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Sample records for intravenous fluid restriction

  1. Intravenous fluid restriction after major abdominal surgery: a randomized blinded clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Hester; Hofland, Jan; Legemate, Dink A; Ubbink, Dirk T

    2009-07-07

    Intravenous (IV) fluid administration is an essential part of postoperative care. Some studies suggest that a restricted post-operative fluid regime reduces complications and postoperative hospital stay after surgery. We investigated the effects of postoperative fluid restriction in surgical patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. In a blinded randomized trial, 62 patients (ASA I-III) undergoing elective major abdominal surgical procedures in a university hospital were allocated either to a restricted (1.5 L/24 h) or a standard postoperative IV fluid regime (2.5 L/24 h). Primary endpoint was length of postoperative hospital stay (PHS). Secondary endpoints included postoperative complications and time to restore gastric functions. After a 1-year inclusion period, an unplanned interim analysis was made because of many protocol violations due to patient deterioration. In the group with the restricted regime we found a significantly increased PHS (12.3 vs. 8.3 days; p = 0.049) and significantly more major complications: 12 in 30 (40%) vs. 5 in 32 (16%) patients (Absolute Risk Increase: 0.24 [95%CI: 0.03 to 0.46], i.e. a number needed to harm of 4 [95%CI: 2-33]). Therefore, the trial was stopped prematurely. Intention to treat analysis showed no differences in time to restore gastric functions between the groups. Restricted postoperative IV fluid management, as performed in this trial, in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery appears harmful as it is accompanied by an increased risk of major postoperative complications and a prolonged postoperative hospital stay. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16719551.

  2. Clinical benefits after the implementation of a protocol of restricted perioperative intravenous crystalloid fluids in major abdominal operations.

    PubMed

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José E; Diniz, Breno N; do Carmo, Aracelle V; Silveira, Eryka A O; Silva, Raquel M

    2009-05-01

    Perioperative fluid replacement is a challenging issue in surgical care. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two different perioperative hydration protocols on the outcome in patients undergoing major abdominal operations. This was a prospective study involving 61 patients (42 men/19 women; mean age: 52 years; age range: 18-81 years) who underwent major abdominal operations. The study had two distinct phases: before (conventional group; administered 30-50 ml/kg per day of crystalloid fluids; n = 33) and after the implementation of a protocol of restricted use of intravenous fluids (restricted group; administered less than 30 ml/kg per day of crystalloid fluids; n = 28). The total volume of intravenous crystalloid fluids infused was recorded until postoperative day (POD) 4. Morbidity, mortality, and the length of postoperative hospital stay were the main clinical variables. Mortality was 4.9% (p > 0.05 between groups). Intravenous therapy in the restricted group was terminated earlier (p < 0.001) and the patients received 2.4 l less crystalloid fluid than did those in the conventional group from POD 1 through POD 4 (p < 0.001). The adoption of the restricted protocol shortened the postoperative hospital stay by 2 days (p = 0.02) and diminished the morbidity by 25% (p = 0.04). Restriction of perioperative intravenous crystalloid fluid is associated with reductions in morbidity and length of postoperative hospital stay after major abdominal operations.

  3. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    PubMed

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  4. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  5. Perioperative Fluid Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bleier, Joshua I.S.; Aarons, Cary B.

    2013-01-01

    Perioperative fluid management of the colorectal surgical patient has evolved significantly over the last five decades. Older notions espousing aggressive hydration have been shown to be associated with increased complications. Newer data regarding fluid restriction has shown an association with improved outcomes. Management of perioperative fluid administration can be considered in three primary phases: In the preoperative phase, data suggests that avoidance of preoperative bowel preparation and avoidance of undue preoperative dehydration can improve outcomes. Although the type of intraoperative fluid given does not have a significant effect on outcome, data do suggest that a restrictive fluid regimen results in improved outcomes. Finally, in the postoperative phase of fluid management, a fluid-restrictive regimen, coupled with early enteral feeding also seems to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24436675

  6. Intravenous Fluid Use in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Givan, Gordon V.; Diehl, Jason J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Results: Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. Conclusion: The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency–governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes. PMID:23016105

  7. Association between chloride-rich versus chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration and acute kidney injury in cardiovascular patients in ICU wards.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Guangsu; Han, Dahe; Meng, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yi; Kan, Chen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of chloride-restrictive fluid to prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiovascular patients in intensive care unit (ICU) wards. Between January 2013 and September 2014, 456 patients admitted to ICU wards following diagnosis of cardiovascular disease were recruited and randomized to receive chloride-rich (232 patients) or chloride-restrictive (224 patients) fluid. The baseline characteristics and incidence of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)-defined AKI was then compared. No significant difference was identified in the baseline characteristics between the two groups. The incidence of moderate-to-severe KDIGO-defined AKI was significantly decreased in patients who received chloride-restrictive fluid. In conclusion, chloride-restrictive may be a novel effective intervention in preventing KDIGO-defined AKI in cardiovascular patients in ICU wards.

  8. Intravenous maintenance fluid therapy in children.

    PubMed

    McNab, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Intravenous fluids are frequently used in paediatrics but have been associated with significant adverse outcomes. Understanding the composition of fluid prescribed and administering an appropriate rate is essential for safe fluid administration, along with regular monitoring. Recent evidence has shown that using an isotonic fluid with a sodium concentration similar to plasma can decrease the risk of hyponatraemia without an increase in adverse effects. This should lead to a change in guidelines: isotonic fluid should now be used as the primary maintenance intravenous fluid given to the majority of children. © 2016 The Author Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Avoiding common problems associated with intravenous fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Andrew K; Pellegrino, Vincent A; Scheinkestel, Carlos D

    2008-11-03

    Inappropriate intravenous fluid therapy is a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality and may result from either incorrect volume (too much or too little) or incorrect type of fluid. Fluid overload has no precise definition, but complications usually arise in the context of pre-existing cardiorespiratory disease and severe acute illness. Insufficient fluid administration is readily identified by signs and symptoms of inadequate circulation and decreased organ perfusion. Administration of the wrong type of fluid results in derangement of serum sodium concentration, which, if severe enough, leads to changes in cell volume and function, and may result in serious neurological injury. In patients whose condition is uncomplicated, we recommend a restrictive approach to perioperative intravenous fluid replacement, with initial avoidance of hypotonic fluids, and regular measurement of serum concentration of electrolytes, especially sodium.

  10. Intravenous fluids in acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bikdeli, Behnood; Strait, Kelly M; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Li, Shu-Xia; Mody, Purav; Partovian, Chohreh; Coca, Steven G; Kim, Nancy; Horwitz, Leora I; Testani, Jeffrey M; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to determine the use of intravenous fluids in the early care of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF) who are treated with loop diuretics. Intravenous fluids are routinely provided to many hospitalized patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with HF to 346 hospitals from 2009 to 2010. We assessed the use of intravenous fluids during the first 2 days of hospitalization. We determined the frequency of adverse in-hospital outcomes. We assessed variation in the use of intravenous fluids across hospitals and patient groups. Among 131,430 hospitalizations for HF, 13,806 (11%) were in patients treated with intravenous fluids during the first 2 days. The median volume of administered fluid was 1,000 ml (interquartile range: 1,000 to 2,000 ml), and the most commonly used fluids were normal saline (80%) and half-normal saline (12%). Demographic characteristics and comorbidities were similar in hospitalizations in which patients did and did not receive fluids. Patients who were treated with intravenous fluids had higher rates of subsequent critical care admission (5.7% vs. 3.8%; p < 0.0001), intubation (1.4% vs. 1.0%; p = 0.0012), renal replacement therapy (0.6% vs. 0.3%; p < 0.0001), and hospital death (3.3% vs. 1.8%; p < 0.0001) compared with those who received only diuretics. The proportion of hospitalizations that used fluid treatment varied widely across hospitals (range: 0% to 71%; median: 12.5%). Many patients who are hospitalized with HF and receive diuretics also receive intravenous fluids during their early inpatient care, and the proportion varies among hospitals. Such practice is associated with worse outcomes and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of restrictive intravenous fluid replacement and combined epidural analgesia on perioperative volume balance and renal function within a Fast Track program.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Martin; Schäfer, Markus; Demartines, Nicolas; Müller, Sven; Maurer, Konrad; Baulig, Werner; Clavien, Pierre A; Zalunardo, Marco P

    2012-03-01

    Key factors of Fast Track (FT) programs are fluid restriction and epidural analgesia (EDA). We aimed to challenge the preconception that the combination of fluid restriction and EDA might induce hypotension and renal dysfunction. A recent randomized trial (NCT00556790) showed reduced complications after colectomy in FT patients compared with standard care (SC). Patients with an effective EDA were compared with regard to hemodynamics and renal function. 61/76 FT patients and 59/75 patients in the SC group had an effective EDA. Both groups were comparable regarding demographics and surgery-related characteristics. FT patients received significantly less i.v. fluids intraoperatively (1900 mL [range 1100-4100] versus 2900 mL [1600-5900], P < 0.0001) and postoperatively (700 mL [400-1500] versus 2300 mL [1800-3800], P < 0.0001). Intraoperatively, 30 FT compared with 19 SC patients needed colloids or vasopressors, but this was statistically not significant (P = 0.066). Postoperative requirements were low in both groups (3 versus 5 patients; P = 0.487). Pre- and postoperative values for creatinine, hematocrit, sodium, and potassium were similar, and no patient developed renal dysfunction in either group. Only one of 82 patients having an EDA without a bladder catheter had urinary retention. Overall, FT patients had fewer postoperative complications (6 versus 20 patients; P = 0.002) and a shorter median hospital stay (5 [2-30] versus 9 d [6-30]; P< 0.0001) compared with the SC group. Fluid restriction and EDA in FT programs are not associated with clinically relevant hemodynamic instability or renal dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Noncolligative properties of intravenous fluids.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Currently available crystalloids were designed over a century ago for dehydration and not for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Information regarding fluids used for resuscitation has grown and thus resuscitation has changed radically in the last two decades. Artificial fluids such as crystalloids and other solutions typically used for resuscitation are now recognized to be inflammatory when infused at high volumes to replace blood. Recent studies have shown that the crystalloids and artificial colloids cause inflammation. Prehospital fluid use has not shown to be of benefit and permissive hypotension may be useful. Careful titration of fluids with minimizing crystalloids and early use of blood products have improved outcome after traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Seemingly innocuous fluids have a dose effect and can be detrimental. Crystalloids can create inflammation when used at high volumes and may be the reason for the sequelae seen after massive resuscitation. This has led to the recognition that whole blood is extremely complex and does much more than carry oxygen. Resuscitation has changed recently with the adoption of damage control resuscitation which is the practice of allowing permissive hypotension, minimizing crystalloids and early aggressive use of blood products. This has led to a decrease in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. Portable Intravenous Fluid Production Device for Ground Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, Philip J.; Scheuer, Wolfgang K.

    2012-01-01

    There are several medical conditions that require intravenous (IV) fluids. Limitations of mass, volume, storage space, shelf-life, transportation, and local resources can restrict the availability of such important fluids. These limitations are expected in long-duration space exploration missions and in remote or austere environments on Earth. Current IV fluid production requires large factory-based processes. Easy, portable, on-site production of IV fluids can eliminate these limitations. Based on experience gained in developing a device for spaceflight, a ground-use device was developed. This design uses regular drinking water that is pumped through two filters to produce, in minutes, sterile, ultrapure water that meets the stringent quality standards of the United States Pharmacopeia for Water for Injection (Total Bacteria, Conductivity, Endotoxins, Total Organic Carbon). The device weighs 2.2 lb (1 kg) and is 10 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 3 in. high (.25, 13, and 7.5 cm, respectively) in its storage configuration. This handheld device produces one liter of medical-grade water in 21 minutes. Total production capacity for this innovation is expected to be in the hundreds of liters.

  14. Septicemia secondary to administration of a contaminated intravenous fluid.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, S E; Forman, D; Berger, J; Gold, B D

    1984-10-01

    The clinical entities of bacterial contamination, septicemia, and septic shock have been discussed, and an unusual case of septic shock has been presented. The associated risks of intravenous delivery of drugs or fluids are stressed.

  15. Should We Give Routine Postoperative Intravenous Fluids After Cleft Surgery?

    PubMed

    Onyekwelu, O; Seaward, J; Beale, V

    2015-06-29

      In 2012, the James Lind Alliance, together with the Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland and the Cleft Lip and Palate Association, set priorities for unanswered questions in cleft management. One of these priorities included postoperative fluid management. The authors' postoperative regimen does not include intravenous fluids unless the child fails to achieve adequate oral intake by the first evening postoperatively. This audit evaluated whether this is appropriate and safe practice.   All patients undergoing cleft-related surgery by a single surgeon in a single center during August 2011 to August 2012 were included. Patient age, weight, and surgery type were recorded together with fluid requirement, length of stay, and any returns to theater or readmissions.   Of the 79 patients included, none required readmission or return to theater, and the mean length of stay was 1.72 days. Nineteen patients (24%) required intravenous fluids, but these tended to be the older children in the group (P value .034). In the youngest patients undergoing primary lip repair, only 1 of 20 required intravenous fluids.   This study demonstrates that, especially in the younger patients, omitting intravenous fluids as a postoperative routine is associated with a shorter length of stay without an increased complication rate. The authors advocate early postoperative feeding and the return to physiological fluid balance.

  16. Should We Give Routine Postoperative Intravenous Fluids After Cleft Surgery?

    PubMed

    Onyekwelu, O; Seaward, J; Beale, V

    2016-03-01

    In 2012, the James Lind Alliance, together with the Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland and the Cleft Lip and Palate Association, set priorities for unanswered questions in cleft management. One of these priorities included postoperative fluid management. The authors' postoperative regimen does not include intravenous fluids unless the child fails to achieve adequate oral intake by the first evening postoperatively. This audit evaluated whether this is appropriate and safe practice. All patients undergoing cleft-related surgery by a single surgeon in a single center during August 2011 to August 2012 were included. Patient age, weight, and surgery type were recorded together with fluid requirement, length of stay, and any returns to theater or readmissions. Of the 79 patients included, none required readmission or return to theater, and the mean length of stay was 1.72 days. Nineteen patients (24%) required intravenous fluids, but these tended to be the older children in the group (P value .034). In the youngest patients undergoing primary lip repair, only 1 of 20 required intravenous fluids. This study demonstrates that, especially in the younger patients, omitting intravenous fluids as a postoperative routine is associated with a shorter length of stay without an increased complication rate. The authors advocate early postoperative feeding and the return to physiological fluid balance.

  17. Intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment in status migrainosus.

    PubMed

    Utku, Uygar; Gokce, Mustafa; Benli, Elif Muruvvet; Dinc, Aytaç; Tuncel, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To present the results of the intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment in patients with status migrainosus. Consecutive 21 patients with status migrainosus were received intra-venous chlorpromazine (maximum 25mg) with fluid treatment and their results were documented. Complete recovery of headache and nausea were seen in 20/21 and 17/21 of the patients respectively. 15/21 of patients were headache free following at 10mg chlorpromazine infusion. Most patients went on sleep after 10mg chlorpromazine infusion and when they wake already up headache free. Side effects such as tachycardia, palpitation, flushing and hypertension were seen only one of 21 patients following first dose 5mg injection. This study showed that intra-venous chlorpromazine with fluid treatment for status migrainosus seems a good option. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Is fluid restriction needed in heart failure?

    PubMed

    Castro-Gutiérrez, Victoria; Rada, Gabriel

    2017-01-09

    Fluid restriction is usually recommended in chronic heart failure. However, the evidence base to support this is not that clear. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified five systematic reviews evaluating 11 studies addressing the question of this article, including seven randomized trials. We extracted data, combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded fluid restriction probably decreases hospital readmission in chronic heart failure and might decrease mortality, but the certainty of the evidence for the latter is low.

  19. Portable Intravenous Fluid Production Device For Ground Use Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Several medical conditions require the administration of intravenous (IV) fluids,but limitations of mass, volume, shelf-life, transportation, and local resources can restrict the availability of these important fluids. Such limitations are expected in long-duration space exploration missions and in remote or austere places on Earth. This design uses regular drinking water that is pumped through two filters to produce, in minutes, sterile, ultrapure water that meets the stringent quality standards of the United States Pharmacopeia for Water for Injection (Total Bacteria, Conductivity, Endo - toxins, Total Organic Carbon). The device weighs 2.2 lb (1 kg) and is 10 in. long, 5 in. wide, and 3 in. high (˜25, 13, and 7.5 cm, respectively) in its storage configuration. This handheld device produces one liter of medical-grade water in 21 minutes. Total production capacity for this innovation is expected to be in the hundreds of liters. The device contains one battery powered electric mini-pump. Alternatively, a manually powered pump can be attached and used. Drinking water enters the device from a source water bag, flows through two filters, and final sterile production water exits into a sealed, medical-grade collection bag. The collection bag contains pre-placed crystalline salts to mix with product water to form isotonic intravenous medical solutions. Alternatively, a hypertonic salt solution can be injected into a filled bag. The filled collection bag is detached from the device and is ready for use or storage. This device currently contains one collection bag, but a manifold of several pre-attached bags or replacement of single collection bags under sterile needle technique is possible for the production of multiple liters. The entire system will be flushed, sealed, and radiation-sterilized. Operation of the device is easy and requires minimal training. Drinking water is placed into the collection bag. Inline stopcock flow valves at the source and collection bags

  20. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    PubMed

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Optimal fluid resuscitation: timing and composition of intravenous fluids.

    PubMed

    Boomer, Laura; Jones, Wright; Davis, Brett; Williams, Shelley; Barber, Annabel

    2009-10-01

    Recent data suggest that the timing of fluid resuscitation and the type of fluid used to treat hemorrhagic shock contribute to the inflammatory response as well as cell death. Rats were bled of 40% of their total blood volume and then resuscitated in either early or delayed fashion. Treatment was assigned randomly and consisted of lactated Ringer's solution, normal saline, bicarbonate Ringer's solution, hypertonic saline, or no resuscitation. The first four groups were subdivided into early and late resuscitation. After a 5-h observation period, lung and liver samples were evaluated for apoptosis, and blood was collected for measurements of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-1beta. The rats that were not resuscitated had significantly more apoptosis in liver tissue. In the lung, bicarbonate Ringer's solution, when given early, was associated with significantly less apoptosis. Non-resuscitated rats had significantly higher IL-6 concentrations than all other groups. Animals receiving hypertonic saline early had significantly higher IL-6 concentrations than those given any other fluid. The concentration of IL-1beta was significantly higher in the non-resuscitated rats than in those receiving bicarbonate Ringer's, lactated Ringer's, or normal saline for early resuscitation. Interleukin-10 was elevated significantly in non-resuscitated rats. Cellular destruction and a pro-inflammatory response follow hemorrhagic shock. Early resuscitation with isotonic crystalloid fluids decreases these responses.

  2. Intravenous fluids for reducing the duration of labour in low risk nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Feroza; Dowswell, Therese; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-06-18

    was no statistical reduction in the number of CS in the Ringer's lactate group (risk ratio (RR), 0.73 95% CI 0.49 to 1.08).Three trials compared women who received 125 mL/hour versus 250 mL/hour of intravenous fluids with free oral fluids in both groups. Women receiving a greater hourly volume of intravenous fluids (250 mL) had shorter labours than those receiving 125 mL (MD 23.87 minutes, 95% CI 3.72 to 44.02, 256 women). There was no statistically significant reduction in the number of CS in the 250 mL intravenous fluid group (average RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.54 to1.87, three studies, 334 women). In one study the number of assisted vaginal deliveries was lower in the group receiving 125 mL/hour (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.81).Four trials compared rates of intravenous fluids in women where oral intake was restricted (125 mL/hour versus 250 mL/hour). There was a reduction in the duration of labour in women who received the higher infusion rate (MD 105.61 minutes, 95% CI 53.19 to 158.02); P < 0.0001, however, findings must be interpreted with caution as there was high heterogeneity amongst trials (I(2) = 53%). There was a significant reduction in CS in women receiving the higher rate of intravenous fluid infusion (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.21; P = 0.01). There was no difference identified in the assisted delivery rate (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.40). There was no clear difference between groups in the number of babies admitted to the NICU (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.07 to 3.17).Two trials compared normal saline versus 5% dextrose. Only one reported the mean duration of labour, and there was no strong evidence of a difference between groups (MD -12.00, 95% CI -30.09 to 6.09). A trial reporting the median suggested that the duration was reduced in the dextrose group. There was no significant difference in CS or assisted deliveries (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.43, two studies, 284 women) and (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.63, one study, 93 women) respectively. Only one trial reported on maternal

  3. IMMEDIATE DISCONTINUATION OF INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS AFTER COMMON SURGICAL PROCEDURES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awad, Naif I.; Wosomu, Lade; Al Hassanin, Emad A.W.; Al-Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.; Adu-Gyamfi, Yaw; Shawan, Saad M.; Abdulhadi, Maha S.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) fluids and nasogastric (MG) intubation can be discarded safely in some abdominal operations, but this practice seems rare in our community. Setting: A University teaching hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Aims: To determine the feasibility of the practice in our setting and increase clinicians’ awareness of it and encourage its general adoption. Method: A prospective verification study in consecutive ASA Classes I and II adult patients scheduled for four commonly performed operations. End Points: The practice was considered successful if the patient accepted early oral fluids and did not require re-insertion of IV line. Results: The operations studied were appendicectomy (44), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (35), herniorrhaphy (19) and diagnostic laparoscopy (2). The patients’ mean age was 34.1 years (range 14 to 68); 60% were males. The overall success rate was 98%. Thus postoperative IV fluids proved to be unnecessary in these patients; cost savings were achieved and treating teams were freed to focus on other patients who truly required IV fluids. Conclusions: In our setting also, routine IV fluids are unnecessary and can be discarded safely after appendecectomy, cholecystectomy and herniorrhaphy in adults. PMID:23008615

  4. Final Report for Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Spaceflight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.; McKay, Terri L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Brown, Dan F.; Zoldak, John T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA designed and operated the Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS), Increment 23/24, during May 2010. This hardware was a demonstration experiment to generate intravenous (IV) fluid from ISS Water Processing Assembly (WPA) potable water using a water purification technique and pharmaceutical mixing system. The IVGEN experiment utilizes a deionizing resin bed to remove contaminants from feedstock water to a purity level that meets the standards of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the governing body for pharmaceuticals in the United States. The water was then introduced into an IV bag where the fluid was mixed with USP-grade crystalline salt to produce USP normal saline (NS). Inline conductivity sensors quantified the feedstock water quality, output water purity, and NS mixing uniformity. Six 1.5-L bags of purified water were produced. Two of these bags were mixed with sodium chloride to make 0.9 percent NS solution. These two bags were returned to Earth to test for compliance with USP requirements. On-orbit results indicated that all of the experimental success criteria were met with the exception of the salt concentration. Problems with a large air bubble in the first bag of purified water resulted in a slightly concentrated saline solution of 117 percent of the target value of 0.9 g/L. The second bag had an inadequate amount of salt premeasured into the mixing bag resulting in a slightly deficient salt concentration of 93.8 percent of the target value. The USP permits a range from 95 to 105 percent of the target value. The testing plans for improvements for an operational system are also presented.

  5. Quality of intravenous infusion fluids manufactured in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Aluoch-Orwa, J A; Ondari, C O; Kibwage, I O; Hoogmartens, J

    1995-12-01

    The incidence and nature of microbial contamination of intravenous fluids prepared by four manufacturing establishments in Kenya was evaluated using the European Pharmacopoeia membrane filtration method for sterility testing. The percentage failures were 28.6% for source D, 18.8% for source A, 12.5% for source B and 10.5% for source C. The major contaminant was aspergillus which was isolated from samples from three sources. Candida and Staphylococcus accounted for the contamination of samples from two sources. Failure rates due to the chemical composition of the products was 66.7% for Source A, 60.0% for D, 41.7% for C and 13.3% for B. The experience of the manufacturing sites appeared to correlate with the quality of the products, with the older manufacturing establishments showing lower percentage failures.

  6. Fluid Management in Patients with Trauma: Restrictive Versus Liberal Approach.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Lee

    2017-03-01

    Massive hemorrhage remains a major cause of traumatic deaths. The ideal fluid resuscitative strategy is much debated. Research has provided inconsistent results regarding which fluid strategy is ideal; the optimum fluid type, timing, and volume remains elusive. Aggressive large-volume resuscitation has been the mainstay based on controlled hemorrhage animal models. For uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, liberal fluid resuscitative strategies exacerbate the lethal triad, invoke resuscitative injury, and increase mortality while more restrictive fluid strategies tend to ameliorate trauma-induced coagulopathy and favor a greater chance of survival. This article discusses the current evidence regarding liberal and restrictive fluid strategies for trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does Evidence Drive Fluid Volume Restriction in Chronic Heart Failure?

    PubMed

    Miller, Robin K; Thornton, Nathaniel

    2017-06-01

    Chronic heart failure is a chronic condition that is associated with increased health care expenditures and high rates of morbidity and mortality. Mainstay in heart failure management has been the prescription of a fluid restriction. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence for fluid restriction in chronic heart failure patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maintenance intravenous fluid prescribing practices among paediatric residents.

    PubMed

    Freeman, M A; Ayus, J C; Moritz, M L

    2012-10-01

      To investigate the sodium composition of maintenance intravenous fluids (mIVF) used by paediatric residents throughout the United States in common clinical scenarios of arginine vasopressin (AVP) excess.   We distributed an online survey to paediatric residency programmes asking what type of mIVF (0.2%, 0.45%, 0.9% NaCl or lactated Ringer's solution) they would administer in four common clinical scenarios of AVP excess (gastroenteritis, pneumonia, meningitis and postoperative) in both a 6-month-old (mo) and a 13-year-old (yo) child.   We had 472 responses, representing 5% of the total paediatric residency population in the United States. Hypotonic mIVF were selected in 78% of children (88.2% of 6 mo and 68.5% of 13 yo). Isotonic mIVF were selected approximately twice as often for patients with meningitis as for those without (21.4% vs. 8.7% 6 mo and 42.8% vs. 27.7% 13 yo; p < 0.001).   The majority of US paediatric residents would prescribe hypotonic mIVF in disease states associated with AVP excess. However, a significant number of residents are using isotonic mIVF. Isotonic fluids are more likely to be prescribed in older children and children with meningitis. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  9. Saliva indices track hypohydration during 48h of fluid restriction or combined fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Samuel J; Laing, Stewart J; Wilson, Sally; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil P

    2008-10-01

    To investigate whether unstimulated whole saliva flow rate (UFR) and osmolality (Sosm) track changes in hydration status during 48h of restricted fluid intake (RF) or combined fluid and energy restriction (RF+RE). Following the 48h periods, UFR and Sosm were assessed after acute exercise dehydration and rehydration. Thirteen healthy males completed three trials in a randomised order: control (CON) where participants received their estimated energy (12,154+/-230kJ/d: mean+/-S.E.M) and fluid (3912+/-140ml/d) requirements, RF trial where participants received their energy requirements and 193+/-19ml/d water to drink (total fluid 960+/-15ml/d) and RF+RE where participants received 1214+/-25kJ/d and 962+/-16ml/d. After 48h, participants completed 30min of maximal exercise followed by rehydration (0-2h) and refeeding (2-6h). At 48h body mass loss exceeded 3% on RF and RF+RE. UFR decreased during 48h on RF (510+/-122 to 169+/-37microl/min) and RF+RE (452+/-92 to 265+/-53microl/min) and was lower than CON at 48h (441+/-90microl/min: P<0.05). Sosm increased during 48h on RF (54+/-3 to 73+/-5mOsmol/kg) and RF+RE (52+/-3 to 68+/-5mOsmol/kg) and was greater than CON at 48h (52+/-2mOsmol/kg: P<0.05). Unlike UFR, Sosm identified the additional hypohydration associated with exercise (P<0.05) and returned to within 0h values with rehydration. Sosm, and to a lesser extent UFR, track hydration status during a 48h period of RF or RF+RE and after subsequent exercise and rehydration.

  10. Concentration guidelines for parenteral antibiotics in fluid-restricted patients.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D C; Cookson, T L; Grisafe, J A

    1987-12-01

    A guideline for the preparation of peripherally administered antibiotics in fluid-restricted patients was developed. A maximum osmolality of 560 mOsmol/kg was selected since this corresponds to the theoretical osmolality of dextrose 5% in NaCl 0.9%, a solution commonly administered peripherally without significant incidence of phlebitis. Percentage concentrations corresponding to 560 mOsmol/kg of 26 intravenous antibiotics were calculated using sodium chloride equivalents. The antibiotics were reconstituted using sterile water, dextrose 5%, and NaCl 0.9% to provide an osmolality of 560 mOsmol/kg. The resulting solutions were measured for osmolality using a freezing-point depression osmometer. A total of 78 solutions were prepared and measured in triplicate. Of the 78 measured osmolalities, 67 (86 percent) were within 20 percent of the desired 560 mOsmol/kg. Only two osmolalities were more than 10 percent above the projected value. The percentage concentrations of 26 antibiotics in three solutions corresponding to 560 mOsmol/kg are presented. A method is also provided for tailoring concentrations to achieve desired osmolalities other than 560 mOsmol/kg.

  11. Intravenous fluids: should we go with the flow?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive monitoring should be used when prescribing intravenous fluids for volume resuscitation. The extent and duration of tissue hypoperfusion determine the severity of cellular damage, which should be kept to a minimum with timely volume substitution. Optimizing the filling status to normovolaemia may boost the resuscitation success. Macrocirculatory pressure values are not sensitive in this indication. While the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines focus on these conventional pressure parameters, the guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) on perioperative bleeding management recommend individualized care by monitoring the actual volume status and correcting hypovolaemia promptly if present. The motto is: 'give what is missing'. The credo of the ESA guidelines is to use management algorithms with predefined intervention triggers. Stop signals should help in avoiding hyper-resuscitation. The high-quality evidence-based S3 guidelines on volume therapy in adults have recently been prepared by 14 German scientific societies. Statements include, for example, repeated clinical inspection including turgor of the skin and mucosa. Adjunctive laboratory parameters such as central venous oxygen saturation, lactate, base excess and haematocrit should be considered. The S3 guidelines propose the use of flow-based and/or dynamic preload parameters for guiding volume therapy. Fluid challenges and/or the leg-raising test (autotransfusion) should be performed. The statement from the Co-ordination group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralized Procedures--Human informs healthcare professionals to consider applying individualized medicine and using sensitive monitoring to assess hypovolaemia. The authorities encourage a personalized goal-directed volume resuscitation technique. PMID:26728428

  12. Personal paths of fluid restriction in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Tovazzi, Maria Elena; Mazzoni, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perspectives of patients on hemodialysis about their experience of fluid restriction. Qualitative interviews were conducted to grasp the patients' lived experience, and from a phenomenological analysis, several categories emerged that describe patients' understanding. Three themes in particular from patients' experiences are described and discussed because of their relevance for health professionals. These include (a) fluid restriction introduces the perception of individuals to see themselves as addicts who deal with a constant inner conflict, (b) the difficulty in finding the right boundaries between common sense and scientific knowledge about fluid restriction, and (c) the role of personal motivations and willingness in pursuit of compliance. Recognizing the force of personal meaning for individuals with renal disease will support health professionals to help patients in pursuing the regime of fluid restriction.

  13. Maternal intravenous fluids and postpartum breast changes: a pilot observational study.

    PubMed

    Kujawa-Myles, Sonya; Noel-Weiss, Joy; Dunn, Sandra; Peterson, Wendy E; Cotterman, Kermaline Jean

    2015-01-01

    The current breastfeeding initiation rate in Canada is approximately 87%. By one month, about 21% of women have stopped breastfeeding. Engorgement and edema in breast tissue can lead to breastfeeding challenges which may contribute to early weaning. The aims of this pilot research study were to explore the relationship between intrapartum intravenous fluids given to mothers and postpartum breast swelling in the first 10 days postpartum and to determine if a larger study was warranted and feasible. A prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort pilot study with repeated measures and a within-subjects design was completed. Participants were first time mothers who have a single, healthy newborn and had a spontaneous vaginal birth. Daily data collection from admission into the study until postpartum day 10 took place. Descriptive statistics are reported and linear regression analysis was used to model the relationship between IV therapy and postpartum breast edema. Women who received intravenous fluids during labour had higher levels of breast edema postpartum and rated their breasts as firmer and more tender than women who did not receive intravenous fluids. Participants who had intravenous fluids described patterns of fullness that appeared to be related to edema as opposed to fullness associated with engorgement and lactogenesis II. The findings demonstrate that mothers in this pilot study who received intravenous fluids in labour and postpartum had higher levels of breast edema. These results suggest a larger study is warranted to more fully examine the effects of intravenous fluids on postpartum breast swelling.

  14. Restricted peri-operative fluid administration adjusted by serum lactate level improved outcome after major elective surgery for gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wenkui, Yu; Ning, Li; Jianfeng, Gong; Weiqin, Li; Shaoqiu, Tang; Zhihui, Tong; Tao, Gao; Juanjuan, Zhang; Fengchan, Xi; Hui, Shi; Weiming, Zhu; Jie-Shou, Li

    2010-04-01

    Our objective was to compare the effect of a restricted intravenous fluid regimen adjusted by serum lactate level with a standard restricted regimen on complications after major elective surgery for gastrointestinal malignancy. This is a randomized, observer-blinded, single-center trial conducted across a time span of 13 months. A total of 299 patients were allocated to either a restricted intravenous fluid regimen with supplementary intravenous fluids given based on serum lactate level (group A) or a standard restricted regimen (group R). In group A, the serum lactate level was monitored closely postoperatively to maintain a normal pre-operative serum lactate level. Group R involved patients treated with a restricted fluid regimen in whom additional fluid and electrolytes were administered when deemed necessary based on the usual clinical criteria. The primary outcome measure was complications; the secondary measures were death and adverse effects. Additional fluid supplementation was needed in some patients in both groups (group A [28%] vs group R [26%]). In group A, the time for additional fluid infusion occurred earlier in the postoperative period than group R. Patients in group A received their first supplementary fluid treatment within the first 12 h more commonly than those in group R (74% vs 37%, respectively; P < .004). The regimen adjusted by serum lactate decreased systemic postoperative complications in group A versus group R (10% vs 22%, respectively; P = .023) but not overall total complications (23% vs 33%, respectively; P = .090). In contrast, in patients who required additional fluid infusion, the difference in complications between the 2 groups was greater (overall complication, 45% vs 85%, respectively; P = .023; major complication, 16% vs 44%, respectively; P = .018; systemic complications, 19% vs 63%, respectively; P = .001). One patient died in group A and 4 died in group R (1% vs 4%, respectively; P = .206). A fluid-restricted regimen after

  15. Four phases of intravenous fluid therapy: a conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Hoste, E A; Maitland, K; Brudney, C S; Mehta, R; Vincent, J-L; Yates, D; Kellum, J A; Mythen, M G; Shaw, A D

    2014-11-01

    I.V. fluid therapy plays a fundamental role in the management of hospitalized patients. While the correct use of i.v. fluids can be lifesaving, recent literature demonstrates that fluid therapy is not without risks. Indeed, the use of certain types and volumes of fluid can increase the risk of harm, and even death, in some patient groups. Data from a recent audit show us that the inappropriate use of fluids may occur in up to 20% of patients receiving fluid therapy. The delegates of the 12th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Conference sought to obtain consensus on the use of i.v. fluids with the aim of producing guidance for their use. In this article, we review a recently proposed model for fluid therapy in severe sepsis and propose a framework by which it could be adopted for use in most situations where fluid management is required. Considering the dose-effect relationship and side-effects of fluids, fluid therapy should be regarded similar to other drug therapy with specific indications and tailored recommendations for the type and dose of fluid. By emphasizing the necessity to individualize fluid therapy, we hope to reduce the risk to our patients and improve their outcome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Compliance with a pediatric clinical practice guideline for intravenous fluid and electrolyte administration.

    PubMed

    Hurdowar, Amanda; Urmson, Lynn; Bohn, Desmond; Geary, Denis; Laxer, Ronald; Stevens, Polly

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of acute hyponatremia associated with cerebral edema in hospitalized children has been increasingly recognized, with over 50 cases of neurological morbidity and mortality reported in the past decade. This condition most commonly occurs in previously healthy children where maintenance intravenous (IV) fluids have been prescribed in the form of hypotonic saline (e.g., 0.2 or 0.3 NaCl). In response to similar problems at The Hospital for Sick Children (six identified through hospital morbidity and mortality reviews and safety reports prior to fall 2007), an interdisciplinary clinician group from our institution developed a clinical practice guideline (CPG) to guide fluid and electrolyte administration for pediatric patients. This article reviews the evaluation of one patient safety improvement to change the prescribing practice for IV fluids in an acute care pediatric hospital, including the removal of the ability to prescribe hypotonic IV solutions with a sodium concentration of < 75 mmol/L. The evaluation of key components of the CPG included measuring practice and process changes pre- and post-implementation. The evaluation showed that the use of restricted IV fluids was significantly reduced across the organization. Success factors of this safety initiative included the CPG development, forcing functions, reminders, team engagement and support from the hospital leadership. A key learning was that a project leader with considerable dedicated time is required during the implementation to develop change concepts, organize and liaise with stakeholders and measure changes in practice. This project highlights the importance of active implementation for policy and guideline documents.

  17. Rapid detection of contaminated intravenous fluids using the Limulus in vitro endotoxin assay.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J H; Smith, R F

    1973-10-01

    Intravenous fluids and administration sets may become contaminated with gram-negative bacteria during use and result in a life-threatening situation to the patient. The Limulus in vitro assay for endotoxin was used in two patients whose parenteral fluids had become contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This test allowed rapid detection of the contaminated intravenous fluids and demonstrated a concomitant endotoxemia in both patients. The same strains of pseudomon were subsequently cultured from each patient's blood, intravenous catheter tip, and parenteral fluid and administration set. A different serotype of pseudomonas was unique to each patient, indicating two separate and unrelated cases of accidental contamination of the administration sets. Endotoxin-like activity was also demonstrated from several brands of commercial human serum albumin, which may contribute low-level activity detectable by the Limulus assay.

  18. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour

    PubMed Central

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian ML

    2014-01-01

    Background Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. Objectives To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (April 2009). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Main results We identified five studies (3130 women). All studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks. When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, three studies, 2574 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women’s views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the incidence of Mendelson’s syndrome, an extremely rare outcome. Other comparisons

  19. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour.

    PubMed

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian Ml

    2010-01-20

    Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (April 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We identified five studies (3130 women). All studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks.When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, three studies, 2574 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women's views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the incidence of Mendelson's syndrome, an extremely rare outcome. Other comparisons showed similar findings, except one study did report a significant increase in caesarean sections for

  20. Temporomandibular joint biomechanical restrictions: the fluid and synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Cascone, P; Vetrano, S; Nicolai, G; Fabiani, F

    1999-07-01

    The authors analyze the functions of the synovial membrane and the chemical-physical properties of synovial fluid. In particular they evaluate the role played by synovial fluid in the complex mechanism of the temporomandibular joint. Every single part that belongs to the temporomandibular joint, together with the stomatognathic apparatus, plays a specific and particular role according to the dynamics and to the preservation of the correct temporomandibular joint physiology. The physiological postural and functional relationship between the various parts of the temporomandibular joint is guaranteed by a number of biomechanical restrictions that lead and influence the regular execution of the articular movements. The most involved biomechanical restrictions in the temporomandibular joint are the temporomandibular ligament, the lateral disc ligament, the bilaminar zone or retrodiscal tissue, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid.

  1. Effect of maternal intravenous fluid therapy on external cephalic version at term: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Jorge; Quintana, Eider; Cobos, Patricia; Osuna, Carmen; Centeno, María del Mar; Melchor, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    We sought to analyze whether maternal intravenous fluid therapy prior to external cephalic version (ECV) increases the amount of amniotic fluid and the success rate of the procedure. This was a prospective single-center cohort study of 200 women with a consecutive cohort of 100 pregnant women with a breech presentation at term who were administered intravenous fluid therapy with 2 L of hypotonic saline before the version attempt, compared to a control cohort of 100 pregnant women not given hydration treatment. The mean increase in the amniotic fluid index (AFI) after intravenous maternal hydration was 3.75 ± 2.71 cm. The amount of fluid before hydration was the only variable found to be associated with increases in amniotic fluid levels, both in absolute and relative terms (odds ratio, -0.21; 95% confidence interval, -0.37 to -0.05 and odds ratio, -4.62; 95% confidence interval, -6.17 to -3.06; P < .01, respectively). We did not observe any severe complications secondary to the intravenous fluid therapy. The ECV success rate was 43% in the study group compared to 47% in the control group (P = .67). The success rate was significantly lower the larger the relative increase in the AFI, although no correlation was found in absolute terms (χ(2) for linear trend = 0.03 and 0.34, respectively). Maternal intravenous fluid therapy with 2 L of hypotonic saline prior to ECV is an effective and safe technique for increasing the AFI. However, its use in ECV does not increase the success rate of the procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intravenous Fluid Therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury and Decompressive Craniectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The patient with head trauma is a challenge for the emergency physician and for the neurosurgeon. Currently traumatic brain injury constitutes a public health problem. Knowledge of the various supportive therapeutic strategies in the pre-hospital and pre-operative stages is essential for optimal care. The immediate rapid infusion of large volumes of crystalloids to restore blood volume and blood pressure is now the standard treatment of patients with combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). The fluid in patients with brain trauma and especially in patients with brain injur y is a critical issue. In this context we present a review of the literature about the history, physiology of current fluid preparations, and a discussion regarding the use of fluid therapy in traumatic brain injury and decompressive craniectomy. PMID:27162857

  3. Restrictive versus Standard Fluid Regimen in Elective Minilaparotomy Abdominal Aortic Repair-Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Piljic, Dragan; Petricevic, Mate; Piljic, Dilista; Ksela, Jus; Robic, Boris; Klokocovnik, Tomislav

    2016-06-01

    Objective Elective minilaparotomy abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is associated with a significant number of complications involving respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems, with mortality ranging up to 5%. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that intra- and postoperative intravenous restrictive fluid regimen reduces postoperative morbidity and mortality, and improves the outcome of minilaparotomy AAA repair. Methods From March 2009 to July 2013, 60 patients operated due to AAA were included in a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT). About the administration of fluid during the operation and in the early postoperative period, all the patients were randomized into two groups: the group of standard fluid administration (S-group, 30 patients) and the group of reduced fluid administration (R-group, 30 patients). The verification of the treatment success was measured by the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, duration of hospitalization after the procedure, as well as the number and type of postoperative complications and mortality. This prospective RCT was registered in a publicly accessible database ClinicalTrials.gov with unique Identifier ID: NTC01939652. Results Total fluid administration and administration of blood products were significantly lower in R-group as compared with S-group (2,445.5 mL vs. 3308.7 mL, p = 0.004). Though the number of nonlethal complications was significantly lower in R-group (2 vs. 9 patients, p = 0.042), the difference in lethal complications remained nonsignificant (0 vs. 1 patient, p = ns). The average ICU stay (1.2 vs. 1.97 days, p = 0.003) and duration of postoperative hospital stay (4.33 vs. 6.20 days, p = 0.035 for R-group and S-group, respectively) were found to be significantly shorter in R-group. Conclusion Intra- and postoperative restrictive intravenous fluid regimen in patients undergoing minilaparotomy AAA repair significantly reduces

  4. Three insulation methods to minimize intravenous fluid administration set heat loss.

    PubMed

    Piek, Richardt; Stein, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of three methods for insulating an intravenous (IV) fluid administration set on the temperature of warmed fluid delivered rapidly in a cold environment. The three chosen techniques for insulation of the IV fluid administration set involved enclosing the tubing of the set in 1) a cotton conforming bandage, 2) a reflective emergency blanket, and 3) a combination of technique 2 followed by technique 1. Intravenous fluid warmed to 44°C was infused through a 20-drop/mL 180-cm-long fluid administration set in a controlled environmental temperature of 5°C. Temperatures in the IV fluid bag, the distal end of the fluid administration set, and the environment were continuously measured with resistance thermosensors. Twenty repetitions were performed in four conditions, namely, a control condition (with no insulation) and the three different insulation methods described above. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the mean difference in temperature between the IV fluid bag and the distal fluid administration set under the four conditions. In the control condition, a mean of 5.28°C was lost between the IV fluid bag and the distal end of the fluid administration set. There was a significant difference found between the four conditions (p < 0.001). A mean of 3.53°C was lost between the IV fluid bag and the distal end of the fluid administration set for both the bandage and reflective emergency blanket, and a mean of 3.06°C was lost when the two methods were combined. Using inexpensive and readily available materials to insulate a fluid administration set can result in a reduction of heat loss in rapidly infused, warmed IV fluid in a cold environment.

  5. Warming of intravenous and irrigation fluids for preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gillian; Alderson, Phil; Smith, Andrew F; Warttig, Sheryl

    2015-04-13

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (a drop in core temperature to below 36°C) occurs because of interference with normal temperature regulation by anaesthetic drugs, exposure of skin for prolonged periods and receipt of large volumes of intravenous and irrigation fluids. If the temperature of these fluids is below core body temperature, they can cause significant heat loss. Warming intravenous and irrigation fluids to core body temperature or above might prevent some of this heat loss and subsequent hypothermia. To estimate the effectiveness of preoperative or intraoperative warming, or both, of intravenous and irrigation fluids in preventing perioperative hypothermia and its complications during surgery in adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid SP (1956 to 4 February 2014), EMBASE Ovid SP (1982 to 4 February 2014), the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1950 to 4 February 2014), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) EBSCOhost (1980 to 4 February 2014) and reference lists of identified articles. We also searched the Current Controlled Trials website and ClinicalTrials.gov. We included randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing fluid warming methods versus standard care or versus other warming methods used to maintain normothermia. Two review authors independently extracted data from eligible trials and settled disputes with a third review author. We contacted study authors to ask for additional details when needed. We collected data on adverse events only if they were reported in the trials. We included in this review 24 studies with a total of 1250 participants. The trials included various numbers and types of participants. Investigators used a range of methods to warm fluids to temperatures between 37°C and 41°C. We found that evidence was of moderate quality because descriptions of trial design were

  6. Restrictive and liberal fluid administration in major abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Qianyun; Liu, Hongliang; Chen, Bo; Jiang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether perioperative fluid restrictive administration can reduce specific postoperative complications in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google scholar, and article reference lists (up to December 2015) for studies that assessed fluid therapy and morbidity or mortality in patients undergoing major abdominal surgeries. The quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad scoring system, and a meta-analysis of the included randomized, controlled trials was conducted using Review Manager software, version 5.2. Results: Ten studies with a total of 1160 patients undergoing major abdominal surgeries were included. We found that perioperative restrictive fluid therapy could reduce the risk of postoperative infectious complications (odds ratio [OR]=0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.39-0.74, p=0.0001, I2=37%), pulmonary complications (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, p=0.03, I2=50%), and cardiac complications (OR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.69, p=0.0003, I2=48%), but had no effect on the risk of gastrointestinal complications (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.51-1.46, p=0.59, I2=0%), renal complications (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.43-1.34, p=0.35, I2=0%), and postoperative mortality (OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.25-1.50, p=0.29, I2=0%). Conclusion: Perioperative restrictive fluid administration was superior to liberal fluid administration in reducing the infectious, pulmonary and cardiac complications after major abdominal surgeries. PMID:28133683

  7. In-line Microwave Warmer for Blood and Intravenous Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-14

    program because it provides for Stem Integration of the two majcr subsystems: (1) Microwave Generator (energy delivery ) (2) Microwave qadiometer...devoted to the development of an engineering model (Engineering Model A) for demonstrating the primary design goal: Feedback control of the energy delivery ...ALGORITHM#I) controls energy delivery as a function of fluid temperature with a constant flow rate. The major components of Engineering Model A are

  8. Intravenous fluid and electrolyte administration in elective gastrointestinal surgery: mechanisms of excessive therapy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R G; Quayle, J; Stylianides, N; Carlson, G; Soop, M

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION While clinical guidelines stress the importance of the judicious perioperative intravenous fluid administration, data show that adherence to these protocols is poor. The reasons have not been identified. We therefore audited the magnitude and indications of fluid and electrolyte administration in a teaching hospital. We hypothesised that epidural analgesia is associated with excessive fluid therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Intravenous fluid and electrolyte administration during the day of surgery and the subsequent 2 days in consecutive patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery between November 2013 and May 2014 were retrospectively audited. Timing, volumes and indications were recorded. RESULTS One hundred patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal resection were studied. Patients received 9030 ml ± 2860 ml (mean ± standard deviation) intravenous fluids containing a total of 1180 ml ± 420 mmol sodium and resulting in a cumulative fluid balance of +5120 ml ± 2510 ml; 44% ± 14% of total volumes were given in theatre. Nearly all fluid was given for maintenance, 100% (96-100%, interquartile range), with 17 patients only receiving replacement or resuscitation. Independent predictors of increased volumes included open surgery, upper gastrointestinal surgery, increased duration and epidural analgesia but not body weight. Postoperative fluid volume was the only independent predictor of postoperative complication grade (P = 0.0044). CONCLUSIONS Despite published guidelines, perioperative fluid and electrolyte administration were excessive and were associated with postoperative morbidity. Substantial volumes were administered in theatre. Nearly all administration was for maintenance, yet patients received approximately five times the amount of sodium required. Epidural analgesia was an independent predictor of fluid volumes but body weight was not.

  9. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour.

    PubMed

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2013-08-22

    Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We identified 19 studies of which we included five, involving 3130 women. We excluded eight studies, one awaits classification and five are ongoing studies. All the included studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks.When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, four studies, 2902 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women's views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the

  10. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  11. Accuracy of Prehospital Intravenous Fluid Volume Measurement by Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Coppler, Patrick J; Padmanabhan, Rajagopala; Martin-Gill, Christian; Callaway, Clifton W; Yealy, Donald M; Seymour, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Prehospital treatment protocols call for intravenous (IV) fluid for patients with shock, yet the measurement accuracy of administered fluid volume is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to assess the accuracy of documented and self-reported fluid volumes administered to medical patients by paramedics during prehospital care. We conducted a pilot, observational study nested within a parent cohort study of prehospital biomarkers in a single EMS agency transporting patients to a tertiary care hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania over 8 months. Among eligible nontrauma, noncardiac arrest patients, we studied the self-reported IV fluid volume on ED arrival by paramedics, documented fluid volume in the EMS record, and compared those to the mass-derived fluid volume. We quantified the absolute error between methods, and determined EMS transport times or initial prehospital systolic blood pressure had any effect on error. We enrolled 50 patients who received prehospital IV fluid and had mass-derived fluid volume measured at ED arrival. Of these, 21 (42%) patients had IV fluid volume subsequently documented in EMS records. The median mass-derived fluid volume was 393 mL [IQR: 264-618 mL]. Mass-derived volume was similar for subjects who did (386 mL, IQR: 271-642 mL) or did not (399 mL, IQR: 253-602) have documented fluid administration (p > 0.05). The median self-reported fluid volume was 250 mL [IQR: 150-500 mL] and did not differ by documentation (p > 0.05). The median absolute error comparing self-reported to mass-derived fluid volume was 109 mL [IQR: 41-205 mL], and less than 250 mL in more than 80% of subjects. The median absolute error comparing documented fluid to mass-derived fluid volume was 142 mL [IQR: 64-265 mL], and was less than 250 mL in 71% of subjects. No difference in absolute error for either self-reported or document fluid volumes were modified by transport time or prehospital systolic blood pressure. Prehospital IV fluid administration is

  12. Fluid restriction in patients with heart failure: how should we think?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Peter; van der Wal, Martje Hl; Strömberg, Anna; Waldréus, Nana; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2016-08-01

    Fluid restriction has long been considered one of the cornerstones in self-care management of patients with heart failure. The aim of this discussion paper is to discuss fluid restriction in heart failure and propose advice about fluid intake in heart failure patients. Although there have been seven randomised studies on fluid restriction in heart failure patients, the effect of fluid restriction on its own were only evaluated in two studies. In both studies, a stringent fluid restriction compared to a liberal fluid intake was not more beneficial with regard to clinical stability or body weight. In the other studies fluid restriction was part of a larger study intervention including, for example, individualised dietary recommendations and follow-up by telephone. Thus, the effect of fluid restriction on its own has been poorly evaluated. Fluid restriction should not be recommended to all heart failure patients. However, temporary fluid restriction can be considered in decompensated heart failure and/or patients with hyponatremia. Tailored fluid restriction based on body weight (30 ml/kg per day) seems to be most reasonable. To increase adherence to temporary fluid restriction, education, support and planned evaluations can be recommended. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  13. Intravenous Fluid Bolus Prior to Neonatal and Infant Lumbar Puncture: A Sonographic Assessment of the Subarachnoid Space After Intravenous Fluid Administration.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jessica; Wang, Vincent J; Goodarzian, Fariba; Lai, Hollie A

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal and infant lumbar puncture is a commonly performed procedure in emergency departments, yet traumatic and unsuccessful lumbar punctures occur 30% to 50% of the time. Dehydration may be a risk factor for unsuccessful lumbar punctures, but to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the use of intravenous (IV) fluid bolus prior to lumbar puncture. To investigate the association of IV fluid bolus administration with the sonographic measure of the neonatal and infant lumbar subarachnoid space. We hypothesized that IV fluids would increase subarachnoid space size. Prospective observational study conducted from August 2012 to April 2015.The study took place at the emergency department of the Children's Hospital Los Angeles, an urban pediatric emergency department with an annual census of 76,000 visits.A convenience sample of patients aged 0 to 3 months were enrolled if they had a clinical presentation consistent with pyloric stenosis. This population was used as a proxy because they are similar in age to patients undergoing lumbar puncture for evaluation of neonatal fever and are routinely given IV fluids for dehydration. Patients with a sonographic diagnosis of pyloric stenosis underwent additional ultrasonography evaluation to determine the size of the subarachnoid space before and after IV fluids. Primary outcomes included the difference in the size of the subarachnoid space in millimeters squared before and 1 hour after administration of an IV fluid bolus in the emergency department. Interobserver consistency for the subarachnoid space measurement between attending radiologists was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to examine changes in subarachnoid space measurements (millimeters squared). The study sample consisted of 40 patients with a mean (SD) age of 37 (11.3) days (range, 15-71 days). The mean (SD) size of the subarachnoid space before and 1 hour after IV fluid bolus was 37.8 (11.1) mm(2) and 36

  14. Comparison of isotonic and hypotonic intravenous maintenance fluids: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jeremy N; Beck, Carolyn E; DeGroot, Julie; Geary, Denis F; Sklansky, Daniel J; Freedman, Stephen B

    2015-05-01

    Use of hypotonic intravenous fluids for maintenance requirements is associated with increased risk of hyponatremia that results in morbidity and mortality in children. Clinical trial data comparing isotonic and hypotonic maintenance fluids in nonsurgical hospitalized pediatric patients outside intensive care units are lacking. To compare isotonic (sodium chloride, 0.9%, and dextrose, 5%) with hypotonic (sodium chloride, 0.45%, and dextrose, 5%) intravenous maintenance fluids in a hospitalized general pediatric population. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial,we recruited 110 children admitted to a general pediatric unit of a tertiary care children's hospital from March 1, 2008, through August 31, 2012 (age range, 1 month to 18 years), with normal baseline serum sodium levels who were anticipated to require intravenous maintenance fluids for 48 hours or longer (intent-to-treat analyses). Children with diagnoses that required specific fluid tonicity and volumes were excluded. Patients were randomized to receive isotonic or hypotonic intravenous fluid at maintenance rates for 48 hours. The primary outcome was mean serum sodium level at 48 hours. The secondary outcomes were mean sodium level at 24 hours, hyponatremia and hypernatremia, weight gain, hypertension, and edema. Confounding variables were included in multiple regression models. Post hoc analyses included change from baseline sodium level at 24 and 48 hours and subgroup analysis of children with primary respiratory diagnosis. Of 110 enrolled patients, 54 received isotonic fluids and 56 received hypotonic fluids. The mean (SD) sodium level at 48 hours was 139.9 (2.7) mEq/L in the isotonic group and 139.6 (2.6) mEq/L in the hypotonic group (95% CI of the difference, -0.94 to 1.74 mEq/L; P = .60). Two patients in the hypotonic group developed hyponatremia, 1 in each group developed hypernatremia, 2 in each group developed hypertension, and 2 in the isotonic group developed edema. Mean (SD

  15. Comparison of oral and intravenous fluid therapy in newborns with hypernatremic dehydration.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Aydin; Kahramaner, Zelal; Cosar, Hese; Turkoglu, Ebru; Kanik, Ali; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Ozer, Esra Arun

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and complications of oral and intravenous fluid therapy in newborns with hypernatremic dehydration. A total of 75 term and near-term (>35 weeks) neonates with hypernatremic dehydration (Na ≥ 150 mmol/L) were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into two groups according to therapy approach for rehydration (breast milk-oral formula and intravenous fluid). The decline in sodium concentration (<0.5 mmol/L/h was regarded as safe drop) and complications were analyzed. The mean gestational age, birth weight and age at admission were 38.9 ± 1.4(36-42) weeks, 3341 ± 504 (2500-4500) gram and 4.3 ± 2.6 (1-17) day, respectively. Fever (61.8%) and jaundice (39.4%) were the most common presenting signs. Forty-four (58.6%) of the infants were treated with breast milk and/or oral formula (group 1) and 31 (41.4%) of the infants were treated with IV fluid (group 2). In group 1 and group 2, respectively, mean % weight loss, 5 and 7.5; median serum sodium at admission, 153 and 152 mmol/L; median change in sodium at 12 hours, 7 and 11 mmol/L; and median change in sodium at 24 hours, 10 and 15 mmol/L. The decline in sodium concentration was more safely in group 1 than group 2 at both 12 and 24 hours of rehydration. One patient had convulsion associated with cerebral edema in group 2. Otherwise no complication was observed in both groups. Enteral route for fluid replacement may be safe and effective and may be an alternative to intravenous fluid therapy in newborns with hypernatremic dehydration when clinical situation is stable.

  16. A Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management Protocol Incorporating a Two-Bag Intravenous Fluid System Decreases Duration of Intravenous Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Kourtney; Norman, Susan; Brock, Michael Alan; Peng, Monica; Shenk, Jennifer; Chen, Jerome Gene

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes. We implemented a standardized DKA management protocol by using a 2-bag intravenous (IV) fluid system. The purpose of the study was to examine if the protocol improved clinical outcomes and process efficiency. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who did and did not undergo the protocol. Patients were included if they were 18 years of age or younger, were diagnosed with DKA, admitted to an intensive care unit or stepdown unit, and received continuous IV insulin. RESULTS: Of 119 encounters evaluated, 46 (38.7%) received treatment with the protocol and 73 (61.3%) did not. The median time to normalization of ketoacidosis was 9 hours (IQR 5–12) and 9 hours (IQR 6.5–13) for protocol and non-protocol groups, respectively (p = 0.14). The median duration of IV insulin therapy was 16.9 hours (IQR 13.7–21.5) vs. 21 hours (IQR 15.3–26) for protocol and non-protocol groups (p = 0.03). The median number of adjustments to insulin drip rate was 0 (IQR 0–1) and 2 (IQR 0–3) for protocol and non-protocol groups (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, or cerebral edema. CONCLUSIONS: The protocol did not change time to normalization of ketoacidosis but did decrease the duration of insulin therapy, number of adjustments to insulin drip rate, and number of wasted IV fluid bags without increasing the incidence of adverse events. PMID:28018153

  17. A Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management Protocol Incorporating a Two-Bag Intravenous Fluid System Decreases Duration of Intravenous Insulin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Veverka, Megan; Marsh, Kourtney; Norman, Susan; Brock, Michael Alan; Peng, Monica; Shenk, Jennifer; Chen, Jerome Gene

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes. We implemented a standardized DKA management protocol by using a 2-bag intravenous (IV) fluid system. The purpose of the study was to examine if the protocol improved clinical outcomes and process efficiency. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients who did and did not undergo the protocol. Patients were included if they were 18 years of age or younger, were diagnosed with DKA, admitted to an intensive care unit or stepdown unit, and received continuous IV insulin. RESULTS: Of 119 encounters evaluated, 46 (38.7%) received treatment with the protocol and 73 (61.3%) did not. The median time to normalization of ketoacidosis was 9 hours (IQR 5-12) and 9 hours (IQR 6.5-13) for protocol and non-protocol groups, respectively (p = 0.14). The median duration of IV insulin therapy was 16.9 hours (IQR 13.7-21.5) vs. 21 hours (IQR 15.3-26) for protocol and non-protocol groups (p = 0.03). The median number of adjustments to insulin drip rate was 0 (IQR 0-1) and 2 (IQR 0-3) for protocol and non-protocol groups (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, or cerebral edema. CONCLUSIONS: The protocol did not change time to normalization of ketoacidosis but did decrease the duration of insulin therapy, number of adjustments to insulin drip rate, and number of wasted IV fluid bags without increasing the incidence of adverse events.

  18. Perioperative restricted fluid therapy preserves immunological function in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jie, Hong-Ying; Ye, Ji-Lu; Zhou, Hai-Hua; Li, Yun-Xiang

    2014-11-14

    To investigate the effect of perioperative restricted fluid therapy on circulating CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio, percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg) and postoperative complications in patients with colorectal cancer. A total of 185 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the randomized clinical trial. These patients were divided into two groups according to receipt of either perioperative standard (S, n = 89) or restricted (R, n = 96) fluid therapy. Clinical data of these patients were collected in this prospective study. Perioperative complications and cellular immunity changes (CD4(+)/CD8(+) and Treg) were analyzed comparatively between the two groups. Both during surgery and on postoperative days, the total volumes of fluids administered in the R group were significantly lower than those in the S group (1620 ± 430 mL vs 3110 ± 840 mL; 2090 ± 360 mL vs 2750 ± 570 mL; 1750 ± 260 mL vs 2740 ± 490 mL; 1620 ± 310 mL vs 2520 ± 300 mL; P < 0.05). Decreased ratios of circulating CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes (1.47 ± 0.28 vs 2.13 ± 0.26; 1.39 ± 0.32 vs 2.21 ± 0.24; P < 0.05) and Treg percentage values (2.79 ± 1.24 vs 4.26 ± 1.04; 2.46 ± 0.98 vs 4.30 ± 1.12; P < 0.05) were observed after surgery in both groups. However, in the R group, these values restored more quickly starting from postoperative day 2 (1.44 ± 0.24 vs 1.34 ± 0.27; 2.93 ± 1.08 vs 2.52 ± 0.96; P < 0.05). The proportion of patients with complications was significantly lower in the restricted group (36 of 89 vs 59 of 96, P < 0.01). Perioperative restricted intravenous fluid regimen leads to a low postoperative complication rate and better cellular immunity preservation in patients with colorectal cancer.

  19. Effect of warm intravenous and irrigating fluids on body temperature during transurethral resection of the prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Okeke, L I

    2007-09-18

    Transurethral resection of the prostate gland with irrigation fluid at room temperature leads to perioperative hypothermia which could give rise to adverse cardiovascular events in the perioperative period. The use of isothermic irrigation fluid reduces but does not eliminate this risk. Routine use of warm intravenous fluids along with isothermic irrigation had not been documented. This study set out to investigate the effect of the use of warm intravenous fluid together with isothermic irrigation fluid on the body temperature in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate gland. One hundred and twenty consented patients with obstructing benign prostatic hyperplasia were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups. Group 1 received irrigation and intravenous fluids at room temperature, group 2 received warmed irrigation fluid at 38 degrees C along with intravenous fluid at room temperature while group 3 patients received warmed irrigation fluid and warmed intravenous fluids at 38 degrees C. Their perioperative body temperature changes were monitored, analyzed and compared. The mean decrease in body temperature at the end of the procedure was significantly greater in group 1 (0.98 +/- 0.56 degrees C) than in group 2 (0.42 +/- .21 degrees C) (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients in group 1 also experienced shivering. However, in group 3, there was no significant change in the mean body temperature (p > 0.05) and none of them felt cold or shivered. It is concluded that the use of isothermic irrigation fluid together with warm intravenous fluids during TURP prevents the occurrence of perioperative hypothermia.

  20. A multi-center randomized trial of two different intravenous fluids during labor

    PubMed Central

    DAPUZZO-ARGIRIOU, Lisa M.; SMULIAN, John C.; ROCHON, Meredith L.; GALDI, Luisa; KISSLING, Jessika M.; SCHNATZ, Peter F.; RIOS, Angel GONZALEZ; AIROLDI, James; CARRILLO, Mary Anne; MAINES, Jaimie; KUNSELMAN, Allen R.; REPKE, John; LEGRO, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine if the intrapartum use of a 5% glucose-containing intravenous solution decreases the chance of a cesarean delivery for women presenting in active labor. Methods This was a multi-center, prospective, single (patient) blind, randomized study design implemented at 4 obstetric residency programs in Pennsylvania. Singleton, term, consenting women presenting in active spontaneous labor with a cervical dilation of <6cm were randomized to lactated Ringer's with or without 5% glucose (LR versus D5LR) as their maintenance intravenous fluid. The primary outcome was the cesarean birth rate. Secondary outcomes included labor characteristics, as well as maternal or neonatal complications. Results There were 309 women analyzed. Demographic variables and admitting cervical dilation were similar among study groups. There was no significant difference in the cesarean delivery rate for the D5LR group (23/153 or 15.0%) versus the LR arm (18/156 or 11.5%), [RR (95%CI) of 1.32 (0.75, 2.35), P=0.34]. There were no differences in augmentation rates or intrapartum complications. Conclusions The use of intravenous fluid containing 5% dextrose does not lower the chance of cesarean delivery for women admitted in active labor. PMID:25758624

  1. A multi-center randomized trial of two different intravenous fluids during labor.

    PubMed

    Dapuzzo-Argiriou, Lisa M; Smulian, John C; Rochon, Meredith L; Galdi, Luisa; Kissling, Jessika M; Schnatz, Peter F; Gonzalez Rios, Angel; Airoldi, James; Carrillo, Mary Anne; Maines, Jaimie; Kunselman, Allen R; Repke, John; Legro, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the intrapartum use of a 5% glucose-containing intravenous solution decreases the chance of a cesarean delivery for women presenting in active labor. This was a multi-center, prospective, single (patient) blind, randomized study design implemented at four obstetric residency programs in Pennsylvania. Singleton, term, consenting women presenting in active spontaneous labor with a cervical dilation of <6 cm were randomized to lactated Ringer's with or without 5% glucose (LR versus D5LR) as their maintenance intravenous fluid. The primary outcome was the cesarean birth rate. Secondary outcomes included labor characteristics, as well as maternal or neonatal complications. There were 309 women analyzed. Demographic variables and admitting cervical dilation were similar among study groups. There was no significant difference in the cesarean delivery rate for the D5LR group (23/153 or 15.0%) versus the LR arm (18/156 or 11.5%), [RR (95% CI) of 1.32 (0.75, 2.35), p = 0.34]. There were no differences in augmentation rates or intrapartum complications. The use of intravenous fluid containing 5% dextrose does not lower the chance of cesarean delivery for women admitted in active labor.

  2. Effects on health of fluid restriction during fasting in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Leiper, J B; Molla, A M; Molla, A M

    2003-12-01

    During the 9th month (Ramadan) of the Islamic calendar (Hijra) many millions of adult Muslims all over the world fast during the daylight hours. Since Hijra is a lunar calendar, Ramadan occurs at different times in the seasonal year over a 33-year cycle. Fasting during Ramadan is partial because the abstention from food, fluid, tobacco and caffeine is from sunrise to sunset. Several categories of people are exempt or can postpone the Ramadan fast. The effect on health and well being of the month-long intermittent fast and fluid restriction has been studied in various potentially vulnerable groups in addition to normal healthy individuals in many countries. The majority of the studies have found significant metabolic changes, but few health problems arising from the fast. A reduction in drug compliance was an inherent negative aspect of the fast. Common findings of the studies reviewed were increased irritability and incidences of headaches with sleep deprivation and lassitude prevalent. A small body mass loss is a frequent, but not universal, outcome of Ramadan. During the daylight hours of Ramadan fasting, practising Muslims are undoubtedly dehydrating, but it is not clear whether they are chronically hypohydrated during the month of Ramadan. No detrimental effects on health have as yet been directly attributed to negative water balance at the levels that may be produced during Ramadan.

  3. Restrictive versus liberal fluid therapy in major abdominal surgery (RELIEF): rationale and design for a multicentre randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Paul; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Corcoran, Tomas; Forbes, Andrew; Wallace, Sophie; Peyton, Philip; Christophi, Chris; Story, David; Leslie, Kate; Serpell, Jonathan; McGuinness, Shay; Parke, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The optimal intravenous fluid regimen for patients undergoing major abdominal surgery is unclear. However, results from many small studies suggest a restrictive regimen may lead to better outcomes. A large, definitive clinical trial evaluating perioperative fluid replacement in major abdominal surgery, therefore, is required. Methods/analysis We designed a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial (the RELIEF trial). A total of 3000 patients were enrolled in this study and randomly allocated to a restrictive or liberal fluid regimen in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by centre and planned critical care admission. The expected fluid volumes in the first 24 hour from the start of surgery in restrictive and liberal groups were ≤3.0 L and ≥5.4 L, respectively. Patient enrolment is complete, and follow-up for the primary end point is ongoing. The primary outcome is disability-free survival at 1 year after surgery, with disability defined as a persistent (at least 6 months) reduction in functional status using the 12-item version of the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule. Ethics/dissemination The RELIEF trial has been approved by the responsible ethics committees of all participating sites. Participant recruitment began in March 2013 and was completed in August 2016, and 1-year follow-up will conclude in August 2017. Publication of the results of the RELIEF trial is anticipated in early 2018. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01424150. PMID:28259855

  4. Effect of Intravenous Fluids and Analgesia on Dysmotility in Patients With Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Landy M; Pendharkar, Sayali A; Asrani, Varsha M; Windsor, John A; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-08-01

    Analgesia and intravenous fluid resuscitation are cornerstones of initial patient management in acute pancreatitis (AP). The aim was to investigate the effect of intravenous fluids and analgesia on gastrointestinal motility in the early course of AP. Gastrointestinal dysmotility was assessed using the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index (GCSI). One-way analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, severity of AP, preexisting diabetes mellitus, and time from first symptom onset to hospital admission. A total of 108 patients with AP were prospectively enrolled. Opioid analgesia, when compared with nonopioid analgesia, was significantly associated with increase in total GCSI score in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. There was no significant difference between aggressive and nonaggressive fluid resuscitation in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. A combination of opioids and any intravenous fluids was associated with a significantly increased total GCSI score compared with opioids and no intravenous fluids in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Duration of symptoms was the confounder that significantly affected 6 of 9 studied associations. Intravenous fluids and analgesia significantly affect motility independent of severity and other covariates. Guidelines on prudent use of opioids and fluids in AP need to be developed, particularly taking into account duration of symptoms from onset to hospitalization.

  5. Medical Grade Water Generation for Intravenous Fluid Production on Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Barlow, Karen L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements for medical care during NASA s future Exploration class missions. It further discusses potential methods for generating such fluids and the challenges associated with different fluid generation technologies. The current Exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. Conclusions on the fluid volume requirements are presented, and the feasibility of various fluid generation options are discussed. A separate report will document a more complete trade study on the options to provide the required fluids.At the time this document was developed, NASA had not yet determined requirements for medical care during Exploration missions. As a result, this study was based on the current requirements for care onboard the International Space Station (ISS). While we expect that medical requirements will be different for Exploration missions, this document will provide a useful baseline for not only developing hardware to generate medical water for injection (WFI), but as a foundation for meeting future requirements. As a final note, we expect WFI requirements for Exploration will be higher than for ISS care, and system capacity may well need to be higher than currently specified.

  6. Liberal versus restricted fluid administration in heart failure patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Fu, Biao; Qian, Xiaoxian

    2015-01-01

    Restrictive fluid intake is recommended, in addition to standard pharmacologic treatment, in the treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, this recommendation lacks firm scientific evidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials to estimate the effect of fluid restriction in patients with heart failure.Randomized controlled trials were identified in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases using the search-keywords "fluid" and "heart failure". Outcomes were compared in heart failure patients with liberal and restricted fluid intake. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated using random effects models. Studies focusing on decompensated heart failure were analyzed separately.Six small randomized trials comparing liberal and restricted fluid intake met the inclusion criteria. Significant heterogeneity was noted in the reported studies for several outcomes. There were no differences in readmission rate (5 studies, pooled RR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.86 to 2.01; P = 0.2), mortality rate (5 studies, pooled RR = 1.50; 95% CI: 0.87 to 2.57; P = 0.14), perceived thirst (4 studies, WMD = -0.7; 95% CI: -2.58 to 1.17; P = 0.46), duration of intravenous diuretics (2 studies, WMD = 0.17; 95% CI: -1.26 to 1.6; P = 0.81) or serum sodium levels (WMD = -1.61; 95% CI: -3.28 to 0.07; P = 0.06) between the liberal fluid intake group and the restrictive fluid intake group. Mean serum creatinine and BNP levels were significantly higher in the liberal fluid group: WMD 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.25; P < 0.00001) and 172.59 (95% CI: 67.38 to 277.8; P = 0.001), respectively. There was no difference in any of the outcomes after correcting for heterogeneity.While studies to date are limited by heterogeneity and small sample sizes, the combined data suggest similar clinical outcomes in patients with CHF managed with liberal and restrictive fluid intake. Larger studies are needed to confirm

  7. Evaluation of fluid bolus administration rates using ruggedized field intravenous systems.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Theodore R

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2 ruggedized field intravenous (IV) systems currently in use by US military medics and to determine their effect on fluid bolus administration rates. A series of 500 mL fluid boluses consisting of either Lactated Ringer's solution or Hextend were delivered to 2 artificial intravenous training arms using a standard 18G catheter (control) and 2 separate ruggedized field IV systems. Fluid boluses were delivered under both gravity force and pressure infusion (constant 300 mm Hg), and total bolus times were recorded. Using Lactated Ringer's solution, the standard IV system took a mean time of 9:33 minutes (95% CI: 9:13-9:54) to deliver a 500 mL fluid bolus whereas the 2 ruggedized field systems took mean times of 14:50 minutes (95% CI: 14:00-15:40) and 12:20 minutes (95% CI: 11:54-12:45). Using Hextend, the mean bolus time for the control system was 24:39 minutes (95% CI: 22:47-26:32). The 2 ruggedized field systems required an average of 49:32 minutes (95% CI: 48:07-50:58) and 39:46 minutes (95% CI: 37:30-42:01) to deliver an equivalent bolus. Pressure infusion significantly increased flow rate in all systems. Ruggedized field IV systems can significantly delay fluid bolus rates. In instances where ruggedized field systems are deemed necessary, pressure infusion devices should be considered to overcome the constrictive effects of the ruggedized system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Neonatal sepsis in Egypt associated with bacterial contamination of glucose-containing intravenous fluids.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kelly L; Kainer, Marion A; Badrawi, Nadia; Afifi, Salma; Wasfy, Momtaz; Bashir, Moataza; Jarvis, William R; Graham, Tae Wha; el-Kholy, Amani; Gipson, Reginald; Jernigan, Daniel B; Mahoney, Frank

    2005-07-01

    Rates of sepsis exceeding 50% in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Cairo, Egypt, were not controlled by routine antimicrobial therapy. We investigated these conditions in September 2001. Case series and retrospective cohort studies were conducted on 2 groups of NICU infants admitted to an academic medical center between February 12 and July 31, 2001. Observation of clinical practices led us to culture in-use intravenous (i.v.) fluids and medications. We monitored rates of i.v. fluid contamination, clinical sepsis and mortality after interventions to establish new procedures for handling and disposal of i.v. fluids, infection control training and improved clinical laboratory capacity. Among infants in the retrospective cohort group, 88 (77%) of 115 had clinical sepsis, and 59 (51%) died. In the case series group, we documented the time of initial positive blood culture; 21 (64%) of 33 were septic <24 hours after birth. Klebsiella pneumoniae accounted for 24 (73%) of 33 isolates; 14 (58%) of 24 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and aminoglycoside-resistant. On admission, all neonates received glucose-containing i.v. fluids; i.v. bottles (500 mL) were divided among multiple infants. The i.v. fluids were prepared at the bedside; poor hand hygiene and poor adherence to aseptic techniques were observed. K. pneumoniae was isolated from 13 (65%) of 20 in-use glucose-containing i.v. fluids. Fluid contamination, sepsis and mortality rates declined significantly after intervention. Extrinsically contaminated i.v. fluids resulted in sepsis and deaths. Standard infection control precautions significantly improve mortality and sepsis rates and are prerequisites for safe NICU care.

  9. Use of infrared thermometry to measure lavage and intravenous fluid temperature.

    PubMed

    Wright, R O; Jay, G D; Becker, B M; Linakis, J G

    1995-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the accuracy of tympanic thermometers for measuring the temperature of warmed fluids in fluid bags and in tubing at the delivery site (ie, beside the intravenous [IV] catheter). One-liter 0.9% saline bags were warmed in a microwave oven. A thermocouple electronic temperature probe was then used to measure the reference temperature. The probe was inserted into each bag and bathed in the fluid. Temperature changes were recorded simultaneously over a 20-minute period using the probe and a First Temp Tympanic Thermometer (Intelligent Medical Systems, Inc, Carlsbad, CA). The warmed fluid was then allowed to run through microdrip IV tubing. Temperature of the effluent was measured in the tubing using the tympanic thermometer externally and the probe internally at the same point. The two measures were compared using linear regression and Student's t tests. Overall, the correlation between the two probes was r = 0.99 for both the fluid bags and the IV tubing. The overall mean differences were small, 0.7 degrees C and 1.2 degrees C for the bags and tubing, respectively, but they were statistically different (P > .05). Data were analyzed in three temperature ranges: < 36 degrees C, 36 degrees C to 41 degrees C, and 41 degrees C. Again, small differences were found on the order of 1 degree C. It was concluded that infrared thermometry is an accurate method for measuring the initial and delivery temperature of warmed fluids. Although tympanic thermometer measurements were statistically different from reference readings in certain temperature ranges, these differences were small and not clinically significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. A randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of the effects of fluid rate and/or presence of dextrose in intravenous fluids on the labor course of nulliparas.

    PubMed

    Fong, Alex; Serra, Allison E; Caballero, Deysi; Garite, Thomas J; Shrivastava, Vineet K

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged labor has been demonstrated to increase adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. A practice that may decrease the risk of prolonged labor is the modification of fluid intake during labor. Several studies demonstrated that increased hydration in labor as well as addition of dextrose-containing fluids may be associated with a decrease in length of labor. The purpose of our study was to characterize whether high-dose intravenous fluids, standard-dose fluids with dextrose, or high-dose fluids with dextrose show a difference in the duration of labor in nulliparas. Nulliparous subjects with singletons who presented in active labor were randomized to 1 of 3 groups of intravenous fluids: 250 mL/h of normal saline, 125 mL/h of 5% dextrose in normal saline, or 250 mL/h of 2.5% dextrose in normal saline. The primary outcome was total length of labor from initiation of intravenous fluid in vaginally delivered subjects. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery rate and length of second stage of labor, among other maternal and neonatal outcomes. In all, 274 subjects who met inclusion criteria were enrolled. There were no differences in baseline characteristics among the 3 groups. There was no difference in the primary outcome of total length of labor in vaginally delivered subjects among the 3 groups. First stage of labor duration, second stage of labor duration, and cesarean delivery rates were also equivalent. There were no differences identified in other secondary outcomes including clinical chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, blood loss, Apgar scores, or neonatal intensive care admission. There is no difference in length of labor or delivery outcomes when comparing high-dose intravenous fluids, addition of dextrose, or use of high-dose intravenous fluids with dextrose in nulliparous women who present in active labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of intravenous fluid warming during goal-directed fluid therapy in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Won; Park, Jung-Bo; Lee, Gyu-Hong

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intravenous (IV) fluid warming in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomly assigned to receive either IV fluids at room temperature (control group) or warmed IV fluids (warm fluids group). Each patient received a standardized goal-directed fluid regimen based on stroke volume variances. Oesophageal temperature was measured at 15 min intervals for 2 h after induction of anaesthesia. A total of 52 patients were enrolled in the study. The drop in core temperature in the warm fluids group was significantly less than in the control group 2 h after the induction of anaesthesia. This significant difference was seen from 30 min after induction. IV fluid warming was associated with a smaller drop in core temperature than room temperature IV fluids in laparoscopic colorectal surgery incorporating goal-directed fluid therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Failure of intravenous fluid therapies to decrease serum sodium levels in elderly hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Sharila; DeVita, Maria V; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Michelis, Michael F

    2002-01-01

    Elderly patients may have a tendency to develop hyponatremia due to sensitivity to stimuli that release ADH as well as an impaired ability to excrete a water load. We evaluated changes in serum sodium in elderly hospitalized patients who received various forms of intravenous fluid therapies. All patients were required to have a baseline serum sodium of 136-145 meq/L. Fourteen patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 82.9 +/- 6.8 years (mean +/- SEM). Thirty-six % were nursing home residents. Seventy-nine % were females. Seventy-two % received half normal saline and the remainder received normal saline as intravenous fluid therapy. The patients received a mean of 1098 +/- 145 mL of intravenous fluid per day, in addition to oral fluids. Mean follow up period was 5.9 days (3-10 days). Mean baseline serum sodium was 140.2 +/- 0.7 meq/L andmean follow up serum sodium was 141.4 +/- 0.9 meq/L. The m ean baseline BUN was 25 +/- 3.6 mg/dL and mean follow u BUN was 19.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL. The mean baseline serum creatinine was 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/dL and mean follow up creatinine was 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/dL. The postintravenous fluid therapy serum sodium in the group receiving half normal saline was 141.7 +/- 0.7 meq/L and 140.8 +/- 3 meq/L in the normal saline group. No significant difference was observed between the pre and post fluid therapy for any of these paramenters (p > 0.05). Mean baseline plasma renin activity was 1.6 +/- 0.7 ng/ml/hour and fifty-seven % had PRA of less than 1 ng/ml/hour. Mean plasma aldosterone was 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/mL and forty-two % were less than 5.5 ng/mL. Plasma ADH and ANP was 5.7 +/- 3.4 pg/mL and 83.6 +/- 26.9 pg/mL, respectively. Mean serum and urine osmolalities were 290 +/- 3.1 mOsm/kg and 471 +/- 57.7 mOsm/kg, respectively. No patient developed hyponatremia and 7 of the 14 patients experienced an increase in serum sodium during the follow up period. We conclude that many elderly patients hospitalized for acute medical illnesses either

  13. Treatment of rhinocerebral mucormycosis with intravenous interstitial, and cerebrospinal fluid administration of amphotericin B: case report.

    PubMed

    Adler, D E; Milhorat, T H; Miller, J I

    1998-03-01

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is extremely difficult to treat. Approximately 70% of patients are poorly controlled diabetics, and many of the remainder are immunocompromised as a consequence of cytotoxic drugs, burn injuries, or end-stage renal disease. Despite standard treatment consisting of surgical debridement and the intravenous administration of amphotericin B, rhinocerebral mucormycosis is usually a fatal disease. We describe the case of a 16-year-old male patient with juvenile onset diabetes mellitus who presented with fever, right-sided hemiparesis, and dysarthria. Axial view computed tomography revealed abscess formation in the left basal ganglia and frontal lobe, which was proven by stereotactic biopsy to contain Rhizopus oryzae. Intravenous administration of amphotericin B (30-280 mg/dose) was begun on the day of admission. On hospital Day 20, after the occurrence of frank abscess formation, the lesion was aggressively debrided. Despite these therapies, there was neurological deterioration characterized by the development of hemiplegia and aphasia. Sequential computed tomographic scans enhanced with contrast medium demonstrated progressively enlarging lesions. Ommaya reservoirs were placed into the abscess cavity and the frontal horn of the contralateral lateral ventricle. The patient was then treated with intracavitary/interstitial injections of amphotericin B during the course of 80 days and three doses of intraventricular amphotericin B. Clinical and radiographic improvement was achieved after treatment. Two years after the initial diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no evidence of disease and an examination revealed a neurologically intact and fully functional patient. We conclude that with an infection as morbid as rhinocerebral mucormycosis, it is advisable to use surgical debridement and all available routes for delivering amphotericin B to infected cerebral parenchyma, which include intravenous, intracavitary/interstitial, and

  14. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an intravenous line and fluid bottle fixation design.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Piao-Yi; Chien, Chih-Yin; Shiu, Ting-Ru; Lin, Pei-Jiun; Lin, Wan-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Rung

    2015-01-01

    It's important to improve the stability of intravenous (IV) lines and bottles during patient activity and nursing care. We developed an intravenous line and fluid bottle fixation design (ILFBFD) which includes a bottle retaining clip and line fixation kit. We randomly assigned 60 participants each to the experimental and control groups. Participants were asked to push an IV stand without and with ILFBFD 11 meters on uneven pavement and a sloping floor. The distance the IV bottle moved was recorded. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the opinions of the participants. Use of ILFBFD, resulted in less movement in the anteroposterior and left/right directions (differences of 46.98 cm2, t= 12.80, p < 0.000 and 39.24 cm2, t= 8.01, p< 0.000, respectively) compared with not using ILFBFD. The average scores for bottle movement when participants walked on a flat floor, uneven pavement and sloping floor, IV line tangling and dropping, and organization of Liv lines were significantly better in those using than not using ILFBFD. The results can be used in clinical practice to reduce knotting of IV lines, and to enhance the safety and quality of patient care.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Restrictive Fluid Management in Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Stroustrup, Annemarie; Trasande, Leonardo; Holzman, Ian R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of mild fluid restriction on the hospital course of neonates with transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). Study design This is a pilot prospective randomized controlled trial of 64 late preterm and term neonates diagnosed with TTN at a single tertiary-care hospital in the United States. Patients were randomized to receive standard fluid management or mild fluid restriction. Primary outcome was duration of respiratory support. Secondary outcomes were duration of admission to the ICU, time to first enteral feed, and total and composite hospital charges. Results were analyzed by t-test, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier estimation and proportional hazards regression. Results Fluid restriction did not cause adverse events or unsafe dehydration. Fluid management strategy did not affect primary or secondary outcomes in the broad study population. Fluid restriction significantly reduced duration of respiratory support (p=0.008) and hospitalization costs (p=0.017) for neonates with severe TTN. Conclusions Mild fluid restriction appears safe in late preterm and term neonates with uncomplicated TTN. Fluid restriction may be of benefit in decreasing duration of respiratory support and hospitalization charges in term and late preterm neonates with uncomplicated severe TTN. PMID:21839467

  16. Intravenous S-Ketamine Does Not Inhibit Alveolar Fluid Clearance in a Septic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Nina C.; van der Sluijs, Koen; Hackl, Florian; Hotz, Lorenz; Dahan, Albert; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that intratracheally administered S-ketamine inhibits alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), whereas an intravenous (IV) bolus injection had no effect. The aim of the present study was to characterize whether continuous IV infusion of S-ketamine, yielding clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits AFC and whether its effect is enhanced in acute lung injury (ALI) which might favor the appearance of IV S-ketamine at the alveolar surface. AFC was measured in fluid-instilled rat lungs. S-ketamine was administered IV over 6 h (loading dose: 20 mg/kg, followed by 20 mg/kg/h), or intratracheally by addition to the instillate (75 µg/ml). ALI was induced by IV lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-6 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-3 were measured by ELISA in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Isolated rat alveolar type-II cells were exposed to S-ketamine (75 µg/ml) and/or LPS (1 mg/ml) for 6 h, and transepithelial ion transport was measured as short circuit current (ISC). AFC was 27±5% (mean±SD) over 60 min in control rats and was unaffected by IV S-ketamine. Tracheal S-ketamine reduced AFC to 18±9%. In LPS-treated rats, AFC decreased to 16±6%. This effect was not enhanced by IV S-ketamine. LPS increased IL-6 and CINC-3 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In alveolar type-II cells, S-ketamine reduced ISC by 37% via a decrease in amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport. Continuous administration of IV S-ketamine does not affect rat AFC even in endotoxin-induced ALI. Tracheal application with direct exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to S-ketamine decreases AFC by inhibition of amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport. PMID:25386677

  17. Intravenous isotonic fluids induced a positive trend in natraemia in children admitted to a general paediatric ward.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Juan Diego; Morell, Carlos; Vento, Maximo

    2016-06-01

    Using hypotonic intravenous solutions for baseline fluid needs in paediatric patients on a nil by mouth diet may cause serious complications, including hyponatraemia, cerebral oedema and even death. We analysed the evolution of natraemia and explored any adverse effects on children treated with intravenous isotonic fluids. This was a prospective study of 50 patients consecutively admitted to a general paediatric ward who were treated with isotonic intravenous fluids and on a nil by mouth diet. The most prevalent diagnosis was acute gastroenteritis (64%). Hyponatraemia, defined as sodium in plasma of <135 mEq/L, affected 22% of the subjects, but none displayed this during the first postadmission analysis at a median of eight hours. Sodium levels changed by an average of +0.64 mEq/L/hour. The subgroup analysis (0.91 versus 0.56 mEq/L/hour, p = 0.02) and multiple linear regression (R(2) = 0.756) showed a greater increase in sodium when patients had hyponatraemia on admission. Iatrogenic hyponatraemia was not detected, but two patients showed mild hypernatraemia and 35% developed clinically insignificant hyperchloraemia. Using intravenous isotonic fluids induced a positive trend in natraemia on a general paediatric ward, particularly if patients were hyponatraemic when admitted, and did not induce clinically relevant adverse effects. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  19. Can intravenous iron therapy meet the unmet needs created by the new restrictions on erythropoietic stimulating agents?

    PubMed

    Shander, Aryeh; Spence, Richard K; Auerbach, Michael

    2010-03-01

    In 2008, after reports of an association between erythropoietic stimulating agent (ESA) therapy and the potential for either thrombotic cardiovascular events or more rapid tumor progression in some cancers, the Food and Drug Administration changed the product labeling for ESAs, adding a black box warning as well as more restrictive indications, especially in oncology patients. In addition the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has placed significant restrictions on payments for ESA therapy. These new limitations on ESA have led to increased use of transfusions in anemic cancer patients. This increase in allogeneic transfusions potentially will place an additional burden on the US blood supply. Although allogeneic blood transfusion is one answer to ESA restrictions, the use of intravenous iron therapy (IV iron) is another possible alternative. We will discuss the use of IV iron as primary therapy for anemia, the use of combination IV iron and ESA therapy to improve efficiency and decrease costs, and evidence that IV iron with and without ESA therapy can reduce allogeneic blood transfusions in surgical patients. We will also review the available IV iron agents and their comparative safety profiles.

  20. A prospective evaluation of the contribution of ambient temperatures and transport times on infrared thermometry readings of intravenous fluids utilized in EMS patients.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Jeremy; Fisher, Andrew; Wojcik, Susan; Cooney, Derek R

    2014-01-01

    During cold weather months in much of the country, the temperatures in which prehospital care is delivered creates the potential for inadvertently cool intravenous fluids to be administered to patients during their transport and care by emergency medical services (EMS). There is some potential for patient harm from unintentional infusion of cool intravenous fluids. Prehospital providers in these cold weather environments are likely using fluids that are well below room temperature when prehospital intravenous fluid (IVF) warming techniques are not being employed. It was hypothesized that cold ambient temperatures during winter months in the study location would lead to the inadvertent infusion of cold intravenous fluids during prehospital patient care. Trained student research assistants obtained three sequential temperature measurements using an infrared thermometer in a convenience sample of intravenous fluid bags connected to patients arriving via EMS during two consecutive winter seasons (2011 to 2013) at our receiving hospital in Syracuse, New York. Intravenous fluids contained in anything other than a standard polyvinyl chloride bag were not measured and were not included in the study. Outdoor temperature was collected by referencing National Weather Service online data at the time of arrival. Official transport times from the scene to the emergency department (ED) and other demographic data was collected from the EMS provider or their patient care record at the time of EMS interaction. Twenty-three intravenous fluid bag temperatures were collected and analyzed. Outdoor temperature was significantly related to the temperature of the intravenous fluid being administered, b = 0.69, t(21) = 4.3, p < 0.001. Transport time did not predict the measured intravenous fluid temperatures, b = 0.12, t(20) = 0.55, p < 0.6. Use of unwarmed intravenous fluid in the prehospital environment during times of cold ambient temperatures can lead to the

  1. Pre-Hospital Intravenous Fluid is Associated with Increased Survival in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, David A.; Fabricant, Löic J.; Differding, Jerry; Diggs, Brian; Underwood, Samantha; De La Cruz, Dodie; Holcomb, John B.; Brasel, Karen J.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Fox, Erin E.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Phelan, Herb A.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Muskat, Peter; Myers, John G.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Wade, Charles E.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Delivery of intravenous crystalloid fluids (IVF) remains a tradition-based priority during pre-hospital resuscitation of trauma patients. Hypotensive and targeted resuscitation algorithms have been shown to improve patient outcomes. We hypothesized that receiving any pre-hospital IVF is associated with increased survival in trauma patients compared to receiving no pre-hospital IVF. Methods Prospective data from ten Level 1 trauma centers were collected. Patient demographics, pre-hospital IVF volume, pre-hospital and Emergency Department vital signs, life-saving interventions, laboratory values, outcomes and complications were collected and analyzed. Patients who did or did not receive pre-hospital IVF were compared. Tests for non-parametric data were utilized to assess significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent influence of IVF on outcome and complications. Results The study population consisted of 1245 trauma patients; 45 were removed due to incomplete data; 84% (n=1009) received pre-hospital IVF, and 16% (n=191) did not. There was no difference between the groups with respect to gender, age, and Injury Severity Score. The on-scene systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the IVF group (110 vs. 100 mmHg, p<0.04) and did not change significantly after IVF, measured at ED admission (110 vs. 105 mmHg, p=0.05). Hematocrit/hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and platelets were lower (p<0.05), and Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio and Partial Thromboplastin Time were higher (p<0.001) in the IVF group. The IVF group received a median fluid volume of 700ml (IQR: 300-1300). The Cox regression revealed that pre-hospital fluid administration was associated with increased survival, Hazard Ratio: 0.84 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72, 0.98; p=0.03). Site differences in ISS and fluid volumes were demonstrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Pre-hospital IVF volumes commonly used by PROMMTT

  2. Randomized controlled trial of treatment expectation and intravenous fluid in pediatric migraine.

    PubMed

    Richer, Lawrence; Craig, William; Rowe, Brian

    2014-10-01

    (1) The primary objectives were (1) to assess the response to intravenous (IV) fluid in children presenting to the ED with migraine and; (2) to assess the effect of treatment expectation on the response to I. Despite a lack of evidence for the practice, many emergency department (ED) migraine treatment protocols include a bolus of IV fluid. This study assessed the overall response to IV fluid hydration and the effect of expected medication treatment on the pain response among children and adolescents with migraine in an urban ED. A single-blind, randomized parallel arm trial of 10 mL/kg IV 0.9% sodium chloride for children and adolescents aged 5-17 years presenting to a pediatric ED with migraine. Patients were randomized into group A (no expectation of medication in combination with IV fluid) and group B (expectation that medication may be given simultaneously). All participants were treated with standard care following the 30-minute assessment. Forty-seven participants were randomized and 2 were excluded; mean age was 13.3 years and 31 (67.4%) were females. Demographics and baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference for the primary outcome - change from baseline on the visual analog scale (VAS) at 30 minutes with a mean change of -12.3 mm (standard deviation [SD] 17.9) in group A and -12.7 mm (SD 13.2) in group B (P = .936). The standardized difference between the 2 means (Cohen's d effect size) was low at 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.56 to 0.61). Overall, complete headache relief was observed in only 1 participant; 16 of 45 (35.6%; 95% CI 21.8 to 51.2) had a reduction in headache of 33% or more and 8 of 45 (17.8%; 95% CI 6.1 to 29.4%) had a minimum clinical significant difference of 30 mm or more on VAS with 4 in each group. Thirteen of 39 patients with follow-up data (33.3%; 95% CI 19.1 to 50.2%) reported a moderate or severe headache at the 24-hour follow up with no

  3. Comparison of two methods for detecting microbial contamination in intravenous fluids.

    PubMed

    Posey, L M; Nutt, R E; Thomson, P D

    1981-05-01

    An aliquot sampling method and a qualitative membrane filltration method of microbial detection in intravenous infusion solutions were compared. One-liter plastic bags of total parenteral nutrition solutions were contaminated at approximately 1000, 100, 10, and 1 organisms per liter using clinically isolated strains of Escheichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Candida albicans. Ten-milliliter aliquots of the solutions were injected into blood culture bottles to test the aliquot method. All remaining fluid was filtered through the Addi-Chek system to test the filtration method. Samples were incubated at 30 degrees C for 10 days and inspected daily for turbidity. The aliquot sampling method consistently detected each of the four organisms at levels of 100 organisms/liter and above. The membrane filtration method consistently detected all levels of contamination (as few as four organisms/liter). The aliquot sampling method is inexpensive and easy to use but may fail to detect some contaminated solutions. The qualitative membrane filtration system will detect all levels of contamination but is more costly in both time and money, and its reliability has not been assessed objectively.

  4. Systemic pharmacokinetics and cerebrospinal fluid uptake of intravenous ceftriaxone in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanli; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Shefner, Jeremy M; Krivickas, Lisa; David, William S; Vriesendorp, Francine; Pestronk, Alan; Caress, James B; Katz, Jonathan; Simpson, Ericka; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Pascuzzi, Robert; Glass, Jonathan; Rezania, Kourosh; Harmatz, Jerold S; Schoenfeld, David; Greenblatt, David J

    2014-10-01

    The cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone was evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ceftriaxone in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated in 66 participants in a previously reported clinical trial. Their mean age was 51 years, and 65% were male. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups receiving intravenous infusions (mean duration: 25 minutes) every 12 hours of either: placebo and placebo; 2 g ceftriaxone and placebo; or 2 g ceftriaxone twice. Mean steady-state plasma PK variables were: volume of distribution, 14 L (0.17 L/kg); elimination half-life, 8-9 h; total clearance, 17-21 mL/min (0.22-0.25 mL/min/kg). Values were not different between dosage groups. CSF PK analysis, determined through sparse CSF sampling, indicated apparent entry and elimination half-life values of 1.0 and 34 hours, respectively. With both dosage regimens, CSF concentrations were maintained above the target threshold of 1.0 µM (0.55 µg/mL) as determined from in vitro models. The plasma and CSF PK profiles of ceftriaxone were used as a basis for planning the Phase 3 clinical trial of ceftriaxone in ALS. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Systemic Pharmacokinetics and Cerebrospinal Fluid Uptake of Intravenous Ceftriaxone in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanli; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Shefner, Jeremy; Krivickas, Lisa; David, William S.; Vriesendorp, Francine; Pestronk, Alan; Caress, James B.; Katz, Jonathan; Simpson, Ericka; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Pascuzzi, Robert; Glass, Jonathan; Rezania, Kourosh; Harmatz, Jerold S.; Schoenfeld, David; Greenblatt, David J

    2015-01-01

    The cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone was evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The pharmacokinetics (PK) of ceftriaxone in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were investigated in 66 participants in a previously reported clinical trial. Their mean age was 51 years, and 65 % were male. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups receiving intravenous infusions (mean duration: 25 minutes) every 12 hours of either: placebo and placebo; 2 grams ceftriaxone and placebo; or 2 grams ceftriaxone twice. Mean steady-state plasma PK variables were: volume of distribution, 14 liters (0.17 liters/kg); elimination half-life, 8 - 9 hours; total clearance, 17-21 mL/min (0.22 - 0.25 mL/min/kg). Values were not different between dosage groups. CSF PK analysis, determined through sparse CSF sampling, indicated apparent entry and elimination half-life values of 1.0 and 34 hours, respectively. With both dosage regimens, CSF concentrations were maintained above the target threshold of 1.0 μM (0.55 μg/mL) as determined from in vitro models. The plasma and CSF PK profile of ceftriaxone were used as a basis for planning the Phase 3 clinical trial of ceftriaxone in ALS. PMID:24771634

  6. Undergraduate medical textbooks do not provide adequate information on intravenous fluid therapy: a systematic survey and suggestions for improvement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inappropriate prescribing of intravenous (IV) fluid, particularly 0.9% sodium chloride, causes post-operative complications. Fluid prescription is often left to junior medical staff and is frequently poorly managed. One reason for poor intravenous fluid prescribing practices could be inadequate coverage of this topic in the textbooks that are used. Methods We formulated a comprehensive set of topics, related to important common clinical situations involving IV fluid therapy, (routine fluid replacement, fluid loss, fluids overload) to assess the adequacy of textbooks in common use. We assessed 29 medical textbooks widely available to students in the UK, scoring the presence of information provided by each book on each of the topics. The scores indicated how fully the topics were considered: not at all, partly, and adequately. No attempt was made to judge the quality of the information, because there is no consensus on these topics. Results The maximum score that a book could achieve was 52. Three of the topics we chose were not considered by any of the books. Discounting these topics as “too esoteric”, the maximum possible score became 46. One textbook gained a score of 45, but the general score was poor (median 11, quartiles 4, 21). In particular, coverage of routine postoperative management was inadequate. Conclusions Textbooks for undergraduates cover the topic of intravenous therapy badly, which may partly explain the poor knowledge and performance of junior doctors in this important field. Systematic revision of current textbooks might improve knowledge and practice by junior doctors. Careful definition of the remit and content of textbooks should be applied more widely to ensure quality and “fitness for purpose”, and avoid omission of vital knowledge. PMID:24555812

  7. Fluid management in patients with trauma: Restrictive versus liberal approach

    PubMed Central

    Chatrath, Veena; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Ahuja, Jogesh

    2015-01-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death worldwide, and almost 30% of trauma deaths are due to blood loss. A number of concerns have been raised regarding the advisability of the classic principles of aggressive crystalloid resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Some recent studies have shown that early volume restoration in certain types of trauma before definite hemostasis may result in accelerated blood loss, hypothermia, and dilutional coagulopathy. This review discusses the advances and changes in protocols in fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion for treatment of traumatic hemorrhage shock. The concept of low volume fluid resuscitation also known as permissive hypotension avoids the adverse effects of early aggressive resuscitation while maintaining a level of tissue perfusion that although lower than normal, is adequate for short periods. Permissive hypotension is part of the damage control resuscitation strategy, which targets the conditions that exacerbate hemorrhage. The elements of this strategy are permissive hypotension, minimization of crystalloid resuscitation, control of hypothermia, prevention of acidosis, and early use of blood products to minimize coagulopathy. PMID:26330707

  8. Usefulness of intravenously administered fluid replenishment for detection of patent foramen ovale by transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Luis; Kottam, Anupama; Niraj, Ashutosh; Ganguly, Joya; Hari, Pawan; Simegn, Mengistu; Sudhakar, Rajeev; Jacob, Sony; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Ensing, Greg J; Abraham, Theodore P

    2010-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with cryptogenic stroke, migraine headache, decompression sickness, and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. Patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography are often hypovolemic from preprocedural fasting and might not demonstrate right to left shunting owing to insufficient right atrial pressure generation, despite provocative maneuvers. We hypothesized that volume replenishment with saline loading could potentially unmask a PFO by favorably modulating the interatrial pressure gradient. Our study sought to examine the role of pre- or intraprocedural intravenous fluid replenishment on PFO detection during transesophageal echocardiography. A total of 103 patients were enrolled. An initial series of bubble injections was performed unprovoked and then with provocative maneuvers such as the Valsalva maneuver and coughing. The patients were then given a rapid 500 ml saline bolus, and the same sequence of bubble injections was repeated. The presence, type, and magnitude of the right to left shunts were noted before and after the saline bolus. The detection rate of PFO increased from 10.6% to 26.2% after saline loading without any provocative maneuvers. When combined with provocative maneuvers (Valsalva or cough), saline loading improved the detection rate from 17.4% to 32.0%. Overall, from amongst the 103 enrolled patients, saline bolusing resulted in a de novo diagnosis of PFO in 15 patients, atrial septal aneurysm in 15, PFO coexisting with an atrial septal aneurysm in 10, and pulmonary arteriovenous fistula in 5 patients. In conclusion, saline infusion in appropriately selected patients during transesophageal echocardiography significantly enhances the detection of PFOs and pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas.

  9. Oral Fluid Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine Concentrations Following Controlled Intravenous Cocaine Administration

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kayla N.; Concheiro, Marta; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Limited oral fluid (OF) pharmacokinetic data collected with commercially available collection devices after controlled cocaine administration hinder OF result interpretations. Ten cocaine-using adults provided OF, collected with Oral-Eze® (OE) and StatSure Saliva Sampler™ (SS) devices, an hour prior to and up to 69 h after 25 mg intravenous (IV) cocaine administration. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) were quantified by a validated 2D-GC-MS method. Large inter-subject variability was observed. Cocaine was detected in OF in the first 0.17 h sample after IV administration, with much more rapid elimination than BE. OE median observed Cmax (range) was 932 (394–1,574) μg/L for cocaine and 248 (96.9–953) μg/L for BE. SS median (range) observed cocaine and BE Cmax trended lower at 732 (83.3–1,892) μg/L and 360 (77.2–836) μg/L, respectively. OE and SS cocaine OF detection times were 12.5 and 6.5 h and for BE 30.5 and 28.0 h, respectively at 1 μg/L. There were no significant pharmacokinetic differences between OE and SS OF collection devices, except cocaine half-life was significantly shorter in SS OF specimens. This difference could be attributed to differences in stabilizing buffers present in OF collection devices, which may affect cocaine stability in OF specimens, or decreased recovery from collection pads. Both OE and SS OF collection devices were effective in monitoring cocaine and metabolite concentrations with similar detection windows. Furthermore, we demonstrated that different confirmatory OF cutoffs can be selected to produce shorter or longer cocaine and metabolite detection windows to address specific needs of clinical and forensic drug testing programs. PMID:26851651

  10. Oral fluid cocaine and benzoylecgonine concentrations following controlled intravenous cocaine administration.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kayla N; Concheiro, Marta; Pirard, Sandrine; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-03-01

    Limited oral fluid (OF) pharmacokinetic data collected with commercially available collection devices after controlled cocaine administration hinder OF result interpretations. Ten cocaine-using adults provided OF, collected with Oral-Eze(®) (OE) and StatSure Saliva Sampler™ (SS) devices, an hour prior to and up to 69 h after 25mg intravenous (IV) cocaine administration. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) were quantified by a validated 2D-GC-MS method. Large inter-subject variability was observed. Cocaine was detected in OF in the first 0.17 h sample after IV administration, with much more rapid elimination than BE. OE observed Cmax median (range) concentrations were 932 (394-1574)μg/L for cocaine and 248 (96.9-953)μg/L for BE. SS observed cocaine and BE Cmax median (range) concentrations trended lower at 732 (83.3-1892)μg/L and 360 (77.2-836)μg/L, respectively. OE and SS cocaine OF detection times were 12.5 and 6.5h and for BE 30.5 and 28.0 h, respectively at 1 μg/L. There were no significant pharmacokinetic differences between OE and SS OF collection devices, except cocaine half-life was significantly shorter in SS OF specimens. This difference could be attributed to differences in stabilizing buffers present in OF collection devices, which may affect cocaine stability in OF specimens, or decreased recovery from collection pads. Both OE and SS OF collection devices were effective in monitoring cocaine and metabolite concentrations with similar detection windows. Furthermore, we demonstrated that different confirmatory OF cutoffs can be selected to produce shorter or longer cocaine and metabolite detection windows to address specific needs of clinical and forensic drug testing programs. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Effects of Intravenous Fluid Therapy on Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paydar, Shahram; Bazrafkan, Hamid; Golestani, Nasim; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Akrami, Abbas; Moradi, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The administration of crystalloid fluids is considered as the first line treatment in management of trauma patients. Infusion of intravenous fluids leads to various changes in hemodynamic, metabolic and coagulation profiles of these patients. The present study attempted to survey some of these changes in patients with mild severity trauma following normal saline infusion. Methods: This study comprised 84 trauma patients with injury of mild severity in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, during 2010-2011. The coagulation and metabolic values of each patient were measured before and one and six hours after infusion of one liter normal saline. Then, the values of mentioned parameters on one and six hours after infusion were compared with baseline measures using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Eighty four patients included in the present study (76% male). Hemoglobin (Hb) (df: 2; F=32.7; p<0.001), hematocrit (Hct) (df: 2; F=30.7; p<0.001), white blood cells (WBC) (df: 2; F=10.6; p<0.001), and platelet count (df: 2; F=4.5; p=0.01) showed the decreasing pattern following infusion of one liter of normal saline. Coagulation markers were not affected during the time of study (p>0.05). The values of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) showed statistically significant decreasing pattern (df: 2; F=5.6; p=0.007). Pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) (df: 2; F=6.4; p=0.002), bicarbonate (HCO3) (df: 2; F=7.0; p=0.001), and base excess (BE) (df: 2; F=3.3; p=0.04) values showed a significant deteriorating changes following hydration therapy. Conclusion: It seems that, the infusion of one liter normal saline during one hour will cause a statistically significant decrease in Hb, Hct, WBC, platelet, BUN, BE, HCO3, and PCO2 in trauma patients with mild severity of injury and stable condition. The changes in, coagulation profiles, pH, PvO2, and electrolytes were not statistically remarkable. PMID:26495354

  12. Liberal or restrictive fluid management during elective surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schol, Pim B B; Terink, Ivon M; Lancé, Marcus D; Scheepers, Hubertina C J

    2016-12-01

    This article reviews if a restrictive fluid management policy reduces the complication rate if compared to liberal fluid management policy during elective surgery. The PubMed database was explored by 2 independent researchers. We used the following search terms: "Blood transfusion (MESH); transfusion need; fluid therapy (MESH); permissive hypotension; fluid management; resuscitation; restrictive fluid management; liberal fluid management; elective surgery; damage control resuscitation; surgical procedures, operative (MESH); wounds (MESH); injuries (MESH); surgery; trauma patients." A secondary search in the Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane library revealed no additional results. We selected randomized controlled trials performed during elective surgeries. Patients were randomly assigned to a restrictive fluid management policy or to a liberal fluid management policy during elective surgery. The patient characteristics and the type of surgery varied. All but 3 studies reported American Society of Anaesthesiologists groups 1 to 3 as the inclusion criterion. The primary outcome of interest is total number of patients with a complication and the complication rate. Secondary outcome measures are infection rate, transfusion need, postoperative rebleeding, hospital stay, and renal function. In total, 1397 patients were analyzed (693 restrictive protocol, 704 liberal protocol). Meta-analysis showed that in the restrictive group as compared with the liberal group, fewer patients experienced a complication (relative risk [RR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.78). The total complication rate (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.52-0.64), risk of infection (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.79), and transfusion rate (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.99) were also lower. The postoperative rebleeding did not differ in both groups: RR, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.28-2.06). We conclude that compared with a liberal fluid policy, a restrictive fluid policy in elective surgery results in a 35% reduction

  13. Salt and fluid restriction is effective in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Henriette; Ekman, Inger; Forslund, Heléne B; Swedberg, Karl; Schaufelberger, Maria

    2013-11-01

    European and American guidelines have recommended salt and fluid restriction for patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) despite scarce scientific evidence. Therefore, we investigated the effects of salt and fluid restriction in patients with CHF. Ninety-seven stable patients in NYHA class II-IV, on optimal medication, with previous signs of fluid retention, treated with either >40 mg (NYHA III-IV) or >80 mg (NYHA II-IV) of furosemide daily were randomized to either individualized salt and fluid restriction or information given by the nurse-led heart failure clinics, e.g. be aware not to drink too much and use salt with caution, and followed for 12 weeks. Fluid was restricted to 1.5 L and salt to 5 g daily, and individualized dietary advice and support was given. The 24 h dietary recall procedure, urine collection on three consecutive days, and para-aminobenzoic acid 80 mg t.i.d. was used to assess adherence to diet and completeness of urine collection. The primary endpoint was a composite variable consisting of NYHA class, hospitalization, weight, peripheral oedema, quality of life (QoL), thirst, and diuretics. Results After 12 weeks, significantly more patients in the intervention than in the control group improved on the composite endpoint (51% vs. 16%; P < 0.001), mostly owing to improved NYHA class and leg oedema. No negative effects were seen on thirst, appetite, or QoL. Individualized salt and fluid restriction can improve signs and symptoms of CHF with no negative effects on thirst, appetite, or QoL in patients with moderate to severe CHF and previous signs of fluid retention.

  14. An intelligent flow control system for long term fluid restriction in small animals.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Fluid retention is one of the most common symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure. Although fluid restriction may be a therapeutic strategy, the degree of fluid restriction necessary for the best therapeutic outcome remains unknown partly due to the lack of proper experimental method to restrict water consumption in small animals. The traditional methods that allow animals to access water only in a limited time window or within pre-determined daily volume can be stressful because the animals may become thirsty during the time of water deprivation. To provide a less stressful water restriction paradigm, we designed a feedback-control system of drinking flow to modulate the drinking behavior of small animals. This system consisted of an infrared droplet sensor for monitoring the drinking flow and a computer controlled electric valve to regulate the water availability. A light signal which synchronized with the command for opening the valve was set to establish a conditioned reflex. An animal test indicated that rats were adaptable to a precisely programmed water supply. This system may warrant investigation into the consequences of fluid restriction in chronic experimental animal study.

  15. Aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in acute decompensated heart failure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Aliti, Graziella Badin; Rabelo, Eneida R; Clausell, Nadine; Rohde, Luís E; Biolo, Andreia; Beck-da-Silva, Luis

    2013-06-24

    The benefits of fluid and sodium restriction in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are unclear. To compare the effects of a fluid-restricted (maximum fluid intake, 800 mL/d) and sodium-restricted (maximum dietary intake, 800 mg/d) diet (intervention group [IG]) vs a diet with no such restrictions (control group [CG]) on weight loss and clinical stability during a 3-day period in patients hospitalized with ADHF. Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial with blinded outcome assessments. Emergency room, wards, and intensive care unit. Adult inpatients with ADHF, systolic dysfunction, and a length of stay of 36 hours or less. Fluid restriction (maximum fluid intake, 800 mL/d) and additional sodium restriction (maximum dietary intake, 800 mg/d) were carried out until the seventh hospital day or, in patients whose length of stay was less than 7 days, until discharge. The CG received a standard hospital diet, with liberal fluid and sodium intake. Weight loss and clinical stability at 3-day assessment, daily perception of thirst, and readmissions within 30 days. Seventy-five patients were enrolled (IG, 38; CG, 37). Most were male; ischemic heart disease was the predominant cause of heart failure (17 patients [23%]), and the mean (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction was 26% (8.7%). The groups were homogeneous in terms of baseline characteristics. Weight loss was similar in both groups (between-group difference in variation of 0.25 kg [95% CI, -1.95 to 2.45]; P = .82) as well as change in clinical congestion score (between-group difference in variation of 0.59 points [95% CI, -2.21 to 1.03]; P = .47) at 3 days. Thirst was significantly worse in the IG (5.1 [2.9]) than the CG (3.44 [2.0]) at the end of the study period (between-group difference, 1.66 points; time × group interaction; P = .01). There were no significant between-group differences in the readmission rate at 30 days (IG, 11 patients [29%]; CG, 7 patients [19%]; P = .41

  16. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Gas-Fluid and Fluid-Solid Phase Instability for Restricted Primitive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2009-08-01

    By considering the fluctuation of grand potential Ω around equilibrium with respect to small one-particle density fluctuations δρα(vec r), the phase instability of restricted primitive model (RPM) of ionic systems is investigated. We use the integral equation theory to calculate the direct correlation functions in the reference hypernetted chain approximation and obtain the spinodal line of RPM. Our analysis explicitly indicates that the gas-fluid phase instability is induced by k = 0 fluctuation mode, while the fluid-solid phase instability is related to k ≠ 0 fluctuation modes. The spinodal line is qualitatively consistent with the result of computer simulations by others.

  17. Fluid intelligence loss linked to restricted regions of damage within frontal and parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Parr, Alice; Cusack, Rhodri; Thompson, Russell; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, Maria; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedial frontal, and midparietal cortex. To test the causal role of these regions, we examined fluid intelligence in 80 patients with focal cortical lesions. Damage to each of the proposed regions predicted fluid intelligence loss, whereas damage outside these regions was not predictive. The results suggest that coarse group comparisons (e.g., frontal vs. posterior) cannot show the neural underpinnings of fluid intelligence tests. Instead, deficits reflect the extent of damage to a restricted but complex brain circuit comprising specific regions within both frontal and posterior cortex. PMID:20679241

  18. Fluid intelligence loss linked to restricted regions of damage within frontal and parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Woolgar, Alexandra; Parr, Alice; Cusack, Rhodri; Thompson, Russell; Nimmo-Smith, Ian; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, Maria; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-08-17

    Tests of fluid intelligence predict success in a wide range of cognitive activities. Much uncertainty has surrounded brain lesions producing deficits in these tests, with standard group comparisons delivering no clear result. Based on findings from functional imaging, we propose that the uncertainty of lesion data may arise from the specificity and complexity of the relevant neural circuit. Fluid intelligence tests give a characteristic pattern of activity in posterolateral frontal, dorsomedial frontal, and midparietal cortex. To test the causal role of these regions, we examined fluid intelligence in 80 patients with focal cortical lesions. Damage to each of the proposed regions predicted fluid intelligence loss, whereas damage outside these regions was not predictive. The results suggest that coarse group comparisons (e.g., frontal vs. posterior) cannot show the neural underpinnings of fluid intelligence tests. Instead, deficits reflect the extent of damage to a restricted but complex brain circuit comprising specific regions within both frontal and posterior cortex.

  19. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    PubMed

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg(-1)h(-1) for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg(-1)h(-1) of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg(-1)h(-1). Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (p<0.05), whereas in the EPHS group it remained unchanged. Lung compliance decreased significantly only in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Lung edema was greater in the EPHS group (p<0.05). Histological damage proved similar in both groups (p=0.4). In this experimental model of early lung injury, lung edema progression was attenuated by preemptively restricting the administration of fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomised trial of fluid restriction in ventilated very low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadia, V; Greenough, A; Dimitriou, G; Hooper, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Fluid restriction has been reported to improve survival of infants without chronic lung disease (CLD), but it remains unknown whether it reduces CLD in a population at high risk of CLD routinely exposed to antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant without increasing other adverse outcomes.
AIM—To investigate the impact of fluid restriction on the outcome of ventilated, very low birthweight infants.
STUDY DESIGN—A randomised trial of two fluid input levels in the perinatal period was performed. A total of 168 ventilated infants (median gestational age 27 weeks (range 23-33)) were randomly assigned to receive standard volumes of fluid (60 ml/kg on day 1 progressing to 150 ml/kg on day 7) or be restricted to about 80% of standard input.
RESULTS—Similar proportions of infants on the two regimens had CLD beyond 28 days (56% v 51%) and 36 weeks post conceptional age (26% v 25%), survived without oxygen dependency at 28 days (31% v 27%) and 36 weeks post conceptional age (58% v 52%), and developed acute renal failure. There were no statistically significant differences between other outcomes, except that fewer of the restricted group (19% v 43%) required postnatal steroids (p < 0.01). In the trial population overall, duration of oxygen dependency related significantly to the colloid (p < 0.01), but not crystalloid, input level; after adjustment for specified covariates, the hazard ratio was 1.07(95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.13).
CONCLUSIONS—In ventilated, very low birthweight infants, fluid restriction in the perinatal period neither reduces CLD nor increases other adverse outcomes. Colloid infusion, however, is associated with increased duration of oxygen dependency.
 PMID:10952699

  1. Changes in intravenous fluid use patterns in Australia and New Zealand: evidence of research translating into practice.

    PubMed

    Glassford, Neil J; French, Craig J; Bailey, Michael; Mârtensson, Johan; Eastwood, Glenn M; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-06-01

    To describe changes in the use of intravenous (IV) fluid by quantity and type in different regions of Australia and New Zealand. We conducted a retrospective ecological study examining regional and temporal trends in IV fluid consumption across Australia and New Zealand over the periods 2012-2013 and 2013- 2014, using national proprietary sales data as a surrogate for consumption, and demographic data from the public domain. More than 13.3 million litres of IV fluid were consumed in Australia and New Zealand in 2012-2013, and more than 13.9 million litres in 2013-2014, with colloid solutions accounting for < 2%. There was marked regional variation in consumption of fluids, by volumes and proportions used, when standardised to overall Australian and New Zealand values. There was no significant change in the overall volume of crystalloid solutions consumed but there was a significant decrease (9%; P = 0.02) in the ratio of unbalanced to balanced crystalloid solutions consumed. Consumption of all forms of colloid solutions decreased, with a 12% reduction overall (P = 0.02), primarily driven by a 67% reduction in the consumption of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions. The amount and type of IV fluid use, as determined by fluid sales, is highly variable across Australia and New Zealand. However, overall use of balanced crystalloid solutions is increasing and the use of HES has decreased dramatically.

  2. The relationship of intravenous fluid chloride content to kidney function in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

    PubMed

    Guirgis, Faheem W; Williams, Deborah J; Hale, Matthew; Bajwa, Abubakr A; Shujaat, Adil; Patel, Nisha; Kalynych, Colleen J; Jones, Alan E; Wears, Robert L; Dodani, Sunita

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggest a relationship between chloride-rich intravenous fluids and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of intravenous fluid chloride content to kidney function in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. A retrospective chart review was performed to determine (1) quantity and type of bolus intravenous fluids, (2) serum creatinine (Cr) at presentation and upon discharge, and (3) need for emergent hemodialysis (HD) or renal replacement therapy (RRT). Linear regression was used for continuous outcomes, and logistic regression was used for binary outcomes and results were controlled for initial Cr. The primary outcome was change in Cr from admission to discharge. Secondary outcomes were need for HD/RRT, length of stay (LOS), mortality, and organ dysfunction. There were 95 patients included in the final analysis; 48% (46) of patients presented with acute kidney injury, 8% (8) required first-time HD or RRT, 61% (58) were culture positive, 55% (52) were in shock, and overall mortality was 20% (19). There was no significant relationship between quantity of chloride administered in the first 24 hours with change in Cr (β = -0.0001, t = -0.86, R(2) = 0.92, P = .39), need for HD or RRT (odds ratio [OR] = 0.999; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.999-1.000; P = .77), LOS >14 days (OR = 1.000; 95% CI, 0.999-1.000; P = .68), mortality (OR = 0.999; 95% CI, 0.999-1.000; P = .88), or any type of organ dysfunction. Chloride administered in the first 24 hours did not influence kidney function in this cohort with severe sepsis or septic shock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Naso-jejunal fluid resuscitation in predicted severe acute pancreatitis: Randomized comparative study with intravenous Ringer's lactate.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Sharma, Ravi; Chaudhary, Vinita; Gupta, Rajesh; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2016-01-01

    Early management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) includes intravenous fluid resuscitation. To confirm feasibility of naso-jejunal (NJ) fluid resuscitation using oral hydration solution (ORS) and compare its efficacy with intravenous (IV) fluid resuscitation using Ringer Lactate (RL) in predicted SAP. All patients of predicted SAP (presence of SIRS or BISAP > 2) without significant co morbidities were randomized to NJ group (ORS: 20 ml/kg bolus and then 3 mL/kg/h) or IV group (RL infusion at same rate). The groups were compared vis-à-vis persistent organ failure (POF), pancreatic necrosis, and mortality. Seventy-seven patients were assessed and after exclusion, 49 patients were randomized to either NJ (24 patients) or IV group (25). The demographic and baseline clinical profile of both groups including BISAP score (2.25 ± 0.73 and 2.32 ± 0.56), hematocrit (40.2 ± 6.8 and 38.3 ± 6.6), blood urea nitrogen (16.88 ± 6.69 and 21.44 ± 17.56 mg/dL), and intra-abdominal pressure (14.55 ± 4.8 and 14.76 ± 5.5 cm of water) were similar. NJ resuscitation had to be stopped in two patients because of abdominal discomfort and distension. The change in intra abdominal pressure after 48 h of hydration was comparable in both groups. The occurrence of POF (66.67% and 68%), pancreatic necrosis (69.5% and 76%), intervention (5 each), surgery (1 each), and mortality (16.5% and 8%) were comparable (P > 0.05). In select group of patients with SAP, NJ fluid resuscitation with ORS is feasible and is equally efficacious as IV fluid resuscitation with RL. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Prehospital intravenous fluid administration is associated with higher mortality in trauma patients: a National Trauma Data Bank analysis.

    PubMed

    Haut, Elliott R; Kalish, Brian T; Cotton, Bryan A; Efron, David T; Haider, Adil H; Stevens, Kent A; Kieninger, Alicia N; Cornwell, Edward E; Chang, David C

    2011-02-01

    Prehospital intravenous (IV) fluid administration is common in trauma patients, although little evidence supports this practice. We hypothesized that trauma patients who received prehospital IV fluids have higher mortality than trauma patients who did not receive IV fluids in the prehospital setting. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients from the National Trauma Data Bank. Multiple logistic regression was used with mortality as the primary outcome measure. We compared patients with versus without prehospital IV fluid administration, using patient demographics, mechanism, physiologic and anatomic injury severity, and other prehospital procedures as covariates. Subset analysis was performed based on mechanism (blunt/penetrating), hypotension, immediate surgery, severe head injury, and injury severity score. A total of 776,734 patients were studied. Approximately half (49.3%) received prehospital IV. Overall mortality was 4.6%. Unadjusted mortality was significantly higher in patients receiving prehospital IV fluids (4.8% vs. 4.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that patients receiving IV fluids were significantly more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.17). The association was identified in nearly all subsets of trauma patients. It is especially marked in patients with penetrating mechanism (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.08–1.45), hypotension (OR 1.44, 95% CI1.29–1.59), severe head injury (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17–1.54), and patients undergoing immediate surgery (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.22–1.50). The harm associated with prehospital IV fluid administration is significant for victims of trauma. The routine use of prehospital IV fluid administration for all trauma patients should be discouraged.

  5. Intravenous Fluid Therapy Course for the Licensed Practical Nurse. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a 10-unit intravenous (IV) therapy course for licensed practical nurses. Units contain from one to nine lessons. The first unit provides an introduction and orientation to the course. Subsequent units concern documentation, anatomy and physiology as applied to IV therapy, fundamental aspects of fluid…

  6. Intravenous Fluid Therapy Course for the Licensed Practical Nurse. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a 10-unit intravenous (IV) therapy course for licensed practical nurses. Units contain from one to nine lessons. The first unit provides an introduction and orientation to the course. Subsequent units concern documentation, anatomy and physiology as applied to IV therapy, fundamental aspects of fluid…

  7. Evaluation of the effect of intra-operative intravenous fluid on post-operative pain and pulmonary function: a randomized trial comparing 10 and 30 ml kg(-1) of crystalloid.

    PubMed

    Straub, B D; Aslani, A; Enohumah, K; Rahore, R; Conrick-Martin, I; Kumar, D; Campbell, M; Dicker, P; Mocanu, E; Loughrey, J P; Hayes, N E; McCaul, C L

    2014-12-01

    Existing evidence suggests that administration of intravenous fluids has been shown to improve outcomes including pain in gynecological laparoscopic surgery but the optimum fluid dose has not been determined. To determine the effect of administration of intravenous fluids on post-operative pain and pulmonary function after gynecological laparoscopy. In a prospective randomized double-blinded study 100 ASA 1 and 2 elective patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopy were randomized to receive intravenous compound sodium lactate 10 ml kg(-1) (CSL10-restrictive) or 30 ml kg(-1) (CSL30-liberal) administered intra-operatively. The primary outcome measure was the post-operative pain score at 24, 48 and 72 h, assessed by 0-10 verbal rating scale (VRS). Pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC, PEFR) and oxygen saturation were also measured. Patients who received CSL 30 had lower post-operative pain scores than CSL 10 (ANCOVA-mean difference = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.11-0.83, P = 0.01). Post-operative pain VRS was lower in CSL30 than CSL10 at 48 h (mean difference 0.56, 95 % CI 0.04-1.09, P = 0.036). Patients in CSL30 reported shoulder tip pain less frequently than those in CSL10 (30.4 vs. 43.9 % of assessments, P = 0.03, OR 0.58) but reported wound pain more frequently 39.0 vs. 24.2 %, P = 0.01, OR 2.0). Indices of pulmonary function did not differ between groups at any time. Liberal compared to restrictive administration of i.v. crystalloid is associated with a clinical modest reduction in pain. Pulmonary dysfunction was not increased with liberal fluid administration.

  8. "Don't just do something, stand there!": to teach or not to teach, that is the question--intravenous fluid resuscitation training for Combat Lifesavers.

    PubMed

    Cloonan, Clifford C

    2003-05-01

    Good Level I scientific evidence supporting the efficacy (decreased morbidity and mortality) of prehospital fluid administration by civilian Emergency Medical Services personnel is lacking. The efficacy of this procedure in the hands of army Combat Lifesavers is even less well substantiated. The purpose of this article is to look critically at the skill of intravenous fluid administration that is taught to army Combat Lifesavers and to consider whether or not the application of that skill is actually beneficial to the majority of patients who are recipients of this procedure. A method is described to assist medical educators in making decisions as to which skills should be taught to health care providers, and this method is loosely applied in the following discussion about whether Combat Lifesavers should receive training to start and administer intravenous fluids. Good scientific studies, based on valid data, need to be performed to determine the efficacy of intravenous fluid administration and other combat medical skills.

  9. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  10. Inadvertent venous air embolism during cesarean section: Collapsible intravenous fluid bags without self-sealing outlet have risks. Case report.

    PubMed

    Bakan, Mefkur; Topuz, Ufuk; Esen, Asim; Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Ozturk, Erdogan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesiologist must be aware of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of venous air embolism and adopt the practice patterns to prevent its occurrence. Although venous air embolism is a known complication of cesarean section, we describe an unusual inattention that causes iatrogenic near fatal venous air embolism during a cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. One of the reasons for using self-collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of conventional glass or plastic bottles is to take precaution against air embolism. We also demonstrated the risk of air embolism for two kinds of plastic collapsible intravenous fluid bags: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene-based. Fluid bags without self-sealing outlets pose a risk for air embolism if the closed system is broken down, while the flexibility of the bag limits the amount of air entry. PVC-based bags, which have more flexibility, have significantly less risk of air entry when IV administration set is disconnected from the outlet. Using a pressure bag for rapid infusion can be dangerous without checking and emptying all air from the IV bag.

  11. Comparison of Postoperative Pain and Residual Gas Between Restrictive and Liberal Fluid Therapy in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Wang, Yulan; Du, Boxiang; Song, Jie; Ji, Fuhai

    2017-09-07

    Different fluid regimens are used in the clinical management of perioperative fluid therapy, but there still is the argument about which fluid regimen is better for patients. This study was mainly designed to compare different fluid regimens on postoperative pain and residual gas in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 100 patients were equally randomized to receive restrictive fluid infusion (n=50) with lactated Ringer (LR) solution 5 mL/kg/h or liberal fluid infusion (n=50), with 30 mL/kg/h lactated Ringer solution. Postoperative pain was evaluated at 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery using a visual analog scale (VAS). Postoperative subdiaphragmatic residual gas was monitored by x-ray at 24 hours after surgery. Patients in the restrictive group had significantly higher VAS pain scores at 6 hours after surgery than those in the liberal group (P=0.009). The incidence of subdiaphragmatic residual gas in the restrictive group was higher than in the liberal group (P=0.045). Patients who had residual gas had higher VAS pain scores than those with no residual gas in the restrictive group at 6 hours after surgery (P=0.02). Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with restrictive fluid therapy may suffer more severe postoperative pain than those receiving liberal fluid therapy. It suggests that the higher incidence of subdiaphragmatic residual gas may have occurred with restrictive fluid therapy.

  12. Intensive care nurses' self-reported practice of intravenous fluid bolus therapy.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Glenn M; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Paton, Emily; Glassford, Neil J; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Guijun; Tanaka, Aiko; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-12-01

    To describe self-reported practice of fluid bolus therapy by intensive care nurses. Multi-choice questionnaire of intensive care nurses conducted in July, 2014. Major university tertiary referral centre. 141 (64%) intensive care nurses responded. The majority of respondents identified 4% albumin as the commonest fluid bolus type and stated a fluid bolus was 250ml; however fluid bolus volume varied from 100ml to 1000ml. Hypotension was identified as the primary physiological trigger for a fluid bolus. In the hour following a fluid bolus for hypotension almost half of respondents expected an 'increase in mean arterial pressure of 0-10mmHg'; for oliguria, >60% expected an 'increase in urinary output of '0.5-1ml/kg/hour'; for low CVP, 50% expected 'an increase in CVP of 3-4mmHg'; and, for tachycardia, 45% expected a 'decrease in heart rate of 11-20beats/minute'. Finally, 7-10% of respondents were 'unsure' about the physiological response to a fluid bolus. Most respondents identified fluid bolus therapy to be at least 250ml of 4% albumin given as quickly as possible; however, volumes from 100 to 1000ml were also accepted. There was much uncertainty about the expected physiological response to fluid bolus therapy according to indication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ad libitum vs. restricted fluid replacement on hydration and performance of military tasks.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Heinrich W; Noakes, Timothy D; Nolte, Kim

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum vs. restricted fluid replacement protocol on hydration markers and performance in selected military tasks. The secondary objective was to determine if 300 ml x h(-1) could be considered a safe minimum fluid intake under the experimental conditions. Data were collected simulating a route march over 16 km. There were 57 subjects who participated in the study. The mean pre-exercise body mass of the ad libitum group was 70.4 +/- 13.3 (SD) kg compared to 69.3 +/- 8.9 kg in the restricted group. The mean total fluid intake of the ad libitum group was 2.1 +/- 0.9 L compared to 1.2 +/- 0.0 L in the restricted group. The ad libitum and restricted intake groups, respectively, lost a mean of 1.05 kg +/- 0.77 (1.5%) and 1.34 kg +/- 0.37 (1.9%). Calculated sweat rate was 608 +/- 93 ml x h(-1) compared to 762 +/- 162 ml x h(-1) in the ad libitum group. There were no significant differences for either urine specific gravity (USG) or urine osmolality (UOsm) before or after the exercise. It is not clear whether fluid intake and calculated sweat rates are causally related or explained by their codependence on a third variable; for example, the exercising metabolic rate. Thus, 300 ml x h(-1) intake could be considered a current safe minimum water intake for soldiers of similar mass under similar experimental conditions, namely similar exercise durations at equivalent exercise intensities in a moderate, dry climate.

  14. Prevalence of Sodium and Fluid Restriction Recommendations for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Tonya; Cueva Cobo, Giovanna; Dillingham, Christine; Burger, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are often afflicted with the consequences of right heart failure including volume overload. Counseling to assist the patient in the dietary restriction of sodium and fluid may be underutilized. Methods: Consecutive patients seen in the PH Clinic at Mayo Clinic in Florida from June to November 2013. Results: 100 patients were included; 70 were women and most had group 1 PH (n = 69). Patient characteristics using mean (±SD) were: Age 63 ± 13 years, functional class 3 ± 1, brain natriuretic peptide 302 ± 696 pg/mL, 6-min walk 337 ± 116 m, right atrial pressure 8 ± 5 mmHg, and mean pulmonary artery pressure 42 ± 13 mmHg. Overall, 79 had had complete (32) or partial instruction (47) and 21 had no prior counseling to restrict sodium or fluid. Of the 47 with partial instruction, 42 received complete education during the PH Clinic visit. Of the 21 without prior instruction, 19 received complete education during the PH visit. Seven patients with the opportunity to have their education enhanced or provided did not receive any additional counseling during the PH visit. Conclusion: Sodium and fluid restriction is an important but perhaps underutilized strategy to manage volume overload in patients with right heart failure. Focused questioning and education may permit an increase in the patients receiving instruction in this regard. PMID:27417785

  15. Prevalence of Sodium and Fluid Restriction Recommendations for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Tonya; Cobo, Giovanna Cueva; Dillingham, Christine; Burger, Charles D

    2015-07-28

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) are often afflicted with the consequences of right heart failure including volume overload. Counseling to assist the patient in the dietary restriction of sodium and fluid may be underutilized. Consecutive patients seen in the PH Clinic at Mayo Clinic in Florida from June to November 2013. 100 patients were included; 70 were women and most had group 1 PH (n = 69). Patient characteristics using mean (±SD) were: Age 63 ± 13 years, functional class 3 ± 1, brain natriuretic peptide 302 ± 696 pg/mL, 6-min walk 337 ± 116 m, right atrial pressure 8 ± 5 mmHg, and mean pulmonary artery pressure 42 ± 13 mmHg. Overall, 79 had had complete (32) or partial instruction (47) and 21 had no prior counseling to restrict sodium or fluid. Of the 47 with partial instruction, 42 received complete education during the PH Clinic visit. Of the 21 without prior instruction, 19 received complete education during the PH visit. Seven patients with the opportunity to have their education enhanced or provided did not receive any additional counseling during the PH visit. Sodium and fluid restriction is an important but perhaps underutilized strategy to manage volume overload in patients with right heart failure. Focused questioning and education may permit an increase in the patients receiving instruction in this regard.

  16. Perioperative administration of buffered versus non-buffered crystalloid intravenous fluid to improve outcomes following adult surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Bampoe, Sohail; Odor, Peter M; Dushianthan, Ahilanandan; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Cro, Suzie; Gan, Tong J; Grocott, Michael Pw; James, Michael Fm; Mythen, Michael G; O'Malley, Catherine Mn; Roche, Anthony M; Rowan, Kathy; Burdett, Edward

    2017-09-21

    Perioperative fluid strategies influence clinical outcomes following major surgery. Many intravenous fluid preparations are based on simple solutions, such as normal saline, that feature an electrolyte composition that differs from that of physiological plasma. Buffered fluids have a theoretical advantage of containing a substrate that acts to maintain the body's acid-base status - typically a bicarbonate or a bicarbonate precursor such as maleate, gluconate, lactate, or acetate. Buffered fluids also provide additional electrolytes, including potassium, magnesium, and calcium, more closely matching the electrolyte balance of plasma. The putative benefits of buffered fluids have been compared with those of non-buffered fluids in the context of clinical studies conducted during the perioperative period. This review was published in 2012, and was updated in 2017. To review effects of perioperative intravenous administration of buffered versus non-buffered fluids for plasma volume expansion or maintenance, or both, on clinical outcomes in adults undergoing all types of surgery. We electronically searched the Clinicaltrials.gov major trials registry, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 6) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966 to June 2016), Embase (1980 to June 2016), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to June 2016). We handsearched conference abstracts and, when possible, contacted leaders in the field. We reran the search in May 2017. We added one potential new study of interest to the list of 'Studies awaiting classification' and will incorporate this trial into formal review findings when we prepare the review update. Only randomized controlled trials that compared buffered versus non-buffered intravenous fluids for surgical patients were eligible for inclusion. We excluded other forms of comparison such as crystalloids versus colloids and colloids versus different colloids. Two review

  17. Impact of different intravenous fluids on blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients undergoing elective major noncardiac surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Khetarpal, Ranjana; Chatrath, Veena; Kaur, Jagjit; Bala, Anju; Singh, Harjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intravenous (IV) fluids are an integral part of perioperative management. Intraoperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients undergoing major surgeries even in nondiabetics. Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of different maintenance fluid regimens on intraoperative blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients undergoing major surgeries under general anesthesia. Settings and Design: Randomized double-blind study. Materials and Methods: One hundred nondiabetic patients of either sex were divided randomly into two Groups I and II of 50 each undergoing elective major surgeries of more than 90 min duration under general anesthesia. Both groups were given calculated dosage of IV fluids accordingly 4-2-1 formula while Group I was given Ringer lactate (RL) and Group II was given 0.45% dextrose normal saline and potassium chloride 20 mmol/L. Changes in vital parameters, % oxygen saturation, and urine output were monitored at regular intervals. Capillary blood glucose (CBG) was measured half-hourly until end of surgery. If CBG level was more than 150 mg%, then calculated dose of human insulin (CBG/100) was given as IV bolus dose. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 22.0 software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, USA), paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: A significant increase of CBG level and was observed during intraoperative and immediate postoperative period (P < 0.001) in Group II. Conclusion: RL solution is probably the alternative choice of IV fluid for perioperative maintenance and can be used as replacement fluid in nondiabetic patients undergoing major surgeries. PMID:27746527

  18. An international multicenter study of early intravenous fluid administration and outcome in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikesh K; Gardner, Timothy B; Papachristou, Georgios I; Rey-Riveiro, Mónica; Faghih, Mahya; Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Afghani, Elham; Acevedo-Piedra, Nelly G; Seth, Nikhil; Sinha, Amitasha; Quesada-Vázquez, Noé; Moya-Hoyo, Neftalí; Sánchez-Marin, Claudia; Martínez, Juan; Lluís, Félix; Whitcomb, David C; Zapater, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Aims Early aggressive fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis is frequently recommended but its benefits remain unproven. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes associated with early fluid volume administration in the emergency room (FVER) in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods A four-center retrospective cohort study of 1010 patients with acute pancreatitis was conducted. FVER was defined as any fluid administered from the time of arrival to the emergency room to 4 h after diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, and was divided into tertiles: nonaggressive (<500 ml), moderate (500 to 1000 ml), and aggressive (>1000 ml). Results Two hundred sixty-nine (26.6%), 427 (42.3%), and 314 (31.1%) patients received nonaggressive, moderate, and aggressive FVER respectively. Compared with the nonaggressive fluid group, the moderate group was associated with lower rates of local complications in univariable analysis, and interventions, both in univariable and multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.37 (0.14–0.98)). The aggressive resuscitation group was associated with a significantly lower need for interventions, both in univariable and multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio 0.21 (0.05–0.84)). Increasing fluid administration categories were associated with decreasing hospital stay in univariable analysis. Conclusions Early moderate to aggressive FVER was associated with lower need for invasive interventions. PMID:28588879

  19. Isolating the benefits of fluid restriction in patients with heart failure: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Carolyn Miller; Higgins, Melinda; Smith, Andrew; Culler, Steven D; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2015-12-01

    Fluid restriction (FR) in persons with heart failure (HF) is often prescribed, yet self-regulation and the troublesome symptom of thirst are difficult for patients to manage. The purpose of this pilot study was to test an educational and behavioral intervention (EBI) on adherence with prescribed FR and outcome measures of fluid congestion, symptom distress, and health related quality of life (HRQL). Secondary aims were to describe the relationships between self-reported and objectively measured determinants of fluid status and symptoms, and assess the psychometric properties of piloted instruments, and intervention effect sizes. NYHA Class II-IV (n=25, 44-83 years, 56% male, 20% minority, mean EF 23.0+11.7%) participants were randomized to the EBI or attention control (AC) and evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6 months. EBI patients trended toward decreasing fluid ingestion (p=0.08), experienced less HF symptom frequency (p=0.13) and severity (p=0.06), and increased symptoms of thirst (p<0.01) across time. Whereas HRQL remained stable in the EBI group, it improved in the AC group over time (p=0.01). There were no significant differences in clinical measures of fluid congestion between groups. These outcomes suggest that patients receiving the EBI drank slightly less fluid, experienced less typical HF symptoms, greater thirst distress and stable HRQOL. Moderate to large effect sizes for the measures used were observed, and outcomes suggest that a randomized trial of various levels of FR would not potentiate fluid congestion but should specifically address preservation of HRQOL and thirst symptoms. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  20. Intravenous fluid therapy: a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of the IV(2) flow medical device.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Nesta; Snyman, Jacques R; Wessels, Francois; Nel, George

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the hypothetical benefits of the IV(2) flow medical device. Intravenous fluid administration is a standard hospital procedure with assumed inadequacies. The IV-Event Study [Fraser N, Nel G, Snyman J & Wessels F (2004) IV-EVENT Study: Intravenous Infusion Therapy--Management and Adverse Events. Data on File: Varori International (Pty) Ltd., Centurion, South Africa] quantified these inadequacies; The 'Stargait' intervention trial investigated the effectiveness and possible cost-benefit of the IV(2) flow. The IV(2) flow is intended for routine use with gravitational intravenous infusion sets. The IV(2) flow should reduce the incidence rate of adverse events and maintain a set flow rate. Nursing staff assisted by study assessors captured relevant data. Consented patients were enrolled for the period of their prescribed infusions. Intervention. The Stargait Trial compared the treatment group (standard gravitational sets with the IV(2) flow) with the control group (standard gravitational infusion sets without IV(2) flow). The difference in observed events and the cost benefit derived from this were measured. A total of 2387 drip hours were observed in 52 patients. The adverse event rates were: Control group (without IV(2) flow) 33.8%. The treatment group (IV(2) flow) 15.4%. This 55% reduction is statistically significant (p = 0.0069). Adverse event related monetary wastage (labour and consumables) is reduced by 76% for infusion bags in the intervention group (with IV(2) flow). There was a significant difference between the treatment group and control group as far as deviation in flow rate was concerned (p = 0.00818). The mean deviation of the IV(2) flow group was just more than 5 ml per hour. The standard line group had a mean deviation of more than 30 ml per hour. Gravitational intravenous therapy compromises quality of patient care. The Stargait Trial has proven the care-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the IV(2) flow. The IV(2) flow improves

  1. A randomized study of intravenous fluid replacement following living-donor renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hatch, D A; Barry, J M; Norman, D J

    1985-12-01

    Fourteen adult recipients of living-donor kidneys preserved with ice-cold intracellular electrolyte solution were randomly assigned to receive either high fluid replacement (total volume of urine output + 30 ml/hr) or low fluid replacement (constant 125 ml/hr) during the first 48 hr after grafting. High replacement recipients had significantly higher fluid intake and urine output than did low replacement recipients. However, net fluid balance at the end of the 48-hr study period was positive for both groups and not significantly different. Fractional excretion of sodium was directly related to urine output in all patients. Serum osmolality, serum sodium concentration, and urine sodium concentration were not significantly different in the treatment groups. Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the low-replacement group at 24 and 36 hr after transplantation. The i.v. replacement of total urinary output is unnecessary in adult recipients of living-donor kidneys preserved with ice-cold intracellular electrolyte solution because such grafts can conserve sodium and water immediately after transplantation.

  2. Effects of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid infusion on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors.

    PubMed

    Jacobshagen, Claudius; Pax, Anja; Unsöld, Bernhard W; Seidler, Tim; Schmidt-Schweda, Stephan; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Maier, Lars S

    2009-11-01

    International guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend mild hypothermia (32-34 degrees C) for 12-24h in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. To induce therapeutic hypothermia a variety of external and intravascular cooling devices are available. A cheap and effective method for inducing hypothermia is the infusion of large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid. There are concerns regarding the effects of rapid infusion of large volumes of fluid on respiratory function in cardiac arrest survivors. We have retrospectively studied the effects of high volume cold fluid infusion on respiratory function in 52 resuscitated cardiac arrest patients. The target temperature of 32-34 degrees C was achieved after 4.1+/-0.5h (cooling rate 0.48 degrees C/h). During this period 3427+/-210 mL ice-cold fluid was infused. Despite significantly reduced LV-function (EF 35.8+/-2.2%) the respiratory status of these patients did not deteriorate significantly. On intensive care unit admission the mean PaO(2) was 231.4+/-20.6 mmHg at a F(i)O(2) of 0.82+/-0.03 (PaO(2)/F(i)O(2)=290.0+/-24.1) and a PEEP level of 7.14+/-0.31 mbar. Until reaching the target temperature of fluid is an effective and inexpensive method for inducing therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation from cardiac arrest is associated with a deterioration in respiratory function. The infusion of large volumes of cold fluid does not cause a statistically significant further deterioration in respiratory function. A larger, randomized and prospective study is required to assess the efficacy and safety of ice-cold fluid infusion for

  3. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of Liberal Vs Restricted Perioperative Fluid Management in Patients Undergoing Pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Grant, Florence; Brennan, Murray F; Allen, Peter J; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Kingham, T Peter; D'Angelica, Michael; Fischer, Mary E; Gonen, Mithat; Zhang, Hao; Jarnagin, William R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine, by a prospective randomized controlled trial, the influence of liberal (LIB) vs restricted (RES) perioperative fluid administration on morbidity following pancreatectomy. Randomized controlled trials in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery have challenged the historical use of LIB fluid administration, suggesting that a more restricted regimen may be associated with fewer postoperative complications. Patients scheduled to undergo pancreatic resection were consented for randomization to a LIB (n = 164) or RES (n = 166) perioperative fluid regimen. Sample size was designed with 80% power to decrease Grade 3 complications from 35% to 21%. Between July 2009 and July 2015, we randomized 330 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, n = 218), central (n = 16), or distal pancreatectomy (DP, n = 96). Patients were equally distributed for all demographic and intraoperative characteristics. Intraoperatively, LIB patients received crystalloid 12 mL/kg/h and RES patients 6 mL/kg/h. Cumulative crystalloid given (median, range, mL) days 0 to 3 was LIB: 12,252 (6600 to 21,365), RES 7808 (2700 to 16,274) P < 0.0001. Sixty-day mortality was 2 of 330 (0.6%). Median operative time for PD was 227 minutes (105 to 462) and DP 150 (44 to 323). Grade 3 complications occurred in 20% of LIB and 27% of RES patients (P = 0.6). Median length of stay was 7 and 5 days for PD and DP, respectively, in both arms. In a high volume institution, major perioperative complications from pancreatic resection were not significantly influenced by fluid regimens that differed approximately 1.6-fold.

  4. Dietary and fluid restrictions in CKD: a thematic synthesis of patient views from qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Ruospo, Marinella; Campbell, Katrina; Johnson, David W; Tong, Allison

    2015-04-01

    Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging for patients. We aimed to summarize patients' perspectives of dietary and fluid management in CKD to inform clinical practice and research. Systematic review of qualitative studies. Adults with CKD who express opinions about dietary and fluid management. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, reference lists, and PhD dissertations were searched to May 2013. Thematic synthesis. We included 46 studies involving 816 patients living in middle- to high-income countries. Studies involved patients treated with facility-based and home hemodialysis (33 studies; 462 patients), peritoneal dialysis (10 studies; 112 patients), either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis (3 studies; 73 patients), kidney transplant recipients (9 studies; 89 patients), and patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD stages 1 to 5 (5 studies; 80 patients). Five major themes were identified: preserving relationships (interference with roles, social limitations, and being a burden), navigating change (feeling deprived, disrupting held truths, breaking habits and norms, being overwhelmed by information, questioning efficacy, and negotiating priorities), fighting temptation (resisting impositions, experiencing mental invasion, and withstanding physiologic needs), optimizing health (accepting responsibility, valuing self-management, preventing disease progression, and preparing for and protecting a transplant), and becoming empowered (comprehending paradoxes, finding solutions, and mastering change and demands). Limited data in non-English languages and low-income settings and for adults with CKD not treated with hemodialysis. Dietary and fluid restrictions are disorienting and an intense burden for patients with CKD. Patient-prioritized education strategies, harnessing patients' motivation to stay well for a transplant or to avoid dialysis, and viewing adaptation to restrictions as a collaborative

  5. Prevalence of adherence to fluid restriction in kidney patients in haemodialysis: objective indicator and perceived compliance.

    PubMed

    Iborra-Moltó, Carmelo; López-Roig, Sofía; Pastor-Mira, M de Los Ángeles

    2012-07-17

    Studies of adherence to fluid restriction show high variability in prevalence data, as different methods of measuring IWG (interdialysis weight gain) and cut-off criteria are used. To describe the prevalence of adherence to fluid restriction using daily IWG (criterion: ≤1 Kg) and daily IWG adjusted for dry weight (DW) (cut-off point adjusted criterion: DW<70 kg, IWG=1 kg/day; DW>70 kg and ≤80 kg, IWG=1.1 kg/day; DW>80 kg and ≤90 kg, IWG=1.2 kg/day; DW>90 kg, IWG=1.3 kg/day) and to study the association between this objective indicator and adherence behaviour as reported by patient. Our study included a total of 146 patients with a mean age of 66 years (SD: 13.6 years; range: 25-88 years), 66% of which were male. Ours was a longitudinal study with one month of follow-up. We collected both sociodemographic and clinical variables and mean daily IWG. Patient-reported adherence behaviour was assessed through an interview by a trained staff member from outside the department who asked the following question: "In order to avoid complications between haemodialysis sessions: during the last month, how many days did you ingest less than 1 litre of fluid per day?" (0= no days; 10= every day). A score ≤5 led to categorisation of patients as compliant with treatment. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, correlation test, chi-square and Crosstabs, ROC curve and logistic regression procedures. Prevalence of "objective" adherence to fluid restriction was 61% (mean daily IWG≤1kg) and 73% (mean daily IWG adjusted for dry weight). Reported adherence (prevalence: 56.2%) was associated with IWG adjusted for weight (chi-square =31.34; P=.000). In patients with objective adherence adjusted for weight, the prevalence of reported adherence was 1.65 times that of non-adherence (PR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.29-2.11). The final model for estimating the association between reported adherence behaviour and daily adjusted IWG included: age (higher), dry weight (lower), potassium

  6. The properties of an improvised piston pump for the rapid delivery of intravenous fluids.

    PubMed

    Smart, C M; Primrose, C W; Peters, A L; Speirits, E J

    2014-02-01

    To maximise the effect of a small fluid load, it is occasionally desirable to bolus manually with multiple depressions of a large-capacity syringe. This is usually achieved by placing the syringe on the side port of a three-way tap. We modified this technique by placing two-one-way valves in line with the three-way tap, effectively creating a piston pump, the infusion rates via which we compared with those achieved by an inflatable pressure-infuser in a simulated resuscitation. Fluid flow was faster using the piston pump than with the pressure-infuser (mean (SD) time to infuse 2000 ml saline 0.9% via a 16-G cannula 352 (10) s vs 495 (19) s, respectively, p < 0.0001). The piston pump appears to have potential for both tight control of fluid delivery and major high-volume resuscitation. The lightweight nature of the pump and its lack of reliance on gravity may also make it suitable for the pre-hospital setting. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum Ampicillin Levels in Bacterial Meningitis Patients after Intravenous and Intramuscular Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT No. 3 L(CAIRO, ARAB REPUBLIC OF.IYPT) FPO NEW YORK 09527 1 ;,, ,.w oo o~ ) •8 ,S. . Best Available Copy Scand J Infect Dis 13: 237-238...service at large. Scand J Infect Ii PIT1 238 1. A. Mlikhail et al. Table 1. Bacterial meningitis patients included in Table 1I. (’erehrospiiuil fluid...with Staph . aureus meningitis was given staph - I h 6 0.3 1-2.50 1.09 10.00-28.50 17.83 cillin IM after 2 days of ampicillin therapy 4 h 4 0.22-2.90 1.02

  8. [Cerebrospinal fluid pressure studies after the intravenous administration of the steroid narcotic, alphaxolone + alphadolone acetate (Althesin)].

    PubMed

    Ekhart, E; List, W F; Vadon, P; Oberbauer, R

    1979-09-30

    The effect of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), mean arterial blood pressure (MPA), heart rate (BMP) and blood gases was investigated in 18 patients. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated from the difference MAP minus CSFP. Alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate lowered the normal CSFP and normalized ketamin induced increase of CSFP. Premedication with alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate delayed the ketamin induced increase of CSFP, which returned to norm after a second dose of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate. This effect was seen despite elevation of pCO2 in all patients breathing spontaneously.

  9. Endurance running performance after 48 h of restricted fluid and/or energy intake.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Samuel J; Laing, Stewart J; Wilson, Sally; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect of a 48-h period of either fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER), or fluid and energy restriction (F + ER) on 30-min treadmill time trial (TT) performance in temperate conditions. Thirteen males participated in four randomized 48-h trials (mean +/- SD: age, 21 +/- 3 yr; VO2max 50.9 +/- 4.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Control (CON) participants received their estimated energy (2903 +/- 199 kcal x d(-1)) and water (3912 +/- 500 mL x d(-1)) requirements. For FR, participants received their energy requirements and 193 +/- 50 mL x d(-1) water to drink, and for ER, participants received their water requirements and 290 +/- 20 kcal x d(-1). F + ER was a combination of FR and ER. After 48 h, participants performed a 30-min treadmill TT in temperate conditions (19.7 +/- 0.6 degrees C). A separate investigation (N = 10) showed the TT to be highly reproducible (CV 1.6%). Body mass loss (BML) was 0.6 +/- 0.4% (CON), 3.2 +/- 0.5% (FR), 3.4 +/- 0.3% (ER), and 3.6 +/- 0.3% (F + ER). Compared with CON (6295 +/- 513 m), less distance was completed on ER (10.3%) and F + ER (15.0%: P < 0.01). Although less distance was completed on FR (2.8%), this was not significantly different from CON. These results show a detrimental effect of a 48-h period of ER but no significant effect of FR on 30-min treadmill TT performance in temperate conditions. Therefore, these results do not support the popular contention that modest hypohydration (2-3% BML) significantly impairs endurance performance in temperate conditions.

  10. Cultural factors influencing dietary and fluid restriction behaviour: perceptions of older Chinese patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Use of Hypotonic Maintenance Intravenous Fluids and Hospital-Acquired Hyponatremia Remain Common in Children Admitted to a General Pediatric Ward.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shikha; Basu, Srikanta; Moritz, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate maintenance intravenous fluid-prescribing practices and the incidence of hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children admitted to a general pediatric ward. This is a prospective observational study conducted over a 2-month period in children ages 2 months to 5 years who were admitted to a general pediatric ward and who were receiving maintenance intravenous fluids. The composition, rate, and duration of intravenous fluids were chosen at the discretion of the treating physician. Serum biochemistries were obtained at baseline and 24 h following admission. Patients who were at high risk for developing hyponatremia or hypernatremia or had underlying chronic diseases or were receiving medications associated with a disorder in sodium and water homeostasis were excluded. Intravenous fluid composition and the incidence of hyponatremia (sodium <135 mEq/L) were assessed. Fifty-six children were enrolled. All received hypotonic fluids; 87.5% received 0.18% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 14.3% received 0.45% NaCl. Forty percent of patients (17/42) with a serum sodium (SNa) less than 140 mEq/L experienced a fall in SNa with 12.5% of all patients (7/56) developing hospital-acquired or aggravated hyponatremia (126-134 mEq/L) with fall in SNa between 2 and 10 mEq/L. Administration of hypotonic fluids was a prevalent practice in children admitted to a general pediatric ward and is associated with acute hospital-acquired hyponatremia.

  12. Disability is associated with nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Mollaoğlu, Mukadder; Kayataş, Mansur

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions and its relation with the level of disability in patients on chronic hemodialysis (CH). The study design was a descriptive survey. The data were obtained from 186 patients in hemodialysis centers in Turkey. Descriptive statistics including mean scores, standard deviations and frequencies, and correlations analysis and logistic regression were conducted. Data were collected by using a personal information form, the Dialysis Diet and Fluid and Brief Disability Questionnaire. A great majority of hemodialysis patients showed nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions. In total, 124 patients (66.7 %) reported mild to very severe nonadherence to diet, and 128 patients (68.8 %) reported mild to very severe nonadherence to fluid restrictions. Most of the patients with CH (69.9 %) experienced disability. The results of this study showed that nonadherence was more common among older age, females, low-educated patients and those with higher levels of disability. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions was high in hemodialysis patients. The significant predictors for diet and fluid nonadherence were: older age, high interdialytic weight gain, and severe disability. Medical professionals must be aware of nonadherence and related factors and assist patients in developing strategies to prevent and respond to this.

  13. Intravenous fluid bolus therapy: a bi-national survey of critical care nurses' self-reported practice.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, G M; Parke, R; Peck, L; Young, H; Paton, E; Zhang, L; Zhu, G; Tanaka, A; Glassford, N J; Bellomo, R

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of critical care nurses' intravenous fluid bolus therapy (FBT) practice remains underexplored. Using a multi-choice online survey conducted between September and October 2014, we sought to describe the self-reported practice of critical care nurses located in Australia and New Zealand. Two hundred and ninety-five critical care nurses responded to the survey with most practising in adult ICUs. Overall, 0.9% saline solution was the preferred solution for FBT. However, more Australian than New Zealand respondents preferred 'albumin 4%' (31% versus 3.6%, P <0.01) for FBT. In contrast, more New Zealand respondents preferred 'Plasma-Lyte®' (33.3% versus 6.4%, P <0.01). Half of the respondents defined FBT as 250 ml administered as quickly as possible. However, FBT volumes ranged from 100 ml to >1000 ml and administration duration from as quickly as possible to 60 minutes. In response to FBT, almost half of the respondents expected an increase in mean arterial pressure of between 11 to 20 mmHg. Similarly, >40% expected a central venous pressure increase >3 mmHg, >70% expected a urinary output increase of 0.5 to 1.0 ml/kg/hr, and >60% expected a decrease in heart rate of >11 /min. Overall, 0.9% saline remains the most common solution for FBT, but there are significant national differences in the preference for albumin and Plasma-Lyte. A volume of 250 ml defines a fluid bolus, with a range from 100 ml to >1000 ml, and speed of delivery from stat to 60 minutes. Most nurses expect substantial physiological effects with FBT.

  14. Microcirculatory effects of intravenous fluid administration in anesthetized dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Deborah C; Cozzi, Elizabeth M; Hopkins, Amber S; Keefe, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    To assess the microcirculatory effects of IV fluid administration in healthy anesthetized dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. 49 client-owned dogs. Dogs were sedated, and anesthesia was induced with propofol and diazepam and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs received lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) IV at rates of 0, 10, or 20 mL/kg/h. Videomicroscopy was used to assess and record effects of LRS administration on microcirculation in the buccal mucosa. Measurements of microcirculatory (total vessel density, proportion of perfused vessels, microcirculatory flow index, and perfused vessel density by vessel size [< 20 μm, ≥ 20 μm, and all diameters]) and other physiologic variables (heart rate, Doppler-measured blood pressure, oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry, capillary refill time, and body temperature) were compared among groups at baseline (immediately after anesthetic induction), 30 and 60 minutes afterward, and overall. Neither the proportion of perfused vessels nor microcirculatory flow index varied among treatment groups at any time point, regardless of vessel size. For vessels < 20 μm in diameter and for all vessels combined, total and perfused vessel density were similar among groups. For vessels ≥ 20 μm in diameter, total vessel density was significantly greater in the 20 mL/kg/h group than in other groups, and perfused vessel density was significantly greater in the 20 mL/kg/h group than in the 0 mL/kg/h group, when all time points were considered. Other physiologic variables were similar among groups. Total and perfused vessel density of vessels ≥ 20 μm in diameter (mostly venules) were greatest in dogs that received 20 mL of LRS/kg/h. Further research is required to evaluate clinical importance of these findings.

  15. Neurologic abnormalities and cerebrospinal fluid changes in horses administered fumonisin B1 intravenously.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Jonathan H; Constable, Peter D; Waggoner, Amy L; Levy, Michel; Eppley, R M; Smith, Geoffrey W; Tumbleson, Mike E; Haschek, Wanda M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to characterize a dose-dependent toxic effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and to document initial neurologic signs, clinical progression, and terminal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in horses administered FB1 IV. Seventeen healthy horses were administered 0.00 (n = 4), 0.01 (n = 3), 0.05 (n = 3), 0.10 (n = 3), or 0.20 mg (n = 4) of purified FB1 IV q24h. When neurologic abnormalities observed by a masked observer became severe, atlanto-occipital CSF taps were performed and CSF pressure, cell count, cytology, protein, albumin and glucose concentrations, and creatine kinase activity were measured. Changes in CSF and number of days to 1st observation of neurologic abnormalities were compared between doses by ANOVA, with the level of significance set at P < .05. Control horses and low-dose horses (0.01 mg/kg) remained neurologically normal. In higher dose FB1-treated horses (n = 10), initial clinical signs (days 4-10) included hindlimb ataxia, delayed forelimb placing, and decreased tongue tone and movement. Hindlimb and trunkal ataxia, depression, hyperesthesia, and intermittent dementia gradually became apparent. When data from all horses with neurologic abnormalities were pooled (0.05-0.20 mg/kg FB1), mild clinical signs (mean day 6.3) occurred significantly earlier than did more severe (mean day 8.9) clinical signs (P = .009). Neurologic horses had high CSF protein, albumin, and IgG concentrations and increased albumin quotients (P < .05). It was concluded that FB1-induced neurologic and CSF changes in a dose-dependent manner, with a no-observable-limit of 0.01 mg FB1/kg IV q24h for 28 days. The neurologic and CSF changes were consistent with vasogenic cerebral edema.

  16. Effects of Bowel Preparation and Fluid Restriction in Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karaören, Gülşah Yılmaz; Bakan, Nurten; Yürük, Cafer Tayyar; Çetinkaya, Ali Osman

    2015-01-01

    Objective In Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) patients, preoperative bowel preparation and intraoperative fluid restriction may cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. In these patients, laboratory results that are considered “normal” in the pre-anaesthesia clinic may be misleading, and cardiac arrhythmia due to hypokalaemia and hypocalcaemia, as well as problems, such as prolonged non-depolarising blockade and delayed recovery from anaesthesia, may be observed during anaesthesia practice. In this study, we aimed to determine these disturbances by comparing the preoperative (T1) laboratory values with those at the beginning of the operation (T2) and at the 6th hour of the operation (T3) and values at discharge. Methods This prospective study comprised 49 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-II patients. Bowel preparation was made with a rectal enema (NaP) twice in 12 hours and with one single dose of oral laxative soda (NaP). During surgery, 1 mL kg−1 h−1 0.09% NaCl and 1 mL kg−1 h−1 6% HES 200/05 infusions were applied. Results The potassium level at T2 was significantly lower than at T1 and T3. The calcium levels at T2 and T3 were significantly lower than at T1, and the level at T3 was significantly lower than at T2. The creatinine level at T3 was significantly higher than at T1 and T2. Conclusion Although there were no severe increases or decreases in laboratory test values due to bowel preparation and fluid restriction in RARP operations, which reflected on the clinical outcome in this ASA I–II patient group, these changes may be important in critically ill or ASA III–IV patients. PMID:27366475

  17. Effects of Bowel Preparation and Fluid Restriction in Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Patients.

    PubMed

    Karaören, Gülşah Yılmaz; Bakan, Nurten; Yürük, Cafer Tayyar; Çetinkaya, Ali Osman

    2015-04-01

    In Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) patients, preoperative bowel preparation and intraoperative fluid restriction may cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. In these patients, laboratory results that are considered "normal" in the pre-anaesthesia clinic may be misleading, and cardiac arrhythmia due to hypokalaemia and hypocalcaemia, as well as problems, such as prolonged non-depolarising blockade and delayed recovery from anaesthesia, may be observed during anaesthesia practice. In this study, we aimed to determine these disturbances by comparing the preoperative (T1) laboratory values with those at the beginning of the operation (T2) and at the 6(th) hour of the operation (T3) and values at discharge. This prospective study comprised 49 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-II patients. Bowel preparation was made with a rectal enema (NaP) twice in 12 hours and with one single dose of oral laxative soda (NaP). During surgery, 1 mL kg(-1) h(-1) 0.09% NaCl and 1 mL kg(-1) h(-1) 6% HES 200/05 infusions were applied. The potassium level at T2 was significantly lower than at T1 and T3. The calcium levels at T2 and T3 were significantly lower than at T1, and the level at T3 was significantly lower than at T2. The creatinine level at T3 was significantly higher than at T1 and T2. Although there were no severe increases or decreases in laboratory test values due to bowel preparation and fluid restriction in RARP operations, which reflected on the clinical outcome in this ASA I-II patient group, these changes may be important in critically ill or ASA III-IV patients.

  18. The liquid-vapour interface of the restricted primitive model (RPM) of ionic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Volker C.; Schröer, Wolffram

    2000-03-01

    The liquid-vapour interface of the restricted primitive model (RPM) of ionic fluids is investigated within a square-gradient theory. We compute density profiles and interfacial tensions for different temperatures using Debye-Hückel (DH) theory and its recent extension for ion-pair formation and interactions between the dipolar ion pairs and free ions developed by Fisher and Levin. This Fisher-Levin (FL) theory is known to give an accurate description of the coexistence curve of the RPM. To account for the inhomogeneities in the interfacial region, the local free-energy density is expanded in terms of the density gradient. For small gradients, e.g. reasonably close to the critical point, such an expansion can be truncated after the square-gradient term. The coefficient of the latter is calculated from the direct correlation function using an approximate (quadratic) hypernetted-chain (AHNC) relation and, alternatively, from an extended van der Waals approach in conjunction with different approximations to the local density. The results from the AHNC relation and various local density approximations in the thermodynamic framework of DH theory and FL theory, respectively, are compared, and it is asserted that the AHNC relation in conjunction with FL theory predicts reliably the interfacial properties of the RPM even within this simple square-gradient theory. In contrast to the situation for simple fluids, the local density approximation must be chosen carefully for ionic fluids since properties such as the interfacial thickness and the surface tension may vary by a factor of three or four depending on the applied local density approximation.

  19. The choice of the intravenous fluid influences the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia in anesthetized domestic pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The correction of hypovolemia with acellular fluids results in acute normovolemic anemia. Whether the choice of the infusion fluid has an impact on the maintenance of oxygen (O2) supply during acute normovolemic anemia has not been investigated so far. Methods Thirty-six anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were hemodiluted to their physiological limit of anemia tolerance, reflected by the individual critical hemoglobin concentration (Hbcrit). Hbcrit was defined as the Hb-concentration corresponding with the onset of supply-dependency of total body O2-consumption (VO2). The hemodilution protocol was randomly performed with either tetrastarch (6% HES 130/0.4, TS-group, n = 9), gelatin (3.5% urea-crosslinked polygeline, GEL-group, n = 9), hetastarch (6% HES 450/0.7, HS-group, n = 9) or Ringer's solution (RS-group, n = 9). The primary endpoint was the dimension of Hbcrit, secondary endpoints were parameters of central hemodynamics, O2 transport and tissue oxygenation. Results In each animal, normovolemia was maintained throughout the protocol. Hbcrit was met at 3.7 ± 0.6 g/dl (RS), 3.0 ± 0.6 g/dl (HS P < 0.05 vs. RS), 2.7 ± 0.6 g/dl (GEL, P < 0.05 vs. RS) and 2.1 ± 0.4 g/dl (TS, P < 0.05 vs. GEL, HS and RS). Hemodilution with RS resulted in a significant increase of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and a decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2), and O2 extraction ratio was increased, when animals of the TS-, GEL- and HS-groups met their individual Hbcrit. Conclusions The choice of the intravenous fluid has an impact on the tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia induced by acellular volume replacement. Third-generation tetrastarch preparations (e.g., HES 130/0.4) appear most advantageous regarding maintenance of tissue oxygenation during progressive anemia. The underlying mechanism includes a lower degree of extravasation and favourable effects on microcirculatory function. PMID:22546374

  20. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetic parameters after single-dose administration of intravenous, oral, or rectal acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Singla, Neil K; Parulan, Cherri; Samson, Roselle; Hutchinson, Joel; Bushnell, Rick; Beja, Evelyn G; Ang, Robert; Royal, Mike A

    2012-09-01

    This is the first study to compare plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of intravenous (IV), oral (PO), or rectal (PR) formulations of acetaminophen. Healthy male subjects (N = 6) were randomized to receive a single dose of IV (OFIRMEV(®) ; Cadence) 1,000 mg (15 minute infusion), PO (2 Tylenol(®) 500 mg caplets; McNeil Consumer Healthcare), or PR acetaminophen (2 Feverall(®) 650 mg suppositories; Actavis) with a 1-day washout period between doses. The 1,300 mg PR concentrations were standardized to 1,000 mg. Acetaminophen plasma and CSF levels were obtained at T0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours. IV acetaminophen showed earlier and higher plasma and CSF levels compared with PO or PR administration. CSF bioavailability over 6 hours (AUC(0-6)) for IV, PO, and PR 1 g was 24.9, 14.2, and 10.3 μg·h/mL, respectively. No treatment-related adverse events were reported. One subject was replaced because of premature failure of his lumbar spinal catheter. The mean CSF level in the IV group was similar to plasma from 3 to 4 hours and higher from 4 hours on. Absorption phase, variability in plasma, and CSF were greater in PO and PR groups than variability with IV administration. These results demonstrate that earlier and greater CSF penetration occurs as a result of the earlier and higher plasma peak with IV administration compared with PO or PR. © 2012 Lotus Clinical Research, LLC. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Oxytocin by intranasal and intravenous routes reaches the cerebrospinal fluid in rhesus macaques: determination using a novel oxytocin assay.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R; Scheidweiler, K B; Diao, X X; Akhlaghi, F; Cummins, A; Huestis, M A; Leggio, L; Averbeck, B B

    2017-03-14

    Oxytocin (OT) is a potential treatment for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. As OT is a peptide, delivery by the intranasal (IN) route is the preferred method in clinical studies. Although studies have shown increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) OT levels following IN administration, this does not unequivocably demonstrate that the peripherally administered OT is entering the CSF. For example, it has been suggested that peripheral delivery of OT could lead to central release of endogenous OT. It is also unknown whether the IN route provides for more efficient entry of the peptide into the CSF compared to the intravenous (IV) route, which requires blood-brain barrier penetration. To address these questions, we developed a sensitive and specific quantitative mass spectrometry assay that distinguishes labeled (d5-deuterated) from endogenous (d0) OT. We administered d5 OT (80 IU) to six nonhuman primates via IN and IV routes as well as IN saline as a control condition. We measured plasma and CSF concentrations of administered and endogenous OT before (t=0) and after (t=10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min) d5 OT dosing. We demonstrate CSF penetrance of d5, exogenous OT delivered by IN and IV administration. Peripheral administration of d5 OT did not lead to increased d0, endogenous OT in the CSF. This suggests that peripheral administration of OT does not lead to central release of endogenous OT. We also did not find that IN administration offered an advantage compared to IV administration with respect to achieving greater CSF concentrations of OT.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 14 March 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.27.

  2. [Value of the technique of intravenous infusion of contrast media for the diagnosis of fluid processes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ramos, L; Marcos, L; Arenas de Pablo, A; Mora, M H; Illanas, M; Paya, F P; Picouto, P P

    1977-01-01

    The study covered 50 patients suffering from hepatic effusions; a solution used in contrast intravenous psychography was administered to them by the intravenous route, at similar doses to those used in intravenous psychography with infusions. This process which we have called Intravenous Viscerogramme, because of the similarity of the images obtained with those of the viscerographic phase of arteriography, has enabled the diagnosis of 35 hydatidiform cysts, one case of cholangiolar hamartoma and an abscess. Owing to the ease with which it can be carried out, we think that it can be used in the diagnosis of tumoral lesions of the liver. When the result is positive, radiological signs are obtained which enable identification of the lesion, thus avoiding resorting to more complex investigations such as angiography.

  3. Dr Thomas Aitchison Latta (c1796-1833): pioneer of intravenous fluid replacement in the treatment of cholera.

    PubMed

    Janakan, Gnananandan; Ellis, Harold

    2013-05-01

    In 1832 pandemic cholera travelled across Europe with devastating mortality. Before this, doctors had speculated on the benefits of intravenous therapy but none had tried. Only in 1832 did Thomas Latta perform intravenous infusions. This treatment disappeared after Latta's death. This was mainly due to general medical scepticism, lack of biochemical and physiological knowledge and poor patient selection. Finally, there were no further pandemics comparable with that of 1832 to provide the catalyst to accelerate medical development in this field.

  4. Effect of feed restriction on metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Laeger, T; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B

    2012-03-01

    Endocrines and metabolites in the circulation act as long-term hunger or satiety signals in the brain during negative energy balance and play an important role in the control of feed intake. These signals also occur in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which surrounds the hypothalamus and brainstem: 2 major centers of feed intake regulation. Thus CSF functions as a transport medium for fuel signals between blood and brain. The CSF metabolite concentrations are mainly under control of the blood-brain barriers, which provide specific carrier molecules facilitating the entry of substances required by the brain and protect the brain from factors that could impair neuronal function. The transport of small molecules such as amino acids (AA) across the blood-brain barriers may be limited by competing AA that share a common transporter for the uptake into brain. Consequently, CSF metabolite concentrations differ from those in blood. Thus it appears likely that central (CSF) rather than peripheral (blood) metabolites act as pivotal signals for the control of feed intake. However, the contribution of putative orexigenic and anorexigenic signals in CSF of cows has not been studied so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate associations existing between both plasma and CSF metabolites, each in response to feed restriction-induced negative energy balance. Seven German Holstein dairy cows, between 87 and 96 DIM of the second lactation (milk yield, 27.9 L/d) were fed ad libitum (AL) for 4 d and CSF from the spinal cord and blood from the jugular vein was withdrawn before morning feeding at the fifth day. Subsequently, animals were feed restricted (R) to 50% of the previous AL intake for 4 d and CSF and plasma were collected at the ninth day. Body weight, feed intake, water intake, and milk production were determined. Thirty-one AA, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea, and osmolality were measured in both CSF and

  5. Early and sustained vasopressin infusion augments the hemodynamic efficacy of restrictive fluid resuscitation and improves survival in a liver laceration model of hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Gazmuri, Raúl J; Whitehouse, Kasen; Whittinghill, Karla; Baetiong, Alvin; Shah, Kruti; Radhakrishnan, Jeejabai

    2017-02-01

    Current management of hemorrhagic shock favors restrictive fluid resuscitation before control of the bleeding source. We investigated the additional effects of early and sustained vasopressin infusion in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock produced by liver laceration. Forty male domestic pigs (32-40 kg) had a liver laceration inflicted with an X-shaped blade clamp, 32 received a second laceration at minute 7.5, and 24 received two additional lacerations at minute 15. Using a two-by-two factorial design, animals were randomized 1:1 to receive vasopressin infusion (0.04 U/kg per minute) or vehicle intraosseously from minute 7 until minute 240 and 1:1 to receive isotonic sodium chloride solution (12 mL/kg) intravenously at minute 30 or no fluids. Kaplan-Meier curves showed greater survival after vasopressin with isotonic sodium chloride solution (8/10) compared to vasopressin without isotonic sodium chloride solution (4/10), vehicle with isotonic sodium chloride solution (3/10), or vehicle without isotonic sodium chloride solution (3/10), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.095 by log-rank test). However, logistic regression showed vasopressin to elicit a statistically significant benefit on survival (p = 0.042). Vasopressin augmented mean aortic pressure between 10 and 20 mm Hg without intensifying the rate of bleeding from liver laceration, which was virtually identical to that of vehicle-treated animals (33.9 ± 5.1 and 33.8 ± 4.8 mL/kg). Vasopressin increased systemic vascular resistance and reduced transcapillary fluid extravasation, augmenting the volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution retained (6.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.4 ± 2.0 mL/kg by minute 60). The cardiac output and blood flow to the myocardium, liver, spleen, kidney, small bowel, and skeletal muscle at minute 120 and minute 180 were comparable or higher in the vasopressin group. Early and sustained vasopressin infusion provided critical hemodynamic stability during hemorrhagic shock

  6. Patterns of intravenous fluid resuscitation use in adult intensive care patients between 2007 and 2014: An international cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Naomi E.; Taylor, Colman; An, YouZhong; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Du, Bin; McIntryre, Lauralyn; Saxena, Manoj; Schortgen, Frédérique; Watts, Nicola R.; Myburgh, John

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation—Translation of Research Into Practice Study (SAFE-TRIPS) reported that 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) were the most commonly used resuscitation fluids in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Evidence has emerged since 2007 that these fluids are associated with adverse patient-centred outcomes. Based on the published evidence since 2007, we sought to determine the current type of fluid resuscitation used in clinical practice and the predictors of fluid choice and determine whether these have changed between 2007 and 2014. Methods In 2014, an international, cross-sectional study was conducted (Fluid-TRIPS) to document current patterns of intravenous resuscitation fluid use and determine factors associated with fluid choice. We examined univariate and multivariate associations between patients and prescriber characteristics, geographical region and fluid type. Additionally, we report secular trends of resuscitation fluid use in a cohort of ICUs that participated in both the 2007 and 2014 studies. Regression analysis were conducted to determine changes in the administration of crystalloid or colloid between 2007 and 2014. Findings In 2014, a total of 426 ICUs in 27 countries participated. Over the 24 hour study day, 1456/6707 (21.7%) patients received resuscitation fluid during 2716 resuscitation episodes. Crystalloids were administered to 1227/1456 (84.3%) patients during 2208/2716 (81.3%) episodes and colloids to 394/1456 (27.1%) patients during 581/2716 (21.4%) episodes. In multivariate analyses, practice significantly varied between geographical regions. Additionally, patients with a traumatic brain injury were less likely to receive colloid when compared to patients with no trauma (adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.62; p = 0.003). Patients in the ICU for one or more days where more likely to receive colloid compared to patients in the ICU on their admission date (adjusted

  7. Patterns of intravenous fluid resuscitation use in adult intensive care patients between 2007 and 2014: An international cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Naomi E; Taylor, Colman; Finfer, Simon; Machado, Flavia R; An, YouZhong; Billot, Laurent; Bloos, Frank; Bozza, Fernando; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Correa, Maryam; Du, Bin; Hjortrup, Peter B; Li, Yang; McIntryre, Lauralyn; Saxena, Manoj; Schortgen, Frédérique; Watts, Nicola R; Myburgh, John

    2017-01-01

    In 2007, the Saline versus Albumin Fluid Evaluation-Translation of Research Into Practice Study (SAFE-TRIPS) reported that 0.9% sodium chloride (saline) and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) were the most commonly used resuscitation fluids in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Evidence has emerged since 2007 that these fluids are associated with adverse patient-centred outcomes. Based on the published evidence since 2007, we sought to determine the current type of fluid resuscitation used in clinical practice and the predictors of fluid choice and determine whether these have changed between 2007 and 2014. In 2014, an international, cross-sectional study was conducted (Fluid-TRIPS) to document current patterns of intravenous resuscitation fluid use and determine factors associated with fluid choice. We examined univariate and multivariate associations between patients and prescriber characteristics, geographical region and fluid type. Additionally, we report secular trends of resuscitation fluid use in a cohort of ICUs that participated in both the 2007 and 2014 studies. Regression analysis were conducted to determine changes in the administration of crystalloid or colloid between 2007 and 2014. In 2014, a total of 426 ICUs in 27 countries participated. Over the 24 hour study day, 1456/6707 (21.7%) patients received resuscitation fluid during 2716 resuscitation episodes. Crystalloids were administered to 1227/1456 (84.3%) patients during 2208/2716 (81.3%) episodes and colloids to 394/1456 (27.1%) patients during 581/2716 (21.4%) episodes. In multivariate analyses, practice significantly varied between geographical regions. Additionally, patients with a traumatic brain injury were less likely to receive colloid when compared to patients with no trauma (adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.62; p = 0.003). Patients in the ICU for one or more days where more likely to receive colloid compared to patients in the ICU on their admission date (adjusted OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.27 to 2

  8. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  9. Restricting volumes of resuscitation fluid in adults with septic shock after initial management: the CLASSIC randomised, parallel-group, multicentre feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Hjortrup, Peter B; Haase, Nicolai; Bundgaard, Helle; Thomsen, Simon L; Winding, Robert; Pettilä, Ville; Aaen, Anne; Lodahl, David; Berthelsen, Rasmus E; Christensen, Henrik; Madsen, Martin B; Winkel, Per; Wetterslev, Jørn; Perner, Anders

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the effects of a protocol restricting resuscitation fluid vs. a standard care protocol after initial resuscitation in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock. We randomised 151 adult patients with septic shock who had received initial fluid resuscitation in nine Scandinavian ICUs. In the fluid restriction group fluid boluses were permitted only if signs of severe hypoperfusion occurred, while in the standard care group fluid boluses were permitted as long as circulation continued to improve. The co-primary outcome measures, resuscitation fluid volumes at day 5 and during ICU stay, were lower in the fluid restriction group than in the standard care group [mean differences -1.2 L (95 % confidence interval -2.0 to -0.4); p < 0.001 and -1.4 L (-2.4 to -0.4) respectively; p < 0.001]. Neither total fluid inputs and balances nor serious adverse reactions differed statistically significantly between the groups. Major protocol violations occurred in 27/75 patients in the fluid restriction group. Ischaemic events occurred in 3/75 in the fluid restriction group vs. 9/76 in the standard care group (odds ratio 0.32; 0.08-1.27; p = 0.11), worsening of acute kidney injury in 27/73 vs. 39/72 (0.46; 0.23-0.92; p = 0.03), and death by 90 days in 25/75 vs. 31/76 (0.71; 0.36-1.40; p = 0.32). A protocol restricting resuscitation fluid successfully reduced volumes of resuscitation fluid compared with a standard care protocol in adult ICU patients with septic shock. The patient-centred outcomes all pointed towards benefit with fluid restriction, but our trial was not powered to show differences in these exploratory outcomes. NCT02079402.

  10. Evaluation of Mucorales DNA load in cerebrospinal fluid in a patient with possible cerebral mucormycosis treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Saito, Shoji; Koike, Kenichi

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old male with possible cerebral mucormycosis following chemotherapy. We detected a Lichtheimia DNA load of 2.0×10(4) copies/ml in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), although a CSF culture showed no growth. After treatment with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B, the Lichtheimia DNA load fell below the detection limit, and at the same time the patient's headache and imaging findings improved. The quantification of Mucorales DNA in CSF may be useful for evaluating cerebral mucormycosis.

  11. Preliminary results of a prospective randomized trial of restrictive versus standard fluid regime in elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    McArdle, Geralde T; McAuley, Daniel F; McKinley, Andrew; Blair, Paul; Hoper, Margaret; Harkin, Denis W

    2009-07-01

    Open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is associated with a significant morbidity (primarily respiratory and cardiac complications) and an overall mortality rate of 4% to 10%. We tested the hypothesis that perioperative fluid restriction would reduce complications and improve outcome after elective open AAA repair. In a prospective randomized control trial, patients undergoing elective open infra-renal AAA repair were randomized to a "standard" or "restricted" perioperative fluid administration group. Primary outcome measure was rate of major complications (MC) after AAA repair and secondary outcome measures included: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score; FiO2/PO2 ratio; Urinary Albumin/Creatinine Ratio; Length-of-stay in, intensive care unit, high dependency unit, in-hospital. This prospective Randomized Controlled Trial was registered in a publicly accessible database and has the following ID number ISRCTN27753612. Overall 22 patients were randomized, 1 was excluded on a priori criteria, leaving standard group (11) and restricted group (10) for analysis. No significant difference was noted between groups in respect to age, gender, American Society Anesthesiology class, Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity scores, operation time, and operation blood loss. There were no in-hospital deaths and no 30-day mortality. The cumulative fluid balance on day 5 postoperative was for standard group, 8242 +/- 714 mL, compared with restricted group, 2570 +/- 977 mL, P < 0.01. MC were significantly reduced in the restricted group (n = 10), 1 MC, compared with standard group (n = 11), 14 MC, P < 0.024. Total and postoperative length-of-stay in-hospital was significantly reduced in the restricted group, 9 +/- 1 and 8 +/- 1 days, compared with standard group, 18 +/- 5 and 16 +/- 5 days, P < 0.01 and P < 0.025, respectively. Serious complications are common after elective open AAA repair, and we have shown for the first

  12. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Tigecycline in Serum and Skin Blister Fluid of Healthy Subjects after Multiple Intravenous Administrations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Heather K.; Ong, Christine T.; Umer, Ambreen; Harper, Dawn; Troy, Steven; Nightingale, Charles H.; Nicolau, David P.

    2005-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tigecycline, when given as a 100-mg loading dose followed by 50 mg every 12 h, were determined in serum and blister fluid. The peak tigecycline concentration and half-life in serum were greater than those in blister fluid. Tigecycline penetrates into blister fluid well, with a mean penetration rate of 74%. PMID:15793157

  13. Screening and Confirmatory Analyses of Flunixin in Tissues and Bodily Fluids after Intravenous or Intramuscular Administration to Cull Dairy Cows with or without Lipopolysaccharide Challenge.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; Smith, David J; Tell, Lisa A; Baynes, Ronald E; Schroeder, J W; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-01-13

    Twenty cull dairy cows (645 ± 83 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration with, or without, exposure to lipopolysaccharide in a two factor balanced design. The usefulness of screening assays to identify violative flunixin levels in a variety of easily accessible ante-mortem fluids in cattle was explored. Two animals with violative flunixin liver residue and/or violative 5-hydroxy flunixin milk residues were correctly identified by a flunixin liver ELISA screen. Oral fluid did not produce anticipated flunixin concentration profiles using ELISA determination. One cow that had liver and milk violative residues, and one cow that had a milk violation at the prescribed withdrawal period were correctly identified by flunixin milk lateral flow analyses. The ratio of urinary flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin may be useful for predicting disruption of metabolism caused by disease or other factors potentially leading to violative liver flunixin residues.

  14. Effect of External Pressure and Catheter Gauge on Flow Rate, Kinetic Energy, and Endothelial Injury During Intravenous Fluid Administration in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Chan, Wei-Hung; Chen, Yao-Chang; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chou, Yu-Ching; Huang, Go-Shine

    2016-01-01

    The effects of intravenous (IV) catheter gauge and pressurization of IV fluid (IVF) bags on fluid flow rate have been studied. However, the pressure needed to achieve a flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 gauge (G) catheter through smaller G catheters and the potential for endothelial damage from the increased kinetic energy produced by higher pressurization are unclear. Constant pressure on an IVF bag was maintained by an automatic adjustable pneumatic pressure regulator of our own design. Fluids running through 16 G, 18 G, 20 G, and 22 G catheters were assessed while using IV bag pressurization to achieve the flow rate equivalent to that of a 16 G catheter. We assessed flow rates, kinetic energy, and flow injury to rabbit inferior vena cava endothelium. By applying sufficient external constant pressure to an IVF bag, all fluids could be run through smaller (G) catheters at the flow rate in a 16 G catheter. However, the kinetic energy increased significantly as the catheter G increased. Damage to the venous endothelium was negligible or minimal/patchy cell loss. We designed a new rapid infusion system, which provides a constant pressure that compresses the fluid volume until it is free from visible residual fluid. When large-bore venous access cannot be obtained, multiple smaller catheters, external pressure, or both should be considered. However, caution should be exercised when fluid pressurized to reach a flow rate equivalent to that in a 16 G catheter is run through a smaller G catheter because of the profound increase in kinetic energy that can lead to venous endothelium injury.

  15. Restricted Crystalloid Fluid Therapy during Orthotopic Liver Transplant Surgery and its Effect on Respiratory and Renal Insufficiency in the Early Post-operative Period: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sahmeddini, M A; Janatmakan, F; Khosravi, M B; Ghaffaripour, S; Eghbal, M H; Nickeghbalian, S; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory and renal insufficiencies are common dysfunctions during post-liver transplantation period that increase post-operative mortality and morbidity rates. Intra-operative fluid therapy is an important factor associated with pulmonary and renal insufficiency. To evaluate the relation between intra-operative fluid therapy and early renal and respiratory insufficiency after liver transplantation. In this randomized clinical study, 67 adult patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation were randomly allocated into two groups. The restricted fluid group, which received a controlled fluid administration of normal saline, 5 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia, and non-restricted fluid group received a controlled infusion of normal saline 10 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia. Early post-operative respiratory and renal insufficiency in both groups were assessed. The patients were monitored during the three stages of liver transplantation for their hemodynamic indices. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013101811662N4. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both studied groups. The prevalence of respiratory insufficiency in the non-restricted fluid group (15%) significantly (p=0.01) higher than that in the restricted fluid group (0%). The post-operative mean±SD serum creatinine was 1.0±0.1 mg/dL in the non-restricted fluid group and 1.1±0.2 in the restricted fluid group (p=0.43). No patients in the studied groups required post-operative continuous renal replacement therapy. Restricted crystalloid fluid administration during orthotropic liver transplantation though decreased post-operative chance of pulmonary insufficiency, did not increase renal dysfunction.

  16. Restricted Crystalloid Fluid Therapy during Orthotopic Liver Transplant Surgery and its Effect on Respiratory and Renal Insufficiency in the Early Post-operative Period: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sahmeddini, M. A.; Janatmakan, F.; Khosravi, M. B.; Ghaffaripour, S.; Eghbal, M. H.; Nickeghbalian, S.; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Respiratory and renal insufficiencies are common dysfunctions during post-liver transplantation period that increase post-operative mortality and morbidity rates. Intra-operative fluid therapy is an important factor associated with pulmonary and renal insufficiency. Objective: To evaluate the relation between intra-operative fluid therapy and early renal and respiratory insufficiency after liver transplantation. Methods: In this randomized clinical study, 67 adult patients with end-stage liver disease who underwent orthotopic deceased donor liver transplantation were randomly allocated into two groups. The restricted fluid group, which received a controlled fluid administration of normal saline, 5 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia, and non-restricted fluid group received a controlled infusion of normal saline 10 mL/kg/hr during anesthesia. Early post-operative respiratory and renal insufficiency in both groups were assessed. The patients were monitored during the three stages of liver transplantation for their hemodynamic indices. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013101811662N4. Results: The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both studied groups. The prevalence of respiratory insufficiency in the non-restricted fluid group (15%) significantly (p=0.01) higher than that in the restricted fluid group (0%). The post-operative mean±SD serum creatinine was 1.0±0.1 mg/dL in the non-restricted fluid group and 1.1±0.2 in the restricted fluid group (p=0.43). No patients in the studied groups required post-operative continuous renal replacement therapy. Conclusions: Restricted crystalloid fluid administration during orthotropic liver transplantation though decreased post-operative chance of pulmonary insufficiency, did not increase renal dysfunction. PMID:25184031

  17. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  18. [Comparative study on the effect of restrictive fluid management strategy on the early pulmonary function of patients with severe burn].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-ping; Xiang, Fei; Tong, Da-li; Luo, Qi-zhi; Yuan, Zhi-qiang; Yan, Hong; Li, Xiao-lu; Chen, Jian; Peng, Dai-zhi; Luo, Gao-xing; Peng, Yi-zhi; Huang, Yue-sheng; Wu, Jun

    2012-06-01

    To retrospectively analyze the effect of restrictive fluid management strategy (RFMS) on the early pulmonary function and the prognosis of patients with extremely severe and extensive burn. Thirteen patients with extremely severe burn hospitalized from June 2010 to November 2011, being treated with RFMS in the fluid reabsorption stage, were enrolled as treatment group. Twenty-six patients with extremely severe burn hospitalized from March 2008 to November 2011, being treated with normal fluid therapy in the fluid reabsorption stage, were enrolled as control group. The match proportion between treatment group and control group was 1:2. Fluid intake, fluid output, fluid balance (the difference between fluid intake and output), and plasma albumin level from post burn day (PBD) 3 to 10, pulmonary oxygenation index on PBD 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14, occurrence of lung and blood stream infections from PBD 7 to 14, and occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), occurrence of other organ complications, and mortality within 2 weeks post burn (PBW) were recorded and compared. Measurement data were processed with t test and randomized blocks analysis of variance, enumeration data were processed with Fisher's exact test. Daily fluid intake of patients showed a tendency of decrease in both groups from PBD 3 to 10. Except for that of PBD 4, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups in fluid intake (with F values from 0.072 to 1.939, P values all above 0.05). Daily fluid output of patients showed a tendency of increase in both groups from PBD 3 to 10. It peaked on PBD 10 in control group and PBD 6 in treatment group. The mean daily fluid output was higher in treatment group than in control group from PBD 4 to 9, but without statistically significant difference (with F values from 0.001 to 3.026, P values all above 0.05). Fluid balance lowered in both groups, and it was the lowest on PBD 10 in control group and PBD 6 in treatment group. Fluid

  19. High-dose intravenous pulse steroid therapy for optic disc swelling and subretinal fluid in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Kei; Kaneko, Hiroki; Kachi, Shu; Ra, Eimei; Ito, Yasuki; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a disease with microvascular abnormality that causes acute optic disc swelling (ODS) and, in severe cases, subretinal fluid (SRF) accumulation. ODS causes compartment syndrome and subsequent axonal degeneration and loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. No treatment modalities have been effective, although some cases improved after the intake of oral systemic steroids. We reported a case of a 72-year-old man who was referred due to a visual defect in the right eye. At first presentation, visual acuity and visual field were disturbed; critical flicker frequency (CFF) was decreased; and optic coherence tomography (OCT) showed ODS and SRF. Microscopic examination revealed parapapillary hemorrhage and fluorescence angiography showed non-filling, temporal-superior choroidal lesion adjacent to the optic disc at an early phase. After high-dose intravenous steroid treatment, SRF and ODS were decreased, and completely resolved after 30 days. Visual acuity and CFF were improved, and visual field was enlarged. High-dose intravenous steroids could possibly resolve SRF and ODS and improve visual function of patients with NAION. Some cases in NAION improved visual acuity and visual function in natural course, more cases were needed to evaluate the efficiency. PMID:28303068

  20. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier. PMID:20532073

  1. Water Restriction and Fluid Temperature Alter Preference for Water and Sucrose Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michelle B.; Breza, Joseph M.; Houpt, Thomas A.; Smith, James C.; Contreras, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The role of diet temperature in ingestive behavior is poorly understood. We examined the importance of stimulus temperature and water-restriction state on the preference for and intake of water and sucrose. Using custom-designed equipment that allows us to monitor and maintain solution temperatures during testing (±0.1 °C), we conducted a series of 2-bottle preference tests (10 °C water vs. sucrose 10–40 °C) and brief access tests (10–40 °C water and sucrose). Water-restricted rats preferred cold water over any sucrose concentration (0.0–1.0 M) if the sucrose was 30 or 40 °C, whereas the same rats preferred sucrose at all concentrations and temperatures when unrestricted suggesting that the water-restriction state interacts with temperature preference. In a series of brief-access tests using a Davis Rig (MS-180), rats reduced licking to cold sucrose compared with 20 °C sucrose, suggesting that unlike water, cold temperature reduced the palatability of sucrose. PMID:22109629

  2. A randomized trial of sodium-restriction on kidney function, fluid volume and adipokines in CKD patients.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Katrina L; Johnson, David W; Bauer, Judith D; Hawley, Carmel M; Isbel, Nicole M; Stowasser, Michael; Whitehead, Jonathan P; Dimeski, Goce; McMahon, Emma

    2014-04-04

    Dietary sodium restriction is a key management strategy in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recent evidence has demonstrated short-term reduction in blood pressure (BP) and proteinuria with sodium restriction, however the effect on other cardiovascular-related risk factors requires investigation in CKD. The LowSALT CKD study involved 20 hypertensive Stage III-IV CKD patients counselled by a dietitian to consume a low-sodium diet (<100 mmol/day). The study was a randomised crossover trial comparing 2 weeks of high-sodium (additional 120 mmol sodium tablets) and low-sodium intake (placebo). Measurements were taken after each crossover arm including BP (peripheral and central), adipokines (inflammation markers and adiponectin), volume markers (extracellular-to-intracellular [E/I] fluid ratio; N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), kidney function (estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate [eGFR]) and proteinuria (urine protein-creatinine ratio [PCR] and albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]). Outcomes were compared using paired t-test for each cross-over arm. BP-lowering benefits of a low-sodium intake (peripheral BP (mean ± SD) 148/82 ± 21/12 mmHg) from high-sodium (159/87 ± 15/10 mmHg) intake were reflected in central BP and a reduction in eGFR, PCR, ACR, NTproBNP and E/I ratio. There was no change in inflammatory markers, total or high molecular weight adiponectin. Short-term benefits of sodium restriction on BP were reflected in significant change in kidney function and fluid volume parameters. Larger, long-term adequately powered trials in CKD are necessary to confirm these results. Universal Trial Number U1111-1125-2149 registered on 13/10/2011; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRN12611001097932 registered on 21/10/2011.

  3. Lambda Immunoglobulin Light Chain Restricted B Cells in the Ascitic Fluid in Association with Terminal Ileal Florid Follicular Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Barina; Xie, Wei; Szigeti, Reka

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing reactive changes from neoplastic processes during lymphoid tissue evaluation is oftentimes difficult. Ancillary studies, such as flow cytometry, may aid the diagnosis by demonstrating monotypic or polytypic light chain expression on the B cells. The detection of immunoglobulin light chain restricted B cell population is considered a surrogate marker of clonality, which can be confirmed by molecular assays. In general, the presence of a monotypic B cell population in the ascitic fluid is considered lymphomatous involvement rather than a reactive condition. We describe a young, previously healthy male patient who developed ascites with a lambda light chain restricted B cell population. Further investigation revealed florid follicular hyperplasia, histologically mimicking diffuse large B cell lymphoma, in the terminal ileum. Follicular hyperplasia in the gastrointestinal tract with lambda light chain restricted B cells has been recently described in the pediatric population. Importantly, our case demonstrates that such entity can occur in older age groups. This recognition could prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment in similar cases.

  4. A structured training program for health workers in intravenous treatment with fluids and antibiotics in nursing homes: A modified stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial to reduce hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Romøren, Maria; Gjelstad, Svein; Lindbæk, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Hospitalization is potentially detrimental to nursing home patients and resource demanding for the specialist health care. This study assessed if a brief training program in administrating intravenous fluids and antibiotics in nursing homes could reduce hospital transfers and ensure high quality care locally. A pragmatic and modified cluster randomized stepped-wedge trial with randomization on nursing home level. 330 cases in 296 nursing home residents from 30 nursing homes were included. Cases were patients provided intravenous antibiotics or intravenous fluids, in nursing home or hospital. Primary outcome was localization of treatment, secondary outcomes were number of days treated, days of hospitalization among admitted patients, type of antibiotics used and 30-day mortality. The nursing homes sequentially received a one-day educational program for the health workers including theory and practical training in intravenous treatment of dehydration and infection, run by two skilled nurses. After completing the training program, the nursing homes had competence to provide intravenous treatment locally. The intervention had a highly significant effect on treatment in nursing homes (OR 8.35, 2.08 to 33.6; P<0.01, or RR 2.23, 1.48 to 2.56). The number treated in nursing homes was stable over time; the number treated in hospital gradually decreased (chi square for trend P< 0.001). Among patients receiving intravenous antibiotics in the nursing homes, 50 (46%) died within 30 days, compared to 30 (36%) treated in the hospital (P = 0.19). Among patients receiving intravenous fluids locally, 21 (19%) died within 30 days, compared to 2 (8%) in the hospital group (P = 0.34). Mortality was associated with reduced consciousness and elevated c-reactive protein. A brief educational program delivered to nursing home personnel was feasible and effective in reducing acute hospital admissions from nursing homes for treatment of dehydration and infections.

  5. A structured training program for health workers in intravenous treatment with fluids and antibiotics in nursing homes: A modified stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial to reduce hospital admissions

    PubMed Central

    Gjelstad, Svein; Lindbæk, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hospitalization is potentially detrimental to nursing home patients and resource demanding for the specialist health care. This study assessed if a brief training program in administrating intravenous fluids and antibiotics in nursing homes could reduce hospital transfers and ensure high quality care locally. Design A pragmatic and modified cluster randomized stepped-wedge trial with randomization on nursing home level. Participants 330 cases in 296 nursing home residents from 30 nursing homes were included. Cases were patients provided intravenous antibiotics or intravenous fluids, in nursing home or hospital. Primary outcome was localization of treatment, secondary outcomes were number of days treated, days of hospitalization among admitted patients, type of antibiotics used and 30-day mortality. Intervention The nursing homes sequentially received a one-day educational program for the health workers including theory and practical training in intravenous treatment of dehydration and infection, run by two skilled nurses. After completing the training program, the nursing homes had competence to provide intravenous treatment locally. Results The intervention had a highly significant effect on treatment in nursing homes (OR 8.35, 2.08 to 33.6; P<0.01, or RR 2.23, 1.48 to 2.56). The number treated in nursing homes was stable over time; the number treated in hospital gradually decreased (chi square for trend P< 0.001). Among patients receiving intravenous antibiotics in the nursing homes, 50 (46%) died within 30 days, compared to 30 (36%) treated in the hospital (P = 0.19). Among patients receiving intravenous fluids locally, 21 (19%) died within 30 days, compared to 2 (8%) in the hospital group (P = 0.34). Mortality was associated with reduced consciousness and elevated c-reactive protein. Conclusions A brief educational program delivered to nursing home personnel was feasible and effective in reducing acute hospital admissions from nursing homes for

  6. A rapid infusion pump driven by micro electromagnetic linear actuation for pre-hospital intravenous fluid administration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Chong, Yinbao; Zhao, An; Lang, Lang; Wang, Qing; Liu, Jiuling

    2015-02-01

    A rapid infusion pump with a maximum flow rate of 6 L/h was designed experimentally using a micro electromagnetic linear actuator, and its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing with that of a commercial Power Infuser under preset flow rates of 0.2, 2, and 6 L/h. The flow rate, air detection sensitivity, occlusion response time, quantitative determination of hemolysis, and power consumption of the infusion devices were extensively investigated using statistical analysis methods (p < 0.05). The experimental results revealed that the flow rate of the designed infusion pump was more stable and accurate, and the hemolysis was significantly less than that of the Power Infuser. The air detection sensitivity and the power consumption could be comparable to that of the Power Infuser except the occlusion response time. The favorable performance made the designed infusion pump a potential candidate for applications in pre-hospital fluid administration.

  7. Influence of progressive fluid restriction on mood and physiological markers of dehydration in women.

    PubMed

    Pross, Nathalie; Demazières, Agnès; Girard, Nicolas; Barnouin, Romain; Santoro, Francine; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Klein, Alexis; Le Bellego, Laurent

    2013-01-28

    The present study evaluated, using a well-controlled dehydration protocol, the effects of 24 h fluid deprivation (FD) on selected mood and physiological parameters. In the present cross-over study, twenty healthy women (age 25 (SE 0.78) years) participated in two randomised sessions: FD-induced dehydration v. a fully hydrated control condition. In the FD period, the last water intake was between 18.00 and 19.00 hours and no beverages were allowed until 18.00 hours on the next day (23-24 h). Water intake was only permitted at fixed periods during the control condition. Physiological parameters in the urine, blood and saliva (osmolality) as well as mood and sensations (headache and thirst) were compared across the experimental conditions. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The FD protocol was effective as indicated by a significant reduction in urine output. No clinical abnormalities of biological parameters or vital signs were observed, although heart rate was increased by FD. Increased urine specific gravity, darker urine colour and increased thirst were early markers of dehydration. Interestingly, dehydration also induced a significant increase in saliva osmolality at the end of the 24 h FD period but plasma osmolality remained unchanged. The significant effects of FD on mood included decreased alertness and increased sleepiness, fatigue and confusion. The most consistent effects of mild dehydration on mood are on sleep/wake parameters. Urine specific gravity appears to be the best physiological measure of hydration status in subjects with a normal level of activity; saliva osmolality is another reliable and non-invasive method for assessing hydration status.

  8. High signal in cerebrospinal fluid mimicking subarachnoid haemorrhage on FLAIR following acute stroke and intravenous contrast medium.

    PubMed

    Dechambre, S D; Duprez, T; Grandin, C B; Lecouvet, F E; Peeters, A; Cosnard, G

    2000-08-01

    We describe five cases of high signal in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fast-FLAIR images 24-48 h after onset of stroke. All the patients had undergone perfusion-weighted MRI within 6 h of the onset of the symptoms. The CSF was far brighter than the cortical gyri. The high signal was diffusely around both cerebral hemispheres in two cases and around one hemisphere in two others; it was focal, around the acute ischaemic lesion, in one. CT was normal in all cases. The CSF high signal was transient, decreasing in extent and intensity with time and resolving completely within 3-6 days. It was not associated with worsening of the clinical state or poor outcome. Our explanation of this phenomena is hypothetical: we speculate that it could be due to disruption of the blood-brain barrier resulting in leakage of protein, gadolinium chelates, or both in to the subarachnoid space. It should not be confused with subarachnoid haemorrhage.

  9. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  10. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  11. Comparison of a commercially available oral nutritional supplement and intravenous fluid therapy for dehydration in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jared D; Rodenburg, Merel; Snider, Timothy A

    2017-04-05

    Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours. Twenty-four colostrum-fed suckling dairy calves were used in a modified crossover design. An osmotic diarrhea was induced by orally feeding commercial milk replacer modified with high level of sucrose to create a hypertonic milk solution, and administering oral hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone for 48 h. The intention was to create a challenge sufficient to result in moderately dehydrated, standing calves without producing severe depression or loss of suckle. The efficacy of i.v. fluid therapy and a commercial nutritional supplement were subsequently compared for reversing the effects of the diarrheal disease. Treatment A consisted of administering the nutritional supplement according to label directions (100 g in 1.9 L of warm water, 3 times a day), and treatment B consisted of i.v. LRS (2 L, once a day). Clinical signs and laboratory results were obtained once daily by a blinded observer. The induction method was effective in creating the desired effect, as demonstrated by weight loss and subjective health and hydration scores. Both treatment groups experienced increases in body weight, base excess, and bicarbonate, and decreases in total protein and packed cell volume following treatment. Both i.v. LRS and Diaque are effective methods to correct hypovolemia and control derangements in acid-base status in calves with diarrhea and dehydration.

  12. Intravenous Grafts Of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells Induce Endogenous Cell Proliferation and Attenuate Behavioral Deficits in Ischemic Stroke Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Naoki; Acosta, Sandra; Glover, Loren E.; Bickford, Paula C.; Jacotte Simancas, Alejandra; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Solomita, Marianna A.; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells [1]. Here, we tested the therapeutic benefits of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Thirty-five days later, animals exhibiting significant motor deficits received intravenous transplants of rat AFS cells or vehicle. At days 60–63 post-MCAo, significant recovery of motor and cognitive function was seen in stroke animals transplanted with AFS cells compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. Infarct volume, as revealed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, was significantly reduced, coupled with significant increments in the cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and the neuronal marker, MAP2, in the dentate gyrus (DG) [2] and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. A significantly higher number of double-labeled Ki67/MAP2-positive cells and a similar trend towards increased Ki67/MAP2 double-labeling were observed in the DG and SVZ of AFS cell-transplanted stroke animals, respectively, compared to vehicle-infused stroke animals. This study reports the therapeutic potential of AFS cell transplantation in stroke animals, possibly via enhancement of endogenous repair mechanisms. PMID:22912905

  13. Decreased vitamin B12 and folate levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of multiple sclerosis patients after high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Frequin, S T; Wevers, R A; Braam, M; Barkhof, F; Hommes, O R

    1993-05-01

    Twenty-one patients (15 women, 6 men) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) were treated with 1000 mg intravenous methylprednisolone-succinate (MP) daily for 10 days. Before MP treatment there was a negative correlation (r = 0.59, P = 0.0084) between serum vitamin B12 and progression rate, defined as the ratio of the score on Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale and disease duration. A significant decrease was demonstrated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum levels of folate and in the CSF level of vitamin B12 after MP treatment. The decrease in serum B12 was not statistically significant. After MP treatment all median levels of vitamin B12 and folate were below the reference medians. We hypothesize that low or reduced vitamin B12/folate levels found in MS patients may be related to previous corticosteroid treatments. Otherwise a more causal relationship between low vitamin B12/folate and MS cannot be excluded. Further studies may be required to clarify the vitamin B12 and folate metabolism in patients with MS.

  14. Liberal versus restricted fluid resuscitation strategies in trauma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies*.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Han; Chou, Hao-Chang; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Shen, Jen-Hsiang; Yeo, Yee Hui; Chang, Huai-En; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Lee, Chien-Chang

    2014-04-01

    Hemorrhage is responsible for most deaths that occur during the first few hours after trauma. Animal models of trauma have shown that restricting fluid administration can reduce the risk of death; however, studies in patients are difficult to conduct due to logistical and ethical problems. To maximize the value of the existing evidence, we performed a meta-analysis to compare liberal versus restricted fluid resuscitation strategies in trauma patients. Medline and Embase were systemically searched from inception to February 2013. We selected randomized controlled trials and observational studies that compared different fluid administration strategies in trauma patients. There were no restrictions for language, population, or publication year. Four randomized controlled trials and seven observational studies were identified from 1,106 references. One of the randomized controlled trials suffered from a high protocol violation rate and was excluded from the final analysis. The quantitative synthesis indicated that liberal fluid resuscitation strategies might be associated with higher mortality than restricted fluid strategies, both in randomized controlled trials (risk ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55; three trials; I(2), 0) and observational studies (odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.28; seven studies; I(2), 21.4%). When only adjusted odds ratios were pooled for observational studies, odds for mortality with liberal fluid resuscitation strategies increased (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.38; six studies; I(2), 26.3%). Current evidence indicates that initial liberal fluid resuscitation strategies may be associated with higher mortality in injured patients. However, available studies are subject to a high risk of selection bias and clinical heterogeneity. This result should be interpreted with great caution.

  15. Stir bar sorptive extraction based on restricted access material for the direct extraction of caffeine and metabolites in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Mullett, Wayne M; Kwong, Elizabeth; Lubda, Dieter

    2005-05-20

    A biocompatible stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) device was prepared using an alkyl-diol-silica (ADS) restricted access material (RAM) as the SBSE coating. The RAM-SBSE bar was able to simultaneously fractionate the protein component from a biological sample, while directly extracting caffeine and its metabolites, overcoming the present disadvantages of direct sampling in biological matrices by SBSE, such as fouling of the extraction coating by proteins. Desorption of the analytes was performed by stirring the bar in a water/ACN mixture (3/1, v/v) and subsequently reconcentrating the sample solution in water to enable HPLC-UV analysis to be performed. The limit of detection, based on a signal to noise ratio of 3, for caffeine was 25 ng/mL in plasma. The method was confirmed to be linear over the range of 0.5-100 microg/mL of caffeine with an average linear coefficient (R2) value of 0.9981. The injection repeatability and intra-assay precision of the method were evaluated over ten injections, resulting in a %RSD of approximately 8%. The RAM-SBSE device was robust (>50 extraction in plasma without significant signal loss) and simple to use, providing many direct extractions and subsequent determination of caffeine and its metabolites in biological fluids. In contrast to existing sample preparation methods for the analysis of caffeine and selected metabolites in biological fluids, this feasibility study using a biocompatible SBSE approach was advantageous in terms of simplifying the sample preparation procedures.

  16. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yuxia; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  17. Interstitial Fluid Flow Intensity Modulates Endothelial Sprouting in Restricted Src-Activated Cell Clusters During Capillary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Genové, Elsa; Alvarez, Lery; Borrós, Salvador; Kamm, Roger; Lauffenburger, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Development of tissues in vitro with dimensions larger than 150 to 200 μm requires the presence of a functional vascular network. Therefore, we have studied capillary morphogenesis under controlled biological and biophysical conditions with the aim of promoting vascular structures in tissue constructs. We and others have previously demonstrated that physiological values of interstitial fluid flow normal to an endothelial monolayer in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor play a critical role during capillary morphogenesis by promoting cell sprouting. In the present work, we studied the effect that a range of interstitial flow velocities (0–50 μm/min) has in promoting the amount, length, and branching of developing sprouts during capillary morphogenesis. The number of capillary-like structures developed from human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers across the interstitial flow values tested was not significantly affected. Instead, the length and branching degree of the sprouts presented a significant maximum at flow velocities of 10 to 20 μm/min. More-over, at these same flow values, the phosphorylation level of Src also showed its peak. We discovered that capillary morphogenesis is restricted to patches of Src-activated cells (phosphorylated Src (pSrc)) at the monolayer, suggesting that the transduction pathway in charge of sensing the mechanical stimulus induced by flow is promoting predetermined mechanically sensitive areas (pSrc) to undergo capillary morphogenesis. PMID:18636940

  18. [A comparison of the effects of intravenous fluid warming and skin surface warming on peri-operative body temperature and acid base balance of elderly patients with abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Park, Hyosun; Yoon, Haesang

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intravenous fluid warming and skin surface warming on peri-operative body temperature and acid base balance of abdominal surgical patients under general anesthesia. Data collection was performed from January 4th, to May 31, 2004. The intravenous fluid warming(IFW) group (30 elderly patients) was warmed through an IV line by an Animec set to 37 degrees C. The skin surface warming (SSW) group (30 elderly patients) was warmed by a circulating-water blanket set to 38 degrees C under the back and a 60W heating lamp 40 cm above the chest. The warming continued from induction of general anesthesia to two hours after completion of surgery. Collected data was analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA, and Bonferroni methods. SSW was more effective than IFW in preventing hypothermia(p= .043), preventing a decrease of HCO(3)(-)(p= .000) and preventing base excess (p= .000) respectively. However, there was no difference in pH between the SSW and IFW (p= .401) groups. We conclude that skin surface warming is more effective in preventing hypothermia, and HCO(3)(-) and base excess during general anesthesia, and returning to normal body temperature after surgery than intravenous fluid warming; however, skin surface warming wasn't able to sustain a normal body temperature in elderly patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia.

  19. Diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery mismatch is associated with better neurologic response to intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Yeong; Han, Sang Kuk; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi, Pil Cho; Lee, Jeong Hun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate differences in the effect of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis regarding the mismatch of diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) among acute ischemic stroke patients who visited the emergency department (ED) within 3 hours from the onset of symptoms. Among ED patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and May 2013 at a tertiary hospital, those who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before IV thrombolytic therapy were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into DWI-FLAIR mismatch and match groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores obtained initially, 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy, and on discharge, and early neurologic improvement (ENI) and major neurologic improvement (MNI) were compared. During the study period, 50 of the 213 acute ischemic stroke patients who presented to the ED were included. The DWI-FLAIR mismatch group showed a statistically significantly greater reduction in NIHSS both at 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy and upon discharge than did the match group (5.5 vs. 1.2, P<0.001; 6.0 vs. 2.3, P<0.01, respectively). Moreover, ENI and MNI were significantly greater for the DWI-FLAIR mismatch group than for the match group (27/36 vs. 2/14, P<0.001; 12/36 vs. 0/14, P=0.012, respectively). Among acute ischemic stroke patients who visited the ED within 3 hours from the onset of symptoms, patients who showed DWI-FLAIR mismatch showed a significantly better response to IV thrombolytic therapy than did the DWI-FLAIR match group in terms of neurologic outcome.

  20. Maternal Intravenous Treatment with either Azithromycin or Solithromycin Clears Ureaplasma parvum from the Amniotic Fluid in an Ovine Model of Intrauterine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Noe, Andres; Carter, Sean; Watts, Rory; Spiller, Owen B.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma spp. is strongly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcomes. We assessed whether combined intraamniotic (IA) and maternal intravenous (IV) treatment with one of two candidate antibiotics, azithromycin (AZ) or solithromycin (SOLI), would eradicate intrauterine Ureaplasma parvum infection in a sheep model of pregnancy. Sheep with singleton pregnancies received an IA injection of U. parvum serovar 3 at 85 days of gestational age (GA). At 120 days of GA, animals (n = 5 to 8/group) received one of the following treatments: (i) maternal IV SOLI with a single IA injection of vehicle (IV SOLI only); (ii) maternal IV SOLI with a single IA injection of SOLI (IV+IA SOLI); (iii) maternal IV AZ and a single IA injection of vehicle (IV AZ only); (iv) maternal IV AZ and a single IA injection of AZ (IV+IA AZ); or (v) maternal IV and single IA injection of vehicle (control). Lambs were surgically delivered at 125 days of GA. Treatment efficacies were assessed by U. parvum culture, quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and histopathology. Amniotic fluid (AF) from all control animals contained culturable U. parvum. AF, lung, and chorioamnion from all AZ- or SOLI-treated animals (IV only or IV plus IA) were negative for culturable U. parvum. Relative to the results for the control, the levels of expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 2 (MCP-2) in fetal skin were significantly decreased in the IV SOLI-only group, the MCP-1 protein concentration in the amniotic fluid was significantly increased in the IV+IA SOLI group, and there was no significant difference in the histological inflammation scoring of lung or chorioamnion among the five groups. In the present study, treatment with either AZ or SOLI (IV only or IV+IA) effectively eradicated macrolide-sensitive U. parvum from the AF. There was no discernible difference in antibiotic therapy efficacy between IV-only and

  1. Effect of fluid and dietary sodium restriction in the management of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    d'Almeida, Karina S M; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida R; Souza, Gabriela C; Trojahn, Melina M; Barilli, Sofia L S; Mansson, Jessica V; Biolo, Andreia; Rohde, Luis E P; Clausell, Nadine; Beck-da-Silva, Luís

    2014-09-04

    Although half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have a normal or near-normal ejection fraction and their prognosis differs little from that of patients with a reduced ejection fraction, the pathophysiology of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) is still poorly understood, and its management poorly supported by clinical trials. Sodium and fluid restriction is the most common self-care measure prescribed to HF patients for management of congestive episodes. However, its role in the treatment of HF-PEF remains unclear. This trial seeks to compare the effects of a sodium- and fluid-restricted diet versus an unrestricted diet on weight loss, neurohormonal activation, and clinical stability in patients admitted for decompensated HF-PEF. This is a randomized, parallel trial with blinded outcome assessment. The sample will include adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with a diagnosis of HF-PEF admitted for HF decompensation. The patients will be randomized to receive a diet with sodium and fluid intake restricted to 0.8 g/day and 800 mL/day respectively (intervention group) or an unrestricted diet, with 4 g/day sodium and unlimited fluid intake (control group), and followed for 7 days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome shall consist of weight loss at 7 days or discharge. The secondary outcome includes assessment of clinical stability, neurohormonal activation, daily perception of thirst and readmission rate at 30 days. Assessment of the effects of sodium and fluid restriction on neurohormonal activation and clinical course of HF-PEF can promote a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology and progression of this complex syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01896908 (date of registration: 8 August 2013).

  2. Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.

  3. Impact of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on ingestive behaviour, affect and self-selected intensity during recreational exercise after 24-h fluid restriction.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on voluntary fluid intake, affect and self-selected intensity during recreational exercise after fluid restriction. In a randomised counterbalanced design, ten physically active adults were dehydrated via a 24-h period of fluid restriction before completing two 20-min bouts of cardiovascular exercise, 20-min of resistance exercise and 20 min on a cycle ergometer at a self-selected intensity with ad libitum access to water (W) or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Fluid restriction induced hypohydration of ∼1.2% initial body mass. Fluid intake during exercise was greater with CES (2105 ± 363 vs. 1470 ± 429 mL; P<0.01) and resulted in more adequate hydration (-0.03 ± 0.65 vs. -1.26 ± 0.80%; P<0.01). Plasma glucose concentrations (4.48 ± 0.40 vs. 4.28 ± 0.32 mmol L(-1); P<0.01) and pleasure ratings (2.63 ± 1.17 vs. 1.81 ± 1.37; P<0.01) were greater with CES than W. Mean power output during exercise performed at a self-selected intensity was 5.6% greater with CES (171 ± 63 vs. 162 ± 60 W; P<0.05). In physically active adults performing a 'real-life' recreational exercise simulation, CES resulted in more adequate hydration and an enhanced affective experience that corresponded with an increase in self-selected exercise intensity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of fluid restriction compared to oesophageal Doppler-guided goal-directed fluid therapy in elective major colorectal surgery within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program.

    PubMed

    Phan, T D; D'Souza, B; Rattray, M J; Johnston, M J; Cowie, B S

    2014-11-01

    There is continued controversy regarding the benefits of goal-directed fluid therapy, with earlier studies showing marked improvement in morbidity and length-of-stay that have not been replicated more recently. The aim of this study was to compare patient outcomes in elective colorectal surgery patients having goal-directed versus restrictive fluid therapy. Inclusion criteria included suitability for an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery care pathway and patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score of 1 to 3. Patients were intraoperatively randomised to either restrictive or Doppler-guided goal-directed fluid therapy. The primary outcome was length-of-stay; secondary outcomes included complication rate, change in haemodynamic variables and fluid volumes. Compared to restrictive therapy, goal-directed therapy resulted in a greater volume of intraoperative fluid, 2115 (interquartile range 1350 to 2560) ml versus 1500 (1200 to 2000) ml, P=0.008, and was associated with an increase in Doppler-derived stroke volume index from beginning to end of surgery, 43.7 (16.3) to 54.2 (21.1) ml/m(2), P <0.001, in the latter group. Length-of-stay was similar, 6.5 (5 to 9) versus 6 (4 to 9) days, P=0.421. The number of patients with any complication (minor or major) was similar; 0% (30) versus 52% (26), P=0.42, or major complications, 1 (2%) versus 4 (8%), P=0.36, respectively. The increased perioperative fluid volumes and increased stroke volumes at the end of surgery in patients receiving goal-directed therapy did not translate to a significant difference in length-of-stay and we did not observe a difference in the number of patients experiencing minor or major complications.

  5. Fluid therapy and outcome: balance is best.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sara J

    2014-03-01

    The use of intravenous fluids is routine in patients undergoing surgery or critical illness; however, controversy still exists regarding optimum fluid therapy. Recent literature has examined the effects of different types, doses, and timing of intravenous fluid therapy. Each of these factors may influence patient outcomes. Crystalloids consist of isotonic saline or balanced electrolyte solutions and widely distribute across extracellular fluid compartments, whereas colloids contain high-molecular-weight molecules suspended in crystalloid carrier solution and do not freely distribute across the extracellular fluid compartments. Colloids vary in composition and associated potential adverse effects. Recent evidence has highlighted safety and ethical concerns regarding the use of colloid solutions in critically ill patients, particularly the use of synthetic starch solutions, which have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Crystalloid solutions with a chloride-rich composition (e.g., isotonic saline) have been associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia, increased incidence of acute kidney injury, and increased requirement for renal replacement therapy. An optimum dose of intravenous fluids remains controversial with no definitive evidence to support restrictive versus liberal approaches. Further high-quality trials are needed to elucidate the optimum fluid therapy for patients, but currently a balanced approach to type, dose, and timing of fluids is recommended.

  6. Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP) Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an x- ... the limitations of IVP exams? What is an Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)? An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an ...

  7. Screening and confirmatory analyses of flunixin in tissues and bodily fluids after intravenous or intramuscular administration to cull dairy cows with or without lipopolysaccharide challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty cull dairy cows (645 ± 83 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration with, or without, exposure to lipopolysaccharide in a two factor balanced design. The usefulness of screening assays to identify violative flunixin levels in a varie...

  8. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  9. Impact of fluid restriction and ad libitum water intake or an 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on skill performance of elite adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno; Barros, Renata; Padrão, Patricia; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo

    2011-06-01

    Twelve adolescent athletes underwent, in a crossover-design study, 3 separate 90-min training sessions in the following conditions: no fluid ingestion allowed (NF), ad libitum ingestion of water (W), and ad libitum ingestion of a commercial 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte sports beverage (CSB). After each session athletes performed a set of basketball drills (2-point, 3-point, and free-throw shootout, suicide sprints, and defensive zigzags). Body weight (before and after sessions), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), urine color, and beverage acceptability were determined in each session. Athletes also completed a survey about their knowledge and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement. The percentage of weight loss was significantly higher in NF (2.46% ± 0.87%) than in the other 2 conditions (W, 1.08% ± 0.67%, p = .006; CSB, 0.65% ± 0.62%, p = .001) but also higher in W than CSB (p = .012). RPE was higher in NF (16.8 ± 1.96) than in the W (14.2 ± 1.99, p = .004) and CSB (13.3 ± 2.06, p = .002) trials. Athletes' fluid intake was positively correlated with proper self-reported behaviors (r = .75, p = .005) and knowledge (r = .76, p = .004) about fluid and hydration. In conclusion, fluid restriction during exercise was associated with a greater level of dehydration and increased perceived exertion but had no impact on basketball performance compared with ad libitum drinking of water or a CSB. Athletes with more knowledge about hydration and better self-reported hydration behaviors ingested more fluids during training sessions.

  10. Use and abuse of intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Vidt, D G

    1975-05-05

    Recent microbial infusion disasters underline the fact that infusions carry a substantial risk of morbidity and mortality. Those who make a habit of setting up an intravenous infusion as a convenient route for the administration of drugs, or just in case it may be needed later, would do well to review their methodsmthe increased probability of contamination and subsequent patient infection by the practice of adding drugs to intravenous fluids is not generally recognized. To reduce the possibility of microbial contamination, the open system with tube containers should be opened only in an aseptic environment, eg, a laminar flow hood, to allow the vacuum to be replace by aseptic air; the open-system containers should be opened only in an aseptic environment, and a bacterial filter should be inserted in the air entry port of the closure. Routine monitoring of intravenous solutions for microbial contamination should be standard procedure for any institution providing intravenous fluid therapy to patientsmthe following recommendations are suggested for consideration by hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committees: 1, The addition of drugs to intravenous fluids should be discouraged except in recognized cases of emergency. 2 when the addition of drugs to intravenous fluids is indicated, only one drug should be added to an intravenous fluid, and the only intravenous fluids used for this purpose should be isotonic saline or 5% dextrose solution in water. More complicated electrolyte solutions and protein hydrolysate solutions should never be used for additive purposes. Guidelines should be established in hospitals for the addition of drugs to intravenous fluids. These guidelines should be followed by trained personnel who have access to all available compatibility data. Additions should be made under aseptic conditions by trained personnel, preferably in the hospital pharmacy. 4. All additions of drugs should be included in the patient's permanent drug file, and the

  11. Modulation of body fluids and angiotensin II receptors in a rat model of intra-uterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Sophie; Sicotte, Benoit; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michèle

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that sodium restriction during pregnancy reduces plasma volume expansion and promotes intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) in rats while it activates the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). In the present study, we proceeded to determine whether expression of the two angiotensin II (ANGII) receptor subtypes (AT1 and AT2) change in relation to maternal water–electrolyte homeostasis and fetal growth. To this end, pregnant (gestation day 15) and non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups fed either normal, or Na+-restricted diets for 7 days. At the end of the treatment period, plasma aldosterone and renin activity as well as plasma and urine electrolytes were measured. Determinations for AT1 and AT2 mRNA and protein were made by RNase protection assay and photoaffinity labelling, respectively, using a number of tissues implicated in volume regulation and fetal growth. In non-pregnant rats, Na+ restriction decreases Na+ excretion without altering plasma volume, plasma Na+ concentration or the expression of AT1 and AT2 mRNA or protein in the tissues examined. In normally fed pregnant rats when compared to non-pregnant controls, AT1 mRNA increases in the hypothalamus as well as pituitary and declines in uterine arteries, while AT1 protein decreases in the kidney and AT2 mRNA declines in the adrenal cortex. In pregnant rats, Na+ restriction induces a decrease in plasma Na+, an increase in plasma urea, as well as a decline in renal urea and creatinine clearance rates. Protein levels for both AT1 and AT2 in the pituitary and AT2 mRNA in the adrenal cortex are lower in the Na+-restricted pregnant group when compared to normally fed pregnant animals. Na+ restriction also induces a decrease in AT1 protein in the placenta. In conclusion, these results suggest that pregnancy may increase sensitivity to Na+ depletion by the tissue-specific modulation of ANGII receptors. Finally, these receptors may be implicated

  12. Restricted accessed nanoparticles for direct magnetic solid phase extraction of trace metal ions from human fluids followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-06-21

    Herein, restricted accessed magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by self-assembly of a non-ionic surfactant (Tween-20) onto the 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). A series of analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR, and it was found that the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR nanoparticles have a porous structure with a BET surface area of around 99.4 m(2) g(-1), an average pore size of about 6.14 nm and a pore volume of 0.47 cm(3) g(-1). Besides, the prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR showed good size exclusion properties toward proteins, providing application potential for the direct analysis of biological samples. Based on this, a novel method of restricted accessed magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the direct determination of trace metal ions in human fluids. The parameters affecting the extraction of the target metals by MSPE were studied and the optimized conditions were established. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption capacity of Cr(III), Cd(II), La(III), Nd(III) and Pb(II) on the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR was 62.9, 56.6, 33.7, 36.9 and 43.3 mg g(-1), respectively. With an enrichment factor of 30, the limits of detection for Cr(III), Cd(II), La(III), Nd(III) and Pb(II) were as low as 11.9, 0.8, 0.7, 1.6 and 4.1 ng L(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 7.6, 8.7, 8.4, 8.1 and 5.0 (C(Cr, Pb) = 0.05 μg L(-1), C(Cd, La) = 0.005 μg L(-1), C(Nd) = 0.01 μg L(-1), n = 7), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the direct analysis of free metal ions in human urine and serum samples, and has the advantages of good anti-interference ability, high sensitivity and exhibits great application potential in the direct analysis of trace metals in biological fluids.

  13. Dual regeneration of muscle and nerve by intravenous administration of human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells regulated by stromal cell-derived factor-1α in a sciatic nerve injury model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dar-Yu; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Su, Hong-Lin; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Ying-Ju; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Yiin, Jia-Jean; Sheehan, Jason; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2012-06-01

    Human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) have been shown to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. The expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) in the injured nerve exerts a trophic effect by recruiting progenitor cells that promote nerve regeneration. In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility of intravenous administration of AFMSCs according to SDF-1α expression time profiles to facilitate neural regeneration in a sciatic nerve crush injury model. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in 63 Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the left sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. The animals were randomized into 1 of 3 groups: Group I, crush injury as the control; Group II, crush injury and intravenous administration of AFMSCs (5 × 10(6) cells for 3 days) immediately after injury (early administration); and Group III, crush injury and intravenous administration of AFMSCs (5 × 10(6) cells for 3 days) 7 days after injury (late administration). Evaluation of neurobehavior, electrophysiological study, and assessment of regeneration markers were conducted every week after injury. The expression of SDF-1α and neurotrophic factors and the distribution of AFMSCs in various time profiles were also assessed. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α increased the migration and wound healing of AFMSCs in vitro, and the migration ability was dose dependent. Crush injury induced the expression of SDF-1α at a peak of 10-14 days either in nerve or muscle, and this increased expression paralleled the expression of its receptor, chemokine receptor type-4 (CXCR-4). Most AFMSCs were distributed to the lung during early or late administration. Significant deposition of AFMSCs in nerve and muscle only occurred in the late administration group. Significantly enhanced neurobehavior, electrophysiological function, nerve myelination, and expression of neurotrophic factors and acetylcholine receptor were demonstrated in the late administration group. Amniotic

  14. Electric double layer capacitance of restricted primitive model for an ionic fluid in slit-like nanopores: A density functional approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizio, O.; Sokołowski, S.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We apply recently developed version of a density functional theory [Z. Wang, L. Liu, and I. Neretnieks, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 175002 (2011)], 10.1088/0953-8984/23/17/175002 to study adsorption of a restricted primitive model for an ionic fluid in slit-like pores in the absence of interactions induced by electrostatic images. At present this approach is one of the most accurate theories for such model electric double layers. The dependencies of the differential double layer capacitance on the pore width, on the electrostatic potential at the wall, bulk fluid density, and temperature are obtained. We show that the differential capacitance can oscillate as a function of the pore width dependent on the values of the above parameters. The number of oscillations and their magnitude decrease for high values of the electrostatic potential. For very narrow pores, close to the ion diameter, the differential capacitance tends to a minimum. The dependence of differential capacitance on temperature exhibits maximum at different values of bulk fluid density and applied electrostatic potential.

  15. Electric double layer capacitance of restricted primitive model for an ionic fluid in slit-like nanopores: A density functional approach.

    PubMed

    Pizio, O; Sokołowski, S; Sokołowska, Z

    2012-12-21

    We apply recently developed version of a density functional theory [Z. Wang, L. Liu, and I. Neretnieks, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 175002 (2011)] to study adsorption of a restricted primitive model for an ionic fluid in slit-like pores in the absence of interactions induced by electrostatic images. At present this approach is one of the most accurate theories for such model electric double layers. The dependencies of the differential double layer capacitance on the pore width, on the electrostatic potential at the wall, bulk fluid density, and temperature are obtained. We show that the differential capacitance can oscillate as a function of the pore width dependent on the values of the above parameters. The number of oscillations and their magnitude decrease for high values of the electrostatic potential. For very narrow pores, close to the ion diameter, the differential capacitance tends to a minimum. The dependence of differential capacitance on temperature exhibits maximum at different values of bulk fluid density and applied electrostatic potential.

  16. Fluid therapy in the perioperative setting-a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Voldby, Anders Winther; Brandstrup, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative hypovolemia and fluid overload have effects on both complications following surgery and on patient survival. Therefore, the administration of intravenous fluids before, during, and after surgery at the right time and in the right amounts is of great importance. This review aims to analyze the literature concerning perioperative fluid therapy in abdominal surgery and to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. Preoperative oral or intravenous administration of carbohydrate containing fluids has been shown to improve postoperative well-being and muscular strength and to reduce insulin resistance. Hence, the intake of fluid (preferably containing carbohydrates) should be encouraged up to 2 h prior to surgery in order to avoid dehydration. Excessive intravenous fluid administration adds to tissue inflammation and edema formation, thereby compromising tissue healing. During major abdominal surgery a "zero-balance" intraoperative fluid strategy aims at avoiding fluid overload (and comparable to the so-called restrictive approach) as well as goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT). Both proved to significantly reduce postoperative complications when compared to "standard fluid therapy". Trials comparing "restrictive" or zero-balance and GDT have shown equal results, as long as fluid overload is avoided in the GDT group as well (categorized as "zero-balance GDT"). It is possible that high-risk surgical patients, such as those undergoing acute surgery, may benefit from the continuous monitoring of circulatory status that the GDT provides. Data on this group of patients is not available at present, but trials are ongoing. In elective surgery, the zero-balance approach has shown to reduce postoperative complications and is easily applied for most patients. It is less expensive and simpler than the zero-balance GDT approach and therefore recommended in this review. In outpatient surgery, 1-2 L of balanced crystalloids reduces postoperative nausea

  17. Evidence for restriction of fluid and solute movement across the glomerular capillary wall by the subpodocyte space.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Andrew H J; Toma, Ildikó; Sipos, Arnold; Muston, P Robert; Harper, Steven J; Bates, David O; Neal, Christopher R; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2007-12-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) is generally considered to consist of three layers: fenestrated glomerular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane, and filtration slits between adjacent podocyte foot processes. Detailed anatomic examination of the GFB has revealed a novel abluminal structure, the subpodocyte space (SPS), identified as the labyrinthine space between the underside of podocyte cell body/primary processes and the foot processes. The SPS covers 50-65% of the filtration surface of the GFB, indicating that SPS may influence glomerular permeability. We have examined the contribution of the SPS to the permeability characteristics of the GFB using multiphoton microscopy techniques in isolated, perfused glomeruli and in the intact kidney in vivo. SPS were identified using this technique, with comparable dimensions to SPS examined with electron microscopy. The passage of the intermediate-weight molecule rhodamine-conjugated 10-kDa dextran, but not the low-weight molecule lucifer yellow ( approximately 450 Da), accumulated in SPS-covered regions of the GFB, compared with GFB regions not covered by SPS ("naked regions"). Net lucifer yellow flux (taken to indicate fluid flux) through identifiable SPS regions was calculated to be 66-75% of that occurring through naked regions. These observations indicate both ultrafiltration and hydraulic resistance imparted by the SPS, demonstrating the potential physiological contribution of the SPS to glomerular permeability.

  18. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of teduglutide in reducing parenteral nutrition and/or intravenous fluid requirements in patients with short bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, R; Pertkiewicz, M; Allard, J P; Messing, B; O'Keefe, S J

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Teduglutide, a GLP-2 analogue, may restore intestinal structural and functional integrity by promoting repair and growth of the mucosa and reducing gastric emptying and secretion, thereby increasing fluid and nutrient absorption in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). This 24-week placebo-controlled study evaluated the ability of teduglutide to reduce parenteral support in patients with SBS with intestinal failure. Methods In 83 patients randomised to receive subcutaneous teduglutide 0.10 mg/kg/day (n=32), 0.05 mg/kg/day (n=35) or placebo (n=16) once daily, parenteral fluids were reduced at 4-week intervals if intestinal fluid absorption (48 h urine volumes) increased ≥10%. Responders were subjects who demonstrated reductions of ≥20% in parenteral volumes from baseline at weeks 20 and 24. The primary efficacy end point, a graded response score (GRS), took into account higher levels and earlier onset of response, leading to longer duration of response. The intensity of the response was defined as a reduction from baseline in parenteral volume (from 20% to 100%), and the duration of the response was considered the response at weeks 16, 20 and 24. The results were tested according to a step-down procedure starting with the 0.10 mg/kg/day dose. Results Using the GRS criteria, teduglutide in a dose of 0.10 mg/kg/day did not have a statistically significant effect compared with placebo (8/32 vs 1/16, p=0.16), while teduglutide in a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day had a significant effect (16/35, p=0.007). Since parenteral volume reductions were equal (353±475 and 354±334 ml/day), the trend towards higher baseline parenteral volume (1816±1008 vs 1374±639 ml/day, p=0.11) in the 0.10 mg/kg/day group compared with the 0.05 mg/kg/day group may have accounted for this discrepancy. Three teduglutide-treated patients were completely weaned off parenteral support. Serious adverse events were distributed similarly between active

  19. Restrictive management of neonatal polycythemia.

    PubMed

    Morag, Iris; Strauss, Tzipora; Lubin, Daniel; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Kenet, Gili; Kuint, Jacob

    2011-10-01

    Partial exchange transfusion (PET) is traditionally suggested as treatment for neonates diagnosed with polycythemia. Nevertheless, justification of this treatment is controversial. We evaluated the risk for short-term complications associated with a restrictive treatment protocol for neonatal polycythemia. A retrospective cross-sectional analytical study was conducted. Three treatment groups were defined and managed according to their degree of polycythemia, defined by capillary tube filled with venous blood and manually centrifuged hematocrit: group 1, hematocrit 65 to 69% and no special treatment was recommended; group 2, hematocrit 70 to 75% and intravenous fluids were given and feedings were withheld until hematocrit decreased to < 70%; and group 3, hematocrit ≥ 76% or symptomatic neonates and PET was recommended. During the study period, 190 neonates were diagnosed with polycythemia. The overall rate of short-term complications was 15% (28 neonates). Seizures, proven necrotizing enterocolitis, or thrombosis did not occur in any participating neonates. PET was performed in 31 (16%) neonates. The groups did not differ in their rate of early neonatal morbidities or length of hospitalization. Restrictive treatment for neonatal asymptomatic polycythemia is not associated with an increased risk of short-term complications.

  20. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid magnesium levels in patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia for hip arthroplasty: does intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate make any difference? A prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mercieri, M; De Blasi, R A; Palmisani, S; Forte, S; Cardelli, P; Romano, R; Pinto, G; Arcioni, R

    2012-08-01

    Most investigators have attributed the reduced postoperative pain or anaesthetic drug requirements in patients receiving i.v. magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) infusion during spinal or general anaesthesia to central N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor magnesium (Mg) activity. In this study, we investigated how cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Mg concentrations change after spinal anaesthesia, and whether peripherally infusing MgSO(4) influences central Mg levels. Forty-five patients undergoing continuous spinal anaesthesia for hip arthroplasty were randomly assigned to receive either i.v. MgSO(4) at a dose of 50 mg kg(-1) diluted in 100 ml 0.9% saline solution followed by 15 mg kg(-1) h(-1) for 6 h or saline at the same volume [mean (sd) 64 (10) ml]. The changes in CSF and serum total and ionized Mg concentrations were assessed at six time points before and after spinal anaesthesia. Secondary outcome variables included serum and CSF electrolytes and proteins. Thirty-five patients completed the study. We found that spinal anaesthesia reduced total and ionized Mg concentrations in CSF by about 10%. Increasing serum Mg concentration over 80% of the baseline value left CSF Mg levels unchanged. Spinal anaesthesia unexpectedly reduced CSF total and ionized Mg concentrations in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, although the mechanism is unclear. The dose used for peripheral MgSO(4) infusion in this study had no influence on central Mg concentrations in neurologically healthy patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia. If CSF Mg concentration is a reliable marker of Mg brain bioavailability, peripherally infused MgSO(4) during spinal anaesthesia is unlikely to influence central NMDA receptor activity.

  1. Hospital readmissions for catheter-related bloodstream infection and use of ethanol lock therapy: comparison of patients receiving parenteral nutrition or intravenous fluids in the home vs a skilled nursing facility.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Mandy L; Pogatschnik, Cassandra; Konrad, Denise; Kirby, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is the most serious long-term infectious complication of long-term home parenteral nutrition (PN). Ethanol is being used more commonly as a catheter locking solution in the home PN setting for prevention of CRBSI; however, no current literature reports the use of ethanol lock (ETL) in skilled nursing facility (SNF) patients. The authors evaluated the number of hospital readmissions for CRBSI and length of stay between SNF (not receiving ETL) and home patients (receiving or not receiving ETL) receiving PN or intravenous fluid therapy. SNF patients had a significantly longer length of stay (LOS) for CRBSI hospital admissions compared with patients receiving PN at home with or without ETL (P < .001; 16 vs 8 vs 8 days). There was no LOS difference for CRBSI between home patients with or without ETL. Home PN patients not receiving ETL were more likely to have a CRBSI from Staphylococcus sp (48% vs 27%; P = .015), whereas SNF PN patients not receiving ETL were more likely to have a CRBSI from Enterococcus sp (16% vs 3%; P = .004). Despite different causative organisms and medical acuity likely affecting the differences observed in LOS, the SNF population is another setting ETL can be used to prevent CRBSI.

  2. Goal directed fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Marik, Paul E; Desai, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy in critically ill and peri-operative patients.

  3. Intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen).

    PubMed

    Duggan, Sean T; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous paracetamol (rINN)/intravenous acetaminophen (USAN) is an analgesic and antipyretic agent, recommended worldwide as a first-line agent for the treatment of pain and fever in adults and children. In double-blind clinical trials, single or multiple doses of intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally provided significantly better analgesic efficacy than placebo treatment (as determined by primary efficacy endpoints) in adult patients who had undergone dental, orthopaedic or gynaecological surgery. Furthermore, where evaluated, intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally showed similar analgesic efficacy to a bioequivalent dose of propacetamol, and a reduced need for opioid rescue medication. In paediatric surgical patients, recommended doses of intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg were not significantly different from propacetamol 30 mg/kg for the treatment of pain, and showed equivocal analgesic efficacy compared with intramuscular pethidine 1 mg/kg in several randomized, active comparator-controlled studies. In a randomized, noninferiority study in paediatric patients with an infection-induced fever, intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg treatment was shown to be no less effective than propacetamol 30 mg/kg in terms of antipyretic efficacy. Intravenous paracetamol was well tolerated in clinical trials, having a tolerability profile similar to placebo. Additionally, adverse reactions emerging from the use of the intravenous formulation of paracetamol are extremely rare (<1/10 000). [table: see text].

  4. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is of normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does ...

  5. Water Intoxication Following Low-Dose Intravenous Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Park, Joon Sung; Lee, Chang Hwa; Park, Moon Hyang; Kang, Chong Myung

    2007-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide is frequently used for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis, but is very rarely associated with dilutional hyponatremia. Recently we experienced a case of water intoxication following low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide. Five hours after one dose of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide 750 mg, the patient developed nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Serum sodium concentration revealed 114 mEq/L and her hyponatremia was initially treated with hypertonic saline infusion. Then her serum sodium concentration rapidly recovered to normal with water restriction alone. During the course of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy, one must be aware of the possibility of significant water retention. PMID:24459501

  6. Water intoxication following low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Park, Joon Sung; Lee, Chang Hwa; Park, Moon Hyang; Kang, Chong Myung; Kim, Gheun-Ho

    2007-06-01

    Cyclophosphamide is frequently used for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis, but is very rarely associated with dilutional hyponatremia. Recently we experienced a case of water intoxication following low-dose intravenous cyclophosphamide. Five hours after one dose of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide 750 mg, the patient developed nausea, vomiting, and general weakness. Serum sodium concentration revealed 114 mEq/L and her hyponatremia was initially treated with hypertonic saline infusion. Then her serum sodium concentration rapidly recovered to normal with water restriction alone. During the course of intravenous pulse cyclophosphamide therapy, one must be aware of the possibility of significant water retention.

  7. Intravenous clonazepam in eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Harding, D L; Leong, C M

    1988-02-01

    A case of postpartum eclampsia is reported, controlled by intravenous clonazepam, a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant. Clonazepam was effective in controlling the myoclonic jerks, which were a feature in this patient, without producing excessive sedation. The literature reveals several reports on the use of clonazepam in severe preeclampsia, but its use in Australia has not been widely employed.

  8. Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE): Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) Capillary Fluid Dynamic Restriction Effects on Gas Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Marianne; Quinn, Jacqueline; Captain, Janine; Santiago-Bond, Josephine; Starr, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) mission with the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload aims to show the presence of water in lunar regolith, and establish a proving ground for NASAs mission to Mars. One of the analysis is performed by the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem, which consists of a fluid network that facilitates the transport of volatile samples to a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument. The understanding of fluid dynamics directed from the GC to the MS is important due to the influence of flow rates and pressures that affect the accuracy of and prevent the damage to the overall GC-MS instrument. The micro-scale capillary fluid network within the GC alone has various lengths and inner-diameters; therefore, determination of pressure differentials and flow rates are difficult to model computationally, with additional complexity from the vacuum conditions in space and lack of a lunar atmosphere. A series of tests were performed on an experimental set-up of the system where the inner diameters of the GC transfer line connecting to the MS were varied. The effect on chromatography readings were also studied by applying these lines onto a GC instrument. It was found that a smaller inner diameter transfer line resulted in a lower flow rate, as well as a lower pressure differential across the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) unit of the GC and a negligible pressure drop across the mock-up capillary column. The chromatography was affected with longer retention times and broader peak integrations. It was concluded that a 0.050 mm inner diameter line still proved most suitable for the systems flow rate preferences. In addition, it was evident that this small transfer line portrayed some expense to GC signal characteristics and the wait time for steady-state operation.

  9. Fluid therapy in calves.

    PubMed

    Smith, Geof W; Berchtold, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    Early and aggressive fluid therapy is critical in correcting the metabolic complications associated with calf diarrhea. Oral electrolyte therapy can be used with success in calves, but careful consideration should be given to the type of oral electrolyte used. Electrolyte solutions with high osmolalities can significantly slow abomasal emptying and can be a risk factor for abomasal bloat in calves. Milk should not be withheld from calves with diarrhea for more than 12 to 24 hours. Hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate can be used effectively for intravenous fluid therapy on farms when intravenous catheterization is not possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Catastrophic demyelinating encephalomyelitis after intrathecal and intravenous stem cell transplantation in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alderazi, Yazan J; Coons, Stephen W; Chapman, Kevin

    2012-05-01

    Stem cell transplantation is an investigational therapy for multiple sclerosis. The authors describe a case of catastrophic demyelinating encephalomyelitis following stem cell transplantation in a 17-year-old girl. Nine months after an initial diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, she underwent stem cell transplantation in Costa Rica. Subsequently, she deteriorated and was transported back to the United States with headache and vomiting progressing to quadriparesis, locked-in syndrome, and superimposed encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging and brain biopsy were consistent with fulminant demyelinating encephalomyelitis with enhancing parenchyma and leptomeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and high protein. The protracted illness required tracheostomy and gastrostomy. After methyleprednisone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclophosphamide, she improved during 2.5 months to an ambulatory, functionally independent state. Subsequently, typical less severe multiple sclerosis relapses occurred. This case demonstrates that stem cell transplantation may provoke life-threatening encephalomyelitis in patients with multiple sclerosis. This highlights the need to restrict transplantation to trials with appropriate safety controls.

  11. The impact of fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay after pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure).

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Laurence; Wong, Derrick; Karalapillai, Dharshi; Pearce, Brett; Tan, Chong O; Tay, Stanley; Christophi, Chris; McNicol, Larry; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on the impact on perioperative fluid intervention on complications and length of hospital stay following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis of fluid intervention in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy at a university teaching hospital to test the hypothesis that a restrictive intravenous fluid regime and/or a neutral or negative cumulative fluid balance, would impact on perioperative complications and length of hospital stay. We retrospectively obtained demographic, operative details, detailed fluid prescription, complications and outcomes data for 150 consecutive patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy in a university teaching hospital. Prognostic predictors for length of hospital stay and complications were determined. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were evaluated between 2006 and 2012. The majority of patients were, middle-aged, overweight and ASA class III. Postoperative complications were frequent and occurred in 86 patients (57%). The majority of complications were graded as Clavien-Dindo Class 2 and 3. Postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 13 patients (9%), and delayed gastric emptying occurred in 25 patients (17%). Other postoperative surgical complications included sepsis (22%), bile leak (4%), and postoperative bleeding (2%). Serious medical complications included pulmonary edema (6%), myocardial infarction (8%), cardiac arrhythmias (13%), respiratory failure (8%), and renal failure (7%). Patients with complications received a higher median volume of intravenous therapy and had higher cumulative positive fluid balances. Postoperative length of stay was significantly longer in patients with complications (median 25 days vs. 10 days; p < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, a fluid balance of less than 1 litre on postoperative day 1 and surgeon caseloads were associated with the development of complications. In the

  12. Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Connie W.; Kraus, William E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE While the impact of caloric restriction on human health is not fully understood, there is strong evidence to support further studies of its influence on cardiovascular health. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the science by examining the relevant literature regarding calorie restriction effects on aging and cardiovascular health and to discuss the possible role(s) of calorie restriction in preserving cardiovascular function in humans. METHODS For purpose of this review, we have defined calorie restriction as a reduction in energy intake well below the amount of calories that would be consumed ad libitum (≥ 10% in humans, ≥20% in animals). We examined the relevant literature on calorie restriction effects on longevity and cardiovascular health, with an emphasis on the state of the science regarding calorie restriction in humans. We have emphasized the importance of the preliminary and expected findings from the Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effect of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial. RESULTS Evidence from animal studies and a limited number of human trials indicates that calorie restriction has the potential to both delay cardiac aging and help prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease via beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipids, inflammatory processes, and potentially other mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS Based upon its known benefits to cardiometabolic health, including modest calorie restriction in a combined lifestyle program is likely to improve heart health and prevent subsequent cardiovascular events in overweight and obese individuals. Additional study is needed to further illuminate its long-term applicability for older adults and for those with significant comorbidities such as heart failure. PMID:23748374

  13. The ideal fluid.

    PubMed

    Russell, Lyndal; McLean, Anthony S

    2014-08-01

    The characteristics of an ideal intravenous fluid in the critically ill patient are discussed. Intravenous fluids are the most frequent drug administered to patients. Questioning the use of commonly administered intravenous fluids has resulted in an increased focus on their efficacy and safety. Discrimination between fluids currently in use has been the central theme of many recent large studies, and emerging from these findings is an understanding of characteristics that would make for an ideal fluid for critically ill patients. There is increased morbidity and mortality with high chloride-containing crystalloid solutions and hydroxyethyl starch preparations, with resultant international governmental agency warnings regarding hydroxyethyl starch . The ideal fluid is one which achieves the aim of administration while minimizing or negating adverse effects, is inexpensive, and sufficiently stable when stored to be used in a wide range of clinical settings. The ideal fluid currently does not exist. Of existing options, use of hydroxyethyl starches and high chloride-containing crystalloid solutions should be discouraged. There is a lack of direct evidence that a balanced crystalloid solution confers benefit, however, the trend of recent data would support future investigation into the advantage of balanced solution over 0.9% saline.

  14. [Intravenous catheters and nosocomial infection].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral, especially central venous catheters, are used with increasing frequency in the intensive care unit and in general medical wards to administer intravenous fluids and blood products, drugs, parenteral nutrition, and to monitor hemodynamic status. Catheter infection is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and duration of hospital stay. Risk factors in the development of catheter colonization and bloodstream infections include patient factors (increased risk associated with malignancy, neutropenia, and shock) and treatment-related factors (increased risk associated with total parenteral nutrition, intensive care unit admission for any reason, and endotracheal intubation). In this review article terms and definitions of catheter-related infections, pathophysiology and epidemiology of "catheter sepsis", factors determining risk of infection, catheter types and materials, insertion procedure, choice of insertion site, indwelling time, dressing and care of the insertion site, various preventive strategies and future developments, special situations and procedures, and treatment are discussed. Reducing catheter infections rates requires a multiple-strategy approach. Therefore, intensive care units and other locations where catheters are used should implement strict guidelines and protocols for catheter insertion, care, and maintenance.

  15. Community intravenous therapy provision.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Sue; McGrail, Pam; Hodgkins, Paul

    2017-03-08

    Many healthcare services that were once only available in acute settings are now common in the community. Intravenous (IV) therapy is increasingly available as a community service. Given the option, most patients would choose to receive their treatment in a community setting, rather than in hospital. This article describes several outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy services, including their advantages and disadvantages. It explores the ways one community NHS trust has developed its community IV therapy service over the past ten years and examines issues pertinent to effective service delivery.

  16. Effect of a Behavioral Self-Regulation Intervention on Patient Adherence to Fluid-Intake Restrictions in Hemodialysis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Howren, M Bryant; Kellerman, Quinn D; Hillis, Stephen L; Cvengros, Jamie; Lawton, William; Christensen, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral self-regulation intervention vs. active control condition using a parallel-group randomized clinical trial with a sample of center hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Participants were recruited from 8 hemodialysis treatment centers in the Midwest. Eligible patients were (a) fluid nonadherent as defined by an interdialytic weight gain >2.5 kg over a 4-week period, (b) >18 years of age, (c) English-speaking without severe cognitive impairment, (d) treated with center-based hemodialysis for >3 months, and (e) not living in a care facility in which meals were managed. Medical records were used to identify eligible patients. Patients were randomly assigned to either a behavioral self-regulation intervention or active control condition in which groups of 3-8 patients met for hour-long, weekly sessions for 7 weeks at their usual hemodialysis clinic. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat. Sixty-one patients were randomized to the intervention while 58 were assigned to the attention-placebo support and discussion control. Covariate-adjusted between-subjects analyses demonstrated no unique intervention effect for the primary outcome, interdialytic weight gain (β = 0.13, p = 0.48). Significant within-subjects improvement over time was observed for the intervention group (β = -0.32, p = 0.014). The present study found that participation in a behavioral self-regulation intervention resulted in no unique intervention effect on a key indicator of adherence for those with severe chronic kidney disease. There was, however, modest within-subjects improvement in interdialytic weight gain for the intervention group which meshes with other evidence showing the utility of behavioral interventions in this patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01066949.

  17. Assisting the Adult Receiving Inhalation and Intravenous Therapy. Care of the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Area Vocational Technical Inst., MN.

    These two units for students in a practical nursing program provide supplemental instruction in caring for adult patients receiving inhalation and intravenous therapy. Unit titles are The Administration of Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing (IPPB RX) and Intravenous Therapy of Fluids and Blood. Each unit contains the following: objectives,…

  18. Restrictive cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Dawson, David

    2009-12-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathies constitute a heterogenous group of heart muscle conditions that all have, in common, the symptoms of heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function is often the only echocardiographic abnormality that may be noted, although systolic dysfunction may also be an integral part of some specific pathologies, particularly in the most advanced cases such as amyloid infiltration of the heart. By far, the majority of restrictive cardiomyopathies are secondary to a systemic disorder such as amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, scleroderma, haemochromatosis, eosinophilic heart disease, or as a result of radiation treatment. The much more rare diagnosis of idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy is supported only by the absence of specific pathology on either endomyocardial biopsies or at post-mortem. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is diagnosed based on medical history, physical examination, and tests: such as blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. With its wide availability, echocardiography is probably the most important investigation to identify the left ventricular dysfunction and should be performed early and by groups that are familiar with the wide variety of aetiologies. Finally, on rare occasions, the differential diagnosis from constrictive pericarditis may be necessary.

  19. Errors in fluid therapy in medical wards.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Maryam; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2012-04-01

    Intravenous fluid therapy remains an essential part of patients' care during hospitalization. There are only few studies that focused on fluid therapy in the hospitalized patients, and there is not any consensus statement about fluid therapy in patients who are hospitalized in medical wards. The aim of the present study was to assess intravenous fluid therapy status and related errors in the patients during the course of hospitalization in the infectious diseases wards of a referral teaching hospital. This study was conducted in the infectious diseases wards of Imam Khomeini Complex Hospital, Tehran, Iran. During a retrospective study, data related to intravenous fluid therapy were collected by two clinical pharmacists of infectious diseases from 2008 to 2010. Intravenous fluid therapy information including indication, type, volume and rate of fluid administration was recorded for each patient. An internal protocol for intravenous fluid therapy was designed based on literature review and available recommendations. The data related to patients' fluid therapy were compared with this protocol. The fluid therapy was considered appropriate if it was compatible with the protocol regarding indication of intravenous fluid therapy, type, electrolyte content and rate of fluid administration. Any mistake in the selection of fluid type, content, volume and rate of administration was considered as intravenous fluid therapy errors. Five hundred and ninety-six of medication errors were detected during the study period in the patients. Overall rate of fluid therapy errors was 1.3 numbers per patient during hospitalization. Errors in the rate of fluid administration (29.8%), incorrect fluid volume calculation (26.5%) and incorrect type of fluid selection (24.6%) were the most common types of errors. The patients' male sex, old age, baseline renal diseases, diabetes co-morbidity, and hospitalization due to endocarditis, HIV infection and sepsis are predisposing factors for the

  20. Rapid versus standard intravenous rehydration in paediatric gastroenteritis: pragmatic blinded randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Stephen B; Parkin, Patricia C; Willan, Andrew R; Schuh, Suzanne

    2011-11-17

    To determine if rapid rather than standard intravenous rehydration results in improved hydration and clinical outcomes when administered to children with gastroenteritis. Single centre, two arm, parallel randomised pragmatic controlled trial. Blocked randomisation stratified by site. Participants, caregivers, outcome assessors, investigators, and statisticians were blinded to the treatment assignment. Paediatric emergency department in a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. 226 children aged 3 months to 11 years; complete follow-up was obtained on 223 (99%). Eligible children were aged over 90 days, had a diagnosis of dehydration secondary to gastroenteritis, had not responded to oral rehydration, and had been prescribed intravenous rehydration. Children were excluded if they weighed less than 5 kg or more than 33 kg, required fluid restriction, had a suspected surgical condition, or had an insurmountable language barrier. Children were also excluded if they had a history of a chronic systemic disease, abdominal surgery, bilious or bloody vomit, hypotension, or hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. Rapid (60 mL/kg) or standard (20 mL/kg) rehydration with 0.9% saline over an hour; subsequent fluids administered according to protocol. clinical rehydration, assessed with a validated scale, two hours after the start of treatment. prolonged treatment, mean clinical dehydration scores over the four hour study period, time to discharge, repeat visits to emergency department, adequate oral intake, and physician's comfort with discharge. Data from all randomised patients were included in an intention to treat analysis. 114 patients were randomised to rapid rehydration and 112 to standard. One child was withdrawn because of severe hyponatraemia at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the rapid and standard rehydration groups in the proportions of participants who were rehydrated at two hours (41/114 (36%) v 33/112 (30%); difference 6.5% (95% confidence

  1. Effects of limiting fluid intake on clinical and laboratory outcomes in patients with heart failure. Results of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    De Vecchis, R; Baldi, C; Cioppa, C; Giasi, A; Fusco, A

    2016-02-01

    The guidelines of the Scientific Societies of Cardiology recommend limiting fluid intake as a nonpharmacological measure for the management of chronic heart failure (HF). However, many patients with HF may suffer from severe thirst. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of limiting fluid consumption based on various clinical and laboratory outcomes in patients with chronic HF. Only randomized controlled trials comparing liberal and restricted fluid oral intake in patients with HF were included. Primary outcomes were HF hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were the sensation of thirst, the duration of therapy with intravenous diuretics, and the serum levels of creatinine, sodium, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Significant heterogeneity was detected for the majority of outcomes. In 5 studies, patients with restricted fluid intake compared to patients with free consumption of beverages had similar rehospitalization and mortality rates. There were no differences regarding patients' sense of thirst (4 studies), duration of intravenous diuretic treatment (2 studies), serum creatinine levels (5 studies), and serum sodium levels (5 studies). Serum BNP levels were significantly higher in the group with free fluid intake (4 studies). In patients with HF, liberal fluid consumption does not seem to exert an unfavorable impact on HF rehospitalizations or all-cause mortality. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted to definitively confirm the present findings.

  2. Postoperative analgesia by intravenous clonidine.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J M; Hommeril, J L; Passuti, N; Pinaud, M

    1991-10-01

    Clonidine, an alpha 2 adrenoreceptor agonist, has nonopiate antinociceptive properties, which might be an alternative for postoperative analgesia free of opioid-induced side effects. To document the analgesic properties of intravenous clonidine during the postoperative period, 50 ASA physical status 1 patients, immediately after spinal fusion, were randomly assigned to two groups, blindly administered either clonidine (5 micrograms/kg infused the 1st h and then 0.3 microgram-1.kg-1.h-1 during 11 h) or a placebo. A visual analog scale graded from 0 (no pain) to 100 mm was used to assess pain before clonidine or placebo administration (T0), at the end of the loading dose (T1) and then every 2 h (T3, T5, T7, T9, and T11). Morphine (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly after each pain measurement if the score was greater than 50 mm. No morphine was given at T0. Hemodynamics, blood gases and plasma clonidine concentrations were measured each time the pain score was measured. The pain score decreased from 42 +/- 5 to 26 +/- 3 mm (mean +/- standard error) in the clonidine group whereas it was unchanged in the placebo group despite a greater morphine requirement (dose for each patient: 3.8 +/- 1 vs. 10.8 +/- 1.2 mg). Clonidine delayed the onset of pain and the first request for morphine injection. Mean arterial pressure decreased to 74 +/- 2 mmHg in the clonidine group (-26 +/- 2 vs. -15 +/- 2% in the placebo group at T11) despite a significant increase in the cumulative fluid volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  4. Fluid Therapy for Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justine A; Cohn, Leah A

    2017-03-01

    Young puppies and kittens have unique physiologic needs in regards to fluid therapy, which must address hydration, vascular fluid volume, electrolyte disturbances, or hypoglycemia. Pediatric patients have a higher fluid requirement compared with adults and can rapidly progress from mild dehydration to hypovolemia. Simultaneously, their small size makes overhydration a real possibility. Patient size complicates fluid administration because catheters used in larger pets may be difficult to place. Routes of fluid administration used in the neonate or pediatric patient include oral, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous, and intravenous. Clinicians should be aware of the pros and cons of each route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intravenous catheter for intracorporeal plasma filtration.

    PubMed

    Handley, Harold H; Gorsuch, Rey; Levin, Nathan W; Ronco, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Future advances in dialysis of end-stage renal disease patients may include improvements in therapeutic continuity and patient mobility. Continuous renal replacement therapies could lead to self-contained, mobile and potentially wearable dialysis units. We investigated an experimental, intravenous slow-continuous plasma separation system (IPSS) as a precursor to direct intravenous hemofiltration. An intracorporeal catheter employs asymmetric hollow fibers to separate blood cells from plasma in vivo. The fibers possess a sieving coefficient of 0.7 microm and remove 99.99% of all platelets. In vivo, catheters sustain an average plasma separation flow rate of 3 ml/min over 22 h, sufficient to remove 2 net liters of water from pigs through an extracorporeal hemofilter. Used catheter fibers are relatively free of protein deposition or clots in situ. In vitro studies suggest that human catheters may perform at 3-4 times the rate of porcine catheters. IPSS is proposed for acute fluid removal in CHF patients refractory to diuretics. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. In vitro comparison of output fluid temperatures for room temperature and prewarmed fluids.

    PubMed

    Soto, N; Towle Millard, H A; Lee, R A; Weng, H Y

    2014-08-01

    To determine if prewarmed intravenous fluids produce superior fluid output temperatures compared with room temperature fluids at common anaesthetic fluid rates for small animal patients. A prospective, randomised, in vitro fluid line test-vein study was performed. Nine flow rates were analysed (10, 20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220, 260 and 300 mL/hour) for room temperature fluids (21°C) and for five prewarmed fluids (40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C). For each flow rate tested, room temperature fluids never exceeded 25°C at any time point for each trial (range 18 to 25°C). For each flow rate tested, prewarmed fluids never exceeded 25 · 5°C at any time point for each trial (range 18 to 25 · 5°C). The mean output fluid temperature of prewarmed fluids was significantly warmer than room temperature fluids only at 300 mL/hour for 40°C (P = 0 · 0012), 45°C (P = 0 · 004), 50°C (P = 0 · 0002), 55°C (P = 0 · 0001) and 60°C (P < 0 · 0001). There was no thermodynamic benefit to utilising prewarmed intravenous fluids (up to 60°C) compared with room temperature intravenous fluids at common anaesthetic fluid rates for small animals. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. True hyponatremia secondary to intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minhtri K; Rastogi, Anjay; Kurtz, Ira

    2006-06-01

    Hyponatremia is characterized as either "true hyponatremia," which represents a decrease in the Na(+) concentration in the water phase of plasma, or "pseudohyponatremia," which is due to an increased percentage of protein or lipid in plasma, with a normal plasma water Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]). Pseudohyponatremia is a known complication of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Because IVIG has been reported to result in post-infusional hyperproteinemia, IVIG-induced hyponatremia has been attributed to pseudohyponatremia. In this case report, we demonstrate that IVIG therapy can result in true hyponatremia, resulting from sucrose-induced translocation of water from the intracellular compartment (ICF) to the extracellular compartment (ECF), as well as the infusion of a large volume of dilute fluid, in patients with an underlying defect in urinary free water excretion.

  8. Intravenous magnesium--potential hazard of inadequate mixing.

    PubMed

    Whang, R; Papper, S; Fryer, A

    1983-01-01

    Failure to mix 24.5 mM of magnesium, added as 50% MgSO4 in 1 liter of intravenous fluid, results in a high concentration of Mg in the initial 10-cc aliquot: 1,145.7 mM/liter. Adequate dispersion can be obtained after three inversions. We conclude that because of the extremely high concentrations of Mg that can result if no mixing is done, it is imperative that hospital personnel ensure that added Mg is adequately dispersed in intravenous fluid prior to administration. A method of signalling the inadequacy of mixing is to color code additives with a harmless dye to alert personnel to the problem of inadequate dispersement.

  9. Solubility of Injectable Valium in Intravenous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Grower, Marvin F.; Russell, Emery A.; Getter, Lee

    1978-01-01

    A study of the solubility of Valium in commonly used intravenous solutions showed Valium to be equally insoluble in 5% dextrose in normal saline, 5% dextrose in water, normal saline, and Ringer's lactate. However, the precipitate which was formed became completely resuspended when mixed with as little as 39-42% plasma in vitro. This would indicate that the chalky precipitate seen in the I. V. tubing when Valium is injected into a running I. V. near the venipuncture site becomes resuspended when mixed with plasma in vivo. If one elects to inject Valium into the tubing of a running I. V., it is recommended that the drug be administered slowly to assure adequate mixing with blood plasma in order to prevent the circulation of particulate matter. Valium is currently one of the most popular drugs used in the psychosedative management of the apprehensive dental patient. Various techniques are advocated for its administration from direct injection into a vein to injection of the drug into a running I. V. However, the manufacturer states that the drug should not be added to I. V. fluids or other solutions or drugs. Presumably this is because of the formation of a cloudy precipitate immediately upon addition to aqueous solutions. Grower et al. have shown that saturated aqueous solutions of Valium in normal saline redissolve when added to plasma; however, they presented no data on the behavior of solutions of Valium added to other commonly used intravenous fluids. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to study the behavior of Valium when added to lactated Ringer's solution, 5% dextrose solutions, and normal saline; and to see how human blood plasma affects the solubility of Valium in these solutions. PMID:292338

  10. Rational fluid management in today's ICU practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous fluid therapy has evolved significantly over time. From the initial report of the first intravenous administration of sodium-chloride-based solution to the development of goal-directed fluid therapy using novel dynamic indices, efforts have focused on improving patient outcomes. The goal of this review is to provide a brief overview of current concepts for intravenous fluid administration in the ICU. Results of recently published clinical trials suggesting harmful effects of starch-based solutions on critically ill patients are discussed. Concepts for goal-directed fluid therapy and new modalities for the assessment of fluid status as well as for the prediction of responsiveness to different interventions will continue to emerge. Advances in technology will have to be critically evaluated for their ability to improve outcomes in different clinical scenarios. PMID:23514431

  11. Restricted Transport in Small Pores

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John L.; Quinn, John A.

    1974-01-01

    The basic hydrodynamic equations governing transport in submicron pores are reexamined. Conditions necessary for a simplified, one-dimensional treatment of the diffusion/convection process are established. Steric restrictions and Brownian motion are incorporated directly into the resulting model. Currently available fluid mechanical results are used to evaluate an upper limit on hindered diffusion; this limit is valid for small particle-to-pore ratios. Extensions of the analysis are shown to depend on numerical solutions of the related hydrodynamic problem, that of asymmetrical particle motion in a bounded fluid. PMID:4813157

  12. Sustained hypotension following intravenous metoclopramide.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tammy T; Petzel Gimbar, Renee M

    2013-11-01

    To report a case of sustained hypotension associated with the use of intravenous metoclopramide. A 50-year-old woman developed a hypotensive episode lasting approximately 90 minutes after the administration intravenous metoclopramide for the treatment of a migraine. The patient presented to the emergency department after she woke up with a severe headache that was much worse than her normal migraine headaches. Her past medical history included migraines, diabetes type 2, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Fifteen minutes after the administration of intravenous metoclopramide 10 mg, the patient's systolic blood pressure decreased from 138 to 84 mmHg (a mean arterial pressure decrease of 40.7 mmHg). The patient was given 1 L of intravenous NaCl 0.9% that had minimal effect on blood pressure. The patient did not reapproach her baseline systolic blood pressure until 90 minutes after the metoclopramide administration when it was measured at 138 mmHg. Subsequent contrast tomography of the head was negative and the patient's headache was successfully treated with butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine. The patient was discharged home the same day. There are few published case reports of metoclopramide-induced hypotension in the current literature. Of those published, all showed transient hypotension with metoclopramide, lasting seconds to minutes. An objective causality assessment for drug-associated adverse drug reaction showed metoclopramide as a probable cause of the patient's hypotension (Naranjo score of 5). In this case, several indicators of metoclopramide induced hypotension were evident, including the timing of the hypotension after drug administration and the lack of any other possible causes of hypotension. This is the first published case report of sustained hypotension due to intravenous metoclopramide. Intravenous metoclopramide may cause sustained episodes of hypotension.

  13. Fluid therapy for children: facts, fashions and questions.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Malcolm A; Ray, Patricio E; Friedman, Aaron L

    2007-06-01

    Fluid therapy restores circulation by expanding extracellular fluid. However, a dispute has arisen regarding the nature of intravenous therapy for acutely ill children following the development of acute hyponatraemia from overuse of hypotonic saline. The foundation on which correct maintenance fluid therapy is built is examined and the difference between maintenance fluid therapy and restoration or replenishment fluid therapy for reduction in extracellular fluid volume is delineated. Changing practices and the basic physiology of extracellular fluid are discussed. Some propose changing the definition of "maintenance therapy" and recommend isotonic saline be used as maintenance and restoration therapy in undefined amounts leading to excess intravenous sodium chloride intake. Intravenous fluid therapy for children with volume depletion should first restore extracellular volume with measured infusions of isotonic saline followed by defined, appropriate maintenance therapy to replace physiological losses according to principles established 50 years ago.

  14. Aspiration Thrombectomy After Intravenous Alteplase Versus Intravenous Alteplase Alone.

    PubMed

    Mocco, J; Zaidat, Osama O; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Yoo, Albert J; Gupta, Rishi; Lopes, Demetrius; Frei, Don; Shownkeen, Harish; Budzik, Ron; Ajani, Zahra A; Grossman, Aaron; Altschul, Dorethea; McDougall, Cameron; Blake, Lindsey; Fitzsimmons, Brian-Fred; Yavagal, Dileep; Terry, John; Farkas, Jeffrey; Lee, Seon Kyu; Baxter, Blaise; Wiesmann, Martin; Knauth, Michael; Heck, Donald; Hussain, Syed; Chiu, David; Alexander, Michael J; Malisch, Timothy; Kirmani, Jawad; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Khatri, Pooja

    2016-09-01

    Thrombectomy, primarily with stent retrievers with or without adjunctive aspiration, provided clinical benefit across multiple prospective randomized trials. Whether this benefit is exclusive to stent retrievers is unclear. THERAPY (The Randomized, Concurrent Controlled Trial to Assess the Penumbra System's Safety and Effectiveness in the Treatment of Acute Stroke; NCT01429350) was an international, multicenter, prospective, randomized (1:1), open label, blinded end point evaluation, concurrent controlled clinical trial of aspiration thrombectomy after intravenous alteplase (IAT) administration compared with intravenous-alteplase alone in patients with large vessel ischemic stroke because of a thrombus length of ≥8 mm. The primary efficacy end point was the percent of patients achieving independence at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2; intention-to-treat analysis). The primary safety end point was the rate of severe adverse events (SAEs) by 90 days (as treated analysis). Patients were randomized 1:1 across 36 centers in 2 countries (United States and Germany). Enrollment was halted after 108 (55 IAT and 53 intravenous) patients (of 692 planned) because of external evidence of the added benefit of endovascular therapy to intravenous-alteplase alone. Functional independence was achieved in 38% IAT and 30% intravenous intention-to-treat groups (P=0.52). Intention-to-treat ordinal modified Rankin Scale odds ratio was 1.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-3.59; P=0.12) in favor of IAT. Secondary efficacy analyses all demonstrated a consistent direction of effect toward benefit of IAT. No differences in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates (9.3% IAT versus 9.7% intravenous, P=1.0) or 90-day mortality (IAT: 12% versus intravenous: 23.9%, P=0.18) were observed. THERAPY did not achieve its primary end point in this underpowered sample. Directions of effect for all prespecified outcomes were both internally and externally consistent toward benefit. It is

  15. Fatal myocardial infarction associated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine error

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background N-acetylcysteine is used to treat acetaminophen toxicity and is available in both intravenous and oral formulations. Our report describes a patient treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine for acetaminophen toxicity who died after an anaphylactoid reaction following initiation of the infusion. Objective Clinicians should be aware of potential complications when deciding on which formulation of N-acetylcysteine to administer. Case Report A 53-year-old male presented with altered mental status after an overdose of acetaminophen/hydrocodone and carisoprodol. He had an acetaminophen level of 49 mcg/ml with an unknown time of ingestion. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) on a naloxone drip and was started on intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at the presumed dose of 150 mg/kg. Shortly after initiating the NAC infusion, the patient developed periorbital edema, skin rash, and hypotension. The infusion of N-acetylcysteine was immediately stopped and the patient required emergent intubation. Resuscitation was begun with intravenous fluids followed by the initiation of phenylephrine. He developed ST elevation in the inferior leads on his ECG. This evolved into an inferior myocardial infarction by ECG and cardiac enzymes. Echocardiogram showed global, severe hypokinesis with an ejection fraction of less than 20% in a patient with no pre-existing cardiac history. Despite aggressive support, he died approximately 17 hours after the initiation of intravenous NAC. Further investigation found a 10-fold formulation error in his NAC loading dose. Conclusion The intravenous formulation of NAC has a higher probability of significant adverse effects and complications not described with the oral formulation. Clinicians should be aware of these potential complications when deciding on which formulation to administer. PMID:21878099

  16. Sepsis Resuscitation: Fluid Choice and Dose.

    PubMed

    Semler, Matthew W; Rice, Todd W

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding which fluid and in what amount remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, and large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Complications caused by intravenous therapy].

    PubMed

    Quirós Luque, José María; Gago Fornells, Manuel

    2005-11-01

    Nursing professionals must know everything related to complications caused by intravenous therapy including the ways to prevent and solve these complications. We need not forget that nurses are the ones mainly responsible for the insertion, manipulation, removal and care of catheters.

  18. [Lethal intravenous injection of benzine].

    PubMed

    Zirwes, Christian; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Hinsch, Nora; Kardel, Bernd; Hartung, Benno

    2015-01-01

    A man who suffered from chronic pain syndrome died two days after intravenous injection of 2 ml benzine. Previous suicide attempts by drug intoxication and strangulation had failed. Death occurred due to multi-organ failure. We present the results of the clinical, morphological and toxicological examinations performed.

  19. Intravenous rtPA thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Laloux, P

    2001-06-01

    Early intravenous thrombolysis within the first three hours has been considered in the United States as the first proven treatment in acute ischemic stroke. However, not all patients will respond to this therapy which is also associated with a risk of symptomatic, including fatal, intracranial hemorrhage. This overview addresses the issue of efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase (tPA) in acute cerebral ischemia. The rationale for thrombolytic therapy and its limits are described. The controlled studies show that intravenous tPA is effective and safe when given under restrictive conditions within 3 hours after stroke onset, but the data for a larger therapeutic window between 3 and 6 hours remain controversial. The expected functional improvement and the risk of intracranial hemorrhage greatly depend on selective clinical and imaging criteria. For this purpose, MRI, using the diffusion- and perfusion-weighted sequences combined with MR- angiography, should be preferred to CT scan in the next future. Applicability of tPA thrombolysis in current neurological practice in Belgium is discussed. Before its generalization, this therapy should be restricted to specialized stroke centers and all treated patients should be recorded in a central data bank to guarantee continued surveillance.

  20. In-Line Microwave Warmer for Blood and Intravenous Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    blood components prior to microwave warming. Results show no significant changes in blood component longevity between samples that were warmed with microwave energy versus control samples. In addition in-vitro tests using blood-bank blood were performed and again biochemistry and hematologic analysis showed no significant changes in blood components of microwave warmed blood versus control

  1. Evolution of fluid therapy.

    PubMed

    Kampmeier, Tim; Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The human organism consists of evolutionary conserved mechanisms to prevent death from hypovolaemia. Intravenous fluid therapy to support these mechanisms had first been published about 180 years ago. The present review depicts the evolution of fluid therapy from early, not well-defined solutions up to modern balanced fluids. Notably, evidence accumulates that the most commonly used fluid (i.e. 0.9% saline) has no advantage over balanced solutions, increases the risk of acute kidney injury and should therefore be abandoned. Notably, in published trials, the prognostically important 'golden hours' of shock, where fluid therapy may be essential, have not been adequately addressed. It is therefore unclear whether negative data on colloids in some trials reflect real harm or rather inadequate use. Future studies should focus on optimal protocols for initiation, dosing and discontinuation of fluid therapy in specific disease entities. Moreover, the practice of de-resuscitation after fluid-based haemodynamic stabilization should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Intravenous remifentanyl for labor analgesia].

    PubMed

    Arnal, D; Serrano, M L; Corral, E M; García del Valle, S

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous remifentanil may be the preferred analgesic when regional techniques are contraindicated. To perform a systematic review on the use of remifentanil for analgesia in labor. We searched MEDLINE (January 1995-August 2007) for studies on obstetric analgesia with remifentanil. We found 32 references representing the use of remifentanil in 257 women in labor. In most cases, patients reported relief of pain and a high level of satisfaction, with no severe side effects in mothers or neonates. When compared with meperidine and nitrous oxide in clinical trials, remifentanil provided better analgesia with fewer adverse effects. Analgesia with intravenous remifentanil is more effective and safer than other alternatives to regional analgesic techniques in obstetrics. Nevertheless, the optimum system for infusing the drug must b e established and further studies of maternal and fetal safety should be carried out.

  3. Intravenous bisphosphonates for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Mottaghi, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    Numerous clinical studies have shown bisphoshonates (BPs) to be useful and cost-effective options for the fractures prevention and postmenopausal bone loss. The use of oral bisphoshonates is an established option for managment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, but many of them complaint from gastrointestinal side effect or frequently dosed oral regimens. To improve upon the suboptimal therapeutic compliance in postmenopausal women, newer, longer-acting intravenous formulations of BPs has been approved for intermittent administration in postmenopausal women. These preparations would become an option for patients who can not tolerate oral BPs or it was ineffective in increasing their bone density. This article proposed to review effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous BPs in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. PMID:21526078

  4. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  5. Candida lusitaniae arthritis in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Jeragh, A; Ahmad, S; Naseem, J; Khan, Z U

    2007-09-01

    A case of arthritis of the right knee caused by Candida lusitaniae in a 29-year-old intravenous drug abuser is described. The diagnosis was based on the isolation of C. lusitaniae from synovial fluid and was supported by the presence of C. lusitaniae-specific DNA and high levels of (1-3)-beta-d-glucan (122 pg ml-1) in the same specimen. While the isolate was susceptible to amphotericin B and fluconazole in vitro, treatment with amphotericin B was not very effective. The patient achieved complete cure with fluconazole therapy only after undergoing synovectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arthritis caused by C. lusitaniae in an intravenous drug user.

  6. Venipuncture and intravenous infusion access during zero-gravity flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Bechtle, Perry; Creager, Gerald J.; Boyce, Joey B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to establish the difficulty associated with securing an intravenous (IV) catheter in place in microgravity flight and the techniques applicable in training the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) for Space Station Freedom, as well as aiding in the selection of appropriate hardware and supplies for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). The objectives are the following: (1) to determine the difficulties associated with venipuncture in a microgravity environment; (2) to evaluate the various methods of securing an IV catheter and attached tubing for infusion with regard to the unique environment; (3) to evaluate the various materials available for securing an intravenous catheter in place; and (4) to evaluate the fluid therapy administration system when functioning in a complete system. The inflight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic flight test to simulate microgravity are presented.

  7. Intensive intravenous regime for acute severe colitis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rupa; Philip, Matthew; Bhatia, Shobna

    2014-08-01

    Acute severe exacerbation of ulcerative colitis is a potentially life threatening medical emergency. The management of acute severe ulcerative colitis depends on early recognition and prompt initiation of intensive intravenous treatment along with continuous objective monitoring for possible medical failure. The intensive regime is the accepted standard of care. This includes primarily a) intravenous corticosteroids, b) intravenous supportive management, and d) intravenous antibiotics in instances. This review discusses the timing, duration and dosage of the intensive intravenous treatment including the evidence based protocol for effective monitoring to enable timely escalation to second line therapy & colectomy.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of a Therapeutic Enzyme (Idursulfase) in Cynomolgus Monkeys after Intrathecal and Intravenous Administration

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongsheng; Chung, Jou-Ku; Mascelli, Mary Ann; McCauley, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous enzyme replacement therapy with iduronate-2-sulfatase is an approved treatment for Hunter syndrome, however, conventional intravenous delivery cannot treat the neurologic manifestations of the disease due to its limited central nervous system penetration. Intrathecal administration of iduronate-2-sulfatase for delivery to the central nervous system is currently under investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of idursulfase in the central nervous system of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fasicularis) after intravenous and intrathecal administration. Twenty-seven monkeys, treatment-naïve to enzyme replacement therapy, were placed into 4 groups according to body weight: Group 1 was administered 0.5 mg/kg idursulfase intravenously, Groups 2–4 were administered an intrathecal formulation (1-, 10-, and 30-mg doses). Blood samples and cerebrospinal fluid (sampled at the cisterna magna or lumbar level) were collected at the same time points for 72 hours post dosing. Following intravenous administration, a high maximum serum concentration and rapid distribution of iduronate-2-sulfatase out of the central compartment were observed (elimination half-life: 4.3 hours). Iduronate-2-sulfatase exposure in the cerebrospinal fluid was limited, suggesting intravenous administration provided minimal penetration of the blood–brain barrier. Following intrathecal administration, a high maximum observed concentration was immediately noted and elimination half-life ranged between 7.8–10 hours and 5.9–6.7 hours (cisterna magna and lumbar sampling, respectively). Cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetic profiles at different doses of iduronate-2-sulfatase were similar and the dose/exposure relationship was proportional. After intrathecal administration, movement of iduronate-2-sulfatase from cerebrospinal fluid to serum was observed (systemic bioavailability was 40–83%). The clear penetration of iduronate-2-sulfatase into the cerebrospinal

  9. Intravenous Air: The Partially Invisible Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Varga, Christopher; Luria, Isaac; Gravenstein, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Air injection is carefully avoided during IV solution administration; however, ambient air is dissolved in all liquids used for intravenous (IV) therapy. A portion of this gas will come out of solution in the form of bubbles as the solution is warmed to body temperature in a fluid warming system and/or within the body. We sought to quantify the proportion of the gas theoretically dissolved in room temperature crystalloid and 4°C blood products that comes out of solution in the IV tubing on warming to 37°C. Equilibrium-dissolved air calculations were performed for sodium chloride (0.9%), packed red blood cells, and fresh frozen plasma at various temperatures according to Henry's Law. Outgassed gas volumes were experimentally measured for room temperature sodium chloride (0.9%) and 4°C blood products (packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma) warmed to 37°C during infusion into a body temperature water bath. The measured gas volumes were quantified as a fraction of the theoretical outgassing volumes required to maintain equilibrium saturation. Measured outgassed volumes in the IV tubing in milliliters of gas per liter of fluid were 1.4 ± 0.3 mL/L (n = 6) for sodium chloride (0.9%), 3.4 ± 0.2 mL/L (n = 6) for packed red blood cells, and 4.8 ± 0.8 mL/L (n = 6) for fresh frozen plasma when these fluids were warmed to body temperature from their respective starting temperatures. Theoretical outgassed gas volumes required to maintain equilibrium saturation for the same fluids and temperatures are 4.7 mL/L for sodium chloride (0.9%), 8.3 mL/L for packed red blood cells, and 10.9 mL/L for fresh frozen plasma. As a fraction of the theoretical outgassing volumes, the measured air volumes represented 30%, 41%, and 44%, respectively, for sodium chloride (0.9%), packed red blood cells, and fresh frozen plasma. Prewarming crystalloid solutions to 37°C before administration significantly reduced the outgassing. A significant and potentially clinically relevant amount

  10. Sepsis Resuscitation: Fluid Choice and Dose

    PubMed Central

    Semler, Matthew W.; Rice, Todd W.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Sepsis is a common and life-threatening inflammatory response to severe infection treated with antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Despite the central role of intravenous fluid in sepsis management, fundamental questions regarding “which fluid” and “in what amount” remain unanswered. Recent advances in understanding the physiologic response to fluid administration, as well as large clinical studies examining resuscitation strategies, fluid balance after resuscitation, colloid versus crystalloid solutions, and high- versus low-chloride crystalloids, inform the current approach to sepsis fluid management and suggest areas for future research. PMID:27229641

  11. Clinical applications of intravenous immunoglobulins in neurology.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R A C; Dalakas, M C; Cornblath, D R; Latov, N; Weksler, M E; Relkin, N

    2009-12-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used increasingly in the management of patients with neurological conditions. The efficacy and safety of IVIg treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been established clearly in randomized controlled trials and summarized in Cochrane systematic reviews. However, questions remain regarding the dose, timing and duration of IVIg treatment in both disorders. Reports about successful IVIg treatment in other neurological conditions exist, but its use remains investigational. IVIg has been shown to be efficacious as second-line therapy in patients with dermatomyositis and suggested to be of benefit in some patients with polymyositis. In patients with inclusion body myositis, IVIg was not shown to be effective. IVIg is also a treatment option in exacerbations of myasthenia gravis. Studies with IVIg in patients with Alzheimer's disease have reported increased plasma anti-Abeta antibody titres associated with decreased Abeta peptide levels in the cerebrospinal fluid following IVIg treatment. These changes at the molecular level were accompanied by improved cognitive function, and large-scale randomized trials are under way.

  12. Clinical applications of intravenous immunoglobulins in neurology

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R A C; Dalakas, M C; Cornblath, D R; Latov, N; Weksler, M E; Relkin, N

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used increasingly in the management of patients with neurological conditions. The efficacy and safety of IVIg treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) have been established clearly in randomized controlled trials and summarized in Cochrane systematic reviews. However, questions remain regarding the dose, timing and duration of IVIg treatment in both disorders. Reports about successful IVIg treatment in other neurological conditions exist, but its use remains investigational. IVIg has been shown to be efficacious as second-line therapy in patients with dermatomyositis and suggested to be of benefit in some patients with polymyositis. In patients with inclusion body myositis, IVIg was not shown to be effective. IVIg is also a treatment option in exacerbations of myasthenia gravis. Studies with IVIg in patients with Alzheimer's disease have reported increased plasma anti-Aβ antibody titres associated with decreased Aβ peptide levels in the cerebrospinal fluid following IVIg treatment. These changes at the molecular level were accompanied by improved cognitive function, and large-scale randomized trials are under way. PMID:19883422

  13. Flow rates through intravenous access devices: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Khoyratty, Saleem I; Gajendragadkar, Pushpaj R; Polisetty, Kiran; Ward, Sue; Skinner, Tim; Gajendragadkar, Parag R

    2016-06-01

    Fluid administration using intravenous (IV) access devices is required in many settings. There are a lack of quantitative data comparing traditional cannulas and modern access devices. We aimed to investigate flow rates through modern intravenous access devices using an in vitro system. This is an experimental study. Rates of flow of intravenous fluids (crystalloid and colloid) were measured through various access devices using a uroflowmeter. Standardized conditions and repeat measurements ensured validity. Fluid was administered with or without the addition of a pressure bag and needle-free valve. Increasing the size of cannulas improved flow. Fourteen-gauge cannulas had significantly higher mean flow rates compared to 14G central venous lines in all conditions (136% higher with no pressure bag/valve; 95% CI, +130% to +152%; P < .001). Both the emergency infusion device and rapid infusion catheter produced significantly increased mean flows compared to a 14G cannula (12% higher for emergency infusion catheter; 95% CI, +7% to +15%; P = .008, and 15% higher for rapid infusion catheter; 95% CI, +12% to +21%; P = .004). The needle-free valve significantly impaired flow on 16G and wider IV access devices (36% lower with no pressure bag using 14G cannula; 95% CI, -29% to -46%; P = .003), but flow reductions in narrower IV access were insignificant. Pressure bags significantly improved flow in all devices, in all combinations. Flow rates in IV devices can be maximized by pressure bag use and removal of needle-free valves. The rapid infusion catheter and emergency infusion catheter allow some increase in flow over a 14G cannula. Familiarity with varying flow rates across IV access devices could better inform clinical decisions. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravenous anaesthesia in goats: a review.

    PubMed

    Dzikiti, T Brighton

    2013-02-13

    Intravenous anaesthesia is gradually becoming popular in veterinary practice. Traditionally, general anaesthesia is induced with intravenous drugs and then maintained with inhalation agents. Inhalation anaesthetic agents cause more significant dose-dependent cardiorespiratory depression than intravenous anaesthetic drugs, creating a need to use less of the inhalation anaesthetic agents for maintenance of general anaesthesia by supplementing with intravenous anaesthesia drugs. Better still, if anaesthesia is maintained completely with intravenous anaesthetic drugs, autonomic functions remain more stable intra-operatively. Patient recovery from anaesthesia is smoother and there is less pollution of the working environment than happens with inhalation anaesthetic agents. Recently, a number of drugs with profiles (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) suitable for prolonged intravenous anaesthesia have been studied, mostly in humans and, to a certain extent, in dogs and horses. There is currently very little scientific information on total intravenous anaesthesia in goats, although, in the past few years, some scholarly scientific articles on drugs suitable for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats have been published. This review article explored the information available on drugs that have been assessed for partial intravenous anaesthesia in goats, with the aim of promoting incorporation of these drugs into total intravenous anaesthesia protocols in clinical practice. That way, balanced anaesthesia, a technique in which drugs are included in anaesthetic protocols for specific desired effects (hypnosis, analgesia, muscle relaxation, autonomic stabilisation) may be utilised in improving the welfare of goats undergoing general anaesthesia.

  15. Toxicity with intravenous injection of naphtha in man

    SciTech Connect

    Vaziri, N.D.; Smith, P.J.; Wilson, A.

    1980-01-01

    Intravenous injection of charcoal lighter fluid (naphtha) in a suicidal attempt led to development of severe hemorrhagic pneumonitis in a 40-year-old individual. Presenting symptoms consisted of pleuritic chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and dyspnea; they appeared within 2 hours after injection. Development of roentgenographic changes lagged behind the clinical symptoms by several hours. Fever and leukocytosis were present despite the absence of demonstrable superimposed bacterial infection. The pathology seemed exclusively confined to the pulmonary system with no clinical or laboratory evidence of extrapulmonary involvement. Repeated clinical, radiographic, and pulmonary function evaluations over an 18-month follow-up period have shown complete resolution of pulmonary lesions without residual abnormalities.

  16. Toxicity with intravenous injection of naphtha in man.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, N D; Smith, P J; Wilson, A

    1980-05-01

    Intravenous injection of charcoal lighter fluid (naphtha) in a suicidal attempt led to development of severe hemorrhagic pneumonitis in a 40-year-old individual. Presenting symptoms consisted of pleuritic chest pain, epigastric discomfort, and dyspnea; they appeared within 2 hours after injection. Development of roentgenographic changes lagged behind the clinical symptoms by several hours. Fever and leukocytosis were present despite the absence of demonstrable superimposed bacterial infection. The pathology seemed exclusively confined to the pulmonary system with no clinical or laboratory evidence of extrapulmonary involvement. Repeated clinical, radiographic, and pulmonary function evaluations over an 18-month follow-up period have shown complete resolution of pulmonary lesions without residual abnormalities.

  17. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E; Kaspar, Brian K; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-11-11

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen.

  18. Intravenous Injections in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Foust, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen. PMID:25407048

  19. Fluid therapy for acute bacterial meningitis.

    PubMed

    Maconochie, Ian K; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep

    2014-05-05

    participants) (moderate trial quality); acute severe neurological sequelae (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.08; 407 participants) (very low trial quality); or in mild to moderate sequelae (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.65; 357 participants) (moderate trial quality). However, when neurological sequelae were defined further, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the maintenance-fluid group for spasticity (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.93; 357 participants); seizures at both 72 hours (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.83; 357 participants) and 14 days (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.88; 357 participants); and chronic severe neurological sequelae at three months follow-up (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.89; 351 participants). The quality of evidence regarding fluid therapy in children with acute bacterial meningitis is not high-grade and there is a need for further research. Some evidence supports maintaining intravenous fluids rather than restricting them in the first 48 hours in settings with high mortality rates and where children present late. However, where children present early and mortality rates are lower, there is insufficient evidence to guide practice.

  20. [Fluid resuscitation in hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Roessler, M; Bode, K; Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    How fluid resuscitation has to be performed for acute hemorrhage situations is still controversially discussed. Although the forced administration of crystalloids and colloids has been and still is practiced, nowadays there are good arguments that a cautious infusion of crystalloids may be initially sufficient. Saline should no longer be used for fluid resuscitation. The main argument for cautious fluid resuscitation is that no large prospective randomized clinical trials exist which have provided evidence of improved survival when fluid resuscitation is applied in an aggressive manner. The explanation that no positive effect has so far been observed is that fluid resuscitation is thought to boost bleeding by increasing blood pressure and dilutional coagulopathy. Nevertheless, national and international guidelines recommend that fluid resuscitation should be applied at the latest when hemorrhage causes hemodynamic instability. Consideration should be given to the fact that damage control resuscitation per se will neither improve already reduced tissue perfusion nor hemostasis. In acute and possibly rapidly progressing hypovolemic shock, colloids can be used. The third and fourth generations of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) are safe and effective if used correctly and within prescribed limits. If fluid resuscitation is applied with ongoing re-evaluation of the parameters which determine oxygen supply, it should be possible to keep fluid resuscitation restricted without causing undesirable side effects and also to administer a sufficient quantity so that survival of patients is ensured.

  1. Intravenous nutrition during a twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Karamatsu, J T; Boyd, A T; Cooke, J; Vinall, P S; McMahon, M J

    1987-01-01

    A case is reported of a woman in the third trimester of a twin pregnancy who required intravenous nutrition because of inadequate absorption of nutrients due to a jejunoileal bypass. Weight gain was poor, and there was evidence of intrauterine growth retardation before commencement of intravenous feeding. She received overnight intravenous nutrition for 6 weeks and gained weight with ultrasound evidence of fetal growth. During the 33rd week of gestation, she was delivered of healthy twin males who were at appropriate birth weights and development for their age of gestation. The considerations in intravenous nutrition for a twin pregnancy after jejunoileal bypass are discussed.

  2. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury After Intravenous Contrast Media Administration.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Jeremiah S; Ehmann, Michael R; Fine, Derek M; Fishman, Elliot K; Toerper, Matthew F; Rothman, Richard E; Klein, Eili Y

    2017-05-01

    The study objective was to determine whether intravenous contrast administration for computed tomography (CT) is independently associated with increased risk for acute kidney injury and adverse clinical outcomes. This single-center retrospective cohort analysis was performed in a large, urban, academic emergency department with an average census of 62,179 visits per year; 17,934 ED visits for patients who underwent contrast-enhanced, unenhanced, or no CT during a 5-year period (2009 to 2014) were included. The intervention was CT scan with or without intravenous contrast administration. The primary outcome was incidence of acute kidney injury. Secondary outcomes included new chronic kidney disease, dialysis, and renal transplantation at 6 months. Logistic regression modeling and between-groups odds ratios with and without propensity-score matching were used to test for an independent association between contrast administration and primary and secondary outcomes. Treatment decisions, including administration of contrast and intravenous fluids, were examined. Rates of acute kidney injury were similar among all groups. Contrast administration was not associated with increased incidence of acute kidney injury (contrast-induced nephropathy criteria odds ratio=0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.08; and Acute Kidney Injury Network/Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria odds ratio=1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.16). This was true in all subgroup analyses regardless of baseline renal function and whether comparisons were made directly or after propensity matching. Contrast administration was not associated with increased incidence of chronic kidney disease, dialysis, or renal transplant at 6 months. Clinicians were less likely to prescribe contrast to patients with decreased renal function and more likely to prescribe intravenous fluids if contrast was administered. In the largest well-controlled study of acute kidney injury following contrast

  3. Nosocomial outbreak of Candida parapsilosis fungemia related to intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, J F; Brown, D G; Silva, J; Eck, T; Stricof, R L; Fekety, F R

    1977-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis is rarely isolated from blood cultures. Our hospital surveillance detected an increased rate of isolation of C parapsilosis during a four month period. Fourteen postoperative patients receiving intravenous (IV) hyperalimentation and eight burn patients receiving IV albumin were involved. Hectic fever, the major clinical manifestation, was seen in 61% of cases. Therapy in the postoperative patients consisted merely of discontinuing IV catheters and hyperalimentation, while amphotericin B was needed in five of eight burn patients to control persistent fungemia. Epidemiologic analysis identified a source of the organism in the IV-additive preparation room where C parapsilosis was found contaminating a vacuum system. Organisms apparently refluxed into IV bottles when aliquots were removed to accommodate additives. Of 103 patients who received fluids prepared with the contaminated system, 21% became infected with C parapsilosis. Infection surveillance was instrumental in detection and control of the outbreak. Routine guideline should be established to insure the sterility of IV fluids containing additives.

  4. Flow-test device fits into restricted access passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. J.; Oberschmidt, M.; Rosenbaum, B. J.

    1967-01-01

    Test device using a mandrel with a collapsible linkage assembly enables a fluid flow sensor to be properly positioned in a restricted passage by external manipulation. This device is applicable to the combustion chamber of a rocket motor.

  5. What is interstitial fluid? Biochemical and physiological analysis of fluid obtained from tissue cages.

    PubMed

    Eickenberg, H U

    1978-01-01

    Multiperforated polypropylene balls implanted in soft-tissue and renal parenchyma deliver fluid which represents interstitial fluid, which was characterized biochemically and physiologically. In a time-concentration study, the serum antibiotic level was compared to levels in interstitial fluid of the kidney (RIF), interstitial fluid of soft-tissues of the abdominal wall (STIF) and urine, measured simultaneously after intravenous injection of six different antibiotics. A direct time-concentration relationship between the concentration of antibiotics in the serum and in the renal interstitial fluid was found. This study helps delineate the basic pharmacokinetics in renal interstitial tissue and suggests guidelines for optimal therapy in renal parenchymal infections.

  6. Home intravenous therapy: Part I--Issues.

    PubMed

    McAbee, R R; Grupp, K; Horn, B

    1991-01-01

    Concerns related to providing home intravenous therapy were among the top ten clinical problems identified by Northwest Medicare-certified home care agencies in a 1986 survey. This paper addresses issues related to home intravenous therapy and provides lists of resources for the development of home intravenous therapy programs. Part I of the paper covers concerns related to intravenous therapy as expressed by home care agencies in the Northwest and synthesized the literature about home intravenous therapies. Survey results are presented, followed by a discussion of client and caregiver concerns. These include: discharge planning, client admission criteria and client and caregiver education. Standards, staffing, and staff education issues are discussed followed by sections on economics, marketing regulations and legal and ethical concerns. Finally, there is a discussion of issues related to specific types of intravenous therapies: parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy; chemotherapy; blood and blood component therapy and other less frequently used types of intravenous therapies. Each therapy is discussed with regard to complications, client and caregiver instruction and financial considerations. Part II of the paper is a resource guide which lists resources that agencies may use to develop a home intravenous therapy program. In the first section, national organizations and journals and books concerned with intravenous therapy are listed as well as journal articles, guidelines and guidebooks and client and provider educational materials. National and regional product and service representatives of intravenous therapy related companies are also listed. In the second section, addresses for the State Boards of Nursing are given for Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Each state section includes a list of those agencies who indicated in the 1988 survey that they would be willing to share materials. In addition, product and service vendors of intravenous

  7. Biology of DNA restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, T A; Krüger, D H

    1993-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of DNA restriction and modification systems, the control of the expression of the structural genes for the enzymes, and the importance of DNA restriction in the cellular economy has advanced by leaps and bounds in recent years. This review documents these advances for the three major classes of classical restriction and modification systems, describes the discovery of a new class of restriction systems that specifically cut DNA carrying the modification signature of foreign cells, and deals with the mechanisms developed by phages to avoid the restriction systems of their hosts. PMID:8336674

  8. Genetics of restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sen-Chowdhry, Srijita; Syrris, Petros; McKenna, William J

    2010-04-01

    Restrictive physiology, a severe form of diastolic dysfunction, is characteristically observed in the setting of constrictive pericarditis and myocardial restriction. The latter is commonly due to systemic diseases, some of which are inherited as mendelian traits (eg, hereditary amyloidosis), while others are multifactorial (eg, sarcoidosis). When restrictive physiology occurs as an early and dominant feature of a primary myocardial disorder, it may be termed restrictive cardiomyopathy. In the past decade, clinical and genetic studies have demonstrated that restrictive cardiomyopathy as such is part of the spectrum of sarcomeric disease and frequently coexists with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in affected families.

  9. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ashley; Mandeville, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart-lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid resuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  10. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid resuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately. PMID:27249550

  11. Single dose intravenous propacetamol or intravenous paracetamol for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Tzortzopoulou, Aikaterini; McNicol, Ewan D; Cepeda, M Soledad; Francia, Marie Belle D; Farhat, Tamman; Schumann, Roman

    2011-10-05

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol and IV propacetamol, compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010, Week 18), LILACS (1992 to May 2010) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV propacetamol or IV paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected adverse event information from the studies. Thirty-six studies (3896 participants) were included. Thirty-seven percent of participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT = 4.0; 95% confidence interval 3.5 to 4.8). The proportion of participants in IV propacetamol/paracetamol groups experiencing at least 50% pain relief diminished over six hours, as reflected in a higher NNT of 5.3 (4.2 to 6.7). Participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol required 30% less opioid over four hours than those receiving placebo. However, this did not translate to a reduction in opioid-induced adverse events.Meta-analysis of efficacy comparisons between IV propacetamol/paracetamol and active comparators (opioids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs)) were either not statistically significant, not clinically significant, or both.Adverse events

  12. Partial intravenous anesthesia in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Duke, Tanya

    2013-03-01

    The partial intravenous anesthesia technique (PIVA) is used to lower the inspired concentration of an inhalational anesthetic by concurrent use of injectable drugs. This technique reduces the incidence of undesirable side-effects and provides superior quality of anesthesia and analgesia. Drugs commonly used for PIVA include opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, injectable anesthetic agents, and lidocaine. Most are administered by intravenous infusion.

  13. Rationale and design of the Aquapheresis Versus Intravenous Diuretics and Hospitalization for Heart Failure (AVOID-HF) trial.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Maria Rosa; Negoianu, Daniel; Fonarow, Gregg C; Jaski, Brian E; Bart, Bradley A; Heywood, J Thomas; Nabut, Jose L; Schollmeyer, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    In patients hospitalized with acutely decompensated heart failure, unresolved signs and symptoms of fluid overload have been consistently associated with poor outcomes. Regardless of dosing and type of administration, intravenous loop diuretics have not reduced heart failure events or mortality in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. The results of trials comparing intravenous loop diuretics to mechanical fluid removal by isolated venovenous ultrafiltration have yielded conflicting results. Studies evaluating early decongestive strategies have shown that ultrafiltration removed more fluid and was associated with fewer heart failure-related rehospitalization than intravenous loop diuretics. In contrast, when used in the setting of worsening renal function, ultrafiltration was associated with poorer renal outcomes and no reduction in heart failure events. The AVOID-HF trial seeks to determine if an early strategy of ultrafiltration in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is associated with fewer heart failure events at 90 days compared with a strategy based on intravenous loop diuretics. Study subjects from 40 highly experienced institutions are randomized to either early ultrafiltration or intravenous loop diuretics. In both treatment arms, fluid removal therapies are adjusted according to the patients' hemodynamic condition and renal function. The study was unilaterally terminated by the sponsor in the absence of futility and safety concerns after the enrollment of 221 subjects, or 27% of the originally planned sample size of 810 patients. The AVOID-HF trial's principal aim is to compare the safety and efficacy of ultrafiltration vs that of intravenous loop diuretics in patients hospitalized with acutely decompensated heart failure. Because stepped treatment approaches are applied in both ultrafiltration and intravenous loop diuretics groups and the primary end point is time to first heart failure event within 90 days, it is hoped that

  14. Effects of intraoperative liberal fluid therapy on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children-A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Vighnesh; Bala, Indu; Bharti, Neerja; Jain, Divya; Samujh, Ram

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of the most distressing complications following surgery. Supplemental perioperative fluid therapy might be an effective strategy to reduce PONV in children. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intraoperative liberal fluid therapy with crystalloids on PONV in children. In this randomized trial, a total of 150 children of 3-7 years undergoing lower abdominal and penile surgery under general anesthesia were randomly assigned into two groups. "Restricted group" received 10 mL kg(-1) h(-1) and "Liberal group" received 30 mL kg(-1) h(-1) infusion of Ringer's lactate solution intraoperatively. All patients received a caudal block and intravenous paracetamol for analgesia. No opioids and muscle relaxants were used. All episodes of nausea-vomiting and the requirement of rescue antiemetic were assessed during 24 hours postoperatively. The incidence of PONV was significantly less in the liberal group patients as compared to the restricted group; 33 (45.8%) patients in the restricted group had vomiting as compared to 20 (27.4%) patients in the liberal group (RR 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.93, P=.021). The adjusted odds ratio of PONV for the liberal group vs restricted group was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.12-4.48, P=.022). The incidence of fluid intake during the first 6 postoperative hours was significantly higher in the restricted group patients; 60 (83%) children in the restricted group complained of thirst as compared to 12 (17%) children in the liberal group (RR 0.19, 95% CI: 0.18-0.33, P=.0001). The parents of the liberal group were more satisfied as compared to the restricted group (mean difference -0.9, 95% CI: -1.8, -0.1, P=.04). None of the children had any complication attributed to the liberal fluid therapy. Liberal intraoperative fluid therapy was found to be effective in reducing PONV in children undergoing lower abdominal surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics in decompensated heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-liang; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ying-ying; Tang, Yi; Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping

    2013-08-13

    To explore whether ultrafiltration is superior to intravenous diuretics in ameliorating fluid overload and preserving renal functions in decompensated heart failure patients. By searching in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Springer, WanFang, CQVIP, CNKI and CBM database as well as related Chinese journals, qualified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included for meta-analysis by Revman 5.0 and STATA 10.0. Six RCTs were included with 241 patients in ultrafiltration group and 240 patients in intravenous diuretics group. Pooled analyses demonstrated ultrafiltration was superior to intravenous diuretics in the aspects of weight loss (WMD = 1.44 kg, 95%CI:0.33-2.55 kg, P = 0.01) and fluid removal (WMD = 1.23 kg, 95%CI:0.63-1.82 kg, P < 0.01) while no significant difference was observed in serum creatinine level (WMD = -5.70 µmol/L, 95%CI: -35.02-23.61 µmol/L, P = 0.70), serum creatinine change from baseline (WMD = 4.74 µmol/L, 95%CI:-13.72-23.20 µmol/L, P = 0.61), mortality (RR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.69-1.70, P = 0.72) or rehospitalization (RR = 0.92, 95%CI:0.53-1.61, P = 0.78). For decompensated heart failure patients, ultrafiltration is superior to intravenous diuretics in mitigating fluid overload. No intergroup difference was observed in renal function preservation, mortality or rehospitalization.

  16. Effects of intravenous solutions on acid-base equilibrium: from crystalloids to colloids and blood components.

    PubMed

    Langer, Thomas; Ferrari, Michele; Zazzeron, Luca; Gattinoni, Luciano; Caironi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous fluid administration is a medical intervention performed worldwide on a daily basis. Nevertheless, only a few physicians are aware of the characteristics of intravenous fluids and their possible effects on plasma acid-base equilibrium. According to Stewart's theory, pH is independently regulated by three variables: partial pressure of carbon dioxide, strong ion difference (SID), and total amount of weak acids (ATOT). When fluids are infused, plasma SID and ATOT tend toward the SID and ATOT of the administered fluid. Depending on their composition, fluids can therefore lower, increase, or leave pH unchanged. As a general rule, crystalloids having a SID greater than plasma bicarbonate concentration (HCO₃-) cause an increase in plasma pH (alkalosis), those having a SID lower than HCO₃- cause a decrease in plasma pH (acidosis), while crystalloids with a SID equal to HCO₃- leave pH unchanged, regardless of the extent of the dilution. Colloids and blood components are composed of a crystalloid solution as solvent, and the abovementioned rules partially hold true also for these fluids. The scenario is however complicated by the possible presence of weak anions (albumin, phosphates and gelatins) and their effect on plasma pH. The present manuscript summarises the characteristics of crystalloids, colloids, buffer solutions and blood components and reviews their effect on acid-base equilibrium. Understanding the composition of intravenous fluids, along with the application of simple physicochemical rules best described by Stewart's approach, are pivotal steps to fully elucidate and predict alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium induced by fluid therapy.

  17. Single dose intravenous paracetamol or intravenous propacetamol for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    McNicol, Ewan D; Ferguson, McKenzie C; Haroutounian, Simon; Carr, Daniel B; Schumann, Roman

    2016-05-23

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally, rectally, or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol, and IV propacetamol (a prodrug that is metabolized to paracetamol), compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for the treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We ran the search for the previous review in May 2010. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), EMBASE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), LILACS (2010 to 2016), a clinical trials registry, and reference lists of reviews for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language and we retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV paracetamol or IV propacetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently extracted data, which included demographic variables, type of surgery, interventions, efficacy, and adverse events. We contacted study authors for additional information. We graded each included study for methodological quality by assessing risk of bias and employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of the evidence. We included 75 studies (36 from the original review and 39 from our updated review) enrolling a total of 7200 participants.Among primary outcomes, 36% of participants receiving IV paracetamol/propacetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) = 5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.7 to 5.6, high quality evidence). The proportion of participants in IV

  18. Optical detection of intravenous infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, Leonard W.; Chou, Nee-Yin

    2006-02-01

    Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is the primary means for detecting intravenous (IV) infiltration. An optical sensor was developed to monitor the needle insertion site for signs of IV infiltration. Initial studies on simulated and induced infiltrations on a swine model validated the feasibility of the methodology. The presence of IV infiltration was confirmed by visual inspection of the infusion site and/or absence of blood return in the IV line. Potential sources of error due to illumination changes, motion artifacts, and edema were also investigated. A comparison of the performance of the optical device and blinded expert observers showed that the optical sensor has higher sensitivity and specificity, and shorter detection time than the expert observers. An improved model of the infiltration monitoring device was developed and evaluated in a clinical study on induced infiltrations of healthy adult volunteers. The performance of the device was compared with the observation of a blinded expert observer. The results show that the rates of detection of infiltrations are 98% and 82% for the optical sensor and the observer, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the optical sensor are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively.

  19. Disposition of intravenous radioactive acyclovir

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, P.; Good, S.S.; Laskin, O.L.; Krasny, H.C.; Connor, J.D.; Lietman, P.S.

    1981-11-01

    The kinetic and metabolic disposition of (8-14C)acyclovir (ACV) was investigated in five subjects with advanced malignancy. The drug was administered by 1-hr intravenous infusion at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg. Plasma and blood radioactivity-time, and plasma concentration-time data were defined by a two-compartment open kinetic model. There was nearly equivalent distribution of radioactivity in blood and plasma. The overall mean plasma half-life and total body clearance +/- SD of ACV were 2.1 +/- 0.5 hr and 297 +/- 53 ml/min/1.73 m2. Binding of ACV to plasma proteins was 15.4 +/- 4.4%. Most of the radioactive dose excreted was recovered in the urine (71% to 99%) with less than 2% excretion in the feces and only trace amounts in the expired Co2. Analyses by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography indicated that 9-(carboxymethoxymethyl)guanine was the only significant urinary metabolite of ACV, accounting for 8.5% to 14.1% of the dose. A minor metabolite (less than 0.2% of dose) had the retention time of 8-hydroxy-9-((2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl)guanine. Unchanged urinary ACV ranged from 62% to 91% of the dose. There was no indication of ACV cleavage to guanine. Renal clearance of ACV was approximately three times the corresponding creatinine clearances.

  20. Treatment of a mild chronic case of ciguatera fish poisoning with intravenous mannitol, a case study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article describes a recent case of ciguatera poisoning treated with intravenous mannitol. Mannitol has been used with good effect in non-controlled studies in acutely severely poisoned patients, but is not described in the treatment of chronic or milder poisoning. Our patient was a 35-year-old Niuean man who had eaten a ciguatoxic fish two weeks previously. His symptoms were not severe but were very unpleasant and restricted his ability to work. He was given a single dose of mannitol (0.66g/kg) as an intravenous infusion over two hours. His symptoms dramatically improved within 24 hours, and within a few days he felt virtually back to his former self. He experienced no side effects to the mannitol. It is suggested that intravenous mannitol may prove to be a useful treatment for mild to moderate ciguatera poisoning, and for patients who present late for treatment.

  1. Peristaltic pneumatic compression of the legs reduces fluid demand and improves hemodynamic stability during surgery: a randomized, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Nicholas; Theis, Judith; Putensen-Himmer, Gabriele; Hoeft, Andreas; Zenker, Sven

    2011-03-01

    Perioperative fluid restriction might be beneficial in specific clinical settings. In this prospective, randomized and blinded study, we assessed whether peristaltic pneumatic compression of the legs can support restrictive fluid management strategies by reducing intraoperative fluid demand and improving hemodynamic stability. Seventy patients scheduled for minor surgery were randomly assigned to receive either intraoperative peristaltic pneumatic compression or placebo compression. Both groups received fluid therapy according to a goal-directed protocol with a crystalloid base rate of 2 ml · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹ and bolus infusions of 250 ml crystalloids triggered by hypotension, tachycardia, or high Pleth Variability Index. Patients treated with peristaltic pneumatic compression received less intravenous fluid: median (interquartile range) 286 (499) versus 921 (900) ml (P < 0.001), resulting in a median difference of 693 ml (95% CI, 495-922 ml) and a median difference of 8.4 ml/kg (95% CI, 5.3-11.5 ml; P < 0.001). After the anesthesia induction phase, median overall infusion rates were 12.2 (14.1) ml · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹ in the control group and 1.9 (0.4) ml · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹ in the pneumatic peristaltic compression group (P < 0.001). Among patients treated with pneumatic peristaltic compression, the median cumulative time of hypotension was shorter (0 [12.5] vs. 22.6 [22.8] min; P = 0.002), fewer hypotensive events were recorded (39 vs. 137; P = 0.001), and median lowest individual systolic pressure was higher (92 [8] vs. 85 [16] mmHg; P = 0.002). This study demonstrates that peristaltic pneumatic compression of the legs significantly improves hemodynamic stability and reduces fluid demand during minor surgery.

  2. An Unexpected Transient Breakdown of the Blood Brain Barrier Triggers Passage of Large Intravenously Administered Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicole M.; Gachulincova, Ivana; Ho, Diwei; Bailey, Charlotte; Bartlett, Carole A.; Norret, Marck; Murphy, John; Buckley, Alysia; Rigby, Paul J.; House, Michael J.; St. Pierre, Timothy; Fitzgerald, Melinda; Iyer, K. Swaminathan; Dunlop, Sarah A.

    2016-03-01

    The highly restrictive blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a critically important role in maintaining brain homeostasis and is pivotal for proper neuronal function. The BBB is currently considered the main limiting factor restricting the passage of large (up to 200 nm) intravenously administered nanoparticles to the brain. Breakdown of the barrier occurs as a consequence of cerebrovascular diseases and traumatic brain injury. In this article, we report that remote injuries in the CNS are also associated with BBB dysfunction. In particular, we show that a focal partial transection of the optic nerve triggers a previously unknown transient opening of the mammalian BBB that occurs in the visual centres. Importantly, we demonstrate that this transient BBB breakdown results in a dramatic change in the biodistribution of intravenously administered large polymeric nanoparticles which were previously deemed as BBB-impermeable.

  3. Intravenous drug delivery in neonates: lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, Catherine M T; Medlicott, Natalie J; Reith, David M; Broadbent, Roland S

    2014-06-01

    Intravenous drug administration presents a series of challenges that relate to the pathophysiology of the neonate and intravenous infusion systems in neonates. These challenges arise from slow intravenous flow rates, small drug volume, dead space volume and limitations on the flush volume in neonates. While there is a reasonable understanding of newborn pharmacokinetics, an appreciation of the substantial delay and variability in the rate of drug delivery from the intravenous line is often lacking. This can lead to difficulties in accurately determining the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationship of drugs in the smallest patients. The physical variables that affect the passage of drugs through neonatal lines need to be further explored in order to improve our understanding of their impact on the delivery of drugs by this route in neonates. Through careful investigation, the underlying causes of delayed drug delivery may be identified and administration protocols can then be modified to ensure predictable, appropriate drug input kinetics.

  4. Rational use of intravenous fat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Pelham, L D

    1981-02-01

    The composition, effect on blood components, relative value compared with intravenous dextrose, clinical applications as a caloric and fatty acid source, adverse reactions, limitations, and administration of intravenous fat emulsions are reviewed. Fat emulsions provide essential fatty acids and calories and are primarily used to supplement of parenteral nutrition regimens. Their use as a major source of calories remains limited because of cost. However, the trend toward aligning intravenous nutrition to that of the normal diet and the increased demand for peripherally administered parenteral nutrition have increased demand for use. The advantages and disadvantages presented may be used by clinicians to assist in establishing the role of intravenous fat therapy in nutritional support services.

  5. Reorganization for intravenous procedures in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, N B

    1975-08-01

    The importance of reorganization for intravenous dental procedures, involving not only premises and equipment but also the dentist and his staff, is emphasised. These matters are discussed in detail with special emphasis on certain essential factors and psychologic aspects.

  6. Fluid Physics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-12

    These are video microscope images of magnetorheological (MR) fluids, illuminated with a green light. Those on Earth, left, show the MR fluid forming columns or spikes structures. On the right, the fluids in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS), formed broader columns.

  7. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  8. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  9. Pediatric trauma resuscitation: initial fluid management.

    PubMed

    Schweer, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Fluid management is a vital component in the resuscitative care of the injured child. The goal of fluid resuscitation is to restore tissue perfusion without compromising the body's natural compensatory mechanism. Recent literature has questioned the timing, type, and amount of fluid administration during the resuscitative phase. When managing a pediatric resuscitation, it is imperative to use a variety of age-appropriate physiologic parameters because reliance on blood pressure alone will lead to delayed recognition of shock. Establishing vascular access, via peripheral intravenous, central venous, or intraosseous catheter, should be a high nursing priority. Hemorrhage control and fluid resuscitation of an injured child remains a top priority of trauma care. Early intravenous access with appropriate fluid administration continues to be a universal treatment for the hypotensive trauma patient. Fluid resuscitation in the early phase of care, whether in the field, emergency department, or operating room, should be targeted toward perfusing critical organs, such as the brain and heart. Once obvious bleeding is controlled, the overall goal for fluid management centers on maintaining oxygen delivery to perfuse vital structures with enough oxygen and energy substrates to maintain cellular function, thus avoiding tissue ischemia. However, specific issues around timing and type of fluid administration, once thought to be straightforward, have triggered increasing investigation of current beliefs.

  10. Intravenous iron-containing products: EMA procrastination.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A European reassessment has led to identical changes in the summaries of product characteristics (SPCs) for all intravenous iron-containing products: the risk of serious adverse effects is now highlighted, underlining the fact that intravenous iron-containing products should only be used when the benefits clearly outweigh the harms. Unfortunately, iron dextran still remains on the market despite a higher risk of hypersensitivity reactions than with iron sucrose.

  11. Partial intravenous anesthesia in cats and dogs

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The partial intravenous anesthesia technique (PIVA) is used to lower the inspired concentration of an inhalational anesthetic by concurrent use of injectable drugs. This technique reduces the incidence of undesirable side-effects and provides superior quality of anesthesia and analgesia. Drugs commonly used for PIVA include opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, injectable anesthetic agents, and lidocaine. Most are administered by intravenous infusion. PMID:23997266

  12. The penetration of ceftazidime into extravascular fluid.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D M; Mason, U; Harding, S M

    1981-09-01

    Ceftazidime achieved high concentrations in extravascular fluid following intravenal or intramuscular administration to healthy male volunteers. Subcutaneous fluid was sampled using the implanted cotton thread technique. The concentration/time curves of ceftazidime in subcutaneous fluid, after a short distributive phase, were similar in profile to concurrent serum concentrations. The degree of penetration as determined by ratio of the area under curve for subcutaneous fluid levels to the area under curve for the serum levels was 54%. There is evidence from experiments in animals that antibiotic concentration/time profiles in the subcutaneous compartment reflect levels found in rapidly equilibriating tissue fluids or well perfused tissues. It is therefore concluded that ceftazidime will achieve therapeutically useful levels in a wide range of tissues and tissue fluids in man in exess of the MIC90 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and members of the Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.; Anderson, R.; Garino, T.; Halsey, T.C.; Hance, B.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1996-10-01

    An Electrorheological fluid is normally a low-viscosity colloidal suspension, but when an electric field is applied, the fluid undergoes a reversible transition to a solid, being able to support considerable stress without yield. Commercial possibilities for such fluids are enormous, including clutches, brakes, valves,shock absorbers, and stepper motors. However, performance of current fluids is inadequate for many proposed applications. Our goal was to engineer improved fluids by investigating the key technical issues underlying the solid-phase yield stress and the liquid to solid switching time. Our studies focused on field-induced interactions between colloidal particles that lead to solidification, the relation between fluid structure and performance (viscosity, yield stress), and the time evolution of structure in the fluid as the field is switched on or off.

  14. Nanostructured lipid carriers of artemether-lumefantrine combination for intravenous therapy of cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Priyanka; Suryavanshi, Shital; Pathak, Sulabha; Patra, Aditya; Sharma, Shobhona; Patravale, Vandana

    2016-11-20

    Patients with cerebral malaria (CM) are unable to take oral medication due to impaired consciousness and vomiting thus necessitating parenteral therapy. Quinine, artemether, and artesunate which are currently used for parenteral malaria therapy have their own drawbacks. The World Health Organization (WHO) has now banned monotherapy and recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria treatment. However, presently there is no intravenous formulation available for combination therapy of malaria. Artemether-Lumefantrine (ARM-LFN) is a WHO approved combination for oral malaria therapy. However, the low aqueous solubility of ARM and LFN hinders their intravenous delivery. The objective of this study was to formulate ARM-LFN nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for intravenous therapy of CM. ARM-LFN NLC were prepared by microemulsion template technique and characterized for size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, drug release, crystallinity, morphology, amenability to autoclaving, compatibility with infusion fluids, stability, antimalarial efficacy in mice, and toxicity in rats. The ARM-LFN NLC showed sustained drug release, amenability to autoclaving, compatibility with infusion fluids, good stability, complete parasite clearance and reversal of CM symptoms with 100% survival in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice, and safety in rats. The biocompatible ARM-LFN NLC fabricated by an industrially feasible technique offer a promising solution for intravenous therapy of CM.

  15. Fluid therapy for the emergent small animal patient: crystalloids, colloids, and albumin products.

    PubMed

    Mazzaferro, Elisa; Powell, Lisa L

    2013-07-01

    Fluid therapy is essential in the treatment of emergent veterinary patients. Many different types of intravenous fluids are available, including crystalloids, artificial colloids, and natural colloids. The type, dose, and administration rate can determine the outcome in a critically ill patient. This article discusses the various types of fluids and their indication for use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluid infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Development of a fluid infusion system was undertaken in response to a need for an intravenous infusion device operable under conditions of zero-g. The initial design approach, pursued in the construction of the first breadboard instrument, was to regulate the pressure of the motive gas to produce a similar regulated pressure in the infusion liquid. This scheme was not workable because of the varying bag contact area, and a major design iteration was made. A floating sensor plate in the center of the bag pressure plate was made to operate a pressure regulator built into the bellows assembly, effectively making liquid pressure the directly controlled variable. Other design changes were made as experience was gained with the breadboard. Extensive performance tests were conducted on both the breadboard and the prototype device; accurately regulated flows from 6 m1/min to 100 m1/min were achieved. All system functions were shown to operate satisfactorily.

  17. [A case of primary erythromelalgia successfully treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Azusa; Ishigaki, Seiichirou; Murakami, Hidetomo; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2014-02-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by constant or paroxysmal burning pain, erythema, and the elevation of skin temperature in the extremities. Recently, the impairment of C-fiber function due to autoimmune system involvement is considered as the primary cause of erythromelalgia. However, a successful treatment has yet not been established. We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with primary erythromelalgia accompanied by high cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration and axonal neuropathy. She received various antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, but failed to improve. She finally underwent high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, which dramatically improved her symptoms and normalized cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration. This result demonstrates the effectiveness of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for the treatment of primary erythromelalgia and the possibility of autoimmune system involvement.

  18. Intravenous versus inhalation anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Módolo, Norma S P; Módolo, Marília P; Marton, Marcos A; Volpato, Enilze; Monteiro Arantes, Vinícius; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; El Dib, Regina P

    2013-07-11

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2008.The technique called one-lung ventilation can confine bleeding or infection to one lung, prevent rupture of a lung cyst or, more commonly, facilitate surgical exposure of the unventilated lung. During one-lung ventilation, anaesthesia is maintained either by delivering an inhalation anaesthetic to the ventilated lung or by infusing an intravenous anaesthetic. It is possible that the method chosen to maintain anaesthesia may affect patient outcomes. Inhalation anaesthetics may impair hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and increase intrapulmonary shunt and hypoxaemia. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intravenous versus inhalation anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 11); MEDLINE (1966 to November 2012); EMBASE (1980 to November 2012); Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS, 1982 to November 2012) and ISI web of Science (1945 to November 2012), reference lists of identified trials and bibliographies of published reviews. We also contacted researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. The date of the most recent search was 19 November 2012. The original search was performed in June 2006. We included randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials of intravenous (e.g. propofol) versus inhalation (e.g. isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane) anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation in both surgical and intensive care participants. We excluded studies of participants who had only one lung (i.e. pneumonectomy or congenital absence of one lung). Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We included in this updated review 20 studies that enrolled 850 participants, all of which

  19. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  20. Algorithms for intravenous insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Susan S; Clement, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    This review aims to classify algorithms for intravenous insulin infusion according to design. Essential input data include the current blood glucose (BG(current)), the previous blood glucose (BG(previous)), the test time of BG(current) (test time(current)), the test time of BG(previous) (test time(previous)), and the previous insulin infusion rate (IR(previous)). Output data consist of the next insulin infusion rate (IR(next)) and next test time. The classification differentiates between "IR" and "MR" algorithm types, both defined as a rule for assigning an insulin infusion rate (IR), having a glycemic target. Both types are capable of assigning the IR for the next iteration of the algorithm (IR(next)) as an increasing function of BG(current), IR(previous), and rate-of-change of BG with respect to time, each treated as an independent variable. Algorithms of the IR type directly seek to define IR(next) as an incremental adjustment to IR(previous). At test time(current), under an IR algorithm the differences in values of IR(next) that might be assigned depending upon the value of BG(current) are not necessarily continuously dependent upon, proportionate to, or commensurate with either the IR(previous) or the rate-of-change of BG. Algorithms of the MR type create a family of IR functions of BG differing according to maintenance rate (MR), each being an iso-MR curve. The change of IR(next) with respect to BG(current) is a strictly increasing function of MR. At test time(current), algorithms of the MR type use IR(previous) and the rate-of-change of BG to define the MR, multiplier, or column assignment, which will be used for patient assignment to the right iso-MR curve and as precedent for IR(next). Bolus insulin therapy is especially effective when used in proportion to carbohydrate load to cover anticipated incremental transitory enteral or parenteral carbohydrate exposure. Specific distinguishing algorithm design features and choice of parameters may be important to

  1. Slow continuous intravenous plasmapheresis (SCIP): clinical applications and hemostability of extracorporeal ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Handley, Harold H; Gorsuch, Rey; Peters, Harold; Cooper, Thomas G; Bien, Richard H; Levin, Nathan W; Ronco, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    An intravenous plasmapheresis catheter which excludes >99.4% of platelets from external ultrafiltration circuits is currently undergoing safety and efficacy trials for fluid removal from NYHA class II-IV congestive heart failure patients resistant to diuretic drug therapy. In animals, the SCIP catheter allowed a four fold increase in ultrafiltration efficiency without hemolysis, hemoinstability or external cartridge changes in 72 hours of treatment. Further, systemic anticoagulation was not required. These techniques might be envisioned for treatment of fluid overload in heart failure, surgery or trauma and may have applications in therapeutic apheresis, venous thrombosis, liver disease or autologous tissue engineering.

  2. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride in the horse: serum, synovial, peritoneal and urine concentrations after single dose intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Brown, M P; Stover, S M; Kelly, R H; Farver, T B; Knight, H D

    1981-03-01

    Six adult mares were given a single intravenous injection of oxytetracycline HCl (50 mg/ml) at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Serum, synovial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and urine oxytetracycline concentrations were measured serially over a 48-h period. The highest measured serum oxytetracycline concentration was 8.01 mcg/ml at 1/2 h. Oxytetracycline was detected in synovial fluid and peritoneal fluid, which obtained mean peak oxytetracycline concentrations of 4.43 mcg/ml and 4.20 mcg/ml, at 1/2 h and 1 h, respectively. These concentrations steadily declined in parallel with serum concentrations and were not measurable at 48 h. Urine oxytetracycline concentration was relatively high, with a peak concentration of 1565.2 mcg/ml at 1/2 h after drug administration.

  3. Promotion of gallbladder emptying by intravenous aminoacids.

    PubMed

    Zoli, G; Ballinger, A; Healy, J; O'Donnell, L J; Clark, M; Farthing, M J

    1993-05-15

    Patients receiving total intravenous nutrition have inert gallbladders; gallbladder sludge and gallstones often develop, but are preventable if gallbladder emptying can be improved. We measured the effect of giving rapid intravenous infusions of aminoacid solutions in eight normal subjects. Four regimens were tested (250 mL over 30 min, 250 mL over 10 min, 125 mL over 5 min, and 50 mL over 5 min). Gallbladder emptying, as measured by ultrasound and cholecystokinin release, depended on both the amount and the rate of aminoacid infusion. Rapid infusion of 125 mL of an aminoacid mixture (Synthamin 14 without electrolytes) over 5 min (2.1 g per min) produced a 64% reduction in gallbladder volume within 30 min, whereas a 50 mL infusion over 5 min produced only a 22% reduction. Intermittent rapid infusion of small amounts of aminoacids may prevent gallstones in patients receiving intravenous nutrition.

  4. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for antibody deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, M T; Pirofsky, B; Gerritz, G A; Golding, B

    1979-01-01

    Twenty patients with antibody deficiency were treated at random with either intramuscular immune serum globulin (ISG) or intravenous modified immune serum globulin (M-ISG). Fourteen patients received of 259 M-ISG infusions during 242 months of treatment. Catastrophic vasomotor reactions were not observed. A single dose of 150 mg/kilo M-ISG increased serum IgG values a mean 248 mg%. Intravenous M-ISG therapy was effective in reducing the incidence of acute infections. Subjects receiving M-ISG developed 0.103 acute infections per month of treatment. Patients injected with ISG had 0.295 acute infections per month of treatment. Seven subjects had separate courses of both intravenous M-ISG and intramuscular ISG. Acute infections per month of treatment for M-ISG and ISG were 0.104 and 0.406, respectively. PMID:477026

  5. Mercury excretion and intravenous ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Dirks, M J; Davis, D R; Cheraskin, E; Jackson, J A

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intravenous ascorbic acid increases urinary excretion of mercury in subjects with low mercury levels from dental amalgam, food, and other sources. From 89 adult volunteers we selected 28 subjects with the highest mercury excretions (2 to 14 micrograms/24 h). We administered intravenous infusions of 500 ml lactated Ringer's solution with and without addition of 750 mg of ascorbic acid/kg body weight, up to 60 g ascorbic acid. Average mercury excretion during the 24 h after infusion of ascorbic acid was 4.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms (mean +/- SEM), which was not significantly more than after infusion of Ringer's solution alone (3.7 +/- 0.5 micrograms). Lead excretion was similarly unaffected. If ascorbic acid administered intravenously benefits some persons with suspected adverse reactions to mercury, the benefit in subjects similar to ours appears unrelated to short-term enhanced excretion of mercury or lead.

  6. Rotating restricted Schur polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornman, Nicholas; de Mello Koch, Robert; Tribelhorn, Laila

    2017-09-01

    Large N but nonplanar limits of 𝒩 = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory can be described using restricted Schur polynomials. Previous investigations demonstrate that the action of the one loop dilatation operator on restricted Schur operators, with classical dimension of order N and belonging to the su(2) sector, is largely determined by the su(2) ℛ symmetry algebra as well as structural features of perturbative field theory. Studies presented so far have used the form of ℛ symmetry generators when acting on small perturbations of half-BPS operators. In this paper as a first step towards going beyond small perturbations of the half-BPS operators, we explain how the exact action of symmetry generators on restricted Schur polynomials can be determined.

  7. A pocket calculator program for intravenous requirements.

    PubMed

    Rich, A J; Wright, P D

    1980-05-01

    A program to calculate the 24-h intravenous requirements of water, nitrogen, energy and six electrolytes on a card-programmable pocket calculator is described. Comparison of calculator-generated requirements with intravenous feeding regimens prescribed by junior clinicians for 8 ill patients suggests that the clinicians provide too much water and too little nitrogen and energy. Certain program modifications are necessary to widen the useful clinical application of the calculator, but in general it is a useful bedside tool capable of further application to suitable medical tasks.

  8. Pulmonary edema induced by intravenous ethchlorvynol.

    PubMed

    Conces, D J; Kreipke, D L; Tarver, R D

    1986-11-01

    The intravenous injection of ethchlorvynol is an uncommon cause of noncardiac pulmonary edema. Two cases of intravenous ethchlorvynol-induced pulmonary edema are presented. The patients fell asleep after injecting the liquid contents of Placydil capsules (ethchlorvynol) and awoke several hours later with severe dyspnea. Arterial blood gases demonstrated marked hypoxia. Chest radiographs revealed bilateral diffuse alveolar densities. The patients' symptoms and radiographic findings resolved after several days of supportive care. Changes in the lung caused by ethchlorvynol may be the result of direct effect of the drug on the lung.

  9. Comparison study of intraosseous, central intravenous, and peripheral intravenous infusions of emergency drugs.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, J P; Porembka, D T; Gallagher, J M; Lockrem, J D; VanLente, F

    1990-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion of emergency drugs is a lifesaving alternative to intravenous administration when intravenous access cannot be rapidly established. We studied the comparative pharmacokinetics of the following six emergency drugs and solutions: epinephrine hydrochloride, 0.01 mg/kg; sodium bicarbonate, 1 mEq/kg; calcium chloride, 10 mg/kg; hydroxyethyl starch, 10 mL/kg; 50% dextrose in water, 250 mg/kg; and lidocaine hydrochloride, 1 mg/kg. Studies were conducted in normotensive, anesthetized dogs, with three animals studied with each of the drugs or solutions and each animal being treated with all three routes of administration (central intravenous, peripheral intravenous, and intraosseous) in randomized sequence. The effects of epinephrine were also assessed in a shock model. The intraosseous route of administration was comparable with the central and peripheral intravenous routes for all of the emergency drugs and solutions studied, with equivalent magnitudes of peak effect or drug level and equal or longer durations of action. Time to placement of the intraosseous needle varied from 15 seconds to 5 minutes, with a mean of 60 seconds. Time to placement of the needle varies with the skill and experience of the individual. With experience, all individuals could place the intraosseous needle in 60 seconds or less. The intraosseous route is comparable in effect to the central and peripheral intravenous routes of drug administration for epinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, hydroxyethyl starch, calcium chloride, 50% dextrose in water, and lidocaine and is a clinically feasible alternative when intravenous access will be critically delayed.

  10. Cefoxitin sodium compatibility with intravenous infusions and additives.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, M J; Portnoff, J B; Cohen, E M

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of cefoxitin sodium in solution with a series of frequently used intravenous infusion fluids and injectable additives were studied. Cefoxitin sodium's stability in various solutions was measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, iodometry, thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and microbiological assay. Cefoxitin sodium was shown to maintain 90% of its initial concentration in aqueous solution for 40 hours at room temperature (25 C) and about 30 days at 5 C. The stability of cefoxitin sodium in common i.v. infusion fluids was independent of the concentrations (1 mg/ml to 400 mg/ml) and containers used, and was retained after 30 weeks storage at -20 C. Similar stability patterns were demonstrated for cefoxitin sodium in protein hydrolysate solutions and multivitamin formulations. Cefoxitin sodium was chemically and visually compatible with amikacin sulfate, gentamicin sulfate, kanamycin sulfate and tobramycin sulfate when admixed with normal saline or 5% dextrose in water injections. Cefoxitin sodium (397 mg/ml) in 0.5% lidocaine hydrochloride was stable after 26 weeks of storage at -20 C. Sodium cefoxitin is compatible with a wide variety of commonly used infusion solutions. Its stability is independent of concentration or pH within the ranges studied, and of types of common containers.

  11. Calorie restriction and stroke

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR) or intermittent fasting (IF), extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78); antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke. PMID:21910904

  12. Restricting Grammatical Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Theories of natural language syntax often characterize grammatical knowledge as a form of abstract computation. This paper argues that such a characterization is correct, and that fundamental properties of grammar can and should be understood in terms of restrictions on the complexity of possible grammatical computation, when defined in terms of…

  13. Intravenous nursing services: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K

    1996-01-01

    The intent of this article is to provide intravenous nurses with options for marketing and promoting their IV teams in institutions to enhance viability of the team concept and promote quality nursing care for the consumer. The article supplies options for a business plan to present to administration to promote the team concept both in the hospital and in alternate site settings.

  14. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Dredge, David C; Parsons, Elizabeth C; Carter, Lindsay P; Staley, Kevin J

    2010-07-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is a severe, potentially life-threatening, reaction to the aromatic anticonvulsant medications. Reported here is a case of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome secondary to phenobarbital in a 2-year-old boy; he responded to drug withdrawal, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin. The literature regarding treatment of this syndrome is reviewed.

  15. Peripherally inserted central catheters. Intravenous Nurses Society.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Intravenous Nurses Society (INS) recognizes the need for uniform terminology for peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) to encourage standardization for indications, care, and maintenance strategies for these devices. It also recognizes the need for recommendations regarding the choice, use, management, and discontinuation of PICCs to promote positive patient outcomes and enhance patient comfort, safety, and satisfaction.

  16. Health Instruction Packages: Venipuncture and Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, P. Allen, Jr.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nursing students in techniques for initiating intravenous (I.V.) therapy. The first module, "Selection of a Venipuncture Site: Arm" by P. Allen Gray, Jr., describes the utilization of a tourniquet in locating filled veins in the arm. The second…

  17. Epileptic fits under intravenous midazolam sedation.

    PubMed

    Robb, N D

    1996-09-07

    A case is presented of a patient who suffered from recurrent epileptic fits while being treated under intravenous sedation with midazolam. Those using sedation are advised to beware of the patient who gives a history of fits being provoked in the dental environment.

  18. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  19. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Shibani S; Lam, Alice D; Wilson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins.

  20. Health Instruction Packages: Venipuncture and Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, P. Allen, Jr.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nursing students in techniques for initiating intravenous (I.V.) therapy. The first module, "Selection of a Venipuncture Site: Arm" by P. Allen Gray, Jr., describes the utilization of a tourniquet in locating filled veins in the arm. The second…

  1. Oral triazolam pretreatment for intravenous sedation.

    PubMed Central

    Stopperich, P. S.; Moore, P. A.; Finder, R. L.; McGirl, B. E.; Weyant, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    This double-blind, controlled clinical trial assessed the anxiety relief provided by oral triazolam given before intravenous sedation. Twenty-two healthy adults undergoing third-molar surgery with intravenous sedation were enrolled in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 0.25 mg of triazolam p.o. or an identically appearing placebo 45 to 60 min before venipuncture. Immediately before test drug administration, subjects completed the Corah Anxiety Scale, a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) assessing state anxiety, and the Interval Scale of Anxiety Response (ISAR). The VAS and ISAR were repeated immediately before venipuncture. Intravenous sedation medications consisted of fentanyl, midazolam, and methohexital. At 24 hr, assessments of the venipuncture and global experience were obtained. Results indicated that the characteristics of the triazolam and placebo patients were similar at baseline. With triazolam pretreatment, both the VAS and ISAR scores decreased significantly. Dose requirements for conscious sedation medications were decreased in the triazolam group. Patients rated the venipuncture experience significantly less unpleasant when pretreated with triazolam, and global ratings of the overall surgical experience favored triazolam. An oral-intravenous combination sedation technique using 0.25 mg of triazolam may have a significant therapeutic advantage for outpatient oral surgery. PMID:7943920

  2. Homicide by intravenous injection of naphtha.

    PubMed

    Case, M E; Poklis, A; Mackell, M A

    1985-01-01

    A case of homicide by the intravenous injection of Energine, a petroleum distillate spot remover, is presented. This case is the only known homicide committed with naphtha. This elderly man had severe natural disease in addition to chest trauma sustained in the assault leading to death; however, the rapid injection of approximately 25 mL of Energine was the overwhelming cause of death.

  3. Numerical simulations of complex fluid-fluid interface dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, T.; Frijters, S.; Günther, F.; Kaoui, B.; Harting, J.

    2013-05-01

    Interfaces between two fluids are ubiquitous and of special importance for industrial applications, e.g., stabilisation of emulsions. The dynamics of fluid-fluid interfaces is difficult to study because these interfaces are usually deformable and their shapes are not known a priori. Since experiments do not provide access to all observables of interest, computer simulations pose attractive alternatives to gain insight into the physics of interfaces. In the present article, we restrict ourselves to systems with dimensions comparable to the lateral interface extensions. We provide a critical discussion of three numerical schemes coupled to the lattice Boltzmann method as a solver for the hydrodynamics of the problem: (a) the immersed boundary method for the simulation of vesicles and capsules, the Shan-Chen pseudopotential approach for multi-component fluids in combination with (b) an additional advection-diffusion component for surfactant modelling and (c) a molecular dynamics algorithm for the simulation of nanoparticles acting as emulsifiers.

  4. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  5. Wellbore fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, D.L.; Corley, W.T.

    1983-12-27

    A clay-based or clay-free aqueous thixotropic wellbore fluid having improved fluid loss control, desirable flow characteristics and low shale sensitivity for use in drilling a well comprising water or a brine base including an effective amount of an additive comprising a crosslinked potato starch, a heteropolysaccharide derived from a carbohydrate by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas, and hydroxyethylcellulose or carboxymethylcellulose, is disclosed. This drilling fluid has been found to be nondamaging to the formations through which the well is drilled.

  6. Fluid inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Firouzjahi, H.; Namjoo, M.H.; Sasaki, M. E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2013-09-01

    In this work we present an inflationary mechanism based on fluid dynamics. Starting with the action for a single barotropic perfect fluid, we outline the procedure to calculate the power spectrum and the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. It is shown that a perfect barotropic fluid naturally gives rise to a non-attractor inflationary universe in which the curvature perturbation is not frozen on super-horizon scales. We show that a scale-invariant power spectrum can be obtained with the local non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} = 5/2.

  7. Glass Microfluidics for Quantum Fluids in Restricted Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. P.; Rojas, X.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past few years we have developed a suite of measurements based on precisely defined glass microfluidic structures. Such measurements include sound velocity and attenuation in an acoustic analog of a Fabry-Perot cavity and now a superfluid 4He nanomechanical Helmholtz resonator. The latter is capable of precisely determining the superfluid density, which will be useful of exploration of Majorana fermions at the surface of 3He-B, as well as studies of quantum nanomechanical resonators. I will describe our devices and measurements, as well as possible future measurements including studies of quantum turbulence and low-temperature optomechanics. This work was supported by the University of Alberta, Faculty of Science; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Canada; the Canada Foundation for Innovation; Alberta Innovates Technology Futures; and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  8. Workover fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, F. J.

    1985-12-17

    The high temperature water loss property of alkaline well completion and well workover fluids is improved by the addition of an effective amount of a naphthalene sulfonate formaldehyde condensate in the form of its monovalent or bivalent metal salts.

  9. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  10. Osmotic pressure beyond concentration restrictions.

    PubMed

    Grattoni, Alessandro; Merlo, Manuele; Ferrari, Mauro

    2007-10-11

    Osmosis is a fundamental physical process that involves the transit of solvent molecules across a membrane separating two liquid solutions. Osmosis plays a role in many biological processes such as fluid exchange in animal cells (Cell Biochem. Biophys. 2005, 42, 277-345;1 J. Periodontol. 2007, 78, 757-7632) and water transport in plants. It is also involved in many technological applications such as drug delivery systems (Crit. Rev. Ther. Drug. 2004, 21, 477-520;3 J. Micro-Electromech. Syst. 2004, 13, 75-824) and water purification. Extensive attention has been dedicated in the past to the modeling of osmosis, starting with the classical theories of van't Hoff and Morse. These are predictive, in the sense that they do not involve adjustable parameters; however, they are directly applicable only to limited regimes of dilute solute concentrations. Extensions beyond the domains of validity of these classical theories have required recourse to fitting parameters, transitioning therefore to semiempirical, or nonpredictive models. A novel approach was presented by Granik et al., which is not a priori restricted in concentration domains, presents no adjustable parameters, and is mechanistic, in the sense that it is based on a coupled diffusion model. In this work, we examine the validity of predictive theories of osmosis, by comparison with our new experimental results, and a meta-analysis of literature data.

  11. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on pain in patients with post-polio syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werhagen, Lars; Borg, Kristian

    2011-11-01

    Pain is a common symptom that affects quality of life in patients with post-polio syndrome. An increase in cytokine in the cerebrospinal fluid suggests that inflammation is pathophysiologically important in post-polio syndrome. Intravenous immunoglobulin might therefore be a therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of intravenous immunoglobulin treatment on pain in post-polio syndrome. An uncontrolled clinical study. Patients with post-polio syndrome and pain (n = 45) underwent a neurological examination and were interviewed about pain before and 6 months after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Pain intensity was measured on a visual analogue scale. The pain was classified according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria as neuropathic when it occurred in an area with decreased sensibility, or nociceptive when signs of inflammation and/or painful joints movements were present. After treatment 31/45 (69%) patients were improved, with a mean visual analogue scale decrease from 53 to 42 (p = 0.001). Eighteen patients (40%) had a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale. The effect of treatment did not differ regarding age, gender and severity of disability. Two-thirds of 45 patients with post-polio syndrome and pain reported a decrease on the visual analogue scale for pain after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, and 40% reported a decrease of 20 or more points on the visual analogue scale.

  12. Successful treatment of permethrin toxicosis in two cats with an intravenous lipid administration.

    PubMed

    Brückner, M; Schwedes, C S

    2012-04-24

    The present work describes successful treatment of permethrin toxicosis in two cats with a novel therapy of intravenous lipid administration. Two cats presented in lateral recumbency and with generalized tremor after they had been incidentally treated with permethrin for flea control by their owners. Initial therapy consisted of diazepam, propofol, bathing, and intravenous fluids. After an initial bolus of 2mg/kg BW pentobarbital a pentobarbital continuous rate infusion (CRI) was started. Both cats received an emulsion of 20% soybean oil and 80% olive oil, commonly used as fat component of total parenteral nutrition in humans, later in the course of therapy. A bolus of 2 ml/kg BW of the emulsion followed by a CRI of 4 ml/kg BW/h for 4 hours was administered via a jugular catheter as reported previously. One cat received two cycles of therapy with intravenous lipid whereas the other cat needed just one application. Both cats recovered completely without requiring any further treatment. In conclusion, administration of intravenous lipids for permethrin toxicosis in cats is a novel treatment approach which seems to be highly effective in shortening the recovery time for permethrin toxicosis and possibly other fat-soluble toxins.

  13. Nosocomial pediatric bacteremia: the role of intravenous set contamination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Macías, Alejandro E; Muñoz, Juan M; Herrera, Laura E; Medina, Humberto; Hernández, Isabel; Alcántar, Dolores; Ponce de León, Samuel

    2004-03-01

    To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of intravenous administration sets at their rubber injection ports and matching infusates. Cultures of injection ports and infusate during 26 visits to 4 hospitals. Four public general pediatric hospitals in Mexico City with substandard care practices. Hospitalized pediatric patients receiving intravenous solutions. Overall, 176 of 251 injection ports were contaminated (70.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 64.5% to 75.8%), 35 (13.9%; CI95, 9.7% to 18.2%) with gram-negative rods, primarily of the tribe Klebsielleae. Cultures of infusates were positive in 17 cases (6.8%, CI95, 3.7% to 9.9%), 5 of which grew gram-negative rods (2%; CI95, 0.6% to 4.6%). In 3 cases (1.2%), the same species with gram-negative rods was found in the infusates and on the injection ports. During one visit, 8 clustered cases of injection port contamination with a clonal Enterobacter cloacae were found; this agent was also found in the blood culture, intravenous fluid, and parenteral nutrition of one patient. Inadequate chlorination of tap water, a potential risk factor, was recorded during 22 visits (84.6%). These data suggest that external contamination of the intravenous administration set could play a role in infusate contamination.

  14. Activity of outpatient intravenous interleukin-2 and famotidine in metastatic clear cell kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Quan, Francine Marie

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient daily intravenous infusions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been developed to maintain anticancer activity and decrease toxicity of this agent against kidney cancer. Lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) numbers are increased with these IL-2 schedules. Famotidine may enhance the LAK activity by increasing IL-2 internalization by the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. Fifteen patients with metastatic clear cell kidney cancer received IL-2 18 million IU/M² intravenously over 15-30 minutes preceded by famotidine 20 mg IV daily for 3 days for 6 consecutive weeks as outpatients. Cycles were repeated every 8 weeks. Patient characteristics were seven males/eight females, median age 59 (range: 28-70), median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status-1; common metastatic sites were lungs (14), lymph nodes (9), liver (4), bone (4), and pancreas (4). Prior systemic therapies were oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (8), IL-2 (6), and mTor inhibitor (2). Most common toxicities were rigors, arthralgia/myalgia, nausea/emesis, fever, and hypotension. All episodes of hypotension were reversible with intravenous fluid. No patients required hospitalization due to toxicity. One complete response (7%) and four partial responses (26%) were seen (total response rate=33%; 95% confidence interval: 15%-59%). Responses occurred in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and bone. Outpatient intravenous IL-2 with famotidine has activity in metastatic clear cell kidney cancer.

  15. Cerebral regulation of renal sodium excretion in sheep infused intravenously with hypertonic NaCl.

    PubMed Central

    Chodobski, A; McKinley, M J

    1989-01-01

    1. The natriuretic response to intravenous infusion of 2 M-NaCl was investigated in six conscious sheep. This hypertonic NaCl load resulted in relatively small, physiological (2-3 mmol l-1) increases in plasma Na+ concentration and was followed by a natriuresis with a maximum mean urinary sodium excretion 5 times higher than pre-infusion values. 2. Intravenous infusion of isotonic NaCl, delivering the same Na+ load as hypertonic NaCl infusion, did not induce natriuresis. This suggested, therefore, that with the hypertonic sodium load administered in the present study, the rise in plasma Na+ and/or tonicity rather than increase in blood volume is important in evoking the natriuretic response. 3. Intracerebroventricular infusion of low-Na+ artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reduced CSF Na+ concentration, decreased plasma vasopressin (AVP) levels and caused a copious water diuresis. This was associated with excessive loss of water and large increases in plasma Na+ concentration and osmolality. 4. The natriuresis induced by intravenous hypertonic NaCl load could be blocked by lowering CSF Na+ concentration in situations where water diuresis was either prevented or reduced by intravenous infusion of AVP or by delayed intracerebroventricular infusion of low-Na+ CSF, respectively. 5. The results of the present study provide further evidence that renal sodium excretion can be controlled by the central nervous system. PMID:2621619

  16. The effects of intravenous ephedrine during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kol, Iclal Ozdemir; Kaygusuz, Kenan; Gursoy, Sinan; Cetin, Ali; Kahramanoglu, Zeki; Ozkan, Fikret; Mimaroglu, Caner

    2009-10-01

    We designed a randomized, double-blinded study to determine the efficacy and safety of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups: ephedrine group (n=21) and control group (n=21). Intravenous preload of 15 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution was given. Shortly after the spinal injection, ephedrine 0.5 mg/kg or saline was injected intravenous for 60 sec. The mean of highest and lowest heart rate in the ephedrine group was higher than those of control group (P<0.05). There were significant lower incidences of hypotension and nausea and vomiting in the ephedrine group compared with the control group (8 [38.1%] vs. 18 [85.7%]); (4 [19%] vs. 12 [57.1%], respectively) (P<0.05). The first rescue ephedrine time in the ephedrine group was significantly longer (14.9+/-7.1 min vs. 7.9+/-5.4 min) than that of the control group (P<0.05). Neonatal outcome were similar between the study groups. These findings suggest, the prophylactic bolus dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous ephedrine given at the time of intrathecal block after a crystalloid fluid preload, plus rescue boluses reduce the incidence of hypotension.

  17. Efficacy of Intravenous Paracetamol Versus Intravenous Morphine in Acute Limb Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mohammad; Mozaffarpour Noori, Ali; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Safaie, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efficient pain management is one of the most important components of care in the field of emergency medicine. Objectives: This study was conducted to compare intravenous paracetamol and intravenous morphine sulfate for acute pain reduction in patients with limb trauma. Patients and Methods: In a randomized double-blinded clinical trial, all patients (aged 18 years and older) with acute limb trauma and a pain score of greater than 3/10 in the emergency department were recruited; they received either 1 g intravenous paracetamol or 0.1 mg/kg intravenous morphine sulfate over 15 minutes. The primary outcome was the pain score measured on a numerical rating scale at 0, 15 and 30 minutes after commencing drug administration. The requirement for rescue analgesia and the frequency of adverse reactions were also recorded. Results: Sixty patients randomly received either IV paracetamol (n = 30) or IV morphine (n = 30). The mean reduction in numerical rating scale pain intensity scores at 30 minutes was 3.86 (± 1.61) for paracetamol, and 2.16 (± 1.39) for morphine. However, pain relief was significantly higher in the paracetamol group compared to the morphine group (P < 0.001). Four patients in the paracetamol group and 15 patients in the morphine group needed rescue analgesia and the difference was significant (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Intravenous paracetamol appears to provide better analgesia than intravenous morphine in acute limb trauma. Further larger studies are required. PMID:27218042

  18. Cyanosis, cough, and hypotension following intravenous administration of paraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Sinai, S H; Crowe, J E

    1976-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenorgraphic evidence of pulmonary edema developed following the intravenous administration of paraldehyde to a child. Experimental and clinical evidence indicate that administration of undiluted paraldehyde intravenously is hazardous.

  19. Hydrothorax, hydromediastinum and pericardial effusion: a complication of intravenous alimentation.

    PubMed

    Damtew, B; Lewandowski, B

    1984-06-15

    Complications secondary to intravenous alimentation are rare but potentially lethal. Massive bilateral pleural effusions and a pericardial effusion developed in a patient receiving prolonged intravenous alimentation. Severe respiratory distress and renal failure ensued. He recovered with appropriate treatment.

  20. Frequencies of restriction sites.

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, M S

    1983-01-01

    Restriction sites or other sequence patterns are usually assumed to occur according to a Poisson distribution with mean equal to the reciprocal of the probability of the given site or pattern. For situations where non-overlapping occurrences of patterns, such as restriction sites, are the objects of interest, this note shows that the Poisson assumption is frequently misleading. Both the case of base composition (independent bases) and of dinucleotide frequencies (Markov chains) are treated. Moreover, a new technique is presented which allows treatment of collections of patterns, where the departure from the Poisson assumption is even more striking. This later case includes double digests, and an example of a five enzyme digest is included. PMID:6324109

  1. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  2. Gastrointestinal Fluid Resuscitation of Thermally Injured Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    remains to be determined. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review the history and current status of gastroin- testinal resuscitation and...progress in this field occurred until Frank Underhill’s report on the Rialto Theater fire of 1921. In this article , the author recognized...featured a shift to the use of intravenous plasma as the primary resuscitation fluid.17 Still, it is worth recalling that the landmark article by Reiss

  3. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  4. Lung tissue distribution after intravenous administration of grepafloxacin: comparative study with levofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Hirota, Masao; Kaneki, Toshimichi; Ogasawara, Hitoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Kubo, Keishi

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to study the pharmacokinetics in plasma, lung lymph and bronchial washing fluid after intravenous infusion of grepafloxacin (GPFX), in comparison with those of levofloxacin (LVFX). Four conscious sheep with chronically instrumented lung lymph fistulas and tracheotomy were prepared. GPFX and LVFX concentrations in plasma and lung lymph after intravenous infusion of the drugs (10 mg/kg) for over 10 min were measured. In addition serial bronchial washing with 50 mL normal saline was performed to obtain epithelial lining fluid (ELF) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 h after the intravenous administration. The time courses of lung lymph concentration were almost identical to those of the concomitant levels of both GPFX and LVFX in plasma, suggesting that both GPFX and LVFX could be easily moved from plasma to pulmonary interstitium and/or lung lymph circulation. However, GPFX concentrations of ELF were significantly higher than LVFX concentrations over time after the administration. In addition, intracellular concentrations in ELF of GPFX were also extremely high compared with those of LVFX. These results demonstrated that penetration of GPFX in bronchial wall, bronchial epithelium and/or phagocytic cells was superior to that of LVFX. These observations suggest that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GPFX in the lung may provide a new insight into the strategy for clinical treatment of various pulmonary infections, especially cytotropic bacterial infections.

  5. Guiding principles of fluid and volume therapy.

    PubMed

    Aditianingsih, Dita; George, Yohanes W H

    2014-09-01

    Fluid therapy is a core concept in the management of perioperative and critically ill patients for maintenance of intravascular volume and organ perfusion. Recent evidence regarding the vascular barrier and its role in terms of vascular leakage has led to a new concept for fluid administration. The choice of fluid used should be based on the fluid composition and the underlying pathophysiology of the patient. Avoidance of both hypo- and hypervolaemia is essential when treating circulatory failure. In daily practice, the assessment of individual thresholds in order to optimize cardiac preload and avoid hypovolaemia or deleterious fluid overload remains a challenge. Liberal versus restrictive fluid management has been challenged by recent evidence, and the ideal approach appears to be goal-directed fluid therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  7. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Van Schaik, I N; Winer, J B; De Haan, R; Vermeulen, M

    2002-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is an immune mediated disorder characterised by progressive or relapsing symmetrical motor or sensory symptoms and signs in more than one limb, developing over at least two months. It may cause prolonged periods of disability and even death. Several uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. We used the Search Strategy of the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Review Group to search the Disease Group register and other databases for randomised controlled trials from 1985 onwards. Randomised controlled studies examining the effects of any dose of intravenous immunoglobulin versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in patients with definite or probable chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Outcome measures had to include one of the following: a disability score, the Medical Research Council sum score, electrophysiological data or walking distance. Studies which reported the frequency of adverse effects were used to assess the safety of treatment. Two reviewers independently reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, scored their quality and extracted data independently. For dichotomous data, we calculated relative risks, and for continuous data, effect sizes (for definition see statistical analysis section) and weighted pooled effect sizes. Statistical uncertainty was expressed in 95% confidence intervals. Sensitivity analysis excluding studies with quality scores below A 0.50 and below B 0.75 was planned but not performed as all studies had quality scores above 0.75. Six randomised controlled trials were considered eligible including 170 patients. Four studies on 113 patients compared intravenous immunoglobulin against

  8. Hypophosphataemia and phosphorus requirements during intravenous nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, S. J.; Benton, K. G.; Lee, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Seven patients with acute illnesses developed hypophosphataemia whilst receiving intravenous nutrition which included a fat emulsion, Intralipid, a possible source of phosphorus. The authors' observations cast doubt on the bio-availability of the phosphorus contained in the phospholipid content of the fat emulsion. The currently recommended allowance of phosphorus for this type of patient appears to be too low and it is suggested that 0-5-0-75 mmol/kg body weight be provided, preferably as a neutral phosphate solution. Sine hypophosphataemia can occur at various time intervals after starting intravenous nutrition and precede clinical sequelae it is recommended that routine serum phosphate measurements are made in all patients receiving this treatment. PMID:407558

  9. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin.

    PubMed

    Hatem, G; Merritt, J C; Cowan, C L

    1979-03-01

    Two healthy young black men developed panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin injections. Bacillus cereus, considered to be a relatively noncommon pathogen for man, was found to be the causative agent as it was recovered from the anterior chamber and viterous cavity of both cases. The ocular findings were unilateral in each case, and neither patient had any sistemic involvement from the bacteremia. The onset of visual symptoms varied from 24 to 36 hours after the last intravenous injection with the eye becoming rapidly blind. Photographs of the early fundus lesions included preretinal hypopyon-like lesions and peculiar changes in the blood vasculature. Intracameral gentamicin and steroids did not alter the cause, and treatment was enucleation.

  10. Visualization of Coronary Arteries from Intravenous Angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    Under most circumstances, the coronary arteries are not satisfactorily visualized in intravenous angiograms. The objective of this study is to develop computer image enhancement methods that will improve the quality of the latent coronary images to a degree sufficient to detect an obstructive lesion. Such a technique, if successful, could be used as a first step alternative to conventional coronary angiography for individuals with ambiguous noninvasive cardiac tests. The determination of no lesion from the intravenous procedure would relieve the need for the conventional angiogram, while verification of an obstructive lesion could be followed by a conventional angiogram. The nature of the imaging problem and a description of the methods and initial processing results are described in this paper.

  11. Clinical applications of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy.

    PubMed

    Muller, Sam H; Diaz, James H; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-12-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE; Intralipid) therapy, a standard treatment in local anesthetic toxicity, has demonstrated therapeutic efficacies for a number of different drug class-mediated toxicities. Some of these varied drug groups include antipsychotics, antidepressants, antiarrhythmics, and calcium channel blockers. To meet the objective of describing the growing number of indications for Intralipid therapy and any diverse effects and/or failures of Intralipid therapy in reversing multiple drug toxicities, we queried several Internet search engines with the key words "intravenous lipid emulsion therapy," "Intralipid," "lipid emulsion," and "local anesthetic systemic toxicity," resulting in the identification of 31 case reports for descriptive analysis. These case reports included 49 separate drug overdose cases involving ten separate drug classes which were successfully reversed with Intralipid. The education of clinicians regarding the beneficial and varied roles of Intralipid therapy in different clinical settings is warranted, particularly in terms of the potential for Intralipid therapy to reverse the toxicities of non-local anesthetic drugs.

  12. Visualization of Coronary Arteries from Intravenous Angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    Under most circumstances, the coronary arteries are not satisfactorily visualized in intravenous angiograms. The objective of this study is to develop computer image enhancement methods that will improve the quality of the latent coronary images to a degree sufficient to detect an obstructive lesion. Such a technique, if successful, could be used as a first step alternative to conventional coronary angiography for individuals with ambiguous noninvasive cardiac tests. The determination of no lesion from the intravenous procedure would relieve the need for the conventional angiogram, while verification of an obstructive lesion could be followed by a conventional angiogram. The nature of the imaging problem and a description of the methods and initial processing results are described in this paper.

  13. Intravenous immunoglobulin in pediatrics: A review

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.N.; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    There has been a rapid expansion of the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for an ever-growing number of conditions. IVIG is used at a ‘replacement dose’ (400–600 mg/kg/month) in antibody deficiencies and is used at a high dose (2 g/kg) as an ‘immunomodulatory’ agent in an increasing number of immune and inflammatory disorders.1 The limitations for IVIG are the cost of the preparation and the need for intravenous infusions. Due to the cost, shortages and growing use of IVIG there have been attempts to develop evidence-based guidelines for the use of IVIG in a wide variety of immune disorders in children and neonates. This commentary provides the recommendations and recent publication regarding the use of IVIG in various conditions in children. PMID:25378784

  14. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    del Fresno, M Rosa; Peralta, Julio E; Granados, Miguel Ángel; Enríquez, Eugenia; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; de Inocencio, Jaime

    2014-11-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is a troublesome complication of idiopathic acute pericarditis and occurs more frequently in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery (postpericardiotomy syndrome). Conventional treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and colchicine is not always effective or may cause serious adverse effects. There is no consensus, however, on how to proceed in those patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. In such cases, human intravenous immunoglobulin, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological agents have been used. In this report we describe 2 patients with refractory recurrent pericarditis after cardiac surgery who were successfully treated with 3 and 5 monthly high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin until resolution of the effusion. Our experience supports the effectiveness and safety of this therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis with right ventricular extension.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, Masaya; Kawahito, Koji; Aizawa, Kei; Sato, Hirotaka; Misawa, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a rare neoplastic condition characterized by the benign intravascular proliferation of smooth muscle cells originating from either the uterine venous wall or a uterine leiomyoma. In the present report, we describe the case of a 45-year-old woman without a history of gynaecological surgeries, who was referred to our institution due to repeated syncopal attacks. Computed tomography indicated the presence of an intravenous leiomyoma originating from the uterus and extending to the inferior vena cava, right atrium, and right ventricle. The patient was successfully treated by cardiotomy, which was performed under hypothermic circulatory arrest, and laparotomy in a single-stage operation. She continued to recover and did not exhibit any recurrence at the 10-month follow-up.

  16. Diurnal Variation in Response to Intravenous Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Whichelow, Margaret J.; Sturge, R. A.; Keen, H.; Jarrett, R. J.; Stimmler, L.; Grainger, Susan

    1974-01-01

    Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (25 g) were performed in the morning and afternoon on 13 apparently normal persons. The individual K values (rate of decline of blood sugar) were all higher in the morning tests, and the mean values were significantly higher in the morning. Fasting blood sugar levels were slightly lower in the afternoon. There was no difference between the fasting morning and afternoon plasma insulin levels, but the levels after glucose were lower in the afternoon. Growth hormone levels were low at all times in non-apprehensive subjects and unaffected by glucose. The results suggest that the impaired afternoon intravenous glucose tolerance, like oral glucose tolerance, is associated with impaired insulin release and insulin resistance. PMID:4817160

  17. Intravenous Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition123

    PubMed Central

    Fell, Gillian L; Nandivada, Prathima; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important macronutrient in the human diet. For patients with intestinal failure who are unable to absorb nutrients via the enteral route, intravenous lipid emulsions play a critical role in providing an energy-dense source of calories and supplying the essential fatty acids that cannot be endogenously synthesized. Over the last 50 y, lipid emulsions have been an important component of parenteral nutrition (PN), and over the last 10–15 y many new lipid emulsions have been manufactured with the goal of improving safety and efficacy profiles and achieving physiologically optimal formulations. The purpose of this review is to provide a background on the components of lipid emulsions, their role in PN, and to discuss the lipid emulsions available for intravenous use. Finally, the role of parenteral fat emulsions in the pathogenesis and management of PN-associated liver disease in PN-dependent pediatric patients is reviewed. PMID:26374182

  18. Early fluid resuscitation in patients with rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Better, Ori S; Abassi, Zaid A

    2011-05-17

    Extensive rhabdomyolysis is often lethal unless treated immediately. Early mortality arises from hypovolemic shock, hyperkalemia, acidosis and myoglobinuric acute kidney injury (AKI). Many individuals with rhabdomyolysis could be saved, and myoglobinuric AKI prevented, by early vigorous fluid resuscitation with ≥12 l daily intravenous infusion of alkaline solution started at the scene of injury. This regimen stabilizes the circulation and mobilizes edema fluids sequestered in the injured muscles into the circulation, corrects hyperkalemia and acidosis, and protects against the nephrotoxic effects of myoglobinemia and hyperuricosuria. This regime results in a large positive fluid balance, which is well tolerated in young, carefully monitored individuals. In patients with rhabdomyolysis caused by muscle crush syndrome, mortality has been reduced from nearly 100% to <20% over the past 70 years through utilization of this intervention. This Perspectives discusses the lifesaving and limb-saving potential of early vigorous fluid resuscitation in patients with extensive traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis.

  19. Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Saraghi, Mana

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous fluids are administered in virtually every parenteral sedation and general anesthetic. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements, and the clinical rationale for the use of various crystalloid and colloid solutions. In the setting of elective dental outpatient procedures with minor blood loss, isotonic balanced crystalloid solutions are the fluids of choice. Colloids, on the other hand, have no use in outpatient sedation or general anesthesia for dental or minor oral surgery procedures but may have several desirable properties in long and invasive maxillofacial surgical procedures where advanced hemodynamic monitoring may assess the adequacy of intravascular volume. PMID:26650497

  20. Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Saraghi, Mana

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous fluids are administered in virtually every parenteral sedation and general anesthetic. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements, and the clinical rationale for the use of various crystalloid and colloid solutions. In the setting of elective dental outpatient procedures with minor blood loss, isotonic balanced crystalloid solutions are the fluids of choice. Colloids, on the other hand, have no use in outpatient sedation or general anesthesia for dental or minor oral surgery procedures but may have several desirable properties in long and invasive maxillofacial surgical procedures where advanced hemodynamic monitoring may assess the adequacy of intravascular volume.

  1. Intravenous access: a comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Duffy, B L; Lee, J S

    1983-05-01

    The reliability in providing a continued venous route to the circulation is compared between a winged needle (Abbott "Butterfly--23 INT") and a plastic catheter (Jelco Teflon "Catheter Placement Unit", 22 gauge). The catheter remained within the vein in all cases and had a much lower incidence of total obstruction during the study period. Where an intravenous infusion is not in place, a plastic catheter provides a more reliable access route to the circulation than does a winged needle.

  2. Intravenous Administration of VX in Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-07-01

    mouth while having his minute volume measurements taken. Vomiting s tar ted at this point. Approximately 20 minutes af ter infusion was terminated ...measures such a s intravenous atropine o r the oximes . About an hour af ter the termination of the infusion and about 30 minutes af ter his...receiving a 4-hour infusion of 1 pg /kg had the maximum drop in cholinesterase a t the end of the infusion period. Those who received the same dose

  3. Juvenile dermatomyositis: treatment with intravenous gammaglobulin.

    PubMed

    Collet, E; Dalac, S; Maerens, B; Courtois, J M; Izac, M; Lambert, D

    1994-02-01

    High-dose intravenous gammaglobulin (IVGG) has proved to be effective in the treatment of a number of immune disorders. We report two patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) who improved with IVGG therapy. These patients had become refractory to corticosteroids and had developed unacceptable steroid toxicity. We suggest that IVGG can be useful in the treatment of juvenile DM, by reducing steroid requirements, and replacing immunosuppressive drugs.

  4. Susceptibility-weighted imaging for cerebral microbleed detection in super-acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qingke; Zhao, Zhenguo; Sui, Haijing; Xie, Xiuhai; Chen, Juan; Yang, Juan; Zhang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) methods may provide more accurate detection of the highly variant time window for successful intravenous (IV) thrombolytic drug treatment (averaging 3 hours) for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in acute stroke patients. This prospective study applies fast MRI and SWI for examination of 279 prescreened ischemic stroke patients within 12 hours of stroke onset. One hundred and sixty-two (58.1%) of 279 patients were diagnosed with super-acute ischemic stroke with restricted diffusion, hyperintense diffusion-weighted imaging signals, and no ischemic change in T2-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, or T1-weighted imaging signals. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator IV thrombolysis was administered to 113 (69.75%) patients (thrombolysis group). All patients underwent regular sequence MRI and SWI follow-up. Computed tomography and MRI sequence scans revealed hemorrhagic transformations in 13 (11.50%) thrombolysis and four (8.16%) non-thrombolysis group patients. MRI-guided thrombolysis treatment produced no significant differences between the two groups. SWI revealed new CMBs in 46 (40.70%) and nine (18.37%) thrombolysis and non-thrombolysis group patients, respectively. Significantly better National Institutes of Health stroke scale (24 hours) (P<0.05), modified Rankin scale (90 days) (P<0.01), and life quality Barthal index scores were observed in CMB patients (P<0.01). SWI revealed higher CMB incidence and clinical improvement in recombinant tissue plasminogen activator IV thrombolysis-treated super-acute ischemic stroke patients, suggesting that CMBs may indicate vascular re-canalization/reperfusion. Thus, SWI can be applied to extend individual patient windows for thrombolytic treatment beyond general recommendations of treatment within 3 hours, allowing treatment up to 12 hours from stroke onset.

  5. Synthetic Strategies for Engineering Intravenous Hemostats

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Leslie W.-G.; White, Nathan J.; Pun, Suzie H.

    2015-01-01

    While there are currently many well-established topical hemostatic agents for field administration, there are still limited tools to staunch bleeding at less accessible injury sites. Current clinical methods of restoring hemostasis after large volume blood loss include platelet and clotting factor transfusion, which have respective drawbacks of short shelf-life and risk of viral transmission. Therefore, synthetic hemostatic agents that can be delivered intravenously and encourage stable clot formation after localizing to sites of vascular injury are particularly appealing. In the past three decades, platelet substitutes have been prepared using drug delivery vehicles such as liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles that have been modified to mimic platelet properties. Additionally, structural considerations such as particle size, shape, and flexibility have been addressed in a number of reports. Since platelets are the first responders after vascular injury, platelet substitutes represent an important class of intravenous hemostats under development. More recently, materials affecting fibrin formation have been introduced to induce faster or more stable blood clot formation through fibrin crosslinking. Fibrin represents a major structural component in the final blood clot, and a fibrin-based hemostatic mechanism acting downstream of initial platelet plug formation may be a safer alternative to platelets to avoid undesired thrombotic activity. This review explores intravenous hemostats under development and strategies to optimize their clotting activity. PMID:25803791

  6. Synthetic Strategies for Engineering Intravenous Hemostats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Leslie W; White, Nathan J; Pun, Suzie H

    2015-07-15

    While there are currently many well-established topical hemostatic agents for field administration, there are still limited tools to staunch bleeding at less accessible injury sites. Current clinical methods to restore hemostasis after large volume blood loss include platelet and clotting factor transfusion, which have respective drawbacks of short shelf life and risk of viral transmission. Therefore, synthetic hemostatic agents that can be delivered intravenously and encourage stable clot formation after localizing to sites of vascular injury are particularly appealing. In the past three decades, platelet substitutes have been prepared using drug delivery vehicles such as liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles that have been modified to mimic platelet properties. Additionally, structural considerations such as particle size, shape, and flexibility have been addressed in a number of reports. Since platelets are the first responders after vascular injury, platelet substitutes represent an important class of intravenous hemostats under development. More recently, materials affecting fibrin formation have been introduced to induce faster or more stable blood clot formation through fibrin cross-linking. Fibrin represents a major structural component in the final blood clot, and a fibrin-based hemostatic mechanism acting downstream of initial platelet plug formation may be a safer alternative to platelets to avoid undesired thrombotic activity. This Review explores intravenous hemostats under development and strategies to optimize their clotting activity.

  7. COSMOS - a study comparing peripheral intravenous systems.

    PubMed

    López, Juan Luis González; Del Palacio, Encarnación Ferenández; Marti, Carmen Benedicto; Corral, Javier Olivares; Portal, Pilar Herrera; Vilela, Ana Arribi

    In many areas of the world, safety peripheral intravenous systems have come into widespread use. The Madrid region was the first in Spain to adopt such an approach. These systems, though initially introduced to protect users from sharps injuries, have now evolved to include patient protection features as well. Patient protection, simply stated, means closing the system to pathogen entry. The authors' purpose was to investigate, in a prospective and randomized study, the clinical performance of a closed safe intravenous system versus an open system (COSMOS - Compact Closed System versus Mounted Open System). COSMOS is designed to provide definitive answers, from a nursing perspective, to many topics related to peripheral venous catheterization, which have important implications in intravenous therapy and which have not been validated scientifically. Furthermore, it forms pioneering research in that it is the first clinical trial on medical devices in a legislated environment carried out entirely by nurses and whose promoter and principal investigator is a nurse. The objectives of COSMOS are to compare the effectiveness (as defined by time of survival without complications) and rates of catheter-related complications, such as phlebitis, pain, extravasation, blockage and catheter-related infections. It also looks at rates of catheter colonization, the ease of handling of both systems and overall costs. This article outlines the authors' approach, both in preparing hospital units for such an evaluation as well as in the choice of parameters and their method of study. Further articles will detail the results and findings of the study.

  8. Deaths after intravenous misuse of transdermal fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Lilleng, Peer K; Mehlum, Lars Ivar; Bachs, Liliana; Morild, Inge

    2004-11-01

    Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid used as a general anesthetic and analgetic. Fatal outcome from intravenous misuse of transdermal fentanyl is rare, and there are few such reports in literature. Here we report two cases of fatal intravenous injection of the content from fentanyl patches. Both were male drug addicts, found dead within a one week interval in the same apartment. Post-mortem femoral blood was screened for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids with immunological methods (EMIT II) and further with headspace gas chromatography for alcohol and with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for different drugs, including fentanyl. Confirmatory analysis of fentanyl and morphine was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the first case, the toxicological analysis revealed fentanyl (2.7 ng/mL), morphine (31.4 ng/mL), and ethanol (1.1 g/L) in postmortem blood and amphetamine, cannabinoids, morphine, and ethanol (1.4 g/L) in postmortem urine. In the second case, the analysis revealed fentanyl (13.8 ng/mL), 7-aminoclonazepam (57.1 ng/mL), and sertralin (91.9 ng/mL) in postmortem blood and a small amount of ethanol (0.1 g/L) in postmortem urine. Police investigation revealed that both the deceased had bought the patches from the same source. The present cases demonstrate the possibility of intravenous misuse of transdermal patches and the risk of fatal outcome.

  9. Distribution of pentazocine in blood and brain of the baboon following intravenous injection

    PubMed Central

    Coroneos, N.J.; Keaney, N.P.; McDowall, D.G.; Pickerodt, V.W.A.; Glynn, J.P.; Robertson, A.

    1974-01-01

    1 In the baboon the blood levels of pentazocine between 1 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 0.5 mg/kg were measured by a gas chromatographic technique. From cerebral arteriovenous differences it was shown that the peak of the brain concentration occurred within 15 min and probably within 10 min of intravenous injection. At the time of peak concentration about 10% of the injected dose was in the brain, while the corresponding value at 60 min was 2%. 2 The concentration of pentazocine in the brain was an order of magnitude greater than the concentration in cerebral venous blood both at 5 min and 60 min after injection. No major brain interregional differences were demonstrated. Cerebrospinal fluid from the cisterna magna did not yield values from which the cerebral concentration of pentazocine could be predicted. PMID:4211934

  10. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  11. Concept to comfort-condition subjects wearing restrictive clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, E. M.

    1968-01-01

    Heat exchanger maintains a desirable thermal balance in a subject wearing restrictive clothing. A grid of high thermal conductance fibers, in contact with the skin, transfers heat to or from the skin surface by means of a system of ducts, carrying the transfer fluid which is maintained at a controlled temperature.

  12. 27 CFR 19.649 - Restrictions on alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Rules for Operating Vinegar Plants § 19.649 Restrictions on alcohol content. No person may remove from the vinegar plant premises vinegar or other fluid or any other material containing more...

  13. 27 CFR 19.649 - Restrictions on alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Rules for Operating Vinegar Plants § 19.649 Restrictions on alcohol content. No person may remove from the vinegar plant premises vinegar or other fluid or any other material containing more...

  14. 27 CFR 19.649 - Restrictions on alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Rules for Operating Vinegar Plants § 19.649 Restrictions on alcohol content. No person may remove from the vinegar plant premises vinegar or other fluid or any other material containing more...

  15. 27 CFR 19.649 - Restrictions on alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Rules for Operating Vinegar Plants § 19.649 Restrictions on alcohol content. No person may remove from the vinegar plant premises vinegar or other fluid or any other material containing more...

  16. Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlig, Pierre

    1991-03-01

    An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low

  17. Comparing the efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen and intravenous meperidine in pain relief after outpatient urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Kolahdouzan, Khosro; Eydi, Mahmood; Mohammadipour Anvari, Hassan; Golzari, Samad Ej; Abri, Reyhaneh; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Ojaghihaghighi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-12-01

    Pain relief after surgery is an essential component of postoperative care. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen and intravenous meperidine in pain relief after outpatient urological surgery. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 100 outpatients of urological surgery were studied in two groups of acetaminophen (A) and meperidine (M). Patients in group A received 1g of acetaminophen in 100 mL saline within 15 minutes and patients in group M received a single intravenous injection of meperidine 0.5 mg/kg, 15 minutes prior to the end of operation. Postoperative pain was recorded using visual analog scale (VAS). Vital signs, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and respiratory depressions were compared between the two groups. Pain severity in patients treated with intravenous acetaminophen six hours after the operation within one-hour interval was significantly lower than meperidine group (P < 0.0001). Ninety patients in the meperidine group and five patients in the acetaminophen group required additional doses of analgesics. Nausea was significantly lower in acetaminophen group than meperidine group. Intravenous acetaminophen reduced pain following outpatient urological surgery more significantly than meperidine.

  18. Comparing the Efficacy of Intravenous Acetaminophen and Intravenous Meperidine in Pain Relief After Outpatient Urological Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kolahdouzan, Khosro; Eydi, Mahmood; Mohammadipour Anvari, Hassan; Golzari, Samad EJ; Abri, Reyhaneh; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Ojaghihaghighi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain relief after surgery is an essential component of postoperative care. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intravenous acetaminophen and intravenous meperidine in pain relief after outpatient urological surgery. Patients and Methods: In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 100 outpatients of urological surgery were studied in two groups of acetaminophen (A) and meperidine (M). Patients in group A received 1g of acetaminophen in 100 mL saline within 15 minutes and patients in group M received a single intravenous injection of meperidine 0.5 mg/kg, 15 minutes prior to the end of operation. Postoperative pain was recorded using visual analog scale (VAS). Vital signs, nausea, vomiting, dizziness and respiratory depressions were compared between the two groups. Results: Pain severity in patients treated with intravenous acetaminophen six hours after the operation within one-hour interval was significantly lower than meperidine group (P < 0.0001). Ninety patients in the meperidine group and five patients in the acetaminophen group required additional doses of analgesics. Nausea was significantly lower in acetaminophen group than meperidine group. Conclusions: Intravenous acetaminophen reduced pain following outpatient urological surgery more significantly than meperidine. PMID:25798377

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous methotrexate associated with lipid nanoemulsions on antigen-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Suzana B V; Tavares, Elaine R; Guido, Maria Carolina; Bonfá, Eloisa; Maranhão, Raul C

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that intravenous use of methotrexate associated with lipid nanoemulsions can achieve superior anti-inflammatory effects in the joints of rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis compared with commercial methotrexate. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in New Zealand rabbits sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin and subsequently intra-articularly injected with the antigen. A nanoemulsion of methotrexate labeled with 3H-cholesteryl ether (4 mg/kg methotrexate) was then intravenously injected into four rabbits to determine the plasma decaying curves and the biodistribution of the methotrexate nanoemulsion by radioactive counting. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of the methotrexate nanoemulsion were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Twenty-four hours after arthritis induction, the animals were allocated into three groups, with intravenous injection with saline solution (n=9), methotrexate nanoemulsion (0.5 µmol/kg methotrexate, n=7), or commercial methotrexate (0.5 µmol/kg, n=4). The rabbits were sacrificed 24 h afterward. Synovial fluid was then collected for protein leakage and cell content analyses and synovial membranes were collected for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The methotrexate nanoemulsion was taken up mainly by the liver and the uptake by arthritic joints was two-fold greater than that by control joints. The methotrexate nanoemulsion treatment reduced leukocyte influx into the synovial fluid by nearly 65%; in particular, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells were reduced by 47 and 72%, respectively. In contrast, cell influx was unaffected following treatment with commercial methotrexate. Protein leakage into the arthritic knees of the rabbits was also more limited following methotrexate nanoemulsion treatment than following commercial methotrexate treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intravenous methotrexate nanoemulsion showed anti-inflammatory effects on the synovia of arthritic joints that were

  20. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  1. APOBECs and Virus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reuben S.; Dudley, Jaquelin P.

    2015-01-01

    The APOBEC family of single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases comprises a formidable arm of the vertebrate innate immune system. Pre-vertebrates express a single APOBEC, whereas some mammals produce as many as eleven enzymes. The APOBEC3 subfamily displays both copy number variation and polymorphisms, consistent with ongoing pathogenic pressures. These enzymes restrict the replication of many DNA-based parasites, such as exogenous viruses and endogenous transposable elements. APOBEC1 and activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) have specialized functions in RNA editing and antibody gene diversification, respectively, whereas APOBEC2 and APOBEC4 appear to have different functions. Nevertheless, the APOBEC family protects against both periodic viral zoonoses as well as exogenous and endogenous parasite replication. This review highlights viral pathogens that are restricted by APOBEC enzymes, but manage to escape through unique mechanisms. The sensitivity of viruses that lack counterdefense measures highlights the need to develop APOBEC-enabling small molecules as a new class of anti-viral drugs. PMID:25818029

  2. [Intravenous rehydration for diarrheal dehydration of eutrophic children: survey of protocols provided at Colombian medical schools].

    PubMed

    Flórez, Iván Darío; Ramos, Esteban; Bernal, Carlos; Cuéllar, Olga Juliana; Cornejo, José William

    2011-01-01

    In all cases of severe dehydration from diarrhea, WHO recommends rapid rehydration. If oral rehydration in children is contraindicated, intravenous rehydration is recommended for immediate administration. However, methods of intravenous rehydration appear to be inadequately addressed in the medical schools of Colombia. Current approaches to oral rehydration were summarized, and instructors were informed concerning current WHO recommendations. A survey was designed for pediatric instructors in Colombian medical schools. Direct questions about rehydration methods were included as well as presentation of theoretical clinical situations with dehydrated children. The survey also asked for the conditions necessary for intravenous rehydration and method of administration (volume, solution, concentration and speed of infusion). Forty-one surveys were included (82% of medical schools in Colombia). Inadequate contraindications for oral rehydration therapy were made in 41%. Rapid and slow intravenous rehydration was recommended in 71% and 29%, respectively; 57% recommended fluid bolus to rehydrate. Adequate volumes were recommended by less than half of the respondents and adequate sodium concentration was recommended by 85%. In 56% of medical schools, glucose was not included in solutions and 66% use Ringer lactate. Normal saline solution, dextrose solution with electrolytes and polyelectrolytes solutions are also used. Misconceptions are common concerning the contraindications to oral rehydration therapy. One-third of medical schools promote a slow therapy despite the superiority of the rapid therapy. Uniformity for rapid therapy schemes is lacking. Bolus rehydration is commonly advocated despite the fact that this method is unsupported by the literature. Concepts about rehydration must be updated in medical schools and a national guide for intravenous rehydration is recommended.

  3. Entamoeba histolytica meningoencephalitis diagnosed by trophozoites in cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Goh, L M L; Marrone, J R

    2013-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica meningoencephalitis has not been described in the modern literature, which is distinct from that caused by free-living amoebae. We report the first case of E. histolytica meningoencephalitis without liver or brain abscesses. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed 2 + very motile trophozoites. Our patient was successfully treated with intravenous metronidazole. PMID:25356319

  4. Entamoeba histolytica meningoencephalitis diagnosed by trophozoites in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Goh, L M L; Marrone, J R

    2013-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica meningoencephalitis has not been described in the modern literature, which is distinct from that caused by free-living amoebae. We report the first case of E. histolytica meningoencephalitis without liver or brain abscesses. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed 2 + very motile trophozoites. Our patient was successfully treated with intravenous metronidazole.

  5. Effect of a Millipore Filter on Complications of Intravenous Infusions: A Prospective Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Collin, J.; Tweedle, D. E. F.; Venables, C. W.; Constable, F. L.; Johnston, Ivan D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Millipore filter unit has been advocated as a means of reducing the chance of bacteria entering the circulation during intravenous infusion. In a prospective study no significant reduction was obtained in the incidence of thrombophlebitis or in the bacterial contamination of cannulae. The unit was inconvenient to use and in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed reduced flow rates and frequent episodes of filter blockage. Its use was further restricted by the fact that blood and fat emulsions would not pass through it. PMID:4586043

  6. Stability of fosphenytoin sodium with intravenous solutions in glass bottles, polyvinyl chloride bags, and polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J H; Cwik, M J; Luer, M S; Sibley, C B; Deyo, K L

    1997-05-01

    To determine the stability of fosphenytoin sodium admixtures with NaCl 0.9% injection and dextrose 5% (D5W) injection when stored in glass or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers, to evaluate the compatibility of fosphenytoin with 11 other intravenous solutions, and to determine the stability of fosphenytoin repackaged in polypropylene syringes. Dilutions of fosphenytoin sodium 1, 8, and 20 mg phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE)/mL were prepared in NaCl 0.9%, D5W, and 11 other intravenous fluids. Aliquots of each solution in NaCL 0.9% or D5W were transferred to three glass bottles for storage at 25 degrees C and 21 PVC bags for storage at 25, 4, or -20 degrees C. Aliquots of each admixture with the other intravenous fluids were transferred to three PVC bags and stored at 25 degrees C for 7 days. In addition, 63 syringes were filled with fosphenytoin sodium 50 mg PE/mL (undiluted) and stored at 25, 4, or -20 degrees C. Samples of each solution from the three containers were analyzed for visual compatibility, pH, and fosphenytoin concentration initially and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days during storage at 25 and 4 degrees C and at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days during storage at -20 degrees C. Following removal of containers from the freezer, additional samples were obtained after 7 days at 4 or 25 degrees C, and 7 days at 25 degrees C, and then 7 days at -20 degrees C. No visible precipitation or change in color or clarity was observed in any of the fosphenytoin solutions during the study. The concentration of fosphenytoin at each sampling time remained within 97-104% of initial concentration, regardless of container, concentration, intravenous admixture, or storage temperature. Fosphenytoin sodium, either undiluted in polypropylene syringes or diluted with NaCl 0.9% or D5W in PVC bags, remains stable for at least 30 days at room temperature, under refrigeration, or frozen. After removal from the freezer, fosphenytoin can be thawed, kept at 4 or 25 degrees C for 7 days

  7. Validation of FLAIR hyperintense lesions as imaging biomarkers to predict the outcome of acute stroke after intra-arterial thrombolysis following intravenous tissue plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jong-Won; Kim, Kyeong Joon; Noh, Won-Young; Jang, Myung Suk; Yang, Mi Hwa; Han, Moon-Ku; Kwon, O-Ki; Jung, Cheolkyu; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) given within 4.5 h of symptom onset is accepted as the standard treatment of ischemic stroke. Persistent occlusion of cerebral arteries despite intravenous thrombolysis and unremitting neurologic deficits lead us to consider additional intra-arterial approaches. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI performed during or immediately after intravenous thrombolysis for predicting clinical outcomes of subsequent intra-arterial thrombolysis. With a prospective stroke registry database of patients hospitalized in our institution from January 2004 to February 2010, we identified ischemic stroke patients with the following conditions: (1) presentation within 2.5 h of onset, (2) treated with intravenous tPA based on brain CT, (3) persistent occlusion on subsequent MRI/MR angiography, including a FLAIR sequence, and (4) eventually treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis. Demographic, clinical and laboratory findings including initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), follow-up NIHSS at the 7th day or discharge, modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 3 months, and symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation were captured. FLAIR images were reviewed by 2 investigators blinded to clinical information independently and dichotomized into the absence and presence of FLAIR change within the diffusion-restriction lesions. Of the 57 patients who met these conditions, FLAIR-hyperintense lesions (FHL) were observed in 32 (56.1%). The FHL-negative group was 69.1 ± 12.1 years old on average and the FHL-positive group 67.3 ± 11.0 years old. In both groups, hypertension was the most common vascular risk factor, cardioembolic stroke was the most common subtype, and distal middle cerebral artery was the most common site of occlusion. The incidence of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation was 4.0% in the FHL-negative group and 9.4% in the FHL-positive group (p = 0

  8. Restrictive chest wall disorders.

    PubMed

    Donath, Joseph; Miller, Albert

    2009-06-01

    Hypoventilation can be caused by diseases of the chest wall. Any anatomical or functional abnormality of the bony thorax increases dead space ventilation and the work of breathing, whether congenital or acquired, acute or chronic, and whether its cause is infectious, traumatic, environmental, iatrogenic, or unknown. In this article, we discuss these heterogeneous disorders from the viewpoint of the practicing nonpediatric pulmonary physician, only briefly touching on surgical, pediatric, rheumatologic, and other nonpulmonary ramifications. Emphasis is on the most common and the best researched forms of chest wall restriction, including kyphoscoliosis, fibrothorax, thoracoplasty, flail chest, and ankylosing spondylitis. Other diseases such as osteoporosis with its less well known pulmonary effects, and some rarely seen entities, are briefly discussed.

  9. [Arterial pressure curve and fluid status].

    PubMed

    Pestel, G; Fukui, K

    2009-04-01

    Fluid optimization is a major contributor to improved outcome in patients. Unfortunately, anesthesiologists are often in doubt whether an additional fluid bolus will improve the hemodynamics of the patient or not as excess fluid may even jeopardize the condition. This article discusses physiological concepts of liberal versus restrictive fluid management followed by a discussion on the respective capabilities of various monitors to predict fluid responsiveness. The parameter difference in pulse pressure (dPP), derived from heart-lung interaction in mechanically ventilated patients is discussed in detail. The dPP cutoff value of 13% to predict fluid responsiveness is presented together with several assessment techniques of dPP. Finally, confounding variables on dPP measurements, such as ventilation parameters, pneumoperitoneum and use of norepinephrine are also mentioned.

  10. Slip mechanisms in complex fluid flows.

    PubMed

    Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G

    2015-10-28

    The classical no-slip boundary condition of fluid mechanics is not always a valid assumption for the flow of several classes of complex fluids including polymer melts, their blends, polymer solutions, microgels, glasses, suspensions and pastes. In fact, it appears that slip effect in these systems is the rule and not the exemption. The occurrence of slip complicates the analysis of rheological data, although it provides new opportunities to understand their behavior in restricted environments delineating additional molecular mechanisms i.e. entropic restrictions due to limitations in the number of molecular conformations. This article discusses these complexities and provides future research opportunities.

  11. Lifespan and associated factors of peripheral intravenous Cannula among infants admitted in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016.

    PubMed

    Birhane, Eskedar; Kidanu, Kalayou; Kassa, Mekuria; Gerezgiher, Dawit; Tsegay, Lidia; Weldu, Brhanu; Kidane, Genet; Gerensea, Hadgu

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral Intravenous cannula (IV) is the most common vascular access device used to administer medications with the exception of medication or fluid with high or low PH or hyperosmolarity which may cause severe damage to small veins. The insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula in newborn infants can be difficult. Appropriate veins with sufficient capacity to insert a cannula become less available throughout the hospital stay. Once a peripheral intravenous cannula is inserted, it is desirable that its patency can be maintained as long as possible. This study was aimed to assess the lifespan and associated factors of peripheral intravenous cannula among infants admitted in public hospitals of Mekelle city, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2016. The method used was a prospective cohort study. 178 study subjects were recruited using systematic random sampling technique. The data was collected by structured questionairre and observational checklist. More than half of infants (94) had a short cannula lifespan (below 30 h). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) [AOR = 6.93; 95% CI (1.56,30.71)], clinical experience (3-5 years) [AOR = 0.168; 95% CI (0.060-0.469)], insertion site (arm) [AOR = 0.126;95% CI (0.046-0.349)], reason for removal (dislodgement and complication) [AOR = 8.15; 95% CI (2.49,26.63) [AOR = 10.48;95% CI (3.08,35.65)], medication [AOR = 0.17;95% CI (0.37,0.784)], corticosteroids [0.164; 95% CI (0.034,0.793)] and blood transfusion [AOR = 0.12; 95% CI (0.028-0.509)] were the statistically significant variables associated with the lifespan of a peripheral intravenous cannula. Untimely removal of peripheral intravenous cannulas was higher in infants and demographic. Cannulation and health care factors had significant effects on the lifespan of a peripheral intravenous cannula.

  12. Metalworking fluids and malignant melanoma in autoworkers.

    PubMed

    Costello, Sadie; Friesen, Melissa C; Christiani, David C; Eisen, Ellen A

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to mineral oil-based metalworking fluids has been consistently linked with skin conditions such as contact dermatitis and squamous cell skin cancer, especially of the scrotum. We examined the incidence of malignant melanoma in a study of autoworkers. We followed a cohort of autoworkers from 1985 through 2004 for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated in Cox models for cumulative exposure to total particulate of straight fluid (neat oil), soluble fluid (oil emulsified in water), and synthetic fluid (no oil). Exposure was partitioned into time windows by latency and by calendar periods defined by changes in the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the refined oils. The population was restricted to workers born after 1935. We examined the date-of-birth restriction in a sensitivity analysis. On the basis of 76 incident cases of malignant melanoma in the cohort of 14,139 white males, the HR was 1.99 (95% confidence interval = 1.00-3.96) for the highest category of straight fluid. Risk was greatest in the most recent time window. Penalized splines suggested a linear exposure-response over the full range of exposure. The change in HR for malignant melanoma per mg/m-year of straight fluid increased monotonically from 1.01 to 1.04, when the date-of-birth restriction increased from 1925 to 1945 in 5-year intervals. Results for soluble fluid were more modest. There was no association with synthetic fluid. Results provide evidence, based on quantitative measures of metalworking fluid, that oil-based fluid, particularly straight mineral oils, are associated with the incidence of malignant melanoma.

  13. Restrictive Eating in Anorexia Nervosa: Examining Maintenance and Consequences in the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Accurso, Erin C.; Ciao, Anna C.; Crosby, Ross D.; Cao, Li; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined negative and positive affect in relation to restrictive eating episodes (i.e., meals/snacks perceived as restrictive) and whether restrictive eating was associated with likelihood of subsequent eating disorder behaviors (i.e., additional restrictive eating, binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, weighing, exercising, meal skipping, drinking fluids to curb appetite, body checking). Method Women with anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a two-week ecological momentary assessment protocol. Results For both restrictive and non-restrictive eating, negative affect significantly increased from pre-behavior to the time of the behavior but remained stable thereafter, while positive affect remained stable from pre-behavior to the time of the behavior but decreased significantly thereafter. Across time, negative affect was significantly lower and positive affect was significantly greater in restrictive than non-restrictive episodes. Engagement in restrictive eating was associated with an increased likelihood of subsequent restrictive eating, laxative use, and body checking, but not other behaviors. Engagement in non-restrictive eating was associated with a decreased likelihood of subsequent restrictive eating, binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, weighing, meal skipping, drinking fluids to curb appetite, and body checking. Discussion Despite similar patterns of affect across eating episodes over time, results suggest affect may be involved in the maintenance of restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa since restrictive episodes were associated with lower negative and greater positive affect across time compared to non-restrictive episodes. Further, while restrictive episodes increased the likelihood of only three subsequent eating disorder behaviors, non-restrictive episodes were protective since they decreased likelihood of all but one behavior. PMID:26310991

  14. A Kinetic-fluid Model

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = C.Z. Cheng; Jay R. Johnson

    1998-07-10

    A nonlinear kinetic-fluid model for high-beta plasmas with multiple ion species which can be applied to multiscale phenomena is presented. The model embeds important kinetic effects due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR), wave-particle resonances, magnetic particle trapping, etc. in the framework of simple fluid descriptions. When further restricting to low frequency phenomena with frequencies less than the ion cyclotron frequency the kinetic-fluid model takes a simpler form in which the fluid equations of multiple ion species collapse into single-fluid density and momentum equations and a low frequency generalized Ohm's law. The kinetic effects are introduced via plasma pressure tensors for ions and electrons which are computed from particle distribution functions that are governed by the Vlasov equation or simplified plasma dynamics equations such as the gyrokinetic equation. The ion FLR effects provide a finite parallel electric field, a perpendicular velocity that modifies the ExB drift, and a gyroviscosity tensor, all of which are neglected in the usual one-fluid MHD description. Eigenmode equations are derived which include magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects for low frequency waves (e.g., kinetic/inertial Alfven waves and ballooning-mirror instabilities).

  15. Intravenous infusions in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Almonte, Wilson; Shaparin, Naum; Pappagallo, Marco; Smith, Howard

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, millions of Americans are affected by chronic pain, which adds heavily to national rates of morbidity, mortality, and disability, with an ever-increasing prevalence. According to a 2011 report titled Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, pain not only exacts its toll on people's lives but also on the economy with an estimated annual economic cost of at least $560 - 635 billion in health care costs and the cost of lost productivity attributed to chronic pain. Intravenous infusions of certain pharmacologic agents have been known to provide substantial pain relief in patients with various chronic painful conditions. Some of these infusions are better, and although not necessarily the first therapeutic choice, have been widely used and extensively studied. The others show promise, however are in need of further investigations. This article will focus on non-opiate intravenous infusions that have been utilized for chronic painful disorders such as fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain, phantom limb pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS), diabetic neuropathy, and central pain related to stroke or spinal cord injuries. The management of patients with chronic pain conditions is challenging and continues to evolve as new treatment modalities are explored and tested. The following intravenous infusions used to treat the aforementioned chronic pain conditions will be reviewed: lidocaine, ketamine, phentolamine, dexmedetomidine, and bisphosphonates. This overview is intended to familiarize the practitioner with the variety of infusions for patients with chronic pain. It will not, however, be able to provide guidelines for their use due to the lack of sufficient evidence.

  16. Severe hypophosphataemia after intravenous iron administration

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Gurpreet; Schmid, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common and can be effectively treated with parenteral iron infusion. We report a case of an iron-deficient and vitamin D-deficient woman who developed severe symptomatic hypophosphataemia following intravenous ferric carboxymaltose administration. We stress the need of increased awareness of this potential complication among physicians. Patients should be informed of this complication and instructed to report for follow-up if they experience new musculoskeletal symptoms or worsening of tiredness. As severe hypophosphataemia is usually symptomatic, we recommend screening symptomatic patients for this complication. Recognising and treating the possible exacerbating factors, especially vitamin D deficiency, might be a simple measure to mitigate this complication. PMID:28289000

  17. Adverse Effects of Intravenous Cannabis Tea

    PubMed Central

    Mims, Robert B.; Lee, Joel H.

    1977-01-01

    Adverse effects occurred in four youths after intravenous injection of an aqueous cannabis-seed tea, which was prepared by boiling the seeds. The effects were immediate and included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, chills, fever, hypovolemic shock, hypotension, and non-oligemic transitory renal failure. Other manifestations included persistent hypoglycemia, tachycardia, gastrointestinal bleeding, conjunctival hemorrhage, injury, jaundice, splenomegaly, leucocytosis, myalgia, arthralgia, motor weakness, and prostration. Ischemia was noted on electrocardiogram (EKG). All manifestations appeared to reverse within weeks, but these effects had been potentially fatal. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:875075

  18. Review of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous fat emulsion (IVFE) is an important source of calories and essential fatty acids for patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). Administered as an individual infusion or combined with PN, the fats provided by IVFE are vital for cellular structural function and metabolism. The affinity of some medications to lipids has led to the use of IVFE as a treatment for any lipophilic drug overdose. This article will explain the available formulations of IVFE, administration, and maintenance issues, as well as the risks and benefits for various applications. PMID:27828934

  19. Intravenous immune globulin in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gamm, H; Huber, C; Chapel, H; Lee, M; Ries, F; Dicato, M A

    1994-01-01

    The most common complication of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is infection, which occurs mainly in advanced stages of disease or in those patients with hypogammaglobulinaemia. Intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) has been shown to be a useful prophylactic therapy against infections in such patients. A randomized, double-blind study on 36 patients receiving either 500 mg/kg or 250 mg/kg IVIG every 4 weeks was undertaken to determine the dose regimen required. There was no significant difference in the two treatment groups and we found that CLL patients were equally protected with low-dose IVIG. PMID:8033428

  20. Advances in Pediatric Intravenous Iron Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mantadakis, Elpis

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) continues to be very common worldwide. Intravenous (IV) iron is an infrequently used therapeutic option in children with IDA despite numerous studies in adults and several small but notable pediatric studies showing efficacy and safety. Presently, the availability of newer IV iron products allows for replacement of the total iron deficit at a single setting. These products appear safer compared to the high molecular weight iron dextrans of the past. Herein, we review the medical literature and suggest that front line use of IV iron should be strongly considered in diseases associated with IDA in children.

  1. [Intravenous monoanesthesia and antianesthetics in emergency surgery].

    PubMed

    D'iachenko, P K; Kostiuchenko, A L

    1984-04-01

    Profiles of using the intravenous mononarcosis (sodium hydroxybutyrate, viadryl , ketamin , sombrevin, seduxen) in urgent surgery and traumatology are analyzed. Choice of certain narcotics is motivated for patients with blood loss and shock, intoxication, insufficiency of kidneys, adrenals and liver, cardio-vascular and respiratory disorders. The problem of antinarcotics is considered with reference to the efficiency of specific (bemegride, gutimine , amtizol , cytochrome "C") and nonspecific ( osmodiuretics , infusion media containing thawing water) antinarcotics . A preliminary assessment of the efficiency of different drugs of antinarcotic action is given.

  2. [Ekbom syndrome in an intravenous methylphenidate abuser].

    PubMed

    Pereiro Gómez, César; Vicente-Alba, Javier; Ramos-Caneda, Alberto; Vázquez Ventoso, Carlos; Fontela-Vivanco, Eva; Díaz del Valle, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ekbom syndrome is a mental disorder in which the patient has the monothematic delusion of being infected by parasites. It is an uncommon condition that was initially studied by dermatologists. The exactly etiology is unknown to date, though several causes have been proposed, including metabolic diseases (among other physical causes), psychiatric disorders, drugs, etc. Research has now found a relationship between drug abuse and psychotic symptoms, which appear to be due to altered levels of dopamine at the receptor level. In this article we review the clinical features of the condition and present the case report of an intravenous methylphenidate abuser who developed a delusion of parasitosis.

  3. Intravenous paracetamol toxicity in a malnourished child.

    PubMed

    Berling, Ingrid; Anscombe, Michael; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of intravenous (IV) paracetamol overdose in a nutritionally malnourished child during hospital admission. A ten-fold IV paracetamol dosing error ocurred, with delayed recognition and treatment resulting in transient hepatotoxicity, with a peak alanine transaminase (ALT) of 1378 IU/L in a 3-year-old child. Our case suggests that hepatotoxicity may occur for lower doses of IV paracetamol compared to oral ingestion, especially in the malnourished, and that a dose less than 150 mg/kg of IV paracetamol should be used to define treatment following overdose in a child with potential nutritional deficiencies.

  4. Effect of intravenous thiamine on pralidoxime kinetics.

    PubMed

    Josselson, J; Sidell, F R

    1978-07-01

    Subjects were given pralidoxime chloride (5 mg/kg, intravenously) alone and again while they were receiving an infusion of thiamine hydrochloride. After the addition of thiamine: (1) overall, the urinary excretion of oxime was the same but the amount excreted in the first three hours was smaller; (2) the plasma half-life of oxime lengthened; (3) the plasma concentrations of oxime rose; and (4) the intercompartmental clearances and rate constant for elimination for oxime fell. These changes suggest that thiamine and oxime compete for a common renal secretory mechanism or that thiamine alters the membrane transport of oxime.

  5. Secondary erythromelalgia successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Moody, Shadé; Pacheco, Susan; Butler, Ian J; Koenig, Mary Kay

    2012-07-01

    Erythromelalgia is a rare condition characterized by episodic painful erythema and warmth often affecting, but not limited to, the distal extremities. This condition is notoriously difficult to treat. We report a young female patient with seronegative polyarthritis who presented with a 6-year history of recurrent bouts of painful erythema and swelling often triggered by minor trauma. An extensive evaluation was unremarkable. Several medical therapies provided limited and inconsistent relief of her symptoms over many years. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin significantly decreased the frequency and severity of her symptoms.

  6. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  7. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  8. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  9. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

    PubMed

    Kranke, Peter; Jokinen, Johanna; Pace, Nathan Leon; Schnabel, Alexander; Hollmann, Markus W; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Eberhart, Leopold H J; Poepping, Daniel M; Weibel, Stephanie

    2015-07-16

    The management of postoperative pain and recovery is still unsatisfactory in clinical practice. Opioids used for postoperative analgesia are frequently associated with adverse effects including nausea and constipation. These adverse effects prevent smooth postoperative recovery. On the other hand not all patients may be suited to, and take benefit from, epidural analgesia used to enhance postoperative recovery. The non-opioid lidocaine was investigated in several studies for its use in multi-modal management strategies to reduce postoperative pain and enhance recovery. The aim of this review was to assess the effects (benefits and risks) of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion compared to placebo/no treatment or compared to epidural analgesia on postoperative pain and recovery in adults undergoing various surgical procedures. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5 2014), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2014), EMBASE (1980 to May 2014), CINAHL (1982 to May 2014), and reference lists of articles. We searched the trial registry database ClinicalTrials.gov, contacted researchers in the field, and handsearched journals and congress proceedings. We did not apply any language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of continuous perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion either with placebo, or no treatment, or with epidural analgesia in adults undergoing elective or urgent surgery under general anaesthesia. The intravenous lidocaine infusion must have been started intraoperatively prior to incision and continued at least until the end of surgery. Trial quality was independently assessed by two authors according to the methodological procedures specified by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were extracted by two independent authors. We collected trial data on postoperative pain, recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of hospital stay, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), opioid

  10. The Human Experience with Intravenous Levodopa

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Shan H.; Abraham, Natalia K.; Geiger, Christopher L.; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Black, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compile a comprehensive summary of published human experience with levodopa given intravenously, with a focus on information required by regulatory agencies. Background: While safe intravenous (IV) use of levodopa has been documented for over 50 years, regulatory supervision for pharmaceuticals given by a route other than that approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has become increasingly cautious. If delivering a drug by an alternate route raises the risk of adverse events, an investigational new drug (IND) application is required, including a comprehensive review of toxicity data. Methods: Over 200 articles referring to IV levodopa were examined for details of administration, pharmacokinetics, benefit, and side effects. Results: We identified 142 original reports describing IVLD use in humans, beginning with psychiatric research in 1959–1960 before the development of peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors. At least 2760 subjects have received IV levodopa, and reported outcomes include parkinsonian signs, sleep variables, hormone levels, hemodynamics, CSF amino acid composition, regional cerebral blood flow, cognition, perception and complex behavior. Mean pharmacokinetic variables were summarized for 49 healthy subjects and 190 with Parkinson's disease. Side effects were those expected from clinical experience with oral levodopa and dopamine agonists. No articles reported deaths or induction of psychosis. Conclusion: At least 2760 patients have received IV levodopa with a safety profile comparable to that seen with oral administration. PMID:26779024

  11. Panlobular emphysema in young intravenous Ritalin abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, R.A.; Glenny, R.W.; Godwin, J.D.; Hampson, N.B.; Cantino, M.E.; Reichenbach, D.D. )

    1991-03-01

    We studied a distinctive group of young intravenous Ritalin abusers with profound obstructive lung disease. Clinically, they seemed to have severe emphysema, but the pathologic basis of their symptoms had not been investigated previously. Seven patients have died and been autopsied: in four, the lungs were fixed, inflated, dried, and examined in detail radiologically, grossly, microscopically, and by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. All seven patients had severe panlobular (panacinar) emphysema that tended to be more severe in the lower lung zones and that was associated with microscopic talc granulomas. Vascular involvement by talc granulomas was variable, but significant interstitial fibrosis was not present. Five patients were tested for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and found to be normal, as were six similar living patients. These findings indicate that some intravenous drug abusers develop emphysema that clinically, radiologically, and pathologically resembles that caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but which must have a different pathogenesis. Talc from the Ritalin tablets may be important, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated.

  12. Intravenous pamidronate in osteogenesis imperfecta type VII.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Cyclical intravenous treatment with pamidronate is widely used to treat osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I, III, and IV, which are due to dominant mutations affecting collagen type I alpha chains. There is no information about the effects of pamidronate in children with OI type VII, an autosomal-recessive form of OI caused by a mutation in the cartilage-associated protein gene. In this retrospective single-center study, we compared the effects of pamidronate in four girls with OI type VII (age range 3.9-12.7 years) to those in eight girls with OI types caused by collagen type I mutations who were matched for age and disease severity. During 3 years of pamidronate therapy, lumbar spine areal bone mineral density increased and lumbar vertebral bodies improved in shape in patients with OI type VII. Other outcomes such as fracture rates and mobility scores did not show statistically significant changes in this small study cohort. There were no significant side effects noted during the time of follow-up. Thus, intravenous treatment with pamidronate seems to be safe and of some benefit in patients with OI type VII.

  13. The Human Experience with Intravenous Levodopa.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Shan H; Abraham, Natalia K; Geiger, Christopher L; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S; Black, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    To compile a comprehensive summary of published human experience with levodopa given intravenously, with a focus on information required by regulatory agencies. While safe intravenous (IV) use of levodopa has been documented for over 50 years, regulatory supervision for pharmaceuticals given by a route other than that approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has become increasingly cautious. If delivering a drug by an alternate route raises the risk of adverse events, an investigational new drug (IND) application is required, including a comprehensive review of toxicity data. Over 200 articles referring to IV levodopa were examined for details of administration, pharmacokinetics, benefit, and side effects. We identified 142 original reports describing IVLD use in humans, beginning with psychiatric research in 1959-1960 before the development of peripheral decarboxylase inhibitors. At least 2760 subjects have received IV levodopa, and reported outcomes include parkinsonian signs, sleep variables, hormone levels, hemodynamics, CSF amino acid composition, regional cerebral blood flow, cognition, perception and complex behavior. Mean pharmacokinetic variables were summarized for 49 healthy subjects and 190 with Parkinson's disease. Side effects were those expected from clinical experience with oral levodopa and dopamine agonists. No articles reported deaths or induction of psychosis. At least 2760 patients have received IV levodopa with a safety profile comparable to that seen with oral administration.

  14. Intravenous desensitization to beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Borish, L; Tamir, R; Rosenwasser, L J

    1987-09-01

    Patients allergic to penicillin (PCN) often require treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics for life-threatening bacterial infections. In this article, we review our experience with rapid intravenous desensitization for patients who gave a history of PCN allergy and who had hypersensitivity demonstrated by skin tests. Skin testing was performed with both prick and intradermal techniques and with the recommended antibiotic as well as PCN G, penicilloyl polylysine, and a minor determinant mixture. Patients were transferred to the intensive care unit, and desensitization was performed with a buret technique that required minimal preparation and was easily applied to any antibiotic. Fifteen desensitizations in 12 patients were associated with no immediate reactions. One patient developed a delayed reaction consisting of a pruritic rash and angioedema. A second patient developed a more serious delayed serum sickness-like illness with fever, rash, eosinophilia, abnormal liver function tests, and urinary abnormalities. These reactions did not necessitate stopping the antibiotic, although the latter patient required corticosteroids to suppress his symptoms. Rapid intravenous desensitization is a rapid, safe, and effective technique for patients demonstrating hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics who require therapy with these medications.

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Levy, Yair; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2005-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy may be beneficial and safe for various manifestations in SLE. A structured literature search of articles published on the efficacy of IVIg in the treatment of SLE between 1983 and 2005 was conducted. We searched the terms "IVIg," "intravenous immunoglobulin," "lupus," "SLE," and "systemic lupus erythematosus." The various clinical manifestations of SLE that were reported to be successfully treated by IVIg in case reports include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, acquired factor VIII inhibitors, acquired von Willebrand disease, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, pneumonitis, pleural effusion, pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiogenic shock, nephritis, end-stage renal disease, encephalitis, neuropsychiatric lupus, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, and vasculitis. The most extensive experience is with lupus nephritis. There are only a few case series of IVIg use in patients with SLE with various manifestations, in which the response rate to IVIg therapy ranged from 33 to 100%. We suggest that IVIg devoid of sucrose, at a dose of 2 g/kg over a 5-d period given uniformly and at a slow infusion rate in patients without an increased risk for thromboembolic events or renal failure, is a safe and beneficial adjunct therapy for cases of SLE that are resistant to or refuse conventional treatment. The duration of therapy is yet to be established. Controlled trials are warranted.

  16. Intravenous radionuclide cystography for the detection of vesicorenal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J.E.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Davidson, A.I.; Miller, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Intravenous radionuclide cystography using a single intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, provides information on individual kidney function, coarse anatomy and vesicorenal reflux. This study investigates the effectiveness of intravenous radionuclide cystography in detecting reflux. In 58 children intravenous radionuclide cystography detected 53 ureters with reflux compared to 32 detected by voiding cystography. This difference was investigated further with patients in whom other test suggested reflux. While there was no statistically significant difference for patients having pyelonephritis or hydronephrosis, intravenous radionuclide cystography detected significantly more ureters with reflux in patients with abnormal ureteral orifices or infected urine and, therefore, predisposed to reflux. Intravenous radionuclide cystography is a more comprehensive and sensitive test for vesicorenal reflux than voiding cystography.

  17. Short-term effects of hypertonic saline solution in acute heart failure and long-term effects of a moderate sodium restriction in patients with compensated heart failure with New York Heart Association class III (Class C) (SMAC-HF Study).

    PubMed

    Paterna, Salvatore; Fasullo, Sergio; Parrinello, Gaspare; Cannizzaro, Sergio; Basile, Ivana; Vitrano, Gabriella; Terrazzino, Gabriella; Maringhini, Giorgio; Ganci, Filippo; Scalzo, Sebastiano; Sarullo, Filippo M; Cice, Gennaro; Di Pasquale, Pietro

    2011-07-01

    Hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and a moderate Na restriction plus high furosemide dose showed beneficial effects in compensated heart failure (HF), in short and long terms. The study was aimed to verify the effects of this combination on hospitalization time, readmissions and mortality in patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III. Chronic ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy uncompensated patients with HF in NYHA III functional class with ejection fraction <40%, serum creatinine <2.5 mg/dL, blood urea nitrogen <60 mg/dL and reduced urinary volume were single-blind randomized in 2 groups: the first group received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of furosemide (250 mg) plus HSS (150 mL) twice daily and a moderate Na restriction (120 mmol); the second group received furosemide intravenous bolus (250 mg) twice a day, without HSS and a low Na diet (80 mmol); both groups received a fluid intake of 1000 mL/d. After discharge, the HSS group continued with 120 mmol Na/d; the second group continued with 80 mmol Na/d. A total of 1771 patients (881 HSS group and 890 without HSS group) met inclusion criteria: the first group (881 patients), compared with the second (890 patients), showed an increase in diuresis and serum Na levels, a reduction in hospitalization time (3.5 + 1 versus 5.5 + 1 days, P < 0.0001) and, during follow-up (57 + 15 months), a lower rate in readmissions (18.5% versus 34.2%, P < 0.0001) and mortality (12.9% versus 23.8%, P < 0.0001); the second group also showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. This study suggests that in-hospital HSS administration, combined with moderate Na restriction, reduces hospitalization time and that a moderate sodium diet restriction determines long-term benefit in patients with NYHA class III HF.

  18. Therapeutic potential of ghrelin in restricting-type anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Mari; Ohwada, Rina; Akamizu, Takashi; Shibasaki, Tamotsu; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by a decrease in caloric intake and malnutrition. It is associated with a variety of medical morbidities as well as significant mortality. Nutritional support is of paramount importance to prevent impaired quality of life later in life in affected patients. Some patients with restricting-type AN who are fully motivated to gain body weight cannot increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Chronicity of AN prevents participation in social activities and leads to increased medical expenses. Therefore, there is a pressing need for effective appetite-stimulating therapies for patients with AN. Ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone that can be given intravenously. Intravenous infusion of ghrelin is reported to increase food intake and body weight in healthy subjects as well as in patients with poor nutritional status. Here, we introduce the results of a pilot study that investigated the effects of ghrelin on appetite, energy intake, and nutritional parameters in five patients with restricting-type AN, who are fully motivated to gain body weight but could not increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Retroviral restriction: nature's own solution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher E; McKnight, Áine

    2016-12-01

    The present review will discuss recent advances in the development of anti-HIV therapies inspired by studies of the mechanisms of host restriction factor-mediated resistance to HIV infection. Manipulating the interplay between host cell restriction factors and viral accessory factors that overcome them can potentially be therapeutically useful. Preliminarily successful therapies - some of which are entering clinical trials - either inhibit the ability of virus to evade restriction factor-mediated immunity, or promote intracellular levels of restriction factors. These aims are achieved by multiple means, which are discussed. Many restriction factors appear to provide potentially useful targets for anti-HIV therapies, so time and interest should be invested in investigating ways to successfully therapeutically manipulate restriction factor-mediated immunity.

  20. Fluid Management for Critically Ill Patients: A Review of the Current State of Fluid Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Frazee, Erin; Kashani, Kianoush

    2016-06-01

    Intravenous fluids (IVF) are frequently utilized to restore intravascular volume in patients with distributive and hypovolemic shock. Although the benefits of the appropriate use of fluids in intensive care units (ICUs) and hospitals are well described, there is growing knowledge regarding the potential risks of volume overload and its impact on organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are developed and utilized more often among ICU patients. Apart from the amount of fluid utilized for resuscitation, the type of fluid used also impacts patient outcome. Colloids and crystalloids are two types of fluids that are utilized for resuscitation. The efficacy of each fluid type on the expansion of intravascular volume on one hand and the potential adverse effects of each individual fluid, on the other hand, need to be considered when choosing the type of fluid for resuscitation. The negative impact of hydroxyethyl starch on kidney function, of albumin on the mortality of head trauma patients and chloride-rich crystalloids on mortality and kidney function, are only examples of new developments in the field. In this paper, we will review the impact of fluid overload on patient outcomes, define the fluid challenge, describe the differences in static and dynamic estimates of fluid responsiveness, and review the effect of different types of fluid on patient outcome. Avoiding fluid overload by choosing the appropriate amount of fluids in patients who are fluid-responsive on one hand, and treating IVF like other medications, on the other hand, are the major changes. Whenever clinicians decide to prescribe IVF, they need to weigh the risks and benefits of giving fluid and also the advantages and side effects of each fluid type in order to optimize patient outcomes.

  1. Utilizing left ventricular outflow tract velocity changes to predict fluid responsiveness in septic patients: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chiem, Alan T; Turner, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Toxin-mediated vasodilation in the sepsis syndrome can lead to end-organ dysfunction and shock. Assessing for fluid responsiveness and preload optimization with intravenous fluids is a central tenet in the management of sepsis. Aggressive fluid administration can lead to pulmonary edema and heart failure, whereas premature inotropic or vasopressor support can worsen organ perfusion. Inferior vena cava ultrasonography is commonly used to assess for fluid responsiveness but has multiple limitations.

  2. Effect of Intravenously Administered Crystalloid Solutions on Acid-Base Balance in Domestic Animals.

    PubMed

    Muir, W

    2017-09-01

    Intravenous fluid therapy can alter plasma acid-base balance. The Stewart approach to acid-base balance is uniquely suited to identify and quantify the effects of the cationic and anionic constituents of crystalloid solutions on plasma pH. The plasma strong ion difference (SID) and weak acid concentrations are similar to those of the administered fluid, more so at higher administration rates and with larger volumes. A crystalloid's in vivo effects on plasma pH are described by 3 general rules: SID > [HCO3-] increases plasma pH (alkalosis); SID < [HCO3-] decreases plasma pH (alkalosis); and SID = [HCO3-] yields no change in plasma pH. The in vitro pH of commercially prepared crystalloid solutions has little to no effect on plasma pH because of their low titratable acidity. Appreciation of IV fluid composition and an understanding of basic physicochemical principles provide therapeutically valuable insights about how and why fluid therapy can produce and correct alterations of plasma acid-base equilibrium. The ideal balanced crystalloid should (1) contain species-specific concentrations of key electrolytes (Na(+) , Cl(-) , K(+) , Ca(++) , Mg(++) ), particularly Na(+) and Cl(-) ; (2) maintain or normalize acid-base balance (provide an appropriate SID); and (3) be isosmotic and isotonic (not induce inappropriate fluid shifts) with normal plasma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Resistance to fluid flow in veins.

    PubMed

    Scott, D A; Fox, J A; Cnaan, A; Philip, B K; Lind, L J; Palleiko, M A; Stelling, J M; Philip, J H

    1996-07-01

    We evaluated the resistance to fluid infusion in the veins of 118 adult patients after intravenous catheter insertion prior to elective surgery. Hydraulic resistance in veins was defined as the slope of the pressure-flow relationship obtained by measuring venous pressure at several fluid flow rates. A resistance unit (RU) was defined as 1 mmHg/L/hr. Resistance in veins ranged from -12.1 to 732 RU, with 50th and 95th percentiles being 22 and 198 RU, respectively. Venous resistance was not significantly affected by site of catheter insertion, tissue characteristics at the insertion site, age, sex, patient anxiety, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, or catheter size. This report provides a distribution of resistance to fluid infusion in arm veins of adult patients.

  4. Brain microdialysate, CSF and plasma pharmacokinetics of ligustrazine hydrochloride in rats after intranasal and intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao; Tang, Zhan; Zhang, Wanggang

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ligustrazine hydrochloride (LZH) in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cerebral cortex after intranasal (10 mg/kg) or intravenous administration (10 mg/kg) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma, CSF and cerebral cortex microdialysates were collected at timed intervals for the measurement of LZH by a quick and sensitive HPLC-UV method. LZH entered the brain quickly following both routes of administration. No significant difference was observed between the AUCCSF or cortex /AUCplasma ratio of LZH after intranasal administration (38.4%, 17.4%) and that after intravenous injection (45.9%, 19.9%). The drug targeting index (DTI) was 0.85 and 0.91 in the CSF and cortex, respectively. In conclusion, LZH is rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation following intranasal administration. There is no direct pathway for LZH transport from the nasal cavity to the brain. The rapidity and magnitude of LZH penetration into the brain indicate that intranasal administration of this agent is a promising alternative to intravenous administration. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Does Intravenous Midazolam Dose Influence the Duration of Recovery Room Stay Following Outpatient Third Molar Surgery?

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Kyle S; Jacob, Adam K; Viozzi, Christopher F; Van Ess, James M; Fillmore, W Jonathan; Arce, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of intravenous midazolam dose on the duration of recovery room stay for patients undergoing outpatient third molar surgery. Using a retrospective cohort study design, a sample of patients undergoing outpatient third molar surgery under intravenous sedation at Mayo Clinic from 2010 to 2014 was identified. All patients underwent extraction of all 4 third molars during a single operative procedure and the age range was limited to 14 to 29 years. The primary predictor variable was the total dose of intravenous midazolam administered during sedation. The primary outcome variable was recovery room length of stay (LOS) after completion of surgery. Multiple covariates also abstracted included patient age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, duration of surgical procedure, complexity of surgical procedure, types and dosages of all intravenous medications administered during sedation, and volume of crystalloid fluid administered perioperatively. Univariable and multivariable models were developed to evaluate associations between the primary predictor variable and covariates relative to the primary outcome variable. The study sample was composed of 2,610 patients. Mean age was 18.3 years (SD, 3.0 yr; range, 14 to 29 yr) and gender distribution was 52% female. Mean dosage of midazolam administered was 4.1 mg (SD, 1.1 mg; range, 0.5 to 10.0 mg). Variables predicting shorter LOS at multivariable analysis included older age (P < .001), male gender (P = .004), and administration of larger crystalloid fluid volumes (P < .001). Variables predicting longer LOS included higher ASA score (P < .001), administration of ketamine (P < .001), and administration of ketorolac (P < .001). The dose of midazolam administered during sedation was not found to be significantly associated with prolonged recovery room LOS in univariable or multivariable settings. Dosage of intravenous midazolam does not appear to significantly impact the

  6. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  7. Subcutaneous Infusion of Fluids for Hydration or Nutrition: A Review.

    PubMed

    Caccialanza, Riccardo; Constans, Thierry; Cotogni, Paolo; Zaloga, Gary P; Pontes-Arruda, Alessandro

    2016-11-02

    Subcutaneous infusion, or hypodermoclysis, is a technique whereby fluids are infused into the subcutaneous space via small-gauge needles that are typically inserted into the thighs, abdomen, back, or arms. In this review, we provide an overview of the technique, summarize findings from studies that have examined the use of subcutaneous infusion of fluids for hydration or nutrition, and describe the indications, advantages, and disadvantages of subcutaneous infusion. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that, when indicated, subcutaneous infusion can be effective for administering fluids for hydration or nutrition, with minimal complications, and has similar effectiveness and safety to the intravenous route. Of note, subcutaneous infusion offers several advantages over intravenous infusion, including ease of application, low cost, and the lack of potential serious complications, particularly infections. Subcutaneous infusion may be particularly suited for patients with mild to moderate dehydration or malnutrition when oral/enteral intake is insufficient; when placement of an intravenous catheter is not possible, tolerated, or desirable; at risk of dehydration when oral intake is not tolerated; as a bridging technique in case of difficult intravenous access or catheter-related bloodstream infection while infection control treatment is being attempted; and in multiple settings (eg, emergency department, hospital, outpatient clinic, nursing home, long-term care, hospice, and home). © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, H. D.; Siddons, D. P.

    1990-05-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. Gd-DTPA is already approved for use as a contrast agent for

  9. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N

    2009-01-21

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials concerning the efficacy and safety of IVIg in CIDP. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI from January 1985 to May 2008. Randomised controlled studies testing any dose of IVIg versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in definite or probable CIDP. Two authors reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, scored their quality and extracted data independently. We contacted authors for additional information. Seven randomised controlled trials were considered eligible including 287 participants. These trials were homogeneous and overall quality was high. Five studies on 235 participants compared IVIg against placebo. One trial with 20 participants compared IVIg with plasma exchange and one trial compared IVIg with prednisolone in 32 participants. A significantly higher proportion of participants improved in disability within one month after IVIg treatment as compared with placebo (relative risk 2.40, 95% confidence interval 1.72 to 3.36). Whether all these improvements are equally clinically relevant cannot be deduced from this analysis because each trial used different disability scales and definitions of significant improvement. In three trials including 84 participants the disability could be transformed to the modified Rankin score, on which significantly more patients improved one point after IVIg treatment compared to placebo (relative risk 2.40, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 5.83). Only one study included in this review had a long-term follow-up. The results of this study suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin improves disability more than placebo over 24 and 48 weeks. The

  10. Institution of combined treatment with testosterone and charcoal-extracted porcine follicular fluid immediately after orchidectomy prevents the postcastration hypersecretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in the hypothalamus-lesioned rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) receiving an invariant intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion.

    PubMed

    Abeyawardene, S A; Plant, T M

    1989-03-01

    In the male rhesus monkey, the negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion by the gonad involves a specific inhibitory action of a testicular hormone on FSH release at the level of the anterior pituitary gland. Neither circulating testosterone (T) nor estradiol appears to be able to account for the testicular inhibition of FSH in this species. The purpose of the present study was to begin to examine the role of gonadal peptides in this regard. To this end, an episodic pattern of activity in the pituitary-Leydig cell axis was restored in seven hypothalamus-lesioned male rhesus monkeys with a chronic and unchanging intermittent iv infusion of GnRH (0.1 microgram/min for 3 min every 3 h). This preparation, known as the hypophysiotropic clamp, has been described in detail previously. Charcoal-extracted porcine follicular fluid (pFF) was used as the source of gonadal peptides. In five animals, initiation of combined T replacement and pFF treatment (10-15 ml, sc, every 12 h for 8 days) maintained circulating FSH at concentrations similar to those observed before gonadectomy. Withdrawal of pFF treatment for 8 days while maintaining T replacement resulted in a progressive and dramatic rise in plasma FSH concentrations. Reinitiation of pFF treatment resulted in a return of circulating FSH concentrations toward precastration control values. Changes in LH secretion throughout the experiment were unremarkable. In an attempt to assess any nonspecific effects of porcine protein on gonadotropin secretion, the remaining two animals received charcoal-extracted pig serum instead of pFF. In these animals circulating FSH concentrations rose 7- to 8-fold during the 8 days of combined T replacement and pig serum treatment. These findings provide evidence to support the view that a testicular peptide, most probably inhibin, plays a major role in the negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin secretion in the monkey by exerting an inhibitory action on FSH secretion directly

  11. Intravenous dihydroergotamine therapy for pediatric abdominal migraines.

    PubMed

    Raina, Madiha; Chelimsky, Gisela; Chelimsky, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Abdominal migraines present with debilitating symptoms in adolescence. At our institution, the gastroenterology, neurology, and autonomic departments collaborated in treating patients with such presentations. This case series describes 6 patients who were given intravenous dihydroergotamine (DHE) for presumed abdominal migraines. DHE was only used when other agents like amitriptyline, verapamil, topiramate, or depakote had proved ineffective. DHE was started at 0.5 mg dose and on average 7 to 9 mg were given on each hospitalization. Patient ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with the majority being female. One patient did not respond to treatment. One patient was admitted 4 times for symptoms of abdominal migraines resolving with DHE. The average time between symptom relapse was about 5 to 12 months. Five of our 6 patients responded to the infusion without significant side effects. Based on these case series, DHE may be a treatment option in children with intractable abdominal migraine.

  12. Intravenous therapy: a guide to good practice.

    PubMed

    Scales, Katie

    This article provides an overview of the principles of good practice that underpin intravenous (IV) therapy. The indications for choosing the IV route and selecting an appropriate vascular access device (VAD) are explained. Common insertion sites for VAD placement and the care and management of VADs are reviewed. Infection control aspects of IV therapy are be highlighted, including the management of IV equipment and the importance of the nurse's role in the prevention of infection associated with IV therapy. Common complications of IV therapy are explained and strategies suggested for their prevention. The article addresses the issues associated with general IV therapy, it does not address specialist subjects such as parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy or blood transfusion.

  13. Cyanide and arsenic poisoning by intravenous injection.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, J; Hall, A H; Drake, R; Rumack, B H

    1989-03-01

    A 29-year-old man was found unresponsive a few minutes after self-injecting undetermined amounts of potassium cyanide and sodium arsenite intravenously in a suicide attempt. Treatment with the Lilly Cyanide Antidote kit rapidly resolved the initial coma, despite a whole blood cyanide level of 4.4 micrograms/mL. A 12-hour urine arsenic collection begun on admission showed 10,065 micrograms arsenic/12 hr. The patient received intramuscular BAL initially, which was followed by two ten-day courses of oral D-penicillamine. Complications included upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding requiring transfusion, transient elevations of liver function tests, self-limited complaints of decreased vision with conjunctival hyperemia and photophobia, and an abscess at the injection site. Although specific antidote therapy completely resolved the cyanide toxicity, early and prolonged arsenic chelation did not prevent a mild sensory peripheral neuropathy from developing with onset about 17 days after self-injection.

  14. Proteus endocarditis in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rohan; Sekar, Baskar; Payne, Mark N

    2015-11-26

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening condition with adverse consequences and increased mortality, despite improvements in treatment options. Diagnosed patients usually require a prolonged course of antibiotics, with up to 40-50% requiring surgery during initial hospital admission. We report a case of a 42-year-old intravenous drug user who presented feeling generally unwell, with lethargy, rigours, confusion and a painful swollen right leg. He was subsequently diagnosed with Proteus mirabilis endocarditis (fulfilling modified Duke criteria for possible IE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). He was successfully treated with single antibiotic therapy without needing surgical intervention or requiring anticoagulation for his DVT. Proteus endocarditis is extremely uncommon, with a limited number of case reports available in the literature. This case illustrates how blood cultures are invaluable in the diagnosis of IE, especially that due to unusual microorganisms. Our case also highlights how single antibiotic therapy can be effective in treating Proteus endocarditis.

  15. The future of intravenous iron in nephrology.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Daniel W

    2011-06-01

    Management of anaemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients can be difficult and expensive. The recently completed Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT), the largest double-blinded trial of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) treatment in CKD to date, provides us with a wealth of new information on the natural history of anaemia in Stage 3 and 4 CKD and the risks and benefits of use of ESAs. This section will discuss some of the TREAT trial results in the context of other recent studies of ESAs and intravenous iron in CKD patients. It will also review applying those results when choosing anaemia goals for an individual, and determining if iron therapy might improve anaemia.

  16. Descending polyneuropathy in an intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Jean M; McMahon, Geraldine

    2005-10-01

    A 27-year-old male intravenous drug user presented to the Emergency Department of St James's Hospital with a 1-week history of progressive dysphasia, dysphagia and difficulty 'holding his head up' and 'keeping his eyes open'. He also complained of increasing weakness in his upper limbs, as a result of which he kept dropping things. He was on a methadone program but was using both intravenous heroin and cocaine at the time of presentation. Examination of his motor function revealed generalized hypotonia, hyporeflexia and reduced power in both upper limbs. No sensory loss was observed. Co-ordination was intact. The clinical picture of a proximal symmetrical descending weakness and an absence of sensory loss was suggestive of botulism. Clostridium botulinum is a spore-forming, obligate anaerobe. The three forms of human botulism are food-borne, wound and intestinal. A fourth man-made form is produced from aerosolized botulinum toxin and results in inhalational botulism. A little as 1 g of aerosolized botulinum toxin has the potential to kill 1.5 million people. Toxin is detected in serum or stool specimens in only approximately 46% of clinically diagnosed cases. Treatment involves supportive care and early passive immunization with equine antitoxin. Patients should be regularly assessed for loss of gag and cough reflex, control of oropharyngeal secretions, oxygen saturation, vital capacity and inspiratory force. When respiratory function begins to deteriorate, anticipatory intubation is indicated. Early symptom recognition and early treatment with antitoxin are essential in order to prevent mortality, and to prevent additional cases, it is important to ascertain the presence of similar symptoms in contacts of the patient and local public health officials must be notified as one case may herald an outbreak. Given the continued threat of bioterrorism, the Centre for Disease Control Surveillance System in the United States must also be notified of any cases of botulism.

  17. Intravenous methylprednisolone for intractable childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Almaabdi, Kholoud H; Alshehri, Rawan O; Althubiti, Areej A; Alsharef, Zainab H; Mulla, Sara N; Alshaer, Dareen S; Alfaidi, Nouf S; Jan, Mohammed M

    2014-04-01

    Steroids have been used for the treatment of certain epilepsy types, such as infantile spasms; however, the use in the treatment of other intractable epilepsies has received limited study. We report our experience with intravenous methylprednisolone in children with epilepsy refractory to multiple antiepileptic drugs. A series of consecutive children were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with infantile spasms, progressive degenerative, or metabolic disorders were excluded. Seventeen children aged 2-14 (mean 5.3) years were included. Associated cognitive and motor deficits were recognized in 82%. Most children (88%) had daily seizures and 13 (76%) were admitted previously with status epilepticus. The epilepsy was cryptogenic (unknown etiology) in 47% and the seizures were mixed in 41%. Intravenous methylprednisolone was given at 15 mg/kg per day followed by a weaning dose of oral prednisolone for 2-8 weeks (mean 3 weeks). Children were followed for 6-24 months (mean 18). Six (35%) children became completely seizure free; however, three of them later developed recurrent seizures. At 6 months posttreatment, improved seizure control was noted in 10 (59%) children. Children with mixed seizures were more likely to have a favorable response than those with one seizure type (49% vs 31%, P = 0.02). No major side effects were noted, and 35% of the parents reported improvements in their child's alertness and appetite. Add-on steroid treatment for children with intractable epilepsy is safe and may be effective in some children when used in a short course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic review: intravenous Ibuprofen in preterm newborns.

    PubMed

    Aranda, J V; Thomas, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, widely used as antipyretic, antiinflammatory, and analgesic agent and for therapy of arthritis, exerts a dose-dependent constriction of the ductus arteriosus in newborn lambs. Two intravenous preparations, namely ibuprofen lysine and ibuprofen-THAM, have been studied in preterm newborns with patent ductus arteriosus. Clinical trials have compared IV ibuprofen to placebo, or to indomethacin. Pharmacodynamic effects of this drug before and after its administration have also been evaluated. Compared with placebo, IV ibuprofen effectively closed PDA with minimal effect on renal function. One study using intravenous ibuprofen-THAM showed decreased renal function and increased risk of NEC and PPHN. Compared with indomethacin, IV ibuprofen lysine exerted similar efficacy (75% to 93% closure). However, indomethacin increased abnormal renal function and decreased mesenteric and cerebral blood flow and bio-energetics. Two clinical trials showed that ibuprofen did not reduce the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage compared with placebo. The drug has prolonged elimination (plasma half-life = ca 23 hours), suggesting that once daily dosing is appropriate. Dose finding studies indicate that a starting dose of 10 mg/kg followed by 5 mg/kg/d for 2 more days provides optimal efficacy with the least adverse effects. Neonatal data on ibuprofen and indomethacin indicate that, on the first day of life when IVH prevention is desired, indomethacin and not ibuprofen should be used since ibuprofen has no effect on IVH risk. On or after the second day of postnatal life, when early or therapeutic PDA closure is needed, ibuprofen and not indomethacin is probably the first choice due to its better adverse event profile.

  19. Phytonadione Content in Branded Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Forchielli, Maria Luisa; Conti, Matteo; Motta, Roberto; Puggioli, Cristina; Bersani, Germana

    2017-03-01

    Intravenous fat emulsions (IVFE) with different fatty acid compositions contain vitamin E as a by-product of vegetable and animal oil during the refining processes. Likewise, other lipid-soluble vitamins may be present in IVFE. No data, however, exist about phytonadione (vitamin K1) concentration in IVFE information leaflets. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the phytonadione content in different IVFE. Analyses were carried out in triplicate on 6 branded IVFE as follows: 30% soybean oil (100%), 20% olive-soybean oil (80%-20%), 20% soybean-medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) coconut oil (50%-50%), 20% soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil (30%-25%-30%-15%), 20% soybean-MCT-fish oil (40%-50%-10%), and 10% pure fish oil (100%). Phytonadione was analyzed and quantified by a quali-quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method after its extraction from the IVFE by an isopropyl alcohol-hexane mixture, reverse phase-liquid chromatography, and specific multiple-reaction monitoring for phytonadione and vitamin d3 (as internal standard). This method was validated through specificity, linearity, and accuracy. Average vitamin K1 content was 500, 100, 90, 100, 95, and 70 µg/L in soybean oil, olive-soybean oil, soybean-MCT coconut oil, soybean-olive-MCT-fish oil, soybean-MCT-fish oil, and pure fish oil intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs), respectively. The analytical LC-MS method was extremely effective in terms of specificity, linearity ( r = 0.99), and accuracy (coefficient of variation <5%). Phytonadione is present in IVFE, and its intake varies according to IVFE type and the volume administered. It can contribute to daily requirements and become clinically relevant when simultaneously infused with multivitamins during long-term parenteral nutrition. LC-MS seems adequate in assessing vitamin K1 intake in IVFE.

  20. Intravenous ω-3 Fatty Acids Plus Gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Ali; Isherwood, John; Mann, Christopher; Cooke, Jill; Pollard, Cristina; Runau, Franscois; Morgan, Bruno; Steward, William; Metcalfe, Matthew; Dennison, Ashley

    2017-03-01

    Marine-derived ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs) have proven antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro and improve quality of life (QOL) in clinical cancer studies. These changes may be mediated by reduction in circulating proangiogenic and proinflammatory factors. In this first study of intravenous ω-3FAs as a therapy in cancer patients, we aimed to assess if it could augment the antitumor activity of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and improve QOL. Patients were administered gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(3) weekly followed by up to 100 g (200 mg/mL) of ω-3 rich lipid emulsion for 3 weeks followed by a rest week. This was continued for up to 6 cycles, progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient request, or death. The primary outcome measure was objective response rate, with secondary outcome measures of overall and progression free survival, QOL scores, and adverse events. Fifty patients were recruited. Response rate was 14.3% and disease control rate was 85.7%. Overall and progression free survival were 5.9 and 4.8 months, respectively. Increase in global health of > 10% over baseline was seen in 47.2% of patients. More than 50% of patients had > 10% increase in QOL scores in generic symptom scores and both disease-specific domains. Grade 3/4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (8%), neutropenia (12%), nausea or vomiting (4%), and chills (6%). Intravenous ω-3FAs in combination with gemcitabine shows evidence of improved activity and benefit to QOL in patients with advanced pancreas cancer and is worthy of investigation in a randomized phase III trial.

  1. Maternal intravenous administration of azithromycin results in significant fetal uptake in a sheep model of second trimester pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Matthew W; Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J; Spiller, O Brad; Ireland, Demelza J; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Newnham, John P

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Maternal Intravenous Administration of Azithromycin Results in Significant Fetal Uptake in a Sheep Model of Second Trimester Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Yuichiro; Payne, Matthew S.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Saito, Masatoshi; Stock, Sarah J.; Spiller, O. Brad; Ireland, Demelza J.; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Clarke, Michael; Hahne, Dorothee; Rodger, Jennifer; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of intrauterine infection is likely key to preventing a significant proportion of preterm deliveries before 32 weeks of gestation. Azithromycin (AZ) may be an effective antimicrobial in pregnancy; however, few gestation age-approriate data are available to inform the design of AZ-based treatment regimens in early pregnancy. We aimed to determine whether a single intra-amniotic AZ dose or repeated maternal intravenous (i.v.) AZ doses would safely yield therapeutic levels of AZ in an 80-day-gestation (term is 150 days) ovine fetus. Fifty sheep carrying single pregnancies at 80 days gestation were randomized to receive either: (i) a single intra-amniotic AZ administration or (ii) maternal intravenous AZ administration every 12 h. Amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, and fetal AZ concentrations were determined over a 5-day treatment regimen. Markers of liver injury and amniotic fluid inflammation were measured to assess fetal injury in response to drug exposure. A single intra-amniotic administration yielded significant AZ accumulation in the amniotic fluid and fetal lung. In contrast, repeated maternal intravenous administrations achieved high levels of AZ accumulation in the fetal lung and liver and a statistically significant increase in the fetal plasma drug concentration at 120 h. There was no evidence of fetal injury in response to drug exposure. These data suggest that (i) repeated maternal i.v. AZ dosing yields substantial fetal tissue uptake, although fetal plasma drug levels remain low; (ii) transfer of AZ from the amniotic fluid is less than transplacental transfer; and (iii) exposure to high concentrations of AZ did not elicit overt changes in fetal white blood cell counts, amniotic fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 concentrations, or hepatotoxicity, all consistent with an absence of fetal injury. PMID:25155606

  3. False-positive tests for syphilis associated with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infection among intravenous drug abusers. Valencian Study Group on HIV Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Aguado, I; Bolumar, F; Moreno, R; Pardo, F J; Torres, N; Belda, J; Espacio, A

    1998-11-01

    The role of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infections in the production of biological false-positive reactions for syphilis was evaluated in two large samples of intravenous drug abusers and homosexual men attending AIDS prevention centers in Spain. A significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for false-positive tests for syphilis [OR 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.76-2.83] was observed for HIV-seropositive intravenous drug abusers; biological false-positive reactions were also more frequent (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30-2.31) among intravenous drug abusers who were hepatitis B virus seropositive but not among those who were hepatitis C virus seropositive (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.48-1.69). Among homosexuals, the association between HIV and biological false-positive reactions was restricted to subjects who were also intravenous drug abusers, indicating the crucial role of intravenous drug abuse. Only 20.5% of intravenous drug abusers with a previous biological false-positive reaction yielded a false-positive result in their subsequent visit.

  4. Intravenous drug use is associated with alloimmunization in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lappen, Justin R; Stark, Sydney; Gibson, Kelly S; Prasad, Mona; Bailit, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested an association of intravenous drug abuse with alloimmunization; however, published data are limited to case reports. The purpose of this study was to determine whether women with a history of intravenous drug abuse have an increased risk of alloimmunization. A retrospective cohort study was performed with the use of data from a single-center blood bank and perinatal database from 2008-2014. Blood bank data were used to identify women with alloimmunization, which was defined as a positive antibody screen in pregnancy not due to naturally occurring antibodies, agglutinins, autoantibodies, or Rh immunoglobulin administration. Intravenous drug abuse was ascertained from a comprehensive database that has captured all drug abuse in pregnancy since 2008. For women who contributed >1 pregnancy to the database, only the most recent pregnancy was included. The rates of alloimmunization among women with a history of intravenous drug abuse and general obstetric populations were calculated and compared. The distribution of alloantibody types, proportion of Rh-group alloantibodies, and patient Rh status were assessed for intravenous and non-intravenous drug abuse-associated alloimmunization. Characteristics and outcomes between intravenous and non-intravenous drug abuse-associated alloimmunization were assessed for women with clinically significant alloantibodies. Alloimmunization was more common in women with a history of intravenous drug abuse (11/305 women; 3.6%) compared to women without a history of intravenous drug abuse (288/16,022 women; 1.8%; relative risk, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-3.62). Needle-sharing was present in 7 and suspected in 4 women with an intravenous drug abuse history. Among women with a history of intravenous drug abuse, none had a history of transfusion or traditional risk factor for alloimmunization. The distribution of alloantibodies was different between intravenous drug abuse- and non-intravenous drug

  5. Intravenous Vitamin C Administered as Adjunctive Therapy for Recurrent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bharara, Amit; Grossman, Catherine; Syed, Aamer; DeWilde, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This case report summarizes the first use of intravenous vitamin C employed as an adjunctive interventional agent in the therapy of recurrent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The two episodes of ARDS occurred in a young female patient with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome, a rare, sporadically occurring, noninherited disorder that is characterized by extensive gastrointestinal polyposis and malabsorption. Prior to the episodes of sepsis, the patient was receiving nutrition via chronic hyperalimentation administered through a long-standing central venous catheter. The patient became recurrently septic with Gram positive cocci which led to two instances of ARDS. This report describes the broad-based general critical care of a septic patient with acute respiratory failure that includes fluid resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and vasopressor support. Intravenous vitamin C infused at 50 mg per kilogram body weight every 6 hours for 96 hours was incorporated as an adjunctive agent in the care of this patient. Vitamin C when used as a parenteral agent in high doses acts “pleiotropically” to attenuate proinflammatory mediator expression, to improve alveolar fluid clearance, and to act as an antioxidant. PMID:27891260

  6. Prediction of Early Reperfusion From Repeated Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shuhei; Griebe, Martin; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias; Sauter-Servaes, Johannes; Wolf, Marc E; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina; Kern, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    There are few in vivo data on the pathophysiology of reperfusion during systemic thrombolysis. We monitored the time course of cerebral perfusion changes in patients during thrombolysis with repeated arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Ten patients with proximal arterial occlusion within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. All patients received intravenous thrombolysis during the magnetic resonance imaging examination. Repeated arterial spin labeling perfusion images were acquired during the 60-minute therapy and at follow-up after 24 to 72 hours. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging features, and cerebral perfusion changes were analyzed. Before thrombolysis, arterial spin labeling hypoperfusion and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity in the territory of the occluded arteries were observed in all patients. In 5 patients, extensive arterial transit artifacts (ATA) developed in the hypoperfused area. The ATA corresponded with fluid-attenuation inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities. All 5 patients who developed extensive ATA in the hypoperfused area had complete reperfusion after thrombolysis, whereas the 5 without extensive ATA showed no or only partial reperfusion (P<0.01). The development of ATA preceded the normalization of tissue perfusion. The development of ATA during thrombolysis is associated with early reperfusion after thrombolysis. arterial spin labeling assessment during intravenous thrombolysis has the potential to guide subsequent therapeutic strategies in patients with acute stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Comparison of postinfusion phlebitis in intravenous push versus intravenous piggyback cefazolin.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Constance; Nichols, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Reducing health care costs without adversely affecting patient safety is a constant challenge for health care institutions. Cefazolin prophylaxis via intravenous push (IVP) is more cost-effective than via intravenous piggyback (IVPB). The purpose of this study was to determine whether patient safety would be compromised (ie, an increased rate of phlebitis) with a change to the IVP method. Rates of phlebitis in orthopedic surgical patients receiving cefazolin prophylaxis via IVP versus IVPB were evaluated in a prospective quasi-experimental design of 240 patients. The first 120 subjects received cefazolin via IVPB, and the second 120 subjects received it via IVP. Results indicated no statistically significant difference in phlebitis rates in the IVPB (3.4%) versus the IVP groups (3.3%).

  8. Perioperative fluid management: From physiology to improving clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Victoria A; Cecconi, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative fluid management is a key component in the care of the surgical patient. It is an area that has seen significant changes and developments, however there remains a wide disparity in practice between clinicians. Historically, patients received large volumes of intravenous fluids perioperatively. The concept of goal directed therapy was then introduced, with the early studies showing significant improvements in morbidity and mortality. The current focus is on fluid therapy guided by an individual patient's physiology. A fluid challenge is commonly performed as part of an assessment of a patient's fluid responsiveness. There remains wide variation in how clinicians perform a fluid challenge and this review explores the evidence for how to administer an effective challenge that is both reliable and reproducible. The methods for monitoring cardiac output have evolved from the pulmonary artery catheter to a range of less invasive techniques. The different options that are available for perioperative use are considered. Fluid status can also be assessed by examining the microcirculation and the importance of recognising the possibility of a lack of coherence between the macro and microcirculation is discussed. Fluid therapy needs to be targeted to specific end points and individualised. Not all patients who respond to a fluid challenge will necessarily require additional fluid administration and care should be aimed at identifying those who do. This review aims to explain the underlying physiology and describe the evidence base and the changes that have been seen in the approach to perioperative fluid therapy. PMID:28890555

  9. Fluid resuscitation therapy for paediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Long, Elliot; Duke, Trevor

    2016-02-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the final common pathway for many decompensated paediatric infections. Fluid resuscitation therapy has been the cornerstone of haemodynamic resuscitation in these children. Good evidence for equivalence between 0.9% saline and 4% albumin, with the relative expense of the latter, has meant that 0.9% saline is currently the most commonly used resuscitation fluid world-wide. Evidence for harm from the chloride load in 0.9% saline has generated interest in balanced solutions as first line resuscitation fluids. Their safety has been well established in observational studies, and they may well be the most reasonable default fluid for resuscitation. Semi-synthetic colloids have been associated with renal dysfunction and death and should be avoided. There is evidence for harm from excessive administration of any resuscitation fluid. Resuscitation fluid volumes should be treated in the same way as the dose of any other intravenously administered medication, and the potential benefits versus harms for the individual patient weighed prior to administration. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. The efficacy of hypotonic and near-isotonic saline for parenteral fluid therapy given at low maintenance rate in preventing significant change in plasma sodium in post-operative pediatric patients: protocol for a prospective randomized non-blinded study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality observed in post-operative pediatric patients receiving intravenous maintenance fluid therapy. If plasma sodium concentration (p-Na+) declines to levels below 125 mmol/L in < 48 h, transient or permanent brain damage may occur. There is an intense debate as to whether the administered volume (full rate vs. restricted rate of infusion) and the composition of solutions used for parenteral maintenance fluid therapy (hypotonic vs. isotonic solutions) contribute to the development of hyponatremia. So far, there is no definitive pediatric data to support a particular choice of parenteral fluid for maintenance therapy in post-surgical patients. Methods/Design Our prospective randomized non-blinded study will be conducted in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 14 years who have been operated for acute appendicitis. Patients will be randomized either to intravenous hypotonic (0.23% or 0.40% sodium chloride in glucose, respectively) or near-isotonic (0.81% sodium chloride in glucose) solution given at approximately three-fourths of the average maintenance rate. The main outcome of interest from this study is to evaluate 24 h post-operatively whether differences in p-Na+ between treatment groups are large enough to be of clinical relevance. In addition, water and electrolyte balance as well as regulatory hormones will be measured. Discussion This study will provide valuable information on the efficacy of hypotonic and near-isotonic fluid therapy in preventing a significant decrease in p-Na+. Finally, by means of careful electrolyte and water balance and by measuring regulatory hormones our results will also contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathology of post-operative changes in p-Na+ in a population at risk for hyponatremia. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the current controlled trials registry; registry number: ISRCTN43896775. PMID:21729308

  11. How to Keep an Infusion Log: Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG)

    MedlinePlus

    How to keep an INFUSION LOG Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) How to keep an INFUSION LOG The Value of Keeping Records Excellence in health care ... keeping track of your Intravenous Immune Globulin (IVIG) infusions. Each of the manufacturers prepares IVIG in a ...

  12. Fulminant hepatic failure associated with intravenous erythromycin lactobionate.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Warren, G H

    1990-01-01

    Fatal fulminant hepatic failure accompanied by brisk hemolysis developed in an elderly man after intravenous administration of erythromycin lactobionate for a lower respiratory infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of fatal hepatotoxicity associated with intravenous erythromycin therapy. Erythromycin should be added to the list of drugs that can cause fulminant hepatic failure.

  13. Transition of Stable Pediatric Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension from Intravenous Epoprostenol to Intravenous Treprostinil

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, D. Dunbar; Claussen, Lori; Doran, Aimee

    2007-01-01

    Intravenous epoprostenol was the first agent approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, epoprostenol therapy carries the risks of a short half-life (<6 minutes) and side effects, including jaw pain, flushing, and headache. Recently, intravenous treprostinil has been studied, primarily in adults with PAH, and found to provide effective therapy. The effects of continuous intravenous treprostinil were retrospectively evaluated in 13 children with stable PAH who had been treated with epoprostenol for >1 year. Children were transitioned in the hospital over 24 hours using a rapid or slow strategy. The children were a mean age of 11 years (range 3 to 17) and were transitioned to treprostinil from August 2004 to August 2005. The baseline 6-minute walking distance was on average 516 ± 115 m (n = 9) and did not change after transition. Patients were treated with treprostinil for 1.1 ± 0.5 years. There were 2 deaths, and 2 patients transitioned to other therapy. Seven patients experienced ≥1 central-line infection. Despite a higher dose of treprostinil, the side effects were subjectively diminished. In conclusion, treprostinil provides an alternative therapy in children with PAH, with fewer side effects. However, evaluation regarding rates of infection requires further exploration. PMID:17317374

  14. Gyroelastic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin for Guillain-Barré syndrome: how effective?

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Haydar Ali; Dilber, Cengiz; Kanber, Yilmaz; Uysal, Serap

    2006-11-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is an acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy characterized by progressive symmetric polyradiculoneuritis, predominantly manifested by weakness and areflexia. In this article, we report our findings in 25 children treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and compare them with the remaining 30 children who received supportive care only. Only supportive care was given to 30 children who were not able to receive intravenous gammaglobulin because of shortcomings in intravenous gammaglobulin availability owing to a poor import during those years. Twenty-five patients were treated with intravenous gammaglobulin; they received intravenous gammaglobulin 0.4 g/kg/day for 5 consecutive days. Seventeen of the intravenous gammaglobulin group had received intravenous gammaglobulin within 10 days after the first symptoms, and eight of them had received intravenous gammaglobulin after the first 10 days. The average time elapsed for the symptoms to reach the maximum level was 6.9 (range 4-12) days in patients receiving intravenous gammaglobulin in the first 10 days, and it was significantly shorter than the time elapsed for the supportive care group (6.9 versus 8.8 days, respectively) (P < .05). Admission to the hospital after the first symptom, disability grade, time to improve in disability grade, the period of hospitalization, and mortality were not different in the intravenous gammaglobulin and supportive care groups (P > .05). Our suggestion for intravenous gammaglobulin treatment in Guillain-Barré syndrome is that if the patient has risk factors for respiratory insufficiency, then the treatment should be started. We more confidently carry out the follow-up of these patients after the results of this study. In conclusion, although it has been reported that intravenous gammaglobulin facilitates improvement in the disease and the decrease in mortality in children with Guillain-Barré syndrome, it has been mentioned in some studies that the

  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Eftimov, Filip; Winer, John B; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob; van Schaik, Ivo N

    2013-12-30

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, developing over at least two months. Uncontrolled studies suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) helps. This review was first published in 2002 and has since been updated, most recently in 2013. To review systematically the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) concerning the efficacy and safety of IVIg in CIDP. On 4 December 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, issue 11 in the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE to December 2012 and ISI from January 1985 to May 2008. We searched for ongoing trials through two metaRegistries (World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal and Current Controlled Trials). We selected RCTs testing any dose of IVIg versus placebo, plasma exchange or corticosteroids in definite or probable CIDP. Two authors reviewed literature searches to identify potentially relevant RCTs, scored their quality and extracted data independently. We contacted authors for additional information. We considered eight RCTs, including 332 participants, to be eligible for inclusion in the review. These trials were homogeneous and the overall risk of bias low. Five studies, in a total of 235 participants compared IVIg against placebo. One trial with 20 participants compared IVIg with plasma exchange, one trial compared IVIg with prednisolone in 32 participants, and one trial, newly included at this update, compared IVIg with intravenous methylprednisolone in 46 participants.A significantly higher proportion of participants improved in disability within one month after IVIg treatment as compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72 to 3.36; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome 3.03 (95% CI 2.33 to 4.55), high quality evidence). Whether all these improvements

  17. AGU Sonar Data Restriction Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Council accepted the report of the panel set up in February to study the issue of restriction by the U.S. Navy of access to high-resolution sonar data for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Panel chairman John Bossier announced that “the Navy has acted in the best interests of the nation” in lifting the restriction order. Only two areas, egress routes to two submarine bases (see “Navy Defines Areas Under Sonar Ban,” in News, this issue), remain restricted.Panel members were Bruce Douglas, Alexander Malahoff, Donald Piepgras, Paul Richards, David Smith and Manik Talwani.

  18. Intravenous platelet blockade with cangrelor during PCI.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Deepak L; Lincoff, A Michael; Gibson, C Michael; Stone, Gregg W; McNulty, Steven; Montalescot, Gilles; Kleiman, Neal S; Goodman, Shaun G; White, Harvey D; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Pollack, Charles V; Manoukian, Steven V; Widimsky, Petr; Chew, Derek P; Cura, Fernando; Manukov, Ivan; Tousek, Frantisek; Jafar, M Zubair; Arneja, Jaspal; Skerjanec, Simona; Harrington, Robert A

    2009-12-10

    Intravenous cangrelor, a rapid-acting, reversible adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist, might reduce ischemic events during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 5362 patients who had not been treated with clopidogrel to receive either cangrelor or placebo at the time of PCI, followed by 600 mg of clopidogrel. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 48 hours. Enrollment was stopped when an interim analysis concluded that the trial would be unlikely to show superiority for the primary end point. The primary end point occurred in 185 of 2654 patients receiving cangrelor (7.0%) and in 210 of 2641 patients receiving placebo (8.0%) (odds ratio in the cangrelor group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.07; P=0.17) (modified intention-to-treat population adjusted for missing data). In the cangrelor group, as compared with the placebo group, two prespecified secondary end points were significantly reduced at 48 hours: the rate of stent thrombosis, from 0.6% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.85; P=0.02), and the rate of death from any cause, from 0.7% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83; P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the rate of blood transfusion (1.0% in the cangrelor group and 0.6% in the placebo group, P=0.13), though major bleeding on one scale was increased in the cangrelor group, from 3.5% to 5.5% (P<0.001), because of more groin hematomas. The use of periprocedural cangrelor during PCI was not superior to placebo in reducing the primary end point. The prespecified secondary end points of stent thrombosis and death were lower in the cangrelor group, with no significant increase in the rate of transfusion. Further study of intravenous ADP blockade with cangrelor may be warranted. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00385138.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  19. Patient Perspectives on Fluid Management in Chronic Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Design Semi-structured focus groups. Setting Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Participants 19 patients on chronic hemodialysis. Intervention Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. Main outcome measure We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Results Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction which we categorized into 6 themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Conclusion Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status. PMID:19913443

  20. Patient perspectives on fluid management in chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-09-01

    We sought to describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Semistructured focus groups. Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis. Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction, which we categorized into six themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status. (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  2. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  3. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging obtained 4 hours after intravenous gadolinium injection in patients with sudden deafness.

    PubMed

    Tagaya, Mitsuhiko; Teranishi, Masaaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Tadao; Otake, Hironao; Nakata, Seiichi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 4 h after intravenous gadolinium (Gd) injection provides sufficient anatomic resolution of the inner ear fluid spaces in sudden deafness. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the cochlea and cerebellum may be a good indicator of disruption of the blood-labyrinthine barrier. We evaluated the inner ear 4 h after intravenous Gd injection to determine whether 3T MRI enables the acquisition of images of the affected inner ear in sudden deafness. Ten patients underwent 3T MRI scanning 4 h after intravenous Gd injection. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) MRI was performed. The SIR varied from 0.45 to 2.17 in 11 affected ears and from 0.43 to 1.48 in 9 unaffected ears. The difference of contrast (affected ear vs unaffected ear) could be detected in five of the nine patients with unilateral sudden deafness. The Gd distribution was recognized in the vestibule of 10 affected ears and in the cochlea of 5 affected ears, in which no significant hydrops was observed. In the remaining vestibules and cochleas of affected ears, the Gd enhancement was too faint to evaluate the endolymphatic hydrops.

  4. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  5. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  6. Fluid Fantasy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Saturn's clouds are full of raw beauty, but they also represent a playground for a branch of physics called fluid dynamics, which seeks to understand the motion of gases and liquids. Saturn's lack of a solid planetary surface (as on Earth, Mars or Venus) means that its atmosphere is free to flow around the planet essentially without obstruction. This is one factor that generates Saturn's pattern of alternating belts and zones -- one of the main features of its dynamic atmosphere. Winds in the belts blow at speeds different from those in the adjacent zones, leading to the formation of vortices along the boundaries between the two. And vigorous convection occasionally leads to storms and waves. Saturn's innermost rings are just visible at the bottom and in the upper left corner. This view is centered on clouds at 25 degrees north latitude on Saturn. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on July 20, 2016 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 728 nanometers. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 752,000 miles (1.21 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 6 degrees. Image scale is 45 miles (72 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20503

  7. Increased digitalis-like activity in human cerebrospinal fluid after expansion of the extracellular fluid volume

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, J.A.; Martin, A.M.; Malave, S.

    1985-08-12

    The present study was designed to determine whether acute expansion of the extracellular fluid volume influenced the digitalis-like activity of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), previously described. Human CSF samples, drawn before and 30 minutes after the intravenous infusion of 1 liter of either saline or glucose solutions, were assayed for digitalis-like activity by inhibition of either the /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake into human erythrocytes or by the activity of a purified Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ ATPase. The CSF inhibitory activity on both systems significantly increased after the infusion of sodium solutions but did not change after the infusion of glucose. These results indicate that the digitalis-like factor of human CSF might be involved in the regulation of the extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte content and thereby in some of the physiological responses to sodium loading. 31 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Pharmacokinetic interaction of intravenous fentanyl with ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Ziesenitz, Victoria C; König, Sonja K; Mahlke, Nina S; Skopp, Gisela; Haefeli, Walter E; Mikus, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Fentanyl is primarily metabolized by CYP3A, but has also been suggested to act as a weak inhibitor of CYP3A. We investigated the influence of CYP3A inhibition by ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered fentanyl and the effect of fentanyl on CYP3A activity. A prospective, open-label, randomized, monocentre, crossover study was conducted in 16 healthy volunteers. They received fentanyl alone (5 microgram per kilogram) or fentanyl plus ketoconazole (200 milligram orally B.I.D. over 2 days). Naloxone (2 × 0.2 milligram i.v.) was given simultaneously with fentanyl to mitigate any opioid effect. Midazolam was administered as a CYP3A probe drug. Fentanyl and its metabolites were quantified by LC/MS/MS in blood and urine samples obtained over 24 hour. Exposure of fentanyl (AUC0- ∞ ) was significantly increased to 133% and systemic clearance was reduced to 78% by ketoconazole, norfentanyl formation was significantly delayed and partial metabolic clearance decreased to 18%. Fentanyl had no influence on midazolam exposure and CYP3A activity whereas ketoconazole decreased CYP3A activity to 13%. Although fentanyl N-dealkylation is substantially inhibited by ketoconazole, exposure of fentanyl itself increased by one third only. Clinically fentanyl dosage adjustments may become necessary when ketoconazole or other strong CYP3A inhibitors are given simultaneously. Fentanyl itself does not influence CYP3A activity.

  9. Midazolam pharmacokinetics following intravenous and buccal administration

    PubMed Central

    Schwagmeier, R; Alincic, S; Striebel, H W

    1998-01-01

    Aims Midazolam has good anxiolytic qualities and is a well established premedication agent before anaesthesia or short surgical procedures. The objective of the present study was to determine pharmacokinetic data from individual plasma concentration profiles obtained following intravenous and buccal administration of midazolam. Methods Eight young healthy volunteers received single doses of 5 mg midazolam i.v. and after a period of 1 week buccally in a cross over manner. Blood samples were obtained up to 480 min. The measurement of plasma midazolam concentrations was by gas-chromatography. Results The maximum plasma concentration was 55.9 ng ml−1 (range 35.6–77.9 ng ml−1 ) at 30 min (range 15–90 min) following buccal administration. AUC was calculated to be 15 016 ng ml−1 min (s.d. 3778 ng ml−1 min) following i.v. and 11191 ng ml−1 min (s.d. 1777 ng ml−1 min) following buccal midazolam. This gave a mean midazolam bioavailabilty of 74.5%. Conclusions The pharmacokinetic data presented in this study demonstrate a high bioavailability and reliable plasma concentrations following buccal midazolam. The clinical benefit of buccal midazolam may be in particular patient controlled premedication or sedation in adults. PMID:9764959

  10. Intravenous ibandronate: in the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Croom, Katherine F; Scott, Lesley J

    2006-01-01

    Ibandronate (ibandronic acid) is a potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate that inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, an intravenous (IV) formulation of ibandronate for intermittent injection, which circumvents the fasting and posture requirements associated with administration of oral bisphosphonates, was approved for use in this patient population. In initial placebo-controlled studies of 1 year's duration, IV ibandronate (< or =2mg once every 3 months) increased lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in a dose-dependent manner. Dosages < or =1mg every 3 months were found to be suboptimal in terms of fracture prevention in a 3-year trial. Subsequently, the large randomised, double-blind, noninferiority DIVA trial showed that, in terms of increasing lumbar spine BMD (primary endpoint), IV ibandronate 3mg once every 3 months and 2mg once every 2 months for 1 year were noninferior and also superior to oral ibandronate 2.5mg once daily, a regimen with proven antifracture efficacy. Median reductions from baseline in biochemical markers of bone turnover were similar for the IV and oral regimens. IV ibandronate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials. Treatment-related adverse events included musculoskeletal events and transient influenza-like symptoms, the latter mainly associated with the first dose.

  11. Disposition of Intravenous Pyrimethamine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Almond, D. S.; Szwandt, I. S. F.; Edwards, G.; Lee, M. G.; Winstanley, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    A proportion of patients with AIDS and toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) sustain low plasma pyrimethamine concentrations during oral treatment, possibly because of incomplete and variable bioavailability. We wanted to develop a safe, practicable intravenous (i.v.) formulation of pyrimethamine and characterize its disposition in healthy volunteers. A neutral, aqueous, sterile solution of pyrimethamine was produced and presented in sealed glass ampoules. Pyrimethamine (1 mg/kg) was given to eight healthy male volunteers by i.v. infusion over 2 h, and blood was sampled over a 2 week period. Pyrimethamine levels in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The drug was well tolerated by all volunteers, and there were no changes in vital signs, electrocardiogram, hematology, or biochemical parameters. The maximum pyrimethamine concentration of 2,089 ± 565 ng ml−1 (mean ± standard deviation) was achieved shortly after the end of the infusion; thereafter, concentrations declined in a log-linear manner, with a half-life of 140 ± 31 h. PMID:10817730

  12. Total intravenous anaesthesia techniques for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Eikaas, Henrik; Raeder, Johan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present review is to provide an updated discussion on the use of total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) for ambulatory surgery, based on results from recent studies put into the context of issues already known. The current use of TIVA for ambulatory surgery seems to be abundant. It is encouraged by the simplicity of the method, increased experience and declining costs with the propofol and remifentanil combination. The TIVA methods are well tolerated and perceived to give good quality patient care; with rapid, clear-headed emergence and low incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Cost-efficacy and other benefits of recovery from TIVA versus alternative techniques of anaesthesia seem to depend more on the patient and the individual perioperative setting than on the TIVA concept per se. Further development of TIVA will include the refinement of target control systems, the introduction of new drugs and adjuvants and advanced equipment for automatic drug delivery, as well as improved effect monitoring. TIVA is well tolerated and simple. It is associated with less postoperative nausea and vomiting than inhalational anaesthesia and has no residual paralyses as are possible with locoregional techniques. Propofol with remifentanil seems to be the dominating TIVA technique, delivered either by conventional pumps or by target control systems.

  13. Multiple Intravenous Infusions Phase 1b

    PubMed Central

    Cassano-Piché, A; Fan, M; Sabovitch, S; Masino, C; Easty, AC

    2012-01-01

    Background Minimal research has been conducted into the potential patient safety issues related to administering multiple intravenous (IV) infusions to a single patient. Previous research has highlighted that there are a number of related safety risks. In Phase 1a of this study, an analysis of 2 national incident-reporting databases (Institute for Safe Medical Practices Canada and United States Food and Drug Administration MAUDE) found that a high percentage of incidents associated with the administration of multiple IV infusions resulted in patient harm. Objectives The primary objectives of Phase 1b of this study were to identify safety issues with the potential to cause patient harm stemming from the administration of multiple IV infusions; and to identify how nurses are being educated on key principles required to safely administer multiple IV infusions. Data Sources and Review Methods A field study was conducted at 12 hospital clinical units (sites) across Ontario, and telephone interviews were conducted with program coordinators or instructors from both the Ontario baccalaureate nursing degree programs and the Ontario postgraduate Critical Care Nursing Certificate programs. Data were analyzed using Rasmussen’s 1997 Risk Management Framework and a Health Care Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. Results Twenty-two primary patient safety issues were identified with the potential to directly cause patient harm. Seventeen of these (critical issues) were categorized into 6 themes. A cause-consequence tree was established to outline all possible contributing factors for each critical issue. Clinical recommendations were identified for immediate distribution to, and implementation by, Ontario hospitals. Future investigation efforts were planned for Phase 2 of the study. Limitations This exploratory field study identifies the potential for errors, but does not describe the direct observation of such errors, except in a few cases where errors were observed. Not all

  14. Systemic, renal, and colonic effects of intravenous and enteral rehydration in horses.

    PubMed

    Lester, G D; Merritt, A M; Kuck, H V; Burrow, J A

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) and intragastric (IG) administration of fluid therapy are commonly used in equine practice, but there are limited data on the systemic, renal, and enteric effects. IV fluid administration will increase intestinal and fecal hydration in a rate-dependent manner after hypertonic dehydration, but will be associated with significant urinary water and electrolyte loss. Equivalent volumes of IG plain water will result in comparatively greater intestinal hydration with less renal loss. Six Thoroughbred geldings. Experimental study. 6 by 6 Latin square design investigating constant rate IV administration at 50, 100, and 150 mL/kg/d over 24 hours in horses dehydrated by water deprivation. Equivalent volumes of IG plain water were administered by 4 bolus doses over 24 hours. Water deprivation resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of fecal water, and increases in serum and urine osmolality. IV fluids administered at 100 and 150 mL/kg/d restored fecal hydration, but increasing the rate from 100 to 150 mL/kg/d did not confer any additional intestinal benefit, but did result in significantly greater urine production and sodium loss. Equivalent 24-hour volumes of plain water resulted in greater intestinal water and less urine output. IV polyionic isotonic fluids can be used to hydrate intestinal contents in situations where enteral fluids are impractical. IV fluids administered at three times maintenance are no more efficacious and might be associated with adverse physiological findings after withdrawal. Bolus dosing of IG water can be used to restore intestinal water with minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Non-return valves do not prevent backflow and bacterial contamination of intravenous infusions.

    PubMed

    Ellger, B; Kiski, D; Diem, E; van den Heuvel, I; Freise, H; Van Aken, H; Hinder, F; Friedrich, A W

    2011-05-01

    Non-return valves (NRVs) are designed to avoid backflow of infusion fluid against the designated direction of flow (DDF) when more than one infusion is delivered via one venous access. We tested in vitro whether NRVs reliably prevent flow against the DDF at clinically relevant low flow rates. Since catheter-related infections caused by the infusion of contaminated fluids represent a relevant problem in patient care, we tested whether NRVs preclude bacterial contamination of infusions proximal to the NRVs and thus might play a role in preventing healthcare-associated infections. Additionally, the incidence of bacterial contamination of drips and infusion fluids in our intensive care unit (ICU) was quantified. In vitro, a low flow against the DDF of ten examples each of five different NRV models was applied and the integrity for fluid and transmigration of three different indicator micro-organisms was tested. Second, we investigated whether contamination of intravenous infusion tubing collected from patients treated on our ICU occurred. Largely independent from the model, 40% of the tested NRVs were not leak-tight for fluids when a pressure against the DDF was built up slowly. In 30%, bacteria migrated against the DDF and were detected proximal to the valve. In 6.7% of the tubing samples collected from ICU patients we detected bacterial contamination. In conclusion, contamination of drips is a relevant problem on ICU. NRVs neither reliably prevent backflow of fluids nor serve as micro-organism filters. Therefore they cannot be recommended as a way of reducing healthcare-associated infections. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxygen supersaturated fluid using fine micro/nanobubbles

    PubMed Central

    Matsuki, Noriaki; Ishikawa, Takuji; Ichiba, Shingo; Shiba, Naoki; Ujike, Yoshihito; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2014-01-01

    Microbubbles show peculiar properties, such as shrinking collapse, long lifetime, high gas solubility, negative electric charge, and free radical production. Fluids supersaturated with various gases can be easily generated using microbubbles. Oxygen microbubble fluid can be very useful for oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues. However, there have been no reports of comparative investigations into adding fluids containing oxygen fine micro/nanobubbles (OFM-NBs) to common infusion solutions in daily medical care. In this study, it was demonstrated that OFMNBs can generate oxygen-supersaturated fluids, and they may be sufficiently small to infuse safely into blood vessels. It was found that normal saline solution is preferable for generating an oxygen-rich infusion fluid, which is best administered as a 30-minute intravenous infusion. It was also concluded that dextran solution is suitable for drug delivery substances packing oxygen gas over a 1-hour intravenous infusion. In addition, normal saline solution containing OFMNBs was effective for improving blood oxygenation. Thus, the use of OFMNB-containing fluids is a potentially effective novel method for improving blood oxygenation in cases involving hypoxia, ischemic diseases, infection control, and anticancer chemoradiation therapies. PMID:25285003

  17. Intravenous iron therapy: how far have we come?

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, Rodolfo Delfini; Muñoz, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Oral iron supplementation is usually the first choice for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) because of its effectiveness and low cost. But unfortunately in many iron deficient conditions, oral iron is a less than the ideal treatment mainly because of adverse events related to the gastrointestinal tract as well as the long course required to treat anemia and replenish body iron stores. The first iron product for intravenous use was high-molecular-weight iron dextran. However,