Chae Hong; Kim, Dae Ji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the changing pattern in the use of intravenous pyelogram (IVP), conventional computed tomography (CT), and non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) for evaluation of patients with acute flank pain. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,180 patients with acute flank pain who had visited Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012 and analyzed the use of IVP, conventional CT, and NECT for these patients. Results During the study period there was a significant increase in NECT use (p<0.001) and a significant decrease in IVP use (p<0.001). Conventional CT use was also increased significantly (p=0.001). During this time the proportion of patients with acute flank pain who were diagnosed with urinary calculi did not change significantly (p=0.971). Conclusions There was a great shift in the use of imaging study from IVP to NECT between 2008 and 2012 for patients with acute flank pain. PMID:24578808

  6. NLRP3 inflammasome mediates contrast media-induced acute kidney injury by regulating cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianxiao; Wang, Ling; Jiang, Na; Mou, Shan; Zhang, Minfang; Gu, Leyi; Shao, Xinghua; Wang, Qin; Qi, Chaojun; Li, Shu; Wang, Wanpeng; Che, Xiajing; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media serves as a direct causative factor of acute kidney injury (AKI) and is involved in the progression of cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. Emerging evidence indicates that NLRP3 inflammasome triggers inflammation, apoptosis and tissue injury during AKI. Nevertheless, the underlying renoprotection mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome against contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI) was still uncertain. This study investigated the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in CI-AKI both in vitro and in vivo. In HK-2 cells and unilateral nephrectomy model, NLRP3 and NLRP3 inflammasome member ASC were significantly augmented with the treatment of contrast media. Moreover, genetic disruption of NLRP3 notably reversed contrast-induced expression of apoptosis related proteins and secretion of proinflammatory factors, similarly to the effects of ASC deletion. Consistent with above results, absence of NLRP3 in mice undergoing unilateral nephrectomy also protected against contrast media-induced renal cells phenotypic alteration and cell apoptosis via modulating expression level of apoptotic proteins. Collectively, we demonstrated that NLRP3 inflammasome mediated CI-AKI through modulating the apoptotic pathway, which provided a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of contrast media induced acute kidney injury. PMID:27721494

  7. Renal function, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and other adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast media.

    PubMed

    Canga, Ana; Kislikova, Maria; Martínez-Gálvez, María; Arias, Mercedes; Fraga-Rivas, Patricia; Poyatos, Cecilio; de Francisco, Angel L M

    2014-01-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a fibrosing disorder that affects patients with impaired renal function and is associated with the administration of gadolinium-based contrast media used in MRI. Despite being in a group of drugs that were considered safe, report about this potentially serious adverse reaction was a turning point in the administration guidelines of these contrast media. There has been an attempt to establish safety parameters to identify patients with risk factors of renal failure. The close pharmacovigilance and strict observation of current regulations, with special attention being paid to the value of glomerular filtration, have reduced the published cases involving the use of gadolinium-based contrast media. In a meeting between radiologists and nephrologists we reviewed the most relevant aspects currently and recommendations for its prevention.

  8. [Roentgen contrast media, source for AOX-contamination of waste water by hospitals].

    PubMed

    Erbe, T; Kümmerer, K; Gartiser, S; Brinker, L

    1998-10-01

    To identify the sources for the exceeding of the upper limit of the AOX (adsorbable organic halogen, X = Cl, Br, I) in hospital waste-water and to estimate the contribution of hospital waste-water to the AOX of municipal waste-water. For several hospitals with different medical directions, the expected AOX-concentration, as far as it is caused by iodine contrast media, was ascertained by the contrast media consumption and the water consumption. The results were compared with the measured AOX concentrations. The AOX-concentration of hospital waste-water varies between 0.41 mg/l and 0.94 mg/l. As a source of AOX iodine contrast media have been identified and may contribute considerably to the AOX. Hospitals with a radiological department may exceed the upper limit of the AOX which has to be observed in German municipal waste-water.

  9. [Radiographic, MR or ultrasound contrast media in pregnant or breast-feeding women: what are the key issues?].

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, J M; Kubik-Huch, R A

    2013-01-01

    The use and the safety of radiographic, MR- or ultrasound contrast media in the diagnostic work-up of pregnant or lactating patients is a frequently discussed question. As only sparse clinical data is available, a careful benefit-risk assessment must contain physico-chemical properties, preclinical data including teratogeneity and embryotoxicity, as well as maternal and foetal exposure. With consideration to the individual risks, iodinated contrast media, macrocyclic MR contrast media with increased stability or sulphur hexafluoride ultrasound contrast media may, if clinically justified, be administered in the smallest possible doses throughout pregnancy. After parental administration of an iodinated contrast medium after the 12th week of pregnancy, the neonate's thyroidal function should be checked during the first week after birth. After parental administration of iodinated, stable macrocyclic, gadolinium or ultrasound contrast media, lactation can be continued normally. In any case, contrast media should be used with caution and only if the benefits outweigh the risk.

  10. Quantitative dosimetric assessment for effect of gold nanoparticles as contrast media on radiotherapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shu-Ju; Yang, Pei-Ying; Hong, Ji-Hong; Lo, Ching-Jung

    2013-07-01

    In CT planning for radiation therapy, patients may be asked to have a medical procedure of contrast agent (CA) administration as required by their physicians. CA media improve quality of CT images and assist radiation oncologists in delineation of the target or organs with accuracy. However, dosimetric discrepancy may occur between scenarios in which CA media are present in CT planning and absent in treatment delivery. In recent preclinical experiments of small animals, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been identified as an excellent contrast material of x-ray imaging. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate the effect of AuNPs to be used as a potential material of contrast enhancement in radiotherapy planning with an analytical phantom and clinical case. Conray 60, an iodine-based product for contrast enhancement in clinical uses, is included as a comparison. Other additional variables such as different concentrations of CA media, radiation delivery techniques and dose calculation algorithms are included. We consider 1-field AP, 4-field box, 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). CA media of AuNPs (Conray 60) with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% containing 28.2, 56.4, 84.6, 112.8 and 141.0 mg of gold (iodine) per mL were prepared prior to CT scanning. A virtual phantom with a target where nanoparticle media are loaded and clinical case of gastric lymphoma in which the Conray 60 media were given to the patient prior to the CT planning are included for the study. Compared to Conray 60 media with concentration of 10%/50%, Hounsfield units for AuNP media of 10%/50% are 322/1608 higher due to the fact that atomic number of Au (Z=79) is larger than I (Z=53). In consequence, dosimetric discrepancy of AuNPs is magnified between presence and absence of contrast media. It was found in the phantom study that percent dose differences between presence and absence of CA media may be

  11. Contrast Media Delivery in the Assessment of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Saade, Charbel; Al-Hamra, Salam; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2016-05-01

    A patient with a history of mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation that was corrected with a mitral ring repair 15 years earlier received a diagnosis of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery and underwent repair. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) was employed to image the patient before surgical intervention. Synchronizing contrast media administration to opacify the right coronary artery in the arterial phase and the left coronary artery in the venous phase required a test-bolus approach. Matching compromised cardiovascular dynamics with patient-specific contrast media administration protocols was improved considerably with the use of a test-bolus technique during electrocardiography-gated coronary CTA.

  12. Skin testing in patients with hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media - a European multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Brockow, K; Romano, A; Aberer, W; Bircher, A J; Barbaud, A; Bonadonna, P; Faria, E; Kanny, G; Lerch, M; Pichler, W J; Ring, J; Rodrigues Cernadas, J; Tomaz, E; Demoly, P; Christiansen, C

    2009-02-01

    Iodinated contrast media cause both immediate and nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of skin tests in patients who have experienced such reactions. Skin prick, intradermal and patch tests with a series of contrast media were conducted in 220 patients with either immediate or nonimmediate reaction. Positive skin tests were defined according to internationally accepted guidelines. Seventy-one never-exposed subjects and 11 subjects who had tolerated contrast medium exposure, served as negative controls. Skin test specificity was 96-100%. For tests conducted within the time period from 2 to 6 months after the reaction, up to 50% of immediate reactors and up to 47% of nonimmediate reactors were skin test positive. For immediate reactors, the intradermal tests were the most sensitive, whereas delayed intradermal tests in combination with patch tests were needed for optimal sensitivity in nonimmediate reactors. Contrast medium cross-reactivity was more common in the nonimmediate than in the immediate group. Interestingly, 49% of immediate and 52% of nonimmediate symptoms occurred in previously unexposed patients. Many of these patients were skin test positive, indicating that they were already sensitized at the time of first contrast medium exposure. These data suggest that at least 50% of hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media are caused by an immunological mechanism. Skin testing appears to be a useful tool for diagnosis of contrast medium allergy and may play an important role in selection of a safe product in previous reactors.

  13. Glomerular filtration rate in evaluation of the effect of iodinated contrast media on renal function.

    PubMed

    Becker, Joshua; Babb, James; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to use measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the reference standard of renal function, to assess the deleterious effect of iodinated contrast media on renal function. Such an effect has been traditionally defined as a greater than 0.5-mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration or a 25% or greater increase 24-72 hours after the injection of iodinated contrast medium. This pilot investigation was focused on the consequences of clinically indicated IV injection of iodinated contrast media; intraarterial injection was excluded. One hundred thirteen patients with normal serum creatinine concentrations were enrolled in an approved protocol. At random, as chosen by one of the investigators, patients underwent imaging with one of three monomeric agents (iopamidol 300, iopromide 300, iohexol 300) and one dimeric agent (iodixanol 320). Measured GFR was determined immediately before CT and approximately 3 and 72 hours after the contrast injection for the CT examination. Iodinated contrast medium, a glomerular filtrate with no tubular excretion or reabsorption, was the GFR marker. Measured GFR was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis with nonisotopic iodinated contrast media. Monomeric and dimeric contrast agents in diagnostic CT volumes (based on bodyweight and imaging protocol) did not induce a significant change in measured GFR (95% confidence by Wilcoxon test), suggesting that use of the evaluated contrast media will not lead to more than a 12% variation. The three monomeric agents studied and the one dimeric agent were equivalent in terms of lack of a significant effect on measured GFR when administered to patients with a normal GFR.

  14. Adverse reactions following administration of contrast media for diagnostic imaging in anaesthetized dogs and cats: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Scarabelli, Stefania; Cripps, Peter; Rioja, Eva; Alderson, Briony

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate incidences of adverse reaction after the administration of contrast media. Retrospective observational study. Animals included 356 dogs and 58 cats receiving non-ionic iodinated contrast agents, and 425 dogs and 49 cats receiving gadolinium-based contrast agents. Anaesthesia records of dogs and cats receiving intravenous (IV) gadobutrol for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or IV iohexol for computed tomography (CT) were reviewed. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate and mean arterial pressure at 5 minutes after administration of the contrast medium were evaluated. Changes of 10-20% were considered mild, those of >20% moderate, and reactions that required immediate treatment were considered severe. Associations of sex, age and weight with contrast reaction were investigated using logistic regression. Differences in the incidences of reactions to CT and MRI contrast media were examined with chi-squared tests. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Of cats receiving iohexol, eight (13.8%) had mild and 10 (17.2%) had moderate reactions. Of cats receiving gadobutrol, six (12.2%) had mild and six (12.2%) had moderate reactions. No cats had severe reactions and the risk for reaction was not associated with type of medium, age, weight or sex (p > 0.2). Of dogs receiving iohexol, 64 (18.0%) had mild, 65 (18.3%) had moderate and three (0.8%) had severe reactions. Of dogs receiving gadobutrol, 42 (9.9%) had mild, 87 (20.5%) had moderate and one (0.2%) had a severe reaction. When dogs receiving iohexol were compared with those receiving gadobutrol, the odds ratio of a moderate reaction was 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.34-3.10; p = 0.001). These estimates did not change substantially after adjustment for age, weight and sex. Severe reactions to iohexol and gadobutrol are rare in dogs and cats; moderate reactions are more likely with iohexol than with gadobutrol. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the

  15. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: 1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and 2) playing action video games (a particular sub-type of video game). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, while playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. As these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impact of technology use on attention. Across four experiments (AX-CPT, N-back, Task-switching and Filter task), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we show that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking occasionally performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together this study shows that media consumption can have complex and counter-intuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982

  16. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  17. Microvascular resistance in response to iodinated contrast media in normal and functionally impaired kidneys.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Osamu; Takano, Masamichi; Uchiyama, Saori; Fukuizumi, Isamu; Shimura, Tetsuro; Matsushita, Masato; Komiyama, Hidenori; Inami, Toru; Murakami, Daisuke; Munakata, Ryo; Ohba, Takayoshi; Hata, Noritake; Seino, Yoshihiko; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-12-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is considered to result from intrarenal vasoconstriction, and occurs more frequently in impaired than in normal kidneys. It was hypothesized that iodinated contrast media would markedly change renal blood flow and vascular resistance in functionally impaired kidneys. Thirty-six patients were enrolled (32 men; mean age, 75.3 ± 7.6 years) undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and were divided into two groups based on the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (CKD and non-CKD groups, n = 18 in both). Average peak velocity (APV) and renal artery resistance index (RI) were measured by Doppler flow wire before and after administration of the iodinated contrast media. The APV and the RI were positively and inversely correlated with the eGFR at baseline, respectively (APV, R = 0.545, P = 0.001; RI, R = -0.627, P < 0.001). Mean RI was significantly higher (P = 0.015) and APV was significantly lower (P = 0.026) in the CKD than in the non-CKD group. Both APV (P < 0.001) and RI (P = 0.002) were significantly changed following contrast media administration in the non-CKD group, but not in the CKD group (APV, P = 0.258; RI, P = 0.707). Although renal arterial resistance was higher in patients with CKD, it was not affected by contrast media administration, suggesting that patients with CKD could have an attenuated response to contrast media.

  18. Contrast media induced nephropathy: a literature review of the available evidence and recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Deek, Hiba; Newton, Phillip; Sheerin, Noella; Noureddine, Samar; Davidson, Patricia M

    2014-11-01

    Contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN) is a sudden compromise of renal function 24-48 h after administering contrast medium during a CT scan or angiography. CIN accounts for 10% of hospital acquired renal failure and is ranked the third cause of acquiring this condition. Identifying patients at risk through proper screening can reduce the occurrence of this condition. This review paper aims to critique current evidence, provide a better understanding of CIN, inform nursing practice and make recommendations for bedside nurses and future research. An integrative review of the literature was made using the key terms: "contrast media", "nephritis", "nephropathy", "contrast media induced nephropathy scores", "acute kidney failure", "acute renal failure" and "acute kidney injury". MeSH key terms used in some databases were: "prevention and control", "acute kidney failure" and "treatment". Databases searched included Medline, CINAHL and Academic Search Complete, and references of relevant articles were also assessed. The search included all articles between the years 2000 and 2013. Sixty-seven articles were obtained as a result of the search, including RCTs, systematic reviews, and retrospective studies. Contrast media induced nephropathy is an iatrogenic complication occurring secondary to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. At times it is unavoidable but a systematic method of risk assessment should be adopted to identify high risk patients for tailored and targeted approaches to management interventions. As the use of contrast media is increasing for diagnostic purposes, it is important that nurses be aware of the risk factors for CIN, identify and monitor high risk patients to prevent deterioration in renal function when possible. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of presence of kidney disease in a general patient population undergoing intravenous iodinated contrast enhanced computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Moos, Shira I; Stoker, Jaap; Nagan, Gajenthiran; de Weijert, Roderick S; van Vemde, David N H; Bipat, Shandra

    2014-06-01

    To assess which risk factors can be used to reduce superfluous estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements before intravenous contrast medium administration. In consecutive patients, all decreased eGFR risk factors were assessed: diabetes mellitus (DM), history of urologic/nephrologic disease (HUND), nephrotoxic medication, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, age > 60 years, anaemia, malignancy and multiple myeloma/M. Waldenström. We studied four models: (1) all risk factors, (2) DM, HUND, hypertension, age > 60 years; (3) DM, HUND, cardiovascular disease, hypertension; (4) DM, HUND, age > 75 years and congestive heart failure. For each model, association with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was studied. A total of 998 patients, mean age 59.94 years were included; 112 with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 30 with eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Model 1 detected 816 patients: 108 with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and all 30 with eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Model 2 detected 745 patients: 108 with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and all 30 with eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Model 3 detected 622 patients: 100 with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and all 30 with eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Model 4 detected 440 patients: 86 with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and all 30 with eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Associations were significant (p < 0.001). Model 4 is most effective, resulting in the lowest proportion of superfluous eGFR measurements while detecting all patients with eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and most with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). A major risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is kidney disease. Risk factors are used to identify patients with pre-existent kidney disease. Evidence for risk factors to identify patients with kidney disease is limited. The number of eGFR measurements to detect kidney disease can be reduced.

  20. Prediction of presence of kidney disease in patients undergoing intravenous iodinated contrast enhanced computed tomography: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Sanne M; Stoker, Jaap; Bipat, Shandra

    2017-04-01

    To validate two previously presented models containing risk factors to identify patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In random patients undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) the following risk factors were assessed: history of urological/nephrological disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, congestive heart failure, other cardiovascular disease or multiple myeloma or Waldenström disease. Data on kidney function, age, gender and type and indication of CECT were also registered. We studied two models: model A-diabetes mellitus, history of urological/nephrological disease, cardiovascular disease, hypertension; model B-diabetes mellitus, history of urological/nephrological disease, age >75 years and congestive heart failure. For each model, associations with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was studied. A total of 1,001 patients, mean age 60.36 years were included. In total, 92 (9.2 %) patients had an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 11 (1.1 %) patients an eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Model A detected 543 patients: 81 with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (missing 11) and all 11 with eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Model B detected 420 patients: 70 (missing 22) with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and all 11 with eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Associations were significant (p < 0.05). Model B resulted in the lowest superfluous eGFR measurements while detecting all patients with eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and nearly all with eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). • Less than 10% of patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CT have an eGFR of <60ml/min/1.73m (2) • Four risk factors can be used to detect pre-existent kidney disease • It is safe to reduce eGFR measurements using a four-risk-factor model.

  1. Application of contrast media in post-mortem imaging (CT and MRI).

    PubMed

    Grabherr, Silke; Grimm, Jochen; Baumann, Pia; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    The application of contrast media in post-mortem radiology differs from clinical approaches in living patients. Post-mortem changes in the vascular system and the absence of blood flow lead to specific problems that have to be considered for the performance of post-mortem angiography. In addition, interpreting the images is challenging due to technique-related and post-mortem artefacts that have to be known and that are specific for each applied technique. Although the idea of injecting contrast media is old, classic methods are not simply transferable to modern radiological techniques in forensic medicine, as they are mostly dedicated to single-organ studies or applicable only shortly after death. With the introduction of modern imaging techniques, such as post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR), to forensic death investigations, intensive research started to explore their advantages and limitations compared to conventional autopsy. PMCT has already become a routine investigation in several centres, and different techniques have been developed to better visualise the vascular system and organ parenchyma in PMCT. In contrast, the use of PMMR is still limited due to practical issues, and research is now starting in the field of PMMR angiography. This article gives an overview of the problems in post-mortem contrast media application, the various classic and modern techniques, and the issues to consider by using different media.

  2. Preston M. Hickey memorial lecture. Ionic and nonionic iodinated contrast media: evolution and strategies for use.

    PubMed

    McClennan, B L

    1990-08-01

    The search for better radiopaque iodinated contrast material for intravascular use is continuing, but the recent development of new lower osmolality contrast media (LOCM), both ionic and nonionic, has dramatically affected the practice of radiology. The major issue retarding the introduction of LOCM into clinical practice in this country has been the increased cost of the media. Numerous preliminary assumptions and probabilities about the tolerance, efficacy, and overall safety of LOCM have been documented in scientific studies. The lower osmolality, reduced chemotoxicity, and high hydrophilicity of new compounds, particularly the nonionic variety compared with conventional high osmolality ionic agents (HOCM), offer a significant margin of safety to patients with known risk factors. Mounting data suggest that low or no risk patients are benefited as well, perhaps to an even greater degree. Costly trade-offs to the universal use of LOCM exist, therefore careful consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of LOCM for intravascular administration is required. This article, presented as the Preston M. Hickey Memorial Lecture to the Michigan Radiological Society in March of 1990, explores the historical development of iodinated intravascular contrast media, especially LOCM, and cites existing data that form the basis for various strategies for their use, that is, selective, universal, or nonvascular use. Better, safer, and less expensive contrast media are a realistic expectation in this new decade of technological promise. Reducing adverse side effects from the use of any new drug or technology must be our continued, collective goal.

  3. Simulation and source identification of X-ray contrast media in the water cycle of Berlin.

    PubMed

    Knodel, J; Geissen, S-U; Broll, J; Dünnbier, U

    2011-11-01

    This article describes the development of a model to simulate the fate of iodinated X-ray contrast media (XRC) in the water cycle of the German capital, Berlin. It also handles data uncertainties concerning the different amounts and sources of input for XRC via source densities in single districts for the XRC usage by inhabitants, hospitals, and radiologists. As well, different degradation rates for the behavior of the adsorbable organic iodine (AOI) were investigated in single water compartments. The introduced model consists of mass balances and includes, in addition to naturally branched bodies of water, the water distribution network between waterways and wastewater treatment plants, which are coupled to natural surface waters at numerous points. Scenarios were calculated according to the data uncertainties that were statistically evaluated to identify the scenario with the highest agreement among the provided measurement data. The simulation of X-ray contrast media in the water cycle of Berlin showed that medical institutions have to be considered as point sources for congested urban areas due to their high levels of X-ray contrast media emission. The calculations identified hospitals, represented by their capacity (number of hospital beds), as the most relevant point sources, while the inhabitants served as important diffusive sources. Deployed for almost inert substances like contrast media, the model can be used for qualitative statements and, therefore, as a decision-support tool.

  4. Interactions between iodinated contrast media and tissue plasminogen activator: In vitro comparison study.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Eszter; Deres, László; Halmosi, Róbert; Várady, Edit; Tóth, Kálmán; Battyáni, István

    2017-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (Xenetix®, Ultravist®, Omnipaque®, Visipaque® and Iomeron®) used for computed tomography (CT) may decrease fibrinolysis by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). We hypothesized that receiving iodinated contrast media before rt-PA may impair thrombolysis as measured by a new model system. Whole blood from Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 10) was obtained and allowed to form blood clots. Thrombolysis was performed by placing individually the prepared clots into 15 mL tubes and adding 5 mL saline buffer, 100μg rt-PA and a different contrast media; adjusting the quantity of iodine to either 30 mg or 60 mg. The thrombolytic efficacy was quantified by measuring the optical density (OD415) of the supernatant at different time points, namely at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min. There was a significant decrease in clot lysis efficiency observed in presence of iodine containing contrast media comparing to positive control group. Moreover, when the quantity of iodine was increased from 30 mg to 60 mg; the dissolution rate downturned with additional ∼50%. In conclusion, our study suggests that high dose of iodine potentially could negatively affect the efficiency of the thrombolytic therapy performed by rt-PA.

  5. Does the application of X-ray contrast agents impair the clinical effect of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke patients?

    PubMed

    Dzialowski, Imanuel; Puetz, Volker; Buchan, Alastair M; Demchuk, Andrew M; Hill, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    Experimental data suggest a negative interaction between x-ray contrast agents and fibrinolytic efficacy of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA). We hypothesized that the application of a contrast agent before intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA reduces its clinical efficacy in acute ischemic stroke. We retrospectively studied consecutive ischemic stroke patients receiving contrast agents for computed tomography angiography before intravenous treatment with rtPA. We compared functional outcomes with an historical control group from the Canadian Alteplase for Stroke Effectiveness Study who did not receive contrast agents before thrombolysis with rtPA. Primary end point was favorable functional outcome at 90 days defined as modified Rankin Scale scores 0 to 2. We performed logistic regression analysis and a propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effect size of contrast agent use as a negative predictor of outcome. We identified 111 patients for the computed tomography angiography and 1119 patients for the control group. Proportions of favorable functional outcome were 47.7% (53/111 patients) for the computed tomography angiography group and 49.5% (542/1094 patients) for the control group (P=0.77). Adjusted probabilities for favorable outcome were 0.48 (95% CI, 0.37-0.58) and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.47-0.54), respectively. Contrast use was associated with reduced odds of favorable outcome (OR, 0.62(;) 95% CI, 0.38-0.99). Propensity score matching suggested a larger effect size (OR, 10.0%; 95% CI, 0.5%-19.3%). Our study did not show a significant negative clinical effect of x-ray contrast agents applied before intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA. However, to confirm a possible small negative interaction between contrast agents and rtPA, additional experimental and prospective clinical studies are needed.

  6. Contrast Media Use in Radiation Oncology: A Prospective, Controlled Educational Intervention Study with Retrospective Analysis of Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Christopher A.; Mutter, Robert W.; Shapiro, Lauren Q.; Zhang, Zhigang; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Yahalom, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intravenous contrast media (ICM) administration is recommended as part of radiation therapy (RT) simulation in a variety of clinical scenarios, but can cause adverse events. We sought to assess radiation oncology resident knowledge about ICM, and to determine if an educational intervention (EI) could improve this level of knowledge. In conjunction, we retrospectively analyzed risk factors and adverse events related to ICM use before and after the EI to determine whether any improvements in patient outcomes could be realized. Methods Over 2 years, 21 residents in radiation oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) participated in a pretest-EI-posttest study based on the ACR’s Manual on Contrast Media. Medical and RT records were reviewed, and ICM use, risk factors and adverse events were recorded. Results There was no significant difference in resident understanding of ICM use in residents of different years of training (p=0.85). Understanding of ICM use increased in residents that attended the EI (p<0.05), but this was not sustained 1 year after the EI (p=0.48). Of the 6852 RT simulations that were performed at MSKCC, 1350 (19.7%) involved ICM. Mild adverse events occurred in a few patients (<5%) simulated with ICM, but there was no difference in the number of risk factors or adverse events before and after the EI. Conclusions The EI effectively improved short-term understanding of ICM use. However, the effect was not sustained. The frequency of adverse events related to ICM use was small and not significantly impacted by the EI. PMID:21129689

  7. Use of contrast media in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in horses: Techniques, adverse events and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B B; Goodrich, L R; Barrett, M F; Grinstaff, M W; Kawcak, C E

    2017-07-01

    The use of contrast media in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasing in horses. These contrast-enhanced imaging techniques provide improved tissue delineation and evaluation, thereby expanding diagnostic capabilities. While generally considered safe, not all contrast media exhibit the same safety profiles. The safety of contrast media use and descriptions of adverse events occurring in horses are sparsely reported. This review summarises the reported evidence of contrast media use and adverse events that occur in horses, with added contribution from other veterinary species and studies in man for comparison. This comprehensive data set empowers equine clinicians to develop use and monitoring strategies when working with contrast media. Finally, it summarises the current state-of-the-art and highlights the potential applications of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI for assessment of diseased or injured equine tissues, as well as (patho)physiological processes. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Stratified premedication strategy for the prevention of contrast media hypersensitivity in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suh-Young; Yang, Min Suk; Choi, Young-Hoon; Park, Chang Min; Park, Heung-Woo; Cho, Sang Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-03-01

    Although the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media varies, it is well correlated with the severity of recurrent reactions; however, prophylaxis protocols are not severity-stratified. To assess the outcomes of tailored prophylaxis according to the severity of hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Our premedication protocols were stratified based on the severity of previous reactions: (1) 4 mg of chlorpheniramine for mild reactions, (2) adding 40 mg of methylprednisolone for moderate reactions, and (3) adding multiple doses of 40 mg of methylprednisolone for severe index reactions. Cases of reexposure in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions were routinely monitored and mandatorily recorded. Among a total of 850 patients who underwent enhanced computed tomography after severity-tailored prophylaxis, breakthrough reactions occurred in 17.1%, but most breakthrough reactions (89.0%) were mild and did not require medical treatment. Additional corticosteroid use did not reduce the breakthrough reaction rate in cases with a mild index reaction (16.8% vs 17.2%, P = .70). However, underpremedication with a single dose of corticosteroid revealed significantly higher rates of breakthrough reaction than did double doses of corticosteroid in cases with a severe index reaction (55.6% vs 17.4%, P = .02). Changing the iodinated contrast media resulted in an additional reduction of the breakthrough reaction rate overall (14.9% vs 32.1%, P = .001). In a total severity-based stratified prophylaxis regimens and changing iodinated contrast media can be considered in patients with a history of previous hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media to reduce the risk of breakthrough reactions. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The retrobulbar sinus is superior to the lateral tail vein for the injection of contrast media in small animal cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Socher, M; Kuntz, J; Sawall, S; Bartling, S; Kachelrieß, M

    2014-04-01

    Cardiac perfusion studies using computed tomography are a common tool in clinical practice. Recent technical advances and the availability of dedicated small animal scanners allow the transfer of these techniques to the preclinical sector in general and to mouse models of cardiac diseases in particular. This necessitates new requirements for contrast injection techniques as a rapid transport of contrast media from the intravenous access to the animal heart. Clinical contrast agents containing high iodine concentrations are used within small animal studies although they exhibit a high viscosity which might limit their transport within the vasculature. The authors provide a comparison of the transport of contrast media following an injection into the lateral tail vein and an injection into the retrobulbar sinus and discuss the anatomy involved. The temporal evolution of a contrast bolus and its in vivo distribution is visualized. It is demonstrated that injecting contrast agents into the lateral tail vein of mice results in a retrograde blood flow to the liver veins and therefore does not deliver a detectable contrast bolus to the heart, and thus it cannot be used for cardiac perfusion studies. By contrast, boli injected into the retrobulbar sinus are rapidly transported to the heart and provide ventricular contrast enabling perfusion studies similar to those in human patients. The results demonstrate that an injection into the retrobulbar sinus is superior to an injection into the lateral tail vein for the delivery of contrast boli to the animal heart, while all drawbacks of an injection into the lateral tail vein are overcome.

  10. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulatory mechanisms in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Galtung, Hilde Kanli; Sørlundsengen, Vibeke; Sakariassen, Kjell S; Benestad, Haakon B

    2002-08-01

    The authors performed this study to evaluate cell volume regulation in human red blood cells (RBCs) after incubation in solutions of three contrast media: iohexol (830 mOsm), ioxaglate (520 mOsm), and iodixanol (300 mOsm). Whole blood sampled from six healthy subjects was exposed to Ringer solutions containing 25% or 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 440 or 340 mOsm, respectively), ioxaglate (final osmolality, 395 or 335 mOsm, respectively), iodixanol (final osmolality, 330 or 315 mOsm, respectively), or NaCl (control solutions with the same osmolality as that of the contrast media). In some experiments, control RBCs were subjected to a hyposmotic solution (100 mOsm). RBC volumes were obtained with a Coulter counter. The RBCs showed normal regulatory cell shrinkage after hyposmotically induced swelling. All 25% vol/vol contrast material solutions and their control solutions induced RBC shrinkage (range, 6% +/- 1 [standard error] to 22% +/- 3). The same was true for cells exposed to 5% vol/vol contrast material (range, 4% +/- 1 to 7% +/- 1). The shrinkage phase was followed by cell swelling (10% +/- 2 to 20% +/- 2 for 25% contrast material and their control solutions and 8% +/- 1 to 15% +/- 2 for 5% contrast material and their control solutions). No contrast material-exposed RBCs increased their volumes to the level reached with their control solutions. RBCs exposed to hyperosmotic iohexol, ioxaglate, or iodixanol solutions shrank and then swelled. The degree of shrinkage and subsequent swelling could not be explained simply with the osmolality of the test solutions. Physicochemical properties of the contrast media must be involved, putatively affecting electrolyte fluxes over the RBC membrane. Possible targets of these effects are the K+/Cl- symporter, K+ channels, and the Na+/K+/Cl- symporter.

  11. Evaluation of efficacy of metal artefact reduction technique using contrast media in Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusob, Diana; Zukhi, Jihan; Aziz Tajuddin, Abd; Zainon, Rafidah

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of metal artefact reduction using contrasts media in Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. A water-based abdomen phantom of diameter 32 cm (adult body size) was fabricated using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material. Three different contrast agents (iodine, barium and gadolinium) were filled in small PMMA tubes and placed inside a water-based PMMA adult abdomen phantom. The orthopedic metal screw was placed in each small PMMA tube separately. These two types of orthopedic metal screw (stainless steel and titanium alloy) were scanned separately. The orthopedic metal crews were scanned with single-energy CT at 120 kV and dual-energy CT at fast kV-switching between 80 kV and 140 kV. The scan modes were set automatically using the current modulation care4Dose setting and the scans were set at different pitch and slice thickness. The use of the contrast media technique on orthopedic metal screws were optimised by using pitch = 0.60 mm, and slice thickness = 5.0 mm. The use contrast media can reduce the metal streaking artefacts on CT image, enhance the CT images surrounding the implants, and it has potential use in improving diagnostic performance in patients with severe metallic artefacts. These results are valuable for imaging protocol optimisation in clinical applications.

  12. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after the Use of Gadolinium Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihye; Byun, Il Hwan; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Nam, Eun Ji; Park, Jung-Won

    2015-07-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical emergency that threatens life. To this day, ARDS is very rarely reported by iodine contrast media, and there is no reported case of ARDS induced by gadolinium contrast media. Here, we present a case with ARDS after the use of gadobutrol (Gadovist) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast medium. A 26 years old female without any medical history, including allergic diseases and without current use of drugs, visited the emergency room for abdominal pain. Her abdominopelvic computed tomography with iodine contrast media showed a right ovarian cyst and possible infective colitis. Eighty-three hours later, she underwent pelvis MRI after injection of 7.5 mL (0.1 mL/kg body weight) of gadobutrol (Gadovist) to evaluate the ovarian cyst. She soon presented respiratory difficulty, edema of the lips, nausea, and vomiting, and we could hear wheezing upon auscultation. She was treated with dexamethasone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Her chest X-ray showed bilateral central bat-wing consolidative appearance. Managed with mechanical ventilation, she was extubated 3 days later and discharged without complications.

  13. Prevention and Management of Adverse Reactions Induced by Iodinated Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi Wei; Leow, Kheng Song; Zhu, Yujin; Tan, Cher Heng

    2016-04-01

    Iodinated radiocontrast media (IRCM) is widely used in current clinical practice. Although IRCM is generally safe, serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may still occur. IRCM-induced ADRs may be subdivided into chemotoxic and hypersensitivity reactions. Several factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of ADRs, including previous contrast media reactions, history of asthma and allergic disease, etc. Contrast media with lower osmolality is generally recommended for at-risk patients to prevent ADRs. Current premedication prophylaxis in at-risk patients may reduce the risk of ADRs. However, there is still a lack of consensus on the prophylactic role of premedication. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is another component of IRCM-related ADRs. Hydration remains the mainstay of CIN prophylaxis in at-risk patients. Despite several preventive measures, ADRs may still occur. Treatment strategies for potential contrast reactions are also summarised in this article. This article summarises the pathophysiology, epidemiology and risk factors of ADRs with emphasis on prevention and treatment strategies. This will allow readers to understand the rationale behind appropriate patient preparation for diagnostic imaging involving IRCM.

  14. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after the Use of Gadolinium Contrast Media

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihye; Byun, Il Hwan; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Nam, Eun Ji

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a medical emergency that threatens life. To this day, ARDS is very rarely reported by iodine contrast media, and there is no reported case of ARDS induced by gadolinium contrast media. Here, we present a case with ARDS after the use of gadobutrol (Gadovist) as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast medium. A 26 years old female without any medical history, including allergic diseases and without current use of drugs, visited the emergency room for abdominal pain. Her abdominopelvic computed tomography with iodine contrast media showed a right ovarian cyst and possible infective colitis. Eighty-three hours later, she underwent pelvis MRI after injection of 7.5 mL (0.1 mL/kg body weight) of gadobutrol (Gadovist) to evaluate the ovarian cyst. She soon presented respiratory difficulty, edema of the lips, nausea, and vomiting, and we could hear wheezing upon auscultation. She was treated with dexamethasone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Her chest X-ray showed bilateral central bat-wing consolidative appearance. Managed with mechanical ventilation, she was extubated 3 days later and discharged without complications. PMID:26069143

  15. Delayed adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media and their risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, T; Yamaguchi, K; Akutsu, T; Mitsuhashi, Y; Kondo, S; Sugai, Y; Adachi, M

    2000-01-01

    The present prospective survey was performed to obtain information on delayed adverse reactions (DARs) to five types of low-osmolar iodinated contrast media, including their frequency, common manifestations, and the patient's history of allergy. We investigated data from 15,890 consecutive patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) during a 15-month period. All patients were given a questionnaire asking about the occurrence of DARs, their symptoms and duration, and asked to consult a dermatologist if they had a skin reaction. Of 11,121 patients who returned the questionnaire (response rate, 70.0%), DARs were observed in 1,058 patients (9.5%). DARs tended to occur with higher incidence in patients with no previous history of examinations using contrast media, with past adverse reactions caused by contrast media, with a history of allergy, or with a serum creatinine level greater than 2.0 mg/dl. Among the 331 patients who reported skin reactions, 41 patients consulted a dermatologist. Skin reactions were observed significantly more frequently in patients for whom iotrolan was used, and 60% of these reactions were severe or moderate. Four risk factors for DARs were identified in the present investigation.

  16. Measurement of the plasma clearance of urographic contrast media for the determination of glomerular filtration rate

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, P.H.; Jones, D.A.; Farah, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Further experience with a new method to determine glomerular filtration rate is presented. The method depends on measurement by an x-ray fluorescence technique of the plasma disappearance of the injected iodine in standard nonionic radiographic contrast media used during excretory urography. The results of comparison of contrast clearance with /sup 99m/technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid clearance in 33 cases showed excellent agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. Reproducibility of the contrast clearance method was confirmed by repeated examination of 10 plasma samples at weekly intervals for 6 weeks, the results of which showed no significant differences. The contrast clearance technique for the measurement of glomerular filtration rate during excretory urography is simple, quick and accurate, and merits further development.

  17. High-contrast imaging through scattering media using structured illumination and Fourier filtering.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, Edouard; Pettersson, Sven-Göran; Kristensson, Elias

    2016-12-01

    We show in this Letter a novel approach for high-contrast imaging through scattering media by combining structured illumination and Fourier filtering (SIF). To assess the image contrast enhancement at different image spatial frequencies, the modulation transfer function is calculated for four detection schemes: (1) no filtering, (2) Fourier filtering, (3) structured illumination, and (4) SIF filtering. A scattering solution consisting of D=7.3  μm polystyrene spheres immersed in distilled water and illuminated at λ=671  nm is used here. We demonstrate the possibility of obtaining, with SIF, an image contrast up to 60% at an optical depth of OD=10, improving the contrast by a factor of 40 over conventional transmission imaging.

  18. Complementary contrast media for metal artifact reduction in dual-energy computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jack W.; Edic, Peter M.; FitzGerald, Paul F.; Torres, Andrew S.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Metal artifacts have been a problem associated with computed tomography (CT) since its introduction. Recent techniques to mitigate this problem have included utilization of high-energy (keV) virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images, produced via dual-energy CT (DECT). A problem with these high-keV images is that contrast enhancement provided by all commercially available contrast media is severely reduced. Contrast agents based on higher atomic number elements can maintain contrast at the higher energy levels where artifacts are reduced. This study evaluated three such candidate elements: bismuth, tantalum, and tungsten, as well as two conventional contrast elements: iodine and barium. A water-based phantom with vials containing these five elements in solution, as well as different artifact-producing metal structures, was scanned with a DECT scanner capable of rapid operating voltage switching. In the VMS datasets, substantial reductions in the contrast were observed for iodine and barium, which suffered from contrast reductions of 97% and 91%, respectively, at 140 versus 40 keV. In comparison under the same conditions, the candidate agents demonstrated contrast enhancement reductions of only 20%, 29%, and 32% for tungsten, tantalum, and bismuth, respectively. At 140 versus 40 keV, metal artifact severity was reduced by 57% to 85% depending on the phantom configuration. PMID:26839905

  19. Exponentially Decelerated Contrast Media Injection Rate Combined With a Novel Patient-Specific Contrast Formula Reduces Contrast Volume Administration and Radiation Dose During Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Saade, Charbel; Mayat, Ahmad; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Matching contrast injection timing with vessel dynamics significantly improves vessel opacification and reduces contrast dose in the assessment of pulmonary embolism during computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography. The aim of this study was to investigate opacification of the pulmonary vasculature (PV) during CT pulmonary angiography using a patient-specific contrast formula (PSCF) and exponentially decelerated contrast media (EDCM) injection rate. Institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography was performed on 200 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism using a 64-channel CT scanner. Patient demographics were equally distributed. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 equal protocol groups: protocol A used a PSCF, and protocol B involved the use of a PSCF combined with EDCM. The mean cross-sectional opacification profile of 8 central and 11 peripheral PVs were measured for each patient, and arteriovenous contrast ratio was calculated. Protocols were compared using Mann-Whitney U nonparametric statistics. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to assess diagnostic efficacy. Interobserver variations were investigated using kappa methods. A number of pulmonary arteries demonstrated increases in opacification (P < 0.02) for protocol B compared with A, whereas opacification in all veins was reduced in protocol B (P < 0.03). Subsequently, increased arteriovenous contrast ratio in protocol B compared with A was observed at all anatomic locations (P < 0.0002). An increase in jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic figure of merit (P < 0.0002) and interobserver variation was observed with protocol B compared with protocol A (κ = 0.3-0.73). Mean contrast volume was reduced in protocol B (29 [4] mL) compared with protocol A (33 [9] mL). Mean effective radiation dose in protocol B (1.2 [0.4] mSv) was reduced by 14% compared with

  20. Use of IABP in contrast media-induced anaphylactic shock: the ultimate lifesaver.

    PubMed

    Alam, Rajib; Anantharaman, Rajaram

    2013-07-02

    Anaphylactic reaction to contrast media during selective coronary angiography is a rare occurrence. It can be occasionally resistant to medical treatment leading to cardiovascular collapse and death. The use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counter-pulsation when the supportive medical treatment fails during anaphylactic shock is not well documented in the literature. We report a case of a severe contrast media-induced anaphylactic shock which failed to respond to the supportive medical management and the timely insertion of IABP for further circulatory support that prevented death in a patient who had an elective diagnostic coronary angiography. The clinical diagnosis of anaphylaxis was challenging at the onset of shock as the typical rash developed after a few minutes.

  1. Use of IABP in contrast media-induced anaphylactic shock: the ultimate lifesaver

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Rajib; Anantharaman, Rajaram

    2013-01-01

    Anaphylactic reaction to contrast media during selective coronary angiography is a rare occurrence. It can be occasionally resistant to medical treatment leading to cardiovascular collapse and death. The use of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counter-pulsation when the supportive medical treatment fails during anaphylactic shock is not well documented in the literature. We report a case of a severe contrast media-induced anaphylactic shock which failed to respond to the supportive medical management and the timely insertion of IABP for further circulatory support that prevented death in a patient who had an elective diagnostic coronary angiography. The clinical diagnosis of anaphylaxis was challenging at the onset of shock as the typical rash developed after a few minutes. PMID:23821625

  2. Radiographic Contrast-Media-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Pathophysiology and Prophylactic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is one of the most widely discussed and debated topics in cardiovascular medicine. With increasing number of contrast-media- (CM-) enhanced imaging studies being performed and growing octogenarian population with significant comorbidities, incidence of CI-AKI remains high. In this review, pathophysiology of CI-AKI, its relationship with different types of CM, role of serum and urinary biomarkers for diagnosing CI-AKI, and various prophylactic strategies used for nephroprotection against CI-AKI are discussed in detail. PMID:24967281

  3. Risk factors in fatal cases of anaphylaxis due to contrast media: a forensic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Fatalities following contrast medium exposure are extremely rare in clinical routine, though they may occur as an exception. Some may fall under the purview of the inquiring authorities and forensic pathologists due to their in-hospital occurrence. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors for anaphylaxis due to contrast medium administration that can be identified in fatal cases. Fatalities occurred during the course of clinical investigations with contrast media described in the literature and fatal reactions to contrast agents that had undergone forensic investigations in our medicolegal center were reviewed with respect to patient characteristics, administered contrast medium, performed biochemical investigations and potential risk factors identified based on clinical history and medical records. Biochemical investigations into the fatal cases examined in our facility revealed increased mast cell tryptase, total IgE and activated mast cells in all subjects. Data obtained from the literature and our own investigations indicated that in only a minority of the fatal cases had there been previous exposure to contrast compounds, while most cases of severe anaphylaxis involved patients who apparently reacted on initial exposure. Most fatal cases failed to present any identifiable predisposing conditions out of those traditionally considered as risk factors for an anaphylactic reaction to contrast compounds in the medical histories of the patients. Comprehensive clinical histories and thorough reviews of medical data, along with exhaustive forensic investigations, provide information that is relevant in order to better appreciate the interwoven relationships linking all factors potentially involved in the pathogenesis of fatal anaphylaxis to contrast media. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A contrast source method for nonlinear acoustic wave fields in media with spatially inhomogeneous attenuation.

    PubMed

    Demi, L; van Dongen, K W A; Verweij, M D

    2011-03-01

    Experimental data reveals that attenuation is an important phenomenon in medical ultrasound. Attenuation is particularly important for medical applications based on nonlinear acoustics, since higher harmonics experience higher attenuation than the fundamental. Here, a method is presented to accurately solve the wave equation for nonlinear acoustic media with spatially inhomogeneous attenuation. Losses are modeled by a spatially dependent compliance relaxation function, which is included in the Westervelt equation. Introduction of absorption in the form of a causal relaxation function automatically results in the appearance of dispersion. The appearance of inhomogeneities implies the presence of a spatially inhomogeneous contrast source in the presented full-wave method leading to inclusion of forward and backward scattering. The contrast source problem is solved iteratively using a Neumann scheme, similar to the iterative nonlinear contrast source (INCS) method. The presented method is directionally independent and capable of dealing with weakly to moderately nonlinear, large scale, three-dimensional wave fields occurring in diagnostic ultrasound. Convergence of the method has been investigated and results for homogeneous, lossy, linear media show full agreement with the exact results. Moreover, the performance of the method is demonstrated through simulations involving steered and unsteered beams in nonlinear media with spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous attenuation. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  5. The Incidence, Classification, and Management of Acute Adverse Reactions to the Low-Osmolar Iodinated Contrast Media Isovue and Ultravist in Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Yuhao; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Luo, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Xinyu; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Some epidemiologic surveillance studies have recorded adverse drug reactions to radiocontrast agents. We aimed to investigate the incidence and management of acute adverse reactions (AARs) to Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning. Data from 137,473 patients were analyzed. They had undergone enhanced CT scanning with intravenous injection of Ultravist-370 or Isovue-370 during the period of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2012 in our hospital. We investigated and classified AARs according to the American College of Radiology and the Chinese Society of Radiology (CSR) guidelines for iodinated contrast media. We analyzed risk factors for AARs and compared the AARs induced by Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370. Four hundred and twenty-eight (0.31%) patients experienced AARs, which included 330 (0.24%) patients with mild AARs, 82 (0.06%) patients with moderate AARs, and 16 (0.01%) patients with severe AARs (including 3 cases of cardiac arrest and one case of death). The incidence of AARs was higher with Ultravist-370 than with Isovue-370 (0.38% vs 0.24%, P < 0.001), but only for mild AARs (0.32% vs 0.16%, P < 0.001). Analyses on risk factors indicated that female patients (n = 221, 0.43%, P < 0.001), emergency patients (n = 11, 0.51%, P < 0.001), elderly patients aged 50 to 60 years (n = 135, 0.43%, P < 0.001), and patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) (n = 55, 0.51%, P < 0.001) had a higher risk of AARs. Cutaneous manifestations (50.52%)—especially rash (59.74%)—were the most frequent mild AARs. Cardiovascular manifestations accounted for most moderate and severe AARs (62.91% and 48.28%, respectively). After proper management, the symptoms and signs of 96.5% of the AARs resolved within 24 hours without sequelae. Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 are safe for patients undergoing enhanced CT scanning. The incidence of AARs is

  6. The Incidence, Classification, and Management of Acute Adverse Reactions to the Low-Osmolar Iodinated Contrast Media Isovue and Ultravist in Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Dong, Yuhao; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Luo, Xiaoning; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Xinyu; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-03-01

    Some epidemiologic surveillance studies have recorded adverse drug reactions to radiocontrast agents. We aimed to investigate the incidence and management of acute adverse reactions (AARs) to Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scanning.Data from 137,473 patients were analyzed. They had undergone enhanced CT scanning with intravenous injection of Ultravist-370 or Isovue-370 during the period of January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2012 in our hospital. We investigated and classified AARs according to the American College of Radiology and the Chinese Society of Radiology (CSR) guidelines for iodinated contrast media. We analyzed risk factors for AARs and compared the AARs induced by Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370.Four hundred and twenty-eight (0.31%) patients experienced AARs, which included 330 (0.24%) patients with mild AARs, 82 (0.06%) patients with moderate AARs, and 16 (0.01%) patients with severe AARs (including 3 cases of cardiac arrest and one case of death). The incidence of AARs was higher with Ultravist-370 than with Isovue-370 (0.38% vs 0.24%, P < 0.001), but only for mild AARs (0.32% vs 0.16%, P < 0.001). Analyses on risk factors indicated that female patients (n = 221, 0.43%, P < 0.001), emergency patients (n = 11, 0.51%, P < 0.001), elderly patients aged 50 to 60 years (n = 135, 0.43%, P < 0.001), and patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) (n = 55, 0.51%, P < 0.001) had a higher risk of AARs. Cutaneous manifestations (50.52%)-especially rash (59.74%)-were the most frequent mild AARs. Cardiovascular manifestations accounted for most moderate and severe AARs (62.91% and 48.28%, respectively). After proper management, the symptoms and signs of 96.5% of the AARs resolved within 24 hours without sequelae.Ultravist-370 and Isovue-370 are safe for patients undergoing enhanced CT scanning. The incidence of AARs is higher with Ultravist

  7. An evaluation of the use of oral contrast media in abdominopelvic CT.

    PubMed

    Buttigieg, Erica Lauren; Grima, Karen Borg; Cortis, Kelvin; Soler, Sandro Galea; Zarb, Francis

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of different oral contrast media (OCM) for abdominopelvic CT examinations performed for follow-up general oncological indications. The objectives were to establish anatomical image quality criteria for abdominopelvic CT; use these criteria to evaluate and compare image quality using positive OCM, neutral OCM and no OCM; and evaluate possible benefits for the medical imaging department. Forty-six adult patients attending a follow-up abdominopelvic CT for general oncological indications and who had a previous abdominopelvic CT with positive OCM (n = 46) were recruited and prospectively placed into either the water (n = 25) or no OCM (n = 21) group. Three radiologists performed absolute visual grading analysis (VGA) to assess image quality by grading the fulfilment of 24 anatomical image quality criteria. Visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis of the data showed comparable image quality with regards to reproduction of abdominal structures, bowel discrimination, presence of artefacts, and visualization of the amount of intra-abdominal fat for the three OCM protocols. All three OCM protocols provided similar image quality for follow-up abdominopelvic CT for general oncological indications. • Positive oral contrast media are routinely used for abdominopelvic multidetector computed tomography • Experimental study comparing image quality using three different oral contrast materials • Three different oral contrast materials result in comparable CT image quality • Benefits for patients and medical imaging department.

  8. Iodinated Contrast Media Can Induce Long-Lasting Oxidative Stress in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seun Deuk; Kim, Yoon Ji; Lee, Sang Heun; Cho, Deok Kyu; Cho, Yun Hyeong; Moon, Sung Jin; Lee, Sang Choel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Due to their comorbidities, dialysis patients have many chances to undergo radiologic procedures using iodinated contrast media. We aimed to assess time-sequenced blood oxidative stress level after contrast exposure in hemodialysis (HD) patients compared to those in the non-dialysis population. Materials and Methods We included 21 anuric HD patients [HD-coronary angiography (CAG) group] and 23 persons with normal renal function (nonHD-CAG group) scheduled for CAG, and assessed 4 oxidative stress markers [advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP); catalase; 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine; and malondialdehyde] before and after CAG, and subsequently up to 28 days. Results In the nonHD-CAG group, only AOPP increased immediately after CAG and returned to baseline within one day. However, in the HD-CAG group, all four oxidative stress markers were significantly increased starting one day after CAG, and remained elevated longer than those in the nonHD-CAG group. Especially, AOPP level remained elevated for a month after contrast exposure. Conclusion Our study showed that iodinated contrast media induces severe and prolonged oxidative stress in HD patients. PMID:24142649

  9. Inhibition of platelet function by contrast media: iopamidol and ioxaglate versus iothalamate: work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A.K.; Rao, V.M.; Willis, J.; Beckett, C.; Steiner, R.M.

    1985-08-01

    The effects of an ionic contrast agent, meglumine iothalamate (Conray-60), and two newer low-osmolality radiographic contrast media, sodium meglumine ioxaglate (Hexabrix) and iopamidol (B-15,000), on platelet aggregation and secretion responses were studied. All three agents inhibited platelet responses during stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, and collagen. Platelet function was inhibited by iothalamate at concentrations of 11 mg iodine/ml and above, and by the newer agents at concentrations above 30 mg iodine/ml. Addition of exogenous calcium decreased the iothalamate-induced inhibition of aggregation but did not improve dense granule secretion. These studies indicate that the newer agents inhibit platelet function less than iothalamate does, and that chelation of Ca/sup 2 +/ may not be the major mechanism of platelet inhibition by contrast agents.

  10. The optimal contrast media policy in CT of the liver. Part I: Technical notes.

    PubMed

    Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; De Cecco, Carlo N; Osimani, Marcello; Vecchietti, Fabrizio; Caruso, Damiano; Maceroni, Marco M; Lucchesi, Paola; Iafrate, Franco; Paolantonio, Pasquale; Ferrari, Riccardo; Laghi, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Latest developments of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), which is today considered a real volumetric technique, have revolutionized abdominal imaging. Technological improvements such as higher spatial resolution, larger volume coverage and higher temporal resolution, have reduced scan times allowing CT studies of the abdomen within a single breath-hold. Furthermore, the increased number of slices, the submillimetric collimation, and the use of multiple dynamic post-contrast phases per single examination, may all contribute to increase the radiation exposure of single patients. The aim of this review is to discuss different parameters affecting contrast media enhancement, as vascular enhancement, parenchymal enhancement and timing, in order to minimize the amount of contrast medium injected and the radiation exposure.

  11. Evaluation of the hemodynamic effects of intravenous administration of ionic and nonionic contrast materials: implications for deriving physiologic measurements from computed tomography and digital cardiovascular imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Berber, K.H.; Mattrey, R.F.; Slutsky, R.A.

    1982-03-01

    The effects of intravenous injection of an ionic contrast material (Renografin-76 (meglumine sodium diatrizoate)) on left ventricular pressure, internal diameter, and wall thickness, and on coronary and femoral hemodynamics were compared with those of a hydrolytically stable nonionic contrast material (iohexol). Renografin-76 caused drastic biphasic changes in left ventricular pressure and dp/dt (rate of change of left ventricular pressure), and moderate changes in end systolic dimension. Iohexol caused little or no change in left ventricular pressure and dimensions. In addition, Renografin-76 caused marked arterial hypotension and large increases in coronary and femoral blood lows, while iohexol caused no significant change in arterial pressure and coronary blood flow, and a mild increase in femoral blood flow. Based on these findings, it is concluded that iohexol is preferable to standard ionic contrast material for deriving basal physiologic information from computed tomographic and digital vascular studies.

  12. A biochemical study on ameliorative effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract against contrast media induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Hamid; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Hajian, Shabnam; Pour-Arian, Armita; Kohi, Golnoosh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be mediators of kidney injury and green tea polyphenols are potent-free radical scavengers.Objectives: In this study we sought to examine whether green tea was able to protect renal toxicity induced by contrast media or not. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups including: 1) control group 2) contrast media group 3) contrast media plus green tea 4) Green tea pretreatment and contrast media group. Blood urea Nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine were assessed for severity of kidney injury. Results: Serum creatinine level was higher in group II than in other groups (p<0.001). Treatment (group 3) or pretreatment (group 4) with green tea significantly reduced blood creatinine level when compared with contrast media group (group 2). Conclusion: In this study, beneficial property of green tea, against renal toxicity of contrast media was observed. Green tea extract is an inexpensive, nontoxic, and effective treatment modality in individuals with a risk for acute kidney injury of contrast media. PMID:25340167

  13. Current status of residency training of allergic-like adverse events to contrast media.

    PubMed

    Petscavage, Jonelle M; Paladin, Angelisa M; Wang, Carolyn L; Schopp, Jennifer Gail; Richardson, Michael L; Bush, William H

    2012-02-01

    Acute allergic-like adverse reactions to contrast media are rare but life-threatening events. Residents may complete training without ever managing such an event. Surveys have shown practicing radiologists to incorrectly dose and administer medications for treatment. Thus, contrast education may be deficient or inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of contrast reaction education in US radiology residency programs and the methods used to test residents' knowledge. A 10-question anonymous survey on residency education methods and testing pertaining to allergic-like adverse events to contrast media was distributed through the Association of Program Directors in Radiology to program directors of US diagnostic radiology residency programs. The past 4 years of the American College of Radiology in-service examination were reviewed to assess the number of contrast reaction questions. Fifty-one programs responded to the Association of Program Directors in Radiology survey. Forty-nine percent of programs train with one lecture per year, 29.4% train with two lectures, and 16% train with three or more lectures. Only 44% include role-playing training during the lectures. Eighteen percent of programs are incorporating simulation training. Fewer than 50% of programs formally test residents' knowledge, and there were no questions on the 2007 to 2010 American College of Radiology in-service examinations. Resident education for contrast reaction management is primarily performed with annual lectures. Only 18% of programs are using simulation training, and <50% are testing residents' knowledge or skills. These findings suggest that education may need revision to incorporate simulation or other means of psychomotor learning. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulation in rabbit proximal renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Galtung, H K; Løken, M; Sakariassen, K S

    2001-05-01

    Most radiographic contrast media are hyperosmotic and able to shrink cells with which they are in contact. The authors studied cell volume control in rabbit proximal renal tubules after incubation with three contrast media: iohexol, ioxaglate, and iodixanol. Proximal renal tubules were isolated from rabbit kidneys. The tubules were exposed to Ringer solutions containing 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 330 mOsm), ioxaglate (323 mOsm), iodixanol (305 mOsm), or mannitol (control solutions with identical osmolalities), and tubule volumes were monitored. After 2 hours of incubation, the tubules were stimulated with a hyposmotic Ringer solution (165 mOsm). Three groups of 10 experiments were performed. All solutions induced cell shrinkage (8.3%+/-3.8 [standard error] to 15.4%+/-0.5), which was completely or partly reversible in most experiments (volume increase, 44.8%+/-14.7 to 149.9%+/-107.3) but not those with iohexol and iodixanol. With exposure to the hyposmotic solution, the cells swelled by 11.0%+/-1.8 to 39.7%+/-4.8. In general, the tubules that had been exposed to the most hyperosmotic solution swelled the most. Those exposed to contrast media showed less swelling than the mannitol-exposed controls. In all control experiments, the cells exhibited a gradual shrinkage (43.6%+/-28.5 to 87.0%+/-13). This regulatory response was partly inhibited in tubules exposed to iohexol (39.9%+/-15.8 shrinkage) or iodixanol (8.9%+/-15.8) and completely inhibited in those exposed to ioxaglate. Iohexol and ioxaglate exposure also led to a decrease in water permeability. Exposure to hyperosmotic contrast medium tends to induce prolonged cell shrinkage, decrease the water permeability of the cellular plasma membranes, and compromise the ability to regulate cellular volume. These changes seem to reflect both the hyperosmolality of the solutions and their inherent chemical properties.

  15. Abnormal gel flotation caused by contrast media during adrenal vein sampling

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Bassi, Antonella; Contro, Alberto; Pizzolo, Francesca; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During adrenal venous sampling (AVS) procedure, radiologists administer a contrast agent via the catheter to visualize the proper catheter position. Materials and methods A patient with primary aldosteronism diagnostic-hypothesis was admitted for AVS. A venogram was performed to
confirm the catheter’s position with 2mL of Iopamidol 300 mg/mL. Samples were collected with syringe connected to a hydrophilic coated catheter by low-pressure aspiration from each of the four collection sites: inferior vena cava in the suprarenal portion, inferior vena cava in the infrarenal portion, left adrenal vein, and right adrenal vein; then immediately transferred from syringe to tubes with gel separator. All tubes were centrifuged at 1200 x g for 10 minutes. Results At the end of centrifugation process, primary blood tubes containing blood from inferior vena cava and left adrenal vein exhibited the standard gel separator barrier, while tubes from right adrenal vein showed abnormal flotation of gel separator. The radiologist confirmed the usage of 2.6 mL instead of 2.0 mL of Iopamidol 300 mg/mL. This iodinated contrast media, with 1.33 g/cm3 of density, was used close to the right adrenal vein due to some difficulty to access it. Conclusion The abnormal flotation of gel separator in samples taken from right adrenal vein can be explained by the usage of the iodinated
contrast media. We suggest using plain-tubes (without gel separator) for AVS in order to avoid preanalytical nonconformities. Moreover, a blood volume equivalent to twice the catheter extension should be discarded to eliminate residual contrast media before collection of samples for laboratory assays. PMID:27812311

  16. Postmortem whole-body CT angiography: evaluation of two contrast media solutions.

    PubMed

    Ross, Steffen; Spendlove, Danny; Bolliger, Stephan; Christe, Andreas; Oesterhelweg, Lars; Grabherr, Silke; Thali, Michael J; Gygax, Erich

    2008-05-01

    The objective of our study was to establish a standardized procedure for postmortem whole-body CT-based angiography with lipophilic and hydrophilic contrast media solutions and to compare the results of these two methods. Minimally invasive postmortem CT angiography was performed on 10 human cadavers via access to the femoral blood vessels. Separate perfusion of the arterial and venous systems was established with a modified heart-lung machine using a mixture of an oily contrast medium and paraffin (five cases) and a mixture of a water-soluble contrast medium with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200 in the other five cases. Imaging was executed with an MDCT scanner. The minimally invasive femoral approach to the vascular system provided a good depiction of lesions of the complete vascular system down to the level of the small supplying vessels. Because of the enhancement of well-vascularized tissues, angiography with the PEG-mixed contrast medium allowed the detection of tissue lesions and the depiction of vascular abnormalities such as pulmonary embolisms or ruptures of the vessel wall. The angiographic method with a water-soluble contrast medium and PEG as a contrast-agent dissolver showed a clearly superior quality due to the lack of extravasation through the gastrointestinal vascular bed and the enhancement of soft tissues (cerebral cortex, myocardium, and parenchymal abdominal organs). The diagnostic possibilities of these findings in cases of antemortem ischemia of these tissues are not yet fully understood.

  17. A new contrast media for functional MR urography: Gd-MAG3.

    PubMed

    Algin, Oktay

    2011-07-01

    Tc-99m-MAG3 (tubular agent) provides high imaging quality and extraction efficiency; and has become one of the most widely used agent for scintigraphic examinations of urinary system pathologies and renal transplants. Recently, it was reported that functional magnetic resonance urography (FMRU) can be sufficient in detection of urinary tract obstruction, renal artery stenosis, calculation of kidney functions and evaluation of renal transplants. However the pharmacokinetics of magnetic resonance (MR) contrast-media used in FMRU and Tc-99m-MAG3 differs from each other. This may cause discordant results between the FMRU and most of the scintigraphic studies. To our knowledge, there is no contrast-media which is specific for FMRU. A kidney specific contrast material can be developed for FMRU studies as well. MAG3 is a good candidate for this chelation. In conclusion, MR imaging (MRI) will be the most useful and important technique for morphologic-functional evaluation of urinary system. FMRU examinations performed with MAG3 chelated gadolinium can be sufficient for the complete evaluation of urinary tract even in patients with impaired renal functions ("all in one MRI"). MRI has some important advantages including no risk for radiation exposure, high temporal and spatial resolution, no need for nephrotoxic contrast agent; besides being a fast and feasible technique. Gadolinium-containing contrast agents may cause a life-threatening adverse reaction known as nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal impairment, but Gd-MAG3 may reduce the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis due to its higher extraction capacity and other features.

  18. Iodinated contrast media electro-degradation: process performance and degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Del Moro, Guido; Pastore, Carlo; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Mascolo, Giuseppe

    2015-02-15

    The electrochemical degradation of six of the most widely used iodinated contrast media was investigated. Batch experiments were performed under constant current conditions using two DSA® electrodes (titanium coated with a proprietary and patented mixed metal oxide solution of precious metals such as iridium, ruthenium, platinum, rhodium and tantalum). The degradation removal never fell below 85% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) when perchlorate was used as the supporting electrolyte; however, when sulphate was used, the degradation performance was above 80% (at a current density of 64 mA/cm(2) with a reaction time of 150 min) for all of the compounds studied. Three main degradation pathways were identified, namely, the reductive de-iodination of the aromatic ring, the reduction of alkyl aromatic amides to simple amides and the de-acylation of N-aromatic amides to produce aromatic amines. However, as amidotrizoate is an aromatic carboxylate, this is added via the decarboxylation reaction. The investigation did not reveal toxicity except for the lower current density used, which has shown a modest toxicity, most likely for some reaction intermediates that are not further degraded. In order to obtain total removal of the contrast media, it was necessary to employ a current intensity between 118 and 182 mA/cm(2) with energy consumption higher than 370 kWh/m(3). Overall, the electrochemical degradation was revealed to be a reliable process for the treatment of iodinated contrast media that can be found in contaminated waters such as hospital wastewater or pharmaceutical waste-contaminated streams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to radiologic contrast media and an increased risk of treated end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Muntner, Paul; Coresh, Josef; Klag, Michael J; Whelton, Paul K; Perneger, Thomas V

    2003-12-01

    Radiologic contrast media can cause acute renal failure, but whether their repeated use is associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. We compared 716 incident case subjects of treated ESRD with 361 control subjects, frequency matched on age, drawn from the general population (age, 20-65 years). Participants were interviewed by telephone regarding their previous exposure (before initiation of dialysis for case subjects and the study interview for control subject) to various imaging procedures. As expected, the case subjects reported having more imaging procedures of the kidneys than did control subjects. Excluding persons who had been subjected to examinations of their kidney from the analysis and adjusting for ultrasound examinations and several possible confounders, persons who had a history of one [odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0, 4.0], 2 or 3 (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2,5.9), or 4 or more (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 12.5) radiocontrast examinations were at higher risk of treated ESRD than persons who reported not having had such procedures. Ultrasound examinations and a history of barium enema were not associated with an increased risk of treated ESRD. In the current study, a graded association was present between increasing exposure to radiologic contrast media and higher risk of treated ESRD. Whether exposure to contrast media accelerates progression to ESRD or is merely a noncausal accompaniment to multiple disease processes occurring concurrently cannot be determined from our observational data. However, if these results are confirmed in future prospective studies, they will have important clinical implications.

  20. Contrast media induced fibrillation: comparison of Angovist 370 and Renografin 76: work in progress. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.W.; Sahler, L.G.; Whynot, L.K.; Hayakawa, K.

    1984-07-01

    Angiovist 370, a new formulation of meglumine/sodium diatrizoate, is being marketed for coronary arteriography. Angiovist 370 contains no significant calcium chelator additives, but according to manufacturer specifications may have a pH as low as 6.0. The contact times required to produce ventricular fibrillation with Angiovist 370 and with Renografin 76 were compared using a canine right coronary arteriography model. The fibrillation contact time was 32.2% longer for the Angiovist 370 than for the Renografin 76. The lower pH therefore does not appear to increase the risk of contrast media induced fibrillation.

  1. Evaporation and capillary coupling across vertical textural contrasts in porous media.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2009-10-01

    High and nearly constant evaporation rates from initially saturated porous media are sustained by capillary-driven flow from receding drying front below the evaporating surface. The spatial extent of continuous liquid pathways in homogeneous porous medium is defined by its hydraulically connected pore size distribution. We consider here evaporative losses from porous media consisting of two hydraulically coupled dissimilar domains each with own pore and particle size distributions separated by sharp vertical textural contrast. Evaporation experiments from texturally dissimilar media were monitored using neutron transmission and dye pattern imaging to quantify water distribution and drying front dynamics. Drying front invades exclusively coarse-textured domain while fine-textured domain remains saturated and its surface continuously coupled with the atmosphere. Results show that evaporation from fine-textured surface was supplied by liquid flow from adjacent coarse domain driven by capillary pressure differences between the porous media. A first characteristic length defining limiting drying front depth during which fine sand region remains saturated is deduced from difference in air-entry pressures of the two porous media. A second characteristic length defining the end of high evaporation rate includes the extent of continuous liquid films pinned in the crevices of the pore space and between particle contacts in the fine medium. We established numerically the lateral extent of evaporation-induced hydraulic coupling that is limited by viscous losses and gravity. For certain combinations of soil types the lateral extent of hydraulic coupling may exceed distances of 10 m. Results suggest that evaporative water losses from heterogeneous and coupled system are larger compared with uncoupled or homogenized equivalent systems.

  2. Safety of using iodized oil in chemoembolization for liver tumors in patients with previous adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Kunishima, Kanako; Takao, Hidemasa; Akahane, Masaaki; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of using iodized oil in chemoembolization for liver tumors in patients with previous adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media. Records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients with a history of an adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media who underwent angiography using gadolinium-based contrast media and/or carbon dioxide at our institution from January 1998 to September 2006. Patients who underwent chemoembolization or hepatic artery infusion for liver tumors using iodized oil were identified. There were 84 procedures with use of iodized oil performed in 36 patients. Mild adverse reactions potentially related to iodized oil were seen in two procedures (2.4%). There were no moderate or severe adverse reactions (0.0%). Iodized oil can be safely used in patients with previous adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media.

  3. Fibrinolytic effects of transparietal ultrasound associated with intravenous infusion of an ultrasound contrast agent: study of a rat model of acute cerebral stroke.

    PubMed

    Moumouh, Ahmed; Barentin, Laurent; Tranquart, François; Serrierre, Sophie; Bonnaud, Isabelle; Tasu, Jean Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thrombolytic effect of focused transparietal ultrasound in combination with a specific contrast agent (microbubbles) in acute cerebral ischemia. Acute cerebral ischemia was induced in 10 rats by intra-arterial clots injection. Five rats (group 1) were treated with a combination of transparietal ultrasound (probe 2 MHz, acoustic power 500 mW/cm(2)) and intravenous injection of 0.6 mL of the ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) sulfur hexafluoride. Five rats (group 2) were treated by fibrinolytic intravenous infusion (recombinant tissue plasminogen activator). Cerebral cellular energy production was determined by measuring the cellular phosphorylation using phosphorus magnetic spectroscopy before and during ischemia induction and after treatment. Measures were performed on a dedicated 2.35T magnet. The ratio phosphocreatine (P(Cr)) on inorganic phosphate (P(i)), P(Cr)/P(i), estimation of the oxidative phosphorylation metabolism and the intracellular pH (pHi) were measured in the two groups. Compared with the ischemia induction period, both treatments were associated with an increase of P(Cr)/P(i) and pHi values, respectively, +80% and +100% in group 1 (p=0.07) and +100% and +80% in group 2 (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the two groups for the response treatment. To conclude, treatment with intravenous fibrinolytic infusion and treatment with focused ultrasound in combination with UCA seems to be equally effective in treating acute cerebral ischemia in rats. (E-mail: j.p.tasu@chu-poitiers.fr).

  4. Myelography iodinated contrast media. I. Unraveling the atropisomerism properties in solution.

    PubMed

    Fontanive, Luca; D'Amelio, Nicola; Cesàro, Attilio; Gamini, Amelia; Tavagnacco, Letizia; Paolantoni, Marco; Brady, John W; Maiocchi, Alessandro; Uggeri, Fulvio

    2015-06-01

    The present work reports a thorough conformational analysis of iodinated contrast media: iomeprol, iopamidol (the world's most utilized contrast agent), and iopromide. Its main aim is the understanding of the complex structural features of these atropisomeric molecules, characterized by the presence of many conformers with hindered rotations, and of the role of atropisomerism in the physicochemical properties of their aqueous solutions. The problem was tackled by using an extensive analysis of (13)C NMR data on the solutions of whole molecules and of simple precursors in addition to FT-IR investigation and molecular simulations. This analysis demonstrated that out of the many possible atropisomers, only a few are significantly populated, and their relative population is provided. The conformational analysis also indicated that the presence of a sterically hindered amidic bond, allowing a significant population of cis forms (E in iopromide and exo in iomeprol), may be the basis for an increased thermodynamic solubility of concentrated solutions of iomeprol.

  5. Ventriculography and cisternography with water-soluble contrast media in infants with myelomeningocele

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Nakamura, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tajima, M.; Kageyama, N.

    1982-04-01

    Fifty-four newborn infants with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus were studied by ventriculography using water-soluble contrast media; 20 were also studied by metrizamide myeloencephalography and computerized tomographic (CT) cisternography. Ventriculography suggested that the aqueduct was patent in all cases. Outflow of contrast medium from the fourth ventricle was slow in most cases, complete obstruction was seen in 15%, communication was delayed at the outlet in 54%, and rather free communication was observedin 31%. Metrizamide myeloencephalography and CT cisternography suggested a partial block at the level of the ambient cisterns in approximately one-third of infants. These findings support the concept that flow of cerebrospinal fluid is reduced in several areas. Aqueductal stenosis was not considered an important factor in hydrocephalus, while the most important site of obstruction was felt to be the lowest portion of the fourth ventricle.

  6. Computed tomography (CT) of the lungs of the dog using a helical CT scanner, intravenous iodine contrast medium and different CT windows.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L; Gil, F; Ramírez, G; Teixeira, M A; Agut, A; Rivero, M A; Arencibia, A; Vázquez, J M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of helical computed tomography (CT) for visualizing pulmonary parenchyma and associated formations in normal dogs. CT scan was performed by using intravenous contrast medium and by applying different types of CT windows: soft tissue and lung windows, and high-resolution computed tomography of the lung. This technique allowed, especially with lung window types, a good view of the parenchyma, bronchial tree, vascular structures and pleural cavity. The selected images, with high anatomical quality and tissue contrast, may be a reference for future clinical studies of this organ. Thus, helical CT is a promising non-invasive method of diagnosing a wide variety of pulmonary diseases in dogs.

  7. Selective use of low-osmolality contrast media in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Valls, Carlos; Andía, Eduard; Sánchez, Anna; Moreno, Victor

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our experience and institutional savings with a selective use of low-osmolality contrast media (LOCM) in CT. From 1995 to 1998, a total of 19,834 contrast-enhanced CT examinations were performed at our institution. Contrast was injected with a power injector and large venous catheter, 20-G for 2- to 3-ml rate and 18-G for 3- to 5-ml rate. High-osmolality contrast media was used in 13,670 patients (71%). The LOCM was used in 5884 (29%) patients. Our guidelines for the use of LOCM included cardiac dysfunction, severe pulmonary impairment, history of allergy or prior moderate reaction to HOCM and severe debilitation. Prior to the injection of HOCM, 10 mg of metoclopramide (Primperan, Delagrange Quétigny, France) were administered to reduce nausea and vomiting. In the HOCM group there were 304 minor or mild adverse reactions (2.2%), and 10 severe adverse reactions (0.08%). In the LOCM there were 34 mild or moderate adverse reactions (0.59%) and 3 severe adverse reactions (0.05%). Significant differences in terms of mild adverse reactions were found between HOCM and LOCM (Fischer's test, p<0.001). No significant differences were found in terms of severe adverse reactions ( p=0.27). After subtracting the cost of treating additional adverse reactions, the net differential cost between universal and selective use of LOCM was 565,285 Euro (601,067 US dollars). This means a net increase of 41.4 Euro per patient or 414,000 Euro per 10,000 patients (438,840 US dollars). Selective use of LOCM in CT is safe and effective and results in a substantial reduction in costs.

  8. Feasibility of low contrast media volume in CT angiography of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Seehofnerová, Anna; Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Douwes, Dave; Sailer, Anni; Nijssen, Estelle; de Haan, Michiel J W; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Using smaller volumes of contrast media (CM) in CT angiography (CTA) is desirable in terms of cost reduction and prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of low CM volume in CTA of the aorta. 77 patients referred for CTA of the aorta were scanned using a standard MDCT protocol at 100 kV. A bolus of 50 ml CM (Iopromide 300 mg Iodine/ml) at a flow rate of 6 ml/s was applied (Iodine delivery rate IDR = 1.8 g/s; Iodine load 15 g) followed by a saline bolus of 40 ml at the same flow rate. Scan delay was determined by the test bolus method. Subjective image quality was assessed and contrast enhancement was measured at 10 anatomical levels of the aorta. Diagnostic quality images were obtained for all patients, reaching a mean overall contrast enhancement of 324 ± 28 HU. Mean attenuation was 350 ± 60 HU at the thoracic aorta and 315 ± 83 HU at the abdominal aorta. A straightforward low volume CM protocol proved to be technically feasible and led to CTA examinations reaching diagnostic image quality of the aorta at 100 kV. Based on these findings, the use of a relatively small CM bolus can be incorporated into routine clinical imaging.

  9. Pathogenesis of Renal Failure in Multiple Myeloma: Any Role of Contrast Media?

    PubMed Central

    Mussap, Michele; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of kidney disease-associated monoclonal immunoglobulin and plasma cell malignancies is remarkably broad and encompasses nearly all nephropathologic entities. Multiple myeloma with kidney impairment at presentation is a medical emergency since the recovery of kidney function is associated with survival benefits. In most cases, kidney impairment may be the first clinical manifestation of malignant plasma cell dyscrasias like multiple myeloma and light chain amyloidosis. Multiple myeloma per se cannot be considered a main risk factor for developing acute kidney injury following intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media. The risk is increased by comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, hypercalcemia, dehydration, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. Before the administration of contrast media, the current recommended laboratory tests for assessing kidney function are serum creatinine measurement and the estimation of glomerular filtration rate by using the CKD-EPI equation. The assessment of Bence Jones proteinuria is unnecessary for evaluating the risk of kidney failure in patients with multiple myeloma, since this test cannot be considered a surrogate biomarker of kidney function. PMID:24877060

  10. The Use of Enteric Contrast Media for Diagnostic CT, MRI, and Ultrasound in Infants and Children: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Michael J; Talmadge, Jennifer M; MacDougall, Robert; Buonomo, Carlo; Taylor, George A

    2016-05-01

    Enteric contrast media are commonly administered for diagnostic cross-sectional imaging studies in the pediatric population. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the use of enteric contrast media for CT, MRI, and ultrasound in infants, children, and adolescents and to share our experiences at a large tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital. The use of enteric contrast material for diagnostic imaging in infants and children continues to evolve with advances in imaging technology and available enteric contrast media. Many principles of enteric contrast use in pediatric imaging are similar to those in adult imaging, but important differences must be kept in mind when imaging the gastrointestinal tract in infants and children, and practical ways to optimize the imaging examination and the patient experience should be employed where possible.

  11. Determination of serum creatinine prior to iodinated contrast media: is it necessary in all patients?

    PubMed

    Choyke, P L; Cady, J; DePollar, S L; Austin, H

    1998-06-01

    The risk of contrast-associated nephrotoxicity (CAN) is increased in the presence of preexisting renal disease. Although routine determination of serum creatinine (Cr) prior to imaging studies is the traditional method of assessing renal function, it is a costly and time-consuming practice. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a patient survey could identify patients with a high likelihood of having normal Cr values and who, therefore, did not require serum testing. A survey was administered to 673 consecutive adult patients who were scheduled for contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Survey questions were designed to elicit a history of renal disorders as well as additional risk factors for CAN. Each patient had a Cr level determined within 48 hours prior to the injection of iodinated contrast media. Cr levels were assessed in the patients who gave negative responses to all survey questions. The degree to which positive responses to each survey question predicted elevated Cr levels was determined using the odds ratio (OR). Among the 673 respondents, 577 (85%) had normal Cr values (< or =1.3 mg/dL for women and < or =1.4 mg/dL for men). Completely negative responses to the questionnaire occurred in 191 (28%) of 673 of respondents, and 176 (92%) of these 191 had normal Cr values. A Cr cutoff value of 1.7 mg/dL is used in our department, i.e., patients with Cr values >1.7 mg/dL usually do not receive iodinated contrast media. Using this Cr cutoff value, 189 (99%) of 191 patients with negative responses had Cr values less than or equal to the cutoff value. The survey questions most strongly associated with elevated Cr values pertained to preexisting renal disease (OR 13.6), proteinuria (OR 8.7), prior kidney surgery (OR 8.1), hypertension (OR 5.4), gout (OR 4.6), and diabetes (OR 3.2). If the survey had been limited to these six questions, completely negative responses would have occurred in 450 (67%) of 673, 424 (94%) of these 450 would have normal

  12. In vivo X-Ray Computed Tomographic Imaging of Soft Tissue with Native, Intravenous, or Oral Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Wathen, Connor A.; Foje, Nathan; van Avermaete, Tony; Miramontes, Bernadette; Chapaman, Sarah E.; Sasser, Todd A.; Kannan, Raghuraman; Gerstler, Steven; Leevy, W. Matthew

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the most commonly utilized anatomical imaging modalities for both research and clinical purposes. CT combines high-resolution, three-dimensional data with relatively fast acquisition to provide a solid platform for non-invasive human or specimen imaging. The primary limitation of CT is its inability to distinguish many soft tissues based on native contrast. While bone has high contrast within a CT image due to its material density from calcium phosphate, soft tissue is less dense and many are homogenous in density. This presents a challenge in distinguishing one type of soft tissue from another. A couple exceptions include the lungs as well as fat, both of which have unique densities owing to the presence of air or bulk hydrocarbons, respectively. In order to facilitate X-ray CT imaging of other structures, a range of contrast agents have been developed to selectively identify and visualize the anatomical properties of individual tissues. Most agents incorporate atoms like iodine, gold, or barium because of their ability to absorb X-rays, and thus impart contrast to a given organ system. Here we review the strategies available to visualize lung, fat, brain, kidney, liver, spleen, vasculature, gastrointestinal tract, and liver tissues of living mice using either innate contrast, or commercial injectable or ingestible agents with selective perfusion. Further, we demonstrate how each of these approaches will facilitate the non-invasive, longitudinal, in vivo imaging of pre-clinical disease models at each anatomical site. PMID:23711461

  13. Liver lesions discovered incidentally on ultrasound: evaluation of reader ability to characterize lesions on MRI without intravenous contrast.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Neil; Weadock, William; Morani, Ajaykumar; Carlos, Ruth

    2012-09-01

    Liver lesions incidentally discovered on ultrasound (US) are often further evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the added effectiveness of contrast-enhanced MRI, compared to noncontrast MRI, to correctly guide management of liver lesions incidentally identified on ultrasound in patients with low pretest probability of malignancy. We conducted the evaluation using a multireader study. Liver MRI studies ordered to evaluate incidental liver US lesions were selected for analysis. Patients with no prior history of cancer or chronic liver disease who had 2 years of clinical follow-up (72 patients) were selected to ensure low pretest probability of malignancy and adequate follow-up to establish proof of diagnosis. Fifty of these studies were randomly selected and analyzed by two abdominal radiologists. In the initial interpretation session, only nonenhanced images were reviewed; after 6 weeks, the complete exam including the contrast enhanced images were viewed. Differences in interpretation between the noncontrast and contrast enhanced reading sessions were assessed. Sixty-nine patients (95.8%) had no abnormalities, benign masses, or hepatic steatosis accounting for the ultrasound findings. One patient was newly diagnosed with hereditary hemochromatosis, and 2 patients were newly diagnosed with metastatic disease. The most likely diagnosis changed for 15 of the lesions described by reader A, and 16 by reader B. The majority of these changes (26/31 lesions, 84%) were from one benign entity to another. Five of 31 (16%) of the changes involved that of a benign entity to a malignant one. Reader A recommended additional contrast enhanced imaging in 13/50 (26%) patients; reader B, 9/50 (18%) patients. After viewing the nonenhanced images, both readers recommended that all patients with eventual malignancies return for contrast administration and/or biopsy. After viewing the contrast-enhanced imaging, both readers accurately

  14. [Contrast media extravasation in upper abdominal injuries: detection with spiral computerized tomography].

    PubMed

    Catalano, O; Lobianco, R; Esposito, M; Sandomenico, F; Siani, A

    1999-03-01

    The possibility of detecting contrast agent extravasation (i.e., active hemorrhage) with dynamic conventional Computed Tomography (CT) in patients with abdominal trauma has already been reported in small series. We report our experience in the demonstration of contrast material extravasation using helical CT; we also investigate the diagnostic and clinical value of this finding. January 1997 to July 1998, we examined 41 consecutive patients with upper abdominal trauma. Twelve patients (29%) had contrast material extravasation. The examinations were performed with a helical unit and volumetric acquisitions (thickness 8-10 mm, pitch 1, reconstruction interval 5-8 mm). The intravenous contrast medium (350 mgI/mL, 130-140 mL) was administered with rapid infusion (2-2.5 mL/s, 40-50 s acquisition delay from bolus starting) and using a power injector. We reviewed the CT studies and clinical records of these 12 patients. Contrast agent extravasation was considered present when this finding, not recognizable on plain scans, showed equal attenuation to or higher attenuation than the vessels within the same level. Moreover we assessed leak site, CT appearance, the direct visualization of the involved vessel, the evidence of other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries, the CT signs of hypovolemic shock, clinical and surgical data. For comparison, we finally evaluated 50 examinations performed with a conventional CT scanner in subjects with abdominal trauma. Active hemorrhage involved the abdominal wall in 1 case (intercostal artery), the solid organs in 4 (splenic in 2, hepatic in 1, of the middle hepatic vein in 1), the peritoneal cavity in 3 (splenic, midcolic, and gastroduodenal artery in 1 each), the retroperitoneum in 4 (renal pedicle in 2, renal parenchyma in 1, lumbar artery in 1). In all cases the site of contrast extravasation corresponded at surgery to the site of active bleeding. The pattern was localized in 10 cases and diffuse in 2. The involved vessel could be

  15. Late adverse reactions to intravascular iodine based contrast media: an update.

    PubMed

    Bellin, Marie-France; Stacul, Fulvio; Webb, Judith A W; Thomsen, Henrik S; Morcos, Sameh K; Almén, Torsten; Aspelin, Peter; Clement, Olivier; Heinz-Peer, Gertraud; Reimer, Peter; van der Molen, Aart

    2011-11-01

    Late adverse reactions (LAR) to contrast media (CM) are defined as reactions occurring 1 h to 1 week after exposure. In view of more prospective studies of LAR and new data about their pathophysiology, the Contrast Medium Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) reviewed the literature on LAR and updated their guidelines. LAR after CM include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache, itching, skin rash, musculoskeletal pain, and fever. Skin reactions are well-documented LAR to CM with an incidence of approximately 2%-4% after nonionic monomers. LAR are commoner by a factor of three to four after nonionic dimers. The commonest skin reactions are maculopapular rashes, erythema and skin swelling. These reactions are T cell-mediated immune reactions, and the diagnosis may be confirmed using skin tests (patch or delayed reading intradermal). The main risk factors for LAR are a previous reaction to contrast medium, a history of allergy, and interleukin-2 treatment. Most skin reactions are mild or moderate and self-limiting. Management is symptomatic and similar to the management of other drug-induced skin reactions. To reduce the risk of repeat reactions avoidance of the relevant CM and any cross-reacting agents identified by skin testing is recommended.

  16. Review article: Acute serious and fatal reactions to contrast media: our current understanding.

    PubMed

    Morcos, S K

    2005-08-01

    Serious or fatal reactions to a contrast medium (CM) are unpredictable but fortunately rare. History of serious reaction to CM, bronchial asthma or multiple allergies increases the incidence of serious reactions by a factor of 5. Serious or fatal reaction to CM could be due to direct effect on basophils and mast cells or IgE mediated (type 1 hypersensitivity reaction). Activation of the kinin system leading to the formation of bradykinin could also be involved. Complement activation is unlikely to be a primary factor in initiating a serious reaction to CM. Avoiding CM administration in patients at high risk of serious reaction is advisable, but if the administration is deemed essential all precautions should be implemented and measures to treat serious reactions should be readily available. Oxygen supplementation, intravenous administration of physiological fluids and intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml adrenalin (1:1000) should be considered in the first line management of acute anaphylaxis. The ability to assess and treat serious CM reaction effectively is an essential skill that the radiologist should have and maintain.

  17. Administration of contrast media just before cisplatin-based chemotherapy increases cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sendur, M A N; Aksoy, S; Yaman, S; Arik, Z; Tugba Kos, F; Akinci, M B; Civelek, B; Yildirim Ozdemir, N; Uncu, D; Zengin, N

    2013-01-01

    There is a clinical need to predict the probability of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) in order to make decisions about patient management and relevant preventive measures. The purpose of this study was to develop a risk prediction methodology of CIN. 197 consecutive cancer patients, whose serum creatinine was measured at least 48 h before every cycle of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the patient medical records. Renal function was evaluated at least 48 h before treatment (day 0) of each cycle, based on the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. CIN was defined as a decrease of ≥ 25% in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to baseline GFR values. The mean age of the study population was 54.5±9.6 years. Fifty-eight patients (29.4%) whose GFR had decreased by at least 25% compared to baseline values formed the CIN group, and the remaining 139 patients formed the non-CIN group. No significant differences were noted between the CIN and non-CIN groups in terms of age, gender, body mass index and smoking history. Metastatic disease was similar in both groups (p=0.86). History of hypertension (p=0.81), diabetes mellitus (p=0.72), and cardiovascular disease (p=0.58) were similar in the two groups. Chemotherapeutic agents used concurrently with cisplatin were similar in both groups. Significantly more radiologic examinations using contrast media were performed in the CIN group compared with the non-CIN group (p=0.01). In patients exposed to contrast media within a week before cisplatin administration, the risk of CIN was 2.56-fold higher (957 percent; CI 1.28-5.11) than in patients without such exposure (p=0.009). In patients with exposure to contrast media within a week before cisplatin administration, the risk of CIN was significantly higher than in patients without such an exposure. No additional risk factors for CIN were found in this retrospective observational

  18. Comparison of contrast media and low-molecular-weight dextran for frequency-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Yuichi; Kitabata, Hironori; Tsujioka, Hiroto; Hosokawa, Seiki; Kashiwagi, Manabu; Ishibashi, Kohei; Komukai, Kenichi; Tanimoto, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Takarada, Shigeho; Kubo, Takashi; Kimura, Keizo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Hirata, Kumiko; Mizukoshi, Masato; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Although an intracoronary frequency-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system overcomes several limitations of the time-domain OCT (TD-OCT) system, the former requires injection of contrast media for image acquisition. The increased total amount of contrast media for FD-OCT image acquisition may lead to the impairment of renal function. The safety and usefulness of the non-occlusion method with low-molecular-weight dextran L (LMD-L) via a guiding catheter for TD-OCT image acquisition have been reported previously. The aim of the present study was to compare the image quality and quantitative measurements between contrast media and LMD-L for FD-OCT image acquisition in coronary stented lesions. Twenty-two patients with 25 coronary stented lesions were enrolled in this study. FD-OCT was performed with the continuous-flushing method via a guiding catheter. Both contrast media and LMD-L were infused at a rate of 4 ml/s by an autoinjector. With regard to image quality, the prevalence of clear image segments was comparable between contrast media and LMD-L (97.9% vs. 96.5%, P=0.90). Furthermore, excellent correlations were observed between both flushing solutions in terms of minimum lumen area, mean lumen area, and mean stent area. The total volumes of contrast media and of LMD-L needed for OCT image acquisition were similar. FD-OCT image acquisition with LMD-L has the potential to reduce the total amount of contrast media without loss of image quality.

  19. Cellular internalization and morphological analysis after intravenous injection of a highly hydrophilic octahedral rhenium cluster complex - a new promising X-ray contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Krasilnikova, Anna A; Solovieva, Anastasiya O; Trifonova, Kristina E; Brylev, Konstantin A; Ivanov, Anton A; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shestopalov, Michael A; Fufaeva, Maria S; Shestopalov, Alexander M; Mironov, Yuri V; Poveshchenko, Alexander F; Shestopalova, Lidia V

    2016-11-01

    The octahedral cluster compound Na2 H8 [{Re6 Se8 }(P(C2 H4 CONH2 )(C2 H4 COO)2 )6 ] has been shown to be highly radio dense, thus becoming a promising X-ray contrast agent. It was also shown that this compound had low cytotoxic effect in vitro, low acute toxicity in vivo and was eliminated rapidly from the body through the urinary tract. The present contribution describes a more detailed cellular internalization assay and morphological analysis after intravenous injection of this hexarhenium cluster compound at different doses. The median lethal dose (LD50 ) of intravenously administrated compound was calculated (4.67 ± 0.69 g/kg). Results of the study clearly indicated that the cluster complex Hn [{Re6 Se8 }(P(C2 H4 CONH2 )(C2 H4 COO)2 )6 ](n-10) was not internalized into cells in vitro and induced only moderate morphological alterations of kidneys at high doses without any changes in morphology of liver, spleen, duodenum, or heart of mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Degradation of X-ray contrast media compounds by combined ozone and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ning, Bo; Graham, Nigel J D; Lickiss, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The aqueous degradation of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) by the combination of ozone and ultrasound has been studied. Experiments were conducted at a constant ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz, at five power densities up to 0.235 W/mL, and various ozone centrations. In experiments involving dissolved ozone in solution, the addition of ultrasound significantly decreased the oxidation performance of the dissolved ozone, while the combination of dissolved oxygen and ultrasound gave a greater oxidation performance than ultrasound alone. However, the combination of gaseous ozone and ultrasound was found to give a higher degree of compound degradation than either ozone or ultrasound alone. In the experiments with final effluent, the degradation of ICM compounds by gaseous ozone and ultrasound was found to depend on the ozone dose applied. The degradation of ICM compounds in final effluent was modeled, which was found to moderately overestimate the observed compound degradation.

  1. Cardiotrophin-1 administration prevents the renal toxicity of iodinated contrast media in rats.

    PubMed

    Quiros, Yaremi; Sánchez-González, Penelope D; López-Hernández, Francisco J; Morales, Ana I; López-Novoa, José M

    2013-04-01

    Although generally reversible, contrast media toxicity often induces contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), which is associated with longer hospitalization time, the need for dialysis, and higher incidence of later cardiovascular events and higher mortality. Preventive cotreatments have been assayed at the preclinical and clinical levels, but recent meta-analysis has not demonstrated a beneficial effect, which supports the search for new nephroprotective strategies. We have assessed if the administration of cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), an endogenous cytokine with protective properties on the heart and liver, might mitigate CIN in rats. We have developed a model of CIN induced by the administration of the contrast medium gastrographin iv (3.7mg/kg) in rats sensitized by previous administration of subnephrotoxic doses of gentamicin (50mg/kg/day, ip) for 6 days. The severity of CIN was assessed by the measurement of renal function; renal histological damage; urinary excretion of markers of tubular damage, including N-acetyl beta glucosaminidase (NAG), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; lipid peroxidation; and renal apoptosis. Treatment with CT-1 almost completely prevented the renal tissue damage, as evidenced by almost total prevention of tubular desepithelization and tubular obstruction, reduced caspase activation, and cell proliferation. Besides, CT-1 also prevented the increment in renal tissue levels of renal tissue injury markers NAG, KIM-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Oxidative stress, a hallmark of CIN, was also prevented by CT-1. Administration of CT-1 also prevented the derangement in kidney function induced by CIN. Renal hemodynamics, also impaired by the contrast medium, was normal in rats cotreated with CT-1. CT-1 administration significantly prevents the alterations in renal function and structure observed in a rat model of CIN.

  2. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Rosado Ingelmo, A; Doña Diaz, I; Cabañas Moreno, R; Moya Quesada, M C; García-Avilés, C; García Nuñez, I; Martínez Tadeo, J I; Mielgo Ballesteros, R; Ortega-Rodríguez, N; Padial Vilchez, M A; Sánchez-Morillas, L; Vila Albelda, C; Moreno Rodilla, E; Torres Jaén, M J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of these guidelines is to ensure efficient and effective clinical practice. The panel of experts who produced this consensus document developed a research protocol based on a review of the literature. The prevalence of allergic reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) is estimated to be 1:170 000, that is, 0.05%-0.1% of patients undergoing radiologic studies with ICM (more than 75 million examinations per year worldwide). Hypersensitivity reactions can appear within the first hour after administration (immediate reactions) or from more than 1 hour to several days after administration (nonimmediate or delayed reactions). The risk factors for immediate reactions include poorly controlled bronchial asthma, concomitant medication (eg, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ß-blockers, and proton-pump inhibitors), rapid administration of the ICM, mastocytosis, autoimmune diseases, and viral infections. The most common symptoms of immediate reactions are erythema and urticaria with or without angioedema, which appear in more than 70% of patients. Maculopapular rash is the most common skin feature of nonimmediate reactions (30%-90%). Skin and in vitro tests should be performed for diagnosis of both immediate and nonimmediate reactions. The ICM to be administered will therefore be chosen depending on the results of these tests, the ICM that induced the reaction (when known), the severity of the reaction, the availability of alternative ICM, and the information available on potential ICM cross-reactivity. Another type of contrast media, gadolinium derivatives, is used used for magnetic resonance imaging. Although rare, IgE-mediated reactions to gadolinium derivatives have been reported.

  3. [Allergy to drugs and contrast media--recommendations of the Israeli Allergy and Clinical Immunology Association].

    PubMed

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Tal, Yuval; Broides, Arnon; Asher, Ilan; Hersheko, Alon; Staubers, Tali; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2013-09-01

    Drug hypersensitivity is an adverse reaction that was brought about by a specific immunologic response, not related to the pharmacological components of the drug. Additionally, drug related pseudoallergic and anaphylactoid reactions have been encompassed under the umbrella of hypersensitivity. Some of these reactions are linked with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, the hypersensitivity reactions of most drugs can be well defined and recurrence risk following exposure to the culprit drug and/or related drugs can be assessed. Medical history skin, blood and challenge tests, conducted in an allergy clinic, enable prediction and prevention of repeated events as well as unnecessary avoidance of certain compounds. For instance, most patients who report a prior reaction to penicillin are not allergic to beta-lactams upon allergic evaluation, while avoidance of penicillin based on self-reporting alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. On the other hand, for patients who previously exhibited hypersensitivity to a compound which is currently required, premedication or a desensitization protocol can be recommended to allow the use of this compound. Drug hypersensitivity is most commonly attributed to beta-lactams antibiotics, contrast media reagents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Hence, in the current review the recommendations of the Israeli Association for Allergy and Clinical Immunology for the evaluation and treatment of patients suspected to have hypersensitivity to beta-lactams and contrast media reagents are detailed. Recommendations regarding the evaluation of NSAID hypersensitivity will be published on the IMA website, together with those explicated herein.

  4. Risk of intravenous contrast material-mediated acute kidney injury: a propensity score-matched study stratified by baseline-estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jennifer S; McDonald, Robert J; Carter, Rickey E; Katzberg, Richard W; Kallmes, David F; Williamson, Eric E

    2014-04-01

    To determine the effect of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on the causal association between intravenous iodinated contrast material exposure and subsequent development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in propensity score-matched groups of patients who underwent contrast material-enhanced or unenhanced computed tomography (CT). This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. All patients who underwent contrast-enhanced (contrast material group) or unenhanced (non-contrast material group) CT between 2000 and 2010 were identified and stratified according to baseline eGFR by using Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative cutoffs for chronic kidney disease into subgroups with eGFR of 90 or greater, 60-89, 30-59, and less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Propensity score generation and 1:1 matching of patients were performed in each eGFR subgroup. Incidence of AKI (serum creatinine [SCr] increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL [≥44.2 μmol/L] above baseline) was compared in the matched subgroups by using the Fisher exact test. A total of 12 508 propensity score-matched patients with contrast-enhanced and unenhanced scans met all inclusion criteria. In this predominantly inpatient cohort, the incidence of AKI significantly increased with decreasing baseline eGFR (P < .0001). However, this incidence was not significantly different between contrast material and non-contrast material groups in any eGFR subgroup; for the subgroup with eGFR of 90 or greater (n = 1642), odds ratio (OR) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38, 2.15), P = .82; for the subgroup with eGFR of 60-89 (n = 3870), OR was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.60), P = .99; for the subgroup with eGFR of 30-59 (n = 5510), OR was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.18), P = .65; and for the subgroup with eGFR of less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (n = 1486), OR was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.30), P = .89. Diminished eGFR is associated with an increased risk of SCr-defined AKI following CT examinations

  5. Are there any differences in acute adverse reactions among five low-osmolar non-ionic iodinated contrast media?

    PubMed

    Gomi, Tatsuya; Nagamoto, Masashi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Katoh, Asako; Sugiyama, Miki; Murata, Nozomu; Kunihiro, Toshiyuki; Kohda, Ehiichi

    2010-07-01

    The differences regarding adverse reactions in different low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media had not been investigated previously. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify differences in the incidence of adverse reactions in five different low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media. We prospectively recorded all adverse events associated with five different low-osmolar non-ionic contrast media used in 8,931 consecutive patients for CT. Patients were randomly assigned to five groups: iomeprol 300 mgI/ml, iopamidol 300 mgI/ml, iohexol 300 mgI/ml, iopromide 300 mgI/ml and ioversol 320 mgI/ml. Adverse events were observed in 241 patients (2.7%). The incidence of acute adverse reactions was significantly higher in the following groups: (1) iomeprol (3.9%) and iopromide (3.5%) groups, (2) patients aged 59 years or less (4.5%) compared with those aged 60 years or over (1.9%), (3) the first period (3.5%) compared with the late period (2.3%), (4) those with a past history of adverse reactions to contrast media (11.2%), and (5) patients receiving contrast media for the first time (3.3%) compared with those had received it previously (2.0%). The incidence of acute adverse reactions may be reduced in younger patients by using iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol.

  6. Tumour dose enhancement using modified megavoltage photon beams and contrast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robar, James L.; Riccio, Silvia A.; Martin, M. A.

    2002-07-01

    This study examines the magnitude of tumour dose enhancement achieved by injection of gadolinium or iodine contrast media (CM) and treatment using modified x-ray photon spectra from linear accelerators. Monte Carlo modelling of the linear accelerator and patient geometry was used to explore the effect of removing the flattening filter for various beam qualities and the resultant effect on dose enhancement. In addition, ionization measurements were conducted to observe dose enhancement within a phantom containing CM. Simulation results indicate that for flattened 6-24 MV photon beams and realistic CM tumour concentrations, the dose enhancement remains below 5%. However, if the flattening filter is removed, dose enhancement is increased significantly. For a 30 mg ml-1 gadolinium CM tumour concentration, for example, 8.4%, 10.8%, 13.7% and 23.1% dose enhancements are achieved for 18 MV, 6 MV, 4 MV and 2 MV unflattened beams, respectively. In contrast to the phototherapy technique, which uses the orthovoltage beam from a modified CT scanner to achieve dose enhancement, all unflattened spectra preserve the dose build-up at the surface, and thus the skin and bone are spared.

  7. Valsartan protects HK-2 cells from contrast media-induced apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ping-An; Wang, Le; Ma, Qian; Xin, Yi; Zhang, Ou; Han, Hong-Ya; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ji, Qing-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ying-Xin

    2015-12-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with increasing in-hospital and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Contrast media (CM)-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis is reported to participate in this process by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist can alleviate ER stress-induced renal apoptosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and can reduce CM-induced renal apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress and reversing the enhancement of bax mRNA and the reduction of bcl-2 mRNA, but the effect of the AT1R blocker on ER stress in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI is still unknown. In this study, we explored the effect of valsartan on meglumine diatrizoate-induced human renal tubular cell apoptosis by measuring changes in ER stress-related biomarkers. The results showed that meglumine diatrizoate caused significant cell apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of ER stress markers, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase 12, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which could be alleviated by preincubation with valsartan. In conclusion, valsartan had a potential nephroprotective effect on meglumine diatrizoate-induced renal cell apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress.

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 Counteracts Contrast Media-Induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chao-Fu; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Peyton, Kelly J.; Durante, William

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced acute kidney injury, which is a major adverse event following coronary angiography. In this study, we evaluated the effect of contrast media (CM) on human EC proliferation, migration, and inflammation, and determined if heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) influences the biological actions of CM. We found that three distinct CM, including high-osmolar (diatrizoate), low-osmolar (iopamidol), and iso-osmolar (iodixanol), stimulated the expression of HO-1 protein and mRNA. The induction of HO-1 was associated with an increase in NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS). CM also stimulated HO-1 promoter activity and this was prevented by mutating the antioxidant responsive element or by overexpressing dominant-negative Nrf2. In addition, the CM-mediated induction of HO-1 and activation of Nrf2 was abolished by acetylcysteine. Finally, CM inhibited the proliferation and migration of ECs and stimulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and the adhesion of monocytes on ECs. Inhibition or silencing of HO-1 exacerbated the anti-proliferative and inflammatory actions of CM but had no effect on the anti-migratory effect. Thus, induction of HO-1 via the ROS-Nrf2 pathway counteracts the anti-proliferative and inflammatory actions of CM. Therapeutic approaches targeting HO-1 may provide a novel approach in preventing CM-induced endothelial and organ dysfunction. PMID:24239896

  9. Contrast media and glomerular filtration: dose dependence of clearance for three agents

    SciTech Connect

    Baeck, S.E.K.; Krutzen, E.; Nilsson-Ehle, P.

    1988-09-01

    Determination of plasma clearance of contrast agents has been advocated as a means to assess glomerular filtration rate. To evaluate the feasibility of different agents for this purpose, we have compared, in healthy volunteers, the dose dependence of plasma clearance for three contrast media (iohexol, a nonionic agent, and iothalamate and metrizoate, which are ionic substances), with special emphasis on the lower dose range (2-20 mL corresponding to 0.9-12.9 g, depending on dose and agent). Iohexol and iothalamate were cleared at constant rates, irrespective of given dose, whereas metrizoate clearance increased significantly at lower doses. In general, the clearances or iothalamate and metrizoate were, respectively, moderately and markedly higher than that of iohexol. The clearance of different doses of metrizoate (2 mL versus a radiographic dose of 40 mL or more) was also compared with the clearance of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in two groups of patients with reduced renal function. When compared with (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in patients with renal dysfunction, metrizoate was cleared significantly faster after a 2-mL dose, whereas clearances were identical when the metrizoate dose was 40 mL or more. These findings indicate that tubular secretion plays an active role in the elimination of metrizoate. The pharmacokinetic properties of iohexol, in combination with its low toxicity, make it a suitable agent for determination of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice.

  10. Preprocedural evaluation and endovascular treatment of iliofemoral artery disease without contrast media for patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Daizo; Fujii, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Masashi; Fujii, Naohiko; Masutani, Motomaru; Kawabata, Masaaki Lee; Tsujino, Takeshi; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Masuyama, Tohru

    2011-01-01

    Generally, both the preprocedural evaluation and endovascular therapy (EVT) for lower limb arteries require contrast media that is harmful for patients with chronic renal insufficiency. In the present study these procedures were performed without using nephrotoxic contrast media in patients with preexisting renal insufficiency and iliofemoral artery disease. The 36 consecutive patients with chronic renal insufficiency underwent preprocedural evaluation with duplex examination, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) without contrast media, and plain computed tomography (CT). A total of 51 lesions were treated using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) without contrast media. The overall technical success was 100% without any complications. Pre- and postprocedural ankle-brachial indices changed from 0.59 ± 0.23 to 0.92 ± 0.14. The mean serum creatinine concentration before and after treatment, and 3 months after treatment did not change (2.1 ± 1.4, 2.0 ± 1.4, and 2.1 ± 1.6 mg/dl, respectively). The overall 3-month survival rate and limb salvage rate was 100%. EVT comprising duplex, MRA, and CT for preprocedural evaluation and IVUS-guided procedure is feasible and may avoid intra-arterial contrast injection in selected patients deemed at high risk for renal failure from nephrotoxic contrast material.

  11. Bowel Angioedema Associated With Iodinated Contrast Media: Incidence and Predisposing Factors.

    PubMed

    Seo, Nieun; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Song, Mi Kyung; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2017-09-01

    Bowel angioedema is an acute adverse reaction to iodinated contrast media (CM) that involves the gastrointestinal tract. We aimed to investigate the incidence and predisposing factors of iodinated CM-associated bowel angioedema during computed tomography (CT) examinations. This study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was waived due to its retrospective design. From July 2013 to July 2015, adult patients with a history of adverse reactions to iodinated CM during CT (group A, n = 427) and patients without adverse reactions matched for age and sex with the propensity-score matching method (group B, n = 427) were studied. Contrast media-associated bowel angioedema was determined when bowel wall thickness increased after contrast enhancement compared with the precontrast scan. Potential predisposing factors including patient demographics, symptoms and time of adverse reactions, and CM-related factors were compared between patients with and without angioedema in group A. In addition, the incidence of bowel angioedema was compared between groups A and B. The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group A was 3.3% (14/427) in the per-patient analysis and 2.6% (15/578) in the per-examination analysis. The CM-associated bowel angioedema involved the distal duodenum and/or proximal jejunum and showed long-segmental circumferential bowel wall thickening on CT. None of the studied predisposing factors was different between patients with and without bowel angioedema (P > 0.05). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema in group B was 1.9% (8/427) and 1.7% (8/458) for per-patient and per-examination analyses, respectively, and these rates were not significantly different between groups A and B (P = 0.346 and P = 0.370, respectively). The incidence of CM-associated bowel angioedema during CT was 1.7% to 3.3%, and none of the studied predisposing factors was associated with bowel angioedema.

  12. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Methods Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary’s teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010–2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton’s preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Results Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001), and more likely to be type A reactions (73.5% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.001). Females were over-represented among drug-induced adverse reactions (68.1%, p < 0.001) but not among contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p < 0.001). Conclusions We found differences in sex, preventability, severity, and type A/B reactions between spontaneously reported drug and contrast media-induced adverse

  13. Protective Effects of Repetitive Injections of Radiographic Contrast Media on the Subsequent Tolerance to Ischemia in the Isolated Rat Heart

    SciTech Connect

    Falck, Geir; Bruvold, Morten; Schjott, Jan; Jynge, Per

    2000-11-15

    Purpose: Despite detailed knowledge of the effects of X-ray contrast media on cardiac function, no studies have examined the effect of contrast media injections on the subsequent tolerance to ischemia in the heart.Methods: Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to repetitive injections of iohexol, iodixanol, or ioxaglate before 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. These groups were compared with control (no pretreatment) and ischemic preconditioning known to reduce infarct size. Physiologic variables and infarct size were measured. Results: Pretreatment with iodixanol reduced infarct size significantly compared with control and thus afforded protection against ischemia. Injections with iohexol and ioxaglate reduced infarct size, although not significantly, compared with control.Conclusion: Pretreatment of the isolated rat heart with commonly used contrast media enhances the cardiac tolerance to subsequent ischemia. The mechanism behind this protective effect could not be determined, but could involve stretching of the heart and/or generation of nitric oxide.

  14. Changes in Risk of Immediate Adverse Reactions to Iodinated Contrast Media by Repeated Administrations in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Naoto; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Akahane, Masaaki; Taguri, Masataka; Minami, Tatsuya; Mikami, Shintaro; Sato, Masaya; Uchino, Kouji; Enooku, Kenichiro; Kondo, Yuji; Asaoka, Yoshinari; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Goto, Tadashi; Shiina, Shuichiro; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Ohtomo, Kuni; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Background To elucidate whether repeated exposures to iodinated contrast media increase the risk of adverse reaction. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 1,861 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who visited authors’ institution, a tertiary referral center, between 2004 and 2008. We analyzed cumulative probability of adverse reactions and risk factors. We categorized all symptoms into hypersensitivity reactions, physiologic reactions, and other reactions, according to the American College of Radiology guidelines, and evaluated each category as an event. We estimated the association between hazard for adverse reactions and the number of cumulative exposures to contrast media. We also evaluated subsequent contrast media injections and adverse reactions. Results There were 23,684 contrast media injections in 1,729 patients. One hundred and thirty-two patients were excluded because they were given no contrast media during the study period. Adverse reactions occurred in 196 (0.83%) patients. The cumulative incidence at 10th, 20th, and 30th examination was 7.9%, 15.2%, and 24.1%, respectively. Presence of renal impairment was found to be one of risk factors for adverse reactions. The estimated hazard of overall adverse reaction gradually decreased until around 10th exposure and rose with subsequent exposures. The estimated hazard of hypersensitivity showed V-shaped change with cumulative number of exposures. The estimated hazard of physiologic reaction had a tendency toward decreasing and that of other reaction had a tendency toward increasing. Second adverse reaction was more severe than the initial in only one among 130 patients receiving subsequent injections. Conclusion Repeated exposures to iodinated contrast media increase the risk of adverse reaction. PMID:24098420

  15. Closure of large patent ductus arteriosus in renal failure under echocardiographic guidance without use of radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Kothandam; Bhagyavathy, Anpon; Gnanapragasam, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Large patent ductus arteriosus with large left-to-right shunt results in heart failure, and if untreated, leads to multiorgan dysfunction. Use of radiographic iodinated contrast media for angiogram during transcatheter duct closure may aggravate preexistent renal dysfunction. Aortogram with contrast media was avoided in a patient with renal failure, and echocardiogram guided deployment of duct occluder device in the cardiac catheterization laboratory for closure of a large duct. This article highlights use of a nitinol-based occluder that employs nonporous polytetrafluoroethylene fabric to aid in instantaneous duct closure.

  16. Application of low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media in enhanced CT scans in children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhimin; Song, Lei; Yu, Tong; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Qifeng; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Yong; Peng, Yun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media in enhanced CT examinations in children with congenital heart disease. Ninety patients with congenital heart disease were randomly divided into three groups of 30 patients each who underwent contrast-enhanced cardiac scans on a Discovery CT750 HD scanner. Group A received 270 mg I/mL iodixanol, and group B received 320 mg I/mL iodixanol contrast media and was scanned with prospective ECG triggering mode. Group C received 320 mg I/mL iodixanol and was scanned with conventional retrospective ECG gating mode. The same weight-based contrast injection protocol was used for all three groups. Images were reconstructed using a 30% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and a 50% ASIR in groups A and B and a 30% ASIR in group C. The subjective and objective image quality evaluations, diagnostic accuracies, radiation doses and amounts of contrast media in the three groups were measured and compared. All images in the three groups met the diagnostic requirements, with the same diagnostic accuracy and image quality scores greater than 3 in a 4-point scoring system. However, ventricular enhancement and the objective noise, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and subjective image quality scores in group C were better than those in groups A and B (all P<.001). The effective radiation dose in groups A and B was 84% lower than that in group C (P<.001); group A received the lowest contrast dose (14% lower than that of groups B and C). Enhanced CT scan images with low dose radiation and low concentration contrast media can meet the diagnostic requirements for examining children with congenital heart disease while reducing the potential risk of radiation damage and contrast-induced nephropathy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Added value of intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasound for characterization of cystic pancreatic masses: a prospective study on 37 patients.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Tudor Andrei; Socaciu, Mihai; Stan Iuga, Roxana; Seicean, Andrada; Iancu, Cornel; al Hajjar, Nadim; Zaharie, Toader; Badea, Radu

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the pancreatic cystic mass (PCM) diagnosis by using a qualitative and quantitative analysis in order to make a relevant characterization. Between December 2008 and November 2011, 37 patients with PCM discovered at ultrasound examination were prospectively followed. A qualitative and quantitative CEUS analysis was performed in order to differentiate etiologies of the PCM. In the quantitative analysis several parameters were followed: Peak Intensity (PI), Time to Peak (TTP), maximum ascending gradient (GRAD), Time to maximum gradient (TTG) and Area Under the Curve (AUC). Normalized ratios were also calculated. In all patients a definite cytological or histological diagnosis was obtained. Thirty-seven patients were studied: 12 with pancreatitis-associated pseudocyst and 25 with cystic tumors (10 serous cystic adenoma, 5 mucinous cystic adenoma, 6 cystadenocarcinomas, 2 solid pseudopapillary tumors and 2 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms). There was a significant difference of the nAUC and nTTP between pseudocyst and cystic tumors, p=0.03 and p=0.01, respectively. A normalized TTP value above 7 sec was suggestive for the diagnosis of pseudocysts with 79.16 % accuracy. There was a significant difference of nTTP and nTTG between the benign and malignant lesions. nTTP < 9 sec and nTTG < 8.5 sec rules out malignant cysts in almost 90% of cases. The CEUS is useful in the diagnosis of PCM. The quantitative analysis of the enhancement of the cystic wall may discriminate the different types of the PCM.

  18. Torsten Almén (1931-2016): the father of non-ionic iodine contrast media.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Ulf; Ekberg, Olle; Aspelin, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The Swedish radiologist Torsten Almén is the first clinical radiologist ever to have made a fundamental contribution to intravascular contrast medium design, the development of non-ionic contrast media. He became emotionally triggered by the patients' severe pain each time he injected the ionic "high-osmolar" contrast media when performing peripheral arteriographies in the early 1960s. One day he got a flash of genius that combined the observation of pain, a pathophysiological theory and how to eliminate it with suitable contrast media chemistry. After self-studies in chemistry he developed the concept of iodine contrast media not dissociating into ions in solution to reduce their osmolality and even reach plasma isotonicity. He offered several pharmaceutical companies his concept of mono- and polymeric non-ionic agents but without response, since it was considered against the chemical laws of that time. Contrast media constructed as salts and dissociating into ions in solution was regarded an absolute necessity to achieve high enough water solubility and concentration for diagnostic purposes. Finally a small Norwegian company, Nyegaard & Co., took up his idea 1968 and together they developed the essentially painless "low-osmolar" monomeric non-ionic metrizamide (Amipaque) released in 1974 and iohexol (Omipaque) in 1982 followed by the "iso-osmolar" dimeric non-ionic iodixanol (Visipaque) released in 1993. This has implied a profound paradigm shift with regard to reduction of both hypertonic and chemotoxic side effects, which have been a prerequisite for the today's widespread use of contrast medium-enhanced CT and advanced endovascular interventional techniques even in fragile patients. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.

  19. Effects of contrast media on the hepato-pancreato-biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Topcu, Omer; Kurt, Atilla; Nadir, Isilay; Arici, Sema; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Aydin, Cengiz

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of high osmolarity contrast media (HOCM) and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) application, with or without pressure, on hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) system. METHODS: Sixty rats were divided into six equal groups as follows: Group 1: (0.9% NaCl, control), Group 2: (diatrizoate meglumine Na, ionic HOCM, Urographin®), Group 3: (iodixanol, iso-osmolar non-ionic CM, Visipaque®); each of which was applied without pressure, whereas the animals of the remaining three groups (1p, 2p, 3p) were subjected to the same CM with pressure. We performed a duodenal puncture and introduced a catheter into the ampulla. After the catheterization, 0.2 mL CM or 0.9% NaCl was injected with or without pressure. Blood samples were taken for biochemical evaluations. The histopathological examinations of liver, common bile duct, and pancreas were performed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the six groups for blood amylase, alanine aminotransferases, aspartate aminotransferases, bilirubin levels (P > 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase and γ glutamyl transaminase levels were higher (P < 0.05) in the Urographin® groups (2, 2p) than the Visipaque® groups (3, 3p), or control groups (1, 1p). Hepatocyte necrosis, portal area inflammation, and Kupffer’s cell hyperplasia were higher (P < 0.05) in the study groups than the control group. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between HOCM (2, 2p) and iso-osmolar CM (3, 3p) groups. Bile duct proliferation and regeneration in the Urographin® groups (2, 2p) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the Visipaque® groups (3, 3p) or the control groups (1, 1p). Although CM caused minor damage to the pancreas, there were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between the groups. Application of the CM with pressure did not cause additional damage to the HPB system. CONCLUSION: Iso-osmolar, non-ionic CM could be more reliable than the ionic HOCM, whereas the application of

  20. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tongqiang, Liu; Shaopeng, Liu; Xiaofang, Yu; Nana, Song; Xialian, Xu; Jiachang, Hu; Ting, Zhang; Xiaoqiang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute renal injury (CI-AKI) has become a common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. However, the development of prophylaxis strategies and approved therapies for CI-AKI is limited. Salvianolic acid B (SB) can treat cardiovascular-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of SB on prevention of CI-AKI and explore its underlying mechanisms. We examined its effectiveness of preventing renal injury in a novel CI-AKI rat model. Compared with saline, intravenous SB pretreatment significantly attenuated elevations in serum creatinine and the histological changes of renal tubular injuries, reduced the number of apoptosis-positive tubular cells, activated Nrf2, and lowered the levels of renal oxidative stress induced by iodinated contrast media. The above renoprotection of SB was abolished by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin). In HK-2 cells, SB activated Nrf2 and decreased the levels of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and subsequently improved cell viability. The above cytoprotection of SB was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or siNrf2. Thus, our results demonstrate that, due to its antioxidant properties, SB has the potential to effectively prevent CI-AKI via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway.

  1. Salvianolic Acid B Prevents Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tongqiang, Liu; Shaopeng, Liu; Xiaofang, Yu; Nana, Song; Xialian, Xu; Jiachang, Hu; Ting, Zhang; Xiaoqiang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute renal injury (CI-AKI) has become a common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure. However, the development of prophylaxis strategies and approved therapies for CI-AKI is limited. Salvianolic acid B (SB) can treat cardiovascular-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of SB on prevention of CI-AKI and explore its underlying mechanisms. We examined its effectiveness of preventing renal injury in a novel CI-AKI rat model. Compared with saline, intravenous SB pretreatment significantly attenuated elevations in serum creatinine and the histological changes of renal tubular injuries, reduced the number of apoptosis-positive tubular cells, activated Nrf2, and lowered the levels of renal oxidative stress induced by iodinated contrast media. The above renoprotection of SB was abolished by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin). In HK-2 cells, SB activated Nrf2 and decreased the levels of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide and subsequently improved cell viability. The above cytoprotection of SB was blocked by the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or siNrf2. Thus, our results demonstrate that, due to its antioxidant properties, SB has the potential to effectively prevent CI-AKI via the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway. PMID:27382429

  2. [Retention of contrast media in the history of radiology : Sequelae of the former use of thorotrast and new challenges].

    PubMed

    van Kaick, G; Delorme, S

    2016-12-01

    Detection of gadolinium deposits in patients who have repeatedly been administered intravenous gadolinium chelates have given rise to concern regarding the long-term safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast media. Nevertheless, negative long-term clinical effects have not yet been observed. In some publications parallels have been drawn to the sequelae of thorotrast that was formerly used for arterial angiography. In this article the history of thorotrast use is briefly described and in particular why, despite warnings, this substance was used frequently and worldwide. A brief summary of the results of the German Thorotrast Study revealed that high excess rates were only observed for primary malignant liver tumors after a 15-year or longer latency period and to a lesser degree of leukemias, as well as for severe local complications due to paravascular injections, particularly in the neck region. Based on this historical review, we will venture to take stock of the outcome from the "success story" of this contrast agent.

  3. Distribution of actin of the human erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton after interaction with radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Scharnweber, T; Fuhrmann, R; Krüger, A; Wenzel, F; Mrowietz, C; Jung, F

    2013-01-01

    A type-dependent chemotoxic effect of radiographic contrast media on erythrocytes and endothelial cells was reported several times. While mechanisms of toxicity are still unclear the cellular reactions e.g. echinocyte formation in erythrocytes and the buckling of endothelial cells coincided with deterioration of capillary perfusion (in patients with coronary artery disease) and tissue oxygen tension (in the myocardium of pigs). Whether the shape changes in erythrocytes coincide with changes in the arrangement of actin, the core of the actin-spectrin cytoskeletal network and possible actor in membrane stresses and deformation is not known until now. To get specific informations actin was stained using two different staining methods (antibodies to β-actin staining oligomeric G-actin and polymeric F-actin and Phalloidin-Rhodamin staining polymeric F-actin only). In addition, an advanced version of confocal laser scanning microscopes was used enabling the display of the actin arrangement near substrate surfaces. Blood smears were produced after erythrocyte suspension in autologous plasma or in two different plasma/RCM mixtures. In this study an even homogenous distribution of fine grained globular actin in the normal human erythrocyte could be demonstrated. After suspension of erythrocytes in a plasma/Iodixanol mixture an increased number of membrane protrusions appeared densely filled with intensely stained actin similar to cells suspended in autologous plasma, however, there in less numbers. Suspension in Iopromide, in contrast, induced a complete reorganization of the cytoskeletal actin: the fine grained globular actin distribution disappeared and only few, long and thick actin filaments bundled and possibly polymerized appeared, instead, shown here for the first time.

  4. Successful transfemoral aortic Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) bioprosthesis implantation without using iodinated contrast media in a woman with severe allergy to contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Lionel; Dijos, Marina; Dos Santos, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Severe anaphylactoid reaction after the use of iodinated contrast media are rare but can contraindicate the use of contrast agent. It was the case of a 53-year-old woman suffering from symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, recused for cardiac surgery because of deleterious effects of chest-wall irradiation, with porcelain aorta. We decided to implant a 23-mm Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) transcatheter aortic valve via a femoral route without using any contrast media. The implantation was successful after surgical approach of the femoral artery, transesophageal echocardiography guiding, and localization of native leaflets and coronary trunk with catheters. Immediate and one month post-interventional follow-up was favorable and echocardiography showed a good functioning of the aortic bioprosthesis. Although conventional angiography is the best way to visualize the good positioning of the valve before deployment, our case suggests that, in special situations, transfemoral implantation of an Edwards(®) SAPIEN(®) aortic bioprosthesis is feasible without any contrast injection.

  5. Effects of two types of medical contrast media on routine chemistry results by three automated chemistry analyzers.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu Jin; Rim, John Hoon; Yim, Jisook; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2017-08-01

    The use of iodinated contrast media has grown in popularity in the past two decades, but relatively little attention has been paid to the possible interferential effects of contrast media on laboratory test results. Herein, we investigate medical contrast media interference with routine chemistry results obtained by three automated chemistry analyzers. Ten levels of pooled serum were used in the study. Two types of medical contrast media [Iopamiro (iopamidol) and Omnipaque (iohexol)] were evaluated. To evaluate the dose-dependent effects of the contrast media, iopamidol and iohexol were spiked separately into aliquots of serum for final concentrations of 1.8%, 3.6%, 5.5%, 7.3%, and 9.1%. The 28 analytes included in the routine chemistry panel were measured by using Hitachi 7600, AU5800, and Cobas c702 analyzers. We calculated the delta percentage difference (DPD) between the samples and the control, and examined dose-dependent trends. When the mean DPD values were compared with the reference cut-off criteria, the only uniformly interferential effect observed for all analyzers was in total protein with iopamidol. Two additional analytes that showed trends toward interferential effects only in few analyzers and exceeded the limits of the allowable error were the serum iron and the total CO2. The other combinations of analyzer and contrast showed no consistent dose-dependent propensity for change in any analyte level. Our study suggests that many of the analytes included in routine chemistry results, except total protein and serum iron, are not significantly affected by iopamidol and iohexol. These results suggest that it would be beneficial to apply a flexible medical evaluation process for patients requiring both laboratory tests and imaging studies, minimizing the need for strict regulations for sequential tests. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrast detection in fluid-saturated media with magnetic resonance poroelastography

    PubMed Central

    Perriñez, Phillip R.; Pattison, Adam J.; Kennedy, Francis E.; Weaver, John B.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recent interest in the poroelastic behavior of tissues has led to the development of magnetic resonance poroelastography (MRPE) as an alternative to single-phase MR elastographic image reconstruction. In addition to the elastic parameters (i.e., Lamé’s constants) commonly associated with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), MRPE enables estimation of the time-harmonic pore-pressure field induced by external mechanical vibration. Methods: This study presents numerical simulations that demonstrate the sensitivity of the computed displacement and pore-pressure fields to a priori estimates of the experimentally derived model parameters. In addition, experimental data collected in three poroelastic phantoms are used to assess the quantitative accuracy of MR poroelastographic imaging through comparisons with both quasistatic and dynamic mechanical tests. Results: The results indicate hydraulic conductivity to be the dominant parameter influencing the deformation behavior of poroelastic media under conditions applied during MRE. MRPE estimation of the matrix shear modulus was bracketed by the values determined from independent quasistatic and dynamic mechanical measurements as expected, whereas the contrast ratios for embedded inclusions were quantitatively similar (10%–15% difference between the reconstructed images and the mechanical tests). Conclusions: The findings suggest that the addition of hydraulic conductivity and a viscoelastic solid component as parameters in the reconstruction may be warranted. PMID:20831058

  7. The potential utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young-Hwan; Koh, Young-Il; Kim, Joo-Hee; Ban, Ga-Young; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Hong, Ga-Na; Jin, U-Ram; Choi, Byung-Joo; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2015-03-01

    Both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are relatively common. However, there are few data to determine the clinical utility of immunologic evaluation of ICM. To evaluate the utility of ICM skin testing in patients with ICM hypersensitivity, 23 patients (17 immediate and 6 delayed reactions) were enrolled from 3 university hospitals in Korea. With 6 commonly used ICM including iopromide, iohexol, ioversol, iomeprol, iopamidol and iodixanol, skin prick (SPT), intradermal (IDT) and patch tests were performed. Of 10 patients with anaphylaxis, 3 (30.0%) and 6 (60.0%) were positive respectively on SPTs and IDTs with the culprit ICM. Three of 6 patients with urticaria showed positive IDTs. In total, 11 (64.7%) had positive on either SPT or IDT. Three of 6 patients with delayed rashes had positive response to patch test and/or delayed IDT. Among 5 patients (3 anaphylaxis, 1 urticaria and 1 delayed rash) taken subsequent radiological examinations, 3 patients administered safe alternatives according to the results of skin testing had no adverse reaction. However, anaphylaxis developed in the other 2 patients administered the culprit ICM again. With 64.7% (11/17) and 50% (3/6) of the sensitivities of corresponding allergic skin tests with culprit ICM for immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, the present study suggests that skin tests is useful for the diagnosis of ICM hypersensitivity and for selecting safe ICM and preventing a recurrence of anaphylaxis caused by the same ICM.

  8. Should patients with risk factors be tested for hypersensitivity to contrast media: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Çiftaslan, Nezihe; Oruç, Özlem; Duman, Dildar; Ağca, Meltem; Bulut, İsmet; Çolakoğlu, Bahattin

    2016-08-01

    Previous hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media (CM), atopy, atopic disease, drug allergy, and age (20-29 or >55) are risk factors for CM hypersensitivity reactions. Our aim was to evaluate whether these risk factors should prompt skin testing for diagnosing CM allergy. The study was conducted among patients referred for allergy testing with CM. Skin tests were performed with non ionic or gadolinium CM, recommended by a radiologist. After completion of tests patients were telephonically queried on their symptoms of reactions. 151 risk patients (53 men, 98 women; mean age 55.2) were included in the study. Only 13 (9 %) had a history of hypersensitivity reaction to CM. Compared with the other patients, atopy was significantly more common in patients with a history of CM hypersensitivity reactions. Female gender and mean age were also higher, but not significant. All of the tests with CMs were negative. Only one patient reported urticaria within 1-2 min after administration of CM (telephonically). Atopy can increase the risk of CM allergy. However, skin tests with CMs may be inefficient, unnecessary, and time-consuming, except in cases with a history of CM allergy. Premedication protocols appear to be beneficial in patients with a history of CM allergy and cannot be recommended for patients with well-controlled asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis or history of drug allergy.

  9. Exploring media bias with semantic analysis tools: validation of the Contrast Analysis of Semantic Similarity (CASS).

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Nicholas S; Schott, John Paul; Jones, Michael N; Balota, David A; Yarkoni, Tal

    2011-03-01

    Text-analytic methods have become increasingly popular in cognitive science for understanding differences in semantic structure between documents. However, such methods have not been widely used in other disciplines. With the aim of disseminating these approaches, we introduce a text-analytic technique (Contrast Analysis of Semantic Similarity, CASS, www.casstools.org), based on the BEAGLE semantic space model (Jones & Mewhort, Psychological Review, 114, 1-37, 2007) and add new features to test between-corpora differences in semantic associations (e.g., the association between democrat and good, compared to democrat and bad). By analyzing television transcripts from cable news from a 12-month period, we reveal significant differences in political bias between television channels (liberal to conservative: MSNBC, CNN, FoxNews) and find expected differences between newscasters (Colmes, Hannity). Compared to existing measures of media bias, our measure has higher reliability. CASS can be used to investigate semantic structure when exploring any topic (e.g., self-esteem or stereotyping) that affords a large text-based database.

  10. A possible role for cysteinyl-leukotrienes in non-ionic contrast media induced adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid; Speck, Ulrich; Schild, Hans

    2005-09-01

    To test whether mono- or dimeric X-ray contrast media (CM) may induce the de novo production of cysteinyl-leukotriens (cys-LT), that could contribute to allergic/allergy-like side effects. Leukocytes from 39 patients receiving iopromide or iotrolan for routine CT-examination were analyzed for the production of cys-LT. Histamine levels were analyzed in plasma specimens. One patient with a positive history of a previous CM-reaction did not receive CM-injection. Three patients of the iopromide and five of the iotrolan group showed adverse reactions. Reactors had increased cys-LT values in samples obtained before CM-injection induced by the positive control (anti-FcepsilonRI antibodies) (6763.7 pg/ml+/-1367.3 versus 2299.8 pg/ml+/-399.2; p<0.007). Patients with versus without CM-reaction did not differ significantly with respect to their histamine values before CM-administration. In vitro iopromide (p<0.0002) and iotrolan (p<0.0008) induced significant cys-LT production as compared to IL-3 stimulation. In vivo both CM induced a significant increase 6h after CM administration (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that both CM seem to induce cys-LT production. As to whether the observed increased values in pre-dose samples of patients with as compared to those without reactions could contribute to identify high risk patients should be investigated in larger patient groups in future.

  11. New guidelines on the use of iodinated contrast media: a report on an implementation project.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, M G; Vesprini, A; Concetti, M; Ventrella, S; Spagna, M F; Mancinelli, S; Santini, M; Romanelli, A; Pantanetti, P; Cameli, C; Bonanni, L; Baffoni, L

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on the implementation of new guidelines on the use of injectable iodinated contrast media (ICM) at our workplace and specific protocols for the preparation of patients at risk. Operators received training with continuing medical education (CME) credits. The new documentation (patient history/screening form and informed consent form) is available on the hospital Web site and requests serum creatinine determination with estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for every patient. Additional tests are required for high-risk patients only. Attendance rates were 57.2% among referring physicians and 74.5% among Radiology Department personnel. The Cockcroft-Gault formula was used to estimate GFR in adults. The main problem encountered in the implementation process was that referring physicians failed to evaluate the GFR in 80% of patients, with low GFR being discovered in the Radiology Department on the day of examination in 20% of patients, resulting in a need to reschedule the examination. Although not an easy task, implementation of the new guidelines for ICM use is both feasible and necessary. An additional refresher training course for personnel and GFR evaluation of the patient on referral are indispensable to ensure proper preparation of patients at increased risk of adverse reactions to ICM.

  12. Examination of patients suspected as having hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media with leukocyte migration test.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mikio; Abe, Manabu; Furukawa, Tomoyasu; Yagi, Motohiro; Koike, Yoshihiro; Wakasugi, Yutaka; Tabuchi, Norihiko; Uno, Katsuji

    2014-01-01

    In vivo tests may be used for the diagnosis of allergy to iodinated contrast media (ICM); however, the tests do not provide definitive diagnosis and are associated with risks for patients. Diagnoses based on in vitro tests are limited, and there are almost no relevant studies. Herein, the authors examined involvement of allergic reaction from a multilateral standpoint in 39 patients suspected of having ICM allergies using leukocyte migration test (LMT). The positive rate of LMT was 44%. A comparison with the positive rate of LMT in drugs other than ICM (74%) indicated 30% difference, which was significantly low value, suggesting that there is poor involvement of these drugs in the allergic reaction. In LMT positives, 76% of hypersensitivity reactions were skin rash mainly erythema, and 18% was anaphylactic reactions. Cases considered as non-immediate hypersensitivity accounted for about 4 times as many as immediate-type hypersensitivity. In examination of relevancy between a history of drugs or food allergies, the incidence of ICM allergies was 35%. There is a high possibility that these adverse reactions were caused by pseudoallergy to drug. It was suggested that most hypersensitivity reactions were skin rash related to non-immediate hypersensitivity, and approximately 20% of the reaction was immediate anaphylactic reaction. Therefore attention should be paid not only to immediate-type hypersensitivity but also delayed reactions. Moreover, it was considered that patients with past history of drug or food allergies have a high potential for manifestation of the reactions.

  13. Biotransformation of selected iodinated X-ray contrast media and characterization of microbial transformation pathways.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Jennifer Lynne; Schulz, Manoj; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Ternes, Thomas A

    2010-07-01

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) are commonly detected in the aquatic environment at concentrations up to the low microgram per liter range. In this study, the biotransformation of selected ICM (diatrizoate, iohexol, iomeprol, and iopamidol) in aerobic soil-water and river sediment-water batch systems was investigated. In addition, microbial transformation pathways were proposed. Diatrizoate, an ionic ICM, was not biotransformed, while three nonionic ICM were transformed into several biotransformation products (TPs) at neutral pH. Iohexol and iomeprol were biotransformed to eleven TPs and fifteen TPs, respectively, while eight TPs were detected for iopamidol. Since seven of the TPs detected during biotransformation had not been previously identified, mass fragmentation experiments were completed to elucidate the chemical structures. Oxidation of primary alcoholic moieties, cleavage of the N-C bonds (i.e., deacetylation and removal of hydroxylated propanoic acids), and decarboxylation are potential reactions that can explain the formation of the identified TPs. Iohexol and iomeprol had similar biotransformation rates, while iopamidol was biotransformed slower and to a lesser extent. A LC tandem MS method confirmed the presence of ICM TPs in aqueous environmental samples. Fifteen of the ICM TPs were even detected in drinking water with concentrations up to 120 ng/L.

  14. Influence of different radiographic contrast media on the echinocyte formation of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mrowietz, C; Franke, R P; Jung, F

    2012-01-01

    Echinocyte formation is associated with a rigidification of the cells that may affect capillary perfusion and, consequently, the tissue oxygen supply. This study examines how many echinocytes appeared after the addition of radiographic contrast media (RCM) (Iodixanol320, Ioversol300, Iopamidol300, and Iomeprol400) compared to red blood cells in autologous plasma and in isotonic saline solution. Isotonic saline solution, Iodixanol, Ioversol, Iopamidol and Iomeprol in concentrations of 10 vol%, 20 vol%, and 40 vol% were added to the plasma of seven healthy subjects. Subsequently, the erythrocytes were resuspended in these plasma/RCM mixtures, incubated for 5 minutes and then examined under the microscope. The concentrations and the RCM in the mixture had a significant effect on the number of discocytes (factor concentration: p < 0.0001; factor RCM: p < 0.0001). The percentage of discocytes for all concentrations depended significantly on the RCM/plasma mixture (concentration × RCM: p < 0.002). Of all RCM/plasma mixtures used, the Iodixanol/plasma mixture showed the most similar discocyte fraction compared to red blood cells in the autologous plasma. Importantly, while Iodixanol differed from all other RCMs, the other RCMs did not differ from one another with respect to the discocyte fraction.

  15. Contrast Media Viscosity versus Osmolality in Kidney Injury: Lessons from Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seeliger, Erdmann; Lenhard, Diana C.; Persson, Pontus B.

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) can induce acute kidney injury (AKI). CM share common iodine-related cytotoxic features but differ considerably with regard to osmolality and viscosity. Meta-analyses of clinical trials generally failed to reveal renal safety differences of modern CM with regard to these physicochemical properties. While most trials' reliance on serum creatinine as outcome measure contributes to this lack of clinical evidence, it largely relies on the nature of prospective clinical trials: effective prophylaxis by ample hydration must be employed. In everyday life, patients are often not well hydrated; here we lack clinical data. However, preclinical studies that directly measured glomerular filtration rate, intrarenal perfusion and oxygenation, and various markers of AKI have shown that the viscosity of CM is of vast importance. In the renal tubules, CM become enriched, as water is reabsorbed, but CM are not. In consequence, tubular fluid viscosity increases exponentially. This hinders glomerular filtration and tubular flow and, thereby, prolongs intrarenal retention of cytotoxic CM. Renal cells become injured, which triggers hypoperfusion and hypoxia, finally leading to AKI. Comparisons between modern CM reveal that moderately elevated osmolality has a renoprotective effect, in particular, in the dehydrated state, because it prevents excessive tubular fluid viscosity. PMID:24707482

  16. Contrast venography of the leg: diagnostic efficacy, tolerance, and complication rates with ionic and nonionic contrast media

    SciTech Connect

    Bettmann, M.A.; Robbins, A.; Braun, S.D.; Wetzner, S.; Dunnick, N.R.; Finkelstein, J.

    1987-10-01

    A prospective, three-center study of two contrast agents for leg venography was performed to evaluate both the relative frequency of adverse effects and whether low-osmolality agents provided significant advantages for this procedure. Fifty-four patients were studied with the standard preparation (iothalamate meglumine) and 57 with a nonionic agent (iopamidol). Both were used at an iodine concentration of 200 mg/mL, and there were no differences in volume of contrast material, duration of infusion, percentage of positive studies, or overall diagnostic adequacy. Patient discomfort was less with iopamidol than with iothalamate (18% vs. 44%), although discomfort was generally mild in both groups. By objective follow-up studies, the frequency of postvenographic thrombosis was not significantly different in the two groups (8% vs. 9%). Contrast venography, then, had a low frequency of complications when either a dilute conventional or a low-osmolality agent was employed. Although the frequency of postvenographic thrombosis was low with both agents, patient discomfort was less with the low-osmolality formulation.

  17. The effects of media color and laser wavelength on bar code symbol contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Mathias Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of media color and laser wavelength as they relate to bar code symbol contrast. The research employed a balanced 2 x 2 x 6 factorial experiment design. A random sample of 216 specimens was drawn from a population of 910 colors from the 1998 Pantone Color Formula Guide and assigned to one of 24 hue-saturation-wavelength cells. Hue was defined based on the CIE 1964 chromaticity diagram and standard illuminant D65. The chromaticity diagram was divided into six regions: blue, green, yellow, orange, red, and purple. The chromaticity coordinates (Yxy) of each Pantone specimen were transformed such that the coordinates of D65 was the origin. Lines extended from D65 to the spectral locus defined hue regions. Specimens whose transformed coordinates fell within a particular region were assigned that hue. Next, all specimens were classified as highly saturated if their white content was less than 50%. Otherwise, their saturation was defined as low. Finally, specimens from each hue-saturation group were randomly assigned to one of two wavelength levels: 633 or 670 rim. The measurement apparatus was constructed according the geometry defined in the ANSI Bar Code Print Quality Guideline-X3.182-1990. Data were collected following a random cell-order pattern to minimize the effect of any systematic, investigator-induced error. An analysis of variance was performed to test seven hypotheses: the main effects for each of the three independent variables and all possible interactions between them. The analysis indicated the ANOVA model of hue, saturation, and wavelength with all possible interactions was significant (p =.0001; R2 = 74.1) in explaining the variance in symbol contrast. Hue (p =.0001; R2 = 39.3) and saturation (p =.0001; R2 = 28.2) were significant independent variables. There was no significant difference detected between 633 nm and 670 nm wavelengths. The only significant interaction was between hue and saturation

  18. Evaluation of individually body weight adapted contrast media injection in coronary CT-angiography.

    PubMed

    Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Altintas, Sibel; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Turek, Jakub; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Contrast media (CM) injection protocols should be customized to the individual patient. Aim of this study was to determine if software tailored CM injections result in diagnostic enhancement of the coronary arteries in computed tomography angiography (CTA) and if attenuation values were comparable between different weight categories. 265 consecutive patients referred for routine coronary CTA were scanned on a 2nd generation dual-source CT. Group 1 (n=141) received an individual CM bolus based on weight categories (39-59 kg; 60-74 kg; 75-94 kg; 95-109 kg) and scan duration ('high-pitch: 1s; "dual-step prospective triggering": 7s), as determined by contrast injection software (Certegra™ P3T, Bayer, Berlin, Germany). Group 2 (n=124) received a standard fixed CM bolus; Iopromide 300 mgI/ml; volume: 75 ml; flow rate: 7.2 ml/s. Contrast enhancement was measured in all proximal and distal coronary segments. Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (IBM, version 20.0). For group 1, mean attenuation values of all segments were diagnostic (>325 HU) without statistical significant differences between different weight categories (p>0.17), proximal vs. distal: 449 ± 65-373 ± 58 HU (39-59 kg); 443 ± 69-367 ± 81 HU (60-74 kg); 427 ± 59-370 ± 61 HU (75-94 kg); 427 ± 73-347 ± 61 HU (95-109 kg). Mean CM volumes were: 55 ± 6 ml (39-59 kg); 61 ± 7 ml (60-74 kg); 71 ± 8 ml (75-94 kg); 84 ± 9 ml (95-109 kg). For group 2, mean attenuation values were not all diagnostic with differences between weight categories (p<0.01), proximal vs. distal: 611 ± 142-408 ± 69 HU (39-59 kg); 562 ± 135-389 ± 98 HU (60-74 kg); 481 ± 83-329 ± 81 HU (75-94 kg); 420 ± 73-305 ± 35 HU (95-109 kg). Comparable image noise and image quality were found between groups (p ≥ 0.330). Individually tailored CM injection protocols yield diagnostic attenuation and a more homogeneous enhancement pattern between different weight groups. CM

  19. A multiscale restriction-smoothed basis method for high contrast porous media represented on unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Møyner, Olav Lie, Knut-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of multiscale methods have been proposed in the literature to reduce runtime and provide better scaling for the solution of Poisson-type equations modeling flow in porous media. We present a new multiscale restricted-smoothed basis (MsRSB) method that is designed to be applicable to both rectilinear grids and unstructured grids. Like many other multiscale methods, MsRSB relies on a coarse partition of the underlying fine grid and a set of local prolongation operators (multiscale basis functions) that map unknowns associated with the fine grid cells to unknowns associated with blocks in the coarse partition. These mappings are constructed by restricted smoothing: Starting from a constant, a localized iterative scheme is applied directly to the fine-scale discretization to compute prolongation operators that are consistent with the local properties of the differential operators. The resulting method has three main advantages: First of all, both the coarse and the fine grid can have general polyhedral geometry and unstructured topology. This means that partitions and good prolongation operators can easily be constructed for complex models involving high media contrasts and unstructured cell connections introduced by faults, pinch-outs, erosion, local grid refinement, etc. In particular, the coarse partition can be adapted to geological or flow-field properties represented on cells or faces to improve accuracy. Secondly, the method is accurate and robust when compared to existing multiscale methods and does not need expensive recomputation of local basis functions to account for transient behavior: Dynamic mobility changes are incorporated by continuing to iterate a few extra steps on existing basis functions. This way, the cost of updating the prolongation operators becomes proportional to the amount of change in fluid mobility and one reduces the need for expensive, tolerance-based updates. Finally, since the MsRSB method is formulated on top of a cell

  20. [CT evaluation of extravascular perfusion of contrast medium and its potential to a new method of diagnosis: an experimental study using macro, micro-molecular contrast media].

    PubMed

    Sako, M; Sugimoto, K; Matsumoto, S; Hirota, S; Fujita, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Kuwata, Y; Tomita, M; Murakami, T; Kono, M

    1994-03-25

    To evaluate the dynamics of extravascular perfusion, dynamic CT with two different molecular sized contrast media was performed on VX2 tumor of rabbit. The first dynamic CT was performed with a bolus injection of iopamidol (IP:120 mgI/ml, 5 ml). After ascertaining that the tumor attenuation had returned to the pre-contrast level, the second dynamic CT was performed on the same slice with bolus injection of iodoethylated starch (IES:120 mgI/ml). The time-density (T-D) curves of the same tumor area on the images obtained by two contrast media were compared. The T-D curve with IP showed definitely higher level than that with IES. This occurrence can be explained that IP, 13 A in size, has higher permeability distributing not only in the intravascular space, but also into the extravascular space. On the other hand, IES, 200 A in size, will stay mostly in the intravascular space. From this, we consider that the attenuation difference between the two curves will be an indicator for the dynamics of extravascular perfusion, suggesting to become a new method for CT diagnosis.

  1. Association Between Contrast Media Volume-Glomerular Filtration Rate Ratio and Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Akin, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcın, Ahmet Arif; Erturk, Mehmet; Bıyık, Ismail; Ayaz, Ahmet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Enhos, Asım; Aslan, Serkan

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with baseline levels within 48 hours after the procedure was considered as CI-AKI; 78 (13.1%) of the 597 patients experienced CI-AKI. The amount of contrast during procedure was higher in the CI-AKI group than in those without CI-AKI (153 vs 135 mL, P = .003). The CV-e-GFR ratio was significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without (2.3 vs 1.5, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CI-AKI were low left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .018, odds ratio [OR] = 0.966), e-GFR <60 mL/min (P = .012, OR = 2.558), and CV-e-GFR >2 (P < .001, OR = 5.917). In conclusion, CV-e-GFR ratio is significantly associated with CI-AKI after pPCI.

  2. Practice patterns for the use of iodinated i.v. contrast media for pediatric CT studies: a survey of the Society for Pediatric Radiology.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Michael J; Servaes, Sabah; Lee, Edward Y; Towbin, Alexander J; Westra, Sjirk J; Frush, Donald P

    2014-04-01

    There are limited data available on the use of i.v. contrast media for CT studies in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study is to determine the practice patterns of i.v. contrast media usage for pediatric CT by members of the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR). SPR members were surveyed regarding the use of i.v. contrast media for pediatric CT studies. Questions pertained to information required before administering i.v. contrast media, types of central catheters for injecting i.v. contrast media, injection rates based on angiocatheter size and study type, and management of i.v. contrast media extravasation. The response rate of 6% (88/1545) represented practice patterns of 26% (401/1545) of the SPR membership. Most respondents thought the following clinical information was mandatory before i.v. contrast media administration: allergy to i.v. contrast media (97%), renal insufficiency (97%), current metformin use (72%), significant allergies (61%), diabetes (54%), and asthma (52%). Most administered i.v. contrast media through nonimplanted central venous catheters (78%), implanted venous ports (78%), and peripherally inserted central catheters (72%). The most common maximum i.v. contrast media injection rates were 5.0 mL/s or greater for a 16-gauge angiocatheter, 4.0 mL/s for an 18-gauge angiocatheter, 3.0 mL/s for a 20-gauge angiocatheter, and 2.0 mL/s for a 22-gauge angiocatheter. For soft-tissue extravasation of i.v. contrast media, 95% elevate the affected extremity, 76% use ice, and 45% use heat. The results of this survey illustrate the collective opinion of a subset of SPR members relating to the use of i.v. contrast media in pediatric CT, providing guidelines for clinical histories needed before i.v. contrast media, maximum i.v. contrast injection rates for standard angiocatheters, contrast media injection rates for specific CT studies, and management of i.v. contrast media soft-tissue extravasation.

  3. CT angiography of intracranial arterial vessels: impact of tube voltage and contrast media concentration on image quality.

    PubMed

    Ramgren, Birgitta; Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella M; Holtås, Stig; Siemund, Roger

    2012-10-01

    Computed tomography angiography (CTA) of intracranial arteries has high demands on image quality. Important parameters influencing vessel enhancement are injection rate, concentration of contrast media and tube voltage. To evaluate the impact of an increase of contrast media concentration from 300 to 400 mg iodine/mL (mgI/mL) and the effect of a decrease of tube voltage from 120 to 90 kVp on vessel attenuation and image quality in CT angiography of intracranial arteries. Sixty-three patients were included into three protocol groups: Group I, 300 mgI/mL 120 kVp; Group II, 400 mgI/mL 120 kVp; Group III, 400 mgI/mL 90 kVp. Hounsfield units (HU) were measured in the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery. Image quality grading was performed regarding M1 and M2 segments, volume rendering and general image impression. The difference in mean HU in ICA concerning the effect of contrast media concentration was statistically significant (P = 0.03) in favor of higher concentration. The difference in ICA enhancement due to the effect of tube voltage was statistically significant (P < 0.01) in favor of lower tube voltage. The increase of contrast medium concentration raised the mean enhancement in ICA with 18% and the decrease of tube voltage raised the mean enhancement with 37%. Image quality grading showed a trend towards improved grading for higher contrast concentration and lower tube voltage. Statistically significant better grading was found for the combined effect of both measures except for general impression (P 0.01-0.05). The uses of highly concentrated contrast media and low tube voltage are easily performed measures to improve image quality in CTA of intracranial vessel.

  4. Contrast media volume optimization in high-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen Jie; Chen, Ke Min; Liu, Bo; Pang, Li Fang; Zhang, Huan; Pan, Zi Lai; Yan, Fu Hua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of contrast media (CM) volume reduction in dual-source coronary computed tomography angiography high-pitch mode without affecting coronary artery enhancement. Eighty patients were involved in a preliminary experiment with a default injection protocol (60 ml of CM). The age, BMI, test bolus (TB) enhancement peak and the CT values of coronary artery for each patient were recorded and the key factors for determining coronary artery enhancement were investigated. Based on the results of the preliminary experiment, 120 patients were involved in the main experiment with a new injection protocol. For each patient, the CT values and noise of left coronary sinus (LCS), and the distal segment of right coronary artery were measured. In the preliminary experiment, the peak enhancement of TB correlated most strongly with the HU values of coronary artery. Consequently, the new injection protocol was devised to catalog patients into four groups (30, 40, 50 and 60 ml) of CM based on their TB peak enhancement. In the main experiment, the 30 ml CM injection group whose peak attenuation of TB were the highest (30 vs. 40,50,60 ml: 323.0 ± 27.5 vs. 264.2 ± 11.9, 242.1 ± 8.8, 206.2 ± 18.2 HU, p < 0.05), obtained the highest attenuation of LCS (30 vs. 40,50,60 ml: 365.0 ± 41.2 vs. 341.8 ± 40.0, 326.9 ± 34.7, 312.5 ± 38.2 HU p < 0.05). Contrast optimization is feasible in high-pitch DSCT coronary angiography. Certain patients may receive 30 ml of CM without affecting vessel enhancement.

  5. CT Angiography of the Aorta: Prospective Evaluation of Individualized Low-Volume Contrast Media Protocols.

    PubMed

    Higashigaito, Kai; Schmid, Tabea; Puippe, Gilbert; Morsbach, Fabian; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem; Husarik, Daniela B

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To prospectively develop individualized low-volume contrast media (CM) protocols adapted to tube voltage in patients undergoing computed tomographic (CT) angiography of the aorta. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board and local ethics committee. All patients provided written informed consent. CT angiography was performed by using automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection (ATVS) (range, 70-150 kVp; 10-kVp increments). Iodine attenuation curves from an ex vivo experiment in a phantom were used to design CM protocols for CT angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta in 129 consecutive patients (hereafter, cohort A). Further modified CM protocols based on results in cohort A were designed with the aim of homogeneous vascular attenuation of 300-350 HU across tube voltages and were applied to another 61 consecutive patients (cohort B). Three independent blinded radiologists assessed subjective image quality, and one reader determined objective image quality. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to test for differences in subjective image quality, and linear regression was performed to test for differences in objective image quality between the automatically selected tube voltages. Results Experiments revealed tube voltage-dependent iodine attenuation curves, which were used to determine the CM protocols in cohort A; these ranged from 68 mL at 110 kVp to 45 mL at 80 kVp. In both cohorts, ATVS selected 80 kVp in 62 patients, 90 kVp in 84, 100 kVp in 33, and 110 kVp in 11. In cohort A, image quality that was satisfactory or better was attained in 126 (98%) of 129 patients who had no significant differences in subjective image quality between tube voltages (P = .106) but who did have significant differences in attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) (P < .001 for both). In cohort B, the further-modified CM protocol (from 33 mL at 80 kVp to 68 mL at 110 kVp) yielded image quality that was satisfactory or better

  6. Is Non-Contrast CT Adequate for the Evaluation of Hepatic Metastasis in Patients Who Cannot Receive Iodinated Contrast Media?

    PubMed

    Jee, Han Bum; Park, Min Jung; Lee, Hye Sun; Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the appropriateness of follow-up with only non-enhanced CT (NECT) in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. This retrospective study included 323 patients with colorectal and gastric cancer who underwent two consecutive CT examinations (CT1 and CT2), including non-contrast and portal venous phase CT images, with an interval of 1 year. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A included patients with no hepatic metastasis on CT1 and with or without newly developed metastasis on CT2 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NECT for detecting newly developed hepatic metastasis; Group B included patients with known hepatic metastasis both on CT1 and CT2 to evaluate the accuracy of NECT for the assessment of hepatic metastasis based on RECIST criteria (version 1.1). Contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) images were considered as reference standards. Group A included 172 patients (M:F = 107:65; mean age, 62.6 years). Among them, 57 patients had 95 metastases (mean size, 2.2 ± 1.3 cm). Per patient and per lesion sensitivity for diagnosing newly developed hepatic metastasis was 56.1-66.7% and 52.6-56.8%, respectively. In terms of small metastases (<1.5 cm), per lesion sensitivity was significantly decreased to 28.1-34.4% (P < 0.05). Metastasis size measurements were significantly smaller on NECT (P < 0.001) compared with reference standards. In Group B, the accuracy of response evaluation based on RECIST criteria was 65.6-72.2%. NECT showed inadequate diagnostic performances in both detecting newly developed hepatic metastasis and evaluating the response of hepatic metastasis based on RECIST criteria.

  7. Coronary computed tomography angiography using ultra-low-dose contrast media: radiation dose and image quality.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Sei; Kamata, Teruaki; Imai, Atsuko; Ohara, Tomoki; Takewa, Mitsuhiko; Ohe, Ryoko; Miyaji, Kazuaki; Yoshida, Junichi; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the invasiveness and image quality of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with 80 kV. We enrolled 181 patients with low body weight and low calcium level. Of these, 154 patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 280 HU/80 kV (n = 51); 350 HU/80 kV (n = 51); or 350 HU/120 kV (n = 52). The amount of contrast media (CM) was decided with a CT number-controlling system. Twenty-seven patients were excluded because of an invalid time density curve by timing bolus. The predicted amount of CM, volume CT dose index, dose-length product, effective dose, image noise, and 5-point image quality were measured. The amounts of CM for the 80 kV/280 HU, 80 kV/350 HU, and 120 kV/350 HU groups were 10 ± 4 mL, 15 ± 7 mL, and 30 ± 6 mL, respectively. Although image noise was greater at 80 than 120 kV, there was no significant difference in image quality between 80 kV/350 HU and 120 kV/350 HU (p = 0.390). There was no significant difference in image quality between 80 kV/280 HU and 80 kV/350 HU (4.4 ± 0.7 vs. 4.7 ± 0.4, p = 0.056). The amount of CM and effective dose was lower for 80 kV CCTA than for 120 kV CCTA. CCTA at 80 kV/280 HU may decrease the amount of CM and radiation dose necessary while maintaining image quality.

  8. Removal of the X-ray contrast media diatrizoate by electrochemical reduction and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Flexer, Victoria; Donose, Bogdan C; Sedlak, David L; Keller, Jurg

    2013-01-01

    Due to their resistance to biological wastewater treatment, iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) have been detected in municipal wastewater effluents at relatively high concentrations (i.e., up to 100 μg L(-1)), with hospitals serving as their main source. To provide a new approach for reducing the concentrations of ICMs in wastewater, electrochemical reduction at three-dimensional graphite felt and graphite felt doped with palladium nanoparticles was examined as a means for deiodination of the common ICM diatrizoate. The presence of palladium nanoparticles significantly enhanced the removal of diatrizoate and enabled its complete deiodination to 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid. When the system was employed in the treatment of hospital wastewater, diatrizoate was reduced, but the extent of electrochemical reduction decreased as a result of competing reactions with solutes in the matrix. Following electrochemical reduction of diatrizoate to 3,5-diacetamidobenzoic acid, electrochemical oxidation with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes was employed. 3,5-Diacetamidobenzoic acid disappeared from solution at a rate that was similar to that of diatrizoate, but it was more readily mineralized than the parent compound. When electrochemical reduction and oxidation were coupled in a three-compartment reactor operated in a continuous mode, complete deiodination of diatrizoate was achieved at an applied cathode potential of -1.7 V vs SHE, with the released iodide ions electrodialyzed in a central compartment with 80% efficiency. The resulting BDD anode potential (i.e., +3.4-3.5 V vs SHE) enabled efficient oxidation of the products of the reductive step. The presence of other anions (e.g., chloride) was likely responsible for a decrease in I(-) separation efficiency when hospital wastewater was treated. Reductive deiodination combined with oxidative degradation provides benefits over oxidative treatment methods because it does not produce stable iodinated intermediates. Nevertheless

  9. Skin tests in patients with hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S H; Lee, S-Y; Kang, H-R; Kim, J-Y; Hahn, S; Park, C M; Chang, Y-S; Goo, J M; Cho, S-H

    2015-06-01

    Patients with a previous history of hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are at high risk of the development of HSR to ICM. Many studies have tried to evaluate the diagnostic potential of skin tests in this population but have not yet reached a common conclusion. We investigated the role of skin tests in patients with HSR to ICM in terms of positive rate, cross-reactivity rate, and tolerability to skin test-negative ICM according to the type of HSR. We performed literature searches of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and included studies where skin tests were performed in patients with HSR to ICM, with extractable outcomes. Outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one studies were included. Pooled per-patient positive rates of skin tests were 17% (95% CI, 10-26%) in patients with immediate HSR, and up to 52% (95% CI, 31-72%) when confined to severe immediate HSR. Among patients with nonimmediate HSR, the positive rate was 26% (95% CI, 15-41%). The pooled per-patient cross-reactivity rate was higher in nonimmediate HSR (68%; 95% CI, 48-83%) than that in immediate HSR (39%; 95% CI, 29-50%). Median per-test cross-reactivity rates between pairs of ICM were 7% (IQR, 6-9%) in immediate HSR and 38% (IQR, 22-51%) in nonimmediate HSR. Pooled per-patient recurrence rates of HSR to skin test-negative ICM were 7% (95% CI, 4-14%) in immediate HSR and 35% (95% CI, 19-55%) in nonimmediate HSR. Skin tests may be helpful in diagnosing and managing patients with HSR to ICM, especially in patients with severe immediate HSR. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Iodinated contrast media oxidation by nonthermal plasma: the role of iodine as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Gur-Reznik, Shirra; Azerrad, Sara P; Levinson, Yana; Heller-Grossman, Lilly; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2011-10-15

    The oxidation of trace pharmaceutical compounds in wastewater desalination streams by nonthermal plasma (NTP) was evaluated. Brines from a two stage-RO pilot plant process as well as two sources of tertiary effluents, ultrafiltrated secondary effluents and membrane biological reactor effluents, were comparatively tested with ultra-pure water. The non-ionic and ionic iodinated contrast media (ICM) compounds, iopromide (IOPr) and diatrizoate (DTZ), respectively, were used as model compounds. The neurostabilizer drug carbamazepine (CBZ) was used for reference purposes. Based on deiodination profiles, two distinct patterns of initial oxidation could be established for the ICM. The time profile of deiodination and transformation paralleled for DTZ, indicating that transformation of the aromatic ring is the main initial pattern of transformation. For IOPr, a considerable lag phase of deiodination was observed, suggesting that oxidation of the alkyl chains rather than ring oxidation is the main pattern of initial transformation. Although transformation rate of IOPr was higher compared to DTZ, the rate and degree of deiodination was higher for DTZ than IOPr. Both ICM displayed a markedly lower susceptibility to NTP oxidation compared to CBZ. However, the kinetics of IOPr transformation seems to be less affected by the water matrixes, compared to DTZ and CBZ. Whereas NTP mediated oxidation of ICM followed first-order kinetics, a better fit to Harris model was found for CBZ. As a result of the NTP oxidation, treated brines and effluents displayed a substantial increase in biodegradability (measured as BOD). To conclude, NTP displayed a high potential for treating reluctant pharmaceuticals active compounds such as ICM, even at the background of relatively high DOC concentrations, as can be found in treated effluents and desalination brines, and with no need for chemical additives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What is the clinical value of negative predictive values of skin tests to iodinated contrast media?

    PubMed

    Soyyigit, Sadan; Goksel, Ozlem; Aydin, Omur; Gencturk, Zeynep; Bavbek, Sevim

    2016-11-01

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) can cause hypersensitivity reactions (HSR), yet data are scant about the negative predictive value (NPV) of ICM skin tests. To determine the NPV of skin tests to ICM Methods: We enrolled 73 patients with a history of HSRs to ICM, 136 subjects with no previous exposure to ICM, and, as controls, 47 subjects who had previously tolerated ICM. All the subjects had skin tests with the culprit and/or alternative ICM and were later questioned as to whether they were reexposed and/or reacted to the skin-test-negative ICM. Sixty (82.2%) and 13 (17.8%) patients had a history of immediate HSR and those with a history of nonimmediate HSR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the skin tests were 18% and 97%, respectively, in patients with immediate HSR and were 23% and 99%, respectively, in patients with nonimmediate HSR. Of a total of 237 subjects with negative skin test results, 207 (87.3%) were asked about further ICM administration; 158 (84.9%) confirmed subsequent use either with (n = 15 [9.4%]) or without premedication (n = 143 [90.6%]). Of the 143 individuals, 140 tolerated skin-test-negative ICMs but three (1.9%) reacted to ICMs (two with mild nonimmediate reactions, one with a grade 1 immediate reaction). Of 20 patients who had previous HSR to ICM, 17 tolerated further skin-test-negative ICM without premedication. The NPV of ICM skin tests, therefore, was 97% (95% confidence interval, 7599%). The NPV of skin tests with ICM was high. None of the reactions in patients who had negative skin test results were severe, which may reassure physicians who hesitate to perform further evaluations in patients with negative skin test results.

  12. The role of iodine in hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media.

    PubMed

    Scherer, K; Harr, T; Bach, S; Bircher, A J

    2010-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated radio contrast media (RCM) are either immediate-type (IT) or delayed reactions (DT). In IT, the pathomechanism is unclear. In DT, delayed positive patch (PT) and intradermal tests (IDT) and RCM-specific T cells suggest a T cell-mediated mechanism. In both, the role of iodine has not been clarified; however, patients are often labelled as 'iodine allergic'. Occasionally, positive skin tests to iodine-containing drugs are observed. We investigated the presence of hypersensitivity to iodine in patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to RCM. Nineteen patients with a history of IT (n=9) or DT (n=10) to RCM were investigated. Skin prick tests, IDT and PT with several RCM and iodine formulations were carried out. All underwent oral provocation with Lugol's solution (LS). Two patients each with iodine mumps, contact dermatitis to iodized antiseptics and chronic idiopathic urticaria served as control or proof of concept. In the IT group, skin tests were positive in three out of nine patients to one RCM. One patient with negative skin tests reacted twice to oral iodine with urticaria. In the DT group, sensitization to one or several RCM was identified in 10 out of 10 patients. In seven out of 10 patients, additional sensitizations to the iodine formulations were found. Two patients developed a mild exanthema after oral provocation with LS. We have previously demonstrated in patients with iodine mumps that an oral challenge with LS is a valid means to elicit hypersensitivity reactions to iodine. In 19 patients, we showed that iodine is rarely the eliciting agent in hypersensitivity reactions to RCM. Only one patient with a late urticaria to an RCM with a late urticaria to LS and two patients with DT and broad sensitization to all RCM tested reacted to LS with an exanthema. In most cases, more likely the RCM molecules and not iodine are the eliciting compounds.

  13. Patients with breakthrough reactions to iodinated contrast media have low incidence of positive skin tests.

    PubMed

    Berti, A; Della-Torre, E; Yacoub, Mr; Tombetti, E; Canti, V; Sabbadini, M G; Colombo, G

    2016-07-01

    The term "breakthrough reactions" designates repeated hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) despite premedication with glucocorticoids and antihistamines. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the rate of positive skin test (STs) in our cohort of patients with previous breakthrough reactions to different ICMs. A series of 35 patients, who experienced at least one breakthrough reaction to ICM and who underwent STs within 6 months from the reaction were studied, and results were compared to a control group of patients with a first hypersensitivity reaction occurred without premedication. Skin prick tests (SPT), intradermal tests (IDT) and patch tests (PT) at different dilutions, with a set of three to four ICM were performed. Of the 35 patients with prior breakthrough reactions, 57% had an immediate reaction (IR) and 43% had a non-immediate reaction (NIR). Patients who experienced the first hypersensitivity IR or NIR, later had one or more breakthrough IR or NIR, respectively. Overall, 29% (10/35) of patients with prior breakthrough reactions resulted positive to STs compared to 57% (16/28) of the control group (p < 0.05). No significant difference in allergy history, age, sex, other clinical / demographic features nor chronic use of ACE-inhibitor, beta-blockers or NSAIDs was observed. This preliminary finding suggests that patients with prior breakthrough reactions have significantly lower immunologically proven ICM reactions (positive STs) if compared to non-breakthrough patients. According to that, a considerable number of breakthrough reactions seems to be non-allergic hypersensitivity reactions or reactions which could be mostly prevented by a proper, well-timed skin testing. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these results, with a more careful analysis of patients' risk factors, a laboratory assessment that includes an in vitro allergy diagnostics, and hopefully a drug provocation test for selected cases.

  14. Current understanding of contrast media reactions and implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Meth, Marc J; Maibach, Howard I

    2006-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) are an integral part of modern diagnostic medicine. Although these agents are considered to be relatively safe, adverse effects in the form of allergy-like reactions occur in a significant number of exposed patients. These reactions may be divided into immediate and delayed responses. Immediate (within 1 hour of administration) anaphylactic reactions range from urticaria and angioedema to laryngeal oedema, hypotension and even death. Delayed reactions to CM occur from 1 hour to 1 week after administration and usually have mostly cutaneous manifestations. History of prior CM reactions and atopy predispose patients to CM reactions. Despite intense research into the pathogenesis of the immediate anaphylactoid responses, new evidence shows that true IgE type I hypersensitivity mediation occurs only in rare, severe cases. The aetiology appears to be multifactorial in most individuals. There is strong evidence to conclude that type IV hypersensitivity is responsible for the delayed reactions to CM. Although switching to non-ionic agents significantly reduces the incidence of immediate reactions to CM, there is little consensus regarding corticosteroid prophylaxis in high-risk individuals. Skin testing and provocative challenges also provide little security. Therefore, physicians must be better prepared to treat immediate anaphylactoid responses. Preventing delayed CM reactions is best performed with patch and delayed intradermal testing in those with a history of prior reactions, although false-negative results have been reported. Corticosteroids and antihistamines may be required for treatment. Until newer agents are developed that negate these issues, healthcare providers must strive to better understand the risk factors associated with CM reactions, as well as the available prophylactic and treatment options.

  15. Mass flows of X-ray contrast media and cytostatics in hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David; Kovalova, Lubomira; Ort, Christoph; Pazhepurackel, Vinitha; Moser, Ruedi; Hollender, Juliane; Siegrist, Hansruedi; Mcardell, Christa S

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about the significance of hospitals as point sources for emission of organic micropollutants into the aquatic environment. A mass flow analysis of pharmaceuticals and diagnostics used in hospitals was performed on the site of a representative Swiss cantonal hospital. Specifically, we analyzed the consumption of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and cytostatics in their corresponding medical applications of radiology and oncology, respectively, and their discharge into hospital wastewater and eventually into the wastewater of the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Emission levels within one day and over several days were found to correlate with the pharmacokinetic excretion pattern and the consumed amounts in the hospital during these days. ICM total emissions vary substantially from day to day from 255 to 1259 g/d, with a maximum on the day when the highest radiology treatment occurred. Parent cytostatic compounds reach maximal emissions of 8-10 mg/d. A total of 1.1%, 1.4%, and 3.7% of the excreted amounts of the cytostatics 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine, and 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine (main metabolite of gemcitabine), respectively, were found in the hospital wastewater, whereas 49% of the total ICM was detected, showing a high variability among the compounds. These recoveries can essentially be explained by the high amount administered to out-patients (70% for cytostatics and 50% for ICM); therefore, only part of this dose is expected to be excreted on-site. In addition, this study emphasizes critical issues to consider when sampling in hospital sewer systems. Flow proportional sampling over a longer period is crucial to compute robust hospital mass flows.

  16. Sulfate-mediated electrooxidation of X-ray contrast media on boron-doped diamond anode.

    PubMed

    Radjenovic, Jelena; Petrovic, Mira

    2016-05-01

    Recently, electrochemical activation of sulfate ions to sulfate radical species and nonradically activated persulfate has been demonstrated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode, which enhanced the electrooxidation kinetics of several persistent contaminants. In this study, we investigated the transformation pathways of two X-ray contrast media (ICM), diatrizoate and iopromide, in electrooxidation at BDD anode using sulfate and inert nitrate anolyte. Sulfate anolyte yielded a seven-fold increase in apparent rate constants for ICM oxidation compared to inert nitrate anolyte, and a two-fold increase for the removal of organic carbon. Higher iodine release was observed in electrooxidation of diatrizoate compared to iopromide. In the case of diatrizoate, around 80% of deiodination efficiency was achieved in both anolytes. Deiodination efficiency of iopromide was somewhat lower in nitrate anolyte (≤75%) and significantly reduced in sulfate anolyte (≤46%) due to a larger steric hindrance of alkyl side chains. Moreover, a considerable lag phase of iopromide deiodination was observed in sulfate anolyte, indicating that initial oxidation reactions took place almost exclusively at the alkyl side chains. Several transformation products (TPs) of ICM were identified in electrooxidation in sulfate anolyte, and only three TPs in the case of nitrate anolyte. The main mechanistic steps in the oxidation of iopromide were H-abstraction and bond cleavage in the alkyl side chains. Diatrizoate was mainly transformed through oxidative cleavage of iodine substituent and inter-molecular cyclization. Two hydroxylamine derivatives of iopromide and a nitro-derivative of diatrizoate were observed in sulfate anolyte. These products have not been reported previously for hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation of ICM. Given that electron-transfer mechanism is more typical for sulfate than for hydroxyl radicals, formation of hydroxylamine and nitro-derivatives of ICM was assigned to one

  17. Dehalogenation of iodinated X-ray contrast media in a bioelectrochemical system.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yang; Radjenovic, Jelena; Shen, Jinyou; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jürg

    2011-01-15

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) are only to a limited extent removed from conventional wastewater treatment plants, due to their high recalcitrance. This work reports on the cathodic dehalogenation of the ICM iopromide in a bioelectrochemical system (BES), fed with acetate at the anode and iopromide at the cathode. When the granular graphite cathode potential was decreased from -500 to -850 mV vs standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), the iopromide removal and the iodide release rates increased from 0 to 4.62 ± 0.01 mmol m(-3) TCC d(-1) and 0 to 13.4 ± 0.16 mmol m(-3) TCC d(-1) (Total Cathodic Compartment, TCC) respectively. Correspondingly, the power consumption increased from 0.4 ± 1 to 20.5 ± 3.3 W m(-3) TCC. The Coulombic efficiency of the iopromide dehalogenation at the cathode was less than 1%, while the Coulombic efficiency of the acetate oxidation at the anode was lower than 50% at various granular graphite cathode potentials. The results suggest that iopromide could be completely dehalogenated in BESs when the granular graphite cathode potential was controlled at -800 mV vs SHE or lower. This finding was further confirmed using mass spectrometry to identify the dehalogenated intermediates and products of iopromide in BESs. Kinetic analysis indicates that iopromide dehalogenation in batch experiments can be described by a first-order model at various cathode potentials. This work demonstrates that the BESs have a potential for efficient dehalogenation of ICM from wastewater or environmental streams.

  18. Baseline Hemodynamics and Response to Contrast Media During Diagnostic Cardiac Catheterization Predict Adverse Events in Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Denardo, Scott J; Vock, David M; Schmalfuss, Carsten M; Young, Gregory D; Tcheng, James E; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    Contrast media administered during cardiac catheterization can affect hemodynamic variables. However, little is documented about the effects of contrast on hemodynamics in heart failure patients or the prognostic value of baseline and changes in hemodynamics for predicting subsequent adverse events. In this prospective study of 150 heart failure patients, we measured hemodynamics at baseline and after administration of iodixanol or iopamidol contrast. One-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of adverse event-free survival (death, heart failure hospitalization, and rehospitalization) were generated, grouping patients by baseline measures of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and cardiac index (CI), and by changes in those measures after contrast administration. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to assess sequentially adding baseline PCWP and change in CI to 5 validated risk models (Seattle Heart Failure Score, ESCAPE [Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness], CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity], CORONA [Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure], and MAGGIC [Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure]). Median contrast volume was 109 mL. Both contrast media caused similarly small but statistically significant changes in most hemodynamic variables. There were 39 adverse events (26.0%). Adverse event rates increased using the composite metric of baseline PCWP and change in CI (P<0.01); elevated baseline PCWP and decreased CI after contrast correlated with the poorest prognosis. Adding both baseline PCWP and change in CI to the 5 risk models universally improved their predictive value (P≤0.02). In heart failure patients, the administration of contrast causes small but significant changes in hemodynamics. Calculating baseline PCWP with change in CI after contrast predicts adverse events and increases the predictive value of

  19. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast alone: the role of intra-abdominal fat on the ability to visualize the normal appendix in children.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Madelyn; Taylor, George; Babcock, Lynn; Dillman, Jonathan R; Iqbal, Vaseem; Quijano, Carla V; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Adelgais, Kathleen; Anupindi, Sudha A; Sonavane, Sushil; Joshi, Aparna; Veeramani, Murugusundaram; Atabaki, Shireen M; Monroe, David J; Blumberg, Stephen J; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie; Cook, Lawrence J; Dayan, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) with enteric contrast is frequently used to evaluate children with suspected appendicitis. The use of CT with intravenous (IV) contrast alone (CT IV) may be sufficient, however, particularly in patients with adequate intra-abdominal fat (IAF). The authors aimed 1) to determine the ability of radiologists to visualize the normal (nondiseased) appendix with CT IV in children and to assess whether IAF adequacy affects this ability and 2) to assess the association between IAF adequacy and patient characteristics. This was a retrospective 16-center study using a preexisting database of abdominal CT scans. Children 3 to 18 years who had CT IV scan and measured weights and for whom appendectomy history was known from medical record review were included. The sample was chosen based on age to yield a sample with and without adequate IAF. Radiologists at each center reread their site's CT IV scans to assess appendix visualization and IAF adequacy. IAF was categorized as "adequate" if there was any amount of fat completely surrounding the cecum and "inadequate" if otherwise. A total of 280 patients were included, with mean age of 10.6 years (range = 3.1 to 17.9 years). All 280 had no history of prior appendectomy; therefore, each patient had a presumed normal appendix. A total of 102 patients (36.4%) had adequate IAF. The proportion of normal appendices visualized with CT IV was 72.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67.2% to 78.0%); the proportions were 89% (95% CI = 81.5% to 94.5%) and 63% (95% CI = 56.0% to 70.6%) in those with and without adequate IAF (95% CI for difference of proportions = 16% to 36%). Greater weight and older age were strongly associated with IAF adequacy (p < 0.001), with weight appearing to be a stronger predictor, particularly in females. Although statistically associated, there was noted overlap in the weights and ages of those with and without adequate IAF. Protocols using CT with IV contrast alone to visualize the appendix

  20. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media.

    PubMed

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B; Jansen, Sanaz A; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D; Karczmar, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12-20 weeks (n=12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25μL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20-25μL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (p<0.02) and significantly higher than that of contralateral mammary ducts that were not injected with contrast media (p<0.0001). The methods described here could be adapted for injection of specialized contrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers.

  1. High resolution 3D MRI of mouse mammary glands with intra-ductal injection of contrast media

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Erica; Fan, Xiaobing; Mustafi, Devkumar; Zamora, Marta; Roman, Brian B.; Jansen, Sanaz A.; Macleod, Kay; Conzen, Suzanne D.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use high resolution 3D MRI to study mouse mammary gland ductal architecture based on intra-ductal injection of contrast agents. Female FVB/N mice age 12–20 weeks (n = 12), were used in this study. A 34G, 45° tip Hamilton needle with a 25uL Hamilton syringe was inserted into the tip of the nipple. Approximately 20–25uL of a Gadodiamide/Trypan blue/saline solution was injected slowly over one minute into the nipple and duct. To prevent washout of contrast media from ducts due to perfusion, and maximize the conspicuity of ducts on MRI, mice were sacrificed one minute after injection. High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired on a 9.4T Bruker scanner after sacrifice to eliminate motion artifacts and reduce contrast media leakage from ducts. Trypan blue staining was well distributed throughout the ductal tree. MRI showed the mammary gland ductal structure clearly. In spoiled gradient echo T1-weighted images, the signal-to-noise ratio of regions identified as enhancing mammary ducts following contrast injection was significantly higher than that of muscle (p < 0.02) and significantly higher than that of contralateral mammary ducts that were not injected with contrast media (p < 0.0001). The methods described here could be adapted for injection of specialized contrast agents to measure metabolism or target receptors in normal ducts and ducts with in situ cancers. PMID:25179139

  2. Influence of the timing of cardiac catheterization and amount of contrast media on acute renal failure after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mohsen Mirmohammad; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nilforoush, Peiman; Shamsolkotabi, Hamid; Sadeghi, Hamid Mirmohammad; Kiani, Amjad; Sadeghi, Pouya Mirmohammad; Farahmand, Niloufar

    2011-04-01

    There is limited data about the influence of timing of cardiac surgery in relation to diagnostic angiography and/or the impact of the amount of contrast media used during angiography on the occurance of acute renal failure (ARF). Therefore, in the present study the effect of the time interval between diagnostic angiography and cardiac surgery and also the amount of contrast media used during the diagnostic procedure on the incidence of ARF after cardiac surgery was investigated. Data of 1177 patients who underwent different types of cardiac surgeries after cardiac catheterization were prospectively examined. The influence of time interval between cardiac catheterization and surgery as well as the amount of contrast agent on postoperative ARF were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. The patients who progressed to ARF were more likely to have received a higher dose of contrast agent compared to the mean dose. However, the time interval between cardiac surgery and last catheterization was not significantly different between the patients with and without ARF (p = 0.05). Overall, postoperative peak creatinine was highest on day 0, then decreased and remained significantly unchanged after this period. Overall prevalence of acute renal failure during follow-up period had a changeable trend and had the highest rates in days 1 (53.57%) and 6 (52.17%) after surgery. Combined coronary bypass and valve surgery were the strongest predictor of postoperative ARF (OR: 4.976, CI = 1.613-15.355 and p = 0.002), followed by intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (OR: 6.890, CI = 1.482-32.032 and p = 0.009) and usage of higher doses of contrast media agent (OR: 1.446, CI = 1.033-2.025 and p = 0.031). Minimizing the amount of contrast agent has a potential role in reducing the incidence of postoperative ARF in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but delaying cardiac surgery after exposure to these agents might not have this protective effect.

  3. The safety and cost-effectiveness of low osmolar contrast media. Can economic analysis determine the real worth of a new technology?

    PubMed

    Henry, D A; Evans, D B; Robertson, J

    1991-06-03

    To estimate the reduction in mortality associated with a reduced adverse reaction rate following the substitution of older high osmolar radiocontrast media (HOCM) by the newer and more expensive low osmolar contrast media (LOCM), and to assess the cost-effectiveness of switching from HOCM to LOCM in patients with and without underlying risk factors for adverse reactions from radiocontrast agents. Data from large prospective studies of adverse reactions to HOCM and LOCM were used to estimate the expected number of deaths and severe non-fatal reactions in a hypothetical population receiving one million intravenous radiocontrast injections with HOCM, and the expected reduction in the frequency of these outcomes after substitution by LOCM in high-risk and low-risk groups respectively. Life-years lost with each radiocontrast-related death were estimated from an audit of fatal adverse reaction reports submitted to the Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee. The direct costs considered in the study were the increased costs of LOCM and the hospital costs of treating radiocontrast reactions which were estimated from an audit of cases admitted to public hospitals in Newcastle. The literature search included Medline (1966-1989) and bibliographies of original and review articles. We included only studies which were prospective, monitored patients in a formal way, described a mechanism for the recording of adverse events and were of sufficient size to have been capable of detecting severe reactions to radiocontrast agents. Data were extracted independently by two investigators, unblinded, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Mortality data from individual reports were pooled and exact confidence intervals were calculated on the assumption of a Poisson distribution. In the case of comparative studies the relative risks of severe reactions in low-risk versus high-risk patients and with LOCM compared with HOCM were treated for homogeneity, and pooled odds ratios and 95

  4. Intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography predicts regional and global left ventricular remodelling after acute myocardial infarction: comparison with low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Y; Muro, T; Sakanoue, Y; Komatsu, R; Otsuka, M; Naruko, T; Itoh, A; Yoshiyama, M; Haze, K; Yoshikawa, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in predicting functional recovery and regional or global left ventricular (LV) remodelling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDSE). Methods: 21 patients with anterior AMI and successful primary angioplasty underwent MCE and LDSE during the subacute stage (2–4 weeks after AMI). Myocardial perfusion and contractile reserve were assessed in each segment (12 segment model) with MCE and LDSE. The 118 dyssynergic segments in the subacute stage were classified as recovered, unchanged, or remodelled according to wall motion at six months’ follow up. Percentage increase in LV end diastolic volume (%ΔEDV) was also calculated. Results: The presence of perfusion was less accurate than the presence of contractile reserve in predicting regional recovery (55% v 81%, p < 0.0001). However, the absence of perfusion was more accurate than the absence of contractile reserve in predicting regional remodelling (83% v 48%, p < 0.0001). The number of segments without perfusion was an independent predictor of %ΔEDV, whereas the number of segments without contractile reserve was not. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the number of segments without perfusion predicted substantial LV dilatation (%ΔEDV > 20%) more accurately than did the number of segments without contractile reserve (0.88 v 0.72). Conclusion: In successfully revascularised patients with AMI, myocardial perfusion assessed by MCE is predictive of regional and global LV remodelling rather than of functional recovery, whereas contractile reserve assessed by LDSE is predictive of functional recovery rather than of LV remodelling. PMID:15797931

  5. Impact of low-energy CT imaging on selection of positive oral contrast media concentration.

    PubMed

    Patino, Manuel; Murcia, Diana J; Iamurri, Andrea Prochowski; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Hahn, Peter F; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2017-05-01

    To determine to what extent low-energy CT imaging affects attenuation of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) opacified with positive oral contrast media (OCM). Second, to establish optimal OCM concentrations for low-energy diagnostic CT exams. One hundred patients (38 men and 62 women; age 62 ± 11 years; BMI 26 ± 5) with positive OCM-enhanced 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT), and follow-up 100-kVp acquisitions (group A; n = 50), or 40-70-keV reconstructions from rapid kV switching-single-source dual-energy CT (ssDECT) (group B; n = 50) were included. Luminal attenuation from different GIT segments was compared between exams. Standard dose of three OCM and diluted solutions (75%, 50%, and 25% concentrations) were introduced serially in a gastrointestinal phantom and scanned using SECT (120, 100, and 80 kVp) and DECT (80/140 kVp) acquisitions on a ssDECT scanner. Luminal attenuation was obtained on SECT and DECT images (40-70 keV), and compared to 120-kVp scans with standard OCM concentrations. Luminal attenuation was higher on 100-kVp (328 HU) and on 40-60-keV images (410-924 HU) in comparison to 120-kVp scans (298 HU) in groups A and B (p < 0.05). Phantom: There was an inverse correlation between luminal attenuation and X-ray energy, increasing up to 527 HU on low-kVp and 999 HU on low-keV images (p < 0.05). 25% and 50% diluted OCM solutions provided similar or higher attenuation than 120 kVp, at low kVp and keV, respectively. Low-energy CT imaging increases the attenuation of GIT opacified with positive OCM, permitting reduction of 25%-75% OCM concentration.

  6. T cell-mediated reactions to iodinated contrast media: evaluation by skin and lymphocyte activation tests.

    PubMed

    Kanny, Gisèle; Pichler, Werner; Morisset, Martine; Franck, Patricia; Marie, Béatrice; Kohler, Chantal; Renaudin, Jean-Marie; Beaudouin, Etienne; Laudy, Jean Sainte; Moneret-Vautrin, D Anne

    2005-01-01

    In addition to immediate reactions, late adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) were reported in 2% to 5% of patients exposed to ICM and, as a consequence, have recently gained more attention. A few well-documented case reports postulate a hypersensitivity mechanism. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a T cell-mediated mechanism to the ICM by using in vitro and ex vivo tests. We analyzed 12 patients with 13 adverse ICM reactions, 9 of whom were women. Clinical history suggested an immune reaction to ICM. Skin tests (skin prick, intradermal, and patch tests) were performed with various ICM and read after 15 minutes and 24 and 48 hours. Skin biopsy specimens of positive test sites of 11 patients were evaluated by means of immunohistology. T-cell reactivity to ICM in vitro was analyzed with lymphocyte activation tests. Seven patients showed generalized maculopapular eruptions, one of them with fever; 4 had a so-called drug hypersensitivity syndrome with exanthema, eosinophilia, and fever; 1 had maculopapular eruptions and fever; 1 had late-onset urticaria with loss of consciousness; and 1 had facial edema and respiratory distress. An immune reaction to ICM was inferred from positive skin prick test (2 patients), positive patch test (10 patients), and positive intradermal test (9 patients) at 24 and 48 hours. Skin biopsy specimens revealed a T-cell infiltrate in the dermis with predominantly CD4 + T cells in 8 patients, CD8 + T cells in 1 patient, and equal numbers in 1 patient. Cross-sensitivities to several ICM were observed (9/12). Other drug allergies were noted in 6 of the 12 patients. Delayed reactions to ICM are most likely caused by immune reactions to these drugs and can elicit different clinical features. The involvement of T cells is suggested by positive skin test, as well as positive proliferative responses, to the drugs in vitro . A high degree of cross-reactivity with other than the eliciting ICM was observed. Moreover, 50% of these

  7. Retained Products of Conception Associated with Intravasation of Hysterosalpingogram Contrast and Hysteroscopic Distention Media: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Kyle J; Oman, Sarah; Kolp, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Hysteroscopic resection of retained products of conception has not been previously described to increase the risk for volume overload at the time of hysteroscopy. A 35-year-old woman with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss was evaluated by a hysterosalpingogram that identified retained products of conception with adjacent contrast intravasation. She underwent a hysteroscopic resection of the uterine septum and products of conception. During the 15 minute operating time she developed a fluid deficit of 2,300 cc of 3% sorbitol with resulting hyponatremia despite normal pressure and flow settings on the fluid management equipment. When a hysterosalpingogram demonstrates likely retained products of conception with an accompanying intravasation of contrast media, the provider should consider this finding a potential risk factor for excess intravasation of hysteroscopic distention media and take additional precautions to avoid volume overload.

  8. A comparison of the use of contrast media with different iodine concentrations for multidetector CT of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon

    2011-01-01

    To determine the optimal iodine concentration of contrast media for kidney multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing the degree of renal parenchymal enhancement and the severity of the renal streak artifact with contrast media of different iodine concentrations. A 16-row MDCT was performed in 15 sedated rabbits by injection of 2 mL contrast media/kg body weight at a rate of 0.3 mL/sec. Monomeric nonionic contrast media of 250, 300, and 370 mg iodine/mL were injected at 1-week intervals. Mean attenuation values were measured in each renal structure with attenuation differences among the structures. The artifact was evaluated by CT window width/level and three grading methods. The values were compared with iodine concentrations. The 370 mg iodine/mL concentration showed significantly higher cortical enhancement than 250 mg iodine/mL in all phases (p < 0.05). There was however no significant difference in the degree of enhancement between the 300 mg iodine/mL and 370 mg iodine/mL concentrations in all phases. There is a significant difference in attenuation for the cortex-outer medulla between 250 mg iodine/mL and 300 mg iodine/mL (p < 0.05). The artifact was more severe with a medium of 370 mg iodine/mL than with 250 mg iodine/mL by all grading methods (p < 0.05). The 300 mg iodine/mL is considered to be the most appropriate iodine concentration in an aspect of the enhancement and artifact on a kidney MDCT scan.

  9. A Comparison of the Use of Contrast Media with Different Iodine Concentrations for Multidetector CT of the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung Chai; Cho, Jeong Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimal iodine concentration of contrast media for kidney multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing the degree of renal parenchymal enhancement and the severity of the renal streak artifact with contrast media of different iodine concentrations. Materials and Methods A 16-row MDCT was performed in 15 sedated rabbits by injection of 2 mL contrast media/kg body weight at a rate of 0.3 mL/sec. Monomeric nonionic contrast media of 250, 300, and 370 mg iodine/mL were injected at 1-week intervals. Mean attenuation values were measured in each renal structure with attenuation differences among the structures. The artifact was evaluated by CT window width/level and three grading methods. The values were compared with iodine concentrations. Results The 370 mg iodine/mL concentration showed significantly higher cortical enhancement than 250 mg iodine/mL in all phases (p < 0.05). There was however no significant difference in the degree of enhancement between the 300 mg iodine/mL and 370 mg iodine/mL concentrations in all phases. There is a significant difference in attenuation for the cortex-outer medulla between 250 mg iodine/mL and 300 mg iodine/mL (p < 0.05). The artifact was more severe with a medium of 370 mg iodine/mL than with 250 mg iodine/mL by all grading methods (p < 0.05). Conclusion The 300 mg iodine/mL is considered to be the most appropriate iodine concentration in an aspect of the enhancement and artifact on a kidney MDCT scan. PMID:22043154

  10. Carotid CT-angiography: low versus standard volume contrast media and low kV protocol for 128-slice MDCT.

    PubMed

    Kayan, Mustafa; Köroğlu, Mert; Yeşildağ, Ahmet; Ceylan, Ergun; Aktaş, Aykut Recep; Yasar, Selçuk; Aynali, Giray; Parlak, Cem; Munduz, Mehmet; Gürses, Cemil

    2012-09-01

    Availability and utilization of computed tomography angiography has been increasing recently. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of low amount of contrast media and low kV value in order to reduce possible side effects of contrast media and to provide optimization of kV value in the evaluation of the carotid artery with multi-detector computed tomography angiography. Forty one patients were randomized into two groups. Contrast media was administered at a dose of 1 ml/kg in group A patients and of 0.5 ml/kg in group B patients. kV value of 120 in group A and 100 in group B were chosen. Bolus tracking technique was used. Attenuation values of certain arterial segments were measured, and values over 200 HU were considered as significant. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endartherectomy Trial criteria were utilized in the evaluation of stenosis. Image quality in arterial segments of all cases was found to be sufficient for diagnosis. Arterial attenuation values were found to be higher in group B than group A. When compared separately in all arterial segments, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. For stenosis, 615 arterial segments were evaluated. Moderate stenosis in eight segments and severe stenosis in three segments were identified in group A. Occlusion in three segments, severe stenosis in three segments, and moderate stenosis in 25 segments were detected in group B. Better image quality can be obtained, and the amount of contrast media can be reduced using low kV technique in carotid artery multi-detector computed tomography angiography examination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MR Enterography for the Evaluation of Small-Bowel Inflammation in Crohn Disease by Using Diffusion-weighted Imaging without Intravenous Contrast Material: A Prospective Noninferiority Study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Nieun; Park, Seong Ho; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Kang, Bo-Kyeong; Lee, Yedaun; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Park, Sang Hyoung; Kim, So Yeon; Baek, Seunghee; Han, Kyunghwa; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) enterography performed with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) without intravenous contrast material is noninferior to contrast material-enhanced (CE) MR enterography for the evaluation of small-bowel inflammation in Crohn disease. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this prospective noninferiority study. Fifty consecutive adults suspected of having Crohn disease underwent clinical assessment, MR enterography, and ileocolonoscopy within 1 week. MR enterography included conventional imaging and DWI (b = 900 sec/mm(2)). In 44 patients with Crohn disease, 171 small-bowel segments that were generally well distended and showed a wide range of findings, from normalcy to severe inflammation (34 men, 10 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 26.9 years ± 6.1), were selected for analysis. Image sets consisting of (a) T2-weighted sequences with DWI and (b) T2-weighted sequences with CE T1-weighted sequences were reviewed by using a crossover design with blinding and randomization. Statistical analyses included noninferiority testing regarding proportional agreement between DWI and CE MR enterography for the identification of bowel inflammation with a noninferiority margin of 80%, correlation between DWI and CE MR enterography scores of bowel inflammation severity, and comparison of accuracy between DWI and CE MR enterography for the diagnosis of terminal ileal inflammation by using endoscopic findings as the reference standard. The agreement between DWI and CE MR enterography for the identification of bowel inflammation was 91.8% (157 of 171 segments; one-sided 95% confidence interval: ≥88.4%). The correlation coefficient between DWI and CE MR enterography scores was 0.937 (P < .001). DWI and CE MR enterography did not differ significantly regarding the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of terminal ileal inflammation (P > .999). DWI and CE MR enterography concurred in the

  12. Spectrum, Applicability and Diagnostic Capacity of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Pediatric Patients and Young Adults after Intravenous Application - A Retrospective Trial.

    PubMed

    Knieling, F; Strobel, D; Rompel, O; Zapke, M; Menendez-Castro, C; Wölfel, M; Schulz, J; Rascher, W; Jüngert, J

    2016-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the spectrum, applicability and diagnostic capacity of intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) in a pediatric population. Materials and Methods: From 08/2005 to 11/2015, n = 40 pediatric patients and young adults from 0 - 26 years (Ø 11.4 ± 7.5) and 3.0 - 85.3 kg (Ø 40.8 ± 25.6) with n = 55 investigations received n = 79 IV applications of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). UCA dose and side effects were documented. Scanned organs were the liver (n = 42), spleen (n = 9), kidney (n = 3), and testis (n = 1). Histology, surgery or reference imaging was compared to CEUS and clinical follow-up. Results: The UCA dose < 20 kg was 0.4 ± 0.3 ml, (0.05 ± 0.02 ml/kg) and > 20 kg was 1.0 ± 0.4 ml (p< 0.0001) (0.02 ± 0.01 ml/kg, p< 0.0001). Adverse effects occurred in 2/79 applications (2.5 %). Agreement CEUS/gold standard resulted in 32/34 investigations. For liver diagnostics (gold standard: MRI, CT, histology, serology), n = 11 malignant and n = 15 benign focal liver lesions were included. The specificity was 100 % (95 % CI: 0.77 - 1.00), the sensitivity was 82 % (95 % CI: 0.48 - 0.98), the positive predictive value was 100 % (95 % CI: 0.69 - 1.00) and the negative predictive value was 88 % (95 % CI: 0.62 - 0.98, p< 0.0001). In n = 2 reference imaging misdiagnosed and CEUS was in accordance with clinical follow-up. All splenic/renal lesions were diagnosed correctly. In n = 1 an insufficient testicular perfusion was ruled out. The observation time was 30.4 ± 30.5 months. Conclusion: CEUS is a well-tolerated and diagnostically equivalent modality in pediatric care, providing fundamental advantages compared to currently approved imaging modalities for these age groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. [Me-too pharmaceuticals -- marketing-strategies of drug producers and drug purchasers. Example: non-ionic contrast media].

    PubMed

    Wild, C; Puig, S

    2004-11-01

    In the context of increasing economic pressure upon on hospital budgets, it is inevitable that central and standardized purchasing of pharmaceuticals must be considered. It was the aim of this assessment to analyse the many different non-ionic contrast media/CM products on the actual "clinical relevance of the differences" in order to give advice for a more concerted purchasing of CM. The assessment was commissioned by a large scale Austrian hospital cooperation; it can be regarded as the beginning of a broad strategy against the many new, only rarely innovative, but nevertheless patent-protected pharmaceuticals. Eight different non-ionic contrast media - used in routine care - were compared for their physico-chemical characteristics: osmolality, nephrotoxicity, viscosity, hydrophilicity and electric charge. In a systematic review 193 publications were analysed. The examined CM show similar pharmacokinetic and -dynamic attributes, and no differences of clinical relevance. An optimisation of purchasing pharmaceuticals by standardisation of the range of products takes place in the context of common strategies of producers and buying agents in marketing-economies. The strategies of the pharmaceutical industry (patent protection of me-too drugs, high-price-policy, extensive marketing of up to 40 % of revenue) and the counter-strategies of the central hospital purchasers (market concentration, drug commissions, institutional measures to disentangle interests) are presented - exemplified by contrast media - in this article.

  14. Biofilm imaging in porous media by laboratory X-Ray tomography: Combining a non-destructive contrast agent with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging tools

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Mario A.; Morales, Verónica L.; Derlon, Nicolas; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaufmann, Rolf; Holzner, Markus

    2017-01-01

    X-ray tomography is a powerful tool giving access to the morphology of biofilms, in 3D porous media, at the mesoscale. Due to the high water content of biofilms, the attenuation coefficient of biofilms and water are very close, hindering the distinction between biofilms and water without the use of contrast agents. Until now, the use of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, silver-coated micro-particles or 1-chloronaphtalene added to the liquid phase allowed imaging the biofilm 3D morphology. However, these contrast agents are not passive and potentially interact with the biofilm when injected into the sample. Here, we use a natural inorganic compound, namely iron sulfate, as a contrast agent progressively bounded in dilute or colloidal form into the EPS matrix during biofilm growth. By combining a very long source-to-detector distance on a X-ray laboratory source with a Lorentzian filter implemented prior to tomographic reconstruction, we substantially increase the contrast between the biofilm and the surrounding liquid, which allows revealing the 3D biofilm morphology. A comparison of this new method with the method proposed by Davit et al (Davit et al., 2011), which uses barium sulfate as a contrast agent to mark the liquid phase was performed. Quantitative evaluations between the methods revealed substantial differences for the volumetric fractions obtained from both methods. Namely, contrast agent—biofilm interactions (e.g. biofilm detachment) occurring during barium sulfate injection caused a reduction of the biofilm volumetric fraction of more than 50% and displacement of biofilm patches elsewhere in the column. Two key advantages of the newly proposed method are that passive addition of iron sulfate maintains the integrity of the biofilm prior to imaging, and that the biofilm itself is marked by the contrast agent, rather than the liquid phase as in other available methods. The iron sulfate method presented can be applied to understand biofilm

  15. Balancing Radiation and Contrast Media Dose in Single-Pass Abdominal Multidetector CT: Prospective Evaluation of Image Quality.

    PubMed

    Camera, Luigi; Romano, Federica; Liccardo, Immacolata; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Pizzuti, Laura Micol; Segreto, Sabrina; Maurea, Simone; Brunetti, Arturo

    2015-11-01

    As both contrast and radiation dose affect the quality of CT images, a constant image quality in abdominal contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) could be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose according to the age of the patients. Seventy-two (38 Men; 34 women; aged 20-83 years) patients underwent a single-pass abdominal CE-MDCT. Patients were divided into three different age groups: A (20-44 years); B (45-65 years); and C (>65 years). For each group, a different noise index (NI) and contrast media dose (370 mgI/mL) was selected as follows: A (NI, 15; 2.5 mL/kg), B (NI, 12.5; 2 mL/kg), and C (NI, 10; 1.5 mL/kg). Radiation exposure was reported as dose-length product (DLP) in mGy × cm. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were calculated for both the liver (L) and the abdominal aorta (A). Statistical analysis was performed with a one-way analysis of variance. Standard imaging criteria were used for qualitative analysis. Although peak hepatic enhancement was 152 ± 16, 128 ± 12, and 101 ± 14 Hounsfield units (P < .001) for groups A, B, and C, respectively, no significant differences were observed in the corresponding SNRL with 9.2 ± 1.4, 9.1 ± 1.2, and 9.2 ± 3. Radiation (mGy × cm) and contrast media dose (mL) administered were 476 ± 147 and 155 ± 27 for group A, 926 ± 291 and 130 ± 16 for group B, and 1981 ± 451 and 106 ± 15 for group C, respectively (P < .001). None of the studies was graded as poor or inadequate by both readers, and the prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa ranged between 0.48 and 0.93 for all but one criteria. A constant image quality in CE-MDCT can be obtained balancing radiation and contrast media dose administered to patients of different age. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ASCI 2010 contrast media guideline for cardiac imaging: a report of the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging guideline working group.

    PubMed

    Jinzaki, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Kakuya; Tsai, I-Chen; Chan, Carmen; Yu, Wei; Yong, Hwan Seok; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2010-12-01

    The use of contrast media for cardiac imaging becomes increasing as the widespread of cardiac CT and cardiac MR. A radiologist needs to carefully consider the indication and the injection protocol of contrast media to be used as well as the possibility of adverse effect. There are several guidelines for contrast media in western countries. However, these are focusing the adverse effect of contrast media. The Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging, the only society dedicated to cardiovascular imaging in Asia, formed a Working Group and created a guideline, which summarizes the integrated knowledge of contrast media for cardiac imaging. In cardiac imaging, coronary artery evaluation is feasible by non-contrast MR angiography, which can be an alternative examination in high risk patients for the use of iodine contrast media. Furthermore, the body habitus of Asian patients is usually smaller than that of their western counterparts. This necessitates modifications in the injection protocol and in the formula for calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate. This guideline provided fundamental information for the use of contrast media for Asian patients in cardiac imaging.

  17. ASCI 2010 contrast media guideline for cardiac imaging: a report of the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging guideline working group

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Kakuya; Tsai, I-Chen; Chan, Carmen; Yu, Wei; Yong, Hwan Seok; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2010-01-01

    The use of contrast media for cardiac imaging becomes increasing as the widespread of cardiac CT and cardiac MR. A radiologist needs to carefully consider the indication and the injection protocol of contrast media to be used as well as the possibility of adverse effect. There are several guidelines for contrast media in western countries. However, these are focusing the adverse effect of contrast media. The Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging, the only society dedicated to cardiovascular imaging in Asia, formed a Working Group and created a guideline, which summarizes the integrated knowledge of contrast media for cardiac imaging. In cardiac imaging, coronary artery evaluation is feasible by non-contrast MR angiography, which can be an alternative examination in high risk patients for the use of iodine contrast media. Furthermore, the body habitus of Asian patients is usually smaller than that of their western counterparts. This necessitates modifications in the injection protocol and in the formula for calculation of estimated glomerular filtration rate. This guideline provided fundamental information for the use of contrast media for Asian patients in cardiac imaging. PMID:20931289

  18. A randomized comparison of 1-h sodium bicarbonate hydration versus standard peri-procedural saline hydration in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Kooiman, Judith; Sijpkens, Yvo W J; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Brulez, Harald F H; Hamming, Jaap F; van der Molen, Aart J; Aarts, Nico J M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Putter, Hein; Swarts, Renate; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Rabelink, Ton J; Huisman, Menno V

    2014-05-01

    Guidelines recommend saline hydration for prophylaxis of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing intravenous contrast media-enhanced CT (CE-CT). The safety and efficacy of a brief hydration protocol using sodium bicarbonate in this population is unknown. We analysed whether 1-h sodium bicarbonate hydration prior to CE-CT is non-inferior to saline hydration prior to and after CE-CT in CKD patients. We performed an open-label multicentre randomized trial. Patients were randomized to 250 mL of 1.4% sodium bicarbonate hydration prior to CE-CT or 1000 mL of 0.9% saline hydration prior to and, once again, after CE-CT. Primary outcome was the relative increase in serum creatinine 48-96 h post-CE-CT. Secondary outcomes were incidence of CI-AKI [serum creatinine increase >25%/>44 µmol/L (0.5 mg/dL)], recovery of renal function, the need for dialysis and 2-month hospital costs. Five hundred and seventy adult CKD patients undergoing CE-CT were randomized between 2010 and 2012, of whom 548 were included in the intention-to-treat population. Mean relative serum creatinine increase was 1.2% for sodium bicarbonate and 1.5% for saline (mean difference -0.3%; 95% confidence interval -2.7 to 2.1, P-value for non-inferiority <0.0001). CI-AKI occurred in 22 patients (4.1%); 8 (3.0%) randomized to sodium bicarbonate versus 14 (5.1%) to saline (P = 0.23). Renal function recovered in 75 and 69% of CI-AKI patients, respectively (P = 0.81). No patients developed a need for dialysis. Mean hydration costs per patient were €224 for the sodium bicarbonate and €683 for the saline regime (P < 0.001). Other healthcare costs were similar. Short hydration with sodium bicarbonate prior to CE-CT was non-inferior to peri-procedural saline hydration with respect to renal safety and may result in healthcare savings. [Netherlands Trial Register (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp), Nr 2149, date of registration 23 December

  19. Optimizing contrast media injection protocols in state-of-the art computed tomographic angiography.

    PubMed

    Lell, Michael M; Jost, Gregor; Korporaal, Johannes Georg; Mahnken, Andreas Horst; Flohr, Thomas G; Uder, Michael; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2015-03-01

    Very short acquisition times and the increasing use of low-kilovolt protocols in standard computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CTA) examinations demand modifications in the contrast media (CM) injection regimen. The aim of this study was to optimize the use of tube voltage-adjusted CM delivery parameters, especially injection duration and iodine delivery rate (IDR), in thoracoabdominal CTA in a porcine model. Eight pigs (53-72 kg) were examined with a third-generation dual-source CT system with a dynamic CTA protocol (4-dimensional spiral, 454-mm scan length, 2.5-second temporal resolution, 70-second total acquisition time). Six CM injection protocols were applied in randomized order and intraindividually compared. The standard CTA protocol was performed at 120 kV, with an injection of 300 mg iodine/kg body weight and a flow of 5 mL/s (IDR, 1.5 g/s). On the basis of phantom measurements for the low-kilovolt CTA protocols, the iodine dosage was adjusted to 150 mg iodine/kg (70 kV) and 210 mg iodine/kg (90 kV). Therefore, either the IDR was kept constant and the injection time was reduced, or the injection time was kept constant and the IDR was reduced by modifying the CM flow or concentration. Time attenuation curves, time to peak, and peak enhancement were calculated for different locations within the aorta, renal arteries, and large veins. The heart rates were comparable among the different injection protocols (66.9-78.1 beats per minute). The average injection peak pressure depended on the flow rate and CM concentration and ranged from 42.9 to 114.7 psi. The average arterial peak enhancement was comparable for protocols with identical injection times and reduced IDR (362.4 HU [standard 120-kV protocol; 300 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 1.5 g/s], 360.0 HU [70 kV; 150 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 0.75 g/s], 365.4 HU [70 kV; 150 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 0.75 g/s; CM, 150 mg iodine/mL], 344.3 HU [90 kV; 210 mg iodine/kg; IDR, 1.1 g/s]). Higher peak enhancements could be achieved by applying

  20. Early detection and intervention using neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may improve renal outcome of acute contrast media induced nephropathy: A randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing intra-arterial angiography (ANTI-CIN Study)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with pre-existing impaired renal function are prone to develop acute contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a new biomarker predictive for acute kidney injury (AKI), has been shown to be useful for earlier diagnosis of CIN; however, urinary NGAL values may be markedly increased in chronic renal failure at baseline. Results from those studies suggested that urinary NGAL values may not be helpful for the clinician. An intravenous volume load is a widely accepted prophylactic measure and possibly a reasonable intervention to prevent deterioration of renal function. The aim of our study is to evaluate NGAL as an early predictor of CIN and to investigate the clinical benefit of early post-procedural i.v. hydration. Methods/Design The study will follow a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled design. Patients requiring intra-arterial contrast media (CM) application will be included and receive standardized, weight-based, intravenous hydration before investigation. Subjects with markedly increased urinary NGAL values after CM application will be randomized into one of two study groups. Group A will receive 3-4 ml/kg BW/h 0.9% saline intravenously for 6 hours. Group B will undergo only standard treatment consisting of unrestricted oral fluid intake. The primary outcome measure will be CIN defined by an increase greater than 25% of baseline serum creatinine. Secondary outcomes will include urinary NGAL values, cystatin C values, contrast media associated changes in cardiac parameters such as NT-pro-BNP/troponin T, changes in urinary cytology, need for renal replacement treatment, length of stay in hospital and death. We assume that 20% of the included patients will show a definite rise in urinary NGAL. Prospective statistical power calculations indicate that the study will have 80% statistical power to detect a clinically significant decrease of CIN of 40% in the treatment arm if 1200 patients

  1. Usage of CO2 microbubbles as flow-tracing contrast media in X-ray dynamic imaging of blood flows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Joon; Park, Han Wook; Jung, Sung Yong

    2014-09-01

    X-ray imaging techniques have been employed to visualize various biofluid flow phenomena in a non-destructive manner. X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) was developed to measure velocity fields of blood flows to obtain hemodynamic information. A time-resolved X-ray PIV technique that is capable of measuring the velocity fields of blood flows under real physiological conditions was recently developed. However, technical limitations still remained in the measurement of blood flows with high image contrast and sufficient biocapability. In this study, CO2 microbubbles as flow-tracing contrast media for X-ray PIV measurements of biofluid flows was developed. Human serum albumin and CO2 gas were mechanically agitated to fabricate CO2 microbubbles. The optimal fabricating conditions of CO2 microbubbles were found by comparing the size and amount of microbubbles fabricated under various operating conditions. The average size and quantity of CO2 microbubbles were measured by using a synchrotron X-ray imaging technique with a high spatial resolution. The quantity and size of the fabricated microbubbles decrease with increasing speed and operation time of the mechanical agitation. The feasibility of CO2 microbubbles as a flow-tracing contrast media was checked for a 40% hematocrit blood flow. Particle images of the blood flow were consecutively captured by the time-resolved X-ray PIV system to obtain velocity field information of the flow. The experimental results were compared with a theoretically amassed velocity profile. Results show that the CO2 microbubbles can be used as effective flow-tracing contrast media in X-ray PIV experiments.

  2. Optimized angiographic computed tomography with intravenous contrast injection: an alternative to conventional angiography in the follow-up of clipped aneurysms?

    PubMed

    Gölitz, Philipp; Struffert, Tobias; Ganslandt, Oliver; Saake, Marc; Lücking, Hannes; Rösch, Julie; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an optimized angiographic CT (ACT) program with intravenous contrast agent injection (ivACT) in the assessment of potential aneurysm remnants after neurosurgical clipping compared with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The authors report on 14 patients with 19 surgically clipped cerebral aneurysms who were scheduled to undergo angiographic follow-up. For each patient, the authors performed ivACT with dual rotational acquisition and conventional angiography including a 3D rotational run. The ivACT and 3D DSA data were reconstructed with different imaging modes, including a newly implemented subtraction mode with motion correction. Thereafter, the data sets were merged by the dual-volume technique, and freely rotatable 3D images were obtained for further analysis. Observed aneurysm remnants were electronically measured and classified for each modality by 2 experienced neuroradiologists. Digital subtraction angiography and ivACT both provided high-quality images without motion artifacts. Artifact disturbances from the aneurysm clips led to a compromised, but still sufficient, image quality in 1 case. The ivACT assessed all aneurysm remnants as true-positive up to a minimal size of 2.6×2.4 mm in accordance with the DSA findings. There was a tendency for ivACT to overestimate the size of the aneurysm remnants. All cases without aneurysm remnants on DSA were scored correctly as true-negative by ivACT. By using an optimized image acquisition protocol as well as enhanced postprocessing algorithms, the noninvasive ivACT seems to achieve results comparable to those of conventional angiography in the follow-up of clipped cerebral aneurysms. The authors have shown that ivACT can provide reliable diagnostic information about potential aneurysm remnants after neurosurgical clipping with high sensitivity and specificity, sufficient for clinical decision making, at least for aneurysms in the

  3. Low molecular weight dextran provides similar optical coherence tomography coronary imaging compared to radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kyle; Michael, Tesfaldet T; Alomar, Mohammed; Mohammed, Atif; Rangan, Bavana V; Abdullah, Shuaib; Grodin, Jerrold; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2014-11-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) coronary imaging requires displacement of red blood cells from the vessel lumen. This is usually accomplished using radiographic contrast. Low molecular weight dextran has low cost and is safe in low volumes. In the present study, we compared dextran with contrast for coronary OCT imaging. Fifty-one vessels in 26 patients were sequentially imaged using manual injection of radiographic contrast (iodixanol) and dextran. OCT images were analyzed at 1 mm intervals to determine the image clarity (defined as a visible lumen border > 270°) and to measure the lumen area and lumen diameter. To correct for the refractive index of dextran, the dextran area measurements were multiplied by 1.117 and the dextran length measurements were multiplied by 1.057. A total of 3,418 cross-sections (1,709 with contrast and 1,709 with dextran) were analyzed. There were no complications related to OCT imaging or to contrast or dextran administration. Clear image segments were observed in 97.0% vs. 96.7% of the cross-sections obtained with contrast and dextran, respectively (P = 0.45). The mean lumen areas were also similar: 6.69 ± 1.95 mm(2) with iodixanol vs. 7.06 ± 2.06 mm(2) with dextran (correlation coefficient 0.984). The image quality and measurements during OCT image acquisition are similar for dextran and contrast. Dextran could be used instead of contrast for OCT imaging, especially in patients in whom contrast load minimization is desired. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Image contrast enhancement in angular domain optical imaging of turbid media.

    PubMed

    Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Chapman, Glenn H; Carson, Jeffrey J L

    2008-12-22

    Imaging structures within a turbid medium using Angular Domain Imaging (ADI) employs an angular filter array to separate weakly scattered photons from those that are highly scattered. At high scattering coefficients, ADI contrast declines due to the large fraction of non-uniform background scattered light still within the acceptance angle. This paper demonstrates various methods to enhance the image contrast in ADI. Experiments where a wedge prism was used to deviate the laser source so that scattered photons could be imaged and subtracted from the image obtained by standard ADI provided the greatest improvement in image contrast.

  5. Impact of minimum contrast media volumes during elective percutaneous coronary intervention for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Soichiro; Kurita, Tairo; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Nasu, Kenya; Kimura, Masashi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an important complication following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The clinical importance of a minimum contrast media volume (CMV) for PCI to prevent CIN has not been well evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of minimum CMV to prevent CIN after PCI. In this study, 2052 consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI in our institute were analyzed. We divided patients into two groups according to CMV: a minimum CMV PCI group [CMV ≤50 ml (n = 94)] and a non-minimum CMV PCI group [CMV >50 ml (n = 1958)]. CIN occurred in 160 (7.8 %) patients. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in the minimum CMV PCI group than in the non-minimum CMV PCI group (2.1 vs. 8.1 %; P = 0.03). According to multivariate analysis, elderly patients and diabetes mellitus patients were at high risk of developing CIN in this study population. When analyzing only high-risk patients, the incidence of CIN was also significantly lower in the minimum CMV group than in the non-minimum CMV group (2.6 vs. 10.3 %; P = 0.03). Minimum CMV PCI could reduce the incidence of CIN, particularly in high-risk patients; as such, defining the minimum CMV clinical cut-off values may be useful for the prevention of CIN.

  6. Magnetic resonance contrast media sensing in vivo molecular imaging agents: an overview.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, Massoud; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Norouzian, Dariush; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbani, Masoud; Alavidjeh, Mohammad Shafiee; Inanlou, Davoud Nouri; Arabzadeh, Ali Jabbari; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic imaging is commonly performed by nuclear medicine facilities such as PET or SPECT, etc. The production and biomedical applications of bio-molecular sensing in vivo MRI metabolic contrast agents has recently become of great universal research interest, which follows its great success as a potential cost effective, less radioactive, nuclear medicine alternative. Temperature, redox potential, enzyme activity, free radial/metal ion responsive and/or pH sensitive molecular metabolic MR contrast agents are among the famous instances exemplified, which basically promote MR image contrast enhancement ability to distinguish molecular metabolic/gene expression features. Overall, these MRI contrast agents provide a framework to achieve a greater degree of accuracy from MRI as a low cost, more available facility, non radioactive radiation producing and highly sensitive biomedical tool to propound as a new suggesting opponent for PET nuclear medicine imaging. In the present review, the design, development, examination and future of the above agents will be discussed in detail.

  7. Long-Term Adverse Effects of Low-Osmolar Compared With Iso-Osmolar Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Tang, Adrian; Chang, Di; Lu, Chun-Qiang; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Ju, Shenghong

    2016-10-01

    The relative incidence of long-term adverse effects between low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) and iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) after coronary angiography is still unclear. We analyzed cardiology patients undergoing coronary angiography from January 2006 to July 2013 using either LOCM (iohexol, iopromide) or IOCM (iodixanol) at a single institution. For each contrast medium, primary (all-cause mortality, n = 6,992) and secondary outcomes (long-term renal injury and cardiovascular events beyond 90 days, n = 2,792) were recorded. Inverse probability weighing (IPW) was applied to minimize the selection bias between groups. Unadjusted all-cause mortality was significantly lower for LOCM versus IOCM (hazard ratio [HR] 0.28, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.34). After multivariate Cox regression or IPW, all-cause mortality became comparable and lost statistical significance. Chronic kidney disease subgroup had higher mortality risk when receiving LOCM compared with IOCM (regression adjusted HR 1.80, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.42; IPW-adjusted HR 1.57, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.48). In conclusion, after coronary angiography, patients receiving LOCM had comparable overall long-term mortality compared with IOCM after adjustment. LOCM tended to induce higher long-term mortality than IOCM in chronic kidney disease cohorts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of a radiographic contrast media (Iopentol) with different viscosities on capillary perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, F; Mrowietz, C; Gerk, U; Franke, R P

    2013-01-01

    Radiographic contrast media (RCM) are widely used to visualize blood vessels. Their effects on blood vessels should be minimal so that the object of the measurement - the vessel lumen - is not influenced by the RCM molecules. However, all RCMs exhibit a more or less strong effect on endothelial cells as well as on erythrocytes. These effects are discussed to induce a significant and relevant deceleration of the microcirculation. For some RCMs this could be demonstrated in animal or clinical studies. Therefore, this study investigated the role of the viscosity of a RCM on the mean erythrocyte velocity in nail fold capillaries in patients with coronary artery disease after a bolus injection of the RCM directly into the A. axillaris. Iopentol-350 is a high-viscous Xray contrast medium and induced a short-lasting imbalance of the microcirculation already in vascular regions not affected by atherosclerosis. This effect was - in the early phase after injection - significantly stronger than after application of the low viscous Iopentol-150. In patients with severe coronary artery disease and a myocardial perfusion at its limits, the injection of high-viscous X-ray contrast media could induce massive perturbations in the microcirculation and even ischemia. As a consequence a further impairment of both systolic and diastolic functions may occur.

  9. Hysterosalpingography contrast media and chromotubation dye inhibit peritoneal lymphocyte and macrophage function in vitro: a potential mechanism for fertility enhancement.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S B; Rein, M S; Hill, J A

    1993-05-01

    To determine the effects of hysterosalpingography (HSG) contrast media (CM) and chromotubation dye on peritoneal lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis in vitro. Peritoneal fluid (PF) lymphocytes and macrophages were isolated from 40 subfertile women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and 12 fertile women having laparoscopic tubal ligation. Dilutions of renografin, ethiodol, methylene blue, and indigo carmine were added to peritoneal lymphocyte and macrophage cultures. Tissue culture media alone served as control. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by hemocytometer counts and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Macrophage function was determined by phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres. Peritoneal lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis were significantly inhibited by renografin, ethiodol, methylene blue, and indigo carmine in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of PF immune cell function by HSG CM and chromotubation dye may provide a potential mechanism for fertility enhancement after these diagnostic procedures.

  10. Can contrast media increase organ doses in CT examinations? A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Amato, Ernesto; Salamone, Ignazio; Naso, Serena; Bottari, Antonio; Gaeta, Michele; Blandino, Alfredo

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantify the CT radiation dose increment in five organs resulting from the administration of iodinated contrast medium. Forty consecutive patients who underwent both un-enhanced and contrast-enhanced thoracoabdominal CT were included in our retrospective study. The dose increase between CT before and after contrast agent administration was evaluated in the portal phase for the thyroid, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys by applying a previously validated method. An increase in radiation dose was noted in all organs studied. Average dose increments were 19% for liver, 71% for kidneys, 33% for spleen and pancreas, and 41% for thyroid. Kidneys exhibited the maximum dose increment, whereas the pancreas showed the widest variance because of the differences in fibro-fatty involution. Finally, thyroids with high attenuation values on unenhanced CT showed a lower Hounsfield unit increase and, thus, a smaller increment in the dose. Our study showed an increase in radiation dose in several parenchymatous tissues on contrast-enhanced CT. Our method allowed us to evaluate the dose increase from the change in attenuation measured in Hounsfield units. Because diagnostic protocols require multiple acquisitions after the contrast agent administration, such a dose increase should be considered when optimizing these protocols.

  11. Influence of osmolarity of contrast medium and saline flush on computed tomography angiography: comparison of monomeric and dimeric iodinated contrast media with different iodine concentrations at an identical iodine delivery rate.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Miori; Doi, Shoko; Shimizu, Junichiro; Lee, Ki-Ja; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of osmolarity of iodinated contrast media and saline flush on the contrast effect in thoracic computed tomography angiography (CTA) at an identical iodine delivery rate (IDR). Seven beagles were used in a cross-over experiment. The contrast media used were iohexol 350 mgI/ml (IOH350; osmolarity 844 mmol/kg) and iodixanol 320 mgI/ml (IDX320; osmolarity 290 mmol/kg). Each contrast medium was administered to groups with and without saline flush at 40.0 mgI/kg/s for all experiments. Dynamic CT scanning was performed at the ninth thoracic vertebra level. The peak value, area under the curve (AUC), and time to peak (TTP) were calculated from the time attenuation curves of the pulmonary artery and aorta. There was no significant difference between IOH350 and IDX320 with or without saline flush in the peak values for the pulmonary artery and aorta. AUC was significantly higher in groups with saline flush for both contrast media and arteries (p<0.05) with no significant difference between contrast media. TTP was significantly longer in groups with saline flush than without saline flush for both contrast media and arteries (p<0.05), with no significant difference between contrast media. There were no significant differences in the contrast effects of monomeric IOH350 and dimeric IDX320 in thoracic CTA when used at an identical IDR. Moreover, saline flush prolonged the peak duration at 600 mgI/kg. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Catheter-Malposition-Induced Cardiac Tamponade via Contrast Media Leakage During Computed Tomography Study

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, C.-D. Ko, S.-F.; Huang, C.-F.; Chien, S.J.; Tiao, M.M.

    2005-12-15

    We present a rare case of a central venous catheter-malposition-induced life-threatening cardiac tamponade as a result of computed tomography (CT) with contrast enhancement in an infant with a ventricular septal defect and pulmonary atresia after a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. The diagnosis was confirmed by chest radiographs and CT study with catheter perforation through the right atrial wall and extravasation of the contrast medium into the pericardium, leading to cardiac tamponade and subsequent circulatory collapse. Two hours after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient gradually resumed normal hemodynamic status.

  13. Proposal of a skin tests based approach for the prevention of recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Della-Torre, E; Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Guglielmi, B; Tombetti, E; Sabbadini, M G; Voltolini, S; Colombo, G

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of an approach that combines clinical history, skin tests results, and premedication, in preventing recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM). Skin Prick tests, Intradermal tests, and Patch tests were performed in 36 patients with a previous reaction to ICM. All patients underwent a second contrast enhanced radiological procedure with an alternative ICM selected on the basis of the proposed approach. After alternative ICM re-injection, only one patient presented a mild NIR. The proposed algorithm, validated in clinical settings where repeated radiological exams are needed, offers a safe and practical approach for protecting patients from recurrent hypersensitivity reactions to ICM.

  14. Iodinated Contrast Media and the Alleged "Iodine Allergy": An Inexact Diagnosis Leading to Inferior Radiologic Management and Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid; Nairz, Knud; Morelli, John N; Keller, Patricia Silva Hasembank; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To test the hypothesis that the incomplete diagnosis "iodine allergy" is a possibly dangerous concept for patients under routine radiologic conditions. Materials and Methods 300 patients with a history of an "iodine allergy" were retrospectively screened and compared with two age-, sex-, and procedure-matched groups of patients either diagnosed with a nonspecific "iodine contrast medium (ICM) allergy" or an allergy to a specific ICM agent. For all groups, the clinical symptoms of the most recent past adverse drug reaction (ADR), prophylactic actions taken for subsequent imaging, and ultimate outcome were recorded and analyzed. Results The diagnosis "iodine allergy" was not otherwise specified in 84.3 % patients. For this group, in most cases, the symptoms of the previous ADRs were not documented. In contrast, the type of ADR was undocumented in only a minority of patients in the comparison groups. In the group of patients with an "iodine allergy" the percentage of unenhanced CT scans was greater than within the other two groups (36.7 % vs. 28.7 %/18.6 %). ADRs following prophylactic measures were only observed in the "iodine allergy" group (OR of 9.24 95 % CI 1.16 - 73.45; p < 0.04). Conclusion This data confirms the hypothesis that the diagnosis "iodine allergy" is potentially dangerous and results in uncertainty in clinical management and sometimes even ineffective prophylactic measures. Key points  · The term "iodine allergy" is imprecise, because it designates allergies against different substance classes, such as disinfectants with complexed iodine and contrast media containing covalently bound iodine.. · There is a clear correlation between the exactness of the diagnosis - from the alleged "iodine allergy" to "contrast media allergy" to naming the exact culprit CM - and the quality of documentation of the symptoms.. · Management of patients diagnosed with "iodine allergy" was associated with uncertainty leading to

  15. Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Toelly, Andrea; Bardach, Constanze; Weber, Michael; Gong, Rui; Lai, Yanbo; Wang, Pei; Guo, Yulin; Kirschke, Jan; Baum, Thomas; Gruber, Michael

    2017-06-01

    were defined for the calculation of a reliable BMD.. · The phantom-less tool showed good reliability and is a promising method.. Citation Format · Toelly A, Bardach C, Weber M et al. Influence of Contrast Media on Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurements from Routine Contrast-Enhanced MDCT Datasets using a Phantom-less BMD Measurement Tool. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 537 - 543. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Arterial-phase three-dimensional gadolinium magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries. Strategies for timing and contrast media injection: original investigation.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, S O; Knopp, M V; Prince, M R; Londy, F; Knopp, M A

    1998-09-01

    The authors review different imaging and contrast-media infusion strategies for arterial-phase three-dimensional (3D) gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (Gd-MRA). The influence of physicochemical factors on the infusion of contrast media, including viscosity, flow rate, inline pressure, and cannula size, is assessed. The combination of manual or automated contrast-media administration with timing-dependent or -independent 3D Gd-MRA techniques is reviewed regarding the aspects of effectiveness, robustness, image quality, and costs. For effective bolus delivery with high flow rates, the type and temperature of the contrast media, the size of the cannula, and an immediate saline flush must be considered. Timing-dependent techniques based on a test bolus and using automated contrast-media infusion as well as timing independent techniques such as MR SmartPrep or multiphase 3D Gd-MRA by using a manual injection with a SmartSet tubing set, are all effective procedures for arterial phase 3D Gd-MRA. Manual contrast-media injection with a tubing set can be used for timing-independent MRA techniques. The multiphase 3D Gd-MRA approach seems to be favorable for different MR systems, robustness, and speed.

  17. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  18. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  19. A meta-analysis of the renal safety of isosmolar iodixanol compared with low-osmolar contrast media.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A; Bertrand, Michel E; Brinker, Jeffrey A; Stacul, Fulvio

    2006-08-15

    We sought to compare the nephrotoxicity of isosmolar contrast medium (IOCM) iodixanol with low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) and to identify predictors of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Contrast-induced nephropathy is a serious complication of diagnostic and interventional procedures. Pooled individual patient data (n = 2,727) from 16 double-blind, randomized, controlled trials in which patients received either intra-arterial IOCM iodixanol (n = 1,382) or LOCM (n = 1,345) were included. Patients were stratified according to chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), or both. Outcome measures were the maximum increase in serum creatinine (Cr) over baseline and the incidence of postprocedural CIN. The maximum Cr increase within 3 days after contrast medium (CM) administration was significantly smaller in the iodixanol group compared with the LOCM group (0.06 mg/dl vs. 0.10 mg/dl, p < 0.001), particularly in patients with CKD (0.07 mg/dl vs. 0.16 mg/dl, p = 0.004) and CKD + DM (0.10 mg/dl vs. 0.33 mg/dl, p = 0.003). Contrast-induced nephropathy, defined as an increase in Cr > or =0.50 mg/dl within 3 days after CM administration, occurred less frequently in the iodixanol group than in the LOCM group in all patients (1.4% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001), in CKD patients (2.8% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.001), and in CKD + DM patients (3.5% vs. 15.5%, p = 0.003). Independent predictors of CIN included CKD, CKD + DM, and use of LOCM. This meta-analysis of pooled data from 2,727 patients indicates that use of the IOCM iodixanol is associated with smaller rises in Cr and lower rates of CIN than LOCM, especially in patients with CKD or CKD + DM.

  20. Development of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury after Elective Contrast Media Exposure in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Effect of Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji-yan; He, Yi-ting; Li, Li-wen; Tan, Ning; Li, Guang; Sun, Shuo; Liu, Yong; Zhan, Jia-xin; Zheng, Jian-yi; Zhou, Ying-ling

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of albuminuria and urinary pH on the development of contrast-induced acute kidney disease (CI-AKI) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after elective coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. Methods CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine >26.4 µmol/L or ≥50% of baseline value within 48 hours after contrast media exposure. Demographics, traditional risk factors, clinical outcomes and CI-AKI incidence were compared between groups. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess risk factors of CI-AKI. Results We observed 597 patients with T2DM after CAG or PCI. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on early morning urinary albumin: negative group (urine dipstick negative, n = 483), trace group (urine dipstick trace, n = 60), and positive group (urine dipstick ≥1+, n = 54). CI-AKI occurred in 33 (5.5%) patients, including 19 (3.9%) in the negativealbuminuria group, 4 (6.7%) in the trace group, and 10 (18.5%) in the positive group (p< 0.001), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding risk factors, positive albuminuria (OR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.5 to 9.2, p = 0.004) and urinary pH<6 (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.1, p = 0.020) remained significantly associated with CI-AKI. Conclusion Preprocedural albuminuria and urinary pH <6 are independent risk factors of CI-AKI in patients with T2DM undergoing elective cardiac catheterization, and may be used to identify patients at high risk of post-procedural CI-AKI. PMID:25192238

  1. Contribution of the amount of contrast media used in pulmonary CT angiography to assess the diagnostic value of CT venography; comparison of 100 and 150ml of contrast media.

    PubMed

    Calisir, C; Yavas, U S; Kebapci, M; Korkmaz, A; Ozkan, R

    2009-09-01

    To prospectively compare the vascular attenuation achieved with 100ml iohexol (350mgI/ml) 75% with that achieved with 150ml iohexol (350mgI/ml) 75% for computed tomography (CT) venography, which was performed after CT pulmonary angiography. A total of 122 patients were included in the study. Group A, comprising 52 patients (mean age 64.8 years, mean body weight 70.8kg) received 150ml iohexol (350mgI/ml) contrast media. Group B, comprising 70 patients (mean age 61.2 years, mean body weight 71.4kg) received 100ml iohexol (350mgI/ml) contrast medium. Venous opacification values measured at all levels were significantly higher in group A than those in group B (p<0.001). In group B the mean HU values were between 87 and 115 and only three of the patients had HU values less than 60 at the level of femoral vein. Assuming a venous enhancement of 80HU as the cut-off value for accurate diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis, 22.8% (16/70) in group B and 7.6% (4/52; p=0.028) in group A had non-diagnostic CT venography of left femoral vein. One hundred millilitres of contrast medium with a concentration of 350mgI/ml may produce sufficient enhancement, but 150ml of contrast medium provides better accuracy for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis diagnosis. For better enhancement of lower extremity deep veins, the concentration of the contrast medium and the patient's body weight may also have significance.

  2. [Extravasation of contrast media at the puncture site: Strategies for managment].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Compaña, F J; Gago Vidal, B; Méndez Díaz, C

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of contrast medium extravasation at the venipuncture site has increased with the generalized use of automatic injectors. Most extravasations only cause slight edema and erythema. Nevertheless, in some cases extravasation can result in severe skin lesions or even in compartment syndrome. Lesions caused by extravasation usually resolve spontaneously with conservative treatment. Although the complications of extravasation are well known, institutional protocols are normally lacking and the criteria for taking action and the type of treatment, whether based on the literature or personal preferences, tend to vary. In this article, we review the incidence, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and options for preventing and treating contrast medium extravasation in soft tissues. Finally, we present the protocol we use to manage extravasation at our hospital.

  3. A monte carlo comparison of three different media for contrast enhanced radiotherapy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Garnica-Garza, H M

    2010-06-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy makes use of a kilovoltage X-ray beam, either from a diagnostic X-ray tube or modified megavoltage linear accelerator, in conjunction with a high-Z contrast medium deposited into the target volume to enhance the absorption of radiation. In this work, using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE and the voxelized Zubal phantom to model a prostate radiotherapy treatment, a comparison between the physical absorbed dose distributions rendered by three different enhancing agents namely bismuth, gadolinium, and iodine is performed. It is assumed that there exists a concentration of 10 mg of enhancing agent per 1 g of tissue in the target volume while in the background a concentration of 1.5 mg per 1 g of tissue is present. The X-ray beam energy spectrum was obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulation of a tungsten target upon which a 220 keV mono-energetic electron pencil beam is made to impinge, and the resultant photon beam is heavily filtrated by 0.2 cm of copper. The treatment delivery is simulated as a 3608 arc collimated to conform to the target from every direction. Cumulative dose-volume histograms and isodose curves are presented for the target as well as five organs-at-risk, namely rectal wall, bladder, femoral heads, skin, and bone marrow. It is shown that under these conditions clinically acceptable treatment plans are obtained for all three contrast agents. A 72 Gy dose to 100% of the target volume results in maximum absorbed doses to the above mentioned organs-at-risk of 65, 56, 44, 32 and 65 Gy respectively when bismuth is used as the contrast agent, but the results obtained with gadolinium follow closely.

  4. Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. Methods We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Results Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T1 (243 ms) and shortest T2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. Conclusion The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25245815

  5. Influence of contrast media viscosity and temperature on injection pressure in computed tomographic angiography: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Mingels, Alma A; Kietselaer, Bas L; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Seehofnerova, Anna; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) in computed tomographic angiography is characterized by its concentration and, consecutively, by its viscosity. Viscosity itself is directly influenced by temperature, which will furthermore affect injection pressure. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to systematically evaluate the viscosity of different CM at different temperatures and to assess their impact on injection pressure in a circulation phantom. Initially, viscosity of different contrast media concentrations (240, 300, 370, and 400 mgI/mL) was measured at different temperatures (20°C-40°C) with a commercially available viscosimeter. In the next step, a circulation phantom with physical conditions was used. Contrast media were prepared at different temperatures (20°C, 30°C, 37°C) and injected through a standard 18-gauge needle. All other relevant parameters were kept constant (iodine delivery rate, 1.9 g I/s; total amount of iodine, 15 g I). Peak flow rate (in milliliter per second) and injection pressure (psi) were monitored. Differences in significance were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Viscosities for iodinated CM of 240, 300, 370, and 400 mg I/mL at 20°C were 5.1, 9.1, 21.2, and 28.8 mPa.s, respectively, whereas, at 40°C, these were substantially lower (2.8, 4.4, 8.7, and 11.2 mPa.s). In the circulation phantom, mean (SD) peak pressures for CM of 240 mg I/mL at 20°C, 30°C, and 37°C were 107 (1.5), 95 (0.6), and 92 (2.1) psi; for CM of 300 mg I/mL, 119 (1.5), 104 (0.6), and 100 (3.6) psi; for CM of 370 mg I/mL, 150 (0.6), 133 (4.4), and 120 (3.5) psi; and for CM of 400 mg I/mL, 169 (1.0), 140 (2.1), and 135 (2.9) psi, respectively, with all P values less than 0.05. Low concentration, low viscosity, and high temperatures of CM are beneficial in terms of injection pressure. This should also be considered for individually tailored contrast protocols in daily routine scanning.

  6. Radiographic contrast media alterate the localization of actin/band4.9 in the membrane cytoskeleton of human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Scharnweber, T; Fuhrmann, R; Mrowietz, C; Wenzel, F; Krüger, A; Jung, F

    2014-01-01

    Different radiographic contrast media (RCM) were shown to induce morphological changes of blood cells (e.g. erythrocytes or thrombocytes) and endothelial cells. The echinocytic shape change of erythrocytes, particularly, affords alterations of the membrane cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton plays a crucial role for the shape and deformability of the red blood cell. Disruption of the interaction between components of the red blood cell membrane cytoskeleton may cause a loss of structural and functional integrity of the membrane. In this study band4.9 and actin as components of the cytoskeletal junctional complex were examined in human erythrocytes after suspension in autologous plasma or in plasma RCM mixtures (30% v/v Iodixanol-320 or Iopromide-370) followed by a successive double staining with TRITC-/FITC-coupled monoclonal antibodies. After adding Iopromide-370 to the plasma in practically none of the cells the rounded conformation of the membrane cytoskeleton - as it appeared in cells suspended in autologous plasma - was found. In addition, Iopromide-370 induced thin lines and coarse knob-like structures of band4.9 at the cell periphery while most cell centers were devoid of band4.9, and a box-like arrangement of bands of band4.9. A dissociation between colours red (actin) and green (band4.9) occurred as well. In contrast, erythrocytes suspended in a plasma/Iodixanol-320 mixture showed a membrane cytoskeleton comparable to cells suspended in autologous plasma, Similar results were found with respect to the distribution of actin. This study revealed for the first time RCM-dependent differences in band4.9 activities as possible pathophysiological mechanism for the chemotoxicity of radiographic contrast media.

  7. K-edge angiography utilizing a tungsten plasma X-ray generator in conjunction with gadolinium-based contrast media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Onagawa, Jun; Ido, Hideaki

    2006-11-01

    The tungsten plasma flash X-ray generator is useful in order to perform high-speed enhanced K-edge angiography using cone beams because K-series characteristic X-rays from the tungsten target are absorbed effectively by gadolinium-based contrast media. In the flash X-ray generator, a 150 nF condenser is charged up to 80 kV by a power supply, and flash X-rays are produced by the discharging. The X-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Since the electric circuit of the high-voltage pulse generator employs a cable transmission line, the high-voltage pulse generator produces twice the potential of the condenser charging voltage. At a charging voltage of 80 kV, the estimated maximum tube voltage and current were approximately 160 kV and 40 kA, respectively. When the charging voltage was increased, the characteristic X-ray intensities of tungsten K α lines increased. The K α lines were clean, and hardly any bremsstrahlung rays were detected. The X-ray pulse widths were approximately 110 ns, and the time-integrated X-ray intensity had a value of approximately 0.35 mGy at 1.0 m from the X-ray source with a charging voltage of 80 kV. Angiography was performed using a film-less computed radiography (CR) system and gadolinium-based contrast media. In angiography of non-living animals, we observed fine blood vessels of approximately 100 μm with high contrasts.

  8. Low tube voltage dual source computed tomography to reduce contrast media doses in adult abdomen examinations: A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Thor, Daniel; Brismar, Torkel B; Fischer, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the potential of low tube voltage dual source (DS) single energy (SE) and dual energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) to reduce contrast media (CM) dose in adult abdominal examinations of various sizes while maintaining soft tissue and iodine contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Four abdominal phantoms simulating a body mass index of 16 to 35 kg/m(2) with four inserted syringes of 0, 2, 4, and 8 mgI/ml CM were scanned using a 64-slice DS-CT scanner. Six imaging protocols were used; one single source (SS) reference protocol (120 kV, 180 reference mAs), four low kV SE protocols (70 and 80 kV using both SS and DS), and one DE protocol at 80/140 kV. Potential CM reduction with unchanged CNRs relative to the 120 kV protocol was calculated along with the corresponding increase in radiation dose. The potential contrast media reductions were determined to be approximately 53% for DS 70 kV, 51% for SS 70 kV, 44% for DS 80 kV, 40% for SS 80 kV, and 20% for DE (all differences were significant, P < 0.05). Constant CNR could be achieved by using DS 70 kV for small to medium phantom sizes (16-26 kg/m(2)) and for all sizes (16-35 kg/m(2)) when using DS 80 kV and DE. Corresponding radiation doses increased by 60%-107%, 23%-83%, and 6%-12%, respectively. DS single energy CT can be used to reduce CM dose by 44%-53% with maintained CNR in adult abdominal examinations at the cost of an increased radiation dose. DS dual-energy CT allows reduction of CM dose by 20% at similar radiation dose as compared to a standard 120 kV single source.

  9. Blood flow computation in phase-contrast MRI by minimal paths in anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, Michael; Hennemuth, Anja; Fischer, Bernd; Friman, Ola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, anisotropic Fast Marching is employed to compute blood flow trajectories as minimal paths in 3D phase-contrast MRI images. Uncertainty in the estimated blood flow vectors is incorporated in a tensor which is used as metric for the anisotropic Fast Marching. A flow connectivity distribution is computed simultaneously to the Fast Marching. Based on the connectivity distribution the most likely flow trajectories can be identified. Results are presented for several PC MRI data sets and the capability of the method to indicate uncertainty of the flow trajectories is shown.

  10. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI: contrast media pharmaceutical company R&D perspective.

    PubMed

    Corot, Claire; Warlin, David

    2013-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are a relatively large class of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. According to their biodistribution, distinct classes of SPIO nanoparticles have been investigated for clinical applications either as macrophage imaging agents or blood pool agents. Contrast agents which are pharmaceutics followed the same development rules as therapeutic drugs. Several drawbacks such as clinical development difficulties, organization of market access and imaging technological developments have limited the widespread use of these products. SPIO nanoparticles that are composed of thousands iron atoms providing large T2* effects are particularly suitable for theranostic. Stem cell migration and immune cell trafficking, as well as targeted SPIO nanoparticles for molecular imaging studies are mainly at the stage of proof of concept. A major economic challenge in the development of molecular imaging associated with a therapeutic treatment/procedure is to define innovative business models compatible with the needs of all players taking into account that theranostic solutions are promising to optimize resource allocation and ensure that expensive treatments are prescribed to responding patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The optimal contrast media policy in CT of the liver. Part II: Clinical protocols.

    PubMed

    Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; De Cecco, Carlo N; Osimani, Marcello; Vecchietti, Fabrizio; Caruso, Damiano; Maceroni, Marco M; Lucchesi, Paola; Iafrate, Franco; Palombo, Erica; Paolantonio, Pasquale; Ferrari, Riccardo; Laghi, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The advent of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) revolutionized abdominal imaging. In particular, the definitive assessment of CT injection protocols, for the evaluation of the liver parenchyma, is still a critical issue for radiologists. Over the last years, this feature encouraged several authors to address their efforts to find the most accurate delay between the contrast medium injection and the effective scan-start, for the identification and characterization of liver lesions. Technological developments of the present century such as number of slices, submillimetric collimation, and the use of multiple dynamic post-contrast phases per single examination, may all contribute to increase the radiation exposure of single patients. The aim of this review is to propose liver imaging protocols, taking into consideration different clinical needs such as patients with chronic liver disease, healthy patients with focal liver lesion, and oncological patients to minimize radiation exposure. Finally, two recent innovations in MDCT which illustrate the potential application of multi-energy computed tomography (MECT) and perfusion computed tomography (CTp) when evaluating liver parenchyma will be discussed in a short closing paragraph.

  12. Effect of echo contrast media on the visualization of transverse sinus thrombosis with transcranial 3-D duplex sonography.

    PubMed

    Delcker, A; Häussermann, P; Weimar, C

    1999-09-01

    Transcranial duplex sonography has the capacity of detecting venous flow as in the transverse sinus. During a 6-month period, 28 consecutive patients (mean age 55 y) with a clinically suspected diagnosis of cerebral sinus thrombosis were included in the study. All patients were examined using 3-D ultrasound equipment within 24 h of having undergone either venous computerized tomography (CT), venous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or cerebral angiography. A total of 22 healthy patients had a normal venous CT, venous MRI or cerebral angiography of both transverse sinuses. Before echo contrast enhancement, the transverse sinus could be visualized in only 2 of these 44 sinuses (22 patients). A total of 6 patients with an unilaterally missed transverse sinus in 3-D ultrasound suffered from sinus thrombosis (n = 3), hypoplasia (n = 2) or aplasia (n = 1) of the unilateral transverse sinus in neuroradiological tests. In none of the patients with an thrombosis of the transverse sinus did ultrasound contrast media application improve the visualization of the affected sinus. Our study confirms that the normal transverse sinus, insonated through the contralateral temporal bone, often cannot be visualized without the use of contrast agents. With transcranial 3-D duplex sonography, a differentiation between thrombosis, hypoplasia and aplasia of the sinus was not possible.

  13. Strategies for the prevention of asthmatic, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions during the administration of anesthetics and/or contrast media.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Lobefalo, G; Di Florio, E; Di Iorio, C; Occhiochiuso, L; Romano, L; Savoia, G; Massa, R M; D'Amato, G

    2008-01-01

    General anesthetics and contrast media can cause anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions. These events are of great concern to radiologists and anesthesiologists because of their relatively high prevalence, possible threat to life, and medical-legal consequences. Points discussed in this review are the critical evaluation of risk factors affecting prevention strategies, the need to be aware of pathogenic mechanisms relevant to prevention strategies, the use of alternative products if a culprit agent is known, the recognition of early signs of a reaction, the need to keep records of reactions on a patient's medical chart, the planning of prophylactic therapy, recommended actions after a reaction to an anesthetic or contrast medium, and the suggested establishment of allergy-anesthesiology centers to improve cooperation, and medical-legal issues. As any drug or contrast medium administered during general anesthesia or a diagnostic procedure can induce a potentially life-threatening or fatal event even in the absence of any evident risk factor in the patient's medical history or clinical status, we usually premedicate susceptible individuals at least to attenuate the severity of an unpredictable reaction, although we cannot rely on the efficacy of premedication to completely prevent a severe event. These recommendations, which are based on the literature and on the experience of our working group, aim to provide useful information for physicians and other specialists who operate in the absence of an allergy consultant.

  14. Adding the power of iodinated contrast media to the credibility of mammography in breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tsigginou, Alexandra; Gkali, Christina; Chalazonitis, Athanasios; Feida, Eleni; Vlachos, Dimitrios Efthymios; Zagouri, Flora; Rellias, Ioannis; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2016-11-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) represents a relatively new diagnostic tool adjunct to mammography. The aim of this study was to strengthen the breast imaging-reporting and data system (BIRADS) classification score in order to improve early breast cancer diagnosis. For this reason, we propose a sum score, termed malignancy potential score (MPS), incorporating the standard BIRADS score and our proposed CESM score. From September 2014 to September 2015, 216 females (age range, 26-85 years; mean age 54.6 years) underwent CESM evaluation of mammographic findings that were primarily assessed as BIRADS 2-5. 10 of these patients had bilateral findings; a total of 226 lesions were examined. High-energy image evaluation was based on the intensity of contrast enhancement of the lesion compared with background enhancement, categorized as Type -1, 0, 1 or 2 enhancement. Histopathology reports were compared with imaging assessment. 98 of 226 lesions were malignant and 128 of 226 lesions were benign. The area under the curve was 0.843, 0.888 and 0.917 for mammographic BIRADS score, CESM score and MPS, respectively, with p-value < 0.05. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rates were 91.83, 80.47 and 85.40%, respectively, when a best MPS cut-off point of 4 was used. The malignancy potential score (MPS) has higher diagnostic performance than digital mammography or CESM alone. MPS empowers the credibility of the digital mammography BIRADS score and our proposed type of enhancement in dual-energy CESM and is a diagnostic tool that increases the accuracy rate in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  15. Anaphylaxis to Iodinated Contrast Media: Clinical Characteristics Related with Development of Anaphylactic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Yang, Min-Suk; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    Objective Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of radiocontrast media (RCM) induced hypersensitivity and can be life-threatening if profound hypotension is combined. With increased use of iodine based RCM, related hypersensitivity is rapidly growing. However, the clinical characteristics and risk factors of RCM induced anaphylaxis accompanied by hypotension (anaphylactic shock) are not clearly defined. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors of RCM induced anaphylactic shock and the clinical value of RCM skin testing to identify causative agents in affected patients. Methods We analyzed the data of RCM induced anaphylaxis monitored by an inhospital pharmacovigilance center at a tertiary teaching hospital from January 2005 to December 2012 and compared the clinical features and skin test results according to the accompanying hypotension. Results Among total of 104 cases of RCM induced anaphylaxis, 34.6% of patients, developed anaphylaxis on their first exposure to RCM. Anaphylactic patients presenting with shock were older (57.4 vs. 50.1 years, p = 0.026) and had a history of more frequently exposure to RCM (5.1±7.8 vs. 1.9±3.3, p = 0.004) compared to those without hypotension. Among RCMs, hypotension was more frequent in anaphylaxis related to iopromide compared to other agents (85.0% vs. 61.4%, p = 0.011). Skin tests were performed in 51 patients after development of RCM induced anaphylaxis. Overall skin test positivity to RCM was 64.7% and 81.8% in patients with anaphylactic shock. Conclusion RCM induced anaphylactic shock is related to multiple exposures to RCM and most patients showed skin test positivity to RCM. PMID:24932635

  16. Anaphylaxis to iodinated contrast media: clinical characteristics related with development of anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Lee, Suh-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Yang, Min-Suk; Jung, Jae-Woo; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of radiocontrast media (RCM) induced hypersensitivity and can be life-threatening if profound hypotension is combined. With increased use of iodine based RCM, related hypersensitivity is rapidly growing. However, the clinical characteristics and risk factors of RCM induced anaphylaxis accompanied by hypotension (anaphylactic shock) are not clearly defined. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors of RCM induced anaphylactic shock and the clinical value of RCM skin testing to identify causative agents in affected patients. We analyzed the data of RCM induced anaphylaxis monitored by an inhospital pharmacovigilance center at a tertiary teaching hospital from January 2005 to December 2012 and compared the clinical features and skin test results according to the accompanying hypotension. Among total of 104 cases of RCM induced anaphylaxis, 34.6% of patients, developed anaphylaxis on their first exposure to RCM. Anaphylactic patients presenting with shock were older (57.4 vs. 50.1 years, p = 0.026) and had a history of more frequently exposure to RCM (5.1±7.8 vs. 1.9±3.3, p = 0.004) compared to those without hypotension. Among RCMs, hypotension was more frequent in anaphylaxis related to iopromide compared to other agents (85.0% vs. 61.4%, p = 0.011). Skin tests were performed in 51 patients after development of RCM induced anaphylaxis. Overall skin test positivity to RCM was 64.7% and 81.8% in patients with anaphylactic shock. RCM induced anaphylactic shock is related to multiple exposures to RCM and most patients showed skin test positivity to RCM.

  17. Quantitative measurements of injections into porous media with contrast based MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, J. L.; Donaldson, M. H.; Betancourt, S. S.; Song, Y.-Q.

    2011-09-01

    Porous flow occurs in a wide range of materials and applies to many commercially relevant applications such as oil recovery, chemical reactors and contaminant transport in soils. Typically, breakthrough and pressure curves of column floods are used in the laboratory characterization of these materials. These characterization methods lack the detail to easily and unambiguously resolve flow mechanisms with similar effects at the core scale that can dominate at the aquifer or oil field scale, as well as the effects of geometry that control the flow at interfaces as in a perforated well or the inlet of an improperly designed column. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as MRI have been shown to provide a far more detailed characterization of the properties of the solid matrix and flow, but usually focus on the intrinsic flow properties of porous media or matching a numerical model to a complex flow system. We show that these MRI techniques, utilizing paramagnetic tagging in combination with a carefully controlled and ideal flow system, can quantitatively characterize the effects of geometry and intrinsic flow properties for a point injection into a core. The use of a carefully controlled and 'idealized' system is essential to be able to isolate and match predicted effects from geometry and extract subtle flow processes omitted in the model that would be hidden in a more heterogeneous system. This approach provides not only a tool to understand the behavior of intentional boundary effects, but also one to diagnose the unintentional ones that often degrade the data from routine column flood measurements.

  18. In vivo monitoring of sorafenib therapy effects on experimental prostate carcinomas using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and macromolecular contrast media

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Bettina; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Sourbron, Steven; von Einem, Jobst C.; Dietrich, Olaf; Hinkel, Rabea; Clevert, Dirk A.; Bruns, Christiane J.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Wintersperger, Bernd J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with macromolecular contrast media (MMCM) to monitor the effects of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib on subcutaneous prostate carcinomas in rats with immunohistochemical validation. Materials and methods: Copenhagen rats, implanted with prostate carcinoma allografts, were randomized to the treatment group (n = 8) or the control group (n = 8). DCE-MRI with albumin-(Gd-DTPA)35 was performed at baseline and after 1 week using a clinical 3-Tesla system. The treatment group received sorafenib, 10 mg/kg body weight daily. Kinetic analysis yielded quantitative parameters of tumor endothelial permeability–surface area product (PS; ml/100 ml/min) and fractional blood volume (Vb, %). Tumors were harvested on day 7 for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: In sorafenib-treated tumors, PS (0.62 ± 0.20 vs 0.08 ± 0.09 ml/100 ml/min; P < 0.01) and Vb (5.1 ± 1.0 vs 0.56 ± 0.48%; P < 0.01) decreased significantly from day 0 to day 7. PS showed a highly significant inverse correlation with tumor cell apoptosis (TUNEL; r = −0.85, P < 0.001). Good, significant correlations of PS were also observed with tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67; r = 0.67, P < 0.01) and tumor vascularity (RECA-1; r = 0.72, P < 0.01). MRI-assayed fractional blood volume Vb showed a highly significant correlation with tumor vascularity (RECA-1; r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67; r = 0.82, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Results of DCE-MRI with MMCM demonstrated good, significant correlations with the immunohistochemically assessed antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects of a 1-week, daily treatment course of sorafenib on experimental prostate carcinoma allografts. PMID:24380871

  19. Gd3+-DTPA-bis (N-methylamine) - anionic linear globular Dendrimer-G1; a more efficient MRI contrast media.

    PubMed

    Ghalandarlaki, N; Mohammadi, T D; Agha Babaei, R; Tabasi, M A; Keyhanvar, P; Mehravi, B; Yaghmaei, P; Cohan, R A; Ardestani, M S

    2014-02-01

    By advancing of molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming an increasingly important tool in early diagnosis. Researchers have found new ways to increase contrast of MRI images.Therefore some types of drug known as contrast media are produced. Contrast media improve the visibility of internal body structures in MRI images. Gadodiamide (Omniscan®) is one of these contrast media which is produced commercially and used clinically. In this study Gadodiamide was first synthesized and then qualitative and quantitative methods were carried out to ensure the proper synthesis of this drug then to increase the efficiency of this contrast medium use dendrimer that is one kind of nano particle. This dendrimer has a polyethylene glycol (PEG) core and citric acid branches. After dendrimer attached to Gadodiamide to ensure the proper efficient connection between them the stability studies were carried out and cytotoxicity of the drug was evaluated. Finally, after ensuring the non-toxicity of the drug, in vivo studies (injected into mice) MR imaging was performed to examine the impact of synthesis drug on the resolution of image.The result obtained from this study demonstrated that the attachment of Gadodiamide to dendrimer reduces its cytotoxicity and also improved resolution of image. Also the new contrast media (Gd3+-DTPA- bis [N-methylamine] - Dendrimer) - unlike Omniscan® - is biodegradable and able to enter the HEPG2 cell line. The results confirm the hypothesis that using dendrimer to synthesize this new nano contrast medium increases its effectiveness.

  20. Computed tomography for iodine contrast media detection using energy information measured by a current-mode detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, I.; Imamura, R.; Mikami, K.; Ohtaka, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Ara, K.; Onabe, H.

    2010-12-01

    To exploit the energy information of X-rays in computed tomography (CT), we developed a current-mode detector that gave the energy distribution of incident X-rays. The CT value obtained for a given material in a phantom depended on the X-ray path length through the phantom. To ensure a constant CT value for a given material, we prepared response functions as a function of X-ray path length and applied these response functions in the unfolding process. When using response functions that depended on X-ray path length, the CT values obtained were constant for a given material. In addition, the CT values obtained for iodine contrast media were greater than the values obtained using conventional current CT, especially for higher X-ray tube voltages.

  1. Outcomes of corticosteroid prophylaxis for hypersensitivity reactions to low osmolar contrast media in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Choi, Young Hun; Park, Chang Min; Park, Heung Woo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2016-09-01

    Corticosteroid prophylaxis has been widely adopted for the prevention of acute allergic-like reactions to iodinated contrast media, but its use is still controversial because there is no strong evidence supporting its efficacy before administration of nonionic low osmolar contrast media (LOCM). To assess the outcomes of premedication in patients with previous acute allergic-like reactions to LOCM in clinical practice. A retrospective study was performed on 322 high-risk patients who were reexposed to LOCM after premedication composed of antihistamines and/or systemic corticosteroids because of a previous history of acute allergic-like reactions to LOCM. After premedication, 275 patients (85.4%) did not experience any reaction, but 47 patients (14.6%) still experienced a breakthrough reaction. The premedication rate and amount of corticosteroid administered were significantly higher in the nonrecurrence group than in the recurrence group (P = .04 and P = .04, respectively), and a linear trend was observed in the use of corticosteroid premedication and the efficacy of prevention (P for trend = .02). Multivariate binary logistic regression revealed that corticosteroid premedication was effective in preventing recurrence (odds ratio, 0.284; 95% confidence interval, 0.103-0.784). Nonetheless, despite corticosteroid premedication, 3.4% of high-risk patients still experienced moderate to severe reactions, and 14.3% of patients with a severe index reaction again had a severe reaction. Premedication with corticosteroids seems to be helpful in reducing the overall rate of recurrence of acute allergic-like reactions to LOCM in high-risk patients, but patients with severe index reactions are still at risk of developing severe reactions despite corticosteroid premedication. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of viscosity on power and hand injection of iso-osmolar iodinated contrast media through thin catheters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, James J; Hogstrom, Barry; Malinak, Jiri; Ikei, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    It can be challenging to achieve adequate vessel opacification during percutaneous coronary interventions when using thin catheters, hand injection, and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) such as iodixanol (Visipaque™). To explore these limitations and the possibility to overcome them with iosimenol, a novel CM. Three X-ray contrast media with different concentrations were used in this study. A series of in vitro experiments established the relationship between injection pressure and flow rate in angiography catheters under various conditions. The experiments were conducted with power and hand injections and included a double-blind evaluation of user perception. By using hand injection, it was generally not possible to reach a maximum injection pressure exceeding 50 psi. The time within which volunteers were able to complete the injections, the area under the pressure-time curve (AUC), and assessment of ease of injection all were in favor of iosimenol compared with iodixanol, especially when using the 4F thin catheter. Within the pressure ranges tested, the power injections demonstrated that the amount of iodine delivered at a fixed pressure was strongly related to viscosity but unrelated to iodine concentration. There are substantial limitations to the amount of iodine that can be delivered through thin catheters by hand injection when iso-osmolar CM with high viscosity is used. The only viable solution, besides increasing the injection pressure, is to use a CM with lower viscosity, since the cost of increasing the concentration, in terms of increased viscosity and consequent reduction in flow, is too high. Iosimenol, an iso-osmolar CM with lower viscosity than iodixanol might therefore be a better alternative when thinner catheters are preferred, especially when the radial artery is used as the access site. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  3. Recurrent flexural exanthema (SDRIFE or baboon syndrome) after administration of two different iodinated radio contrast media.

    PubMed

    Arnold, A W; Hausermann, P; Bach, S; Bircher, A J

    2007-01-01

    In 1984, the baboon syndrome was described as a particular form of systemic contact dermatitis that occurred after the administration of a contact allergen in individuals previously sensitized by topical exposure to the same allergen. Its clinical picture presents as an erythema of the buttocks and upper inner thighs resembling the red bottom of baboons. This specific reaction was originally observed with mercury, nickel and ampicillin. Since then over 100 cases have been described, most of them without known prior sensitization to the causative agent. In 2004, our group proposed the acronym SDRIFE specifically for cases associated with systemic drugs; it stands for symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema, as a distinct reaction pattern related to systemic drugs. Here we describe a case of SDRIFE after administration of the iodinated radio contrast medium (RCM) iomeprol (Iomeron), accidentally reproduced by the RCM iopromide (Ultravist). Positive delayed skin tests with both drugs were observed indicating that the pathomechanism of SDRIFE is likely a cell-mediated type IV allergy. Oral potassium iodide and a skin-test-negative RCM were administered and both tolerated, indicating that the antigen is related to the molecules and not to iodine itself. Therefore, in our case skin tests had a good positive and negative predictive value.

  4. Effects of Contrast Media on Blood Rheology: Comparison in Humans, Pigs, and Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Laurent, Alexandre; Durussel, Jean Jacques; Dufaux, Jacques; Penhouet, Laurence; Bailly, Anne Laure; Bonneau, Michel

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To compare whole blood viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in humans, pigs, and sheep, before and after adding water-soluble iodinated contrast medium (CM). Methods: Two CMs were studied: iopromide (nonionic) and ioxaglate (ionic). The blood-CM viscosity was measured with a Couette viscometer. Erythrocyte aggregation was measured with an erythroaggregometer. Results: The blood-CM viscosity was increased up to +20% (relative to pure blood) with a CM concentration of 0%-10%. At CM concentrations from 10% to 50%, the viscosity decreased. The disaggregation shear stress was increased (relative to pure blood) at low CM concentration (0%-10%). When the CM concentration increased from 10% to 20%, the disaggregation shear stress was decreased, except with the pig blood-ioxaglate mixture. Conclusion: At low CM concentration the blood viscosity was increased in pig, sheep, and humans and the disaggregation shear stress was increased in pig and humans. The aggregation of sheep blood was too low to be detected by the erythroaggregometer. This rise can be explained by the formation of poorly deformable echinocytes. At higher CM concentration, the viscosity and the disaggregation shear stress decreased in relation to the blood dilution. We conclude that pig blood and sheep blood can both be used to study the effect of CM injection on blood viscosity. Nevertheless, the rheologic behavior of pig blood in terms of erythrocyte aggregation is closer to that of human blood than is sheep blood when mixed with CM. Pigs could thus be more suitable than sheep for in vivo studies of CM miscibility with blood during selective cannulation procedures.

  5. Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) of the knee joint: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using standard and dynamic paramagnetic contrast media. Report of 52 cases surgically and histologically controlled.

    PubMed

    Barile, Antonio; Sabatini, Mylene; Iannessi, Francesca; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Splendiani, Alessandra; Calvisi, Vittorio; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2004-04-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane, exhibiting benign behaviour from a biological point of view. This kind of synovial hyperplasia leads to the formation of villi and nodules characterized by deposit of intracellular haemosiderin. It primarily involves young adults, the peak age being between the second and fourth decade of life. It may appear either in a diffuse or a localized (nodular) form. The joint most affected is the knee and diffuse PVNS is the most common form. Diagnostic imaging techniques, particularly MRI, allow lesion identification, suggesting a diagnosis. However, such diagnosis can be confirmed only on histology as the final diagnosis of PVNS, and therefore the possibility of differential diagnosis with other haemorrhagic and chronic hyperplastic synovites, is based on the detection of intracellular haemosiderin components. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of MRI, which might be completed with the intravenous injection of contrast medium, in the characterization of such pathological picture. From January 1999 to December 2002, we evaluated 52 patients presenting knee swelling, pain and functional impairment. Only 19 patients had a history of trauma. All patients underwent MRI using a dedicated 0.2 T unit or a whole-body' 1.5 T unit. In 30 cases the baseline examination was completed with intravenous injection of contrast medium, followed by dynamic 3D-SPGR sequences at 45, 90, 135 and 225 seconds from the initial injection. These dynamic sequences were then processed by means of early and late subtractions, evaluating the regions of interest (ROI) positioned in the areas with higher post-contrast enhancement. Thirty-eight patients had been previously submitted to Ultrasonography (US), whereas twenty-five patients to Computed Tomography (TC). Later, all patients underwent surgery. Only two patients required an arthrotomy. We then retrospectively evaluated the imaging

  6. Contrast Media-Induced Renal Inflammation Is Mediated Through HMGB1 and Its Receptors in Human Tubular Cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Qing-Jie; Zuo, Xiao-Cong; Guo, Ren; Peng, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Jiang-Lin; Yin, Wen-Jun; Li, Dai-Yang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of imaging diagnosis and interventional therapy, contrast media (CM) are widely used in clinics. However, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure accounting for 10-12% of all causes of hospital-acquired renal failure. Recent study found that inflammation may participate in the pathogenesis of CIN, but the role of it remains unclear. HK-2 cells were treated with Iohexol, Urografin, and mannitol. Two types of CM increased the release of HMGB1 in cell supernatant accompanied by increased expression of TLR2 and CXCR4. Iohexol and Urografin also caused a significant increase in NF-κB followed by the release of IL-6 and MCP-1. To clarify the role of HMGB1, TLR2, and CXCR4, glycyrrhizin, anti-TLR2-IgG, and AMD3100 were used to inhibit HMGB1, TLR2, and CXCR4, respectively. Significant decrease in the expression of TLR2, CXCR4, nuclear NF-κB, and the release of IL-6 and MCP-1 were observed. These results indicate that TLR2 and CXCR4 signaling are involved in CM-induced HK-2 cell injury model in an HMGB1-dependent pathway, which may provide a new target for the prevention and the treatment of CIN.

  7. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives. PMID:27652261

  8. Immediate Adverse Reactions to Gadolinium-Based MR Contrast Media: A Retrospective Analysis on 10,608 Examinations.

    PubMed

    Granata, Vincenza; Cascella, Marco; Fusco, Roberta; dell'Aprovitola, Nicoletta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Schiavone, Vincenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Cuomo, Arturo; Petrillo, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Contrast media (CM) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may determine the development of acute adverse reactions. Objective was to retrospectively assess the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) injection in patients who underwent MRI. Material and Methods. At our center 10608 MRI examinations with CM were performed using five different GBCAs: Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), Gd-DTPA (Magnevist), Gd-EOBDTPA (Primovist), Gd-DOTA (Dotarem), and Gd-BTDO3A (Gadovist). Results. 32 acute adverse reactions occurred, accounting for 0.3% of all administration. Twelve reactions were associated with Gd-DOTA injection (0.11%), 9 with Gd-BOPTA injection (0.08%), 6 with Gd-BTDO3A (0.056%), 3 with Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.028%), and 2 with Gd-DTPA (0.018%). Twenty-four reactions (75.0%) were mild, four (12.5%) moderate, and four (12.5%) severe. The most severe reactions were seen associated with use of Gd-BOPTA, with 3 severe reactions in 32 total reactions. Conclusion. Acute adverse reactions are generally rare with the overall adverse reaction rate of 0.3%. The most common adverse reactions were not severe, consisting in skin rash and hives.

  9. Borate complexes of x-ray iodinated contrast agents: characterization and sorption studies for their removal from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Rustighi, Isabella; Donati, Ivan; Ferluga, Matteo; Campa, Cristiana; Pasqua, Adele E; Rossi, Marco; Paoletti, Sergio

    2012-02-29

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are persistent and ubiquitous water pollutants. Because of their high water solubility and biochemical stability, their phase-separation and recovery from the aquatic environment is very difficult. Here, borate was chosen as a complexing agent of the two diagnostic aids iomeprol and iopamidol in order to provide them with a negative charge and to fix the resulting adducts on Dowex 1X4 ion exchangers. A systematic characterization study of the complex by means of capillary zone electrophoresis and 11B NMR revealed that iomeprol and iopamidol interact with borate anions in aqueous solutions giving a 1:1 single-charged adduct and that the association constant at 25 °C for both contrast agents is highest at pH 10.5. These findings allowed the proper calibration of experimental parameters for further batch adsorption-desorption trials, where the two ICM were shown to be almost completely removed from the water phase and released from the solid sorbents in mild conditions, enabling the recovery of functional resin.

  10. The Application of Contrast Media for In Vivo Feature Enhancement in X-Ray Computed Tomography of Soil-Grown Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Samuel D; Gostling, Neil J; Cheung, Jessica H; Roose, Tiina; Sinclair, Ian; Marchant, Alan

    2017-06-01

    The use of in vivo X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) to study plant root systems has become routine, but is often hampered by poor contrast between roots, soil, soil water, and soil organic matter. In clinical radiology, imaging of poorly contrasting regions is frequently aided by the use of radio-opaque contrast media. In this study, we present evidence for the utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) in the study of plant root systems using μCT. Different dilutions of an ionic and nonionic ICM (Gastrografin 370 and Niopam 300) were perfused into the aerial vasculature of juvenile pea plants via a leaf flap (Pisum sativum). The root systems were imaged via μCT, and a variety of image-processing approaches used to quantify and compare the magnitude of the contrast enhancement between different regions. Though the treatment did not appear to significantly aid extraction of full root system architectures from the surrounding soil, it did allow the xylem and phloem units of seminal roots and the vascular morphology within rhizobial nodules to be clearly visualized. The nonionic, low-osmolality contrast agent Niopam appeared to be well tolerated by the plant, whereas Gastrografin showed evidence of toxicity. In summary, the use of iodine-based contrast media allows usually poorly contrasting root structures to be visualized nondestructively using X-ray μCT. In particular, the vascular structures of roots and rhizobial nodules can be clearly visualized in situ.

  11. Low tube voltage dual source computed tomography to reduce contrast media doses in adult abdomen examinations: A phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, Daniel; Brismar, Torkel B. Fischer, Michael A.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of low tube voltage dual source (DS) single energy (SE) and dual energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) to reduce contrast media (CM) dose in adult abdominal examinations of various sizes while maintaining soft tissue and iodine contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Methods: Four abdominal phantoms simulating a body mass index of 16 to 35 kg/m{sup 2} with four inserted syringes of 0, 2, 4, and 8 mgI/ml CM were scanned using a 64-slice DS-CT scanner. Six imaging protocols were used; one single source (SS) reference protocol (120 kV, 180 reference mAs), four low kV SE protocols (70 and 80 kV using both SS and DS), and one DE protocol at 80/140 kV. Potential CM reduction with unchanged CNRs relative to the 120 kV protocol was calculated along with the corresponding increase in radiation dose. Results: The potential contrast media reductions were determined to be approximately 53% for DS 70 kV, 51% for SS 70 kV, 44% for DS 80 kV, 40% for SS 80 kV, and 20% for DE (all differences were significant, P < 0.05). Constant CNR could be achieved by using DS 70 kV for small to medium phantom sizes (16–26 kg/m{sup 2}) and for all sizes (16–35 kg/m{sup 2}) when using DS 80 kV and DE. Corresponding radiation doses increased by 60%–107%, 23%–83%, and 6%–12%, respectively. Conclusions: DS single energy CT can be used to reduce CM dose by 44%–53% with maintained CNR in adult abdominal examinations at the cost of an increased radiation dose. DS dual-energy CT allows reduction of CM dose by 20% at similar radiation dose as compared to a standard 120 kV single source.

  12. Influence of radiographic contrast media on the nitric oxide release from human arterial and venous endothelial cells on extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Fuhrmann, R; Jung, F

    2013-01-01

    Radiographic contrast media (RCM) can vary widely in their physicochemical properties, e.g. the iodine concentration, osmolality, molecule structure, chemotoxicity, hydrophilicity, electric charge and viscosity. Besides the necessary effect of Roentgen ray absorption, which provides contrast-rich images of vessels, RCMs can have varying adverse effects. As one possible cause of microcirculatory disorders, changes in morphology and function of endothelial cells are discussed. Therefore, RCM media-induced release of nitric oxide from arterial as well as from venous endothelial cells in contact with two commercially available RCMs (Iodixanol and Iomeprol) was investigated. NO concentrations started to increase slightly in the HUVEC control cultures after 3 min incubation time, however, NO concentrations in the cultures incubated with Iomeprol 350 and Iodixanol 320 did not change over time (Iomeprol 350: p = 0.4905; Iodixanol 320: p = 0.784). On the whole, the time-dependent NO release differed for the three groups (RCM × time: p = 0.00224). This difference was due to the fact that, after incubation with the two contrast agents (Iodixanol 320: p = 0.0003; Iomeprol 350: p = 0.0168), less NO was released by the exposed HUVEC at 3 minutes and after 12 hours than by the control cells. In the control cultures of arterial endothelial cells as well as in cultures incubated with 30% v/v Iodixanol supplemented culture medium the NO release did not change. In those cultures of arterial endothelial cells supplemented with 30% v/v Iomeprol the NO release was significantly less than in control cultures and in cultures supplemented with Iodixanol (p = 0.021; p = 0.043). Inspite of a missing shear stress in our static plane vessel wall model there was a RCM-dependent difference in NO release from endothelial cells in vitro. The NO release from venous endothelial cells differed significantly from the NO release from arterial endothelial cells. While the administration of Iomeprol

  13. Frequency and severity of acute allergic-like reactions to gadolinium-containing i.v. contrast media in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Ellis, James H; Cohan, Richard H; Strouse, Peter J; Jan, Sophia C

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and severity of acute allergic-like reactions to i.v.-administered gadolinium-containing contrast media in children and adults. Pediatric (younger than 19 years) and adult department of radiology contrast material reaction forms involving patients who experienced acute allergic-like reactions to gadolinium-containing contrast media from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2006, were retrospectively evaluated for the specific types of acute allergic-like reactions, reaction management, and patient outcomes. Relevant patient medical information, including documentation of prior gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast material reaction, premedication before acute allergic-like reaction to i.v. gadolinium-containing contrast material, previous allergic reactions to substances other than contrast media, and history of asthma, was obtained by reviewing electronic medical records. Seventy-eight thousand three hundred fifty-three (65,009 adult and 13,344 pediatric) i.v. administrations of gadolinium-containing contrast material were performed during the study period. Acute allergic-like reactions were documented after 54 injections (reaction frequency, 0.07%). Forty-eight reactions involved adult patients (adult reaction frequency, 0.07%), and six reactions occurred in pediatric patients (pediatric reaction frequency, 0.04%). Forty (74%) acute allergic-like reactions were mild, 10 (19%) were moderate, and four (7%) were severe. No gadolinium-containing contrast material-related death occurred during the study period. Twenty-six (50%) of 52 patients had one or more presumed risk factors for contrast material reaction. Adult and pediatric acute allergic-like reactions to i.v.-administered gadolinium-containing contrast media are rare. Most of these reactions are mild; however, moderate and severe reactions that require immediate management do occur.

  14. Anaphylactic Shock Following Nonionic Contrast Medium during Caudal Epidural Injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Park, Jae Woo; Hwang, Byeong Mun

    2015-10-01

    Caudal epidural injection is a common intervention in patients with low back pain and sciatica. Even though the complications of fluoroscopically directed epidural injections are less frequent than in blind epidural injections, complications due to contrast media can occur. We report a case of anaphylactic shock immediately after injection of an intravenous nonionic contrast medium (iohexol) during the caudal epidural injection for low back pain and sciatica in a patient without a previous allergic history to ionic contrast media (ioxitalamate). Five minutes after the dye was injected, the patient began to experience dizziness, and the systolic blood pressure dropped to 60 mmHg. Subsequently, the patient exhibited a mild drowsy mental state. About 30 minutes after the subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg epinephrine, the systolic blood pressure increased to 90 mmHg. The patient recovered without any sequela. Life-threatening complications after injection of intravenous contrast medium require immediate treatment.

  15. Assessment of DNA double-strand breaks induced by intravascular iodinated contrast media following in vitro irradiation and in vivo, during paediatric cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Gould, Richard; McFadden, Sonyia L; Horn, Simon; Prise, Kevin M; Doyle, Philip; Hughes, Ciara M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric cardiac catheterizations may result in the administration of substantial amounts of iodinated contrast media and ionizing radiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of iodinated contrast media in combination with in vitro and in vivo X-ray radiation on lymphocyte DNA. Six concentrations of iodine (15, 17.5, 30, 35, 45, and 52.5 mg of iodine per mL blood) represented volumes of iodinated contrast media used in the clinical setting. Blood obtained from healthy volunteers was mixed with iodinated contrast media and exposed to radiation doses commonly used in paediatric cardiac catheterizations (0 mGy, 70 mGy, 140 mGy, 250 mGy and 450 mGy). Control samples contained no iodine. For in vivo experimentation, pre and post blood samples were collected from children undergoing cardiac catheterization, receiving iodine concentrations of up to 51 mg of iodine per mL blood and radiation doses of up to 400 mGy. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to assess γH2AX-foci induction, which corresponded to the number of DNA double-strand breaks. The presence of iodine in vitro resulted in significant increases of DNA double-strand breaks beyond that induced by radiation for ≥ 17.5 mg/mL iodine to blood. The in vivo effects of contrast media on children undergoing cardiac catheterization resulted in a 19% increase in DNA double-strand breaks in children receiving an average concentration of 19 mg/mL iodine to blood. A larger investigation is required to provide further information of the potential benefit of lowering the amount of iodinated contrast media received during X-ray radiation investigations.

  16. Equilibrium-phase MR angiography: Comparison of unspecific extracellular and protein-binding gadolinium-based contrast media with respect to image quality.

    PubMed

    Erb-Eigner, Katharina; Taupitz, Matthias; Asbach, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare contrast and image quality of whole-body equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR angiography using a non-protein-binding unspecific extracellular gadolinium-based contrast medium with that of two contrast media with different protein-binding properties. 45 patients were examined using either 15 mL of gadobutrol (non-protein-binding, n = 15), 32 mL of gadobenate dimeglumine (weakly protein binding, n = 15) or 11 mL gadofosveset trisodium (protein binding, n = 15) followed by equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR-angiography of four consecutive anatomic regions. The time elapsed between the contrast injection and the beginning of the equilibrium-phase image acquisition in the respective region was measured and was up to 21 min. Signal intensity was measured in two vessels per region and in muscle tissue. Relative contrast (RC) values were calculated. Vessel contrast, artifacts and image quality were rated by two radiologists in consensus on a five-point scale. Compared with gadobutrol, gadofosveset trisodium revealed significantly higher RC values only when acquired later than 15 min after bolus injection. Otherwise, no significant differences between the three contrast media were found regarding vascular contrast and image quality. Equilibrium-phase high-spatial-resolution MR-angiography using a weakly protein-binding or even non-protein-binding contrast medium is equivalent to using a stronger protein-binding contrast medium when image acquisition is within the first 15 min after contrast injection, and allows depiction of the vasculature with high contrast and image quality. The protein-binding contrast medium was superior for imaging only later than 15 min after contrast medium injection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Proton magnetic resonance imaging of diffusion of high- and low-molecular-weight contrast agents in opaque porous media saturated with water.

    PubMed

    Osuga, T; Han, S

    2004-09-01

    Besides their use in contrast-enhanced proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), contrast agents were found to be useful as tracer molecules. Since paramagnetic ions in water have the ability to reduce the T1 of protons around them, MRI can determine the locations of Mn2+ and Gd3+ of ppm concentration in water. In opaque porous media saturated with water, MRI revealed diffusional motions of three contrast agents: MnCl2 (molecular-weight [M.W.], 126), gadolinium-diethylene-triaminepenta acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (M.W., 743) and albumin (Gd-DTPA) (M.W., 94,000) at a diffusional displacement ratio of 9:5:2. With the aid of these contrast agents, the transport of low- to high-molecular-weight molecules in opaque water media such as living bodies can be observed using MRI.

  18. Morphology of the pancreatic ductal epithelium after traumatization of the papilla of Vater or endoscopic retrograde pancreatography with various contrast media in cats.

    PubMed

    Bub, H; Bürner, W; Riemann, J F; Stolte, M

    1983-07-01

    The epithelium of the pancreatic duct in cats was examined histologically, in the scanning electron and in the transmission electron microscope, after traumatization of the papilla of Vater or after pancreatography (ERP) with various contrast media. Ten minutes after traumatizing the papilla by repeated cannulation, we found lesions of the surface membrane of the epithelial cells. After ERP with the contrast media metrizamide and sodium meglumine ioxaglate, in the acute experiments, the least damage was observed when the low-osmolar, non-ionic metrizamide was used. In our chronic experiments the epithelial changes did not correlate with the contrast medium used. The degree of papillary stenoses and, probably, the initial injection pressure are more important. A mixture of the antiseptic polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine to the contrast medium, which would prevent a bacterial contamination of the pancreatic duct after ERP, is morphologically justifiable but entails a risk of latent hyperthyroidism. Parenchymography with this mixture damaged the epithelium more than pancreatography.

  19. The dosimetric impact of gadolinium-based contrast media in GBM brain patient plans for a MRI-Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal Ahmad, Syed; Paudel, Moti Raj; Sarfehnia, Arman; Kim, Anthony; Pang, Geordi; Ruschin, Mark; Sahgal, Arjun; Keller, Brian M.

    2017-08-01

    Dosimetric effects of gadolinium based contrast media (Gadovist) were evaluated for the Elekta MRI linear accelerator using the research version of the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS). In order to represent a gadolinium uptake, the contrast was manually assigned to a phantom as well as to the gross tumour volume (GTV) of 6 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. A preliminary estimate of the dose enhancement, due to gadolinium, was performed using the phantom irradiated with a single beam. A more complicated assessment was performed for the GBM patients using a 7 field IMRT technique. The material table in Monaco was modified in order to identify the presence of a non-biological material. The dose distribution was modelled using GPUMCD (MC algorithm in Monaco) for an unmodified (or default) material table (DMT) as well as for a modified (or custom) material table (CMT) for both the phantom and patients. Various concentrations ranging between 8 and 157 mg ml-1 were used to represent the gadolinium uptake in the patient’s GTV. It was assumed that the gadolinium concentration remained the same for the entire course of radiation treatment. Results showed that at the tissue-Gadovist interface, inside the phantom, dose scored using the DMT was 7% lower compared to that using the CMT for 157 mg ml-1 concentration of gadolinium. Dosimetric differences in the case of the patient study were measured using the DVH parameters. D 50% was higher by 6% when the DMT was used compared to the CMT for dose modelling for a gadolinium concentration of 157 mg ml-1. This difference decreased gradually with decreasing concentration of gadolinium. It was concluded that dosimetric differences can be quantified in Monaco if the tumour-gadolinium concentration is more than 23 mg ml-1. If the gadolinium concentration is lower than 23 mg ml-1, then a correction for the presence of gadolinium may not be necessary in the TPS.

  20. Monitoring blood-brain barrier status in a rat model of glioma receiving therapy: dual injection of low-molecular-weight and macromolecular MR contrast media.

    PubMed

    Lemasson, Benjamin; Serduc, Raphaël; Maisin, Cécile; Bouchet, Audrey; Coquery, Nicolas; Robert, Philippe; Le Duc, Géraldine; Troprès, Irène; Rémy, Chantal; Barbier, Emmanuel L

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the sequential injection of a low-molecular-weight (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], 0.5 kDa) and a macromolecular (P846, 3.5 kDa) contrast media in monitoring the effect of antitumor therapies (antiangiogenic therapy and/or microbeam radiation therapy [MRT]) on healthy brain tissue and implanted tumors. Animal use was compliant with official French guidelines and was assessed by the local Internal Evaluation Committee for Animal Welfare and Rights. Eighty male rats bearing 9L gliosarcoma were randomized into four groups: untreated, antiangiogenic (sorafenib) therapy, MRT, and both treatments. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed 1 day before and 1, 5, and 8 days after the start of the treatment. At all time points, vascular integrity to a macromolecular contrast medium (P846) and, 11 minutes 30 seconds later, to low-molecular-weight contrast medium (Gd-DOTA) was evaluated by using a dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR imaging approach. To quantify vessel wall integrity, areas under the signal intensity curves were computed for each contrast medium. Unpaired t tests and one-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analyses. Tumor vessels receiving antiangiogenic therapy became less permeable to the macromolecular contrast medium, but their permeability to the low-molecular-weight contrast medium remained unchanged. Healthy double-irradiated vessels became permeable to the low-molecular-weight contrast medium but not to the macromolecular contrast medium. Antiangiogenic therapy and MRT generate different effects on the extravasation of contrast medium in tumoral and healthy tissues. This study indicates that the use of a low-molecular-weight contrast medium and a macromolecular contrast medium provides complementary information and suggests that the use of two contrast media within the same MR imaging session is feasible. © RSNA, 2010.

  1. Successful stent implantation guided by intravascular ultrasound and a Doppler guidewire without contrast injection in a patient with allergy to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Okura, Hiroyuki; Nezuo, Shintaro; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Presence of allergy to iodinated contrast may prevent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to be performed. We present a 76-year-old male with a history of allergic reaction to iodinated contrast who successfully underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and a Doppler guidewire-guided PCI. Stent size was determined based on IVUS. After PCI, stent expansion and a lack of edge dissection or incomplete apposition were confirmed by IVUS and a good antegrade coronary flow was confirmed by a Doppler guidewire. Thus, PCI without contrast injection under IVUS and a Doppler guidewire-guidance may be feasible in selected patients with allergy to iodinated contrast.

  2. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging contrast media injectors: technical feature review – what is really needed?

    PubMed Central

    Friebe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There has been little technical innovation over the last few years for contrast media (CM) injectors that are used for diagnostic imaging (computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and hybrid imaging systems, such as positron emission tomography–CT or magnetic resonance–positron emission tomography) examinations. The medical need of CM for the enhancement of diagnostic images has been around for a long time, but the application of the CM into the blood stream comes with potential medical complications for the patient and requires a lot of operator experience and training. Most power injector systems that are currently used can do significantly more than what is typically required; this complexity however, adds error potential and cost. This paper focuses on the main features that CM injector systems should have and highlights the technical developments that are useful to have but which add complexity and cost, increase setup time, and require intensive training for safe use. CM injection protocols are very different between CT and MRI, with CT requiring many more variances, has a need for multiphase protocols, and requires a higher timing accuracy. A CM injector used in the MRI suite, on the other-hand, could only need a relatively time insensitive injection with a standard injection flow rate and a volume that is dependent on the patients’ weight. This would make easy and lightweight systems possible, which are able to safely and accurately perform the injection task, while allowing full MRI compatibility with relatively low cost investment and consumable costs. PMID:27486345

  3. Suspected adverse reactions to contrast media in Campania Region (Italy): results from 14 years of post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Mascolo, Annamaria; Grassi, Enrico; Fiorentino, Sonia; Scavone, Cristina; Reginelli, Alfonso; Rotondo, Antonio; Sportiello, Liberata

    2015-01-01

    During the last years in Italy, contrast media (CM) use increased. An increase of monitoring activities on CM-induced adverse drug reaction (ADR) is necessary, also in our regional territory. The main aim of this study was to give a preliminary evaluation of all Spontaneous Reports of ADRs (SRA) attributed to CM sent to Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Center (CRFVC) from 01 January 2001 to 31 October 2014. For each SRA we evaluated: frequency and source, ADRs onset (time to event, seriousness and outcome), socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of cases, the most reported CM (checking for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions). A total of 111 SRA were sent to CRFVC; specialist in radiology was the main source of reports. Ninety-seven SRA (87.3%) were referable to hypersensitivity reactions. Thirty-four SRA (30.6%) reported serious ADRs. The most reported CM were iopamidol, gadobenic acid and gadoteric acid. We identified two SRA induced by pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions. During 14 years of post-marketing surveillance, only few SRA concerning CM-induced ADRs were sent to CRFVC probably due to underreporting. We aim to improve monitoring activity on CM-induced ADRs especially in hospitals. Most reported ADR and CM were in line with current body of literature.

  4. Renal failure in 57 925 patients undergoing coronary procedures using iso-osmolar or low-osmolar contrast media.

    PubMed

    Liss, P; Persson, P B; Hansell, P; Lagerqvist, B

    2006-11-01

    We compared the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry with the Swedish 'Hospital Discharge Register' to assess contrast media (CM)-induced renal failure. Hospitals used only one type CM. From 2000 to 2003, iodixanol (iso-osmolar) was used in 45 485 patients, ioxaglate (low osmolar) in 12 440 subjects. To include the earlier used CM iohexol (low osmolar), analysis extended back to 1990 (86 334 patients). Incidence of clinically significant renal failure was greatest for patients receiving the iso-osmolar CM iodixanol (1.7%). Ioxaglate-treated patients had a significantly lower renal failure incidence (0.8%, P<0.001). The odds ratio for iodixanol-treated patients was significantly higher than for ioxaglate (1 vs 0.48, P<0.001). In subsets of either diabetic patients or patients with previous renal failure, odds ratios for renal failure remained greater in the iodixanol groups (P<0.01). Hospitals switching CM to iodixanol experienced a doubling in clinically significant renal failure after cardiac procedures. Dialysis was required in 0.2% of patients receiving iodixanol, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than for ioxaglate-treated patients (0.1%). Iohexol-treated patients had a similar low risk for developing clinically significant renal failure (0.9%) as ioxaglate. In conclusion, risk of developing renal failure and required dialysis after coronary procedures is higher when patients received iodixanol than ioxaglate or iohexol.

  5. Complete spontaneous regression of giant focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation with hepatobiliary contrast media.

    PubMed

    Mamone, Giuseppe; Caruso, Settimo; Cortis, Kelvin; Miraglia, Roberto

    2016-12-21

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver is a benign lesion occurring in 0.6%-3% of the general population that probably reflects a local hyperplastic response of hepatocytes to a vascular abnormality. Most lesions are diagnosed incidentally and the natural history of the disease remains largely unknown. It has been shown that most FNH remain stable, or even regress, over a long follow-up period. We present a patient with FNH of the liver who was followed up for 7 years. A 26-year-old woman with a 5-year history of oral contraceptive use was referred to our hospital in February 2005 for further examination of a liver tumour. The diagnosis of FNH was made using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with hepatospecific contrast media; this technique allows a correct diagnosis, in particular distinguishing FNH from hepatic adenoma, avoiding an invasive procedure such as the lesion biopsy. After 7-year from the diagnosis, we observed the complete spontaneous regression of the lesion by enhanced MR scanning. In this patient, discontinuation of oral contraceptive use and two childbirths may have influenced the natural history of FNH. To our knowledge, in the English literature there is no report illustrating a complete regression of giant FNH but only studies of decreasing in size. The present case suggests that a young patient with giant FNH should be managed conservatively rather than by resection, because FNH has the potential for spontaneous regression.

  6. Classification of acute and delayed contrast media-induced reactions: proposal of a three-step system.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ingrid; Heverhagen, Johannes T; Klose, Klaus J

    2012-01-01

    Physicians and scientists use a broad spectrum of terms to classify contrast media (CM)-induced adverse reactions. In particular, the designation of hypersensitivity reactions is quite varied. Consequently, comparisons of different papers dealing with this subject are difficult or even impossible. Moreover, general descriptions may lead to problems in understanding reactions in patients with a history of adverse CM-reactions, and in efficiently managing these patients. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to suggest an easy system to clearly classify these reactions. The proposed three-step systems (3SS) is built up as follows: step 1 exactly describes the clinical features, including their severity; step 2 categorizes the time point of the onset (immediate or nonimmediate); and step 3 generally classifies the reaction (hypersensitivity or nonhypersensitivity reaction). The 3SS may facilitate better understanding of the clinical manifestations of adverse CM reactions and may support the prevention of these reactions on the basis of personalized medicine approaches. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A comparison of ultrasound-based advanced oxidation processes for the removal of X-ray contrast media.

    PubMed

    Ning, B; Graham, N J D; Lickiss, P D

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of specific iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) compounds (viz: diatrizoate, iomeprol, iopromide, and iopamidol) by ultrasound irradiation in aqueous solution, with and without the presence of hydrogen peroxide or ozone, has been studied. Experiments were carried out at a constant ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz, at two power intensity values of 17.6 and 200.1 W cm(-2), and at five power densities up to 0.235 W ml(-1). Zero-order kinetic rate constants for the ICM degradation by ultrasound alone were calculated under certain sonication conditions. Pyrolysis appeared to contribute approximately 30%, and radical attack 70%, of the overall ICM degradation performance. The effect of ultrasound intensity on compound degradation (at a given power density) was found to play a negligible role, whereas ultrasound power density was found to be a major factor controlling the overall oxidation process under these conditions. The compound degradation by ultrasound alone was relatively minor, but the addition of hydrogen peroxide in the sonication process gave some improvement with a doubling in the degradation performance at the greatest applied peroxide concentration. The combination of gaseous ozone and ultrasound was found to be very effective in degrading ICM compounds and an almost complete compound removal could be achieved.

  8. Effects of radiographic contrast media on the micromorphology of the junctional complex of erythrocytes visualized by immunocytology.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ralf-Peter; Krüger, Anne; Scharnweber, Tim; Wenzel, Folker; Jung, Friedrich

    2014-09-12

    Effects of radiographic contrast media (RCM) application were demonstrated in vitro and in vivo where the injection of RCM into the A. axillaris of patients with coronary artery disease was followed by a significant and RCM-dependent decrease of erythrocyte velocity in downstream skin capillaries. Another study in pigs revealed that the deceleration of erythrocytes coincided with a significant reduction of the oxygen partial pressure in the myocardium--supplied by the left coronary artery--after the administration of RCM into this artery. Further reports showed RCM dependent alterations of erythrocytes like echinocyte formation and exocytosis, sequestration of actin or band 3 and the buckling of endothelial cells coinciding with a formation of interendothelial fenestrations leading to areas devoid of endothelial cells. Key to morphological alterations of erythrocytes is the membrane cytoskeleton, which is linked to the band 3 in the erythrocyte membrane via the junctional complex. Fundamental observations regarding the cell biological and biochemical aspects of the structure and function of the cell membrane and the membrane cytoskeleton of erythrocytes have been reported. This review focuses on recent results gained, e.g., by advanced confocal laser scanning microscopy of different double-stained structural elements of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton.

  9. LC-HRMS suspect screening for detection-based prioritization of iodinated contrast media photodegradates in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Zonja, Bozo; Delgado, Antonio; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2015-03-17

    The objective of the study was to demonstrate the applicability of suspect screening for the detection of six iodinated contrast media (ICM) and their phototransformation products (TPs) in surface waters. First, a photodegradation study of ICM in surface water using a sunlight lab-scale simulator was performed. By means of a guided differential sample analysis, the exact masses of the molecular ions and the retention times of TPs were identified. Positive findings were filtered manually generating a suspect list of 108 photoproducts. Following a generic solid-phase extraction of surface water samples, LC-HRMS was used to screen for the presence of the compounds previously detected in the photodegradation samples. On the basis of detection frequencies (>50% of the samples), 11 TPs were prioritized and their structures elucidated by HRMS and NMR. In the real surface water samples, median concentration of parent compounds was 110 ng/L reaching up to 6 μg/L for iomeprol, while TPs were found at median concentration of 8 ng/L, reaching up to 0.4 μg/L for iomeprol TP651-B. In summary, the proposed screening approach facilitates the evaluation of the degradation of polar compounds at a real scale with a fast detection of TPs without prior availability of the standards.

  10. Coronary CT angiography using low concentrated contrast media injected with high flow rates: Feasible in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Wildberger, Joachim E; Altintas, Sibel; Labus, David; Nijssen, Estelle C; Hendriks, Babs M F; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Das, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that peak injection pressures and image quality using low concentrated contrast media (CM) (240 mg/mL) injected with high flow rates will be comparable to a standard injection protocol (CM: 300 mg/mL) in coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). One hundred consecutive patients were scanned on a 2nd generation dual-source CT scanner. Group 1 (n=50) received prewarmed Iopromide 240 mg/mL at an injection rate of 9 mL/s, followed by a saline chaser. Group 2 (n=50) received the standard injection protocol: prewarmed Iopromide 300 mg/mL; flow rate: 7.2 mL/s. For both protocols, the iodine delivery rate (IDR, 2.16 gI/s) and the total iodine load (22.5 gI) were kept identical. Injection pressure (psi) was continuously monitored by a data acquisition program. Contrast enhancement was measured in the thoracic aorta and all proximal and distal coronary segments. Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated between both groups. No significant differences in peak injection pressures were found between both CM groups (121 ± 5.6 psi vs. 120 ± 5.3 psi, p=0.54). Flow rates of 9 mL/s were safely injected without any complications. No significant differences in contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and subjective image quality were found (all p>0.05). No significant differences in attenuation levels were found in the thoracic aorta and all segments of the coronary arteries (all p>0.05). Usage of low iodine concentration CM and injection with high flow rates is feasible. High flow rates (9 mL/s) of Iopromide 240 were safely injected without complications and should not be considered a drawback in clinical practice. No significant differences in peak pressure and image quality were found. This creates a doorway towards applicability of a broad variety in flow rates and IDRs and subsequently more individually tailored injection protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of iodinated contrast media for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque attenuation values by CT coronary angiography: observations in an ex vivo model.

    PubMed

    La Grutta, L; Galia, M; Gentile, G; Lo Re, G; Grassedonio, E; Coppolino, F; Maffei, E; Maresi, E; Lo Casto, A; Cademartiri, F; Midiri, M

    2013-01-01

    To compare the influence of different iodinated contrast media with several dilutions on plaque attenuation in an ex vivo coronary model studied by multislice CT coronary angiography. In six ex vivo left anterior descending coronary arteries immersed in oil, CT (slices/collimation 64×0.625 mm, temporal resolution 210 ms, pitch 0.2) was performed after intracoronary injection of a saline solution, and solutions of a dimeric isosmolar contrast medium (Iodixanol 320 mgI ml(-1)) and a monomeric high-iodinated contrast medium (Iomeprol 400 mgI ml(-1)) with dilutions of 1/80 (low concentration), 1/50 (medium concentration), 1/40 (high concentration) and 1/20 (very high concentration). Two radiologists drew regions of interest in the lumen and in calcified and non-calcified plaques for each solution. 29 cross-sections with non-calcified plaques and 32 cross-sections with calcified plaques were evaluated. Both contrast media showed different attenuation values within lumen and plaque (p<0.0001). The correlation between lumen and non-calcified plaque values was good (Iodixanol r=0.793, Iomeprol r=0.647). Clustered medium- and high-concentration solutions showed similar plaque attenuation values, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) (non-calcified plaque: medium solution SNR 31.3±15 vs 31.4±20, high solution SNR 39.4±17 vs 37.4±22; calcified plaque: medium solution SNR 305.2±133 vs 298.8±132, high solution SNR 323.9±138 vs 293±123) and derived contrast-to-noise ratios (p>0.05). Differently iodinated contrast media have a similar influence on plaque attenuation profiles. Since iodine load affects coronary plaque attenuation linearly, different contrast media may be equally employed for coronary atherosclerotic plaque imaging.

  12. Intravenous low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with intracardiac extension: A CASE OF inaccurate tumor location on contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    NOGAMI, YUYA; YAMAGAMI, WATARU; MAKI, JUNKO; BANNO, KOUJI; SUSUMU, NOBUYUKI; TOMITA, KOICHI; MATSUBARA, KENTARO; OBARA, HIDEAKI; KITAGAWA, YUKO; AOKI, DAISUKE

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with intracardiac extension in a 58-year-old woman with a uterine tumor with intravascular involvement. The tumor was suspected preoperatively to be an endometrial stromal sarcoma by magnetic resonance imaging. The extent of intravascular involvement was determined to be below the level of the renal veins on preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). However, perioperative echography revealed that the tumor extended to the right atrium. An emergency cardiotomy with extracorporeal circulation was required. The risk of tumor embolism was reduced through transection of the inferior vena cava, but the tumor was difficult to remove completely. Postoperative hormonal therapy reduced the size of the residual tumor and no recurrence was detected for 1 year. The preoperative contrast-enhanced CT was unable to detect the free-floating intravascular tumor. This case illustrates a limitation of CT and indicates that accurate determination of the tumor extent for planning a surgical strategy in similar cases should be performed using multiple imaging methods. PMID:26893856

  13. Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an x- ... the limitations of IVP exams? What is an Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)? An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an ...

  14. Very Low Intravenous Contrast Volume Protocol for Computed Tomography Angiography Providing Comprehensive Cardiac and Vascular Assessment Prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pulerwitz, Todd C.; Khalique, Omar K.; Nazif, Tamim N.; Rozenshtein, Anna; Pearson, Gregory D.N.; Hahn, Rebecca T.; Vahl, Torsten P.; Kodali, Susheel K.; George, Isaac; Leon, Martin B.; D'Souza, Belinda; Po, Ming Jack; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a lifesaving procedure for many patients high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high in this population, and thus a very low contrast volume (VLCV) computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol providing comprehensive cardiac and vascular imaging would be valuable. Methods 52 patients with severe, symptomatic aortic valve disease, undergoing pre-TAVR CTA assessment from 2013-4 at Columbia University Medical Center were studied, including all 26 patients with CKD (eGFR<30mL/min) who underwent a novel VLCV protocol (20mL of iohexol at 2.5mL/s), and 26 standard-contrast-volume (SCV) protocol patients. Using a 320-slice volumetric scanner, the protocol included ECG-gated volume scanning of the aortic root followed by medium-pitch helical vascular scanning through the femoral arteries. Two experienced cardiologists performed aortic annulus and root measurements. Vascular image quality was assessed by two radiologists using a 4-point scale. Results VLCV patients had mean(±SD) age 86±6.5, BMI 23.9±3.4 kg/m2 with 54% men; SCV patients age 83±8.8, BMI 28.7±5.3 kg/m2, 65% men. There was excellent intra- and inter-observer agreement for annular and root measurements, and excellent agreement with 3D-transesophageal echocardiographic measurements. Both radiologists found diagnostic-quality vascular imaging in 96% of VLCV and 100% of SCV cases, with excellent inter-observer agreement. Conclusions This study is the first of its kind to report the feasibility and reproducibility of measurements for a VLCV protocol for comprehensive pre-TAVR CTA. There was excellent agreement of cardiac measurements and almost all studies were diagnostic quality for vascular access assessment. PMID:27061253

  15. Influence of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media on the phenotype of erythrocytes from different laboratory animal species.

    PubMed

    Hiebl, B; Hopperdietzel, C; Hünigen, H; Dietze, K; Klein, S; Schreier, B; Jung, F

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that clinically relevant concentrations of iodine-containing radiographic contrast media (CM) induce morphological changes in human erythrocytes. However, there are only few reports about CM effects on erythrocytes of animals (e.g. mice, rats, rabbits, and pigs). Thus, two conventional iodine-containing CM (iodixanol, Visipaque™ 320; iomeprol, Iomeprol™ 350) were tested for their effects on the morphology of erythrocytes from these. After venous blood sampling and blood centrifugation, the autologous plasma was supplemented with 40 vol% CM. Then, a defined number of erythrocytes was incubated in this CM-supplemented plasma for 5 min at body temperature (37°C). Subsequently, 10 μL of the cell suspension were transferred to a purified glass slide and the number of discocytes, echinocytes, and acanthocytes was counted within a total number of 100 erythrocytes (40 fold primary magnification, transmitted light mode). Shape changes of the erythrocytes from all animal species strongly depended on the type of CM and compared to the effects which have already been described for human erythrocytes. Incubation in both CM resulted in morphological changes of the erythrocytes. Incubation in a iodixanol/plasma mixture induced the lowest echinocyte or acanthocyte formation. Porcine erythrocytes showed a much more distinct shape change than those of other animal species and humans. These results suggest erythrocytes from mice, rats, and rabbits are a suitable model system for a model system for human erythrocytes when CM effects on the cellular shape of erythrocytes have to be tested. The distinct deformation of the pig erythrocytes could be due to differences in the pig erythrocyte membrane or the physical and chemical constitution of pig erythrocytes.

  16. Ozonation and reductive deiodination of iopromide to reduce the environmental burden of iodinated X-ray contrast media.

    PubMed

    Putschew, A; Miehe, U; Tellez, A S; Jekel, M

    2007-01-01

    The potential of ozonation for the removal of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) with focus on the oxidation products was examined. Iopromide used as model compound was dissolved in tap water, respectively in the effluent of a membrane bioreactor and was ozonated. Ozone (10 mg/L) was continuously introduced into a semi-batch reactor (35 L/h). After 30 minutes the ozone concentration was increased to 30 mg/L. In all experiments the iopromide concentration decreased very fast, whereas the decrease of the amount of organic bound iodine (AOI) was much lower. The concentration of iodate, the inorganic oxidation product increases with time, depending on the AOI decrease. The data clearly show that the ozonation of iopromide using a common applied ozone dosage leads to the formation of numerous iodinated transformation products, which are detectable by LC-ESI-MS. As an alternative treatment, especially for the treatment of urine or hospital waste water, the source for the contamination, it was tested if iopromide can be deiodinated by zero-valent iron. First experiments done in stirred batch reactors using iopromide dissolved in ultra pure water and urine with an initial pH of 2 showed that iopromide can be deiodinated completely by zero-valent iron. Even in contaminated urine collected in a hospital a deiodination of ICM was possible. Kinetic studies at constant pH showed that the deiodination can be described by pseudo-first order for equal iopromide and iron concentrations. The observed rate constant kobs increased with decreasing pH with a maximum at pH 3 with 4.76x10(-4) s(-1). The concentration of iopromide can be decreased by ozonation and by the reductive dehalogenation. In case of ozonation iodinated organic compounds are the main reaction products, whereas the reductive dehalogenation leads to transformation products which are not iodinated and are thus most probable biodegradable.

  17. Skin test-positive immediate hypersensitivity reaction to iodinated contrast media: the role of controlled challenge testing.

    PubMed

    Prieto-García, A; Tomás, M; Pineda, R; Tornero, P; Herrero, T; Fuentes, V; Zapatero, L; de Barrio, M

    2013-01-01

    Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (IHR) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) have traditionally been considered nonallergic; however, the increasingly frequent reporting of positive skin test and basophil activation test results suggests a specific allergic mechanism in some patients. Skin tests have been proposed as a useful tool for diagnosis, although their sensitivity and predictive values remain to be determined. The role of controlled challenge testing has not been assessed. We aimed to evaluate the role of controlled challenge testing in skin test-positive IHR to ICM. We evaluated 106 patients with IHR to ICM by performing skin tests with the agent that caused the reaction. Patients with a positive result were selected. Skin tests were extended to a series of 8 ICMs; 5 patients underwent controlled challenge test with an alternative skin test-negative ICM; a further 2 patients underwent computed tomography with an alternative skin test-negative ICM. No premedication was administered. Intradermal test results were positive to the ICM that caused the reaction in 11 out of 106 patients (10.4%). Five of the 11 patients tolerated a controlled challenge test with an alternative skin test-negative ICM. The 2 patients who underwent computed tomography with an alternative skin test-negative ICM tolerated the medium. Skin tests are useful for the diagnostic workup in patients with an allergic IHR to ICM. Since ICM cannot be avoided in many patients because they are irreplaceable in some diagnostic or therapeutic techniques, an alternative safe ICM should be investigated for future procedures. We propose the use of controlled challenge tests based on skin test results to address this need in skin test-positive reactions in order to identify an alternative non-cross-reactive ICM.

  18. Improvement of automated right ventricular segmentation using dual-bolus contrast media injection with 256-slice coronary CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Nagao, Michinobu; Yonezawa, Masato; Yamazaki, Yuzo; Shirasaka, Takashi; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of dual-bolus contrast media injection (dual-CM) on the accuracy of automated right ventricular (RV) segmentation on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). A total of 104 patients with suspected and known coronary artery disease underwent 256-slice CCTA with retrospective electrocardiographic (ECG) gating. The patients were divided into 51 patients who underwent single-bolus CM injection (single-CM) and 53 patients who underwent dual-CM. The dual-CM method consisted of an initial bolus of CM followed by an injection of dilute CM with saline (CM:saline, 1:9). Three-dimensional CCTA images were automatically segmented into the RV, left ventricle (LV), and myocardium using commercially available software (Comprehensive Cardiac Analysis; Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH). Prevalence and locations of segmentation errors were compared between single-CM and dual-CM. Segmentation errors were defined as segment deviation of >1 cm from the actual ventricular margin. Prevalence of segmentation errors was significantly lower with dual-CM than with single-CM in the diastolic phase (4/41 vs. 20/41, respectively; P < .01), and there was no difference between the two methods in the systolic phase (2/12 vs. 2/10, respectively). With dual-CM and single-CM, the locations of segmentation errors were mostly the RV wall (4/53 and 18/51, respectively) and secondly the LV wall (2/53 and 9/51, respectively). Dual-CM improved the accuracy of automated ventricular segmentation using diastolic data from 256-slice CCTA. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of contrast media in deceased kidney donors does not affect initial graft function or graft survival.

    PubMed

    Vigneau, C; Fulgencio, J-P; Godier, A; Chalem, Y; El Metaoua, S; Rondeau, E; Tuppin, P; Bonnet, F

    2006-09-01

    Patients receiving cadaveric kidney transplants often experience delayed graft function. As iodinated contrast media injection (ICMI), necessary for cerebral angiography, which is often used to diagnose brain death, can be nephrotoxic, we compared renal function recovery (RFR) and 1-year and long-term graft survival according to the method used to diagnose brain death. Data from 9921 cadaveric kidneys, transplanted between 1 January 1998 and 31 December 2003, were retrieved from the French National Registry for organ donation. We defined RFR as the number of days for the recipient to reach a plasma creatinine less than 250 mumol/l, and/or a 24-h urine output greater than 1000 ml. RFR and 1-year and long-term graft survival were compared between four different donor groups (according to ICMI and diabetes mellitus). A total of 41.5% of deceased donors received ICMI before organ procurement and 1.95% of them were diabetic. History of ICMI or diabetes in the donor did not influence RFR or 1-year graft survival. Long-term graft survival was decreased in the group of patients transplanted with a diabetic graft as compared to patients transplanted with a non-diabetic graft (P=0.001). History of ICMI in the donor did not affect long-term graft survival in the non-diabetic donor group (P=0.2); however, in the diabetic group, ICMI tended to decrease long-term graft survival (P=0.056). ICMI did not affect RFR or graft survival in non-diabetic deceased donors. However, its use in diabetic deceased donors requires further study.

  20. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media: prevalence, risk factors and outcome-the results of a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Pradubpongsa, Panitan; Dhana, Naruemon; Jongjarearnprasert, Kowit; Janpanich, Sureerat; Thongngarm, Torpong

    2013-12-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) are commonly used. Hypersensitivity reactions to CM occasionally result in morbidity. Risk factors and the role of premedication remain to be investigated. We sought to explore the prevalence, risk factors and outcome of CM reactions. The retrospective case-control study was conducted between 2008 and 2010. In total, 55,286 subjects who were exposed to iodinated CM were enrolled to determine the prevalence of CM reactions. The case-control statistical method was applied to determine the risk factors of CM reactions. 579 subjects who had CM reactions were categorised in the case group and 1,175 of the 55,286 subjects who had tolerated CM exposure were randomised for the control group. The overall prevalence of CM reactions was 1.05%. In a multivariate analysis, the history of previous CM reactions, female gender and the history of seafood allergy were significant risk factors for CM reactions. The significant risk factors for the first episode of CM reactions were female gender, the history of seafood allergy and asthma. We found sixteen serious reactions in the immediate reaction group: ten fully recovered after hospitalisation, five fully recovered after out-patient treatment and one died after the administration of CM via an intra-arterial route during coronary angiogram. The most significant risk factor associated with serious reactions was asthma, whereas comorbid cardiovascular disease, male gender, history of seafood allergy and history of previous CM reactions were significant risk factors for mild reactions. The prevalence of CM adverse reactions was as low as 1.05%. Risk factors consist of a history of previous CM reactions, female gender and seafood allergy. Nevertheless, serious immediate reactions could occur particularly in patients with asthma.

  1. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  2. Radiological contrast media in the breastfeeding woman: a position paper of the Italian Society of Radiology (SIRM), the Italian Society of Paediatrics (SIP), the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN) and the Task Force on Breastfeeding, Ministry of Health, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cova, Maria Assunta; Stacul, Fulvio; Quaranta, Roberto; Guastalla, Pierpaolo; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Banderali, Giuseppe; Fonda, Claudio; David, Vincenzo; Gregori, Massimo; Zuppa, Antonio Alberto; Davanzo, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Breastfeeding is a well-recognised investment in the health of the mother-infant dyad. Nevertheless, many professionals still advise breastfeeding mothers to temporarily discontinue breastfeeding after contrast media imaging. Therefore, we performed this review to provide health professionals with basic knowledge and skills for appropriate use of contrast media. A joint working group of the Italian Society of Radiology (SIRM), Italian Society of Paediatrics (SIP), Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN) and Task Force on Breastfeeding, Ministry of Health, Italy prepared a review of the relevant medical literature on the safety profile of contrast media for the nursing infant/child. Breastfeeding is safe for the nursing infant of any post-conceptional age after administration of the majority of radiological contrast media to the mother; only gadolinium-based agents considered at high risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadodiamide, gadoversetamide) should be avoided in the breastfeeding woman as a precaution; there is no need to temporarily discontinue breastfeeding or to express and discard breast milk following the administration of contrast media assessed as compatible with breastfeeding. Breastfeeding women should receive unambiguous professional advice and clear encouragement to continue breastfeeding after imaging with the compatible contrast media. • Breastfeeding is a well-known investment in the health of the mother-infant dyad. • Breastfeeding is safe after administration of contrast media to the mother. • There is no need to temporarily discontinue breastfeeding following administration of contrast media.

  3. STIR vs. T1-weighted fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of bone marrow edema of the knee: computer-assisted quantitative comparison and influence of injected contrast media volume and acquisition parameters.

    PubMed

    Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Breitenseher, Martin J; Kramer, Josef; Aigner, Nicolas; Norden, Cornelia; Hofmann, Siegfried

    2005-12-01

    To compare short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and T1-weighted (T1w) gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced fat-suppressed MRI of bone marrow edema (BME) of the knee, and investigate the influence of injected contrast media volume and variation of major acquisition parameters on apparent BME volume and signal contrast. STIR and T1w Gd-enhanced fat-suppressed images were obtained from 30 patients with BME of the knee. Two groups of patients were examined with different MR scanners, acquisition parameters, and contrast media volumes. For both sequences, BME volume and signal contrast were assessed by computer-assisted quantification, and were compared through their arithmetic means and correlation coefficients (r(2)). The injected contrast media volume was also correlated with BME volume and signal contrast differences between sequences. A strong correlation between the STIR and Gd-enhanced T1w images was found for BME volume (r(2) = 0.96-0.99) and BME signal contrast (r(2) = 0.86-0.94). Despite the differences in MR acquisition parameters and injected contrast media volume, both sequences depicted an almost identical BME volume in both groups. Contrast media volume showed a moderate correlation (r(2) = 0.40) with BME volume differences. STIR is the optimum method for determining the size and signal contrast of BME. The injected contrast media volume appears to have only a limited influence on apparent BME volume.

  4. C-arm CT during hepatic arteriography tumour-to-liver contrast: intraindividual comparison of three different contrast media application protocols.

    PubMed

    Koelblinger, Claus; Schima, Wolfgang; Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa; Wolf, Florian; Plank, Christina; Weber, Michael; Lammer, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    To compare tumour-to-liver contrast (TLC) of C-arm CT during hepatic arteriography (CACTHA) acquired using three protocols in patients with HCC. This prospective study was IRB approved and informed consent was obtained from each patient. Twenty-nine patients (mean age, 68 ± 7 years; 27 men) with 55 HCCs (mean diameter, 2.6 ± 1.5 cm) underwent three different CACTHA protocols in random order before chemoembolisation. Contrast medium (100 mg iodine/ml) was injected into the common hepatic artery (flow rate 4 ml/s). The imaging delay for the start of the CACTHA examination was 4 s (protocol A), 8 s (protocol B) and 12 s (protocol C) (total amount of injected contrast medium: 48 ml, 64 ml, 80 ml). TLC was measured by placing regions of interest (ROIs) in the HCC and liver parenchyma. Mixed model ANOVAs and Bonferroni corrected post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Mean values for TLC were 132 ± 3.3 HU, 186 ± 5.8 HU and 168 ± 2.8 HU for protocols A, B and C. Protocol B provided significantly higher TLC than protocols A and C (p < 0.001). TLC was significantly higher using an imaging delay of 8 s compared with a delay of 4 or 12 s.

  5. Optimizing contrast media application in coronary CT angiography at lower tube voltage: Evaluation in a circulation phantom and sixty patients.

    PubMed

    Kok, Madeleine; Mihl, Casper; Hendriks, Babs M F; Altintas, Sibel; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to investigate optimal contrast media (CM) injection parameters for lower kVp settings, whilst maintaining diagnostic attenuation levels. First, a circulation phantom with physiological parameters (BP 120/80mmHg, HR 60bpm) was used. A fixed CM injection protocol was used for each kVp setting (300mgI/ml [Iopromide], volume=45ml, flow rate=6.0ml/s, iodine delivery rate [IDR]=1.8gI/s, iodine load=13.5gI; at 120, 100, 80 and 70kVp). Then, IDR was decreased by steps of 0.2gI/s for each kVp setting, until diagnostically insufficient attenuation values were reached (<325HU). In order to keep injection time constant (7.5s), total iodine load (TIL) was reduced accordingly. Second, clinical applicability at 120 and 100kVp was evaluated in patients (n=60) referred for coronary CT angiography. A standard and reduced (12% less) CM protocol was used based on weight classes and scan duration ('high-pitch': 1s; 'adaptive sequence' and 'helical': 7s). Attenuation levels of the coronary arteries were measured and compared between protocols. Using a fixed CM injection at each kVp level resulted in the following HU values: 335HU±31 (120kVp); 425HU±30 (100kVp); 587HU±29 (80kVp); 666HU±27 (70kVp). Keeping diagnostic enhancement levels (353HU±28) CM could be reduced as follows: 12% for 100kVp; 45% for 80kVp and 56% for 70kVp. Diagnostic enhancement levels could be reproduced with concurrent CM reduction (-12% at 100kV) in the clinical setting (382HU±35). CM injection parameters can be substantially reduced at low kVp settings (up to 56% at 70kVp), whilst maintaining diagnostic attenuation levels. This may play an important role in CT imaging of the coronary arteries as well as cerebral and peripheral circulations in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. The effects of the iodinated X-ray contrast media iodixanol, iohexol, iopromide, and ioversol on the rat kidney epithelial cell line NRK 52-E.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hanne; Doughty, Richard W; Grant, Derek; Myhre, Oddvar

    2011-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity, associated with the administration of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM), continues to be a major side effect in a significant number of vulnerable patients undergoing diagnostic X-ray imaging procedures. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects on the kidneys are unclear despite several decades of investigation. Side effects are more common after exposure to high-osmolar compared with low-osmolar ICM, suggesting that osmolality may be an important physical-chemical property related to nephrotoxicity. This investigation in cultured NRK 52-E cells, a cell line of renal origin, compares the in vitro toxicity of the iso-osmolal ICM iodixanol with the low-osmolal ICM iohexol, iopromide, and ioversol. The cellular toxicity was evaluated with the trypan blue exclusion assay, the MTT assay, and incidences of cell death. A qualitative assessment of vacuolation of the cultured NRK 52-E cells was taken as a measure of intracellular uptake of ICM. A difference in cell death incidence was observed between the iso-osmolal iodixanol and the low-osmolal iohexol, iopromide, and ioversol contrast media, with the iso-osmolal iodixanol having the least effect in each of the in vitro systems tested. The osmolality of the contrast media appeared to be the major cause for the observed in vitro toxicity.

  7. Brain tumor enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla: intraindividual comparison of two high relaxivity macromolecular contrast media with a standard extracellular gd-chelate in a rat brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Fries, Peter; Runge, Val M; Bücker, Arno; Schürholz, Hellmut; Reith, Wolfgang; Robert, Philippe; Jackson, Carney; Lanz, Titus; Schneider, Günther

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate lesion enhancement (LE) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) properties of P846, a new intermediate sized, high relaxivity Gd-based contrast agent at 3 Tesla in a rat brain glioma model, and to compare this contrast agent with a high relaxivity, macromolecular compound (P792), and a standard extracellular Gd-chelate (Gd-DOTA). Seven rats with experimental induced brain glioma were evaluated using 3 different contrast agents, with each MR examination separated by at least 24 hours. The time between injections assured sufficient clearance of the agent from the tumor, before the next examination. P792 (Gadomelitol, Guerbet, France) and P846 (a new compound from Guerbet Research) are macromolecular and high relaxivity contrast agents with no protein binding, and were compared with the extracellular agent Gd-DOTA (Dotarem, Guerbet, France). T1w gradient echo sequences (TR/TE 200 milliseconds/7.38 milliseconds, flip angle = 90 degrees , acquisition time: 1:42 minutes:sec, voxel size: 0.2 x 0.2 x 2.0 mm, FOV = 40 mm, acquisition matrix: 256 x 256) were acquired before and at 5 consecutive time points after each intravenous contrast injection in the identical slice orientation, using a dedicated 4-channel head array animal coil. The order of contrast media injection was randomized, with however Gd-DOTA used either as the first or second contrast agent. Contrast agent dose was adjusted to compensate for the different T1 relaxivities of the 3 agents. Signal-to-noise ratio, CNR, and LE were evaluated using region-of-interest analysis. A veterinary histopathologist confirmed the presence of a glioma in each subject, after completion of the imaging study. P792 showed significantly less LE as compared with Gd-DOTA within the first 7 minutes after contrast agent injection (P < 0.05) with, however, reaching comparable LE values at 9 minutes after injection (P = 0.07). However, P792 provided significantly less CNR as compared with Gd-DOTA (P < 0

  8. Low tube voltage computed tomography urography using low-concentration contrast media: Comparison of image quality in conventional computed tomography urography.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Inpyeong; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Oh, Seung-June; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Lee, Joongyup; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and image quality of excretory CT urography performed using low iodine-concentration contrast media and low tube voltage. This prospective study enrolled 63 patients who undergoing CT urography. The subjects were randomized into two groups of an excretory phase CT urography protocol and received either 240 mg I/mL of contrast media and 80 kVp of tube voltage (low-concentration protocol, n=32) or 350 mg I/mL and 120 kVp (conventional protocol, n=31). Two readers qualitatively evaluated images for sharpness of the urinary tract, image noise, streak artifact and overall diagnostic acceptability. The mean attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit were measured in the urinary tract. The non-inferiority test assessed the diagnostic acceptability between the two protocol groups. The low-concentration protocol showed a significantly lower effective radiation dose (3.44 vs. 5.70 mSv, P<.001). The diagnostic acceptability was significantly lower in the low-concentration protocol with iterative reconstruction algorithm than in the conventional protocol (4.06±0.45 vs. 4.50±0.37, P<.001), however, all subjects showed at least more than standard diagnostic acceptability and the difference resided in the predefined non-inferiority margin. The signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and figure of merit were significantly higher in the low-concentration protocol along the entire urinary tract (P<.001). CT urography using 240 mg I/mL iodine contrast media, 80 kVp tube voltage and an iterative reconstruction algorithm is beneficial to reduce radiation dose and iodine load, and its objective image quality and subjective diagnostic acceptability is not inferior to that of conventional CT urography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decentralized collection of iodinated x-ray contrast media in hospitals-results of the feasibility study and the practice test phase.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Bernd; Schwarz, Rolf-Jürgen; Schuster, Petra; Pineau, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Iodinated x-ray contrast media are unmetabolized and almost completely with the urine in 24 hours emitted in the wastewater after their application by human being. These very polar, hydrophilic and hardly biodegradable substances have already been detected in the water cycle. The objective of this R&D project is the collection of the x-ray contrast media already at the source in the hospital and so the avoidance of an emission in the water cycle. Three concepts have been developed in the scope of this R&D project: a centralized collection concept with a no-mix toilet in the radiology unit, a decentralized collection concept featuring a no-mix toilet for every of the ward and another decentralized collection concept with mobile urine containers for the wards. The evaluation of the collection concepts has taken systematically into consideration costs, acceptance and a value benefit analysis. The feasibility study has shown that a separated collection of iodinated x-ray contrast media in hospitals is possible through the implementation of a decentralized urine collection concept using mobile urine containers. This decentralised collection concept was tested in each case on one main focus ward of two representative German hospitals for 20 weeks. In both wards of the hospitals around 60% of patients with an examination of x-ray contrast media took part in the voluntary urine collection. The AOX arose from the iodinated x-ray contrast media in the collected urine. The averaged measured AOI concentration in the patient's urine was 18 g/l. The total costs, formed by the costs for staff, material and disposal, were estimated at 10 euro per patient, 7 euro per litre urine and approximate 380 euro per kilogramme iodine for the separated urine collection in hospitals. The main part of the total costs is formed by the costs for staff with around 80%. This R&D project has shown that the separated collection of the patients' urine with a simple and decentralised collection

  10. Comparison of contrast media for visualization of the colon of healthy dogs during computed tomography and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Byunggyu; Moon, Sohyeon; Park, Seungjo; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Hong, Sunghwa; Cho, Hyun; Choi, Jihye

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate contrast agents for their ability to improve visualization of the colon wall and lumen during CT and ultrasonography. ANIMALS 10 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Food was withheld from dogs for 36 hours, after which dogs consumed 250 mL of polyethylene glycol solution. Dogs were then anesthetized, a contrast agent (tap water, diluted barium, or air; order randomly assigned) was administered rectally, iodine contrast medium (880 mg of I/kg) was administered IV, and CT and ultrasonography of the colon were performed. After a 1-week washout period, this process was repeated with a different contrast agent until all agents had been evaluated. Two investigators reviewed the CT and ultrasonographic images for colon wall thickness, conspicuity, artifacts, wall layering, and degree of lumen dilation at 4 sites. RESULTS Thickness of the colon wall was greatest in CT and ultrasonographic images with water used as contrast agent, followed by barium and then air. The CT images obtained after water administration had a smooth appearance that outlined the colonic mucosa and had the highest score of the 3 contrast agents for wall conspicuity. Although no substantial artifacts related to any of the contrast agents were identified on CT images, barium- and gas-induced shadowing and reverberation artifacts hindered wall evaluation during ultrasonography. For ultrasonography, the degree of conspicuity was highest with barium in the near-field wall and with water in the far-field wall. In contrast to CT, ultrasonography could be used to distinguish wall layering, and the mucosal and muscular layers were distinct with all contrast agents. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Use of water as a contrast agent for both CT and ultrasonography of the colon in dogs compensated for each imaging modality's disadvantages and could be beneficial in the diagnosis of colon disease.

  11. Increased image quality and reduced radiation dose and contrast media volume: a holistic approach to intracranial CTA.

    PubMed

    Saade, C; Al-Fout, G; Mayat, A; Brennan, P C; Hui, F; Maroun, G; Kikano, R N; Naffaa, L

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the dose-length product (DLP) during intracranial computed tomography angiography (CTA) using a patient-specific contrast formula. Intracranial CTA was performed on 120 patients using 64-channel CT. Patients were subjected in equal numbers to one of two acquisitions/contrast medium protocols. Protocol A, consisted of 80 ml contrast medium and protocol B, involved a novel contrast medium formula. In each protocol, contrast medium and saline were injected at a flow rate of 4.5 ml/s. The DLP and contrast volume (CV) were measured between each protocol and the data obtained were compared using two-tailed independent t-test. Mean arterial vessel attenuation was up to 56% (p<0.01) higher using protocol B compared with A. In the venous system, the mean vessel attenuation was significantly lower in protocol B than A with a maximum reduction of 93% (p<0.001). The mean CV was significantly lower in protocol B (53±10 ml) compared to A (80±1 ml, p<0.001). The scan time was equal in each protocol (B, 4.22±1.2 seconds; A, 4.01±1.3 seconds). A significant reduction in mean DLP was demonstrated in protocol B (3.99±0.22 mSv) compared to A (4.74±0.22 mSv; p=0.02). A significant reduction in CV and DLP during intracranial CTA can be achieved when employing a patient-specific contrast medium formula. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary ET-1 excretion after exposure to radio-contrast media in diabetic patients and patients with preexisting mild impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Heunisch, Fabian; von Einem, Gina; Alter, Markus; Weist, Andreas; Dschietzig, Thomas; Kretschmer, Axel; Hocher, Berthold

    2014-11-24

    Contrast media-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The renal endothelin system has been associated with disease progression of various acute and chronic renal diseases. However, robust data coming from adequately powered prospective clinical studies analyzing the short and long-term impacts of the renal ET system in patients with CIN are missing so far. We thus performed a prospective study addressing this topic. We included 327 patients with diabetes or renal impairment undergoing coronary angiography. Blood and spot urine were collected before and 24 h after contrast media (CM) application. Patients were followed for 90 days for major clinical events like need for dialysis, unplanned rehospitalization or death. The concentration of ET-1 and the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio decreased in spot urine after CM application (ET-1 concentration: 0.91±1.23 pg/ml versus 0.63±1.03 pg/ml, p<0.001; ET-1/creatinine ratio: 0.14±0.23 versus 0.09±0.19, p<0.001). The urinary ET-1 concentrations in patients with CIN decreased significantly more than in patients without CIN (-0.26±1.42 pg/ml vs. -0.79±1.69 pg/ml, p=0.041), whereas the decrease of the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio was not significantly different (non-CIN patients: -0.05±0.30; CIN patients: -0.11±0.21, p=0.223). Urinary ET-1 concentrations as well as the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio were not associated with clinical events (need for dialysis, rehospitalization or death) during the 90 day follow-up after contrast media exposure. However, the urinary ET-1 concentration and the urinary ET-1/creatinine ratio after CM application were higher in those patients who had a decrease of GFR of at least 25% after 90 days of follow-up. In general the ET-1 system in the kidney seems to be down-regulated after contrast media application in patients with moderate CIN risk. Major long-term complications of CIN (need for dialysis, rehospitalization or death) are not associated with

  13. Influence of different iodinated contrast media on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks after in vitro X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Deinzer, Christoph K W; Danova, Daniela; Kleb, Beate; Klose, Klaus J; Heverhagen, Johannes T

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine differences in DNA double-strand break induction in peripheral blood lymphocytes after in vitro X-ray irradiation between iodinated contrast agents. Four different iodinated X-ray contrast agents--three of them with two different iodine concentrations--and mannitol (negative control; concentration of 150 mg mannitol per ml blood) were pipetted into blood samples so that there was a concentration of 0, 7.5 or 15 mg of iodine per ml blood in the samples. Negative controls without contrast medium (0 mg of iodine per ml blood) were also processed for every irradiation dose. The tubes were exposed to 0, 20 or 500 mGy in vitro X-ray irradiation. After that, the lymphocytes were separated by using density-gradient centrifugation. Fluorescence microscopy was applied to determine the average number of γH2AX-foci per lymphocyte in the presence or absence of different contrast media or mannitol. Differences in the number of γH2AX-foci were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference test. Iodinated contrast agents led to a statistically significant increase in DNA double-strand breaks after in vitro irradiation. This effect increased statistically significant with rising radiation dose and appeared independent of the contrast agent used (iopromid, iodixanol, iomeprol, iopamidol). A statistically significant difference in DNA damage between the different tested contrast agents was not found. Therefore, the increase in DNA double-strand breaks depends solely on the amount of iodine applied. For evaluation of clinical consequences, our findings could be tested in further animal studies.

  14. Short-term Rosuvastatin Treatment for the Prevention of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Receiving Moderate or High Volumes of Contrast Media: A Sub-analysis of the TRACK-D Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Yi; Tao, Gui-Zhou; Chen, Yun-Dai; Hu, Tao-Hong; Cao, Xue-Bin; Jing, Quan-Min; Wang, Xiao-Zeng; Ma, Ying-Yan; Wang, Geng; Liu, Hai-Wei; Wang, Bin; Xu, Kai; Li, Jing; Deng, Jie; Han, Ya-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current randomized trials have demonstrated the effects of short-term rosuvastatin therapy in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). However, the consistency of these effects on patients administered different volumes of contrast media is unknown. Methods: In the TRACK-D trial, 2998 patients with type 2 diabetes and concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD) who underwent coronary/peripheral arterial angiography with or without percutaneous intervention were randomized to short-term (2 days before and 3 days after procedure) rosuvastatin therapy or standard-of-care. This prespecified analysis compared the effects of rosuvastatin versus standard therapy in patients exposed to (moderate contrast volume [MCV], 200–300 ml, n = 712) or (high contrast volume [HCV], ≥300 ml, n = 220). The primary outcome was the incidence of CIAKI. The secondary outcome was a composite of death, dialysis/hemofiltration or worsened heart failure at 30 days. Results: Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in CIAKI compared with the controls (2.1% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.050) in the overall cohort and in patients with MCV (1.7% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.029), whereas no benefit was observed in patients with HCV (3.4% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.834). The incidence of secondary outcomes was significantly lower in the rosuvastatin group compared with control group (2.7% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.049) in the overall cohort, but it was similar between the patients with MCV (2.0% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.081) or HCV (5.1% vs. 8.8%, P = 0.273). Conclusions: Periprocedural short-term rosuvastatin treatment is effective in reducing CIAKI and adverse clinical events for patients with diabetes and CKD after their exposure to a moderate volume of contrast medium. PMID:25758273

  15. Stabilizing viscosity contrast effect on miscible displacement in heterogeneous porous media, using lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talon, Laurent; Martin, Jérôme; Rakotomalala, Nicole; Salin, Dominique

    2004-12-01

    We analyze the displacement of a viscous fluid by a miscible more viscous one in heterogeneous porous media. We performed lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook simulations, which were previously successfully applied to the study of the dispersion of a passive tracer in a stochastic heterogeneous porous medium. In the present situation, the flow is stable (no viscous fingering) and leads to an overall Gaussian dispersion, the coefficient of which decreases as the viscosity ratio increases. The results are in reasonable agreement with the stochastic approach of Welty and Gelhar.

  16. Adrenal and nephrogenic hypertension: an image quality study of low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast media combined with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Li, Qiong; Shen, Yaqi; Li, Anqin; Li, Haojie; Liang, Lili; Hu, Yao; Hu, Xuemei; Hu, Daoyu

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast media and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) for reducing the radiation and iodine contrast doses in adrenal and nephrogenic hypertension patients. A total of 148 hypertension patients who were suspected for adrenal lesions or renal artery stenoses were assigned to two groups and. Group A (n=74) underwent a low tube voltage, low molecular weight dextran enhanced multi-detector row spiral CT (MDCT) (80 kVp, 270 mg I/mL contrast agent), and the raw data were reconstructed with standard filtered back projection (FBP) and ASIR at four different levels of blending (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%, respectively). The control group (Group B, n=74) underwent conventional MDCT (120 kVp, 370 mg I/mL contrast agent), and the data were reconstructed with FBP. The CT values, standard deviation (SD), signal-noise-ratio (SNR) and contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) were measured in the renal vessels, normal adrenal tissue, adrenal neoplasms and subcutaneous fat. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol ) and dose length product (DLP) were recorded, and an effective dose (ED) was obtained. Two-tailed independent t-tests, paired Chi-square tests and Kappa consistency tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. The CTDIvol , DLP and total iodine dose in group A were decreased by 47.8%, 49.0% and 26.07%, respectively, compared to group B (P<.001). In the qualitative quality analysis, the radiologists rated the 60% ASIR the highest. The mean value of noise (SD) was significantly lower in the 40%, 60% and 80% ASIR-A groups compared with FBP-B for all comparisons. Compared to FBP-B, CNR was significantly higher, with 40%, 60% and 80% ASIR in renal artery stems (P<.05). Compared with FBP-B, a significant increase in the SNR of 40%, 60%, or 80% ASIR was observed in all cases (P<.05). Compared with conventional protocols, the use of low tube voltage, low-concentration contrast

  17. English Computer Critical Thinking Reading and Writing Interactive Multi-Media Programs for Comparison/Contrast and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Christine

    Two computer programs were developed to enhance community college students' critical thinking skills in the areas of "Comparison and Contrast" and "Analysis." Instructors have several options in using the programs. With access to an LCD panel and an overhead projector, instructors can use the programs in the classroom, manipulating the computer…

  18. Oral contrast media for body CT: Comparison of diatrizoate sodium and iohexol for patient acceptance and bowel opacification.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Michelle M; Lockhart, Mark E; Fineberg, Naomi S; Berland, Lincoln L

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a difference in patient preference exists between iohexol (Omnipaque) and diatrizoate sodium (Gastroview) as oral contrast medium for abdominal-pelvic CT. A secondary objective was to evaluate whether there are significant differences in bowel opacification and adverse effect profile for the two agents. From August 2007 through March 2009, 300 patients were enrolled in this prospective study after informed consent was obtained. Eligible patients were identified from those scheduled for outpatient abdominal-pelvic CT. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive one of two oral contrast agents in a double-blinded fashion. Subjects graded the taste using a 5-point scale, and data regarding demographics, total volume, and adverse effects were collected. A direct comparison of 30 mL of each of the two diluted agents in randomized order was then performed. CT images were graded for bowel opacification by two blinded abdominal radiologists. Of 287 subjects who expressed a preference, 233 patients (81%) preferred dilute iohexol compared with 54 patients (19%) who preferred dilute diatrizoate sodium (p < 0.001). Ten patients had no preference, and three patients did not complete the taste comparison study. No difference in bowel opacification was identified between the oral contrast agents (p = 0.27), nor was there a significant difference in adverse effects (p = 0.352). Patents preferred dilute iohexol over dilute diatrizoate sodium for oral contrast for abdominal-pelvic CT. There was no significant difference in bowel opacification or adverse effect profile.

  19. Multi-slice computed tomography 5-minute delayed scan is superior to immediate scan after contrast media application in characterization of intracranial tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dailun; Qu, Huifang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Ning; Liu, Cheng; Ma, Xiangxing

    2014-09-02

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the diagnosis of intracranial tuberculosis (TB) can be improved when multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) scans are taken with a 5-min delay after contrast media application. Pre- and post-contrast CT scans of the head were obtained from 30 patients using a 16-slice spiral CT. Dual-phase acquisition was performed immediately and 5 min after contrast agent injection. Diagnostic values of different images were compared using a scoring system applied by 2 experienced radiologists. We found 526 lesions in 30 patients, including 22 meningeal thickenings, 235 meningeal tuberculomas/tubercles, and 269 parenchymal tuberculomas/tubercles. Images obtained with 5-min delayed scan time were superior in terms of lesion size and meningeal thickening outlining in all disease types (P<0.01). The ability to distinguish between vascular sections from the cerebral sulcus and tubercle was also improved (P<0.01). Image acquisition with 5-min delay after contrast agent injection should be performed as a standard scanning protocol to diagnose intracranial TB.

  20. Quantifying the effects of iodine contrast media on standardised uptake values of FDG PET/CT images: an anthropomorphic phantom study.

    PubMed

    Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Nordin, Abdul Jalil; Ackerly, Trevor; Van Every, Bruce; Martin, Ruth; Geso, Moshi

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to quantify the amount of change in Standardised Uptake Values (SUVs) of PET/CT images by simulating the set-up as closely as possible to the actual patient scanning. The experiments were conducted using an anthropomorphic phantom, which contained an amount of radioactivity in the form of Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in a primary plastic test tube and one litre saline bags, including the insertion of bony structures and another two test tubes containing different concentrations of iodine contrast media. Standard scanning protocols were employed for the PET/CT image acquisition. The highest absolute differences in the SUVmax and SUVmean values of the saline bags were found to be about 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The primary test tube showed the largest change of 1.5 in both SUVs; SUV max and SUVmean. However, none of these changes were found to be statistically significant. The clinical literature also contains no evidence to suggest that the changes of this magnitude would change the final diagnosis. Based on these preliminary data, we propose that iodine contrast media can be used during the CT scan of PET/CT imaging, without significantly affecting the diagnostic quality of this integrated imaging modality.

  1. High incidence of nephropathy in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial administration of low-osmolar and iso-osmolar contrast media.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Karolkiewicz, Maciej; Gruszka, Marzena; Strózecki, Pawel; Lasek, Wladyslaw; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, Grazyna; Manitius, Jacek; Beuth, Wojciech

    2011-05-01

    Percutaneous endovascular examinations and interventions require significant amounts of iodinated contrast media (CM) and have been reported to be complicated by an increased incidence of post-contrast nephropathy. To evaluate renal function, the incidence of post-contrast nephropathy, and risk factors after interventional procedures in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial administration of a low-osmolar contrast medium (LOCM) versus an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM). This single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blinded study included 92 patients in its final analysis (mean age 49.6 ± 12.6 years, 29.3% men, mean eGFR 97.8 ± 26.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). LOCM was used in 48 patients (52.2%) and IOCM in 44 patients (47.8%). The patients were given an average of 151.2 ± 52.1 mL of contrast medium intra-arterially. Serum creatinine (SCr), urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion, and creatinine clearance (CCr) were measured at baseline, and on days 1 and 3 after the procedure. Baseline risk factors, renal functional parameters, and average CM doses were not statistically different between the two groups. SCr, NAG, and CCr values did not differ significantly between the LOCM and IOCM groups on days 1 and 3 after CM administration. Nephropathy developed in 21 cases (22.8%): 13 (27.1%) after LOCM use and 8 (18.2%) after IOCM; (P = NS). The only significant risk factors of CIN were the diabetes (P = 0.0466) and atherosclerosis (P = 0.0498). We found a high incidence of nephropathy in neurosurgical patients after intra-arterial CM administration. The renal function values and incidence of nephropathy following LOCM administration were not statistically different from those following IOCM administration.

  2. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, R; Paterson, A; Edgar, D

    2011-04-01

    To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-resolved contrast function and optical characterization of spatially varying absorptive inclusions at different depths in diffusing media.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, S; Esposito, R; Lepore, M; Indovina, P L

    2004-03-01

    The role of a spatially varying absorptive inhomogeneity located at different depths within a turbid material has been investigated. This inhomogeneity has been characterized by a spatially dependent Gaussian distribution of its absorption coefficient. The present study has been performed calculating the time-resolved contrast function in the framework of the first-order perturbative approach to the diffusion equation for a slab geometry and a coaxial measurement scheme. The model has allowed us to take into account different locations of the inclusion along the source-detector axis. The accuracy of time-resolved contrast predictions has been analyzed through comparisons with results of the finite element method that has been used to numerically solve the diffusion equation. Recovery of the absorption perturbation parameter of the inhomogeneity for different axial positions has also been investigated.

  4. Tracking changing X-ray contrast media application to an urban-influenced karst aquifer in the Wadi Shueib, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zemann, Moritz; Wolf, Leif; Grimmeisen, Felix; Tiehm, Andreas; Klinger, Jochen; Hötzl, Heinz; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-03-01

    Sewage input into a karst aquifer via leaking sewers and cesspits was investigated over five years in an urbanized catchment. Of 66 samples, analyzed for 25 pharmaceuticals, 91% indicated detectable concentrations. The former standard iodinated X-ray contrast medium (ICM) diatrizoic acid was detected most frequently. Remarkably, it was found more frequently in groundwater (79%, median: 54 ng/l) than in wastewater (21%, 120 ng/l), which is supposed to be the only source in this area. In contrast, iopamidol, a possible substitute, spread over the aquifer during the investigation period whereas concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher in wastewater than in groundwater. Knowledge about changing application of pharmaceuticals thus is essential to assess urban impacts on aquifers, especially when applying mass balances. Since correlated concentrations provide conclusive evidence that, for this catchment, nitrate in groundwater rather comes from urban than from rural sources, ICM are considered useful tracers.

  5. Cardio-chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging reveals molecular signatures of endogenous fibrosis and exogenous contrast media.

    PubMed

    Vandsburger, Moriel; Vandoorne, Katrien; Oren, Roni; Leftin, Avigdor; Mpofu, Senzeni; Delli Castelli, Daniela; Aime, Silvio; Neeman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Application of emerging molecular MRI techniques, including chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST)-MRI, to cardiac imaging is desirable; however, conventional methods are poorly suited for cardiac imaging, particularly in small animals with rapid heart rates. We developed a CEST-encoded steady state and retrospectively gated cardiac cine imaging sequence in which the presence of fibrosis or paraCEST contrast agents was directly encoded into the steady-state myocardial signal intensity (cardioCEST). Development of cardioCEST: A CEST-encoded cardiac cine MRI sequence was implemented on a 9.4T small animal scanner. CardioCEST of fibrosis was serially performed by acquisition of a series of CEST-encoded cine images at multiple offset frequencies in mice (n=7) after surgically induced myocardial infarction. Scar formation was quantified using a spectral modeling approach and confirmed with histological staining. Separately, circulatory redistribution kinetics of the paramagnetic CEST agent Eu-HPDO3A were probed in mice using cardioCEST imaging, revealing rapid myocardial redistribution, and washout within 30 minutes (n=6). Manipulation of vascular tone resulted in heightened peak CEST contrast in the heart, but did not alter redistribution kinetics (n=6). At 28 days after myocardial infarction (n=3), CEST contrast kinetics in infarct zone tissue were altered, demonstrating gradual accumulation of Eu-HPDO3A in the increased extracellular space. cardioCEST MRI enables in vivo imaging of myocardial fibrosis using endogenous contrast mechanisms, and of exogenously delivered paraCEST agents, and can enable multiplexed imaging of multiple molecular targets at high-resolution coupled with conventional cardiac MRI scans. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Feasibility of Dual Optics/Ultrasound Imaging and Contrast Media for the Detection and Characterization of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    acousto - optic effect will be used to only modulate light (at the ultrasound frequency) which propagates through a small ultrasound focal zone. This...DOD Idea Development Award is concerned with the development of a novel acousto - optic detection idea based on quadrature measurements with a gain...perform acousto - optic molecular imaging of prostate cancer with incoherent photons using endogenous contrast, e.g. hypoxia, and with fluorescent probes and microbubbles for increased specificity and signal enhancement.

  7. 64-Slice multidetector row CT angiography of the abdomen: comparison of low versus high concentration iodinated contrast media in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Holalkere, N-S; Matthes, K; Kalva, S P; Brugge, W R; Sahani, D V

    2011-01-01

    Objective In this study we aimed to assess the image quality and degree of vascular enhancement using low-concentration contrast media (LCCM) (300 mg I ml–1) and high-concentration contrast media (HCCM) (370 mg I ml–1) on 64-slice multidetector row CT (MDCT) abdominal CT angiography (CTA). In addition, we aimed to study the feasibility of using HCCM with a reduced total iodine dose. Methods CTA of the abdomen on a 64-slice MDCT was performed on 15 anaesthetised pigs. Study pigs were divided into three groups of five each based on the iodine concentration and dose received: Group A (LCCM; 300 mg I ml–1), Group B (HCCM; 370 mg I ml–1) and Group C HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. The total iodine injected was kept constant (600 mg kg–1) in Groups A and B. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed to study and compare each group for image quality, visibility of the branch order of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), artefacts, degree of enhancement in the aorta and main stem arteries and uniformity of enhancement in the aorta. Groups were compared using the analysis of variance test. Results The image quality of 64-slice MDCT angiography was excellent with a mean score of 4.63 and confident visualisation of the third to fifth order branches of the SMA in all groups. Group B demonstrated superior vascular enhancement, as compared with Groups A and C (p≤0.05). Uniform aortic enhancement was achieved with the use of LCCM and HCCM with 20% less iodine dose. Conclusion 64-slice MDCT angiography of the abdomen was of excellent quality. HCCM improves contrast enhancement and overall CTA image quality and allows the iodine dose to be reduced. PMID:21081582