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Sample records for intravitreal injection analysis

  1. [Intravitreal injections of corticoids].

    PubMed

    Demols, P

    2007-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of triamcinolone acetonide are today widely performed as a therapeutic tool for a large variety of ocular diseases. The risk of toxicity of the product and its vehicle is quite real and is still at the center of investigations. Complications related to the substance and the technique of injections are already well-known (intraocular pressure rise, cataract, endophthalmitis, pseudo-endophthalmitis, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment). Carefulness and rigor in the indication, realization and follow-up of these injections are therefore mandatory.

  2. Antibioprophylaxis in Prevention of Endophthalmitis in Intravitreal Injection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Benoist d'Azy, Cédric; Pereira, Bruno; Naughton, Geraldine; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Despite endophthalmitis being the most feared complication, antibioprophylaxis remains controversial in intravitreal injections. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of antibioprophylaxis in intravitreal injections in the prevention of endophthalmitis. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies comparing groups with and without antibiotics in intravitreal injection, with the use of the following keywords: "antibiotic*", "endophthalmitis" and "intravitreal injection*". To be included, studies needed to specify number of participants and number of endophthalmitis within each group (with and without antibiotics). We conducted meta-analysis on the prevalence of clinical endophthalmitis including both culture-proven and culture negative samples. Nine studies were included. A total of 88 incidences of endophthalmitis were reported from 174,159 injections (0.051% i.e., one incidence of endophthalmitis for 1979 injections). Specifically, 59 incidences of endophthalmitis were reported from 113,530 injections in the group with antibiotics (0.052% or one incidence of endophthalmitis for 1924 injections) and 29 incidences of endophthalmitis from 60,633 injections in the group without antibiotics (0.048% or one endophthalmitis for 2091 injections). Our meta-analysis did not report a significant difference in the prevalence of clinical endophthalimitis between the two groups with and without topical antibiotics: the odds ratio of clinical endophthalimitis was 0.804 (CI95% 0.384-1.682, p = 0.56) for the antibiotic group compared with the group without antibiotics. In conclusion, we performed the first large meta-analysis demonstrating that antibioprophylaxis is not required in intravitreal injections. Strict rules of asepsis remain the only evidence-based prophylaxis of endophthalmitis. The results support initiatives to reduce the global threat of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:27257676

  3. Antibioprophylaxis in Prevention of Endophthalmitis in Intravitreal Injection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benoist d’Azy, Cédric; Pereira, Bruno; Naughton, Geraldine; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Despite endophthalmitis being the most feared complication, antibioprophylaxis remains controversial in intravitreal injections. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of antibioprophylaxis in intravitreal injections in the prevention of endophthalmitis. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Science Direct databases were searched for studies comparing groups with and without antibiotics in intravitreal injection, with the use of the following keywords: "antibiotic*", "endophthalmitis" and “intravitreal injection*”. To be included, studies needed to specify number of participants and number of endophthalmitis within each group (with and without antibiotics). We conducted meta-analysis on the prevalence of clinical endophthalmitis including both culture-proven and culture negative samples. Nine studies were included. A total of 88 incidences of endophthalmitis were reported from 174,159 injections (0.051% i.e., one incidence of endophthalmitis for 1979 injections). Specifically, 59 incidences of endophthalmitis were reported from 113,530 injections in the group with antibiotics (0.052% or one incidence of endophthalmitis for 1924 injections) and 29 incidences of endophthalmitis from 60,633 injections in the group without antibiotics (0.048% or one endophthalmitis for 2091 injections). Our meta-analysis did not report a significant difference in the prevalence of clinical endophthalimitis between the two groups with and without topical antibiotics: the odds ratio of clinical endophthalimitis was 0.804 (CI95% 0.384–1.682, p = 0.56) for the antibiotic group compared with the group without antibiotics. In conclusion, we performed the first large meta-analysis demonstrating that antibioprophylaxis is not required in intravitreal injections. Strict rules of asepsis remain the only evidence-based prophylaxis of endophthalmitis. The results support initiatives to reduce the global threat of resistance to antibiotics. PMID

  4. Intravitreal injection of octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J E; Westra, I; Woltering, E A; Winthrop, K L; Barrie, R; O'Dorisio, T M; Holmes, D

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of injecting the somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate (OA), into the vitreous cavity. Previous work suggests that octreotide effectively inhibits angiogenesis in vitro, thus its use in vivo may slow the progression of proliferative eye disease. Fifty micrograms of aqueous OA in 50 microliters aqueous solution was injected into the mid-vitreous of kitten eyes (n = 6), and OA levels were monitored over 4 days. A long-acting release form of octreotide (OA-LAR) was also injected into the mid-vitreous of rabbit eyes at doses of 0.36 (n = 16), 1.1 (n = 1), 2.1 (n = 1), 4.05 (n = 1), 8.2 (n = 1), and 36 mg (n = 3) in solution; and octreotide concentrations were measured at various time points over 42 days. OA concentrations were determined by a highly specific radioimmunoassay. Aqueous octreotide was eliminated rapidly (t1/2 = 16 hours) from the vitreous of the kitten eye, with only negligible amounts recoverable 4 days post-injection. In the long-acting form, OA in the rabbit eye reached peak levels at 28 days. By 42 days, OA levels had declined to the 14-day level. Doses of OA-LAR of 1.1 mg or less produced no gross evidence of clinical toxicity and elicited no grossly visible ocular side effects. Doses greater than 1.1 mg produced significant toxicity, including cataracts and rubeosis. The 28-day peak release for long-acting OA implies that monthly intravitreal injections could provide continual high levels of OA. Intravitreal injection of long-acting OA provides sustained, high concentrations of drug, and deserves further study as a potential treatment of proliferative eye diseases.

  5. Rate of intraoperative complications during cataract surgery following intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Hahn, P; Jiramongkolchai, K; Stinnett, S; Daluvoy, M; Kim, T

    2016-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the effect of prior intravitreal injections on intraoperative and postoperative complication rates associated with cataract surgery.MethodsA retrospective cohort analysis reviewed 10 105 cataract surgery procedures performed by experienced surgeons at the Duke Eye Center from 1 January 2005 to 10 December 2012. A group of 197 eyes with prior intravitreal injections was compared with an equal number of matched control eyes without prior injection using the Fisher's exact test of difference in proportions and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test of difference in means. Outcomes analyzed included baseline demographic information, preoperative clinical characteristics, prevalence of intraoperative complications, and postoperative intraocular pressure, glaucoma surgery, and glaucoma medication requirement through 1 year following cataract surgery.ResultsAn increased rate of intraoperative complications was identified during cataract surgery in eyes with prior intravitreal injections compared with control eyes (3 vs 0%, P=0.030). Injection eyes required more glaucoma medications at 1 year, but no difference was identified if steroid injections were excluded. No difference in postoperative IOP or glaucoma surgery was identified. No cases of endophthalmitis were reported.ConclusionsA history of intravitreal injections may be a risk factor for cataract surgery-related intraoperative complications. We hypothesize this may be due to unidentified iatrogenic lens trauma during intravitreal injections. Particular attention to the posterior capsule during preoperative assessment and intraoperatively is recommended in eyes undergoing cataract surgery with a prior history of intravitreal injections.

  6. Assistive Device for Efficient Intravitreal Injections.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Franziska; Michels, Stephan; Lehmann, Daniel; Pieters, Roel S; Becker, Matthias; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-08-01

    Intravitreal therapy is the most common treatment for many chronic ophthalmic diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. Due to the increasing worldwide demand for intravitreal injections, there exists a need to render this medical procedure more time- and cost-efficient while increasing patient safety. The authors propose a medical assistive device that injects medication intravitreally. Compared to the manual intravitreal injection procedure, an automated device has the potential to increase safety for patients, decrease procedure times, allow for integrated data storage and documentation, and reduce costs for medical staff and expensive operating rooms. This work demonstrates the development of an assistive injection system that is coarsely positioned over the patient's head by the human operator, followed by automatic fine positioning and intravitreal injection through the pars plana. Several safety features, such as continuous eye tracking and iris recognition, have been implemented. The functioning system is demonstrated through ex vivo experiments with porcine eyes. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:752-762.]. PMID:27548453

  7. Air entry into the anterior chamber post intravitreal injection of Eylea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Sing; Sikandar, Munir; Jackson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    An 84-year-old man had air entry into the anterior chamber following intravitreal injection. The air bubble was reabsorbed over time without any complications. No further problems occurred with subsequent intravitreal injections. PMID:27440854

  8. Air entry into the anterior chamber post intravitreal injection of Eylea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Sing; Sikandar, Munir; Jackson, Heather

    2016-07-20

    An 84-year-old man had air entry into the anterior chamber following intravitreal injection. The air bubble was reabsorbed over time without any complications. No further problems occurred with subsequent intravitreal injections.

  9. Endophthalmitis with retinal necrosis following intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection.

    PubMed

    Aggermann, Tina; Stolba, Ulrike; Brunner, Simon; Binder, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with heterozygote factor V Leiden mutation and a history of central retinal vein occlusion in his left eye complained of decreased visual acuity in his right eye. Macular edema and ischemic CRVO were diagnosed. Following an intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide, endophthalmitis and necrotizing retinopathy developed, clinically resembling necrotizing herpetic retinopathies as have been described in immuno-compromised patients. An endogenous viral infection due to a steroid-induced immune suppression may be another complication of intravitreal injections of corticosteroids.

  10. Sustained elevation in intraocular pressure associated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections.

    PubMed

    Kahook, Malik Y; Kimura, Alan E; Wong, Lisa J; Ammar, David A; Maycotte, Marco A; Mandava, Naresh

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective case series reports sustained elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) after single or repeated intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, San Francisco, CA) for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All six cases experienced significant and sustained elevation in IOP after single or repeated intravitreal injections of bevacizumab. Initiation or advancement of IOP-lowering therapy was required in all cases. The results support the need for further studies investigating the incidence of this potential side effect and the need for close long-term surveillance of IOP after injection of bevacizumab, particularly in patients with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. Future in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to better understand the reasons for this observed phenomenon. PMID:19485295

  11. Topical azithromycin or ofloxacin for endophthalmitis prophylaxis after intravitreal injection

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Aroca, Pedro; Sararols, Laura; Arias, Lluis; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Bassaganyas, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of patients who have undergone intravitreal injections has increased enormously in recent years, but a consensus is still lacking on prophylaxis for endophthalmitis. The aim of this prospective, observational study was to evaluate the prophylactic effect of azithromycin eye drops versus ofloxacin eye drops. Methods The study was conducted in five hospitals in Spain and included all patients undergoing intravitreal injections of triamcinolone, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or pegaptanib over one year. Patients received azithromycin 15 mg/g eye drops (twice daily on the day prior to injection and for another 2 days) or ofloxacin 3 mg/g eye drops (every 6 hours on the day prior to injection and for another 7 days). Results In the azithromycin group, there were 4045 injections in 972 eyes of 701 patients. In the ofloxacin group, there were 4151 injections in 944 eyes of 682 patients. There were two cases of endophthalmitis (0.049%) in the azithromycin group and five (0.12%) in the ofloxacin group. The odds ratio of presenting with endophthalmitis in the ofloxacin group compared with the azithromycin group was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32–3.72, P < 0.001). There were two cases of noninfectious uveitis after triamcinolone injection in the azithromycin group (0.049%) and two (0.048%) in the ofloxacin group; no significant differences were observed (odds ratio 0.902, 95% CI 0.622–1.407, P = 0.407). Conjunctival hyperemia was observed in 12 cases in the azithromycin group and none in the ofloxacin group. Conclusion The risk of endophthalmitis was significantly greater with ofloxacin than with azithromycin. These findings provide a valuable addition to the ever-increasing pool of information on endophthalmitis prophylaxis after intravitreal injection, although further large-scale studies are required to provide definitive conclusions. PMID:23109798

  12. Patients’ tolerance of bimanual lid retraction versus a metal speculum for intravitreal injections

    PubMed Central

    Alattas, Khadijah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare patients’ acceptance of and correlate their pain level for bimanual versus metal speculum fixation in intravitreal injections. Design Prospective analysis. Participants Seventy-three eyes of 56 patients. Methods A questionnaire indicating patients’ discomfort and pain grading immediately after intravitreal injections using either bimanual fixation or metal speculum fixation (Barraquer Wire Speculum). Results Fifty-six patients who underwent intravitreal injections were enrolled in this study for various conditions. Patients’ overall pain and discomfort were as follows, right eye – bimanual was 0.3 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 0.54, right eye – metal was 1.6 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 1.5, left eye – bimanual was 0.41 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 0.87, and left eye – metal was 1.91 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 1.14 (P=0.003). Conclusion Patients who underwent bimanual fixation had a much more comfortable experience with less pain in comparison to patients who underwent metal speculum fixation. PMID:27660408

  13. Patients’ tolerance of bimanual lid retraction versus a metal speculum for intravitreal injections

    PubMed Central

    Alattas, Khadijah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare patients’ acceptance of and correlate their pain level for bimanual versus metal speculum fixation in intravitreal injections. Design Prospective analysis. Participants Seventy-three eyes of 56 patients. Methods A questionnaire indicating patients’ discomfort and pain grading immediately after intravitreal injections using either bimanual fixation or metal speculum fixation (Barraquer Wire Speculum). Results Fifty-six patients who underwent intravitreal injections were enrolled in this study for various conditions. Patients’ overall pain and discomfort were as follows, right eye – bimanual was 0.3 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 0.54, right eye – metal was 1.6 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 1.5, left eye – bimanual was 0.41 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 0.87, and left eye – metal was 1.91 on our grading scale with a standard deviation of 1.14 (P=0.003). Conclusion Patients who underwent bimanual fixation had a much more comfortable experience with less pain in comparison to patients who underwent metal speculum fixation.

  14. Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here. PMID:24949111

  15. Multiphasic changes in systemic VEGF following intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in a child

    PubMed Central

    Shao, E H; Sivagnanavel, V; Dabbagh, A; Dave, R; Tempest-Roe, S; Tam, F W K; Taylor, S R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether intravitreal ranibizumab injections administered to a child alter systemic plasma levels of total and free VEGF 165. Methods A 9-year-old child sustained a choroidal rupture from blunt trauma. He subsequently developed a secondary choroidal neovascular membrane, which was treated with five ranibizumab injections over a period of 8 months. Peripheral venous blood samples were taken at each visit over a period of 12 months and plasma was extracted. Plasma VEGF 165 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were assayed both pre- and post-immunodepletion to remove complexed VEGF. Results Plasma VEGF 165 levels proved labile following intravitreal injection of ranibizumab. Levels increased by 30% above baseline following the first intravitreal ranibizumab injection, but then returned to baseline despite two subsequent injections. There was then a rebound increase of 67% in total plasma VEGF levels following a further injection, which remained above baseline for 12 weeks despite two further intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Baseline levels were re-attained 26 weeks after the final injection. Conclusions These results suggest intravitreal ranibizumab injections can cause significant, multiphasic changes in systemic VEGF levels. This may be of particular clinical significance in children as VEGF is known to be vital in the development of major organs, in addition to its role in the maintenance of normal organ function in adults. PMID:25657041

  16. Bevacizumab clearance through the iridocorneal angle following intravitreal injection in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Gal-Or, Orly; Dotan, Assaf; Dachbash, Mor; Tal, Kfir; Nisgav, Yael; Weinberger, Dov; Ehrlich, Rita; Livnat, Tami

    2016-04-01

    Antivascular endothelial growth factor (Anti-VEGF) agents have been widely used for a variety of ocular disorders. The etiology of sustained ocular hypertension following intravitreal administration of anti-VEGF agents is yet to be unraveled. Our study investigates and characterizes the presence of intravitreally injected bevacizumab in the aqueous outflow channels of a rat model. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was induced by diode laser photocoagulation to the right eye of twelve Brown Norway rats. Bevacizumab (25 mg/ml) was injected intravitreally after 3 days. Immediately after bevacizumab injection, and 3, 6, 24 and 48 h later, animals were euthanized for immunofluorescence staining. Donkey anti-human IgG labeled with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 was used for bevacizumab immunoreactivity detection. Anti-CD31 antibody was used as a marker for Schlemm's canal endothelial cells. Untreated eyes were used as negative controls. The intensity of the immunostaining was analyzed qualitatively. Bevacizumab immunoreactivity was found in the aqueous outflow channels including the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal immediately after injection, and declined incrementally within the following hours. Forty-eight hours after the injection, no bevacizumab staining was detected in the aqueous outflow channel structures. Our manuscript demonstrates the presence of bevacizumab in the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal structures after intravitreal injection in a CNV induced rat model. Bevacizumab molecules passed through the aqueous outflow channels within 48 h after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. PMID:26923799

  17. Endophthalmitis Associated with Intravitreal Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents has led to a dramatic increase in the number of intravitreal injections. Endophthalmitis remains a rare but potentially vision-threatening complication of intravitreal injections. Recent large series have estimated this risk to be about one in 3,000 injections or less. Bevacizumab, which is generally prepared by a compounding pharmacy, is associated with additional risks of contamination. Although endophthalmitis cannot be prevented in all cases, certain risk reduction strategies have been proposed, including the use of an eyelid speculum, povidone iodine, avoidance of needle contact with the eyelid margin or eyelashes, and avoidance of routine post-injection antibiotics. Despite these precautions, some patients will develop endophthalmitis following intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, and outcomes may be poor despite prompt and appropriate therapy. PMID:24579059

  18. Macular Hole Formation After Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection in Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Chandoshi; Mitra, Arijit; Kumar, N. Ajith; Elsherbiny, Samer; Lip, Peck Lin

    2015-01-01

    Ranibizumab is a monoclonal antibody fragment that inhibits angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor A, used as a treatment for patients with wet aged-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Adverse effects from intravitreal Ranibizumab injections are well recognised. Macular hole formation following Ranibizumab injection is a complication that has been recently reported in few case reports. We present a larger case series of five patients, who developed full thickness macular holes (FTMH) after intravitreal Ranibizumab injections for treatment of wet ARMD that we were aware of between 2009 and 2013. PMID:26962382

  19. Safety evaluation of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(lactic-acid) microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rong, Xianfang; Yuan, Weien; Lu, Yi; Mo, Xiaofen

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and/or poly(lactic-acid) (PLA) microspheres are important drug delivery systems. This study investigated eye biocompatibility and safety of PLGA/PLA microspheres through intravitreal injection in rabbits. Normal New Zealand rabbits were randomly selected and received intravitreal administration of different doses (low, medium, or high) of PLGA/PLA microspheres and erythropoietin-loaded PLGA/PLA microspheres. The animals were clinically examined and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postadministration, and retinal tissues were prepared for analysis. Retinal reactions to the microspheres were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemistry. Retinal structure changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, retinal function influences were explored by the electroretinography test. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end staining revealed no apoptotic cells in the injected retinas; immunohistochemistry did not detect any increased glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed no micro- or ultrastructure changes in the retinas at different time points postintravitreal injection. The electroretinography test showed no significant influence of scotopic or photopic amplitudes. The results demonstrated that PLGA/PLA microspheres did not cause retinal histological changes or functional damage and were biocompatible and safe enough for intravitreal injection in rabbits for controlled drug delivery.

  20. Comparison of In Vivo Gene Expression Profiling of RPE/Choroid following Intravitreal Injection of Dexamethasone and Triamcinolone Acetonide.

    PubMed

    Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Moisseiev, Elad; Modjtahedi, Sara P; Telander, David G; Hjelmeland, Leonard M; Morse, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid genes and their relevant expression pathways affected by intravitreal injections of dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide in mice at clinically relevant time points for patient care. Methods. Differential gene expression of over 34,000 well-characterized mouse genes in the RPE/choroid of 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice was analyzed after intravitreal steroid injections at 1 week and 1 month postinjection, using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarrays. The data were analyzed using GeneSpring GX 12.5 and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) microarray analysis software for biologically relevant changes. Results. Both triamcinolone and dexamethasone caused differential activation of genes involved in "Circadian Rhythm Signaling" pathway at both time points tested. Triamcinolone (TAA) uniquely induced significant changes in gene expression in "Calcium Signaling" (1 week) and "Glutamate Receptor Signaling" pathways (1 month). In contrast, dexamethasone (Dex) affected the "GABA Receptor Signaling" (1 week) and "Serotonin Receptor Signaling" (1 month) pathways. Understanding how intraocular steroids affect the gene expression of RPE/choroid is clinically relevant. Conclusions. This in vivo study has elucidated several genes and pathways that are potentially altering the circadian rhythms and several other neurotransmitter pathways in RPE/choroid during intravitreal steroid injections, which likely has consequences in the dysregulation of RPE function and neurodegeneration of the retina. PMID:27429799

  1. Comparison of In Vivo Gene Expression Profiling of RPE/Choroid following Intravitreal Injection of Dexamethasone and Triamcinolone Acetonide

    PubMed Central

    Smit-McBride, Zeljka; Moisseiev, Elad; Modjtahedi, Sara P.; Telander, David G.; Hjelmeland, Leonard M.; Morse, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid genes and their relevant expression pathways affected by intravitreal injections of dexamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide in mice at clinically relevant time points for patient care. Methods. Differential gene expression of over 34,000 well-characterized mouse genes in the RPE/choroid of 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice was analyzed after intravitreal steroid injections at 1 week and 1 month postinjection, using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarrays. The data were analyzed using GeneSpring GX 12.5 and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) microarray analysis software for biologically relevant changes. Results. Both triamcinolone and dexamethasone caused differential activation of genes involved in “Circadian Rhythm Signaling” pathway at both time points tested. Triamcinolone (TAA) uniquely induced significant changes in gene expression in “Calcium Signaling” (1 week) and “Glutamate Receptor Signaling” pathways (1 month). In contrast, dexamethasone (Dex) affected the “GABA Receptor Signaling” (1 week) and “Serotonin Receptor Signaling” (1 month) pathways. Understanding how intraocular steroids affect the gene expression of RPE/choroid is clinically relevant. Conclusions. This in vivo study has elucidated several genes and pathways that are potentially altering the circadian rhythms and several other neurotransmitter pathways in RPE/choroid during intravitreal steroid injections, which likely has consequences in the dysregulation of RPE function and neurodegeneration of the retina. PMID:27429799

  2. Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injections in Pregnancy: Case Series and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, Silvio; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2015-12-01

    The use of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection is gaining wide acceptance as an off-label therapy for diseases that may affect pregnant women. However, these drugs may cause systemic side effects in the mother and fetal harm. This could lead specialists to not administer the drug or women to abort the fetus or to refuse treatment during pregnancy. We report the course of pregnancy in 3 women treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and provide a review of the literature on the use of intravitreal anti-VEGF in pregnancy. Our patients did not have any drug-related adverse event and delivered healthy full-term infants, although one of the women had risk factors for miscarriage. Infants reached all developmental milestones appropriately during infancy. A literature search on the use of intravitreal anti-VEGF injection in pregnancy was undertaken. Data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed and references from relevant articles using the search terms "pegaptanib," "bevacizumab," "ranibizumab," "aflibercept," "anti-VEGF," "intravitreal injection," "pregnant," "pregnancy," "abortion," "miscarriage," "preeclampsia," "embryo-fetal toxicity," "fetal malformations," "teratogenesis," "adverse events," and "maternofetal complications" in multiple combinations. We believe that intravitreal anti-VEGF can be given during pregnancy only when potential benefit to the woman justifies the potential risks to the fetus. When making a decision about whether to give drugs during pregnancy, it is important to consider the timing of exposure and its relationship to windows of developmental sensitivity. We believe that this review will be useful to specialists to inform and possibly treat their pregnant patients. PMID:26302032

  3. Dramatic resolution of vitreous hemorrhage after an intravitreal injection of dobesilate.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Pedro; Outeiriño, Luis Antonio; Azanza, Carlos; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Vitreous hemorrhages are important clinical manifestations of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Non-cleared vitreous hemorrhages could lead to hemosiderosis bulbi and glaucoma. Here, we describe the case of a type 2 diabetic patient presenting anterior segment and vitreous hemorrhages that resolved three days after treatment with a single intravitreal injection of dobesilate. PMID:26357547

  4. Pharmacokinetics, Electrophysiological, and Morphological Effects of the Intravitreal Injection of Mycophenolic Acid in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Gasparin, Fabio; Aguiar, Renata Genaro; Ioshimoto, Gabriela Lourençon; Silva-Cunha, Armando; Fialho, Silvia Ligório; Liber, André Mauricio; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Oiwa, Nestor Norio; Costa, Marcelo Fernandes; Joselevitch, Christina; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To determine the half-life of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in the vitreous of New Zealand albino rabbits after intravitreal injection and the retinal toxicity of different doses of MPA. Methods: Ten micrograms of MPA (Roche Bioscience, Palo Alto, CA) was injected in the vitreous of 16 rabbits, animals were sacrificed at different time-points, and vitreous samples underwent high-performance liquid chromatography. For functional and morphological studies, 5 doses of MPA (0.05, 0.5, 2, 10, and 100 μg) were injected in the vitreous of 20 rabbits. As control, contralateral eyes were injected with aqueous vehicle. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded before injection and at days 7, 15, and 30. Animals were sacrificed on day 30 and retinas were analyzed under light microscopy. Results: MPA half-life in the vitreous was 5.0±0.3 days. ERG revealed photoreceptor functional impairment in eyes injected with 0.5 μg and higher on day 30, while eyes injected with 100 μg presented the same changes already from day 15. No morphological change was found. Conclusions: MPA vitreous half-life is 5.0 days. Intravitreal injection of 0.5 μg MPA and higher causes dose- and time-related photoreceptor sensitivity decrease in rabbits. The MPA dose of 0.05 μg may be safe for intravitreal use in rabbits. PMID:24828287

  5. Intravitreally Injected Anti-VEGF Antibody Reduces Brown Fat in Neonatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Park, Sung Wook; Cho, Chang Sik; Powner, Michael B; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Fruttiger, Marcus; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are the mainstay treatment for various angiogenesis-related retinal diseases. Currently, bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF antibody, is trailed in retinopathy of prematurity, a vasoproliferative retinal disorder in premature infants. However, the risks of systemic complications after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody in infants are not well understood. In this study, we show that intravitreally injected anti-VEGF antibody is transported into the systemic circulation into the periphery where it reduces brown fat in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. A considerable amount of anti-VEGF antibody was detected in serum after intravitreal injection. Furthermore, in interscapular brown adipose tissue, we found lipid droplet accumulation, decreased VEGF levels, loss of vascular network, and decreased expression of mitochondria-related genes, Ppargc1a and Ucp1, all of which are characteristics of "whitening" of brown fat. With increasing age and body weight, brown fat restored its morphology and vascularity. Our results show that there is a transient, but significant impact of intravitreally administered anti-VEGF antibody on brown adipose tissue in neonatal mice. We suggest that more attention should be focused on the metabolic and developmental significance of brown adipose tissue in bevacizumab treated retinopathy of prematurity infants. PMID:26226015

  6. Pharmacokinetics and distributions of bevacizumab by intravitreal injection of bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhuo; Ji, Yan-Li; Ma, Xiang; Wen, Jian-Guo; Wei, Wei; Huang, Shu-Man

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pharmacokinetics and distributions of bevacizumab by intravitreal injection of prepared bevacizumab-poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres in rabbits, to provide evidence for clinical application of this kind of bevacizumab sustained release dosage form. METHODS Bevacizumab was encapsulated into PLGA microsphere via the solid-in-oil-in-hydrophilic oil (S/O/hO) method. Fifteen healthy New Zealand albino-rabbits were used in experiments. The eyes of each rabbit received an intravitreal injection. The left eyes were injected with prepared bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres and the right eyes were injected with bevacizumab solution. After intravitreal injection, rabbits were randomly selected at days 3, 7, 14, 28 and 42 respectively, three animals each day. Then we used immunofluorescence staining to observe the distribution and duration of bevacizumab in rabbit eye tissues, and used the sandwich ELISA to quantify the concentration of free bevacizumab from the rabbit aqueous humor and vitreous after intravitreal injection. RESULTS The results show that the concentration of bevacizumab in vitreous and aqueous humor after administration of PLGA formulation was higher than that of bevacizumab solution. The T1/2 of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab-PLGA microspheres is 9.6d in vitreous and 10.2d in aqueous humor, and the T1/2 of intravitreal injection of soluble bevacizumab is 3.91d in vitreous and 4.1d in aqueous humor. There were statistical significant difference for comparison the results of the bevacizumab in vitreous and aqueous humor between the left and right eyes (P<0.05). The AUC0-t of the sustained release dosage form was 1-fold higher than that of the soluble form. The relative bioavailability was raised significantly. The immunofluorescence staining of PLGA-encapsulated bevacizumab (b-PLGA) in rabbit eye tissues was still observed up to 42d. It was longer than that of the soluble form. CONCLUSION The result of this study

  7. [Ocular hypertension after intravitreal steroid injections: Clinical update as of 2015].

    PubMed

    Dot, C; El Chehab, H; Russo, A; Agard, E

    2015-09-01

    Intravitreal injections are a therapeutic delivery method best suited to the treatment of retinal diseases. Recent years have been marked by the use of anti-VEGF agents as well as the arrival of sustained-release corticosteroid implants in France, replacing triamcinolone acetonide. A common complication of IVT steroids is secondary ocular hypertension (OHT) resulting from increased outflow resistance. This article summarizes current understanding. OHT induced by topical steroids has been described for 60 years. Intravitreal use also shows a temporary effect if the exposure is short, dose dependence, and varying incidence depending on the drug used. Sustained release formulations and discontinuing treatment have reduced the risk of induced OHT. Risk factors that induce OHT must be clearly identified prior to an injection. Most cases of OHT can be controlled medically, although differences exist between different drugs. In cases where it cannot be controlled, removal of the implant, selective laser trabeculoplasty, and filtration surgery can be discussed.

  8. Ocular silicon distribution and clearance following intravitreal injection of porous silicon microparticles.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Alejandra; Hou, Huiyuan; Sailor, Michael J; Freeman, William R; Cheng, Lingyun

    2013-11-01

    Porous silicon (pSi) microparticles have been investigated for intravitreal drug delivery and demonstrated good biocompatibility. With the appropriate surface chemistry, pSi can reside in vitreous for months or longer. However, ocular distribution and clearance pathway of its degradation product, silicic acid, are not well understood. In the current study, rabbit ocular tissue was collected at different time point following fresh pSi (day 1, 5, 9, 16, and 21) or oxidized pSi (day 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35) intravitreal injection. In addition, dual-probe simultaneous microdialysis of aqueous and vitreous humor was performed following a bolus intravitreal injection of 0.25 mL silicic acid (150 μg/mL) and six consecutive microdialysates were collected every 20 min. Silicon was quantified from the samples using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The study showed that following the intravitreal injection of oxidized pSi, free silicon was consistently higher in the aqueous than in the retina (8.1 ± 6.5 vs. 3.4 ± 3.9 μg/mL, p = 0.0031). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of the retina was only about 24% that of the aqueous. The mean residence time was 16 days for aqueous, 13 days for vitreous, 6 days for retina, and 18 days for plasma. Similarly, following intravitreal fresh pSi, free silicon was also found higher in aqueous than in retina (7 ± 4.7 vs. 3.4 ± 4.1 μg/mL, p = 0.014). The AUC for the retina was about 50% of the AUC for the aqueous. The microdialysis revealed the terminal half-life of free silicon in the aqueous was 30 min and 92 min in the vitreous; the AUC for aqueous accounted for 38% of the AUC for vitreous. Our studies indicate that aqueous humor is a significant pathway for silicon egress from the eye following intravitreal injection of pSi crystals.

  9. Adverse events with intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S; Bronskill, Susan E; Paterson, J Michael; Whitehead, Marlo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of systemic adverse events associated with intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibiting drugs. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants 91 378 older adults with a history of physician diagnosed retinal disease identified between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2011. Cases were 1477 patients admitted to hospital for ischaemic stroke, 2229 admitted for an acute myocardial infarction, 1059 admitted or assessed in an emergency department for venous thromboembolism, and 2623 admitted for congestive heart failure. Event-free controls (at a ratio of 5:1) were matched to cases on the basis of year of birth, sex, history of the outcome in the previous 5 years, and diabetes. Main exposure measure Exposure to vascular endothelial growth factor inhibiting drugs identified within 180 days before the index date. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, participants who had ischaemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or venous thromboembolism were not more likely than control participants to have been exposed to either bevacizumab (adjusted odds ratios of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.34) for ischaemic stroke, 1.04 (0.77 to 1.39) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.81 (0.49 to 1.34) for venous thromboembolism, and 1.21 (0.91 to 1.62) for congestive heart failure) or ranibizumab (adjusted odds ratios 0.87 (0.68 to 1.10) for ischaemic stroke, 0.90 (0.72 to 1.11) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.88 (0.67 to 1.16) for venous thromboembolism, and 0.87 (0.70 to 1.07) for congestive heart failure). Similarly, a secondary analysis of exclusive users of bevacizumab or ranibizumab showed no differences in risk between the two drugs (adjusted odds ratios for bevacizumab relative to ranibizumab of 1.03 (0.67 to 1.60) for ischaemic stroke, 1.23 (0.85 to 1.77) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.92 (0.51 to 1.69) for venous thromboembolism, and

  10. Vitreous pharmacokinetics and electroretinographic findings after intravitreal injection of acyclovir in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Damico, Francisco Max; Scolari, Mariana Ramos; Ioshimoto, Gabriela Lourençon; Takahashi, Beatriz Sayuri; da Silva Cunha, Armando; Fialho, Sílvia Ligório; Bonci, Daniela Maria; Gasparin, Fabio; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acute retinal necrosis is a rapidly progressive and devastating viral retinitis caused by the herpesvirus family. Systemic acyclovir is the treatment of choice; however, the progression of retinal lesions ceases approximately 2 days after treatment initiation. An intravitreal injection of acyclovir may be used an adjuvant therapy during the first 2 days of treatment when systemically administered acyclovir has not reached therapeutic levels in the retina. The aims of this study were to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of acyclovir in the rabbit vitreous after intravitreal injection and the functional effects of acyclovir in the rabbit retina. METHODS: Acyclovir (Acyclovir; Bedford Laboratories, Bedford, OH, USA) 1 mg in 0.1 mL was injected into the right eye vitreous of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, and 0.1 mL sterile saline solution was injected into the left eye as a control. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 9, 14, or 28 days. The eyes were enucleated, and the vitreous was removed. The half-life of acyclovir was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Electroretinograms were recorded on days 2, 9, 14, and 28 in the eight animals that were sacrificed 28 days after injection according to a modified protocol of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. RESULTS: Acyclovir rapidly decayed in the vitreous within the first two days after treatment and remained at low levels from day 9 onward. The eyes that were injected with acyclovir did not present any electroretinographic changes compared with the control eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The vitreous half-life of acyclovir is short, and the electrophysiological findings suggest that the intravitreal delivery of 1 mg acyclovir is safe and well tolerated by the rabbit retina. PMID:22948462

  11. Intravitreal Injection of Splice-switching Oligonucleotides to Manipulate Splicing in Retinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, Xavier; Perrault, Isabelle; Munnich, Arnold; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis is a severe hereditary retinal dystrophy responsible for neonatal blindness. The most common disease-causing mutation (c.2991+1655A>G; 10–15%) creates a strong splice donor site that leads to insertion of a cryptic exon encoding a premature stop codon. Recently, we reported that splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSO) allow skipping of the mutant cryptic exon and the restoration of ciliation in fibroblasts of affected patients, supporting the feasibility of a SSO-mediated exon skipping strategy to correct the aberrant splicing. Here, we present data in the wild-type mouse, which demonstrate that intravitreal administration of 2'-OMePS-SSO allows selective alteration of Cep290 splicing in retinal cells, including photoreceptors as shown by successful alteration of Abca4 splicing using the same approach. We show that both SSOs and Cep290 skipped mRNA were detectable for at least 1 month and that intravitreal administration of oligonucleotides did not provoke any serious adverse event. These data suggest that intravitreal injections of SSO should be considered to bypass protein truncation resulting from the c.2991+1655A>G mutation as well as other truncating mutations in genes which like CEP290 or ABCA4 have a mRNA size that exceed cargo capacities of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved adeno-associated virus (AAV)-vectors, thus hampering gene augmentation therapy. PMID:26325627

  12. A Single Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab Provides No Neuroprotection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Moderate-to-Severe Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Neil R.; Johnson, Mary A.; Nolan, Theresa; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ranibizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor-antagonist, is said to be neuroprotective when injected intravitreally in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). We evaluated the efficacy of a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of ranibizumab in a nonhuman primate model of NAION (pNAION). Methods We induced pNAION in one eye of four adult male rhesus monkeys using a laser-activated rose Bengal induction method. We then immediately injected the eye with either ranibizumab or normal saline (NS) intravitreally. We performed a clinical assessment, optical coherence tomography, electrophysiological testing, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography in three of the animals (one animal developed significant retinal hemorrhages and, therefore, could not be analyzed completely) prior to induction, 1 day and 1, 2, and 4 weeks thereafter. Following the 4-week analysis of the first eye, we induced pNAION in the contralateral eye and then injected either ranibizumab or NS, whichever substance had not been injected in the first eye. We euthanized all animals 5 to 12 weeks after the final assessment of the second eye and performed both immunohistochemical and light and electron microscopic analyses of the retina and optic nerves of both eyes. Results A single IVT dose of ranibizumab administered immediately after induction of pNAION resulted in no significant reduction of clinical, electrophysiological, or histologic damage compared with vehicle-injected eyes. Conclusions A single IVT dose of ranibizumab is not neuroprotective when administered immediately after induction of pNAION. PMID:26624498

  13. Intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor injection in unrecognised early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kianersi, Farzan; Ghanbari, Heshmatollah; Naderi Beni, Zahra; Naderi Beni, Afsaneh

    2016-10-01

    The use of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor medications has widened considerably to include indications affecting females of reproductive age. Our patient was inadvertently exposed to bevacizumab within the first trimester when placental growth and fetal organogenesis take place and patient suffered pregnancy loss. There is insufficient information to suggest that such use is safe, nor is there definitive evidence to suggest that it causes harm. We advise that ophthalmologists discuss pregnancy with women of childbearing age undergoing intraocular anti-VEGF injections and in pregnant woman counselling is needed to explain the potential risks and benefits. PMID:27251054

  14. Apoptosis and electroretinogram after intravitreal injection of methotrexate in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Aly, Eman; Ebrahim, Amal

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the changes in electroretinogram of rabbit retina and apoptosis in methotrexate-induced toxicity. Rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Group I served as control in which saline solutions was injected intravitreally. Methotrexate (800 μg, 1.76 μmol) was injected into the vitreous of both eyes of rabbits groups II, III, IV and V by an insulin injector with a 26 gauge needle under general anesthesia. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinogram (ERG) after 2, 4, 10 days and one month then animals were decapitated. The eyes were enucleated and processed for DNA fragmentation studies by gel electrophoresis to retinae and measurement of caspase-3 activities. The results indicated a significant reduction (p ˂ 0.05) in a- and b-wave, a time-dependent appearance of the typical ladder pattern of internucleosomal fragmentation, a characteristic of apoptosis and increase of relative caspase-3 activity after methotrexate intravitreal injection. Methotrexate lead to apoptosis, increase of caspase-3 and affect retinal function.

  15. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  16. Role of Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections for Choroidal Neovascularization due to Choroidal Osteoma.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Arevalo, J Fernando; Al Kahtani, Eman; Zegarra, Hernando; Abboud, Emad; Anand, Rajiv; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sisk, Robert A; Mirza, Salman; Tuncer, Samuray; Navea Tejerina, Amparo; Mataix, Jorge; Ascaso, Francisco J; Pulido, Jose S; Guthoff, Rainer; Goebel, Winfried; Roh, Young Jung; Banker, Alay S; Gentile, Ronald C; Martinez, Isabel Alonso; Morris, Rodney; Panday, Neeraj; Min, Park Jung; Mercé, Emilie; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Massoud, Vicky; Ghazi, Nicola G

    2014-01-01

    We treated 26 eyes of 25 young patients having a mean age of 30 years with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor for choroidal new vessel (CNV) formation overlying choroidal osteoma over a mean follow-up of 26 months. Mean number of injections was 2.4 at 6 months, 3.2 at 12 months, and 5.5 at 24 months. CNV was subfoveal in 14 eyes, juxtafoveal in 5, extrafoveal in 5, and peripapillary in 2. By paired comparison, mean decrease from baseline was 119.7 microns at 6 months (n = 15; P = 0.001), 105.3 microns at 1 year (n = 10; P = 0.03), and 157.6 microns at 2 years (n = 7; P = 0.08). BCVA improved by 3.3 lines at 6 months after therapy (n = 26; P < 0.001), 2.8 lines (n = 20; P = 0.01) at 1 year, and 3.1 lines (n = 13; P = 0.049) at 2 years. We conclude that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections improve vision in majority of eyes with CNV from choroidal osteoma.

  17. Intravitreal bevacizumab injections for diabetic macular edema – predictors of response: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Lavnish; Bar, Asaf; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Yaganti, Satish; Morarji, Jiten; Vouzounis, Panayiotis; Seguin-Greenstein, Sophie; Taylor, Simon R; Lightman, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcomes of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections are variable among patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). The aim of this study was to determine the ocular and systemic predictors of DME response to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). Methods Retrospective review over 2 years of 78 eyes from 54 patients. An anatomical response to IVB was defined as a 20% reduction in central macula thickness after the first course (three injections) of IVB. Results Twenty-eight percent of patients had an anatomical response after the first course of IVB. Systemic hypertension (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 12.1, 0.7–21) was a statistically significant predictor (P=0.025) of a good response to IVB, whereas previous macular laser was a statistically significant (P=0.0005) predictor of a poor response (0.07, 0.01–0.32). Sixty-eight percent of eyes underwent subsequent treatment for DME after the first course of IVB. The visual acuity gain at 24 months in hypertensive (0.7±3.6 letters) and nonhypertensive (5.2±3.7 letters) patients was not significantly different (P=0.41). Conclusion Hypertension and previous macular laser were positive and negative predictors of response to IVB, respectively. However, long-term visual acuity changes were not significantly different between eyes with and without systemic hypertension. PMID:27799737

  18. [Intravitreal injections of medications in Germany. Contract situation and legal conditions].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Wiedemann, P; Kampik, A; Holz, F; Bartz-Schmidt, K U

    2009-05-01

    Despite the increasing application of both approved and off-label drugs for intravitreal administration, the German health system still does not provide an accounting code for the procedure of intravitreal injections. Health insurances and politicians are exerting pressure in order to limit the expected increase in the number of medications and costs due to demographic factors. Although the price for the drug can be determined by the manufacturer, a standing committee has to agree on the fee to be charged for the medical service of injection and subsequent examinations. Until the missing arrangement has been made, each individual surgeon can balance accounts with the patients who have claim for reimbursement. Many contracts have recently been made in order to regulate the extent of performance and charges for the application of medications and follow-up examinations to reduce administration costs. Due to medical liability and ethical code, physicians are obliged to provide a cost-effective and adequate treatment as well as a comprehensive preoperative patient education including efficacy, potential complications, limited prescription and free choice of a medical practitioner. It also appears prudent to explain relevant terms such as 'off-label' and 'level of evidence'. To prevent any suspicion of personal advantage, patients should be informed if placed contracts do not allow equal reimbursement for the same treatment or similar drugs. PMID:19408003

  19. The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection before Ahmed valve implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Youb; Nam, Ki Yup; Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Seung Uk

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) before Ahmed valve implantation for treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). This study is a retrospective, comparative, consecutive case series. The study group consisted of 27 eyes of 26 patients with NVG who underwent an Ahmed valve implantation. Thirteen eyes were treated with Ahmed valve implantation alone (control group), and 14 eyes were treated with a combination of preoperative IVB injection and Ahmed valve implantation (IVB group). Visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucoma medications, surgical complications, and success rate were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences in preoperative characteristics between the two groups. Visual acuity at 1, 2 weeks, and 1 month after surgery were significantly better in the IVB group (p = 0.038, 0.034, and 0.032, respectively). Hyphema associated with Ahmed valve implantation occurred significantly less in the IVB group (p = 0.016). On the other hand, the mean IOP and number of anti-glaucoma medications at all follow-up periods were similar between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the probability of success 6 months after surgery as 71.4 % in the IVB group and 84.6 % in the control group. No significant difference in success rate was found between the groups (p = 0.422). IVB before Ahmed valve implantation for treatment of NVG reduced the incidence of hyphema. In this retrospective study, IVB provided better visual outcome in the early postoperative periods but did not significantly improve mean IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications, or success rate.

  20. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Macular degeneration : An eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision Macular edema: Swelling or thickening of ... macula, the part of your eye that provides sharp, central vision Diabetic retinopathy , which can cause new, ...

  1. Sustained intraocular pressure elevation after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab associated with trabeculitis.

    PubMed

    Sniegowski, Matthew; Mandava, Naresh; Kahook, Malik Y

    2010-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are frequently used to treat a variety of ocular neovascular diseases. While agents like bevacizumab and ranibizumab appear to be safe and effective, there have been reports of severe intraocular inflammation as well as sustained elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) after single or multiple intravitreal injections of these protein-based therapeutics. The true mechanism leading to inflammation and/or sustained spikes in IOP remains unknown. We report a patient with sustained IOP elevation and kerato-precipitates on the trabecular meshwork after multiple injections of both bevacizumab and ranibizumab. We propose that monomer antibodies, aggregated proteins, or other high molecular weight molecules might lead to inflammation in the trabecular meshwork and subsequent elevation in IOP. PMID:20871754

  2. Sustained protection against photoreceptor degeneration in tubby mice by intravitreal injection of nanoceria.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xue; Sezate, Steven A; Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James F

    2012-12-01

    We previously reported that nanoceria can slow retinal degeneration in the tubby mouse for two weeks by multiple systemic injections. However, the long-term protection of retinal structure and function by directly deliver of nanoceria to the eye had not been explored. In this study, 172 ng of nanoceria in 1 μl saline (1 mm) were intravitreally injected into tubby P7 pups and assays were performed at P28, P49, P80 and P120. The expression of antioxidant associated genes and photoreceptor-specific genes was significantly up regulated, the mislocalization of rod and cone opsins was decreased, and retinal structure and function were protected. These findings demonstrate that nanoceria can function as catalytic antioxidants in vivo and may be broad spectrum therapeutic agents for multiple types of ocular diseases.

  3. Lowered intraocular pressure in a glaucoma patient after intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Michael; MacCumber, Mathew W

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a glaucoma patient who received a single intravitreal injection of 125 µg ocriplasmin for vitreomacular traction in the right eye. The patient had bilateral advanced glaucoma and had previously undergone an implantation of an Ahmed glaucoma valve in the right eye and trabeculectomy in both eyes. The patient was using three topical ophthalmic intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medications on the day of injection. Baseline uncorrected Snellen visual acuity was 20/80-1 and IOP was 19 mmHg. Resolution of vitreomacular traction was achieved 1 week after injection. IOP was transiently decreased, reaching a maximum reduction of 12 mmHg below baseline at 1 month after injection, when serous choroidal effusion was also present. IOP returned to baseline levels and choroidal effusion resolved at 2 months after injection of IOP-lowering medication. Vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane and internal limiting membrane peeling, endolaser photocoagulation, and fluid–gas exchange were performed in the right eye ~3.5 months after injection to treat persistent epiretinal membrane, and presumed tractional retinal detachment. Final visual acuity was 20/50+ and IOP was 18 mmHg at 16 weeks after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of IOP reduction and serous choroidal effusion after ocriplasmin injection. PMID:26604668

  4. Effects of an intravitreal injection of interleukin-35-expressing plasmid on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chao; Wu, Qianni; Ouyang, Chen; Huang, Ting

    2016-09-01

    In order to explore the potential effects of interleukin (IL)-35 on IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interferon-γ (INF)-γ, IL-12 and IL-17, a pcDNA3.1‑IL-35 plasmid was injected into the vitreous cavity of BALB/c mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot analysis and quantitative PCR analysis were performed to confirm the successful expression of IL-35. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy, hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunofluorescence were employed to detect the status of eyes, and western blot analysis was performed to examine the expression of corneal graft rejection-related cytokines. There were no abnormalities in the eyes pre-mydriasis or post-mydriasis and no injuries to the cornea or retina following the injection of IL-35-expressing plasmid. An immunofluorescence assay detected the positive expression of IL-35 in corneal epithelial cells from IL-35‑injected mice and negative staining in the control group. Further study revealed that IL-35 enhanced the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β which reached their highest levels at 1 and 2 weeks after injection, respectively (p<0.01). Moreover, the expression of INF-γ and IL-12 was decreased significantly at 2 weeks after the injection of IL-35-expressing plasmid (p<0.05), and the expression of IL-17 was suppressed notably at 4 weeks after the injection (p<0.05). The intravitreal injection of IL-35-expressing plasmid in mice downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulates the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, IL-35 may further be assessed as a potential target for the treatment of corneal graft rejection. PMID:27460435

  5. Effects of an intravitreal injection of interleukin-35-expressing plasmid on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chao; Wu, Qianni; Ouyang, Chen; Huang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the potential effects of interleukin (IL)-35 on IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interferon-γ (INF)-γ, IL-12 and IL-17, a pcDNA3.1-IL-35 plasmid was injected into the vitreous cavity of BALB/c mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot analysis and quantitative PCR analysis were performed to confirm the successful expression of IL-35. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy, hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunofluorescence were employed to detect the status of eyes, and western blot analysis was performed to examine the expression of corneal graft rejection-related cytokines. There were no abnormalities in the eyes pre-mydriasis or post-mydriasis and no injuries to the cornea or retina following the injection of IL-35-expressing plasmid. An immunofluorescence assay detected the positive expression of IL-35 in corneal epithelial cells from IL-35-injected mice and negative staining in the control group. Further study revealed that IL-35 enhanced the expression of IL-10 and TGF-β which reached their highest levels at 1 and 2 weeks after injection, respectively (p<0.01). Moreover, the expression of INF-γ and IL-12 was decreased significantly at 2 weeks after the injection of IL-35-expressing plasmid (p<0.05), and the expression of IL-17 was suppressed notably at 4 weeks after the injection (p<0.05). The intravitreal injection of IL-35-expressing plasmid in mice downregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulates the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, IL-35 may further be assessed as a potential target for the treatment of corneal graft rejection. PMID:27460435

  6. Electroretinographic evaluations of retinal function before, just after, and after intravitreal injections

    PubMed Central

    Yagura, Kazuma; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Soiti; Terauchi, Gaku; Kawashima, Makoto; Watanabe, Emiko; Matsumoto, Harue; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi; Miyake, Yozo

    2016-01-01

    Intravitreal injections (IVI) have become a part of daily practice for a growing number of procedures. We evaluated the retinal function by recording intraoperative photopic electroretinograms (ERGs) before an injection (T1), just after the injection (T2), and after the aspiration of the anterior chamber fluid (T3) of 19 eyes of 19 patients (mean age 70.6 years; men = 11) who received an IVI of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. The mean amplitudes of the b-wave, photopic negative responses (PhNR), and oscillatory potentials (OPs) 1 and 2 at T2 were significantly smaller than that at T1, but no significant difference was observed between T3 and T1. The mean implicit times of the a-wave and OP1, 2, and 3 at T2 and the a-wave and the OP2 at T3 were significantly longer than that at T1. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) at T2 (49.32 mm Hg) was significantly higher and the IOP at T3 (8.74 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that at T1 (21.05 mm Hg). The retinal function was reduced and the IOP elevated just after the IVI. The response of each ERG component was different suggesting a different sensitivity of each type of retinal neuron to IVI. PMID:27492923

  7. Effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections

    PubMed Central

    Ataş, Mustafa; Başkan, Burhan; Özköse, Ayşe; Mutlu Sarıgüzel, Fatma; Demircan, Süleyman; Pangal, Emine

    2014-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of moxifloxacin exposure on the conjunctival flora and antibiotic resistance profile following repeated intravitreal injections. METHODS Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients [36 eyes in control group, 36 eyes in intravitreal injection (IVI) group] were enrolled in the study. All the eyes had at least one IVI and had diabetic macular edema (DME) or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Moxifloxacin was prescribed to all the patients four times a day for five days following injection. Conjunctival cultures were obtained from the lower fornix via standardized technique with every possible effort made to minimize contamination from the lids, lashes, or skin. Before the application of any ophthalmic medication, conjunctival cultures were obtained from both eyes using sterile cotton culture. An automated microbiology system was used to identify the growing bacteria and determine antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS The bacterial cultures were isolated from 72 eyes of 36 patients, sixteen of whom patients (44.4%) were male and twenty (55.6%) were female. Average age was 68.4±9.0 (range 50-86). The average number of injections before taking cultures was 3.1+1.0. Forty-eight (66.7%) of 72 eyes had at least one significant organism. There was no bacterial growth in 8 (20.5%) of IVI eyes and in 16 (44.4%) of control eyes (P=0.03). Of the bacteria isolated from culture, 53.8% of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) in IVI eyes and 47.2% CoNS in control eyes. This difference between IVI eyes and control eyes about bacteria isolated from culture was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Eleven of 25 bacteria (44.0%) isolated from IVI eyes and 11 (57.9%) of 19 bacteria isolated from control eyes were resistant to oxacillin. The difference in frequency of moxifloxacine resistance between two groups was not statistically significant (12.0% in IVI eyes and 21.1% in control eyes) (P=0.44). There were no cases of resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin and

  8. Dexamethasone: intravitreal implant.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Macular oedema is one of the complications of retinal vein occlusion. About half of the patients recover spontaneously within 3 to 6 months. There is currently no drug that improves outcome. An intravitreal implant delivering 0.7 mg of dexamethasone has been authorised for the treatment of macular oedema in this setting. Clinical assessment is based on two double-blind randomised trials including a total of 1267 patients, comparing treatment with intravitreal implants delivering about 0.7 mg or 0.35 mg of dexamethasone, versus a sham procedure. Despite a more rapid initial improvement with dexamethasone, the number of patients whose reading ability improved at 6 months did not significantly differ between the groups. A retrospective subgroup analysis raised the possibility that dexamethasone implants may be beneficial in patients with central retinal vein occlusion. The adverse effects of dexamethasone intravitreal implants are the same as those of intraocular steroid injections, including elevated intraocular pressure (25% of patients), cataracts (27%), conjunctival haemorrhage (20%), and ocular pain. In practice, dexamethasone intravitreal implants do not have a positive harm-benefit balance in most patients with macular oedema following retinal vein occlusion. More rapid recovery after central vein occlusion remains to be confirmed. Pending such studies, it is better to avoid using dexamethasone implants. Patients should instead receive ophthalmologic monitoring to detect and manage possible complications, and any risk factors should be treated.

  9. Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection as an Adjuvant in the Treatment of Neovascular Glaucoma Accompanied by Vitreous Hemorrhage after Diabetic Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xi; Chen, Yanwei; Wang, Yanuo; Yang, Lu; Zhong, Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab injection as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) accompanied by postvitrectomy diabetic vitreous hemorrhage (PDVH). Methods. Eighteen NVG patients (18 eyes) accompanied by PDVH were enrolled in this prospective, monocenter, 12-month, interventional case series. The consecutive 18 patients with an IOP ≥ 25 mmHg despite being treated with the maximum medical therapy were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Vitreous surgery or/with Ahmed valve implantation were indicated if no clinical improvement in vitreous haemorrhage and uncontrolled IOP was shown. Results. Ten patients got clear vitreous and controlled IOP only with 2.7 ± 1.8 injections of ranibizumab without additional surgery. Vitrectomy or/with Ahmed valve implantation was administered in the other 8 eyes due to uncontrolled VH and IOP. At follow-up month 12, all the 18 eyes gained clear vitreous. At month 12 BCVA improved significantly compared to baseline. The baseline and follow-up at month 12 IOP/medication usage were 36.7 ± 8.1 mmHg on 3.4 ± 0.7 medications and 16.2 ± 4.9 mmHg on 0.67 ± 0.77 medications, respectively. Conclusions. The findings suggest that intravitreal ranibizumab injection as adjuvant therapy for treatment of NVG accompanied by PDVH may be safe and potentially effective. This clinical trial is registered with NCT02647515. PMID:27293875

  10. Intravitreal tPA Injection and Pneumatic Displacement for Submacular Hemorrhage in a 10-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Hiroshi; Hattori, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Submacular hemorrhage can occur after blunt trauma to the eye. Intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and gas injection are often used for treatment and are effective for submacular hemorrhage caused by age-related macular degeneration. This report describes the clinical outcome in a child with submacular hemorrhage caused by traumatic choroidal rupture who underwent successful intravitreal tPA injection and pneumatic displacement. Case Presentation. A 10-year-old boy developed sudden decrease of vision and a central scotoma in his right eye after trauma. Submacular hemorrhage was found in the eye. Visual acuity was 20/70 OD. Tissue plasminogen activator (12.5 μg in 0.05 mL) and 0.3 mL of pure sulfur hexafluoride were injected into the vitreous cavity under general anesthesia. After surgery, the patient was instructed to maintain a prone position. Displacement of the submacular hemorrhage from the fovea revealed a choroidal rupture, presumed to be the cause of the hemorrhage. After 4 months of follow-up, visual acuity was restored and final visual acuity is 20/16. Conclusion. Intravitreal tPA and gas injection can be an effective treatment for children with submacular hemorrhage. PMID:27722001

  11. Combined vitrectomy and intravitreal injection versus combined laser and injection for treatment of intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Ahmed M

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of combined vitrectomy, intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA), and bevacizumab injection with that of IVTA and bevacizumab injection and subsequent macular grid laser photocoagulation for the treatment of intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema. Methods This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed at Benha University Hospital, Benha, Egypt, and included 34 eyes from 34 diabetic patients diagnosed with intractable diffuse diabetic macular edema without vitreomacular traction. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1, pars plana vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid was performed, and at the end of the procedure, IVTA 0.1 mL (40 mg/mL) and bevacizumab 1.25 mg were injected. In group 2, macular grid laser photocoagulation was performed 2 weeks after the same intravitreal injection combination as used in group 1. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central foveal thickness, which were measured using optical coherence tomography at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results Changes in BCVA and central foveal thickness at 3, 6, and 12 months from baseline were highly statistically significant (P < 0.01). Mean BCVA was better in group 1 at 3 months, nearly equal at 6 months, and less at 12 months. Mean central foveal thickness was more improved in group 1 than in group 2 at 3 months, and was better in group 2 at subsequent measurement points. The major adverse events were development of cataract (more common in group 1) and elevation of intraocular pressure (more common in group 2). Conclusion The combined therapy described here could represent a solution for the treatment of intractable diabetic macular edema, and could have a favorable long-term outcome. Combined treatment of IVTA and bevacizumab plus grid laser resulted in a more favorable reduction in central foveal thickness and improvement in BCVA at 12 months than vitrectomy

  12. Clinical research on intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Wang, Tao; Cao, Jing; Wang, Meng; Li, Fenghua

    2015-07-01

    This paper aimed to explore clinically curative effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the treatment of macula lutea and retinal edema of ocular fundus disease. The number of 300 patients (390 eyes) with ocular fundus diseases including retinal vein occlusion (RVO), diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), choridal new vessel (CNV) received and cured in the hospital from February 2010 to February 2014 were given intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.5mg) with once per month and a total of 2-3 times. Results of patients' vision and fluorescence fundus angiography (FFA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after treatment were compared and curative effects were evaluated. Vision of 349 eyes (89.49%) improved obviously with the average of more than 2 lines, patient's intraocular pressure (IOP) was normal and all indexes were clearly better; vision of 26 eyes (6.67%) was stable before the treatment and without any changes after the treatment, the situation of fundus got better without increased IOP; vision of 15 eyes (3.85%) decreased to some extent, and the symptoms eased slightly after symptomatic treatment. In the 1st day after intravitreal injection, best-corrected visual acuity increased to 0.239±0.175, best-corrected visual acuity in 1 m was 0.315±0.182, in 3m continuously climbed to 0.350±0.270, and in 6 m was 0.362±0.282. Compared with vision before injection, t value was t=3.184, t=7.213, t=9.274 and t=9.970 (P=0.002, P=0.000, P=0.000 and P=0.000) respectively, and all P were less than 0.01. Furthermore, the difference was significant if a=0.01, which could confirm that 1m best corrected visual acuity of patients after intravitreal injection improved clearly in combination with before injection and 3m and 6 m visions enhanced constantly after injection. To sum up, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in treating ocular fundus disease improves patient's vision

  13. Development of ocular hypertension and persistent glaucoma after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone

    PubMed Central

    Kocabora, M Selim; Yilmazli, Cemil; Taskapili, Muhittin; Gulkilik, Gokhan; Durmaz, Sahan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation secondary to intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) and discusses its management. Methods The records of 175 patients who underwent IVTA treatment and regular eye examinations in the period 2003–2006 were reviewed. One hundred and twenty-two of these patients were included in the study, of which 147 eyes that received IVTA (4 mg/0.1 ml) were followed for at least 9 months. Mean IOPs observed after IVTA injection as well as IOP elevations defined as moderate (≥5 mm Hg), important (≥10 mm Hg) and severe (>25 mm Hg) during the follow-up period were evaluated and compared statistically. Results Overall, the mean IOPs following IVTA injection were statistically significantly higher than the preinjection IOP (15.8 ± 2.6), after the first hour (17.7 ± 2.9), the first week (18.7 ± 4.1), the first month (19.6 ± 6.2), the second month (19.1 ± 6.1), the third month (18.0 ± 4.1), the sixth month (17.3 ± 4.0), and the ninth month (17.0 ± 2.7), but not after the first day (16.3 ± 7.6). Important IOP elevations were observed mostly in the first (17.7%) and second months (10.2%). In 40 (27.7%) eyes, topical antiglaucomatous therapy was needed and 7 later required surgical intervention to lower the IOP. Of the remaining 33 eyes, topical treatment was continued in 14 (9.5%) because of IOPs ≥20 mm Hg. Conclusion The persistence of IOP elevation beyond the IVTA clearance period and the development of intractable secondary glaucoma requiring surgical intervention substantiate the need for careful consideration of IVTA indication and follow-up. PMID:19668401

  14. An assessment of the ocular safety of excipient maleic acid following intravitreal injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Shirley A; Collette, Walter; Gukasyan, Hovhannes J; Huang, Wenhu

    2012-07-01

    Maleic acid was formulated in 0.7% saline and injected intravitreally in rabbits in order to evaluate ocular safety and tolerability. Maleic acid was formulated within a narrow pH range (2-3), administered in a fixed volume (100 µl), and concentrations ranged from 0.00 to 2.00 mg/eye (0.00 to 12.30 mM vitreous). Ocular evaluations were conducted at 2, 4, and 8 days post injection. Ocular irritation responses were observed at doses from 0.50 mg/eye (3.07 mM vitreous) to 2.00 mg/eye (12.30 mM vitreous) and included conjunctival redness and scleral swelling. Chemosis was observed at 2.00 mg/eye (12.30 mM vitreous). Funduscopic evaluations revealed enlarged retinal blood vessels and optic disk swelling at doses ≥1.50 mg/eye (9.22 mM vitreous), retinal folds and retinal discoloration at 2.00 mg/eye (12.30 mM vitreous). Histopathologic evaluations on days 4 and 8 post injection revealed retinal degeneration at doses ≥1.0 mg/eye (6.15 mM vitreous), conjunctival inflammation at doses ≥1.5 mg/eye (9.22 mM vitreous), and retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy, optic nerve demyelination, anterior chamber fluid, and conjunctival fibrosis at 2.00 mg/eye (12.30 mM vitreous) maleic acid. The data suggest that maleic acid formulations at ≥1.00 mg/eye (6.15 mM vitreous) were not suitable for intraocular indications.

  15. Catalytic nanoceria are preferentially retained in the rat retina and are not cytotoxic after intravitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lily L; Hirst, Suzanne M; Pye, Quentin N; Reilly, Christopher M; Seal, Sudipta; McGinnis, James F

    2013-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) possess catalytic and regenerative radical scavenging activities. The ability of nanoceria to maintain cellular redox balance makes them ideal candidates for treatment of retinal diseases whose development is tightly associated with oxidative damage. We have demonstrated that our stable water-dispersed nanoceria delay photoreceptor cell degeneration in rodent models and prevent pathological retinal neovascularization in vldlr mutant mice. The objectives of the current study were to determine the temporal and spatial distributions of nanoceria after a single intravitreal injection, and to determine if nanoceria had any toxic effects in healthy rat retinas. Using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we discovered that nanoceria were rapidly taken up by the retina and were preferentially retained in this tissue even after 120 days. We also did not observe any acute or long-term negative effects of nanoceria on retinal function or cytoarchitecture even after this long-term exposure. Because nanoceria are effective at low dosages, nontoxic and are retained in the retina for extended periods, we conclude that nanoceria are promising ophthalmic therapeutics for treating retinal diseases known to involve oxidative stress in their pathogeneses.

  16. Long-Term Management of Complications of Retinal Artery Macroaneurysms with Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the 1-year follow-up results of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) for the management of complications of retinal artery macroaneurysms (RAM). Methods A retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series of 4 eyes of 4 patients (all female, aged 68–91 years, 3 treatment naive) treated with IAI 2 mg for complications of RAM [macular edema (ME) 2, submacular hemorrhage (SMH) 1, and vitreous hemorrhage (VH) 1] was conducted. Baseline parameters consisted of complete ocular examination, medical history, best-corrected Snellen VA, fundus photography, IVFA and SD OCT, unless precluded by VH (1). All patients completed ≥1 year follow-up. Results Baseline VA was hand motions in the eye with SMH (31 mm2 area and 1,478 μm thickness); 20/40 and 20/100 with ME (CST 390 and 337 μm, respectively), and 20/200 in the eye with VH. At 1 month, both patients with ME showed resolution of ME with CST <300 μm with improvement in VA which was maintained through 1 year. VH resolved in one eye at 1 month with no recurrence after 1 year. The eye with SMH developed macular scar and had counting fingers vision at 1 year. Thrombosis of RAM was noted in all eyes and hairpin-like remodeling of artery in one. No eye required repeat injection or laser. Conclusion ME and VH from RAM were effectively treated with IAI. However, the eye with thick SMH had poor visual outcome despite thrombosis of RAM. Single IAI provided effective therapy for complications of RAM with excellent anatomical and visual results in each eye, except one with thick SMH, and merits further study. PMID:27790133

  17. Effects of intravitreal injection of netrin-1 in retinal neovascularization of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yao; Zou, Jing; Han, Yun; Quyang, Luowa; He, Hui; Hu, Peihong; Shao, Yi; Tu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we confirmed that netrin-1 acts as an antiangiogenic factor by inhibiting alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Here, we continue working on the role of netrin-1 in retinal neovascularization. Methods Using an in vitro angiogenesis assay, we detected the effects of netrin-1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation, viability and proliferation, migration, and invasion at concentrations of 0.1 μg/mL or 5 μg/mL. We intravitreally injected 0.1 μg/mL or 5 μg/mL netrin-1 into streptozotocin-induced rats to assess retinal neovascularization using retinal electrophysiology and electroretinography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fundus fluoresce in angiography, measurement of inner blood retinal barrier, retinal hematoxylin-eosin staining, and retinal flat-mount fluorescence assays. Results Human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation, viability and proliferation, migration, and invasion were upregulated by netrin-1 at a concentration of 0.1 μg/mL (P<0.05), while 5 μg/mL netrin-1 had an opposite effect (P<0.05) in our in vitro angiogenesis assay. Retinal electrophysiology testing revealed that intravitreal injection of netrin-1 affected the amplitude of a- and b-waves (a-wave: 0.1 μg/mL netrin-1 =17.67±3.39 μm, 5 μg/mL netrin-1 =28.50±1.31 μm, phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]-treated =17.67±3.39 μm; b-wave: 0.1 μg/mL netrin-1 =44.67±4.80 μm, 5 μg/mL netrin-1 =97.17±9.63 μm, PBS-treated =44.67±4.80 μm) and the expression of VEGF-A (no-treatment rats, 9.29±0.80 pg/mL; PBS-treated rats, 19.64±3.77 pg/mL; 0.1 μg/mL netrin-1 treated rats, 21.37±3.64 pg/mL; 5 μg/mL netrin-1 treated rats, 9.85±0.54 pg/mL, at 6 weeks after induction). By comparing fluoresce in angiography, level of inner blood retinal barrier breakdown (% of control), retinal hematoxylin-eosin staining, and collagen-IV fluorescence assays in the retinas of PBS-treated rats, netrin-1 was found to suppress and

  18. Management of Acute Submacular Hemorrhage with Intravitreal Injection of Tenecteplase, Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Gas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Pil; Park, Jun Sang; Kwon, Oh Woong; You, Yong Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the visual and anatomical outcomes for neovascular age-related macular degeneration with submacular hemorrhage after intravitreal injections of tenecteplase (TNK), anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and expansile gas. Methods This study was a retrospective clinical case series following 25 eyes of 25 patients. All patients received a triple injection using 0.05 mL TNK (50 µg), 0.05 mL anti-VEGF and 0.3 mL of perfluoropropane gas. Retreatment with anti-VEGF was performed as needed. Preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal thickness were analyzed. Results The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution of best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly from 1.09 ± 0.77 at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.60 at 12 months (p < 0.001). The mean central retinal thickness also improved significantly from 545 ± 156 at baseline to 266 ± 107 at 12 months (p < 0.001). A visual improvement of 0.3 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution unit or more was achieved in 15 eyes (60%). During the 12 postoperative months, an average of 4.04 intravitreal anti-VEGF injections was applied. Conclusions A triple injection of TNK, anti-VEGF, and a gas appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of submacular hemorrhage secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27247518

  19. A cluster of presumed, noninfectious endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab: long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Federico; Calabrese, Antonio; De Felici, Cecilia; Missiroli, Filippo; Pileri, Marco; Regine, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of 5 consecutive cases of presumed, noninfectious endopththalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB). Methods Ten pre-loaded syringes of bevacizumab (1.25 mg/50 µL) furnished by a compounding pharmacy were injected intravitreally. Treatments were performed in the operating room by the same surgeon on 2 consecutive days. Results Of 10 eyes, 5 showed moderate to severe ocular inflammation within a few days of injection. All patients were treated in the same surgical session. Vitreous tap performed in the patient presenting with the most severe grade of inflammation was negative for bacteria and fungi. At the time of the vitreous biopsy, this patient was injected with vancomycin 1 mg/100 µL in the vitreous cavity. Other eyes with moderate inflammation received topical and systemic antibiotics and topical steroid treatment. Visual acuity returned to pre-endophthalmitis or better levels in all eyes within 1 month. The other 5 patients treated with IVB from the same batch in the other surgical session did not develop inflammation. Conclusions IVB can induce noninfectious endophthalmitis. The use of compounded syringes can explain clustering of the inflammation. We were unable to identify the reasons for the variable grade of inflammation we observed in our patients. PMID:27582674

  20. The effect of intravitreal injection of vehicle solutions on form deprivation myopia in tree shrews.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alexander H; Siegwart, John T; Frost, Michael R; Norton, Thomas T

    2016-04-01

    lntravitreal injection of substances dissolved in a vehicle solution is a common tool used to assess retinal function. We examined the effect of injection procedures (three groups) and vehicle solutions (four groups) on the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) in juvenile tree shrews, mammals closely related to primates, starting at 24 days of visual experience (about 45 days of age). In seven groups (n = 7 per group), the myopia produced by monocular form deprivation (FD) was measured daily for 12 days during an 11-day treatment period. The FD eye was randomly selected; the contralateral eye served as an untreated control. The refractive state of both eyes was measured daily, starting just before FD began (day 1); axial component dimensions were measured on day 1 and after eleven days of treatment (day 12). Procedure groups: the myopia (treated eye - control eye refraction) in the FD group was the reference. The sham group only underwent brief daily anesthesia and opening of the conjunctiva to expose the sclera. The puncture group, in addition, had a pipette inserted daily into the vitreous. In four vehicle groups, 5 μL of vehicle was injected daily. The NaCl group received 0.85% NaCl. In the NaCl + ascorbic acid group, 1 mg/mL of ascorbic acid was added. The water group received sterile water. The water + ascorbic acid group received water with ascorbic acid (1 mg/mL). We found that the procedures associated with intravitreal injections (anesthesia, opening of the conjunctiva, and puncture of the sclera) did not significantly affect the development of FDM. However, injecting 5 μL of any of the four vehicle solutions slowed the development of FDM. NaCl had a small effect; myopia development in the last 6 days (-0.15 ± 0.08 D/day) was significantly less than in the FD group (-0.55 ± 0.06 D/day). NaCl + Ascorbic acid further slowed the development of FDM on several treatment days. H2O (-0.09 ± 0.05 D/day) and H2O + ascorbic acid

  1. Clinical effects and safety of treating diabetic macular edema with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Panshi; Qian, Cheng; Wang, Wenzhan; Dong, Yi; Wan, Guangming; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was designed to examine the clinical effects of treating diabetic macular edema with an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in combination with retinal photocoagulation. Methods Sixty-two cases (75 eyes) with confirmed severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy or proliferative diabetic retinopathy in combination with macular edema were randomly divided into the observation group (37 eyes were given an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation) and the control group (38 eyes received retinal photocoagulation only). Vision, fundus condition, central macular thickness, and the macular leakage area were recorded before and after treatment. Results The best-corrected visual acuity and macular leakage area were similar between the observation and control groups (P>0.05). The best-corrected visual acuity in the observation group was higher than that in the control group 3 and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05) and showed a rising tendency. The macular leakage area in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group 1 and 3 months after treatment (P<0.05). However, the macular leakage area was similar 6 months after treatment (P>0.05). The central macular thickness of the observation group was lower than that in the control group 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment (P<0.05). The laser energy used in the observation group was also smaller than that in the control group (P<0.05). The intraocular pressure was not significantly different between the groups (P<0.05). No patients in the two groups developed eye or systemic complications, such as glaucoma, cataract, or vitreous hemorrhage during treatment. Conclusion Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab combined with retinal photocoagulation was proven to be effective in treating diabetic macular edema as it improved vision and resulted in fewer complications. PMID:27103811

  2. A Case of Sustained Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Multiple Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Hisashi; Miyata, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Maki; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Ikesugi, Kengo; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are widely used to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Although these treatments are effective, multiple injections have recently been recommended to ensure that there is a good long-term prognosis. However, sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations have been reported to develop after multiple injections of anti-VEGF agents. We present our findings of a case of uncontrolled and persistent IOP elevation after switching from intravitreal ranibizumab injections to intravitreal aflibercept injections. A 74-year-old Japanese man without a history of glaucoma underwent 22 ranibizumab injections for nAMD and suddenly developed an elevated IOP after the 22nd injection. Although the subsequent medical treatment led to normalization of his IOP, the subretinal fluid under the central fovea remained even after the 25th injection of ranibizumab. Thus, ranibizumab treatment was switched to bimonthly intravitreal aflibercept injections in conjunction with glaucoma medications. His IOP recovered to within the normal range; however, after the 11th aflibercept injection, there was a sudden elevation of his IOP in spite of the continued glaucoma medications. Due to this sustained IOP elevation, his aflibercept injections were suspended for 16 weeks. Because his IOP could not be normalized by a full glaucoma medication regimen, the patient underwent trabeculotomy, which resulted in a lowering of the IOP to normal levels. We conclude that patients who receive serial intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents need to be closely monitored because severe and sustained ocular hypertension can develop. PMID:27462248

  3. Placenta Growth Factor in Eyes with Neovascular Glaucoma Is Decreased after Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Minwen; Wang, Jiawei; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenbin; Ding, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiulan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in the concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in aqueous humor of patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) before and after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) and to determine the underlying correlation between the levels. Methods The prospective interventional comparative study involved 20 eyes of 20 patients with surgery-required advanced NVG and 20 control subjects from January 2013 to November 2013. The NVG eyes received the IVR treatment before glaucoma surgery. Aqueous humor was collected at the time of the IVR injection (pre- IVR) and at the time of antiglaucomatous surgery (post-IVR). Aqueous humor was also collected at the time of cataract surgery in normal control. Aqueous humor and plasma VEGF-A and PlGF levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. Results The mean aqueous humor PlGF and VEGF-A concentrations in the pre-IVR eyes were significantly higher than in those of the control subjects (p<0.001), whereas the plasma levels showed no significant difference. There was a statistically significant correlation between the aqueous humor PlGF and the VEGF-A concentration (r = 0.612, p = 0.003). The mean aqueous humor PlGF in the post-IVR eyes dramatically decreased from 1078.36 ± 755.83 to 177.64 ± 151.73 pg/mL (p<0.001). The VEGF-A level showed a similar trend from 3697.64 ± 2104.47 pg/mL to 183.54 ± 130.35 pg/mL (p<0.001). Conclusions Aqueous humor concentrations of VEGF-A and PlGF were significantly elevated in the eyes with NVG, and there was a positive correlation between the levels. After an IVR treatment, VEGF-A and PlGF were significantly decreased in NVG eyes. PMID:26785251

  4. Retinal pigment epithelium tear formation following intravitreal ranibizumab injection in choroidal neovascularization secondary to choroidal osteoma.

    PubMed

    Erol, Muhammet K; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Ceran, Basak Bostanci; Bulut, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    Choroidal osteoma is an extremely rare osseous tumor of the choroid where choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the major cause of visual loss. We report the case of a 28-year-old female with CNV secondary to choroidal osteoma, who developed RPE tear after intravitreal ranibizumab treatment.

  5. Reducing chorioretinal viral counts with intravitreal foscarnet injections in a rabbit model of Herpes simplex virus type-1 retinitis.

    PubMed

    Morin, N J; Delorme, C; Gourde, P; Omar, R F; Désormeaux, A; Tremblay, M J; Beauchamp, D; Rousseau, A; Bergeron, M G

    1999-10-01

    The efficacy of intravitreal foscarnet injections was evaluated in a rabbit model of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) retinitis. In untreated infected animals, viral titration revealed that the optic chiasm, vitreous and chorioretina were positive for HSV-1. On the other hand, foscarnet treatment significantly decreased the viral count in the chorioretina when compared to the untreated group. Immunolocalization of HSV in untreated infected animals clearly showed infected cells in the outer and inner layers of the retina and also in the ciliary body of the eye. Clinical examination by indirect ophthalmoscopy indicated an absence of optic nerve congestion and a lower level of vitritis in foscarnet treated animals compared to the untreated group. It is concluded that intravitreal injections of foscarnet reduced the viral titer in the chorioretina in a rabbit model of HSV-1 retinitis. This route of administration might be valuable for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS patients with sight threatening lesions or intolerance to intravenous anti-CMV drugs.

  6. G-quartet oligonucleotide mediated delivery of proteins into photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium via intravitreal injection.

    PubMed

    Leaderer, Derek; Cashman, Siobhan M; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra

    2016-04-01

    There is currently no available method to efficiently deliver proteins across the plasma membrane of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vivo. Thus, current clinical application of recombinant proteins in ophthalmology is limited to the use of proteins that perform their biological function extracellularly. The ability to traverse biological membranes would enable the mobilization of a significantly larger number of proteins with previously well characterized properties. Nucleolin is abundantly present on the surface of rapidly dividing cells including cancer cells. Surprisingly, nucleolin is also present on the surface of photoreceptor cell bodies. Here we investigated whether nucleolin can be utilized as a gateway for the delivery of proteins into retinal cells following intravitreal injection. AS1411 is a G-quartet aptamer capable of targeting nucleolin. Subsequent to intravitreal injection, fluorescently labeled AS1411 localized to various retinal cell types including the photoreceptors and RPE. AS1411 linked to streptavidin (a ∼50 kDa protein) via a biotin bridge enabled the uptake of Streptavidin into photoreceptors and RPE. AS1411-Streptavidin conjugate applied topically to the cornea allowed for uptake of the conjugate into the nucleus and cytoplasm of corneal endothelial cells. Clinical relevance of AS1411 as a delivery vehicle was strongly indicated by demonstration of the presence of cell surface nucleolin on the photoreceptors, inner neurons and ganglion cells of human retina. These data support exploration of AS1411 as a means of delivering therapeutic proteins to diseased retina. PMID:26923800

  7. Vitrectomy Before Intravitreal Injection of AAV2/2 Vector Promotes Efficient Transduction of Retinal Ganglion Cells in Dogs and Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Tshilenge, Kizito-Tshitoko; Ameline, Baptiste; Weber, Michel; Mendes-Madeira, Alexandra; Nedellec, Steven; Biget, Marine; Provost, Nathalie; Libeau, Lyse; Blouin, Véronique; Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Le Meur, Guylène; Colle, Marie-Anne; Moullier, Philippe; Pichard, Virginie; Rolling, Fabienne

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) has emerged as a promising vector for retinal gene delivery to restore visual function in certain forms of inherited retinal dystrophies. Several studies in rodent models have shown that intravitreal injection of the AAV2/2 vector is the optimal route for efficient retinal ganglion cell (RGC) transduction. However, translation of these findings to larger species, including humans, is complicated by anatomical differences in the eye, a key difference being the comparatively smaller volume of the vitreous chamber in rodents. Here, we address the role of the vitreous body as a potential barrier to AAV2/2 diffusion and transduction in the RGCs of dogs and macaques, two of the most relevant preclinical models. We intravitreally administered the AAV2/2 vector carrying the CMV-eGFP reporter cassette in dog and macaque eyes, either directly into the vitreous chamber or after complete vitrectomy, a surgical procedure that removes the vitreous body. Our findings suggest that the vitreous body appears to trap the injected vector, thus impairing the diffusion and transduction of AAV2/2 to inner retinal neurons. We show that vitrectomy before intravitreal vector injection is an effective means of overcoming this physical barrier, improving the transduction of RGCs in dog and macaque retinas. These findings support the use of vitrectomy in clinical trials of intravitreal gene transfer techniques targeting inner retinal neurons. PMID:27229628

  8. Displacement of submacular hemorrhage associated with age-related macular degeneration using vitrectomy and submacular tPA injection followed by intravitreal ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Sukhpal Singh; Manvikar, Sridhar; Steel, David Henry William

    2010-01-01

    Background/aims: To evaluate retrospectively the clinical outcomes of patients presenting with submacular hemorrhage (SMH) secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), treated by vitrectomy, submacular tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) injection and pneumatic displacement of SMH with air followed by postoperative intravitreal ranibizumab (RZB). Methods: Patients with SMH and nAMD had 25-guage vitrectomy and subretinal tPA (12.5 micrograms/0.1 mL) with fluid/air exchange. Intravitreal RZB was administered postoperatively to patients eligible for National Health Service (NHS) funded treatment. Results: Of the total of 16 patients, 11 (68.7%) had complete displacement of SMH. The remaining five had residual SMH, mainly subretinal pigment epithelium in location. Three of the four patients who previously had a failed expansile gas pneumatic displacement were successfully displaced with vitrectomy surgery. At presentation 5/16 (31.3%) patients were eligible for NHS funded intravitreal RZB. This increased to 12 patients after the vitrectomy procedure (75.0%). At 6 months postoperatively all improved by ≥1 line. Ten of the 16 patients (63%) improved by ≥2 lines, with 10 of the 12 patients (83%) treated with RZB improving by ≥2 lines. Conclusion: Vitrectomy/subretinal tPA/air to displace SMH followed by intravitreal RZB injection can stabilize/improve vision in patients with nAMD. This technique displaces hemorrhage not displaced by attempted expansile gas techniques. PMID:20668667

  9. Biochemical changes induced by intravitreally-injected doxorubicin in the iris-ciliary body and lens of the rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Phylactos, A C; Unger, W G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects and mode of action of doxorubicin in ocular tissues. A dose of 10 microg (17.24 nanomoles) of doxorubicin hydrochloride in 20 microl sterile saline were intravitreally injected, under local anaesthesia, in one eye of 13 rabbits and 50 microg (86.20 nanomoles) were similarly injected in one eye of 3 rabbits. The contralateral eye received 20 microl of saline only. The dose of 50 microg induced initially mild uveal inflammation which became chronic and turned into circular iritis. Both doses of the drug induced cataract of the lens and clouding of the cornea within 2-3 months. The activity of superoxide dismutase, in iris-ciliary bodies and lenses treated with either 10 or 50 microg of the compound, was significantly lower relative to that in respective control tissues. In contrast to superoxide dismutase, catalase showed an increased activity in experimental tissues relative to control. The lysosomal hydrolases acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-B-D-glucosaminidase, aryl sulphatase and acid cathepsin, all showed significantly elevated activities in iris-ciliary body tissues one year after injection with the 50 microg doxorubicin. The reduction in superoxide dismutase activity may render ocular tissues susceptible to peroxidative attack and the increased activities of lysosomal hydrolases may contribute to chronic cell injury and inflammation. PMID:10431798

  10. Long-Term Effects of Intravitreal Injection of GMP-Grade Bone-Marrow–Derived CD34+ Cells in NOD-SCID Mice with Acute Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Sergio; Bauer, Gerhard; Shibata, Bradley; Roth, Alan; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Forward, Krisztina I.; Zhou, Ping; McGee, Jeannine; Telander, David G.; Grant, Maria B.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine long-term safety of intravitreal administration of good manufacturing practice (GMP)–grade human bone-marrow–derived CD34+ cells in NOD-SCID (nonobese diabetic–severe combined immunodeficiency) mice with acute retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, a model for retinal vasculopathy. Method. Acute ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in the right eye of adult NOD-SCID mice (n = 23) by transient elevation of intraocular pressure. Seven days later, 12 injured eyes and 5 normal contralateral eyes were injected each intravitreally with 5 × 104 CD34+ cells isolated under GMP conditions from a healthy human donor bone marrow using an immunomagnetic cell isolation system. The remaining 11 injured eyes were not treated and served as controls. Mice were euthanized 1 day, 4 months, and 8 months later. Both eyes were enucleated and examined by immunohistochemical analysis and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Among mice followed for 8 months, electroretinography (ERG) was performed on both eyes before euthanization. All major organs were examined grossly and histologically after serial sectioning. Results. Immunohistochemical staining 4 months after injection showed detectable CD34+ cells in the retinal vasculature. ERG at 8 months after CD34+ cell injection showed signals that were similar in untreated eyes. Histology of the enucleated eyes injected with CD34+ cells showed no intraocular tumor or abnormal tissue growth after 8 months. Histologic analysis of all major organs showed no abnormal proliferation of human cells. Conclusions. Intravitreal administration of GMP-grade human bone-marrow–derived CD34+ cells appears to be well tolerated long-term in eyes with acute retinal ischemic injury. A clinical trial will start to further explore this therapy. PMID:22247454

  11. Visual tracing of diffusion and biodistribution for amphiphilic cationic nanoparticles using photoacoustic imaging after ex vivo intravitreal injections

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xu; Xu, Zhaokang; Liu, Junyi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Chen, Hao; Li, Xingyi; Shi, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    To visually trace the diffusion and biodistribution of amphiphilic cation micelles after vitreous injection, various triblock copolymers of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone)–polyethylenimine were synthesized with different structures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments, followed by labeling with near-infrared fluorescent dye Cyanine5 or Cyanine7. The micellar size, polydispersity index, and surface charge were measured by dynamic light scattering. The diffusion was monitored using photoacoustic imaging in real time after intravitreal injections. Moreover, the labeled nanoparticle distribution in the posterior segment of the eye was imaged histologically by confocal microscopy. The results showed that the hydrophilic segment increased vitreous diffusion, while a positive charge on the particle surface hindered diffusion. In addition, the particles diffused through the retinal layers and were enriched in the retinal pigment epithelial layer. This work tried to study the diffusion rate via a simple method by using visible images, and then provided basic data for the development of intraocular drug carriers. PMID:27785015

  12. A single injection of intravitreal ranibizumab in the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation secondary to optic nerve head drusen in a child.

    PubMed

    Alkin, Zeynep; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ihsan; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan

    2014-05-02

    Optic nerve head drusen are acellular, calcified deposits which may be found in buried or exposed drusen form. Choroidal neovascularisation secondary to optic nerve head drusen is rarely seen in childhood. This case report summarises the clinical and therapeutic outcomes of a 13-year-old girl with unilateral choroidal neovascularisation secondary to optic nerve head drusen. The patient was successfully treated with a single intravitreal ranibizumab injection. After a month from the injection the visual acuity increased dramatically and maintained at the same level during 9 months of follow-up time. There was no complication related to the injection.

  13. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Anti-VEGF Drugs After Intravitreal Injection.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Francesco; Morescalchi, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Gambicorti, Elena; Cancarini, Anna; Costagliola, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Subretinal neovascularization and pathologic ocular angiogenesis are common causes of progressive, irreversible impairment of central vision, and dramatically affect quality of life. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy has improved the quality of life for many patients with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular diseases involving neovascularization and edema. In these pathologies, the inhibition of intraocular VEGF is the only therapy that can preserve vision. Four anti-VEGF drugs are currently used to treat ocular neovascularization; pegaptanib, ranibizumab, and aflibercept have been approved for this condition, while bevacizumab can be used off-label. Anti-VEGF therapy is administered regularly for many months or years because its suspension or discontinuation may cause recurrence of neovascularization. On the other hand, VEGF is necessary for the survival of retinal and choroidal endothelial cells. Experimental studies in animal models have shown that local inhibition of VEGF causes thinning and atrophy of the choriocapillaris and degeneration of photoreceptors, primarily cones. These studies combined with clinical experience indicated that prolonged VEGF inhibition could impair retinal function. Moreover, anti-VEGF compounds can cross the blood-retina barrier, enter the systemic circulation, and inhibit serum VEGF. Since circulating VEGF protects blood vessel integrity, prolonged anti-VEGF treatment could induce thromboembolic adverse events from vascular causes such as heart attack and stroke, and even death. The ocular dosing regimen and systemic toxicity of anti-VEGF compounds are therefore central concerns. A better understanding of this topic requires knowledge of the metabolism, tissue distribution, and clearance of anti-VEGF compounds. This manuscript reviews the properties of anti-VEGF compounds following intravitreal administration. PMID:26424177

  14. Intravitreal injection of erythropoietin protects against retinal vascular regression at the early stage of diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Junko; Morikawa, Shunichi; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Ezaki, Taichi; Yasuda, Yoshiko; Hori, Sadao

    2013-01-01

    A single intravitreal injection of erythropoietin (EPO) (50 ng/eye) or phosphate-buffered saline was administered to 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats at the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) to determine and evaluate the protective effect of EPO on retinal microvessels. DM was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg body weight). Morphological changes in microvessels in flat retinal preparations were evaluated during the subsequent 4 weeks by three-dimensional imaging of all blood vessels stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated tomato lectin, following immunofluorescence techniques. No marked differences were observed in the shape or density of retinal vessels and the number of retinal capillary branches of the four groups [control, EPO, DM, and DM/EPO] up to 4 weeks after STZ administration. We also observed unique type IV collagen-positive filamentous structures that lacked both cellular elements and blood circulation (lectin-/type IV+ acellular strands), suggesting regressed vessel remnants. The lectin-/type IV+ acellular strands were detected soon after the onset of DM in the diabetic rats, and the number of these structures increased in the DM group (P < 0.01). A single intravitreal injection of EPO caused a significant reduction in the number of lectin-/type IV+ acellular strands to levels observed in the control group. However, the lectin-/type IV+ acellular strands were observed in the central area of the retina near the optic disc in all four groups. Intravitreal injection of EPO resulted in downregulation of the EPO receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGF receptor at 4 weeks. We conclude that EPO may play a primary role against the progression of diabetic retinopathy by reducing blood vessel degeneration at a very early disease stage. PMID:23178551

  15. Effects of intravitreal injection of fluorosilicone oil after vitrectomy in the rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Paylor, R; Peyman, G A; Badri, S

    1987-08-01

    Because fluorosilicone oil is heavier than silicone oil, it may be superior in the therapy of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. To evaluate the ocular toxicity of fluorosilicone oil we performed pars plana lentectomy and vitrectomy on 14 rabbit eyes and injected approximately 1.5 mL of the oil (viscosity 10,000 centistoke) into the vitreous chamber of 10. No clinical or histologic evidence of toxic ocular effects was noted up to 2 months after the procedure.

  16. Distribution of Triamcinolone Acetonide after Intravitreal Injection into Silicone Oil-Filled Eye

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ed X.; Wong, David S. H.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing use of the vitreous cavity as a reservoir for drug delivery. We study the intraocular migration and distribution of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) after injection into silicone oil tamponade agent during and after vitrectomy surgery ex vivo (pig eye) and in vitro (glass bottle). For ex vivo assessment, intraocular migration of TA was imaged using real-time FLASH MRI scans and high-resolution T2W imaging and the in vitro model was monitored continuously with a video camera. Results of the ex vivo experiment showed that the TA droplet sank to the interface of silicone oil and aqueous almost immediately after injection and remained inside the silicone oil bubble for as long as 16 minutes. The in vitro results showed that, after the shrinkage of the droplet, TA gradually precipitated leaving only a lump of whitish crystalline residue inside the droplet for about 100 minutes. TA then quickly broke the interface and dispersed into the underlying aqueous within 15 seconds, which may result in a momentary increase of local TA concentration in the aqueous portion and potentially toxic to the retina. Our study suggests that silicone oil may not be a good candidate as a drug reservoir for drugs like TA. PMID:27493959

  17. Effect of prophylactic timolol 0.1% gel on intraocular pressure after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab: a randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Pece, Alfredo; Allegrini, Davide; Montesano, Giovanni; Dimastrogiovanni, Andrea Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to make a prospective evaluation of the effect of timolol 0.1% eye gel on short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) after an intravitreal injection (IVI) of ranibizumab. Participants and methods One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 IVI-naïve patients with macular edema caused by various pathological conditions (age-related macular degeneration, central or branch retinal vein occlusion, and diabetic retinopathy) were scheduled to undergo an IVI of ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 cc). The patients were randomly divided into three groups: 50 were not treated with timolol before the IVI (group 1); 50 received an instillation of timolol 0.1% eye gel the evening before the IVI (group 2); and 50 received an instillation of timolol 0.1% eye gel 2 hours before the IVI (group 3). The incidence of clinically significant intraocular hypertensive spikes (>25 mmHg and >40 mmHg) was then assessed. Results Our findings showed that mean IOP at baseline was significantly higher than at both 5 and 60 minutes after IVI (P<0.01). Spikes of >25 mmHg were recorded at either time in 27 patients (54%) in group 1, 23 patients (44%) in group 2, and 24 patients (48%) in group 3. None of the between-group differences were significant. Spikes of >40 mmHg (which were only detected 5 minutes after IVI) were recorded in nine (18%), eight (16%), and one patient (2%) in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The only significant difference was between the control and group 3 (P=0.012). Conclusion An increase in IOP after antivascular endothelial growth factor IVI is a frequent complication. The prophylactic use of timolol 0.1% gel effectively reduced the mean IOP when administered 2 hours before IVI and was also effective in preventing dangerous IOP spikes of >40 mmHg. It is therefore recommended before IVIs as a means of preventing emergency procedures and preserving the health of the optic nerve. PMID:27382246

  18. One-year outcome of intravitreal aflibercept injection for age-related macular degeneration resistant to ranibizumab: rapid morphologic recovery and subsequent visual improvement

    PubMed Central

    Hirakata, Toshiaki; Fujinami, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ken; Sasaki, Mariko; Noda, Toru; Akiyama, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the 1-year efficacy of aflibercept in Japanese patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who were resistant to ranibizumab treatment. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Fourteen consecutive eyes of 14 patients with AMD were enrolled who had no substantial response or developed resistance to intravitreal ranibizumab injections. Methods All patients were subcategorized into one of two subtypes of AMD: seven patients with occult choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and seven with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Serial intravitreal aflibercept (IVA) injections were administered. Comprehensive ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography, were conducted at baseline and at follow-up examinations at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the initial IVA injection. The best-corrected visual acuity converted to logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and central macular thickness (CMT) at each follow-up visit were compared with the baseline values. The anatomic response was also assessed with absorption or reduction of fluid in the subretina or subretinal pigment epithelial space. Results The logMAR best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly at 3, 6, and 12 months in the total cohort: at 3 and 6 months in patients with occult CNV and at 3 and 12 months in patients with PCV. The CMT decreased significantly at all follow-up visits in the total cohort as well as in both subtypes, except for the CMT at 6 months in PCV patients. The anatomic improvement was also demonstrated in all cases, and pigment epithelial detachments tended to be resolved more rapidly in patients with PCV than in patients with occult CNV. Conclusion Conversion to IVA was effective in patients with AMD resistant to ranibizumab, showing rapid morphologic improvement. The logMAR visual acuity was raised significantly within 12 months, and the clinical course of visual acuity improvement may differ according to the AMD subtypes

  19. Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab in Primary Vitrectomy to Decrease the Rate of Retinal Redetachment: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tousi, Adib; Hasanpour, Hossein; Soheilian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) as a surgical adjunct in prevention of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after retinal detachment surgery. Methods: In this controlled, randomized pilot study, 27 patients with primary retinal detachment undergoing pars plana deep vitrectomy were included. Of these, 12 received IVB at the end of procedure. The anatomic success and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were compared to the control group at months 3 and 6 postoperatively. Results: At three month follow-up, 3 of 11 eyes (27.3%) had detached retinas in the IVB group versus 6 of 12 (50.0%) in the control group (P = 0.40). At six-month follow-up, 3 of 10 eyes (30%) had detached retinas in the IVB group versus 3 in 8 (37.5%) in the control group (P > 0.99). Mean logMAR BCVA improved significantly in both groups relative to baseline, but did not show a significant difference at three-and six-month follow-ups between the two groups. Conclusion: Our preliminary results show neither a benefit nor any harm from intervention in both anatomic and visual outcomes. Our results support conducting additional studies to evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on postoperative PVR. PMID:27621784

  20. Local and systemic responses following intravitreous injection of AAV2-encoded modified Volvox channelrhodopsin-1 in a genetically blind rat model.

    PubMed

    Sugano, E; Tabata, K; Takahashi, M; Nishiyama, F; Shimizu, H; Sato, M; Tamai, M; Tomita, H

    2016-02-01

    We previously designed a modified channelrhodopsin-1 (mVChR1) protein chimera with a broader action than that of Chlamydomonas channelrhodopsin-2 and reported that its transduction into retinal ganglion cells can restore visual function in genetically blind, dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, with photostimuli ranging from 486 to 640 nm. In the current study, we sought to investigate the safety and influence of mVChR1 transgene expression. Adeno-associated virus type 2 encoding mVChR1 was administered by intravitreous injection into dystrophic RCS rats. Reverse-transcription PCR was used to monitor virus and transgene dissemination and the results demonstrated that their expression was restricted specifically within the eye tissues, and not in non-target organs. Moreover, examination of the blood, plasma and serum revealed that no excess immunoreactivity was present, as determined using standard clinical hematological parameters. Serum antibodies targeting the recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) capsid increased after the injection; however, no increase in mVChR1 antibody was detected during the observation period. In addition, retinal histological examination showed no signs of inflammation in rAAV-injected rats. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that mVChR1 can be exogenously expressed without harmful immunological reactions in vivo. These findings will aid in studies of AAV gene transfer to restore vision in late-stage retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:26440056

  1. Rabbit as an animal model for intravitreal pharmacokinetics: Clinical predictability and quality of the published data.

    PubMed

    Del Amo, Eva M; Urtti, Arto

    2015-08-01

    Intravitreal administration is the method of choice in drug delivery to the retina and/or choroid. Rabbit is the most commonly used animal species in intravitreal pharmacokinetics, but it has been criticized as being a poor model of human eye. The critique is based on some anatomical differences, properties of the vitreous humor, and observed differences in drug concentrations in the anterior chamber after intravitreal injections. We have systematically analyzed all published information on intravitreal pharmacokinetics in the rabbit and human eye. The analysis revealed major problems in the design of the pharmacokinetic studies. In this review we provide advice for study design. Overall, the pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, volume of distribution, half-life) in the human and rabbit eye have good correlation and comparable absolute values. Therefore, reliable rabbit-to-man translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics should be feasible. The relevant anatomical and physiological parameters in rabbit and man show only small differences. Furthermore, the claimed discrepancy between drug concentrations in the human and rabbit aqueous humor is not supported by the data analysis. Based on the available and properly conducted pharmacokinetic studies, the differences in the vitreous structure in rabbits and human patients do not lead to significant pharmacokinetic differences. This review is the first step towards inter-species translation of intravitreal pharmacokinetics. More information is still needed to dissect the roles of drug delivery systems, disease states, age and ocular manipulation on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics in rabbit and man. Anyway, the published data and the derived pharmacokinetic parameters indicate that the rabbit is a useful animal model in intravitreal pharmacokinetics.

  2. Intravitreal Conbercept Injection with and without Grid Laser Photocoagulation in the Treatment of Diffuse Diabetic Macular Edema in Real-Life Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Yanlong; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal conbercept (IVC) plus modified grid laser photocoagulation (MGP) versus IVC alone for treatment of diffuse diabetic macular edema (DDME). Methods. In this retrospective study, 51 DDME patients were treated with either IVC alone (IVC group) or IVC plus MGP (combined group) with 12 months of follow-up. The clinical records of those patients were reviewed. Results. 26 patients (31 eyes) received IVC alone and 25 patients (30 eyes) received combined therapy. At month 12, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) letter score improvement was 9.1 ± 4.5 and 7.5 ± 4.2 in the IVC group and the combined group and the mean central retinal thickness (CRT) reduction was 145.1 ± 69.9 μm and 168.5 ± 53.6 μm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference of improvement in BCVA (P = 0.164) and decrease in CRT (P = 0.149) between the two groups. The mean number of injections delivered was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the IVC group (5.6 ± 0.8 per eye) than in the combined group (3.3 ± 1.2 per eye). Conclusions. IVC alone or combined with MGP appeared to be effective for treatment of DDME, achieving the similar clinical efficacy. Moreover, MGP helps to reduce the number of injections. PMID:27777791

  3. Detection of aqueous VEGF concentrations before and after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody using low-volume sampling paper-based ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Min-Yen; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hwang, De-Kuang; Lin, Shang-Chi; Lin, Keng-Hung; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Choi, Hin-Yeung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were enrolled in this study. The limit of detection using P-ELISA was 0.03 pg/mL. Forty-six consecutive samples of aqueous humor were acquired. From all samples, 66.67% (10/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression (below the detection limit) within 5 weeks of receiving IVI of anti-VEGF antibody. Only 13.33% of samples (2/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression 5 weeks after receiving treatment. In some patients, elevated VEGF was still detected 5 weeks after receipt of anti-VEGF antibody, and all samples (10/10) were found to have elevated VEGF levels 49 days after treatment. Thus, we suggest that monthly IVI of anti-VEGF antibody may be required to ensure durable VEGF inhibition. Ultrasensitive P-ELISA can detect elevated VEGF at an earlier time point and may facilitate decision-making regarding appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:27725716

  4. [Tolerability and short-term efficacy of the Ozurdex® dexamethasone intravitreal implant for treatment of uveitic cystoid macular edema: A retrospective study of 52 injections performed at the Clermont-Ferrand teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Bernard, Y; Bonnin, N; Farguette, F; Chiambaretta, F

    2016-01-01

    Macular edema is the main cause of decreased visual acuity in uveitis and determines the visual prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the tolerability and efficacy of the dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the management of uveitis. Twenty-five patients with uveitic cystoid macular edema were all treated with the Ozurdex(®) dexamethasone intravitreal implant from January 2012 to August 2014. The main outcome measures were visual acuity recovery, changes in macular thickness and resolution of the vitritis. Thirty-two eyes of 25 patients received 52 injections of Ozurdex(®). Both complete regression of the macular edema and resolution of the vitritis occurred in 100 % patients. Visual acuity improved in 62 % of patients: the mean reduction in macular thickness was 252 (±171μm); the mean time between injections was 6.7 (±3.8) months. Secondary ocular hypertension was seen in 33 % of patients. No patient required secondary surgery although a selective laser trabeculoplasty was required for one patient. The dexamethasone intravitreal implant Ozurdex(®) resulted in continuous and complete regression of uveitic cystoid macular edema. It allows evaluation of the potential visual recovery of treated eyes. The tolerability and duration of action provide a rationale for considering Ozurdex(®) as a first-line therapy for uveitis which remains uncontrolled despite optimal systemic treatment.

  5. Intravitreal Daptomycin for Recalcitrant Postoperative Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jennifer M.; Kapoor, Kapil G.; Wagner, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the first case to our knowledge of intravitreal daptomycin used to successfully treat culture-negative vancomycin resistant to exogenous endophthalmitis. Methods Case report with preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative findings. Results A 63-year-old Caucasian male underwent routine pars plana vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane peeling. He developed acute postoperative endophthalmitis, and underwent vitreous tap and injection of intravitreal vancomycin/ceftazidime/dexamethasone. Gram stain showed Gram-positive cocci, but cultures were negative. His infection subsequently proved very recalcitrant and his treatment course involved pars plana vitrectomy with anterior chamber washout and repeat injection of antibiotics, followed by repeat intravitreal vancomycin and ceftazidime. Ultimately, a second vitrectomy with intravitreal daptomycin controlled his intraocular infection. On each occasion, cultures were negative. Conclusion This case suggests that vancomycin resistance should be considered in culture-negative postoperative endophthalmitis, and intravitreal daptomycin should be considered as an important treatment alternative. Although vancomycin resistance is fairly rare in endophthalmitis, acknowledgment of its increasing occurrence rate is critical for optimal management. PMID:27293409

  6. Dual intravitreal foreign body: Intravitreal cilia in penetrating injury.

    PubMed

    Azad, Shorya; Takkar, Brijesh; Azad, Rajvardhan; Bypareddy, Ravi; Rathi, Anubha

    2015-01-01

    Intraocular cilia, though a rare condition, has been previously reported in cases of open globe injury. We discuss a unique case of intravitreal cilia, found incidentally during vitrectomy for intravitreal foreign body removal.

  7. A Phase 2 Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide data on the short-term effect of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME). Design Randomized phase 2 clinical trial. Participants 121 eyes of 121 subjects (109 eligible for analysis) with DME and Snellen acuity equivalent ranging from 20/32-20/320. Interventions Random assignment to one of five groups: focal photocoagulation at baseline (N=19, Group A), intravitreal injection of 1.25mg bevacizumab at baseline and 6 weeks (N=22, Group B), intravitreal injection of 2.5mg bevacizumab at baseline and 6 weeks (N=24, Group C), intravitreal injection of 1.25mg bevacizumab at baseline and sham injection at 6 weeks (N=22, Group D), or intravitreal injection of 1.25mg bevacizumab at baseline and 6 weeks with photocoagulation at 3 weeks (N=22, Group E). Main Outcome Measures Central subfield thickness (CST) on optical coherence tomography and best-corrected visual acuity (VA) were measured at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 weeks. Results At baseline, median CST was 411 microns and median Snellen VA equivalent was 20/50. Compared with Group A, Groups B and C had a greater reduction in CST at 3 weeks and about one line better median visual acuity over 12 weeks. There were no meaningful differences between Groups B and C in CST reduction or VA improvement. A CST reduction >11% (the reliability limit) was present at 3 weeks in 36/84 (43%) bevacizumab-treated eyes and in 5/18 (28%) eyes treated with laser alone, and at 6 weeks in 31/84 (37%) and 9/18 (50%) eyes, respectively. Combining focal photocoagulation with bevacizumab resulted in no apparent short-term benefit or adverse outcomes. Endophthalmitis developed in one eye. The following events occurred during the first 24 weeks in subjects treated with bevacizumab without attributing cause to the drug: myocardial infarction (N=2), congestive heart failure (N=1), elevated blood pressure (N=3), and worsened renal function (N=3). Conclusion These results demonstrate that

  8. Comparison of intravitreal bevacizumab with macular photocoagulation for treatment of diabetic macular edema: a systemic review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Zhi; Shen, Hong-Jie

    2014-01-01

    AIM To further evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) versus macular photocoagulation (MPC) in treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) by Meta-analysis. METHODS Pertinent publications were identified through systemic searches of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to 30 November, 2013. Changes in central macular thickness (CMT) in µm and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in logMAR equivalents were extracted at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24mo after initial treatment, and a Meta-analysis was carried out to compare results between groups receiving IVB and MPC. RESULTS Five randomized controlled trial (RCTs) and one high-quality comparative study were identified and included. Our Meta-analysis revealed that both IVB and MPC resulted in the improvements of CMT and BCVA in eyes with DME at 1mo after initial treatment, with IVB being significantly superior to MPC (P=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The improvements of both measure outcomes at 3, 6, 12 and 24mo after treatment did not vary significantly between the IVB groups and MPC groups (CMT at 3mo, P=0.85; at 6mo, P=0.29; at 12mo, P=0.56; at 24mo, P=0.71; BCVA at 3mo, P=0.31; at 6mo, P= 0.30; at 12mo, P=0.23; at 24mo, P=0.52). However, the number of observed adverse events was low in all studies. CONCLUSION Current evidence shows IVB treatment trends to be more effective in improvements of macular edema and vision in eyes with DME at an earlier follow up (1mo) compared with MPC. At other time, both interventions have comparable efficacy without statistical significances. PMID:25540764

  9. Clinical outcomes of primary intraocular lymphoma patients treated with front-line systemic high-dose methotrexate and intravitreal methotrexate injection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Li; Hou, Hsin-An; Hsu, Ya-Jui; Chen, Yin-Kai; Tang, Jih-Luh; Tsay, Woei; Yeh, Po-Ting; Yang, Chung-May; Lin, Chang-Ping; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2016-03-01

    A standard treatment for patients with primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) remains unclear. This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and outcomes of 19 patients with PIOL who were treated with a first-line therapy comprising combined intravenous high-dose methotrexate and intravitreal methotrexate between January 2003 and December 2013. Thirteen (68.4 %) patients were female, and the median age at diagnosis was 57 (39-77 years). Diagnoses were based on the identification of abnormal lymphoid cells in vitreous fluid. Ten (52.6 %) patients had bilateral eye involvement, and six had concurrent central nervous system (CNS) involvement. All 19 patients achieved complete remission (CR) as confirmed by cytological examination of vitreous and cerebrospinal fluid and brain imaging if CNS was involved. Patients with concurrent brain involvement required a longer time to achieve CR. However, the duration of complete remission did not differ between patients with and without CNS involvement. The 5-year overall survival rate was 55.8 % for the total cohort and was higher (68.8 %) in patients with isolated PIOL than in those with concurrent CNS involvement. In all patients, methotrexate treatment was well tolerated, with manageable side effects. We conclude that combined intravitreal methotrexate and systemic high-dose methotrexate treatment is effective in patients with PIOL.

  10. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema.

    PubMed

    Dugel, Pravin U; Bandello, Francesco; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) resembles a chronic, low-grade inflammatory reaction, and is characterized by blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and retinal capillary leakage. Corticosteroids are of therapeutic benefit because of their anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and BRB-stabilizing properties. Delivery modes include periocular and intravitreal (via pars plana) injection. To offset the short intravitreal half-life of corticosteroid solutions (~3 hours) and the need for frequent intravitreal injections, sustained-release intravitreal corticosteroid implants have been developed. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant provides retinal drug delivery for ≤6 months and recently has been approved for use in the treatment of DME. Pooled findings (n=1,048) from two large-scale, randomized Phase III trials indicated that dexamethasone intravitreal implant (0.35 mg and 0.7 mg) administered at ≥6-month intervals produced sustained improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and macular edema. Significantly more patients showed a ≥15-letter gain in BCVA at 3 years with dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.35 mg and 0.7 mg than with sham injection (18.4% and 22.2% vs 12.0%). Anatomical assessments showed rapid and sustained reductions in macular edema and slowing of retinopathy progression. Phase II study findings suggest that dexamethasone intravitreal implant is effective in focal, cystoid, and diffuse DME, in vitrectomized eyes, and in combination with laser therapy. Ocular complications of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in Phase III trials included cataract-related events (66.0% in phakic patients), intraocular pressure elevation ≥25 mmHg (29.7%), conjunctival hemorrhage (23.5%), vitreous hemorrhage (10.0%), macular fibrosis (8.3%), conjunctival hyperemia (7.2%), eye pain (6.1%), vitreous detachment (5.8%), and dry eye (5.8%); injection-related complications (eg, retinal tear/detachment, vitreous loss, endophthalmitis) were infrequent (<2

  11. Retinal Electrophysiological Effects of Intravitreal Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akkoç, Tolga; Eraslan, Muhsin; Şahin, Özlem; Özkara, Selvinaz; Vardar Aker, Fugen; Subaşı, Cansu; Karaöz, Erdal; Akkoç, Tunç

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of legal blindness in developed countries at middle age adults. In this study diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Wistar albino rats. After 3 months of diabetes, rights eye were injected intravitreally with green fluorescein protein (GFP) labelled bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) and left eyes with balanced salt solution (Sham). Animals were grouped as Baseline (n = 51), Diabetic (n = 45), Diabetic+BMSC (n = 45 eyes), Diabetic+Sham (n = 45 eyes), Healthy+BMSC (n = 6 eyes), Healthy+Sham (n = 6 eyes). Immunohistology analysis showed an increased retinal gliosis in the Diabetic group, compared to Baseline group, which was assessed with GFAP and vimentin expression. In the immunofluorescence analysis BMSC were observed to integrate mostly into the inner retina and expressing GFP. Diabetic group had prominently lower oscillatory potential wave amplitudes than the Baseline group. Three weeks after intravitreal injection Diabetic+BMSC group had significantly better amplitudes than the Diabetic+Sham group. Taken together intravitreal BMSC were thought to improve visual function. PMID:27300133

  12. Intravitreal silicone and fluorosilicone oils: pathologic findings in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Pastor, J C; Lopez, M I; Saornil, M A; Refojo, M F

    1992-10-01

    The effects of medical-grade intraocular silicone and commercial-grade fluorosilicone oils were studied in rabbit eyes. The experimental model consisted of lensectomized and vitrectomized eyes that did not undergo further treatment (Group 1), and three groups of lensectomized and vitrectomized eyes that were injected intravitreously 3 months earlier with medical-grade silicone oil of 1000 cs (Group 3), and 10,000 cs (Group 4). The silicone oil-injected eyes developed proliferative membranes. The fluorosilicone oil caused an intravitreous inflammatory reaction with vacuolated macrophages present around the oil that may have been due to the higher concentration of low-molecular-weight components found in the oil.

  13. Ocular trace metal kinetics and toxicology. I. The distribution of intravitreally injected 67Cu++ within intraocular compartments and its loss from the globe

    SciTech Connect

    Bito, L.Z.; Baroody, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive copper (67Cu++) was injected into the center of the vitreous body of rabbits. The relatively rapid initial loss of 67Cu from the vitreous was associated with its accumulation in intraocular tissues. At 24 hr, 20% of the injected 67Cu was found in the retina, representing the highest 67Cu concentration among all ocular tissues, and this high 67Cu concentration was maintained in this tissue throughout the 10-day observation period. Significant amounts of 67Cu were not detected in the aqueous humor at any time. About one-half of the injected 67Cu was lost from the whole globe in 5 days, but the remaining Cu was retained in the globe during the next 5 days. Eyes that received a large dose of CuSO4 in addition to the tracer showed decreased 67Cu activity in the retina and a slight increase in the aqueous humor. Endotoxin-induced ocular inflammation decreased the rate of 67Cu loss from the vitreous, reduced its accumulation by the retina, and increased 67Cu entry into the aqueous humor. It is concluded that 67Cu is retained in the vitreous and the globe due to its binding by, and/or uptake into, intraocular tissues, especially the retina. Cu does not effectively enter the anterior chamber from the vitreous, apparently due to its effective removal by the ciliary processes, thus ruling out the possibility of identifying the existence of Cu-containing intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment of the eye by analysis of Cu in the aqueous humor.

  14. Determination of doxorubicin in rabbit ocular tissues and pharmacokinetics after intravitreal injection of a single dose of doxorubicin-loaded poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate microspheres.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Le, Qihua; Wu, Zhiyi; Wu, Wei

    2007-01-01

    A validated HPLC method was developed for the quantification of doxorubicin in rabbit ocular tissues using solid phase extraction and ultraviolet detection. Chromatographic separation of doxorubicin in various ocular tissues was performed on a C18 column. The mobile phase was composed of 0.2 M KH2PO4 buffer solution, acetonitrile and triethylamine in volumetric ratio of 70/30/0.2, adjusted to pH 4.0 with orthophosphoric acid. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 0.03-10, 0.03-10, 0.05-10 and 0.05-10 microg/ml in vitreous body, iris, retina/choroids and sclera, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions in all ocular tissues were smaller than 4.95% and 5.73%, and the accuracies were about 100%. The extraction recoveries of doxorubicin in all of the ocular tissues were between 83.47% and 96.33%. After intravitreal administration of doxorubicin-loaded poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate microspheres, doxorubicin level in ocular tissues was much lower than that for administration of free doxorubicin, which was helpful to reduce the associated toxicity to surrounding tissues. Doxorubicin was detectable even after tens of days in the studied ocular tissues. PMID:16884884

  15. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  16. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  17. Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Management of Choroidal Osteoma without Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Najafabadi, Farhad Fazel; Hendimarjan, Seyyed Moien; Zarrin, Yasaman; Najafabadi, Mohammadreza Fazel

    2015-01-01

    To report a patient with juxtapapillary choroidal osteoma (CO) with serous retinal detachment (SRD) not associated with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) who was successfully treated with a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. A 20-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in her right eye. Ultrasonography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed. She was diagnosed with juxtapapillary CO with SRD in the absence of CNV. The treatment involved a single intravitreal injection of bevacizumab. Visual acuity (VA) was 20/100 pre-injection which was dramatically improved to 20/20 one week after the injection without any additional treatment. Fundus examination and OCT one week after the injection revealed complete absorption of the subretinal fluid (SRF) in the macula. Eighteen months after the injection, vision remained stable and she did not show re-accumulation of SRF in her right eye. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab may be effective in managing CO associated with SRF without CNV. PMID:27051495

  18. Intravitreal Controlled Release of Dexamethasone from Engineered Microparticles of Porous Silicon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengyun; Hou, Huiyuan; Nan, Kaihui; Sailor, Michael J; Freeman, William R.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid that is widely used in the ophthalmic arena. The recent FDA approved dexamethasone implant can provide a three month efficacy but with high rate of drug related cataract and high intraocular pressure (IOP). It seems that higher steroid in aqueous humor and around lens may be associated with these complications based on clinical fact that higher IOP was observed with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) than with subtenon TA. We hypothesize that placing a sustained dexamethasone release system near back of the eye through a fine needle can maximize efficacy while mitigate higher rate of IOP rise and cataract. To develop a sustained intravitreal dexamethasone delivery system, porous silicon dioxide (pSiO2) microparticles were fabricated and functionalized with amines as well as carboxyl groups. Dexamethasone was conjugated to pSiO2 through the Steglich Esterificaion Reaction between hydroxyl of dexamethasone and carboxyl groups on the pSiO2. The drug loading was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and loading efficiency was quantitated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In vitro release was conducted for three months and dexamethasone was confirmed in the released samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A pilot ocular safety and determination of vitreous drug level was performed in rabbit eyes. The drug loading study demonstrated that loading efficiency was from 5.96% to 10.77% depending on the loading reaction time, being higher with longer loading reaction time before reaching saturation around 7 days. In vitro drug release study revealed that dexamethasone release from pSiO2 particles was sustainable for over 90 days and was 80 days longer than free dexamethasone or infiltration-loaded pSiO2 particle formulation in the same setting. Pilot in vivo study demonstrated no sign of ocular adverse reaction in rabbit eyes following a single 3 mg intravitreal injection and

  19. Intravitreal controlled release of dexamethasone from engineered microparticles of porous silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyun; Hou, Huiyuan; Nan, Kaihui; Sailor, Michael J; Freeman, William R; Cheng, Lingyun

    2014-12-01

    Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid that is widely used in the ophthalmic arena. The recent FDA approved dexamethasone implant can provide a three month efficacy but with high rate of drug related cataract and high intraocular pressure (IOP). It seems that higher steroid in aqueous humor and around lens may be associated with these complications based on clinical fact that higher IOP was observed with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) than with subtenon TA. We hypothesize that placing a sustained dexamethasone release system near back of the eye through a fine needle can maximize efficacy while mitigate higher rate of IOP rise and cataract. To develop a sustained intravitreal dexamethasone delivery system, porous silicon dioxide (pSiO2) microparticles were fabricated and functionalized with amines as well as carboxyl groups. Dexamethasone was conjugated to pSiO2 through the Steglich Esterification Reaction between hydroxyl of dexamethasone and carboxyl groups on the pSiO2. The drug loading was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and loading efficiency was quantitated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In vitro release was conducted for three months and dexamethasone was confirmed in the released samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A pilot ocular safety and determination of vitreous drug level was performed in rabbit eyes. The drug loading study demonstrated that loading efficiency was from 5.96% to 10.77% depending on the loading reaction time, being higher with longer loading reaction time before reaching saturation around 7 days. In vitro drug release study revealed that dexamethasone release from pSiO2 particles was sustainable for over 90 days and was 80 days longer than free dexamethasone or infiltration-loaded pSiO2 particle formulation in the same setting. Pilot in vivo study demonstrated no sign of ocular adverse reaction in rabbit eyes following a single 3 mg intravitreal injection and

  20. Self-assembled phenylalanine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine nanotubes for sustained intravitreal delivery of a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Panda, Jiban J; Yandrapu, Sarath; Kadam, Rajendra S; Chauhan, Virander S; Kompella, Uday B

    2013-12-28

    Current standard of care for sustained back of the eye drug delivery is surgical placement or injection of large, slow release implants using a relatively large 22 gauge needle. We designed novel dipeptide (phenylalanine-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine; Phe-∆Phe) based nanotubes with a diameter of ~15-30 nm and a length of ~1500 nm that could be injected with a 33 gauge needle for sustained intravitreal delivery of pazopanib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The drug could be loaded during nanotube assembly or post-loaded after nanotube formation, with the former being more efficient at 25% w/w pazopanib loading and ~55% loading efficiency. Plain and peptide loaded nanotube were non-cytotoxic to retinal pigment epithelial cells even at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. Following intravitreal injection of fluorescently labeled nanotubes using a 33 gauge needle in a rat model, the nanotube persistence and drug delivery were monitored using noninvasive fluorophotometry, electron microscopy and mass spectrometry analysis. Nanotubes persisted in the vitreous humor during the 15 days study and pazopanib levels in the vitreous humor, retina, and choroid-RPE at the end of the study were 4.5, 5, and 2.5-folds higher, respectively, compared to the plain drug. Thus, Phe-∆Phe nanotubes allow intravitreal injections with a small gauge needle and sustain drug delivery.

  1. Successful Resolution of Preretinal Haemorrhage with Intravitreal Ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Noorlaila, Baharuddin; Raja-Azmi, Mohd-Noor

    2016-01-01

    We would like to report two cases of preretinal haemorrhage from two different aetiology courses of bleeding being treated with intravitreal ranibizumab and its outcome. Our first case was a 39-year-old man with a diagnosis of severe aplastic anaemia that presented with bilateral premacular haemorrhages in both eyes. His right eye vision was 6/45 and it was counting finger in the left eye. He was treated with intravitreal ranibizumab once to the right eye and twice to the left eye. Right eye showed complete resolution of premacular haemorrhage and minimal residual premacular haemorrhage in the left eye at 3 months after initial presentation. Our second case was a 32-year-old healthy teacher that presented with preretinal haemorrhage at superotemporal region extending to macular area in left eye secondary to valsalva retinopathy. Her left vision was counting finger. She was treated with single intravitreal ranibizumab to the left eye. There was significant reduction of premacular haemorrhage and her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 10 weeks after injection. Both cases had favourable outcome with intravitreal ranibizumab and can be considered as nonsurgical treatment option in treating premacular haemorrhage. PMID:27800200

  2. Safety of intravitreal quinupristin/dalfopristin in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Veronica E.; Hernandez-Da Mota, Sergio E.; Adabache-Guel, Tania N.; Castillejos-Chevez, Armando; Corredor-Casas, Sonia; Salinas-Longoria, Samantha M.; Romero-Vera, Rafael; Jimenez-Sierra, Juan M.; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose L.; Morales-Canton, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether different intravitreal doses of quinupristin/dalfopristin lead to electroretinographic or histological changes in the rabbit retina over one month period after injection. METHODS Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three treatment groups (groups 1 to 3) and different intravitreal doses of quinupristin/dalfopristin were tested in each group. The right eye was injected with the drug and the left eye received intravitreal injection of 5% dextrose water and served as control eye. The doses delivered to each group were 0.1 mg/0.1 mL, 1 mg/0.1 mL and 10 mg/0.1 mL. Simultaneous, bilateral, dark-adapted electroretinography and clinical images of both eyes were obtained in all groups before injection (baseline) and after 7, 14, 21 and 28d, followed by enucleation for histological examination. RESULTS Subjects in the group 1 showed no signs of toxicity in the electroretinogram when compared with groups 2 and 3 (Kruskall-Wallis test, P=0.000). By day 7, no electrical response to light stimuli was recorded in the treated eyes in groups 2 and 3, consistent with severe damage due to retinal toxicity. Light microscopy revealed no significant histopathological changes in the group 1, while rabbits in groups 2 and 3 had signs of granulomatous inflammation in most cases. CONCLUSION Intravitreal 0.1 mg/0.1 mL doses of quinupristin/dalfopristin do not lead to electroretinographic or histological signs of retinal toxicity compared with 1 mg/0.1 mL and 10 mg/0.1 mL in this rabbit model. PMID:27158605

  3. Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) for Diabetic Retinopathy: The 2010 GLADAOF Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, J. Fernando; Sanchez, Juan G.; Lasave, Andres F.; Wu, Lihteh; Maia, Mauricio; Bonafonte, Sergio; Brito, Miguel; Alezzandrini, Arturo A.; Restrepo, Natalia; Berrocal, Maria H.; Saravia, Mario; Farah, Michel Eid; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Morales-Canton, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates multiple benefits of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) on diabetic retinopathy (DR) including diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) at 24 months of followup. This is a retrospective multicenter interventional comparative case series of intravitreal injections of 1.25 or 2.5 mg of bevacizumab for DME, PDR without tractional retinal detachment (TRD), and patients who experienced the development or progression of TRD after an intravitreal injection of 1.25 or 2.5 mg of bevacizumab before vitrectomy for the management of PDR. The results indicate that IVB injections may have a beneficial effect on macular thickness and visual acuity (VA) in diffuse DME. Therefore, in the future this new therapy could complement focal/grid laser photocoagulation in DME. In PDR, this new option could be an adjuvant agent to panretina photocoagulation so that more selective therapy may be applied. Finally, TRD in PDR may occur or progress after IVB used as an adjuvant to vitrectomy. Surgery should be performed 4 days after IVB. Most patients had poorly controlled diabetes mellitus associated with elevated HbA1c, insulin administration, PDR refractory to panretinal photocoagulation, and longer time between IVB and vitrectomy. PMID:21584260

  4. Intravitreal steroids for the treatment of retinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Sarao, Valentina; Veritti, Daniele; Boscia, Francesco; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME), pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusion (RVO), and uveitis are ocular conditions related to severe visual impairment worldwide. Corticosteroids have been widely used in the treatment of these retinal diseases, due to their well-known antiangiogenic, antiedematous, and anti-inflammatory properties. Intravitreal steroids have emerged as novel and essential tools in the ophthalmologist's armamentarium, allowing for maximization of drug efficacy and limited risk of systemic side effects. Recent advances in ocular drug delivery methods led to the development of intraocular implants, which help to provide prolonged treatment with controlled drug release. Moreover, they may add some potential advantages over traditional intraocular injections by delivering certain rates of drug directly to the site of action, amplifying the drug's half-life, contributing in the minimization of peak plasma levels of the drug, and avoiding the side effects associated with repeated intravitreal injections. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the use of intravitreal steroids as a treatment option for a variety of retinal diseases and to review the current literature considering their properties, safety, and adverse events.

  5. The Effect of Intravitreal Azithromycin on the Albino Newborn Rabbit Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Duygu; Saatci, Ali Osman; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Karabag, Revan Yildirim; Durak, Ismet; Berk, Ayse Tulin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal azithromycin on the retina in a newborn rabbit model. Methods: Twelve, two-week old New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two groups (six in each). The right eyes of six rabbits received 0.75 mg (0.05 mL) azithromycin and the right eyes of the remaining six rabbits 1.5 mg (0.1 mL) azithromycin intravitreally. Left eyes were served as the control and received the same volume of saline. All eyes were enucleated at the third postinjection week. Retinal histology was examined by light microscopy. Apoptosis of the retinal cells was further evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of DNA fragments. Results: Light microscopy demonstrated no retinal abnormalities in all eyes. However, retinal nuclear DNA fragmentation was evident in both study groups (33.6% with 1.5 mg and 21.4% with 0.75 mg azithromycin) with the TUNEL method. TUNEL staining ratio was statistically higher only in the second group treated with 1.5 mg azithromycin when compared to the control group (p=0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The ratio of caspase-3 positive cells in the two study groups was 21.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Caspase-3 staining ratio was statistically higher in both study groups when compared to the control eyes (p=0.00, p=0.00 respectively). The difference of TUNEL staining ratio between the two study groups was statistically significant (p=0.028), but there were no statistically significant differences in the two study groups by caspase-3 staining (p=0.247). Conclusion: In newborn rabbits, intravitreal azithromycin injection resulted in an apoptotic activity in the photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that doses of 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg azithromycin, administered intravitreally might be toxic to the newborn rabbit retina. PMID:27014381

  6. Retinal toxicity of intravitreal tenecteplase in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, S A; Vijayasekaran, S; Yu, P K; McAllister, I L; Yu, D-Yi

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the retinal toxicity of intravitreal injection of a novel fibrinolytic tenecteplase in rabbit eyes. Methods: Tenecteplase (25–350 μg in 0.1 ml BSS) was injected into the vitreous cavity of normal rabbit eyes. Control (fellow) eyes received 0.1 ml of BSS. One day, 1 week, and 2 months post-injection, the eyes were examined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and electroretinography, and then harvested for histopathological examination. Results: No evidence of retinal toxicity was seen with tenecteplase doses up to and including 50 μg. At a dose of 150 μg ophthalmoscopy was normal, but histology showed mild retinal damage in the inner nuclear layer and electroretinography showed a temporary reduction in B-wave amplitude. At doses of 200 μg and above, there was evidence of retinal toxicity on electroretinography, ophthalmoscopy, and histology. Ophthalmoscopic findings included vitreal fibrosis, retinal necrosis and tractional retinal detachment and light microscopy revealed necrosis of retinal pigment epithelium and other retinal layers. Damage was centred around the injection site but was more widespread with the higher doses. Conclusion: A dose of 50 μg tenecteplase appears safe for intravitreal injection in the rabbit. Tenecteplase could have potential applications in the treatment of submacular haemorrhage and retinal vein occlusion. PMID:15031179

  7. Analysis of rocket engine injection combustion processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salmon, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A critique is given of the JANNAF sub-critical propellant injection/combustion process analysis computer models and application of the models to correlation of well documented hot fire engine data bases. These programs are the distributed energy release (DER) model for conventional liquid propellants injectors and the coaxial injection combustion model (CICM) for gaseous annulus/liquid core coaxial injectors. The critique identifies model inconsistencies while the computer analyses provide quantitative data on predictive accuracy. The program is comprised of three tasks: (1) computer program review and operations; (2) analysis and data correlations; and (3) documentation.

  8. Acute stroke after intravitreal bevacizumab to treat choroidal neovascularization due to angioid streaks in pseudoxanthoma elasticum : a severe systemic adverse event after an off-label procedure.

    PubMed

    Besozzi, Gianluca; Ferrara, Andrea; Epifani, Enrico; Intini, Daniela; Apruzzese, Margherita; Provenzano, Antonio; Vetrugno, Michele

    2013-04-01

    To report the occurrence of acute stroke after intravitreal bevacizumab administration to treat choroidal neovascularization due to angioid streaks in a patient affected by pseudoxanthoma elasticum. A 54-year-old man with pseudoxanthoma elasticum had vision loss because of choroidal neovascularization due to angioid streaks. He underwent two intravitreal bevacizumab injections. Three days after the second procedure the patient was afflicted by acute stroke. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab to treat choroidal neovascularization due to angioid streaks in pseudoxanthoma elasticum could lead to severe systemic adverse events. PMID:23065017

  9. Analysis of Potential Ischemic Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab on Unaffected Retina in Treatment-Naïve Macular Edema Due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Prospective, Interventional Case-Series

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Raka, Neha; Rishi, Ekta

    2016-01-01

    Background To study potential ischemic effects of intravitreal Bevacizumab (IVB) on unaffected retina in treatment-naive eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and contralateral eyes secondary to systemic absorption. Methods and Findings Prospective, interventional series included 27 treatment-naive eyes with BRVO and macular edema. Exclusion criteria: Eyes with diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, vasculitides, papilledema or systemic neurologic condition. Subjects underwent complete ophthalmological examination including fluoroscein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and multifocal electroretinogram (mf-ERG). All subjects received single 1.25 mg/0.05ml IVB injection. Two observers measured all parameters; inter-observer agreements were expressed as kappa values. Paired t-test was used to compare values at baseline and follow-up. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS for Windows, Version 14.0. (Chicago, SPSS Inc.) Presenting mean CFT (central foveal thickness) was 499.5(+/-229.7) μm, mean BCVA (best corrected visual acuity) was 0.64(+/-0.41) logMAR. At last follow-up, mean CFT was 267.9(+/-159.3) μm (P<0.001), 95% CI [127.18, 422.32]; mean BCVA was 0.28(+/-0.24) logMAR. Respectively, mean N1 and P1 amplitudes of mfERG in 'unaffected quadrant' at presentation were -6.10(+/-4.00) nV/deg2 and 17.17(+/-11.54)nV/deg2; and -5.33(+/-1.30)nV/deg2 and 15.29(+/-4.69)nV/deg2 at final follow-up (P = 0.631 and 0.197, respectively), (95% CIs [-0.93, 1.42] and [-4.22, 1.08] respectively). In fundus quadrant of fellow eyes corresponding to unaffected quadrant in treated eyes, mean N1 and P1 amplitudes at presentation were -5.39(+/-1.56)nV/deg2 and 15.89(+/-3.89)nV/deg2; and -5.39(+/-1.90)nV/deg2 and 15.9(+/-5.52)nV/deg2 (P = 0.380 and 0.208), (95% CIs [-0.57, 1.28] and [-4.1, 1.1]) at last follow-up, respectively. Limitations: This study analysed the effects with a single injection of bevacizumab. However, whether ischemic

  10. Intravitreal bevacizumab in persistent retinopathy secondary to malignant hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Abdelrahman Gaber

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection in persistent retinopathy secondary to malignant hypertension (MHT). Patients and methods Single IVB injection of 1.25 mg/0.05 ml in 12 cases with persistent retinopathy secondary to MHT more than one month after control of MHT with pre and post injection evaluation of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomical outcome up to sixth month and postinjection complications were evaluated. Results Progressive reductions in retinal hemorrhages, exudates, cotton-wool spots, and macular star were documented by photography, angiography, and central macular thickness (CMT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Decreased macular edema was the most common finding. Improvement or stabilization of visual acuity was noted in all cases. Conclusions In addition to proper medical management of MHT, IVB injection is an effective and safe approach to treat persistent retinopathy associated with MHT. PMID:23964183

  11. Combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and peripheral photocoagulation: an alternative treatment in eales disease.

    PubMed

    Cp, Juarez; Al, Gramajo; Jd, Luna

    2013-01-01

    To report the efficacy of combination therapy (bevacizumab and photocoagulation) in a case of Eales Disease this study has been performed. Bevacizumab (Avastin, 1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was injected intravitreously for the treatment of iris and retinal neovascularization in a 56-year old Hispanic female with photocoagulation treatment to control the recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. Our results revealed that stabilization of the disease and improvement in visual acuity were achieved without any signs of recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab in combination with photocoagulation treatment of ischemic retinal areas may be a good alternative for patients with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales disease.

  12. Combination of Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Peripheral Photocoagulation: An Alternative Treatment in Eales Disease

    PubMed Central

    CP, Juarez; AL, Gramajo; JD, Luna

    2013-01-01

    To report the efficacy of combination therapy (bevacizumab and photocoagulation) in a case of Eales Disease this study has been performed. Bevacizumab (Avastin, 1.25 mg/0.05 ml) was injected intravitreously for the treatment of iris and retinal neovascularization in a 56-year old Hispanic female with photocoagulation treatment to control the recurrence of vitreous haemorrhage. Our results revealed that stabilization of the disease and improvement in visual acuity were achieved without any signs of recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab in combination with photocoagulation treatment of ischemic retinal areas may be a good alternative for patients with recurrent vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales disease. PMID:24600639

  13. Fusarium Endophthalmitis following Cataract Surgery: Successful Treatment with Intravitreal and Systemic Voriconazole

    PubMed Central

    Logroño, Juan F. Batlle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium species successfully treated with intravitreal and systemic voriconazole after treatment failure with amphotericin B. Methods. Clinical case report of a 60-year-old immunocompetent woman who presents with endophthalmitis of unknown origin 4 weeks after uneventful cataract extraction and IOL implantation surgery. IOL explantation, vitrectomy with capsular bag removal, vitreous aspiration for culture, and intravitreal injection of amphotericin B (5 μg/0.1 mL) were performed. Diagnosis was established by culturing the vitreous aspirate on a Sabouraud agar medium and staining with lactophenol blue solution. Five days later, there was no clinical response. The decision was made to administer a single dose of intravitreal voriconazole (2.5 μg/0.1 mL) and oral voriconazole (200 mg BID) for 30 days. Results. Fusarium sp. grew on culture. Treatment with local and systemic voriconazole was started after no improvement with vitrectomy, IOL explantation, and intravitreal amphotericin B. After 1 month of treatment, the infection resolved and best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25. Conclusion. In patients with endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium sp., topical and systemic voriconazole treatment should be considered in cases resistant to intravitreal amphotericin B. PMID:27418989

  14. Ocular Pulse Amplitude and Retinal Vessel Caliber Changes after Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ihsan; Perente, Irfan; Kesim, Cem; Saracoglu, Basak; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate possible changes in ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), retinal arteriole caliber (RAC), and retinal venule caliber (RVC), following the intravitreal injection of dexamethasone implants (DIs). Methods: Thirty-four eyes of 34 patients with macular edema were included. All participants received a full ophthalmologic examination at baseline. RAC and RVC were measured via optical coherence tomography; OPA and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured via dynamic contour tonometry at baseline, month 1, and month 3. Statistical analysis was performed for before-after comparison of OPA, IOP, RAC, and RVC measurements. Results: The mean OPA (in order to baseline, month 1, month 3) was 2.8 ± 0.8, 2.9 ± 1.0, 2.9 ± 0.9. The mean IOP was 16.8 ± 2.9, 17.3 ± 2.7, 18.4 ± 2.9 mmHg. The mean RAC was 97.8 ± 9.2, 97.2 ± 9.0, 97.6 ± 9.4. The mean RVC was 124.4 ± 8.2, 124.8 ± 8.8, 123.8 ± 8.2. There were no statistically significant changes in RAC (P = 0.688), RVC (P = 0.714), OPA (P = 0.348), and IOP (P = 0.115). There was also no correlation between RAC and OPA (r = 0.12, P = 0.62) or RVC and OPA (r = 0.16, P = 0.68) at the last visit. Conclusion: The intravitreal injection of DI does not significantly affect RAC, RVC, or OPA, which indicates that the treatment does not alter overall retinal-choroidal vasculature or hemodynamics. PMID:27555709

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of glucocorticoids intravitreal implant therapy in macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion.

    PubMed

    Michalska-Małecka, Katarzyna; Gaborek, Aneta; Nowak, Mariusz; Halat, Tomasz; Pawłowska, Mariola; Śpiewak, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) on macular morphology and functions in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion. Efficacy outcomes of the treatment were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT). Safety outcomes were intraocular pressure and cornea endothelial cell density. The study was conducted by the prospective analysis on 36 patients (17 women and 19 men) aged 28-77 years (the average age was 58±15 years) treated with the injection of dexamethasone implant because of the persistent ME at the Department of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of the University Centre of Ophthalmology and Oncology in Katowice. The studied group included 16 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (16 eyes), and 20 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (20 eyes). We found a significant increase of BCVA after first, second, and third month of treatment. Six months after the treatment, BCVA decreased, although not significantly compared with the value obtained in the third month. Two months after the intravitreal implantation of dexamethasone delivery system, CRT was 338±163 μm and was significantly lower compared with pretreatment value. Between third and sixth month after the treatment, we found insignificant increase of CRT compared with thickness observed in second month. Two months after the treatment, we found an increase in intraocular pressure in 36% of cases and a further decrease during the final visit 6 months after the treatment. During the treatment, there were no significant differences in endothelial cell density in branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion. We found the intravitreal dexamethasone implant to be safe, well tolerated, and likely to lead to fast morphological and functional improvement of the macula and visual rehabilitation in patients with ME due to retinal vein occlusion. PMID

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of glucocorticoids intravitreal implant therapy in macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Michalska-Małecka, Katarzyna; Gaborek, Aneta; Nowak, Mariusz; Halat, Tomasz; Pawłowska, Mariola; Śpiewak, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex) on macular morphology and functions in eyes with macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion. Efficacy outcomes of the treatment were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT). Safety outcomes were intraocular pressure and cornea endothelial cell density. The study was conducted by the prospective analysis on 36 patients (17 women and 19 men) aged 28–77 years (the average age was 58±15 years) treated with the injection of dexamethasone implant because of the persistent ME at the Department of Ophthalmology and Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of the University Centre of Ophthalmology and Oncology in Katowice. The studied group included 16 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (16 eyes), and 20 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (20 eyes). We found a significant increase of BCVA after first, second, and third month of treatment. Six months after the treatment, BCVA decreased, although not significantly compared with the value obtained in the third month. Two months after the intravitreal implantation of dexamethasone delivery system, CRT was 338±163 μm and was significantly lower compared with pretreatment value. Between third and sixth month after the treatment, we found insignificant increase of CRT compared with thickness observed in second month. Two months after the treatment, we found an increase in intraocular pressure in 36% of cases and a further decrease during the final visit 6 months after the treatment. During the treatment, there were no significant differences in endothelial cell density in branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion. We found the intravitreal dexamethasone implant to be safe, well tolerated, and likely to lead to fast morphological and functional improvement of the macula and visual rehabilitation in patients with ME due to retinal vein occlusion. PMID

  17. Evaluating Retinal Toxicity of Intravitreal Caspofungin in the Mouse Eye

    PubMed Central

    Mojumder, Deb K.; Concepcion, Francis A.; Patel, Shil K.; Barkmeier, Andrew J.; Carvounis, Petros E.; Wilson, John H.; Holz, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Caspofungin is a synthetic echinocandin antifungal agent that inhibits the synthesis of β(1,3)-d-glucan, an essential component of the cell wall of susceptible Aspergillus and Candida species. In this study, retinal toxicity was determined after intravitreal injection of caspofungin in a mouse model to assess its safety profile for the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis. Methods. Caspofungin acetate was injected intravitreally in the left eyes of male C57BL/6 mice, with final vitreal concentrations corresponding to 0.41, 1.2, 2.5, 4.1, and 41 μM (five mice per cohort). A total of 25 age-matched male C57BL/6 mice injected with balanced salt solution were used as control subjects (five for each of the five different caspofungin acetate concentrations). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded 7 weeks after the injections, and the injected eyes were examined histologically. Results. Mice injected with caspofungin at vitreal concentrations from 0.41 to 4.1 μM did not have significant alterations in their ERG waveforms, and their retinas had no detectable morphologic changes or loss of cells. At the vitreal concentration of 41 μM, caspofungin reduced the amplitudes of the a-waves, b-waves, and scotopic threshold responses of the ERG and also produced a decrease in the number of cells in the ganglion cell layer. Conclusions. Caspofungin is a safe antifungal agent at vitreal concentrations of 0.41 to 4.1 μM in mice and consequently shows promise for the treatment of fungal endophthalmitis in humans. Much higher doses produce toxicity and should not be used. PMID:20505203

  18. Successful use of intravitreal bevacizumab and pascal laser photocoagulation in the management of adult Coats' disease.

    PubMed

    Raoof, Naz; Quhill, Fahd

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of managing exudative retinal detachment secondary to Coats' disease have been associated with varying degrees of success. We describe a case of a 34 year-old male who presented with a sub-total exudative retinal detachment of the right eye that encroached upon the macula, associated with a vasoproliferative tumor secondary to Coats' disease. The patient under-went successful treatment with two intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin, Genetech Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA) combined with targeted laser photocoagulation with a 532 nm Pascal laser (Topcon Corp., Tokyo, Japan). The visual acuity improved 5 days after the second intravitreal injection from 6/18 to 6/5, with no residual macular edema and complete regression of the vasoproliferative tumor. The improvement in visual acuity was maintained at 12 months post-treatment. We believe this is the first case report describing the successful use of Pascal laser photocoagulation with intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of Coats' disease. Our aim was to defer laser treatment until 'near total' retinal reattachment and regression of the vasoproliferative tumor was achieved. There are, however, reports of vitreous fibrosis in patients with Coats' disease treated with intravitreal bevacizumab. This suggests further long-term follow-up studies are required in patients treated with this approach.

  19. Combined therapy (intravitreal bevacizumab plus verteporfin photodynamic therapy) versus intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy for choroidal neovascularization due to age-related macular degeneration: a 1-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Saviano, Sandro; Leon, Pia Easter; Mangogna, Alessandro; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of combined intravitreal bevacizumab and low-fluency-rate photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to compare it with intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy. Methods A total of 62 eyes of 62 patients with angiographic evidence of CNV were divided into 2 groups: the eyes of one group were treated with a combined therapy of 1 intravitreal bevacizumab injection (1.25 mg) and PDT within 7 days; the eyes of the other group received intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy. Clinical evidence of complications, best-corrected visual acuity (BVCA) and fluorescein leakage were evaluated. Best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were tested monthly and followed for 12 months. Results In the combined group the mean BCVA increased from 0.61 logMAR before the treatment to 0.54 logMAR at 12 months’ follow-up. In the monotherapy group the mean BCVA increased from 0.65 logMAR to 0.60 logMAR at 12 months’ follow-up. There was no significant difference in visual acuity outcomes between groups (P > 0.05). In the combined group the mean number of treatments was 1.19 per patient; in the monotherapy group, 5.31 per patient (P < 0.01). Conclusions Combined therapy appears to be an effective option for CNV associated with AMD treatment allowing a significant reduction of intravitreal injections. PMID:27582675

  20. [Intravitreal ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS].

    PubMed

    Olea, J L; Salvat, M; Mateos, J M; Vila, J; Villalonga, C; Riera, M

    1996-04-01

    A retrospective study was made of 26 patients with AIDS who initially presented with retinitis as the only clinical manifestation of cytomegalovirus infection (39 eyes). Sixty-five induction or re-induction therapeutic courses were administered with intravitreal ganciclovir. The efficiency rate of therapy was 93.8%. Thirty-eight maintenance therapeutic courses (200 micrograms/week) were evaluated. The non-compliance rate was 23%. Bilateral retinitis occurred in 44.4% of cases. The systemic administration of therapy had to be substituted for the intravitreal administration in 32% of patients during the clinical course of their conditions. The mean survival rate was 9.5 months. Both retinal detachment and vitreal hemorrhage occurred in 5% of patients. When retinitis is the first clinical manifestation of cytomegalovirus infection, therapy with intravitreal ganciclovir is efficacious to inactivate lesions. Although bilateral retinitis and extraocular dissemination are common, the mean survival rate is high.

  1. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant for the treatment of noninfectious uveitis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Rebecca S; Lobo, Ann-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Uveitis can be a sight-threatening eye disease with significant morbidity. Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment of uveitis and provide an effective treatment against ocular inflammation. However, the various modes available for corticosteroid drug delivery can carry significant ocular and systemic side effects which can limit their use in the treatment of uveitis. In an effort to avoid the damage to ocular structures that can ensue with recurrent episodes of ocular inflammation, the side effects associated with systemic steroids, and the need for repeated administration of both topical and locally injected corticosteroids, sustained-release intraocular corticosteroid implants have been developed. The dexamethasone (DEX) drug delivery system (Ozurdex(®); Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA), is a biodegradable intravitreal implant. This implant has been shown to be effective in the treatment of macular edema and noninfectious posterior uveitis and has been approved by the FDA for these entities. This review will highlight the current methods available for corticosteroid delivery to the eye with a particular emphasis on the DEX intravitreal implant and the evidence currently available for its use in noninfectious uveitis.

  2. Treatment of Retinitis Pigmentosa-Associated Cystoid Macular Oedema Using Intravitreal Aflibercept (Eylea) despite Minimal Response to Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Stacey A.; Gurbaxani, Avinash; Michaelides, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background We present an interesting case of bilateral retinitis pigmentosa (RP)-associated cystoid macular oedema that responded on two separate occasions to intravitreal injections of aflibercept, despite previously demonstrating only minimal response to intravitreal ranibizumab. This unique case would support a trial of intravitreal aflibercept for the treatment of RP-associated cystoid macular oedema. Case Presentation A 38-year-old man from Dubai, United Arab Emirates, presented to the UK with a 3-year history of bilateral RP-associated cystoid macular oedema. Previous treatment with topical dorzolamide, oral acetazolamide, and intravitreal ranibizumab had demonstrated only minimal reduction of cystoid macular oedema. Following re-confirmation of the diagnosis by clinical examination and optical coherence tomography imaging, bilateral loading doses of intravitreal aflibercept were given. Central macular thickness reduced and the patient returned to Dubai. After 6 months, the patient was treated with intravitreal ranibizumab due to re-accumulation of fluid and the unavailability of aflibercept in Dubai. Only minimal reduction of central macular thickness was observed. Once available in Dubai, intravitreal aflibercept was administered bilaterally with further reduction of central macular thickness observed. Visual acuity remained stable throughout. Conclusions This is the first case report to demonstrate a reduction of RP-associated CMO following intravitreal aflibercept, despite inadequate response to ranibizumab on two separate occasions. Aflibercept may provide superior action to other anti-VEGF medications due to its intermediate size (115 kDa) and higher binding affinity. This is worthy of further investigation in a large prospective cohort over an extended time to determine the safety and efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept for use in this condition. PMID:27721789

  3. Application of sequential injection analysis to pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, A M; Montenegro, M C B S M; Araújo, A N; Calatayud, J Martínez

    2006-01-23

    Sequential injection analysis is a well established tool for automation of pharmaceutical analysis. A short historical background of this technique is given as well as a brief discussion on the basic principles and potentials. The current applications of SIA in the pharmaceutical analysis are also described and discussed. The manifolds developed offer good analytical characteristics and are suitable for analysis of drug formulations, process analysis, drug-dissolution, drug-release testing and functional assays for screening potential drugs. The results obtained are in good agreement with those furnished by the application of the reference methods presented in the pharmacopoeias.

  4. Intravitreal clearance and volume of distribution of compounds in rabbits: In silico prediction and pharmacokinetic simulations for drug development.

    PubMed

    del Amo, Eva M; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this research were to (1) create a curated universal database of intravitreal volumes of distribution (Vss, ivt) and clearances (CL ivt) of small molecular weight compounds and macromolecules and (2) to develop quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) and pharmacokinetic models for the estimation of vitreal drug concentrations based on the compound structure. Vss, ivt and CL ivt values were determined from the available literature on intravitreal drug administration using compartmental models and curve fitting. A simple QSPR model for CL ivt of small molecular weight compounds was obtained with two descriptors: Log D7.4 and hydrogen bond donor capacity. The model predicted the internal and external test sets reliably with a mean fold error of 1.50 and 1.33, respectively (Q(2)Y=0.62). For 80% of the compounds the Vss, ivt was 1.18-2.28 ml; too narrow range for QSPR model building. Integration of the estimated Vss, ivt and predicted CL ivt parameters into pharmacokinetic simulation models allows prediction of vitreous drug concentrations after intravitreal administration. The present work presents for the first time a database of CL ivt and Vss, ivt values and the dependence of the CL ivt values on the molecular structure. The study provides also useful in silico tools to investigate a priori the intravitreal pharmacokinetic profiles for intravitreally injected candidate compounds and drug delivery systems.

  5. Comparative role of intravitreal ranibizumab versus bevacizumab in choroidal neovascular membrane in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Partha; Sengupta, Subhrangshu; Choudhary, Ruby; Home, Subhankar; Paul, Ajoy; Sinha, Sourav

    2011-01-01

    Context: Ranibizumab and bevacizumab are used widely for treating patients with choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Aims: To determine and compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab and bevacizumab in treatment of CNVM due to AMD. Settings and Design: Prospective comparative case series carried out in an eye institute and eye department of a hospital in Kolkata, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and four eyes with CNVM due to AMD were randomized into two groups. Group A (n=54; 24 occult) received monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections (0.5 mg in 0.05 ml) and Group B (n=50; 22 occult) received monthly bevacizumab injections (1.25 mg in 0.05 ml) for 3 consecutive months and then as per study criteria. Data analysis done using SPSS software. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the ranibizumab group increased from 58.19 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters at baseline to 64 ETDRS letters at month 3 (P<0.001). In bevacizumab group mean BCVA increased from 56.80 to 61.72 ETDRS letters at month 3 (P<0.001). At the end of 18 months, there was no statistically significant difference between groups A and B with respect to change in BCVA (P=0.563) or central macular thickness (CMT; P=0.281), as measured by optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT 3000). No significant sight-threatening complications developed. Conclusions: Ranibizumab and bevacizumab are equally safe and efficacious in treating CNVM due to AMD. PMID:21586838

  6. Intravitreal Topotecan Inhibits Laser-induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, Mohammad Ali; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Aldavood, Seyed Javid; Nourinia, Ramin; Hosseini, Seyed Bagher; Daftarian, Narsis; Nashtaei, Ebrahim Mohammad; Tousi, Adib; Safi, Sare

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A two-phase preclinical study was designed to determine the safe dose of intravitreal topotecan and its inhibitory effect on experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. Methods: In phase I, 42 rats were categorized into 6 groups, 5 of which received intravitreal topotecan injections of 0.125 μg, 0.25 μg, 0.5 μg, 0.75 μg, and 1.0 μg/5 μl, respectively; the control group received an injection of normal saline. Ophthalmic examination and electroretinography (ERG) were performed on days 7 and 28, and enucleated globes were processed for histopathology and immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein. In phase II, CNV was induced via laser burns in 20 rats and the animals were divided into 2 groups. One group received topotecan and the other received normal saline intravitreally. Four weeks later, mean scores of fluorescein leakage on fluorescein angiography as well as mean CNV areas on histology sections were compared. Results: In phase I, clinical, ERG and histopathologic results were unremarkable in terms of retinal toxicity in all groups. Based on the results of phase I, a dose of 1 μg/5 μl topotecan was chosen for phase II. Leakage scores obtained from late-phase fluorescein angiography were significantly lower in topotecan-treated than control eyes (P < 0.01) four weeks after induction of CNV. Compared to control eyes, topotecan-treated eyes showed a significantly lower incidence of fibrovascular proliferation (8.7% vs. 96.2%) and significantly smaller areas of CNV (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of topotecan at a dose of 1 μg/5 μl is safe and may be a promising treatment for CNV. PMID:26730316

  7. Multiple-injection high-throughput gas chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Wes; Wang, Heather; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Multiple-injection techniques have been shown to be a simple way to perform high-throughput analysis where the entire experiment resides in a single chromatogram, simplifying the data analysis and interpretation. In this study, multiple-injection techniques are applied to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and mass detection to significantly increase sample throughput. The unique issues of implementing a traditional "Fast" injection mode of multiple-injection techniques with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are discussed. Stacked injections are also discussed as means to increase the throughput of longer methods where mass detection is unable to distinguish between analytes of the same mass and longer retentions are required to resolve components of interest. Multiple-injection techniques are shown to increase instrument throughput by up to 70% and to simplify data analysis, allowing hits in multiple parallel experiments to be identified easily. PMID:27292909

  8. Comparison of the efficacy of anti-VEGF monotherapy versus PDT and intravitreal anti-VEGF combination treatment in AMD: a Meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yao; Zhao, Ke-Ke; Feng, Dong; Biswal, Manas; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Wang, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monotherapy versus photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-VEGF combination treatment in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS A computerized online search was performed using PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Studies that compared anti-VEGF monotherapy with PDT and anti-VEGF combination treatment of AMD and were designed as randomized controlled trials were included. The means and standard deviations of the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), number of treatments and proportions of patients who gained BCVA ≥15, 10, 5, or 0 letters at 12th month were extracted. A systematic review and Meta-analysis of the comparison of the two approaches was conducted using Review Manager 5.2. Subgroup. A sensitivity analysis was also performed. RESULTS Eight studies were included. When the subgroup and sensitivity analysis was conducted, the results indicated that in the findings that included the monotherapy group and PDT (standard fluence, SF) group of Kaiser's study, the patients in the monotherapy group had a better BCVA compared with the combination group at 12th month in the PDT (SF) subgroup [weighted mean difference (WMD): 3.54; 95%CI: 0.36 to 6.73; P=0.03], and there were more patients who gained ≥15 letters of BCVA in the monotherapy group compared with the combination group in the total result [odds ratio (OR): 1.41; 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.95; P=0.04]. The same conclusion was obtained in the total result that included the monotherapy group and PDT (reduced fluence, RF) group of Kaiser's study (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.13 to 2.15; P=0.007). However, there were no significant differences in the other indexes between the two therapies. CONCLUSION We found that anti-VEGF monotherapy is more effective on the recovery of visual acuity than combination therapy and more researches with lager sample size should be performed to study on the effect of the two

  9. Visual Performance in Patients with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Undergoing Treatment with Intravitreal Ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, James; Nolan, John M.; Stack, Jim; Pesudovs, Konrad; Meagher, Katherine A.; Beatty, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess visual function and its response to serial intravitreal ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nv-AMD). Methods. Forty-seven eyes of 47 patients with nv-AMD, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) logMAR 0.7 or better, undergoing intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, were enrolled into this prospective study. Visual function was assessed using a range of psychophysical tests, while mean foveal thickness (MFT) was determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results. Group mean (±sd) MFT reduced significantly from baseline (233 (±59)) to exit (205 (±40)) (P = 0.001). CDVA exhibited no change between baseline and exit visits (P = 0.48 and P = 0.31, resp.). Measures of visual function that did exhibit statistically significant improvements (P < 0.05 for all) included reading acuity, reading speed, mesopic and photopic contrast sensitivity (CS), mesopic and photopic glare disability (GD), and retinotopic ocular sensitivity (ROS) at all eccentricities. Conclusion. Eyes with nv-AMD undergoing intravitreal ranibizumab injections exhibit improvements in many parameters of visual function. Outcome measures other than CDVA, such as CS, GD, and ROS, should not only be considered in the design of studies investigating nv-AMD, but also in treatment and retreatment strategies for patients with the condition. PMID:23533703

  10. Intravitreal TSG-6 suppresses laser-induced choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting CCR2+ monocyte recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Jin Kim, Sang; Ju Lee, Hyun; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Hwa Ko, Jung; Choi, Da Ye; Youn Oh, Joo

    2015-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the hallmark of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly. Although the pathogenesis of CNV is not clear, a number of studies show that ocular-infiltrating macrophages and inflammation play a critical role in the development of CNV. TNFα-stimulated gene/protein (TSG)-6 is a multifunctional endogenous protein that has anti-inflammatory activities partly by regulating macrophage activation. Therefore, we here investigated the therapeutic potential of TSG-6 in a rat model of CNV induced by laser photocoagulation. Time course analysis showed that the expression of VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the choroid was up-regulated early after laser injury, and gradually decreased to baseline over 14 days. An intravitreal injection of TSG-6 suppressed the expression of VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, and reduced the size of CNV. Also, the number of Iba+ and CCR2+ cells including infiltrating macrophages was markedly lower in the CNV lesion of TSG-6-treated eyes. Further analysis identified CCR2+ CD11b+ CD11c+ cells and CCR2+ CD11b-CD11c+ cells as the cell populations that were increased by laser injury and reduced by TSG-6 treatment. Together, the results demonstrate that TSG-6 inhibits inflammation and CCR2+ monocyte recruitment into the choroid, and suppresses the development of CNV. PMID:26149224

  11. Intravitreal bevacizumab role in the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vasoproliferative tumor in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Nourinia, Ramin; Motevasseli, Tahmineh; Tofighi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a case of neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) with retinal vasoproliferative tumor (RVPT) and macular edema and exudation that was successfully treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB). Method: A retrospective case report of patient with neurofibromatosis, retinal vasoproliferative tumor and macular edema who received three monthly intravitreal injections of bevacizumab. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FAG) before and three months after treatment were done. Results: Macular edema and exudation of the right eye was effectively resolved with IVB injection and vascularity of RVPT significantly decreased after treatment with IVB. Conclusion: Macular edema and exudation secondary to RVPT in patients with NF-1 could be successfully treated with IVB. PMID:27703870

  12. In vitro benzyl alcohol cytotoxicity: implications for intravitreal use of triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Sheng; Wu, Chao-Liang; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Kuo, Pao-Ying; Tseng, Shih-Ya

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicity of benzyl alcohol (BA), the preservative in commercial triamcinolone acetonide (TA) suspensions, on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Cultured RPE cells from a human cell line (ARPE-19) and from rabbits were exposed to the balanced salt solution (control) or BA (0.0225, 0.225, 0.9, 3 or 9mg/mL) for 5, 30, 60, or 120min. Morphological changes of RPE cells were evaluated by the trypan blue in situ staining. The proportions of dead cells were quantitatively measured by the trypan blue exclusion assay, and those of functional cells were assessed by a mitochondrial dehydrogenase assay. The mechanism of cytotoxicity was determined by the acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and DNA laddering technique. Furthermore, ultrastructural changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that RPE cell damage was dose- and time-dependent. BA 0.225mg/mL, the clinically relevant concentration in TA following intravitreal injection, caused ultrastructural damage and impaired human RPE cell function at 2h; but BA 0.0225mg/mL did not. BA 9.0mg/mL, the concentration in commercial TA suspensions, was toxic within 5min on each assay for both human and rabbit RPE cells. The major mechanism of cell death was necrosis. In conclusion, BA in commercial TA suspensions injected intravitreally (0.225-9mg/mL) can damage RPE cells. Our in vitro study on benzyl alcohol cytotoxicity has significant clinical implications for intravitreal use of TA. We suggest that, before a commercial TA solution is used intravitreally, the vehicle should be removed to prevent damaging the RPE layer, particularly during macular hole surgery. Commercial development of a preservative-free TA suspension for intraocular use is urged.

  13. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: steam rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, I. G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton's and Avogadro's laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  14. Immobilized Bioluminescent Reagents in Flow Injection Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Abdul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Bioluminescent reactions exhibits two important characteristics from an analytical viewpoint; they are selective and highly sensitive. Furthermore, bioluminescent emissions are easily measured with a simple flow-through detector based on a photomultiplier tube and the rapid and reproducible mixing of sample and expensive reagent is best achieved by a flow injection manifold. The two most important bioluminescent systems are the enzyme (luciferase)/substrate (luciferin) combinations extracted from fireflies (Photinus pyralis) and marine bacteria (Virio harveyi) which requires ATP and NAD(P)H respectively as cofactors. Reactions that generate or consume these cofactors can also be coupled to the bioluminescent reaction to provide assays for a wide range of clinically important species. A flow injection manifold for the study of bioluminescent reactions is described, as are procedures for the extraction, purification and immobilization of firefly and bacterial luciferase and oxidoreductase. Results are presented for the determination of ATP using firefly system and the determination of other enzymes and substrates participating in ATP-converting reactions e.g. creatine kinase, ATP-sulphurylase, pyruvate kinase, creatine phosphate, pyrophosphate and phophoenolypyruvate. Similarly results are presented for the determination of NAD(P)H, FMN, FMNH_2 and several dehydrogenases which produce NAD(P)H and their substrates, e.g. alcohol, L-lactate, L-malate, L-glutamate, Glucose-6-phosphate and primary bile acid.

  15. Analysis of Facial Aesthetics as Applied to Injectables.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M; Glasgold, Robert; Glasgold, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the role of volume loss in the aging face has resulted in a paradigm shift in facial rejuvenation techniques. Injectable materials for volume restoration are among the most widespread cosmetic procedures performed. A new approach to the aesthetics of facial aging is necessary to allow the greatest improvement from volumetric techniques while maintaining natural appearing results. Examining the face in terms of facial frames and facial shadows provides the fundamental basis for our injectable analysis.

  16. Intravitreal ziv-aflibercept for macular edema following retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Remya; Chhablani, Jay; Dedhia, Chintan J; Stewart, Michael W; Mansour, Ahmad M

    2016-01-01

    Aim To report the efficacy of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept injections in eyes with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions (RVOs). Methods Consecutive patients with persistent or recurrent macular edema (central macula thickness >250 μm) due to RVO were enrolled in this prospective study. Study eyes received intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) at baseline. Patients were reassessed monthly for 4 months and given additional injections pro re nata for worsening best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraretinal edema or subretinal fluid seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, or central macular thickness (CMT) measurements >250 μm. The primary endpoint was improvement in mean CMT at 4 months. Secondary endpoints included improvement in mean BCVA, and ocular and systemic safety signals. Results Nine eyes (five central and four branch RVOs) of nine patients were enrolled. The mean ± standard deviation CMT decreased from 604±199 μm at baseline to 319±115 μm (P=0.001) at 1 month and to 351±205 μm (P=0.026) at 4 months. The mean BCVA did not improve significantly from baseline (1.00 LogMAR) to the 1-month (0.74 LogMAR; P=0.2) and 4-month (0.71 LogMAR; P=0.13) visits. No safety signals were noted. Conclusion In this small prospective study, intravitreal ziv-aflibercept significantly improved mean CMT in eyes with persistent or recurrent macular edema due to RVOs. Prospective, randomized trials comparing ziv-aflibercept with standard pharmacotherapy are needed to better define efficacy and safety. PMID:27703326

  17. Long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed after dexamethasone intravitreal implant.

    PubMed

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Pazzaglia, Alberto; Versura, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Graft rejection is the most significant complication corneal transplantation and the leading indication for overall corneal transplantation. Corticosteroid therapy represents the mainstay of graft rejection treatment; however, the optimal route of administration of corticosteroid remains uncertain. We report herein for the first time the multimodal imaging of a case of long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed 3 months after dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 29-year-old Asian female presented with a long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection in her left phakic eye. She underwent penetrating keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus 24 months before presentation. Hourly dexamethasone eyedrops, daily intravenous methylprednisolone, and one parabulbar injection of methylprednisolone acetate were administered during the 5 days of hospitalization. However, the clinical picture remained approximately unchanged despite therapy. By mutual agreement, we opted for the off-label injection of dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant in order to provide therapeutic concentrations of steroid for a period of ~6 months. No other concomitant therapies were prescribed to the patient. Visual acuity measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, anterior segment photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, laser cell flare meter, intraocular pressure measurement, and ophthalmoscopy were performed monthly for the first postoperative 6 months. Three months after injection, both clinical and subclinical signs of rejection disappeared with a full recovery of visual acuity to 20/30 as before the episode. Currently, at the 12-month follow-up visit, the clinical picture remains stable without any sign of rejection, recurrence, or graft failure. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant seems to be a new potential effective treatment for corneal graft rejection, particularly in case of poor compliance or lack of response to conventional

  18. Long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed after dexamethasone intravitreal implant

    PubMed Central

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Pazzaglia, Alberto; Versura, Piera

    2016-01-01

    Graft rejection is the most significant complication corneal transplantation and the leading indication for overall corneal transplantation. Corticosteroid therapy represents the mainstay of graft rejection treatment; however, the optimal route of administration of corticosteroid remains uncertain. We report herein for the first time the multimodal imaging of a case of long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection successfully reversed 3 months after dexamethasone intravitreal implant. A 29-year-old Asian female presented with a long-lasting corneal endothelial graft rejection in her left phakic eye. She underwent penetrating keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus 24 months before presentation. Hourly dexamethasone eyedrops, daily intravenous methylprednisolone, and one parabulbar injection of methylprednisolone acetate were administered during the 5 days of hospitalization. However, the clinical picture remained approximately unchanged despite therapy. By mutual agreement, we opted for the off-label injection of dexamethasone 0.7 mg intravitreal implant in order to provide therapeutic concentrations of steroid for a period of ~6 months. No other concomitant therapies were prescribed to the patient. Visual acuity measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, anterior segment photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, laser cell flare meter, intraocular pressure measurement, and ophthalmoscopy were performed monthly for the first postoperative 6 months. Three months after injection, both clinical and subclinical signs of rejection disappeared with a full recovery of visual acuity to 20/30 as before the episode. Currently, at the 12-month follow-up visit, the clinical picture remains stable without any sign of rejection, recurrence, or graft failure. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant seems to be a new potential effective treatment for corneal graft rejection, particularly in case of poor compliance or lack of response to conventional

  19. Combination Systemic and Intravitreal Antiviral Therapy in The Management of Acute Retinal Necrosis Syndrome (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Flaxel, Christina J.; Yeh, Steven; Lauer, Andreas K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of combination systemic and intravitreal antiviral therapy vs systemic antiviral therapy alone for treating acute retinal necrosis syndrome (ARN). We hypothesize that combination therapy might result in superior visual acuity (VA) and retinal detachment (RD) outcomes vs traditional systemic antiviral therapy alone. Methods: A retrospective, interventional, comparative single-center study of patients with ARN. We reviewed demographic data, herpesvirus diagnoses, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, VA, RD, and the use of systemic and intravitreal antiviral therapy. Outcome measures included VA improvement by 2 or more lines, severe visual loss, VA ≤20/200, and RD. Results: We studied 29 eyes of 24 patients, treated from 1987 through 2009. Mean age was 42.6 years and mean follow-up was 44.0 months. Twelve patients (14 eyes) were treated with combined systemic and intravitreal antiviral therapy and 12 patients (15 eyes) with systemic therapy alone. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients receiving combination intravitreal and systemic antiviral therapy were more likely to have VA improved by 2 lines or greater (P=.006). Patients receiving combination therapy also showed a decreased incidence of progression to severe visual loss (0.13/patient-years [PY]) compared to patients receiving systemic therapy alone (0.54/PY, P=.02) and had decreased incidence of RD (0.29/PY vs 0.74/PY, P=.03). Conclusions: Combination oral and intravitreal antiviral therapy may improve visual and functional outcomes in patients with ARN. Clinicians should consider prompt administration of combination systemic and intravitreal antiviral therapy as first-line treatment for patients with clinical features of ARN. PMID:24385671

  20. High Dose Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Refractory Pigment Epithelial Detachment in Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Kim, Soon Hyun; You, Yong Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) is the first choice of treatment for age-related macular degeneration. However, quite a few eyes treated using conventional dose anti-VEGF (CDAV) have persistent pigment epithelial detachment (PED) on optical coherence tomography. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of high dose anti-VEGF (HDAV) for refractory PED. Methods In this retrospective study, 31 eyes of neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients with persistent PED findings despite six or more intravitreal injections of CDAV (bevacizumab 1.25 mg or ranibizumab 2.5 mg) were analyzed. Changes in visual outcome, central foveal thickness, and PED height were compared before and after HDAV (bevacizumab 5.0 mg) for these refractory PED cases. Results The mean age of patients was 67.7 years. The number of CDAV injections was 12.1. The number of HDAV injections was 3.39. Best-corrected visual acuity in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution before and after HDAV was 0.49 and 0.41 (p < 0.001), respectively. Central foveal thickness before and after HDAV was 330.06 and 311.10 µm (p = 0.125), respectively. PED height before and after HDAV was 230.28 and 204.07 µm (p = 0.014), respectively. There were no serious adverse reactions in all the eyes. Conclusions Increasing the dose of bevacizumab in refractory PED may be a possible treatment option. PMID:27478353

  1. Analysis of injection tests in liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    The objective was to develop procedures for analyzing nonisothermal injection test data during the early phases of injection. In particular, methods for determining the permeability-thickness of the formation, skin factor of the well and tracking the movement of the thermal front have been developed. The techniques developed for interpreting injection pressure transients are closely akin to conventional groundwater and petroleum techniques for evaluating these parameters. The approach taken was to numerically simulate injection with a variety of temperatures, reservoir parameters and flowrates, in order to determine the characteristic responses due to nonisothermal injection. Two characteristic responses were identified: moving front dominated behavior and composite reservoir behavior. Analysis procedures for calculating the permeability-thickness of the formation and the skin factor of the well have been developed for each of these cases. In order to interpret the composite reservior behavior, a new concept has been developed; that of a ''fluid skin factor'', which accounts for the steady-state pressure buildup due to the region inside the thermal front. Based on this same concept, a procedure for tracking the movement of the thermal front has been established. The results also identify the dangers of not accounting the nonisothermal effects when analyzing injection test data. Both the permeability-thickness and skin factor of the well can be grossly miscalculated if the effects of the cold-region around the well are not taken into consideration. 47 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of Intravitreal Ranibizumab on the Surgical Outcome for Diabetic Retinopathy With Tractional Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Feng; Yu, Chenying; Ding, Haiyuan; Shen, Liping; Lou, Dinghua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab on the surgical outcome for diabetic patients who had tractional retinal detachment but did not receive any preoperative retinal photocoagulation. Ninety-seven patients (97 eyes) who had diabetic retinopathy with tractional retinal detachment were enrolled to receive 23-G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). They were assigned to an experimental group (Group I, n = 47 eyes) and a control group (Group II, n = 50 eyes). The patients in Group I were given 1 injection of intravitreal Ranibizumab (Lucentis 0.5 mg/0.05 mL) 1 week before surgery, whereas those in Group II went down to surgery directly. Follow-ups were performed for 6 months to 3 years (16 ± 6 months), and indicators observed included postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, complications, and retinal thickness in the macula measured by optical coherence tomography. In Group I, BCVA improved from logMAR 1.92 ± 0.49 to logMAR 0.81 ± 0.39 following surgery, whereas in Group II, BCVA improved from logMAR 1.91 ± 0.49 to logMAR 0.85 ± 0.41. There was significant postoperative gain in vision, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups at postoperative follow-up visits. The mean duration of vitrectomy in Group I and Group II was (40 ± 7) minutes and (53 ± 9) minutes, respectively, with significant difference. Iatrogenic breaks were noted in 5 eyes (11%) in the experimental group and 17 eyes (34%) in the control group; the difference was significant. The retinal thickness in the macula measured by OCT was (256 ± 44) μm and (299 ± 84) μm in Group I and Group II respectively with significant difference. Besides, there were significantly more eyes in Group II that required silicone oil tamponade and postoperative retinal photocoagulation. 23-G PPV combined with intravitreal tamponade and panretinal photocoagulation still remains an effective regimen for the

  3. The Efficacy of Intravitreal Aflibercept in Submacular Hemorrhage Secondary to Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Jae Hui; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Chul Gu; Lee, Dong Won; Han, Jung Il; Lew, Young Ju; Cho, Han Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept monotherapy in submacular hemorrhage (SMH) secondary to wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods This study included 25 eyes in 25 patients with SMH involving the fovea secondary to wet-AMD. All patients were treated with three consecutive monthly intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg/0.05 mL) injections, followed by as-needed reinjection. They were followed for at least 6 months. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness (CFT), and area of SMH were measured at diagnosis, as well as at 3 and 6 months after treatment initiation. Results The BCVA significantly improved from 0.79 ± 0.41 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) at baseline to 0.54 ± 0.41 logMAR at 6 months (p < 0.001). BCVA ≥3 lines and stable vision were observed in 96% of the eyes. The CFT significantly decreased from 560.8 ± 215.3 µm at baseline to 299.8 ± 160.2 µm at 6 months (p < 0.001). The area of SMH significantly decreased from 10.5 ± 7.1 mm2 at baseline to 1.8 ± 6.5 mm2 at 6 months (p < 0.001). The BCVA, CFT, and area of SMH at baseline, as well as duration of symptoms, all correlated with BCVA at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions Intravitreal injection of aflibercept is an effective treatment option for patients with SMH secondary to wet-AMD; however, there may be limited efficacy in eyes with large SMH area and cases in which treatment is delayed. PMID:27729757

  4. Intravitreal bevacizumab and Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in patients with neovascular glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yu-Xin; Xu, Ying-Ying; Yang, Rui-Min; Wang, Bao-Jun; Hu, Jun-Xi

    2014-01-01

    AIM To explore the efficacy of preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection combined with Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG). METHODS This retrospective study included 35 eyes from 35 patients who underwent preoperative IVB and AGV implantation for treatment of NVG. Findings such as intraocular pressure (IOP) number of anti-glaucoma medications, visual acuity (VA), surgical success rates, and complications were recorded. RESULTS After AGV implantation, IOP was 18.2±4.0 mm Hg, 15.5±3.3 mm Hg and 9.8±2.6 mm Hg at 6, 12 and 36mo, significantly decreased compared with pre-IOP (P<0.01). The number of anti-glaucoma medications was 0.9±0.5, 0.8±0.9 and 0.8±0.6 at 6, 12 and 36mo, significantly decreased compared to pre-treatment (P<0.01). At last visit, there were 19 eyes with stable VA, 4 with VA improvement, 12 with diminished VA and 3 with complete loss light perception. There were 7 cases that failed during 3-year fellow up period. Cumulative probabilities of valve survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis were 82.9%, 74.1% and 71.0% at 12, 24 and 36mo, respectively. Cox stepwise regression analysis found that the survival time was significant associated with the pre-visual acuity <2/400 (P<0.05). Post-operative complications occurred in 8 eyes, of which hyphema presented in 2 eyes, choroidal effusion in 2 eyes. CONCLUSION The procedure of preoperative IVB and AGV implantation should be one of treatments for NVG because of its safety and effectiveness. PMID:25349803

  5. ANALYSIS OF VOLATILES AND SEMIVOLATILES BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct aqueous injection analysis (DAI) with gas chromatographic separation and ion trap mass spectral detection was used to analyze aqueous samples for g/L levels of 54 volatile and semivolatile compounds, and problematic non-purgeables and non-extractables. The method reduces ...

  6. Determination of Reaction Stoichiometries by Flow Injection Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Angel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a method of flow injection analysis intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries based on a closed-loop configuration. The technique is suitable for use in undergraduate laboratories. Information is provided for equipment, materials, procedures, and sample results. (JM)

  7. Immobilized enzymes in flow-injection analysis: present and trends

    PubMed Central

    Ruz, J.; Lázaro, F.; de Castro, M. D. Luque

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the use of immobilized enzymes in flow-injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The joint use of FIA and immobilized enzymes means that analytical procedures are easily automated, analytical costs are reduced and methods are faster. The future possibilities for this combination are discussed. PMID:18925183

  8. Contralateral eye-to-eye comparison of intravitreal ranibizumab and a sustained-release dexamethasone intravitreal implant in recalcitrant diabetic macular edema

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Wolfe, Jeremy D; Hassan, Tarek S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of intravitreal ranibizumab (RZB) or dexamethasone (DEX) intravitreal implant in cases of recalcitrant diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods Retrospective, interventional study examining patients with symmetric bilateral, center-involved DME recalcitrant to treatment with RZB, who received DEX in one eye while the contralateral eye continued to receive RZB every 4–5 weeks for a study period of 3 months. Results Eleven patients (22 eyes) were included: mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA) for the DEX arm improved from 0.415 (standard deviation [SD] ±0.16) to 0.261 (SD ±0.18) at final evaluation, and mean central macular thickness (CMT) improved from 461 µm (SD ±156) to 356 µm (SD ±110; net decrease: 105 µm, P=0.01). Mean logMAR VA for the RZB arm improved from 0.394 (SD ±0.31) to 0.269 (SD ±0.19) at final evaluation. Mean CMT improved from 421 µm (SD ±147) to 373 µm (SD ±129; net decrease: 48 µm, P=0.26). Conclusion A subset of recalcitrant DME patients demonstrated significant CMT reduction and VA improvement after a single DEX injection. PMID:27621587

  9. Neuroprotective effect of systemic and/or intravitreal rosuvastatin administration in rat glaucoma model

    PubMed Central

    Unlu, Metin; Aktas, Zeynep; Gocun, Pinar Uyar; Ilhan, Sevil Ozger; Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of rosuvastatin, in a rat experimental glaucoma model. METHODS Ocular hypertension was induced in right eyes of Long-Evans rats (n=30) by cauterization of three episcleral veins. Left eyes were defined as controls. Rats were divided into five groups: oral rosuvastatin, intravitreal rosuvastatin, oral+intravitreal rosuvastatin, intravitreal sham and glaucoma without intervention. Rats were sacrificed at day 14. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) number was assessed by histopathological analysis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in RGC layer was also examined. RESULTS A significant intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was seen (P=0.002). Elevated IOP resulted in a significant decrease in number of RGCs in group 5 (70.33±8.2 cells/mm2) when compared with controls (92.50±13.72 cells/mm2; P=0.03). The RGC number in group 1 (92.4±7.3 cells/mm2) was significantly higher than group 5 (P=0.03). The numbers of RGC in groups 2, 3 (57.3±8.2 cells/mm2, 60.5±12.9 cells/mm2) were comparable with that of group 5 (P=0.18 and P=0.31). The apoptosis rates with TUNEL staining were also parallel to RGC number. Animals with experimentally induced glaucoma showed an increase in retinal GFAP immunoreactivity. CONCLUSION Decrease in RGC loss and apoptosis suggest the neuroprotective potential of oral rosuvastatin treatment in a rat model of ocular hypertension. However intravitreal rosuvastatin showed a contrary effect and further studies are required. PMID:27158600

  10. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections. PMID:27548134

  11. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of SQ Injection Using Multiple Chromatographic Technologies.

    PubMed

    Chau, Siu-Leung; Huang, Zhi-Bing; Song, Yan-Gang; Yue, Rui-Qi; Ho, Alan; Lin, Chao-Zhan; Huang, Wen-Hua; Han, Quan-Bin

    2016-08-19

    Quality control of Chinese medicine injections remains a challenge due to our poor knowledge of their complex chemical profile. This study aims to investigate the chemical composition of one of the best-selling injections, Shenqi Fuzheng (SQ) injection (SQI), via a full component quantitative analysis. A total of 15 representative small molecular components of SQI were simultaneously determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS); saccharide composition of SQI was also quantitatively determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) on an amino column before and after acid hydrolysis. The existence of polysaccharides was also examined on a gel permeation chromatography column. The method was well validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability, and was successfully applied to analyze 13 SQI samples. The results demonstrate that up to 94.69% (w/w) of this injection product are quantitatively determined, in which small molecules and monosaccharide/sucrose account for 0.18%-0.21%, and 53.49%-58.2%, respectively. The quantitative information contributes to accumulating scientific evidence to better understand the therapy efficacy and safety of complex Chinese medicine injections.

  12. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome versus intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection outcome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Souza Setti, Amanda; Ferreira, Renata Cristina; Paes de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Daniela; de Cássia Sávio Figueira, Rita; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2010-10-01

    The development of a modified intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), called intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI), demonstrated that a profound morphological investigation of the spermatozoon, under the magnification of 6600 x, enables outcome improvement. The aim of this study was to compare ICSI outcome with IMSI outcome. The meta-analysis results demonstrated no significant difference in fertilization rate between ICSI and IMSI groups. However, a significantly improved implantation (odds ratio (OR) 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-4.95) and pregnancy rate (OR 3.12; 95% CI 1.55-6.26) was observed in IMSI cycles. Moreover, the results showed a significantly decreased miscarriage rate (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.78) in IMSI cycles as compared with ICSI cycles. This is the first meta-analysis of published data to evaluate the potential benefits of IMSI. The pooled data of IMSI cycles demonstrate a statistically significant improvement in implantation and pregnancy rates and a statistically significant reduction in miscarriage rates. However, more randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results.

  13. Controlled Release of Dexamethasone From an Intravitreal Delivery System Using Porous Silicon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huiyuan; Wang, Chengyun; Nan, Kaihui; Freeman, William R.; Sailor, Michael J.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study aims to evaluate a porous silicon-based drug delivery system meant for sustained delivery of dexamethasone (Dex) to the vitreous and retina. Methods Dexamethasone was grafted covalently into the pore walls of fully oxidized porous silicon particles (pSiO2-COO-Dex), which then was evaluated for the pharmacological effect of the payload on cultured ARPE19 cells before intravitreal injection. The Dex release profile was investigated in a custom designed dynamic dissolution chamber to mimic the turnover of vitreous fluid in rabbit eyes. Ocular safety, in vivo release, and pharmacodynamics were evaluated in rabbit eyes, and the human VEGF-induced rabbit retinal vascular permeability model. Results Loading efficiency of Dex was 69 ± 9 μg per 1 mg of the pSiO2-COO-Dex particles. Dynamic in vitro release demonstrated a sustained mode when compared to free Dex, with the drug half-life extended by 5 times. The released Dex was unaltered and biologically active. In vivo drug release in rabbit eyes revealed a mode similar to the release seen in vitro, with a vitreous half-life of 11 days. At 2 and 4 weeks after a single intravitreal injection of pSiO2-COO-Dex particles (mean 2.71 ± 0.47 mg), intravitreal 500 ng of VEGF did not induce significant retinal vessel dilation or fluorescein leakage, while these events were observed in the eyes injected with empty pSiO2 particles or with free Dex. The retinal vessel score from fluorescein angiography for the control eyes was double the score for the eyes injected with pSiO2-COO-Dex. No adverse reaction was observed for the eyes injected with drug-loaded pSi particles during the course of the study. Conclusions The porous silicon-based Dex delivery system (pSiO2-COO-Dex) can be administered safely into vitreous without toxicity. Dex release from the porous silicon particles was sustained for 2 months and was effective against VEGF-induced retinal vessel reaction. PMID:26882530

  14. Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating Intravitreal Ranibizumab or Saline for Vitreous Hemorrhage from Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Abdhish R.; Torres, Karisse; Beck, Roy W.; Bressler, Neil M.; Ferris, Frederick L.; Friedman, Scott M.; Glassman, Adam R.; Maturi, Raj K.; Melia, Michele; Singer, Michael A.; Stockdale, Cynthia R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intravitreal ranibizumab compared with intravitreal saline injections on vitrectomy rates for vitreous hemorrhage (VH) from proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Main Outcome Cumulative probability of vitrectomy within 16 weeks. Methods Study eyes had VH from PDR precluding panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) completion. Eyes were randomly assigned to 0.5-mg ranibizumab (N = 125) or saline (N = 136) at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks. Results Cumulative probability of vitrectomy by 16 weeks was 12% with ranibizumab versus 17% with saline (difference 4%, 95% confidence interval −4%–13%) and of complete PRP without vitrectomy by 16-weeks was 44% and 31% respectively (P = 0.05). The mean (±SD) visual acuity improvement from baseline to 12 weeks was 22±23 letters and 16±31 letters respectively (P = 0.04). Recurrent VH occurred within 16 weeks in 6% and 17% respectively (P = 0.01). One eye developed endophthalmitis after saline. Conclusions Overall the 16 week vitrectomy rates were lower than expected in both groups. This study suggests little likelihood of a clinically important difference between ranibizumab and saline on the rate of vitrectomy by 16 weeks in eyes with VH from PDR. Short term secondary outcomes including visual acuity improvement, increased PRP completion rates, and reduced recurrent VH rates suggest biologic activity of ranibizumab. Long term benefits remain unknown. Whether vitrectomy rates after saline or ranibizumab are different than observation alone cannot be determined from this study. Application to Clinical Practice Intravitreal ranibizumab does not appear to reduce vitrectomy rates compared with saline for VH from PDR. PMID:23370902

  15. Flow Injection as a Teaching Tool for Gravimetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartini, Raquel P.; Zagatto, Elias A. G.; Oliveira, Cláudio C.

    2000-06-01

    A flow-injection system to carry out gravimetric analysis is presented. Students are faced with an instrumental approach for gravimetric procedures. Crucibles, muffle furnaces, and desiccators are not required. A flowing suspension is established by simultaneously injecting an aqueous sample and a precipitating reagent into two merging carrier streams. The precipitate is accumulated on a minifilter hanging under the plate of an analytical balance and is weighed inside the main stream. Since Archimedes' principle holds, a drying step is not needed. After measurement, the precipitate is dissolved and disposed of. As an application, the determination of phosphate based on precipitation with ammonium and magnesium ions in slightly alkaline medium is chosen. The proposed system is very stable and well suited for demonstration. When applied to analysis of fertilizer extracts with 0.10-1.00% w/v P, it yields precise results (RSD < 0.042) in agreement with an official spectrophotometric method.

  16. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  17. Development, Characterizations and Biocompatibility Evaluations of Intravitreal Lipid Implants

    PubMed Central

    Tamaddon, Lana; Mostafavi, Abolfazl; Riazi-esfahani, Mohammad; Karkhane, Reza; Aghazadeh, Sara; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza; Abedin Dorkoosh, Farid; Asadi Amoli, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The treatment of posterior eye diseases is always challenging mainly due to inaccessibility of the region. Many drugs are currently delivered by repeated intraocular injections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential applications of natural triglycerides as alternative carriers to synthetic polymers in terms of drug release profile and also biocompatibility for intraocular use. Materials and Methods: In vitro/in vivo evaluations of intravitreal implants fabricated from the physiological lipid, glyceride tripalmitate containing clindamycin phosphate as a model drug was performed. The micro-implants with average diameter of 0.4 mm were fabricated via a hot melt extrusion method. The extrudates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug dissolution studies. For biocompatibility, the implants were implanted into rabbit eyes. Clinical investigations including fundus observations, electroretinography as well as histological evaluations were performed. Results: In vitro tests guaranteed usefulness of the production method for preparing the homogenous mixture of the drug and lipid without affecting thermal and crystalinity characteristics of the components. In vitro releases indicated a bi-phasic pattern for lower lipid ratios, which were completed by the end of day three. With higher lipid ratios, more controlled release profiles were achieved until about ten days for a lipid ratio of 95%. Clinical observations did not show any abnormalities up to two months after implantation into the rabbit eye. Conclusions: These results suggest that although the implant could not adequately retard release of the present drug model yet, due to good physical characteristics and in vivo biocompatibility, it can represent a suitable device for loading wide ranges of therapeutics in treatment of many kinds of retinochoroidal disorders. PMID:24872944

  18. Intravitreal methotrexate infusion for proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sadaka, Ama; Sisk, Robert A; Osher, James M; Toygar, Okan; Duncan, Melinda K; Riemann, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal methotrexate infusion (IMI) during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal detachment in patients with high risk for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Methods Patients presenting with severe recurrent PVR with tractional retinal detachment and/or a history of severe ocular inflammation were treated with IMI. Clinical outcomes were determined from a retrospective medical chart review. Results Twenty-nine eyes presenting with either tractional retinal detachment and recurrent PVR (n=22) or a history of severe inflammation associated with high PVR risk (n=7) received IMI during PPV. Best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months was ≥20/200 in 19 of 29 eyes (66%) and remained stable or improved compared with initial presentation in 24 of 29 eyes (83%). At the last follow-up examination, the retinas of 26 of 29 eyes (90%) remained attached after IMI while three eyes required another reattachment procedure. Three additional eyes (10%) developed recurrent limited PVR without recurrent RD and were observed. No complications attributable to IMI occurred during a mean follow-up of 27 months. Conclusion Eyes at high risk for PVR development due to a history of prior PVR or intraocular inflammation had a low incidence of PVR following IMI at the time of PPV for RD repair. No significant safety issues from IMI were observed in this series. PMID:27698550

  19. Intravitreal methotrexate infusion for proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sadaka, Ama; Sisk, Robert A; Osher, James M; Toygar, Okan; Duncan, Melinda K; Riemann, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal methotrexate infusion (IMI) during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal detachment in patients with high risk for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Methods Patients presenting with severe recurrent PVR with tractional retinal detachment and/or a history of severe ocular inflammation were treated with IMI. Clinical outcomes were determined from a retrospective medical chart review. Results Twenty-nine eyes presenting with either tractional retinal detachment and recurrent PVR (n=22) or a history of severe inflammation associated with high PVR risk (n=7) received IMI during PPV. Best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months was ≥20/200 in 19 of 29 eyes (66%) and remained stable or improved compared with initial presentation in 24 of 29 eyes (83%). At the last follow-up examination, the retinas of 26 of 29 eyes (90%) remained attached after IMI while three eyes required another reattachment procedure. Three additional eyes (10%) developed recurrent limited PVR without recurrent RD and were observed. No complications attributable to IMI occurred during a mean follow-up of 27 months. Conclusion Eyes at high risk for PVR development due to a history of prior PVR or intraocular inflammation had a low incidence of PVR following IMI at the time of PPV for RD repair. No significant safety issues from IMI were observed in this series.

  20. Joint aspiration and injection and synovial fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Philip; Doherty, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Joint aspiration/injection and synovial fluid (SF) analysis are both invaluable procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of joint disease. This chapter addresses: (1) the indications, the technical principles and the expected benefits and risks of aspiration and injection of intra-articular corticosteroid; and (2) practical aspects relating to SF analysis, especially in relation to crystal identification. Intra-articular injection of long-acting insoluble corticosteroids is a well-established procedure that produces rapid pain relief and resolution of inflammation in most injected joints. The knee is the most common site to require aspiration, although any non-axial joint is accessible for obtaining SF. The technique requires a knowledge of basic anatomy and should not be unduly painful for the patient. Provided sterile equipment and a sensible, aseptic approach are used, it is very safe. Analysis of aspirated SF is helpful in the differential diagnosis of arthritis and is the definitive method for diagnosis of septic arthritis and crystal arthritis. The gross appearance of SF can provide useful diagnostic information in terms of the degree of joint inflammation and presence of haemarthrosis. Microbiological studies of SF are the key to the confirmation of infectious conditions. Increasing joint inflammation is associated with increased SF volume, reduced viscosity, increasing turbidity and cell count, and increasing ratio of polymorphonuclear: mononuclear cells, but such changes are non-specific and must be interpreted in the clinical setting. However, detection of SF monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, even from un-inflamed joints during intercritical periods, allow a precise diagnosis of gout and of calcium pyrophosphate crystal-related arthritis. PMID:19393565

  1. Coating nanocarriers with hyaluronic acid facilitates intravitreal drug delivery for retinal gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Martens, Thomas F; Remaut, Katrien; Deschout, Hendrik; Engbersen, Johan F J; Hennink, Wim E; van Steenbergen, Mies J; Demeester, Jo; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2015-03-28

    Retinal gene therapy could potentially affect the lives of millions of people suffering from blinding disorders. Yet, one of the major hurdles remains the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to the retinal target cells. Due to the different barriers that need to be overcome in case of topical or systemic administration, intravitreal injection is an attractive alternative administration route for large macromolecular therapeutics. Here it is essential that the therapeutics do not aggregate and remain mobile in the vitreous humor in order to reach the retina. In this study, we have evaluated the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) as an electrostatic coating for nonviral polymeric gene nanomedicines, p(CBA-ABOL)/pDNA complexes, to provide them with an anionic hydrophilic surface for improved intravitreal mobility. Uncoated polyplexes had a Z-averaged diameter of 108nm and a zeta potential of +29mV. We evaluated polyplexes coated with HA of different molecular weights (22kDa, 137kDa and 2700kDa) in terms of size, surface charge and complexation efficiency and noticed their zeta potentials became anionic at 4-fold molar excess of HA-monomers compared to cationic monomers, resulting in submicron ternary polyplexes. Next, we used a previously optimized ex vivo model based on excised bovine eyes and fluorescence single particle tracking (fSPT) microscopy to evaluate mobility in intact vitreous humor. It was confirmed that HA-coated polyplexes had good mobility in bovine vitreous humor, similar to polyplexes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG), except for those coated with high molecular weight HA (2700kDa). However, contrary to PEGylated polyplexes, HA-coated polyplexes were efficiently taken up in vitro in ARPE-19 cells, despite their negative charge, indicating uptake via CD44-receptor mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, the HA-polyplexes were able to induce GFP expression in this in vitro cell line without apparent cytotoxicity, where coating with low molecular

  2. High intraocular pressure in four vitrectomized eyes with intravitreal C3F8 without high altitude travel

    PubMed Central

    Brosh, K; Strassman, I; Seelenfreund, M

    2014-01-01

    Importance It is well known that altitude ascent with intravitreal gas can cause expansion of gas and intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. According to Boyle's law, the gas bubble will not expand unless a higher altitude than the gas insertion site has been reached. We report four cases in which intravitreal gas was injected at an altitude of 790 m (Jerusalem). All four cases developed high IOP even though they did not reach a higher altitude in their post-operative period. Observations A report of four patients following vitrectomy with 12% mixture of perfluoropropane and air are presented. All four patients arrived with ocular pain following the ascent by car of 765–1100 m to Jerusalem where the vitrectomy and gas insertion was conducted. Upon examination, all four patients had high IOP (30–55 mm Hg). IOP was well controlled with IOP-lowering medications. None of the patients suffered from long-term complications. Conclusions and Relevance Caution should be taken with altitude changes in patients with intravitreal gas even if there was no ascent from the altitude in which the vitrectomy was performed. PMID:24788015

  3. Management of noninfectious posterior uveitis with intravitreal drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui Yi; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Lee, Cecilia S; Chhablani, Jay; Gupta, Vishali; Khatri, Manoj; Nirmal, Jayabalan; Pavesio, Carlos; Agrawal, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Uveitis is an important cause of vision loss worldwide due to its sight-threatening complications, especially cystoid macular edema, as well as choroidal neovascularization, macular ischemia, cataract, and glaucoma. Systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for noninfectious posterior uveitis; however, various systemic side effects can occur. Intravitreal medication achieves a therapeutic level in the vitreous while minimizing systemic complications and is thus used as an exciting alternative. Corticosteroids, antivascular endothelial growth factors, immunomodulators such as methotrexate and sirolimus, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are currently available for intravitreal therapy. This article reviews the existing literature for efficacy and safety of these various options for intravitreal drug therapy for the management of noninfectious uveitis (mainly intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis). PMID:27789936

  4. Optimising the controlled release of dexamethasone from a new generation of PLGA-based microspheres intended for intravitreal administration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina Martínez, Irene Teresa; Guzmán Navarro, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye requires sustained drug concentrations at the site of action for extended periods of time. To achieve this, it is necessary to use high systemic doses or frequent intraocular injections, both associated with serious adverse effects. In order to avoid these complications and improve patient's quality of life, an experimental study has been conducted on the preparation of a new generation of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50) (PLGA) polymer microspheres (MSs) loaded with Dxm, vitamin E and/or human serum albumin (HSA). Particles were prepared according to a S/O/W encapsulation method and the 20-40μm fraction was selected. This narrow size distribution is suitable for minimally invasive intravitreal injection by small calibre needles. Characterisation of the MSs showed high Dxm loading and encapsulation efficiency (> 90%) without a strong interaction with the polymer matrix, as revealed by DSC analysis. MSs drug release studies indicated a small burst effect (lower than 5%) during the first five hours and subsequently, drug release was sustained for at least 30days, led by diffusion and erosion mechanisms. Dxm release rate was modulated when solid state HSA was incorporated into MSs formulation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the protein maintained its integrity during the encapsulation process, as well as for the release study. MSs presented good tolerance and lack of cytotoxicity in macrophages and HeLa cultured cells. After 12months of storage under standard refrigerated conditions (4±1°C), MSs retained appropriate physical and chemical properties and analogous drug release kinetics. Therefore, we conclude that these microspheres are promising pharmaceutical systems for intraocular administration, allowing controlled release of the drug.

  5. Optimising the controlled release of dexamethasone from a new generation of PLGA-based microspheres intended for intravitreal administration.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villanueva, Javier; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío; Molina Martínez, Irene Teresa; Guzmán Navarro, Manuel

    2016-09-20

    Successful therapy for chronic diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye requires sustained drug concentrations at the site of action for extended periods of time. To achieve this, it is necessary to use high systemic doses or frequent intraocular injections, both associated with serious adverse effects. In order to avoid these complications and improve patient's quality of life, an experimental study has been conducted on the preparation of a new generation of biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (50:50) (PLGA) polymer microspheres (MSs) loaded with Dxm, vitamin E and/or human serum albumin (HSA). Particles were prepared according to a S/O/W encapsulation method and the 20-40μm fraction was selected. This narrow size distribution is suitable for minimally invasive intravitreal injection by small calibre needles. Characterisation of the MSs showed high Dxm loading and encapsulation efficiency (> 90%) without a strong interaction with the polymer matrix, as revealed by DSC analysis. MSs drug release studies indicated a small burst effect (lower than 5%) during the first five hours and subsequently, drug release was sustained for at least 30days, led by diffusion and erosion mechanisms. Dxm release rate was modulated when solid state HSA was incorporated into MSs formulation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the protein maintained its integrity during the encapsulation process, as well as for the release study. MSs presented good tolerance and lack of cytotoxicity in macrophages and HeLa cultured cells. After 12months of storage under standard refrigerated conditions (4±1°C), MSs retained appropriate physical and chemical properties and analogous drug release kinetics. Therefore, we conclude that these microspheres are promising pharmaceutical systems for intraocular administration, allowing controlled release of the drug. PMID:26987610

  6. Simulating Dissolution of Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Suspensions in an Anatomically Accurate Rabbit Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Marc; Muralikrishnan, R.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study examined the impact of particle size on dissolution rate and residence of intravitreal suspension depots of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TAC). Methods A model for the rabbit eye was constructed using insights from high-resolution NMR imaging studies (Sawada 2002). The current model was compared to other published simulations in its ability to predict clearance of various intravitreally injected materials. Suspension depots were constructed explicitly rendering individual particles in various configurations: 4 or 16 mg drug confined to a 100 μL spherical depot, or 4 mg exploded to fill the entire vitreous. Particle size was reduced systematically in each configuration. The convective diffusion/dissolution process was simulated using a multiphase model. Results Release rate became independent of particle diameter below a certain value. The size-independent limits occurred for particle diameters ranging from 77 to 428 μM depending upon the depot configuration. Residence time predicted for the spherical depots in the size-independent limit was comparable to that observed in vivo. Conclusions Since the size-independent limit was several-fold greater than the particle size of commercially available pharmaceutical TAC suspensions, differences in particle size amongst such products are predicted to be immaterial to their duration or performance. PMID:20467888

  7. Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis using immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mancini, A; Del Rosso, F; Roberti, R; Caligiana, P; Vecchini, A; Binaglia, L

    1996-09-20

    A method for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis is reported in the present paper. Glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and choline oxidase, immobilized on controlled porosity glass beads, are packed in a small reactor inserted in a flow injection manifold. When samples containing glycerophosphorylcholine are injected, glycerophosphorylcholine is hydrolyzed into choline and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. The free choline produced in this reaction is oxidized to betain and hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is detected amperometrically. Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine in samples containing choline and phosphorylcholine is obtained inserting ahead of the reactor a small column packed with a mixed bed ion exchange resin. The time needed for each determination does not exceed one minute. The present method, applied to quantitate glycerophosphorylcholine in samples of seminal plasma, gave results comparable with those obtained using the standard enzymatic-spectrophotometric procedure. An alternative procedure, making use of co-immobilized glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine, glycerophosphorylethanolamine and glycerophosphorylserine is also described. PMID:8905629

  8. Morphologic Changes in Patient with Drusen and Drusenoid Pigment Epithelial Detachment after Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Choroidal Neovascular Membrane : A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sukjin; Oh, Jeongjae; Kim, Kiseok

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of morphologic changes of drusen and drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment (DPED) after treating choroidal neovascularization (CNV) using ranibizumab in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A 71-year-old woman has noticed mild visual acuity deterioration in the right eye for several months. She was presented with some drusen and DPED associated with CNV. This patient was given intravitreal injection of 0.5 mg of ranibizumab five times at monthly intervals for treating CNV. DPED in the temporal and drusen in the superior to macula were diminished, which continued up to 2 months. Intravitreal ranibizumab injection may have influenced with diminishment of drusen and DPED. After 2 months, CNV was recurred. PMID:27014379

  9. The Efficacy and Safety of Current Treatments in Diabetic Macular Edema: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Wen; Gao, Yan; Lan, Jie; Xie, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy and safety of current treatments in diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods PubMed, Embase and CENTRAL were systematically reviewed for randomized controlled trials of current treatments in DME through August 2015. Data on the mean change of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were extracted, and adverse events (AEs) were collected. Results A total of 21 trials were included in our network meta-analysis. Intravitreal ranibizumab improved BCVA most significantly (OR: +7.01 95%CI (2.56 to 11.39)) in 6 months and intravitreal aflibercept (+8.19 (5.07 to 11.96)) in 12 months. Intravitreal triamcinolone combined with LASER decreased CMT most significantly (-111.34 (-254.61 to 37.93)) in 6 months and intravitreal aflibercept (-110.83 (-190.25 to -35.27)) in 12 months. Compared with the relatively high rate of ocular AEs in the groups with administration of steroids, systematic AEs occurred more frequently in the groups with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors involved. Conclusions Our analysis confirms that intravitreal aflibercept is most favorable with both BCVA improvement and CMT decrease than other current therapies in the management of DME within 12 months. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors for DME should be used with caution due to systematic AEs. Combined intravitreal triamcinolone with LASER has a stronger efficacy in decreasing CMT than the other interventions in the early stage after injection. More high-quality randomized controlled trials will be necessary. PMID:27434498

  10. Predictors of short-term outcomes related to central subfield foveal thickness after intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei-Zi; Feng, Kang; Lu, Yao; Qian, Fang; Lu, Xin-Rong; Zang, Si-Wen; Zhao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the predictive factors for short-term effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injections on central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT) in patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS This was a retrospective study in 60 eyes treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections for ME due to CRVO. Follow-up was three months. The Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score and CSFT measured by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were used to observe the changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Baseline BCVA, CSFT, age, CRVO duration and the presence of cystoid macular edema (CME) or subretinal fluid (SRF) were analyzed as potential predictive factors of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injections. RESULTS BCVA improved from 0.9 logMAR at baseline to 0.6 logMAR at 3mo, which was associated with a significant reduction in CSFT from 721 µm to 392 µm 3mo after injection. About 50% of CME cases and more than 90% of SRF cases responded to treatment with a complete resolution at 3mo. Age (P=0.036) and low baseline CSFT (P=0.037) were associated with a good 3-month prognosis. Patients >60 years old achieved better CME resolution (P=0.031) and lower CSFT at 3mo (305 µm vs 474 µm, P=0.003). CONCLUSION Intravitreal bevacizumab significantly improved visual acuity and CSFT in patients with CRVO after 3mo. Older age and lower baseline CSFT were good predictors of short-term CSFT outcomes. The retinal thickness response to bevacizumab might depend on the resolution of CME rather than SRF. PMID:26949616

  11. Incidence of Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: Experience in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rashaed, Saba; Alsulaiman, Sulaiman M.; Alrushood, Abdulaziz Adel; Almasaud, Jluwi; Arevalo, J. Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence of endophthalmitis, the clinical and microbiological aspects, after intravitreal (IVT) injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Methods: A chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with endophthalmitis after receiving IVT injections of bevacizumab (Avastin) and ranibizumab (Lucentis) presenting to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) from May 2006 to December 2012. Endophthalmitis was diagnosed clinically as an intraocular infection with vitreous involvement that required treatment with IVT antibiotics or had undergone pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) to remove the suspected microorganism. Main outcome measures were the incidence of endophthalmitis and the clinical and microbiological features. Results: Seven cases of endophthalmitis were identified, there was 1 (0.004%) case of endophthalmitis of 22674 IVT injections performed at KKESH. All cases were after IVT bevacizumab. Three (42.85%) cases were culture-positive and caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The initial management was vitreous tap and IVT injection of antibiotics followed by PPV in 6 (85.7%) cases. One (14.3%) case underwent evisceration. Visual acuity improved at last visit in only 2 (28.6%) cases. The rate of endophthalmitis was 0.0004% for bevacizumab. Conclusions: The rate of endophthalmitis after IVT bevacizumab and ranibizumab was very low. We recommend following a standardized injection protocol, adherence to sterile techniques, and proper patient follow-up are determinant factors for low incidence rates. In addition, endophthalmitis after IVT bevacizumab and ranibizumab have poor visual outcomes despite prompt treatment. PMID:26957840

  12. The effect of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor on inner retinal oxygen delivery and metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Blair, Norman P; Wanek, Justin; Teng, Pang-yu; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2016-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is stimulated by hypoxia and plays an important role in pathologic vascular leakage and neovascularization. Increased VEGF may affect inner retinal oxygen delivery (DO2) and oxygen metabolism (MO2), however, quantitative information is lacking. We tested the hypotheses that VEGF increases DO2, but does not alter MO2. In 10 rats, VEGF was injected intravitreally into one eye, whereas balanced salt solution (BSS) was injected into the fellow eye, 24 h prior to imaging. Vessel diameters and blood velocities were determined by red-free and fluorescent microsphere imaging, respectively. Vascular PO2 values were derived by phosphorescence lifetime imaging of an intravascular oxyphor. Retinal blood flow, vascular oxygen content, DO2 and MO2 were calculated. Retinal arterial and venous diameters were larger in VEGF-injected eyes compared to control eyes (P < 0.03), however no significant difference was observed in blood velocity (P = 0.21). Thus, retinal blood flow was greater in VEGF-injected eyes (P = 0.007). Retinal vascular PO2 and oxygen content were similar between control and VEGF-injected eyes (P > 0.11), while the arteriovenous oxygen content difference was marginally lower in VEGF-injected eyes (P = 0.05). DO2 was 950 ± 340 and 1380 ± 650 nL O2/min in control and VEGF-injected eyes, respectively (P = 0.005). MO2 was 440 ± 150 and 490 ± 190 nL O2/min in control and VEGF-injected eyes, respectively (P = 0.31). Intravitreally administered VEGF did not alter MO2 but increased DO2, suggesting VEGF may play an offsetting role in conditions characterized by retinal hypoxia.

  13. Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. Methods: In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. Results: The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Conclusion: Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation. PMID:27621783

  14. Intravitreal Phacoemulsification Using Torsional Handpiece for Retained Lens Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Takkar, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of intravitreal phacoemulsification with torsional hand piece in eyes with posteriorly dislocated lens fragments. Methods: In this prospective, interventional case series, 15 eyes with retained lens fragments following phacoemulsification were included. All patients underwent standard three-port pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal phacoemulsification using sleeveless, torsional hand piece (OZiL™, Alcon's Infiniti Vision System). Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications. Results: The preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from light perception to 0.3. No complications such as thermal burns of the scleral wound, retinal damage due to flying lens fragments, or difficult lens aspiration occurred during intravitreal phacoemulsification. Mean post-operative BCVA at the final follow-up was 0.5. Two eyes developed cystoid macular edema, which was managed medically. No retinal detachment was noted. Conclusion: Intravitreal phacoemulsification using torsional hand piece is a safe and effective alternative to conventional longitudinal phacofragmentation.

  15. Intravitreal ranibizumab in treating extensive traumatic submacular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Salim, Ismail; Embong, Zunaina; Khairy-Shamel, Sonny-Teo; Raja-Azmi, Mohd-Noor

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report our experience in treating extensive traumatic submacular hemorrhage with a single dose of intravitreal ranibizumab. A 23-year-old healthy Malay man presented with a progressive reduction of central vision in the left eye of 2 days’ duration following a history of blunt trauma. Visual acuity was reduced to counting fingers. Examination revealed infero-temporal subconjunctival hemorrhage, traumatic anterior uveitis, and an extensive sub-macular hemorrhage with suspicion of a choroidal rupture in the affected eye. He was initially treated conservatively with topical prednisolone acetate 1%. The subconjunctival hemorrhage and anterior uveitis resolved but his vision remained poor with minimal resolution of the submacular hemorrhage at 1 week follow-up (day 12 post-trauma). In view of the poor resolution of submacular hemorrhage, he was treated with a single dose of 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab at day 20 post-trauma. At 4 weeks post-intravitreal ranibizumab, there was an improvement in visual acuity (from counting fingers to 6/45) and complete resolution of the submacular hemorrhage with presence of a choroidal rupture scar temporal to the fovea, which was not seen clearly at presentation due to obscuration by blood. His visual acuity further improved to 6/18 at 3 months post-trauma. Although this single case had a favorable outcome, a large population cohort study is needed to establish the effectiveness of intravitreal ranibizumab in treating extensive traumatic submacular hemorrhage. PMID:23589678

  16. Modified electrokinetic sample injection method in chromatography and electrophoresis analysis

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J. Courtney; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    A sample injection method for horizontal configured multiple chromatography or electrophoresis units, each containing a number of separation/analysis channels, that enables efficient introduction of analyte samples. This method for loading when taken in conjunction with horizontal microchannels allows much reduced sample volumes and a means of sample stacking to greatly reduce the concentration of the sample. This reduction in the amount of sample can lead to great cost savings in sample preparation, particularly in massively parallel applications such as DNA sequencing. The essence of this method is in preparation of the input of the separation channel, the physical sample introduction, and subsequent removal of excess material. By this method, sample volumes of 100 nanoliter to 2 microliters have been used successfully, compared to the typical 5 microliters of sample required by the prior separation/analysis method.

  17. A Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Inhibiting the Response to Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy in Wet Age-Related Macular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Manuel S.; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula; Lopes, José Manuel; Brandão, Elisete; Carneiro, Ângela M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ocular disorder that can be successfully treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. We report a case of incomplete response to intravitreal therapy associated with a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods A 72-year-old male with wet AMD responded poorly to intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections. The removal of a ccRCC led to the spontaneous stabilization of the choroidal neovascular lesion. The renal carcinoma was examined for Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene alterations. Immunohistochemical profiling of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway addressing the marker HIF-1α and its downstream targets VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and carbonic anhydrase IX was performed. Results Genotyping of the ccRCC revealed the presence of a truncating VHL mutation (p.E134fs*25). Immunohistochemistry displayed HIF pathway target activation and VEGF expression in the ccRCC tumour cells. Following tumour removal, the neovascular lesion remained stable for 6 months without any further anti-VEGF therapy. Conclusion The somatic VHL mutation correlates with persistent high levels of HIF-1α pathway targets and VEGF expression in the ccRCC. We postulate that this increased VEGF in the tumour and subsequently in the plasma levels could have caused the incomplete response to intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy. Stabilization of the wet AMD following tumour removal indicates that the angiogenic secreting tumour (ccRCC) abrogates the response to VEGF inhibitor therapy. Thus, in cases of poor response to intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy, systemic evaluation including plasma levels of VEGF and/or systemic screening for VEGF-producing tumours should be considered. PMID:23341823

  18. Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL- 1, and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL- 1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.

  19. Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-15

    An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL(-1), and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL(-1), respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.

  20. Equivalent circuit analysis of the RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Ratti, A.

    1997-07-01

    The RHIC injection kicker is built as a traveling wave structure in order to assure the required 95 nsec risetime in the deflection strength. The kicker is constructed from 14 cells, each 7.5 cm long, with alternating ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections. The cell structure permits an analysis of the electrical properties of the kicker using lumped L, C, and R circuit elements. Their values are obtained directly from impedance measurements of the full-length kicker, the inductance and shunt capacitance values by measuring the input impedance at 1 MHz with the output shorted and open, respectively. A lossy series resonance circuit in each cell is found to reproduce the measured input impedance of the terminated kicker up to {approximately}100 MHz. The validity of the equivalent circuit was confirmed by comparing the measured output current pulse shape time with that computed by the P-Spice program.

  1. Intravitreal foscarnet for cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Llopis, M; Chipont, E; Sanchez, S; España, E; Navea, A; Menezo, J L

    1992-12-15

    We treated a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis of the left eye. After anesthetic had been topically administered, the patient received intravitreal injections of 1,200 micrograms of foscarnet. Plasma and vitreous foscarnet levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Systemic absorption of the drug was not evident. Elimination half-life from the vitreous after one injection was 54.0 hours. Vitreous levels remained above the mean 50% inhibition value for cytomegalovirus for approximately 56 hours and above the mean inhibition value for human immunodeficiency virus for approximately 241 hours. The patient's visual acuity improved from 20/30 to 20/25 in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed the retinal lesion to have become inactive, and no reactivation occurred during the follow-up period of more than four months. The drug was well tolerated and no retinal toxicity was evident. We suggest an induction treatment regimen of two injections weekly for three weeks, followed by a maintenance treatment regimen of one injection weekly.

  2. Intravitreal Autologous Bone Marrow CD34+ Cell Therapy for Ischemic and Degenerative Retinal Disorders: Preliminary Phase 1 Clinical Trial Findings

    PubMed Central

    Park, Susanna S.; Bauer, Gerhard; Abedi, Mehrdad; Pontow, Suzanne; Panorgias, Athanasios; Jonnal, Ravi; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.; Nolta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Because human bone marrow (BM) CD34+ stem cells home into damaged tissue and may play an important role in tissue repair, this pilot clinical trial explored the safety and feasibility of intravitreal autologous CD34+ BM cells as potential therapy for ischemic or degenerative retinal conditions. Methods. This prospective study enrolled six subjects (six eyes) with irreversible vision loss from retinal vascular occlusion, hereditary or nonexudative age-related macular degeneration, or retinitis pigmentosa. CD34+ cells were isolated under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions from the mononuclear cellular fraction of the BM aspirate using a CliniMACs magnetic cell sorter. After intravitreal CD34+ cell injection, serial ophthalmic examinations, microperimetry/perimetry, fluorescein angiography, electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and adaptive optics OCT were performed during the 6-month follow-up. Results. A mean of 3.4 million (range, 1–7 million) CD34+ cells were isolated and injected per eye. The therapy was well tolerated with no intraocular inflammation or hyperproliferation. Best-corrected visual acuity and full-field ERG showed no worsening after 6 months. Clinical examination also showed no worsening during follow-up except among age-related macular degeneration subjects in whom mild progression of geographic atrophy was noted in both the study eye and contralateral eye at 6-month follow-up, concurrent with some possible decline on multifocal ERG and microperimetry. Cellular in vivo imaging using adaptive optics OCT showed changes suggestive of new cellular incorporation into the macula of the hereditary macular degeneration study eye. Conclusions. Intravitreal autologous BM CD34+ cell therapy appears feasible and well tolerated in eyes with ischemic or degenerative retinal conditions and merits further exploration. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01736059.) PMID:25491299

  3. Screening of conditions controlling spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its potential benefits over univariate, chemometrics is rarely utilized for optimizing sequential injection analysis (SIA) methods. Specifically, in previous vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods, chemometrically optimized conditions were confined within flow rate and reagent concentrations while other conditions were ignored. Results The current manuscript reports, for the first time, a comprehensive screening of conditions controlling vis-spectrophotometric SIA. A new diclofenac assay method was adopted. The method was based on oxidizing diclofenac by permanganate (a major reagent) with sulfuric acid (a minor reagent). The reaction produced a spectrophotometrically detectable diclofenac form. The 26 full-factorial design was utilized to study the effect of volumes of reagents and sample, in addition to flow rate and concentrations of reagents. The main effects and all interaction order effects on method performance, i.e. namely sensitivity, rapidity and reagent consumption, were determined. The method was validated and applied to pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, injection and gel). Conclusions Despite 64 experiments those conducted in the current study were cumbersome, the results obtained would reduce effort and time when developing similar SIA methods in the future. It is recommended to critically optimize effective and interacting conditions using other such optimization tools as fractional-factorial design, response surface and simplex, rather than full-factorial design that used at an initial optimization stage. In vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods those involve developing reactions with two reagents (major and minor), conditions affecting method performance are in the following order: sample volume > flow rate ≈ major reagent concentration >> major reagent volume ≈ minor reagent concentration >> minor reagent volume. PMID:21333024

  4. Pneumatic Displacement with Perfluoropropane Gas and Intravitreal Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Subretinal Subfoveal Hemorrhage after Focal Laser Photocoagulation in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Juan V.; Lasave, Andres F.; Savino-Zari, Dario; Arevalo, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report the visual and anatomic outcomes of pneumatic displacement with perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas and intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (IVTPA) for subretinal subfoveal hemorrhage after focal laser photocoagulation in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Method. Interventional, retrospective case report of one eye (one patient). Outcome measures included visual acuity (VA), central macular thickness (CMT), and size of the lesion at two weeks of followup. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) were used to measure anatomic outcomes. Results. A 35-year-old man with history of chronic CSCR received focal laser photocoagulation in the right eye two days before presentation. At initial examination, VA was 20/200 (ETDRS chart), CMT was 398 μ, and a subretinal subfoveal hemorrhage was seen. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) at a dose of 25 µg/0.1 mL was injected intravitreally before intravitreal C3F8 injection, and prone positioning was indicated postoperatively. At 24 hours, the hemorrhage had been displaced inferiorly and VA improved to 20/100. Two weeks later, VA improved to 20/80, CMT decreased to 225 μ, and the hemorrhage decreased without foveal involvement. Conclusions. The technique seems safe and effective in treating visually significant subretinal subfoveal hemorrhage. PMID:25485161

  5. Application of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Circumscribed Choroidal Hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Sagong, Min; Lee, Junyeop

    2009-01-01

    We report 3 cases of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH) effectively managed with intravitreal bevacizumab. One patient (case 1) who had recurrent CCH (1.6 mm in thickness) with prior laser photocoagulation was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab alone. Two patients (case 2 and 3) who had CCH (2.4 mm and 2.2 mm in thickness, respectively) with recent visual impairment were treated with bevacizumab followed by photodynamic therapy (PDT). Ophthalmic evaluations included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopic examination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, and optical coherence tomography. Patients were followed up for 6-9 months. After therapy, all patients showed improved visual acuity due to complete resorption of subretinal fluid and macular edema. Ultrasonography demonstrated a reduction of the thickness of CCH in case 1 and complete regression of the lesions in case 2 and 3. No patient showed tumor recurrence. Intravitreal bevacizumab, alone or in combination therapy with PDT, may be a useful alternative for the treatment of symptomatic CCH with subretinal fluid. PMID:19568366

  6. Effect of size and lipid composition on the pharmacokinetics of intravitreal liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Barza, M.; Stuart, M.; Szoka, F. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    We investigated the influence of size and lipid composition on the pharmacokinetic behavior of liposomes and their contents in the rabbit eye. Small and large unilamellar vesicles (SUV and LUV), prepared with and without cholesterol in the membrane, were injected intravitreally in rabbits. The vesicles were labelled with /sup 125/I and contained /sup 51/Cr-EDTA in the aqueous compartment. The mode of elimination of the vesicles from the vitreous humor is uncertain but may be via the anterior route; /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, like gentamicin, probably is eliminated by the anterior route. The rate of clearance of the lipid label appeared to be related to the size but not to the cholesterol content of the liposomes. Liposome-encapsulation prolonged the half-life of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA by up to 11-fold in the vitreous humor of normal eyes. The prolongation was greatest with cholesterol-containing vesicles, presumably because these are most stable, and was somewhat greater with large than with small vesicles. For SUV and LUV, the rate of elimination of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA from the normal eye was determined mainly by the rate of leakage from the liposomes, whereas for SUV-cholesterol and LUV-cholesterol, it was determined mainly by the rate of clearance of the liposomes themselves. Both /sup 51/Cr-EDTA and liposomes (/sup 125/I label) had a shorter half-life in infected than in normal eyes. Encapsulation of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA prolonged its half-life by up to sevenfold in infected eyes; the effect was greatest with cholesterol-containing vesicles. These results suggest that both the structure of the liposome and the state of the eye may markedly affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of intravitreal liposomes.

  7. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Improve the Diclofenac Availability in Vitreous after Intraocular Injection

    PubMed Central

    Abrishami, Majid; Vakili Ahrari Roodi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In order to improve the drug availability after intravitreal administration, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing diclofenac were prepared. Methods. In this experimental study, 18 albino rabbits were included. In right and left eyes of all rabbits, SLNs containing diclofenac and commercial form of diclofenac (0.3 mg drug) were intravitreally injected, respectively. One, four, twelve, twenty-four, and forty-eight hours after injection, vitreous and aqueous humor samples were obtained in all cases. Then, the concentration of diclofenac sodium was evaluated in all samples. Results. Size of nanoparticles was around 170 nm after preparation. Drug concentration in eyes injected with SLNs was significantly higher than left eyes injected with commercial formulation up to 4 hours after intravitreal injection (p < 0.05). Diclofenac was quantified in samples up to 48 hours after intraocular injection. Four hours after intravitreal injection, the concentration of diclofenac in vitreous and aqueous humor of eyes receiving SLNs was, respectively, 2.5 and 6.5 times higher than eyes injected with commercial form of drug. Conclusions. Here, we demonstrate the potential of SLNs as a carrier of diclofenac for intraocular injection in order to prevent the systemic effects of the drug, increase the injection intervals, and improve the patient compliance. PMID:27803815

  8. Development of devices for self-injection: using tribological analysis to optimize injection force.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jakob; Urbanek, Leos; Burren, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of analytical models and physical measurements to characterize and optimize the tribological behavior of pen injectors for self-administration of biopharmaceuticals. One of the main performance attributes of this kind of device is its efficiency in transmitting the external force applied by the user on to the cartridge inside the pen in order to effectuate an injection. This injection force characteristic is heavily influenced by the frictional properties of the polymeric materials employed in the mechanism. Standard friction tests are available for characterizing candidate materials, but they use geometries and conditions far removed from the actual situation inside a pen injector and thus do not always generate relevant data. A new test procedure, allowing the direct measurement of the coefficient of friction between two key parts of a pen injector mechanism using real parts under simulated use conditions, is presented. In addition to the absolute level of friction, the test method provides information on expected evolution of friction over lifetime as well as on expected consistency between individual devices. Paired with an analytical model of the pen mechanism, the frictional data allow the expected overall injection system force efficiency to be estimated. The test method and analytical model are applied to a range of polymer combinations with different kinds of lubrication. It is found that material combinations used without lubrication generally have unsatisfactory performance, that the use of silicone-based internal lubricating additives improves performance, and that the best results can be achieved with external silicone-based lubricants. Polytetrafluoroethylene-based internal lubrication and external lubrication are also evaluated but found to provide only limited benefits unless used in combination with silicone. PMID:27274319

  9. Development of devices for self-injection: using tribological analysis to optimize injection force

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jakob; Urbanek, Leos; Burren, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of analytical models and physical measurements to characterize and optimize the tribological behavior of pen injectors for self-administration of biopharmaceuticals. One of the main performance attributes of this kind of device is its efficiency in transmitting the external force applied by the user on to the cartridge inside the pen in order to effectuate an injection. This injection force characteristic is heavily influenced by the frictional properties of the polymeric materials employed in the mechanism. Standard friction tests are available for characterizing candidate materials, but they use geometries and conditions far removed from the actual situation inside a pen injector and thus do not always generate relevant data. A new test procedure, allowing the direct measurement of the coefficient of friction between two key parts of a pen injector mechanism using real parts under simulated use conditions, is presented. In addition to the absolute level of friction, the test method provides information on expected evolution of friction over lifetime as well as on expected consistency between individual devices. Paired with an analytical model of the pen mechanism, the frictional data allow the expected overall injection system force efficiency to be estimated. The test method and analytical model are applied to a range of polymer combinations with different kinds of lubrication. It is found that material combinations used without lubrication generally have unsatisfactory performance, that the use of silicone-based internal lubricating additives improves performance, and that the best results can be achieved with external silicone-based lubricants. Polytetrafluoroethylene-based internal lubrication and external lubrication are also evaluated but found to provide only limited benefits unless used in combination with silicone. PMID:27274319

  10. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-01

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (∼20 μm) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time. PMID:26479269

  11. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    PubMed Central

    Kradtap Hartwell, Supaporn

    2012-01-01

    Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA) systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies. PMID:22518319

  12. Micro-flow injection analysis system: on-chip sample preconcentration, injection and delivery using coupled monolithic electroosmotic pumps.

    PubMed

    Nie, Fu-Qiang; Macka, Mirek; Paull, Brett

    2007-11-01

    A micro-fluidic chip, within which two monolithic electroosmotic pumps are utilised for sample preconcentration, injection and delivery is presented. The monolithic pumps were capable of producing stable and bubble free flow rates at applied voltages below 2 kV, with a current <10 microA. Electrokinetic (EK) sample injection, down to low nano-litre volumes, was quantitatively controlled through applied voltage and injection times, whilst the sample pump delivered a carrier solution to indirectly dispense the sample. A nano-flow sensor (NFS) was used to continuously monitor the flow rate stability of each pump, showing response times of <5-10 s for changes in applied voltage. A capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D), as an off-chip on-capillary detector, was used to complete the micro-flow injection analysis (FIA) system. A monolithic electroosmotic pump (EOP), modified with an anionic surfactant, was used to demonstrate a novel approach to on-chip cation preconcentration and elution.

  13. Changes in the foveal microstructure after intravitreal bevacizumab application in patients with retinal vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Feucht, Nikolaus; Schönbach, Etienne Michael; Lanzl, Ines; Kotliar, Konstantin; Lohmann, Chris Patrick; Maier, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in patients with retinal vascular disease. Patients and methods This retrospective, consecutive study examined 53 eyes of 53 patients with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion in 25 patients (47.2%) and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy in 28 patients (52.8%). The macular edema was treated with an intravitreal injection of 0.05 mL equal to 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Before and 6–8 weeks after the injection, best corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment and fundus, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography were conducted. The FAZ was manually circumscribed on early-phase angiography images and the area of the FAZ was measured. Results The preoperative overall mean FAZ area was 0.327 ± 0.126 mm2 (median 0.310 mm2). At the control consultation, the overall mean area was significantly larger (0.422 ± 0.259 mm2; median 0.380 mm2; P < 0.001). In the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy subpopulation, the mean area was 0.361 ± 0.129 mm2 (median 0.330 mm2) before bevacizumab application and 0.434 mm2 at the follow-up visit (mean increase 0.071 mm2/19.7%). In the branch retinal vein occlusion group, the baseline FAZ area was 0.290 ± 0.115 mm2 and 0.407 ± 0.350 mm2 at follow-up (median 0.330 mm2; mean increase 0.117 mm2/40.3%). No cases of severe operation-associated complications were observed. Conclusion The results confirm the safety of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in patients with macular edema due to nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion. The enlargement of the FAZ could be equivalent to an increase in retinal ischemia. These results may be transient; a potential vascular risk, however, when applying antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy in eyes with preexistent vascular disease must be considered. PMID:23355773

  14. Intravitreal moxifloxacin in the management of Ochrobactrum intermedium endophthalmitis due to metallic intraocular foreign body

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David J; Grube, Thomas J; Flynn, Harry W; Greven, Craig M; Pathengay, Avinash; Miller, Darlene; Sanke, Robert F; Thorman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    A healthy 34-year-old man presented with Ochrobactrum intermedium endophthalmitis due to a metallic intraocular foreign body. After vitrectomy, lensectomy, removal of the metallic intraocular foreign body, intravitreal vancomycin and ceftazidime, and systemic ciprofloxacin, intraocular inflammation worsened. Repeat vitreous culture confirmed persistent endophthalmitis due to multidrug-resistant O. intermedium. The endophthalmitis successfully resolved after the administration of intravitreal moxifloxacin. PMID:24039392

  15. Morphology and Function over a One-Year Follow Up Period after Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex) in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Toto, Lisa; Borrelli, Enrico; Di Antonio, Luca; De Nicola, Chiara; Mastrocola, Alessandra; Di Nicola, Marta; Carpineto, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate changes in macular morphology and function after an intravitreal dexamethasone implant for diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods Twenty-seven eyes in 27 treatment-naive patients affected by DME were treated with intravitreal Ozurdex® injections (IVOI) and followed up 12 months to evaluate morphological and functional changes by means of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), microperimetry (MP1), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), pattern electroretinography (PERG) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Results Both BCVA and retinal sensitivity improved significantly at one month after the IVOI (p = 0.031 and p<0.0001, respectively). After five months, the improvement of BCVA remained statistically significant compared with baseline values (p = 0.022); retinal sensitivity improvement was statistically significant for up to four months after the IVOI (p = 0.059). Moreover, central macular thickness significantly decreased for up to four months. Interestingly, PERG and mfERG values did not change significantly for up to four months post-IVOI, but then began to worsen. Conclusions In eyes with DME, intravitreal dexamethasone implant determined morphological and functional improvement as soon as one month and for up to four months after the treatment. PMID:26720268

  16. Radiation analysis of the ITER pellet injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J. ); Gomes, I.C.; Gomes, L.T.; Stevens, P.N, )

    1991-03-01

    The results of neutronics calculations for the pellet injection system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are described. Hands-on maintenance of components in the pellet injection room results in a considerable simplification of maintenance support equipment and in greater system availability. The basic configuration of the pellet injection system includes small-diameter guide tubes with which the pellet may have several small-angle collisions before reaching the plasma. The pellet injector port through which the guide tubes pass will be shared with ITER plasma diagnostics, so the calculation takes into account penetrations to accommodate numerous channels for a neutron spectrometer and neutron and gamma-ray cameras. The conservative assumption of steady-state operation of ITER for 1000 days was taken as the baseline for calculating the activation of components in the pellet injection room. The plasma configuration is based on the current ITER guidelines, the first wall configuration is based on the most recently updated configuration, and the blanket configuration is based on the US proposal for the blanket. The plasma, coils, and blanket regions were analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The transport of neutrons through the penetrations was also performed with MCNP. The pellet injection room was modeled with the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT, which was also used for the transport of neutrons during operation and of gamma rays caused by activation. The activation calculations were carried out with the REBATE code. Results from this study indicate that restricted personnel access to the pellet injection room is possible, so limited hands-on maintenance can be performed on the majority of the components in the room.

  17. Numerical analysis of frequency chirp in strongly injection-locked semiconductor ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fei-Hung; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Osinski, Marek

    2014-03-01

    Frequency chirp simulations based on rate equation analysis are performed for strongly injection-locked ring lasers for applications in optical communication and rf photonics. Different scenarios are explored and compared, including weak injection of a single ring laser, strong injection of a single ring laser, and strong injection of cascaded ring lasers. Together with previously published results, these simulations confirm that the novel whistle-geometry ring laser scheme can provide, especially when modulation signal is applied to both ring lasers in the cascaded arrangement, a greatly improved performance in terms of modulation response and frequency chirp, and more flexibility in the design of ultrahigh speed transmitters.

  18. Separation window dependent multiple injection (SWDMI) for large scale analysis of therapeutic antibody N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Szarka, Máté; Szigeti, Márton; Guttman, András

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing demand in the biopharmaceutical industry for large scale N-glycosylation analysis of biotherapeutics, especially monoclonal antibodies. To fulfill this high throughput analysis requirement with single column separation systems in most instances require finishing the entire analysis cycle including conditioning, injection and separation between sample injections. While in liquid chromatography it represents a challenge, multiple sample injection in capillary electrophoresis has already been demonstrated for one or two sample components by utilizing the concept of introducing sequential sample and buffer zones into the capillary tubing before the start of the separation process. It was also demonstrated in CE-MS mode, mostly to follow one sample component, identified by precise mass measurement. Here we introduce a novel multiple injection approach for rapid large scale capillary electrophoresis analysis of samples with biopharmaceutical interest supporting multicomponent optical detection with laser induced fluorescence. In Separation Window Dependent Multiple Injection (SWDMI) mode, the samples are consecutively injected in predefined time intervals, based on the window that covers the separation of all sample components. As a practical example, this newly developed SWDMI protocol was applied to rapid and large scale analysis of APTS labeled monoclonal antibody N-glycans using a short (20cm effective length) capillary column. Full analysis of 96 samples (injected from a well plate) was obtained in 4h, in contrast to consecutive individual separation cycle processing of the same samples that required 12h. PMID:27337190

  19. Adaptive Injection-locking Oscillator Array for RF Spectrum Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Daniel

    2011-04-19

    A highly parallel radio frequency receiver using an array of injection-locking oscillators for on-chip, rapid estimation of signal amplitudes and frequencies is considered. The oscillators are tuned to different natural frequencies, and variable gain amplifiers are used to provide negative feedback to adapt the locking band-width with the input signal to yield a combined measure of input signal amplitude and frequency detuning. To further this effort, an array of 16 two-stage differential ring oscillators and 16 Gilbert-cell mixers is designed for 40-400 MHz operation. The injection-locking oscillator array is assembled on a custom printed-circuit board. Control and calibration is achieved by on-board microcontroller.

  20. Twelve-month outcomes in patients with retinal vein occlusion treated with low-frequency intravitreal ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Sakanishi, Yoshihito; Lee, Ami; Usui-Ouchi, Ayumi; Ito, Rei; Ebihara, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of low-frequency intravitreal ranibizumab to treat macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Patients and methods This was a retrospective examination of cases that received intravitreal ranibizumab for untreated RVO over a period of 12 months. Instead of the conventional three monthly injections, injections were given once during the introductory period. If the recurrence of macular edema was diagnosed during the monthly visit, additional injections were given as needed. There were 21 eyes of 21 patients with branch RVO (BRVO) and ten eyes of ten patients with central RVO (CRVO). The parameters examined included the number of injections over the 12-month period, improvements in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the central macular thickness (CMT). For BRVO, preinjection parameters that had an effect on the prognosis of BCVA after the 12-month period were also examined. Results The total mean number of injections over the 12-month period was 3.4 for CRVO and 2.1 for BRVO. For CRVO, the BCVA in log minimum angular resolution changed from a preinjection value of 0.80 to 0.55 at 12 months. For BRVO, the change was from 0.51 to 0.30. For all diseases, BCVA improved after 12 months compared with the preinjection values (P<0.05). There was improvement in the CMT, and the CRVO changed from 765.0 μm at preinjection to 253.5 μm 12 months later. BRVO changed from 524.1 to 250.1 μm, and pre-injection BCVA was associated with a prognosis of visual acuity after 12 months of the initial injection (P=0.0485). Conclusion Even with a low number of injections during the introductory period, there were still improvements in both visual acuity and CMT in RVO patients after 12 months, indicating that it was an effective treatment. PMID:27382250

  1. Magnetic error analysis of recycler pbar injection transfer line

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Detailed study of Fermilab Recycler Ring anti-proton injection line became feasible with its BPM system upgrade, though the beamline has been in existence and operational since year 2000. Previous attempts were not fruitful due to limitations in the BPM system. Among the objectives are the assessment of beamline optics and the presence of error fields. In particular the field region of the permanent Lambertson magnets at both ends of R22 transfer line will be scrutinized.

  2. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Siemer, Darryl D.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  3. Numerical analysis of a microwave torch with axial gas injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A.; Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M.

    2013-07-15

    The characteristics of a microwave discharge in an argon jet injected axially into a coaxial channel with a shortened inner electrode are numerically analyzed using a self-consistent equilibrium gas-dynamic model. The specific features of the excitation and maintenance of the microwave discharge are determined, and the dependences of the discharge characteristics on the supplied electromagnetic power and gas flow rate are obtained. The calculated results are compared with experimental data.

  4. Novel approaches to analysis by flow injection gradient titration.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Kozak, Joanna; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2007-09-26

    Two novel procedures for flow injection gradient titration with the use of a single stock standard solution are proposed. In the multi-point single-line (MP-SL) method the calibration graph is constructed on the basis of a set of standard solutions, which are generated in a standard reservoir and subsequently injected into the titrant. According to the single-point multi-line (SP-ML) procedure the standard solution and a sample are injected into the titrant stream from four loops of different capacities, hence four calibration graphs are able to be constructed and the analytical result is calculated on the basis of a generalized slope of these graphs. Both approaches have been tested on the example of spectrophotometric acid-base titration of hydrochloric and acetic acids with using bromothymol blue and phenolphthalein as indicators, respectively, and sodium hydroxide as a titrant. Under optimized experimental conditions the analytical results of precision less than 1.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and of accuracy less than 3.0 and 5.4% (relative error (RE)) were obtained for MP-SL and SP-ML procedures, respectively, in ranges of 0.0031-0.0631 mol L(-1) for samples of hydrochloric acid and of 0.1680-1.7600 mol L(-1) for samples of acetic acid. The feasibility of both methods was illustrated by applying them to the total acidity determination in vinegar samples with precision lower than 0.5 and 2.9% (RSD) for MP-SL and SP-ML procedures, respectively.

  5. Analysis of cause and mechanism for injection-induced seismicityat the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Oldenburg, Curtis

    2007-06-14

    We analyzed relative contributions to the cause andmechanism of injection-induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermalfield, California, using coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanicalmodeling. Our analysis shows that the most important cause forinjection-induced seismicity is injection-induced cooling and associatedthermal-elastic shrinkage that changes the stress state in such a waythat mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, thecooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shearstrength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are thenreactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slipalong fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced seismicityat The Geysers.

  6. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-01

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax = 565 nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63 × 10-7 to 2.90 × 10-5 mol L-1, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07 × 10-7 and 3.57 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps.

  7. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride.

    PubMed

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Los Weinert, Patrícia; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-10

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax=565nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63×10(-7) to 2.90×10(-5)molL(-1), with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07×10(-7) and 3.57×10(-7)molL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps. PMID:24992919

  8. Idiopathic Choroidal Neovascularization: Intraocular Inflammatory Cytokines and the Effect of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Houfa; Fang, Xiaoyun; Ma, Jian; Chen, Min; Yang, Yabo; Guo, Shenchao; Chen, Zhiqing; Su, Zhaoan; Feng, Lei; Ye, Panpan; Wu, Fang; Yin, Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic choroidal neovascularization (ICNV) is a disorder that primarily affecting patients younger than 50 years and can cause severe loss of vision. Choroidal abnormalities, especially choroidal inflammation, have been thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of ICNV. However, the exact pathogenesis of ICNV remains unclear. The aim of our study was investigate the levels of 27 inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humor of eyes with ICNV, and to determine the effect of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) on cytokine levels. Significantly higher levels of IL-2, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17, basic FGF, and GM-CSF were observed in patients with ICNV compared with controls. However, only IL-17 levels were significantly higher in patients with ICNV compared with controls after adjusting for axial length. Furthermore, there were significant correlations between the levels of IL-10, IL-17, GM-CSF, and VEGF and the lesion area. Significant changes in visual acuity and central retinal thickness were observed after IVR. Besides VEGF, IVR also significantly reduced the levels of IL-2, IL-10, basic FGF, and IL-12, however, the IL-6 levels were significantly increased. Our results suggest that there may be an involvement of IL-17-related inflammatory processes in the etiology of ICNV. PMID:27558944

  9. Analysis of Low Frequency Oscillations in Magnetron Injection Guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Youlei; Luo, Yong; Yan, Ran; Liu, Guo; Jiang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    In our gyro-TWT experiments, low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) had been observed. LFOs is a physical phenomenon usually caused by the electrons trapped between the magnetron injection guns (MIGs) and the interaction region. In this paper, the formation procedure and physical mechanism of LFOs are reported. Available methods including optimizing the magnetic field distribution in the beam compression region and loading bevel cuts on the second anode are involved to capture the trapped electrons, suppress the LFOs and improve the helical electron beam quality. Simulations and experimental results are in good agreement with each other and also reveal the reasonableness of this means. Finally, the influence of current capture ratio on LFOs and the beam quality are studied. With the current capture ratio increasing, the amplitude of LFOs decreases, the pitch factor maintains a constant about 1.2 and we also demonstrate a low transverse velocity spread about 3%.

  10. Isotachophoretic analysis using injection-moulded polystyrene chip devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prest, Jeff E.; Fielden, Peter R.; Goddard, Nicholas J.; Treves Brown, Bernard J.

    2008-06-01

    A new type of miniaturized separation chip for performing isotachophoresis has been produced. The design uses polystyrene as a substrate material and incorporates carbon fibre loaded polystyrene drive and conductivity detection electrodes. This fully polymeric composition allows for the devices to be produced using injection moulding. Ultrasonic welding is used for sealing to give robust chips that can potentially be easily transported and used outside of a laboratory environment. A batch of devices was produced and tested with a number of inorganic cationic species as samples. The entire batch of 22 devices were successfully used for isotachophoretic separations. Good reproducibility was observed in the qualitative behaviour of the devices. For example, with lithium a relative step height ± standard deviation of 1.49 ± 0.01 was observed on a run-to-run basis with a single chip and of 1.47 ± 0.03 on a chip-to-chip basis over the entire batch of devices.

  11. Surface Engineering of Porous Silicon Microparticles for Intravitreal Sustained Delivery of Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Alejandra; Hou, Huiyuan; Moon, Sang Woong; Sailor, Michael J.; Freeman, William R.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the relationship between rapamycin loading/release and surface chemistries of porous silicon (pSi) to optimize pSi-based intravitreal delivery system. Methods. Three types of surface chemical modifications were studied: (1) pSi-COOH, containing 10-carbon aliphatic chains with terminal carboxyl groups grafted via hydrosilylation of undecylenic acid; (2) pSi-C12, containing 12-carbon aliphatic chains grafted via hydrosilylation of 1-dodecene; and (3) pSiO2-C8, prepared by mild oxidation of the pSi particles followed by grafting of 8-hydrocarbon chains to the resulting porous silica surface via a silanization. Results. The efficiency of rapamycin loading follows the order (micrograms of drug/milligrams of carrier): pSiO2-C8 (105 ± 18) > pSi-COOH (68 ± 8) > pSi-C12 (36 ± 6). Powder X-ray diffraction data showed that loaded rapamycin was amorphous and dynamic drug-release study showed that the availability of the free drug was increased by 6-fold (compared with crystalline rapamycin) by using pSiO2-C8 formulation (P = 0.0039). Of the three formulations in this study, pSiO2-C8-RAP showed optimal performance in terms of simultaneous release of the active drug and carrier degradation, and drug-loading capacity. Released rapamycin was confirmed with the fingerprints of the mass spectrometry and biologically functional as the control of commercial crystalline rapamycin. Single intravitreal injections of 2.9 ± 0.37 mg pSiO2-C8-RAP into rabbit eyes resulted in more than 8 weeks of residence in the vitreous while maintaining clear optical media and normal histology of the retina in comparison to the controls. Conclusions. Porous silicon–based rapamycin delivery system using the pSiO2-C8 formulation demonstrated good ocular compatibility and may provide sustained drug release for retina. PMID:25613937

  12. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  13. Implementation of terbium-sensitized luminescence in sequential-injection analysis for automatic analysis of orbifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Molina-Díaz, A; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2008-12-01

    Orbifloxacin (ORBI) is a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed exclusively for use in veterinary medicine, mainly in companion animals. This antimicrobial agent has bactericidal activity against numerous gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. A few chromatographic methods for its analysis have been described in the scientific literature. Here, coupling of sequential-injection analysis and solid-phase spectroscopy is described in order to develop, for the first time, a terbium-sensitized luminescent optosensor for analysis of ORBI. The cationic resin Sephadex-CM C-25 was used as solid support and measurements were made at 275/545 nm. The system had a linear dynamic range of 10-150 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 3.3 ng mL(-1) and an R.S.D. below 3% (n = 10). The analyte was satisfactorily determined in veterinary drugs and dog and horse urine.

  14. Performance analysis on terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer with assist light injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-12-01

    Operating characteristics of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD), under gain and transparent region assist light injection, are investigated in theory. We have analyzed the demultiplexing performance for three OTDM systems: 10, 40, 100 Gb/s. Though the switching window is distorted, the resilience to timing jitter is improved under transparent light injection. In practical application, counter-propagating configuration should be taken. Gain region assist light should not be used in TOAD. Some key parameters are given through numerical analysis and simulations.

  15. Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…

  16. An Ion-Selective Electrode/Flow-Injection Analysis Experiment: Determination of Potassium in Serum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Kovach, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, senior-level, instrumental analysis experiment in which a home-made potassium tubular flow-through electrode is constructed and incorporated into a flow injection analysis system (FIA). Also describes experiments for evaluating the electrode's response properties, examining basic FIA concepts, and determining potassium in…

  17. Pharmacogenetic association with early response to intravitreal ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Hyoun; Sagong, Min; Kim, In Taek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether genetic factors that influence age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have an early pharmacogenetic effect on treating exudative AMD with ranibizumab in a Korean population. Methods A retrospective study of 102 patients (70 with typical neovascular AMD and 32 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy) with exudative AMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab monotherapy was conducted. Optical coherence tomography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography were taken at the baseline. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) were recorded at the baseline and at each monthly visit. The genotypes of the polymorphisms in the known AMD susceptibility loci (CFH, AMRS2, HTRA1, VEGFA, and KDR) were determined, and association between their frequencies and the changes in the BCVA and the CSMT were evaluated. Results The mean baseline visual acuity was 0.96±0.59 logMAR (approximately 20/200 in the Snellen equivalent), and the mean number of injections was 3.87 before the month 6 visit. No association was observed between the change in BCVA and each genotype. For the changes in the CSMT, a significant difference was observed only with the VEGF-A (rs833069) gene. The decrease in the CSMT at month 3 for the major allele homozygote AA genotype, the heterozygote AG genotype, and the risk allele homozygote GG genotype was 25.66±85.40, 86.93±92.31, and 85.30±105.30 μm, respectively (p=0.012, p=0.044, and p=0.002 for AG, GG, and combined AG or GG genotype, respectively, compared to the AA genotype). This trend was maintained until month 6. Conclusions The VEGF-A (rs833069) polymorphism showed a significant association with the anatomic response to intravitreal ranibizumab. No significant difference was found between the genotype of the potential risk polymorphism for development of AMD and the early visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab. PMID:23559864

  18. Laws prohibiting peer distribution of injecting equipment in Australia: A critical analysis of their effects.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Treloar, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The law is a key site for the production of meanings around the 'problem' of drugs in public discourse. In this article, we critically consider the material-discursive 'effects' of laws prohibiting peer distribution of needles and syringes in Australia. Taking the laws and regulations governing possession and distribution of injecting equipment in one jurisdiction (New South Wales, Australia) as a case study, we use Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis to critically consider the assumptions and presuppositions underpinning this legislative and regulatory framework, with a particular focus on examining the discursive, subjectification and lived effects of these laws. We argue that legislative prohibitions on the distribution of injecting equipment except by 'authorised persons' within 'approved programs' constitute people who inject drugs as irresponsible, irrational, and untrustworthy and re-inscribe a familiar stereotype of the drug 'addict'. These constructions of people who inject drugs fundamentally constrain how the provision of injecting equipment may be thought about in policy and practice. We suggest that prohibitions on the distribution of injecting equipment among peers may also have other, material, effects and may be counterproductive to various public health aims and objectives. However, the actions undertaken by some people who inject drugs to distribute equipment to their peers may disrupt and challenge these constructions, through a counter-discourse in which people who inject drugs are constituted as active agents with a vital role to play in blood-borne virus prevention in the community. Such activity continues to bring with it the risk of criminal prosecution, and so it remains a vexed issue. These insights have implications of relevance beyond Australia, particularly for other countries around the world that prohibit peer distribution, but also for other legislative practices with material-discursive effects in

  19. An intravitreal biodegradable sustained release naproxen and 5-fluorouracil system for the treatment of experimental post-traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cardillo, J A; Farah, M E; Mitre, J; Morales, P H; Costa, R A; Melo, L A S; Kuppermann, B; Jorge, R; Ashton, P

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: To determine the potential of an intravitreal sustained release naproxen and 5-fluorouracil (NA/5-FU) codrug for the treatment of experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in a model for trauma associated tractional retinal detachment (TRD). Methods: Sustained release pellets were prepared by covalently linking naproxen to 5-fluorouracil. Drug release was tested in vitro and toxic effects were evaluated by electroretinography and light microscopy. Traumatic PVR was induced in pigmented rabbits by performing a scleral laceration, followed by repair and intravitreal injection of 0.4 ml of autologous blood. Thirty six eyes were treated with a sustained release implant containing 1.5 mg NA/5-FU as a codrug and 36 control eyes were submitted to surgery alone. Eyes were evaluated for TRD by serial indirect ophthalmoscope examination at different time points followed by postmortem fundus evaluation of the enucleated eye Results: The NA/5-FU pellets were found to provide linear release of 5-FU and naproxen over the 30 day duration of the in vitro release test. Both the severity of PVR grade and the percentage of eyes with moderate or worse tractional detachment were significantly lower in eyes treated with the codrug pellet. There were no drug related toxic effects evident on histopathological or electroretinograph examination of eyes containing the NA/5-FU pellet. Conclusions: The results suggest that this NA/5-FU codrug device effectively inhibits the progression of PVR in a rabbit trauma model that closely resembles PVR in humans. Additional studies to add knowledge to these initial findings and to clarify the potential of the codrug device for the treatment of human PVR are warranted. PMID:15317716

  20. Meta-analysis of Huangqi injection for the adjunctive therapy of aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Changtai; Gao, Yulu; Jiang, Ting; Hao, Cao; Gao, Zongshuai; Sun, Yongning

    2015-01-01

    Aplastic anemia therapy remains difficult, due to lack of effective treatment regimens. In recent years, Huangqi injection for the adjunctive therapy of aplastic anemia has been reported in many clinical trials. Considering that Huangqi injection may be a novel approach to aplastic anemia treatment, we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials to assess the clinical value of Huangqi injection in the treatment of aplastic anemia. We searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP), Wanfang Database, PubMed and EMBASE database to collect the data about the trials of Huangqi injection combined with androgens for treating aplastic anemia. A total of ten studies involving 720 patients with aplastic anemia were included in this study. The meta-analysis showed significant increases in the pool effectiveness rate, white blood cells (WBC), haematoglobin (Hb), platelets (PLT), and reticulocytes (Ret) between the experimental group versus the control group. No severe side effects were found in this study. However, the lower Jadad scores and asymmetric funnel plot degrades the validity of the meta-analysis as the clinical evidence. Therefore, Huangqi injection may significantly enhance the efficacy of androgens for aplastic anemia, suggesting that the novel approach of Chinese traditional medicine combined with Western medicine is promising. The exact outcome required confirmation with rigorously well-designed multi-center trials. PMID:26379817

  1. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed.

  2. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed. PMID:19296591

  3. [Network meta-analysis on selecting Chinese medical injections in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ge, Long; Mao, Lei; Tian, Jin-hui; Shi, Fang-yu; Lou Li-li; Qiu, Xia; Li, Jin-long; Yang, Ke-hu

    2015-09-01

    To assess the clinical effect and safety of Chinese traditional medicine injection combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. The relative randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese medical injections (CMI) combined with radiotherapy as well as simple radiotherapy for esophageal cancer were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database(CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database and VIP Database as at September 2014. Two researchers completed the data extraction and quality evaluation independently. The data were analyzed by GeMTC 0.14.3 and Stata 12. 0 software. Finally, 43 RCTs involving 3 289 patients were finally included. The star network was constructed by different comparison groups. The results of network meta-analysis showed that the seven CMIs combined with radiotherapy was superior to simple radiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer in efficacy, quality of life, and reduction in the incidence of nausea and leucopenia, but with no significant difference among the seven CMIs. Probability ranking result showed a great possibility for Shenqi Fuzheng and astragalus polysaccharide injections in improving the overall response rate and quality of life, which were followed by cinobufagin and kangai injections. However, only one study was included for Shenqi Fuzheng and astragalus polysaccharide injections. Therefore, cinobufagin or kangai injections were preferred in improving the overall response rate and quality of life. Aidi or compound sophora injections were better than other CMIs in reducing? the incidences of nausea (III-IV) and leukopenia. More RCTs of Shenqi Fuzheng and astragalus polysaccharide injections combined with radiotherapy for patients with esophageal cancer were expected in the future to confirm our results. Moreover, study findings will be reported, particularly for the adverse events in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  4. The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies.

  5. The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  6. The Relationship Analysis between Water Injection and Microfacies of SHA1 Reservoir of Liao He Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  7. REDUCTION OF AMYLOID-BETA LEVELS IN MOUSE EYE TISSUES BY INTRA-VITREALLY DELIVERED NEPRILYSIN

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Rajni; Chow, K. Martin; Derafshi, Zahra; Fautsch, Michael P.; Hetling, John R.; Rodgers, David W.; Hersh, Louis B.; Pepperberg, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is a group of aggregation-prone, 38- to 43-amino acid peptides generated in the eye and other organs. Numerous studies suggest that the excessive build-up of low-molecular-weight soluble oligomers of Aβ plays a role in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and other brain degenerative diseases. Recent studies raise the hypothesis that excessive Aβ levels may contribute also to certain retinal degenerative diseases. These findings, together with evidence that a major portion of Aβ is released as monomer into the extracellular space, raise the possibility that a technology enabling the enzymatic break-down of monomeric Aβ in the living eye under physiological conditions could prove useful for research on ocular Aβ physiology and, perhaps ultimately, for therapeutic applications. Neprilysin (NEP), an endopeptidase known to cleave Aβ monomer into inactive products, is a membrane-associated protein. However, sNEP, a recombinant form of the NEP catalytic domain, is soluble in aqueous medium. With the aim of determining the Aβ-cleaving activity of exogenous sNEP in the microenvironment of the intact eye, we analyzed the effect of intra-vitreally delivered sNEP on ocular Aβ levels in mice that exhibit readily measurable, aqueous buffer-extractable Aβ40 and Aβ42, two principal forms of Aβ. Anesthetized 10-month wild-type (C57BL/6J) and 2–3-month 5XFAD transgenic mice received intra-vitreal injections of sNEP (0.004 – 10 μg) in one eye and were sacrificed at defined post-treatment times (30 min – 12 weeks). Eye tissues (combined lens, vitreous, retina, RPE and choroid) were homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline, and analyzed for Aβ40 and Aβ42 (ELISA) and for total protein (Bradford assay). The fellow, untreated eye of each mouse served as control, and concentrations of Aβ (pmol/g protein) in the treated eye were normalized to that of the untreated control eye. In C57BL/6J mice, as measured at 2 hr after sNEP treatment, increasing

  8. Uveitis, the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT), and Intravitreal Biologics for Ocular Inflammation Short title: Uveitis, CATT, and intravitreal biologics

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Steven; Albini, Thomas A.; Moshfeghi, Andrew A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To provide perspective on the implications of the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT) on intravitreal biologic agents in uveitis and retinal diseases in which ocular inflammatory pathways are central to their pathogenesis Design Interpretative essay Methods Literature review and interpretation Results Besides the clear importance of CATT from a patient treatment perspective in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), these data highlight the critical relevance of highly specific protein immunotherapies offered with biologic agents. The CATT trial also provides a reminder regarding the importance of rigorous efficacy and safety monitoring required when administering intravitreal biologic therapy. Within the field of uveitis, systemic and local biologics have been utilized to effectively treat uveitis, targeting pathways implicated in both angiogenesis and inflammation (e.g. tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] and interleukin-2 pathways), and research on intravitreal biologic therapy for uveitis and AMD will continue to expand. With over 25 ongoing clinical trials on intravitreal biologic therapy for AMD, enthusiasm for vanguard biologic therapies should be tempered by judicious monitoring for adverse events. Conclusion The importance of the CATT trial encompasses day-to-day treatment decisions for AMD, as well as lessons on how biologics for ocular disease should be implemented into clinical practice. Specifically, the introduction of intravitreal biologic therapies into clinical practice for uveitis, AMD, and other ocular diseases in which inflammation is involved, should be guided by a clear understanding of the immunotherapeutic agent and its molecular target and with rigorous monitoring for both patient benefit and patient safety. PMID:22898344

  9. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Catalina Bosch; Rojas, Fuensanta Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical method for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, and ease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using optical chemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. This work summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using optical chemical sensors in FIA.

  10. Coupled reservoir-geomechanical analysis of CO2 injection and ground deformations at In Salah, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Vasco, D.W.; Myer, L.

    2009-11-01

    In Salah Gas Project in Algeria has been injecting 0.5-1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} per year over the past five years into a water-filled strata at a depth of about 1,800 to 1,900 m. Unlike most CO{sub 2} storage sites, the permeability of the storage formation is relatively low and comparatively thin with a thickness of about 20 m. To ensure adequate CO{sub 2} flow-rates across the low-permeability sand-face, the In Salah Gas Project decided to use long-reach (about 1 to 1.5 km) horizontal injection wells. In an ongoing research project we use field data and coupled reservoir-geomechanical numerical modeling to assess the effectiveness of this approach and to investigate monitoring techniques to evaluate the performance of a CO{sub 2}-injection operation in relatively low permeability formations. Among the field data used are ground surface deformations evaluated from recently acquired satellite-based inferrometry (InSAR). The InSAR data shows a surface uplift on the order of 5 mm per year above active CO{sub 2} injection wells and the uplift pattern extends several km from the injection wells. In this paper we use the observed surface uplift to constrain our coupled reservoir-geomechanical model and conduct sensitivity studies to investigate potential causes and mechanisms of the observed uplift. The results of our analysis indicates that most of the observed uplift magnitude can be explained by pressure-induced, poro-elastic expansion of the 20 m thick injection zone, but there could also be a significant contribution from pressure-induced deformations within a 100 m thick zone of shaly sands immediately above the injection zone.

  11. Analysis of the modulation impairments in optical sideband injection locking for millimeter-wave signal generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldaya, Ivan; Campuzano, Gabriel; Castañón, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    In optical sideband injection locking (OSBIL) transmitters, the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal is generated heterodyning the phase-correlated outputs of two lasers, resulting in mm-wave signals with high frequency purity. Additionally, OSBIL is a cost-effective mm-wave generation technique since it does not require any external broad-bandwidth optical modulator. However, the non-linear distortion and the noise of the directly modulated laser limit its performance. This paper studies for the first time, the modulation impairments in terms of the injection conditions considering the sideband asymmetry that persists in heterodyne generation techniques. Signal-to-noise ratio and nonlinear distortion are analyzed through simulations showing different performance for upper and lower modulation sidebands and its dependence on the intermediate frequency. We show that the noise spectral density is reduced setting up the injected laser at (i) low power injection ratios and using a low intermediate frequency or (ii) higher power injection ratios, a negative frequency detuning, and a higher intermediate frequency. Regarding nonlinearities, we show that its effect on the lower modulation sideband is less significant than in the upper sideband. This impairment analysis is used to optimize the generation of OFDM signals in the 60-GHz band, achieving 2.5 Gbps generation with a spectral efficiency of 3.4 bps/Hz.

  12. Postoperative Nocardia Endophthalmitis and the Challenge of Managing with Intravitreal Amikacin

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, G. Ashok Kumar; Sunder, C. Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia is a rare cause of delayed onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery and it usually carries a guarded visual prognosis. Purpose. To highlight the clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome in a case of nocardial endophthalmitis after manual small incision cataract surgery. Methods. This case report highlights the typical features of Nocardia endophthalmitis, which presented six weeks after undergoing small incision cataract surgery. The case was managed by pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics. Intravitreal amikacin was used based on microbiologic work-up. Results. The endophthalmitis part was controlled but the case developed amikacin induced macular infarction which jeopardized a good visual outcome. Conclusion. Nocardia endophthalmitis manifests late after cataract surgery in an aggressive manner and carries a poor visual prognosis. An early diagnosis and the use of correct antibiotic regimen may salvage the vision. But the present case shows that one should always be wary of potential retinal toxicity with intravitreal amikacin. PMID:27034869

  13. Flow injection analysis biosensor for urea analysis in urine using enzyme thermistor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Geetesh K; Sharma, Atul; Deshpande, Kanchanmala; Bhand, Sunil

    2014-10-01

    There is a need for analytical methods capable of monitoring urea levels in urine for patients under clinical monitoring to appraise renal function. Herein, we present a practical method to quantify levels of urea in human urine samples using flow injection analysis-enzyme thermistor (FIA-ET) biosensor. The biosensor comprises a covalently immobilized enzyme urease (Jack bean) on aminated silica support, which selectively hydrolyzes the urea present in the sample. Under optimized conditions, the developed biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 10-1,000 mM, R (2) = 0.99, and response time of 90 s in 100 mM phosphate buffer (PB) (flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, sample volume of 0.1 mL, and pH 7.2). The urea-spiked human urine samples showed minimal matrix interference in the range of 10-1,000 mM. Recoveries were obtained (92.26-99.80 %) in the spiked urine samples. The reliability and reproducibility of the developed biosensor were found satisfactory with percent relative standard deviation (% RSD) = 0.741. The developed biosensor showed excellent operational stability up to 30 weeks with 20 % loss in original response when used continuously at room temperature. These results indicate that the developed biosensor could be very effective to detect low and high levels of urea in urine samples.

  14. The Role of Epiretinal Membrane on Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Intravitreal Bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Abdullah; Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayranci; Agca, Alper; Karakucuk, Yalcin; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effect of epiretinal membranes (ERM) on the treatment response and the number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections (IVB) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed on 63 eyes of 63 patients. The patients were divided into AMD group (n = 35) and AMD/ERM group (n = 28). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT), as well as the number of injections, were evaluated. Results. There was a significant improvement in BCVA at 3 months for the AMD and AMD/ERM groups (P = 0.02, P = 0.03, resp.). At 6, 12, and 18 months, BCVA did not change significantly in either of the groups compared to baseline (P > 0.05 for all). At 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, the AMD group had an improvement in BCVA (logMAR) of 0.09, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.03 versus 0.08, 0.07, 0.05, and 0.03 for the AMD/ERM group (P = 0.29, P = 0.88, P = 0.74, P = 0.85, resp.). A significant decrease in CRT occurred in both groups for all time points (P < 0.001 for all). The change in CRT was not statistically different between the two groups at all time points (P > 0.05 for all). The mean number of injections over 24 months was 8.8 in the AMD group and 9.2 in the AMD/ERM group (P = 0.76). Conclusion. During 24 months, visual and anatomical outcomes of IVB in nAMD patients were comparable with those in nAMD patients with ERM with similar injection numbers. PMID:24453930

  15. Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N.; Basri, S.; Oumer, A. N.; Hamedon, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured.

  16. Enzymatic Microreactors for the Determination of Ethanol by an Automatic Sequential Injection Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cos, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valdman, Belkis; Valero, Francisco

    A sequential injection analysis system with two enzymatic microreactors for the determination of ethanol has been designed. Alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase were separately immobilized on glass aminopropyl beads, and packed in 0.91-mL volume microreactors, working in line with the sequential injection analysis system. A stop flow of 120 s was selected for a linear ethanol range of 0.005-0.04 g/L±0.6% relative standard deviation with a throughput of seven analyses per hour. The system was applied to measure ethanol concentrations in samples of distilled and nondistilled alcoholic beverages, and of alcoholic fermentation with good performance and no significant difference compared with other analytical procedures (gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography).

  17. Enzyme-based flow injection analysis system for glutamine and glutamate in mammalian cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Mayer, C; Frauer, A; Schalkhammer, T; Pittner, F

    1999-03-01

    We present the setup of a flow injection analysis system designed for on-line monitoring of glutamate and glutamine. These amino acids represent a major energy source in mammalian cell culture. A cycling assay consisting of glutamate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase produces NADH proportional to the glutamate concentration in the sample. NADH is then measured spectrophotometrically. Glutamine is determined by conversion to glutamate which is fed into the cycling assay. The conversion of glutamine to glutamate is catalyzed by asparaginase. Asparaginase was used in place of glutaminase due to its relatively high reactivity with glutamine and a pH optimum similar to that of glutamate dehydrogenase. The enzymes were immobilized covalently to activated controlled pore glass beads and integrated into the flow injection analysis system. The application of the immobilized enzymes and the technical setup are presented in this paper.

  18. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

  19. A Parameterization of Wildfire Emission Injection Heights in North America: Analysis from Satellite Observations and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val Martin, M.; Logan, J. A.; Kahn, R. A.; Ichoku, C. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Cantin, A.

    2009-12-01

    Fire emissions can be injected above the boundary layer due to strong buoyancy generated from the fires, with important implications for long-range transport of these emissions and their effects on atmospheric composition. A multi-year record of aerosol smoke plume heights derived from observations made by the NASA Terra Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) shows that fire smoke injection heights in the North American biomes are highly variable, ranging from a few hundred meters to 5000 m above the terrain, at the Terra overpass time. The analysis of plume heights with assimilated meteorological observations from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System and measurements of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire radiative power (FRP) indicates the important effect of both buoyancy generated by the fires and local atmospheric structure on the ultimate rise of these fire emissions. Here, we evaluate a 1-D plume-rise model, driven by MODIS-based fire properties and local meteorology, using the MISR smoke plume height dataset as a constraint. We also use the 1-D plume-rise model to investigate the effect of the diurnal variation of these physical processes on the injection heights. A non-computationally expensive parametrization of fire emission injection heights over North America for chemical transport models is discussed, and preliminary results using the 3-D global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem during the ARCTAS campaign are presented.

  20. Analysis of cavity pressure and warpage of polyoxymethylene thin walled injection molded parts: Experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrier, P.; Tosello, G.; Hattel, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    Process analysis and simulations on molding experiments of 3D thin shell parts have been conducted. Moldings were carried out with polyoxymethylene (POM). The moldings were performed with cavity pressure sensors in order to compare experimental process results with simulations. The warpage was characterized by measuring distances using a tactile coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Molding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions. Various aspects have been considered in the simulation: machine barrel geometry, injection speed profiles, cavity injection pressure, melt and mold temperatures, material rheological and pvT characterization. Factors investigated for comparisons were: injection pressure profile, short shots length, flow pattern, and warpage. A reliable molding experimental database was obtained, accurate simulations were conducted and a number of conclusions concerning improvements to simulation accuracy are presented regarding: pvT data, mesh, short shots, cavity pressure for process control validation as well as molding machine geometry modelling. Eventually, a methodology for improved molding simulations of cavity injection pressure, filling pattern and warpage was established.

  1. Evaluation of economic efficiencies in clinical retina practice: activity-based cost analysis and modeling to determine impacts of changes in patient management

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Timothy G; Tornambe, Paul; Dugel, Pravin; Tong, Kuo Bianchini

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to report the use of activity-based cost analysis to identify areas of practice efficiencies and inefficiencies within a large academic retinal center and a small single-specialty group. This analysis establishes a framework for evaluating rapidly shifting clinical practices (anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, microincisional vitrectomy surgery) and incorporating changing reimbursements for care delivery (intravitreal injections, optical coherence tomography [OCT]) to determine the impact on practice profitability. Pro forma modeling targeted the impact of declining reimbursement for OCT imaging and intravitreal injection using a strategy that incorporates activity-based cost analysis into a direct evaluation schema for clinical operations management. Methods Activity-based costing analyses were performed at two different types of retinal practices in the US, ie, a small single-specialty group practice and an academic hospital-based practice (Bascom Palmer Eye Institute). Retrospective claims data were utilized to identify all procedures performed and billed, submitted charges, allowed charges, and net collections from each of these two practices for the calendar years 2005–2006 and 2007–2008. A pro forma analysis utilizing current reimbursement profiles was performed to determine the impact of altered reimbursement on practice profitability. All analyses were performed by a third party consulting firm. Results The small single-specialty group practice outperformed the academic hospital-based practice on almost all markers of efficiency. In the academic hospital-based practice, only four service lines were profitable, ie, nonlaser surgery, laser surgery, non-OCT diagnostics, and injections. Profit margin varied from 62% for nonlaser surgery to 1% for intravitreal injections. Largest negative profit contributions were associated with office visits and OCT imaging. Conclusion Activity-based cost analysis is a

  2. [Analysis suspected allergic factors to shenqi fuzheng injection based on prescription sequence analysis and nested case control study].

    PubMed

    Ai, Qing-Hua; Zeng, Xian-Bin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    This study based on twenty 3A grade hospital information system (HIS) database in China, adopt toprescription sequence analysis (PSA) with nested case control study (NCCS) to analysis mainly suspected allergy factor of Shenqi Fuzheng injection (Shenqi Fuzheng). Study design according to start to stop using Shenqi Fuzheng whether using dexamethasone injection will crowd divided into cases group and control group, each case matched 4 controls were selected, two groups according to the ratio of the age and sex matched well. Square test, Fisher exact test, single factor and multiple factor logistic regression were used to analyze data Condition on admission, allergic history, dosage and drug combinations were taken into account in cases of suspected allergic reactions. After analysis in two subgroups we found that the single dose (P = 0.000 2) and the combined use of matrine (P < 0.000 1, OR = 14.312, confidence interval [8.184, 25.029]) had significant effects on the suspected allergic reaction. Study on the existing HIS data and the study method based on screening suspected risk factors for allergic reaction. This study can provide guidance for Shenqi Fuzheng injection safety using in clinical practice, and it can also provides new method for the clinical safety reevaluation of post-marketing Chinese medicine injection. PMID:25532396

  3. Whole Genome Analysis of Injectional Anthrax Identifies Two Disease Clusters Spanning More Than 13 Years

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Paul; Grunow, Roland; Vipond, Richard; Grass, Gregor; Hoffmaster, Alex; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Klee, Silke R.; Pullan, Steven; Antwerpen, Markus; Bayer, Brittany N.; Latham, Jennie; Wiggins, Kristin; Hepp, Crystal; Pearson, Talima; Brooks, Tim; Sahl, Jason; Wagner, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Government of Germany. This work was supported by funds from the German Ministry of Defense (Sonderforschungsprojekt 25Z1-S-431,214). Support for sequencing was also obtained from Illumina, Inc. These sources had no role in the data generation or interpretation, and had not role in the manuscript preparation. Panel 1: Research in Context Systematic Review We searched PubMed for any article published before Jun. 17, 2015, with the terms “Bacillus anthracis” and “heroin”, or “injectional anthrax”. Other than our previously published work (Price et al., 2012), we found no other relevant studies on elucidating the global phylogenetic relationships of B. anthracis strains associated with injectional anthrax caused by recreational heroin consumption of spore-contaminated drug. There were, however, publically available genome sequences of two strains involved (Price et al., 2012, Grunow et al., 2013) and the draft genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis UR-1, isolated from a German heroin user (Ruckert et al., 2012) with only limited information on the genotyping of closely related strains (Price et al., 2012, Grunow et al., 2013). Lay Person Interpretation Injectional anthrax has been plaguing heroin drug users across Europe for more than 10 years. In order to better understand this outbreak, we assessed genomic relationships of all available injectional anthrax strains from four countries spanning a > 12 year period. Very few differences were identified using genome-based analysis, but these differentiated the isolates into two distinct clusters. This strongly supports a hypothesis of at least two separate anthrax spore contamination events perhaps during the drug production processes. Identification of two events would not have been possible from standard epidemiological analysis. These comprehensive data will be invaluable for classifying future injectional anthrax isolates and for future geographic attribution. PMID:26870786

  4. Suprachoroidal delivery in a rabbit ex vivo eye model: influence of drug properties, regional differences in delivery, and comparison with intravitreal and intracameral routes

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Rajendra S.; Williams, Jason; Tyagi, Puneet; Edelhauser, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose First, to determine the influence of drug lipophilicity (using eight beta-blockers) and molecular weight (using 4 kDa and 40 kDa fluoroscein isothiocyanate [FITC]-dextrans) on suprachoroidal delivery to the posterior segment of the eye by using a rabbit ex vivo eye model. Second, to determine whether drug distribution differs between the dosed and undosed side of the eye following suprachoroidal delivery. Third, to compare the suprachoroidal delivery of sodium fluorescein (NaF) with the intracameral and intravitreal routes by using noninvasive fluorophotometry. Methods Using a small hypodermic 26G needle (3/8”) with a short bevel (250 µm), location of the suprachoroidal injection in an ex vivo New Zealand white rabbit eye model was confirmed with India ink. Ocular tissue distribution of NaF (25 µl of 1.5 µg/ml) at 37 °C was monitored noninvasively using the Fluorotron MasterTM at 0, 1, and 3 h following suprachoroidal, intravitreal, or intracameral injections in ex vivo rabbit eyes. For assessing the influence of lipophilicity and molecular size, 25 µl of a mixture of eight beta-blockers (250 µg/ml each) or FITC-dextran (4 kDa and 40 kDa, 30 mg/ml) was injected into the suprachoroidal space of excised rabbit eyes and incubated at 37 °C. Eyes were incubated for 1 and 3 h, and frozen at the end of incubation. Ocular tissues were isolated in frozen condition. Beta-blocker and FITC-dextran levels in excised ocular tissue were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and spectrofluorometry, respectively. Results Histological sections of India ink-injected albino rabbit eye showed the localization of dye as a black line in the suprachoroidal space. Suprachoroidal injection of NaF showed signal localization to the choroid and retina at 1 and 3 h post injection when compared with intravitreal and intracameral injections. Drug delivery to the vitreous after suprachoroidal injection decreased with an increase in solute lipophilicity

  5. Hyaluronidase injection for the treatment of eyelid edema: a retrospective analysis of 20 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyaluronidase (Hylase Dessau®) is a hyaluronic acid-metabolizing enzyme, which has been shown to loosen the extracellular matrix, thereby improving the diffusion of local anesthetics. Lower eyelid edema is a common post-interventional complication of cosmetic procedures performed in the lid region, such as the injection of hyaluronic acid fillers for tear-trough augmentation. The purpose of this study was to validate the efficacy of hyaluronidase in the management of lower eyelid edema. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis with 20 patients with lower eyelid edema. Most patients (n = 14) presented with edema following hyaluronic acid injection (tear-trough augmentation), whereas the minority (n = 6) were treated due to idiopathic edema (malar edema or malar mounds). Patients were treated by local infiltration of approximately 0.2 ml to 0.5 ml of hyaluronidase (Hylase Dessau® 20 IU to 75 IU) per eyelid. Photographs were taken prior to and seven days after infiltration. Results Hyaluronidase was found to reduce effectively and rapidly or resolve eyelid edema after a single injection. No relevant adverse effects were observed. However, it must be noted that a hyaluronidase injection may also dissolve injected hyaluronic acid fillers and may therefore negatively affect tear-trough augmentations. While the effects of a treatment for edema due to tear-trough augmentation were permanent, malar edema and malar mounds reoccurred within two to three weeks. Conclusion The infiltration of hyaluronidase is rapid, safe and currently the only effective option for the management of eyelid edema. No relevant adverse effects were observed. PMID:24886711

  6. Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleaching Products with Flower Extracts to Demonstrate the Principles of Flow Injection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Prieto, Katia Roberta; Carvalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Carvalheiro, Carla Cristina Schmitt

    2005-01-01

    The use of crude flower extracts to the principle of analytical chemistry automation, with the flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure developed to determine hypochlorite in household bleaching products was performed. The FIA comprises a group of techniques based on injection of a liquid sample into a moving, nonsegmented carrier stream of a…

  7. Determination of picomolar levels of cobalt in seawater by flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto-Arnold, C.M.; Johnson, K.S.

    1987-07-15

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) was used to automate the determination of cobalt in seawater by the Co-enhanced chemiluminescent oxidation of gallic acid in alkaline hydrogen peroxide. A preconcentration/separation step in the FIA manifold with an in-line column of immobilized 8-hydroxyquinoline was included to separate the Co from alkaline-earth ions. One sample analysis takes 8 min, including the 4-min sample load period. The detection limit is approximately 8 pM. The average standard deviation of replicate analyses at sea of 80 samples was +/- 5%. The method was tested and intercalibrated on samples collected off the California coast.

  8. Efficiency analysis of greenhouse gas sequestration during miscible CO2 injection in fractured oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Japan; Babadagli, Tayfun

    2008-08-01

    During CO2 injection into naturally fractured oil reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery, the great portion of oil is recovered by matrix-fracture interaction. Diffusive mass transfer between matrix and fracture controls this process if CO2 is miscible with matrix oil. Oil expelled from matrix is replaced by CO2, and the matrix could be potentially a good storage medium for the long-term. For the cooptimization of the oil recovery and CO2 storage, i.e., maximizing the oil recovery while maximizing the amount of CO2 stored, we propose an efficiency analysis using a dimensionless term defined as the global effectiveness factor. The Biot number and Thiele modulus were incorporated in the development of the global effectiveness factor. Diffusion coefficients and the rate of mass-transfer constants were obtained from our previous finite element modeling study. We first defined and derived the dimensionless groups to be used in the efficiency analysis and then formulated a relationship between the dimensionless groups and the efficiency indicators, i.e., the ratios of total solute (oil) produced to total solvent injected and total solvent stored to total solvent injected. It was shown that the efficiency of the process can be represented by a dimensionless group that consists of well-known dimensionless numbers such as the Reynolds number, the Peclet number, the Sherwood number, and the global effectiveness factor. PMID:18754463

  9. Direct electrokinetic injection of inorganic cations from whole fruits and vegetables for capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalsoom, Umme; Guijt, Rosanne M; Boyce, Mary C; Townsend, Ashley T; Haselberg, Rob; Breadmore, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for the direct injection from plant tissues without any sample pre-treatment has been developed by simply placing a small piece of the tissue into a capillary electrophoresis vial followed by application of a voltage for electrokinetic injection. Separations of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were achieved using a BGE comprising 10mM imidazole and 2.5mM 18-crown-6-ether at pH 4.5. The addition of 2% (m/v) hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose to the separation buffer allowed for precise and accurate electrokinetic injection of ions from the plant material by halting the movement of tissue fluid into the capillary. This method provides both qualitative and quantitative data of inorganic cations, with quantitation in zucchini, mushroom and apple samples in agreement with Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric analysis (r(2)=0.98, n=9). This method provides a new way for rapid, quantitative analysis by eliminating sample preparation procedures, and has great potential for a range of applications in plant science and food chemistry. PMID:26422302

  10. Direct electrokinetic injection of inorganic cations from whole fruits and vegetables for capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalsoom, Umme; Guijt, Rosanne M; Boyce, Mary C; Townsend, Ashley T; Haselberg, Rob; Breadmore, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for the direct injection from plant tissues without any sample pre-treatment has been developed by simply placing a small piece of the tissue into a capillary electrophoresis vial followed by application of a voltage for electrokinetic injection. Separations of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were achieved using a BGE comprising 10mM imidazole and 2.5mM 18-crown-6-ether at pH 4.5. The addition of 2% (m/v) hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose to the separation buffer allowed for precise and accurate electrokinetic injection of ions from the plant material by halting the movement of tissue fluid into the capillary. This method provides both qualitative and quantitative data of inorganic cations, with quantitation in zucchini, mushroom and apple samples in agreement with Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric analysis (r(2)=0.98, n=9). This method provides a new way for rapid, quantitative analysis by eliminating sample preparation procedures, and has great potential for a range of applications in plant science and food chemistry.

  11. Absence of intravitreal bevacizumab-induced neuronal toxicity in the retina.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Cinoo; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Byung Ju; Yu, Young Suk; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2008-11-01

    Bevacizumab is a complete humanized monoclonal antibody directed against all isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It was originally used as a first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. Recently, intravitreal bevacizumab has been effectively applied to vasoproliferative diseases, such as retinal and choroidal neovascularization. However, it is known that intravenous administration of bevacizumab in the treatment of cancer can lead to serious adverse events, such as congestive heart failure, thromboembolism, and neuropathy. In this study, we showed that very high concentrations of intravitreal bevacizumab, even up to 15 times the dose normally used in human clinical applications, (1microl, 25mg/ml), caused no definite histological abnormalities and no significant increase in apoptotic cell death in the mouse retina at 4 weeks after treatment. Moreover, intravitreal bevacizumab induced no neuronal toxicity in the retina. Even in high concentrations, bevacizumab caused no changes in the viability of retinal neurons or the expression of neurofilament, a marker of neuronal differentiation. Therefore, we believe that intravitreal bevacizumab has therapeutic potential for the treatment of retinal and choroidal neovascularization and has the added benefit of exhibiting no acute or chronic toxicity in retinal neurons.

  12. Perspective on the role of Ozurdex (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) in the management of diabetic macular oedema

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hemal; Gillies, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is the most common cause of visual loss in the working age population. Intravitreal therapy has superseded macular laser as the first-line treatment for the management of centre-involving DMO in most patients. As well as the proven efficacy of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents, phase II and III clinical trials of Ozurdex intravitreal dexamethasone implants for DMO have also demonstrated a mean increase in visual acuity and corresponding mean reduction in central macular thickness, particularly in pseudophakic eyes. Because of the risk of visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and intraocular infection with the use of intravitreal steroids, Ozurdex tends to be reserved for use in patients unresponsive to anti-VEGF therapy for centre-involving DMO. Situations where Ozurdex may be considered a first-line treatment option for eyes with centre-involving DMO include pseudophakia, impending cataract surgery, or in the context of a recent arterial thromboembolic event. Because of their stable pharmacokinetics, Ozurdex slow-release implants may also be considered in vitrectomized eyes. PMID:26336592

  13. Pore network quantification of sandstones under experimental CO2 injection using image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrezueta, Edgar; González-Menéndez, Luís; Ordóñez-Casado, Berta; Olaya, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Automated-image identification and quantification of minerals, pores and textures together with petrographic analysis can be applied to improve pore system characterization in sedimentary rocks. Our case study is focused on the application of these techniques to study the evolution of rock pore network subjected to super critical CO2-injection. We have proposed a Digital Image Analysis (DIA) protocol that guarantees measurement reproducibility and reliability. This can be summarized in the following stages: (i) detailed description of mineralogy and texture (before and after CO2-injection) by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques using thin sections; (ii) adjustment and calibration of DIA tools; (iii) data acquisition protocol based on image capture with different polarization conditions (synchronized movement of polarizers); (iv) study and quantification by DIA that allow (a) identification and isolation of pixels that belong to the same category: minerals vs. pores in each sample and (b) measurement of changes in pore network, after the samples have been exposed to new conditions (in our case: SC-CO2-injection). Finally, interpretation of the petrography and the measured data by an automated approach were done. In our applied study, the DIA results highlight the changes observed by SEM and microscopic techniques, which consisted in a porosity increase when CO2 treatment occurs. Other additional changes were minor: variations in the roughness and roundness of pore edges, and pore aspect ratio, shown in the bigger pore population. Additionally, statistic tests of pore parameters measured were applied to verify that the differences observed between samples before and after CO2-injection were significant.

  14. Risk of Tractional Retinal Detachment Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab Along with Subretinal Fluid Drainage and Cryotherapy for Stage 3B Coats’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Vishalakshi; D’Souza, Palmeera; Shah, Parag K.; Narendran, V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To review the surgical outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) along with subretinal fluid drainage with cryotherapy in patients with stage 3B Coats’ disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of seven cases of stage 3B Coats’ disease, who underwent subretinal fluid drainage with cryopexy, from May 2011 to March 2014. Five eyes received additional IVB at the end of surgery. Green laser therapy was performed on telangiectatic vessels postoperatively. Results: The mean age was 34 months (range, 10-84 months). Mean follow-up was 19 months. Six patients (85.7%) had an attached retina at final follow-up. Three out of four patients (75%) that received IVB developed tractional retinal detachments (TRDs). Two eyes that did not receive bevacizumab did not develop any traction. None progressed to neovascular glaucoma or phthisis bulbi. Conclusion: Simultaneous injection of bevacizumab along with subretinal drainage and cryotherapy for advanced Coats’ disease could not avoid TRD. PMID:27162454

  15. Theoretical analysis of hot electron injection from metallic nanotubes into a semiconductor interface.

    PubMed

    Kumarasinghe, Chathurangi S; Premaratne, Malin; Gunapala, Sarath D; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-07-21

    Metallic nanostructures under optical illumination can generate a non-equilibrium high-energy electron gas (also known as hot electrons) capable of being injected into neighbouring media over a potential barrier at particle boundaries. The nature of this process is highly nanoparticle shape and size dependent. Here, we have derived an analytical expression for the frequency dependent rate of injection of these energetic electrons from a metallic nanotube into a semiconductor layer in contact with its inner boundary. In our derivation, we have considered the quantum mechanical motion of the electron gas confined by the particle boundaries in determining the electron energy spectrum and wave functions. We present a comprehensive theoretical analysis of how different geometric parameters such as the outer to inner radius ratio, length and thickness of a nanotube and illumination frequency affect the hot electron injection and internal quantum efficiency of the nanotube. We reveal that longer nanotubes with thin shells and high inner to outer radius ratios show better performance at visible and infrared frequencies. Our derivations and results provide the much needed theoretical insight for optimization of thin nanotubes for different hot electron based applications. PMID:27332556

  16. On-chip Micro- and Nanofluidic Electrokinetic Injection and Separation for PEGylation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Elijah; Baum, Mary; Morse, Dan; Pennathur, Sumita; Pennathur Nanofluidics Laboratory Collaboration; Morse Laboratory Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    We present an experimental study of micro- and nanofluidic electrokinetic injection and separation in borosilcate channels as a method for characterizing size and zeta potential of biomolecules-specifically polyethlylene glycol (PEG), keyhole limpet hemocyanine (KLH), and pegylated KLH. While pegylation (the conjugation of proteins with PEG) is an established technique for enhancing a protein's therapeutic properties, reliable characterization of these conjugations by traditional analysis techniques (i.e. gel-electrophoresis, zetasizer) remains a challenge. Using a three-step electrokinetic sequence (load, gate, and inject), FITC labeled species and a fluorescein tracer dye are injected into a channel where they separate according to differences in electrophoretic mobility. We find the average absolute mobility of pegylated subunit KLH in 1 micron channels to be 56% that of unpegylated subunit KLH. In a 250 nm channel, we measure a 33% shift in the average absolute mobility of PEG dendrimers as compared to measurements in a 1 micron channel. These results begin to demonstrate how a micro- and nanofluidic-based approach might address the demand for effective and accessible nanoparticle characterization platforms. Supported by the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies.

  17. Meta-analysis: therapeutic effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with compound kushen injection in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qizhe; Ma, Wenli; Gao, Yuan; Zheng, Wenling; Zhang, Bao; Peng, Yifei

    2012-01-01

    Compound Kushen Injection (CKI) is Sophora Flavescens and Heterosmilacis Japonicae extract. Meta-analysis confirmed that CKI plus transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is more superior to TACE alone for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (UHCC) patients. PMID:23983333

  18. An analysis of direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) soot morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Teresa L.; Storey, John M. E.; Youngquist, Adam D.; Szybist, James P.

    2012-03-01

    We have characterized particle emissions produced by a 4-cylinder, 2.0 L DISI engine using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. Analyses of soot morphology provide insight to particle formation mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Particle emissions generated by two fueling strategies were investigated, early injection and injection modified for low particle number concentration emissions. A blend of 20% ethanol and 80% emissions certification gasoline was used for the study given the likelihood of increased ethanol content in widely available fuel. In total, about 200 particles and 3000 primary soot spherules were individually measured. For the fuel injection strategy which produced low particle number concentration emissions, we found a prevalence of single solid sub-25 nm particles and fractal-like aggregates. The modal diameter of single solid particles and aggregate primary particles was between 10 and 15 nm. Solid particles as small as 6 nm were present. Although nanoparticle aggregates had fractal-like morphology similar to diesel soot, the average primary particle diameter per aggregate had a much wider range that spanned from 7 to 60 nm. For the early fuel injection strategy, liquid droplets were prevalent, and the modal average primary particle diameter was between 20 and 25 nm. The presence of liquid droplets may have been the result of unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil originating from fuel impingement on the piston or cylinder wall; the larger modal aggregate primary particle diameter suggests greater fuel-rich zones in-cylinder than for the low particle number concentration point. However, both conditions produced aggregates with a wide range of primary particle diameters, which indicates heterogeneous fuel and air mixing.

  19. An Analysis of Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) soot morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Teresa L; Storey, John Morse; Youngquist, Adam D; Szybist, James P

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized particle emissions produced by a 4-cylinder, 2.0 L DISI engine using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. Analyses of soot morphology provide insight to particle formation mechanisms and strategies for prevention. Particle emissions generated by two fueling strategies were investigated, early injection and injection modified for low particle number concentration emissions. A blend of 20% ethanol and 80% emissions certification gasoline was used for the study given the likelihood of increased ethanol content in widely available fuel. In total, about 200 particles and 3000 primary soot spherules were individually measured. For the fuel injection strategy which produced low particle number concentration emissions, we found a prevalence of single solid sub-25 nm particles and fractal-like aggregates. The modal diameter of single solid particles and aggregate primary particles was between 10 and 15 nm. Solid particles as small as 6 nm were present. Although nanoparticle aggregates had fractal-like morphology similar to diesel soot, the average primary particle diameter per aggregate had a much wider range that spanned from 7 to 60 nm. For the early fuel injection strategy, liquid droplets were prevalent, and the modal average primary particle diameter was between 20 and 25 nm. The presence of liquid droplets may have been the result of unburned fuel and/or lubricating oil originating from fuel impingement on the piston or cylinder wall; the larger modal aggregate primary particle diameter suggests greater fuel-rich zones in-cylinder than for the low particle number concentration point. However, both conditions produced aggregates with a wide range of primary particle diameters, which indicates heterogeneous fuel and air mixing.

  20. Planning and Analysis of Fractured Rock Injection Tests in the Cerro Brillador Underground Laboratory, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Oyarzún L, R.; Villegas, G.

    2015-12-01

    Early theories of fluid migration in unsaturated fractured rock hypothesized that matrix suction would dominate flow up to the point of matrix saturation. However, experiments in underground laboratories such as the ESF (Yucca Mountain, NV) have demonstrated that liquid water can migrate significant distances through fractures in an unsaturated porous medium, suggesting limited interaction between fractures and unsaturated matrix blocks and potentially rapid transmission of recharge to the sat- urated zone. Determining the conditions under which this rapid recharge may take place is an important factor in understanding deep percolation processes in arid areas with thick unsaturated zones. As part of an on-going, Fondecyt-funded project (award 11150587) to study mountain block hydrological processes in arid regions, we are plan- ning a series of in-situ fracture flow injection tests in the Cerro Brillador/Mina Escuela, an underground laboratory and teaching facility belonging to the Universidad la Serena, Chile. Planning for the tests is based on an analytical model and curve-matching method, originally developed to evaluate data from injection tests at Yucca Mountain (Fairley, J.P., 2010, WRR 46:W08542), that uses a known rate of liquid injection to a fracture (for example, from a packed-off section of borehole) and the observed rate of seepage discharging from the fracture to estimate effective fracture aperture, matrix sorptivity, fracture/matrix flow partitioning, and the wetted fracture/matrix interac- tion area between the injection and recovery points. We briefly review the analytical approach and its application to test planning and analysis, and describe the proposed tests and their goals.

  1. Fast batch injection analysis system for on-site determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Polyana F; Marra, Mariana C; Munoz, Rodrigo A A; Richter, Eduardo M

    2012-02-15

    A simple, accurate and fast (180 injections h(-1)) batch injection analysis (BIA) system with multiple-pulse amperometric detection has been developed for selective determination of ethanol in gasohol and fuel ethanol. A sample aliquot (100 μL) was directly injected onto a gold electrode immersed in 0.5 mol L(-1) NaOH solution (unique reagent). The proposed BIA method requires minimal sample manipulation and can be easily used for on-site analysis. The results obtained with the BIA method were compared to those obtained by gas-chromatography and similar results were obtained (at 95% of confidence level).

  2. Flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for bulk carbon stable isotope analysis of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, Maik A; Steinmann, Dirk; Stephan, Manuel; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2009-11-25

    A new method for bulk carbon isotope ratio determination of water-soluble samples is presented that is based on flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (FIA-IRMS) using an LC IsoLink interface. Advantages of the method are that (i) only very small amounts of sample are required (2-5 microL of the sample for up to 200 possible injections), (ii) it avoids complex sample preparation procedures such as needed for EA-IRMS analysis (only sample dilution and injection,) and (iii) high throughput due to short analysis times is possible (approximately 15 min for five replicates). The method was first tested and evaluated as a fast screening method with industrially produced ethanol samples, and additionally the applicability was tested by the measurement of 81 alcoholic beverages, for example, whiskey, brandy, vodka, tequila, and others. The minimal sample concentration required for precise and reproducible measurements was around 50 microL L(-1) ethanol/water (1.71 mM carbon). The limit of repeatability was determined to be r=0.49%. FIA-IRMS represents a fast screening method for beverage authenticity control. Due to this, samples can be prescreened as a decisive criterion for more detailed investigations by HPLC-IRMS or multielement GC-IRMS measurements for a verification of adulteration. PMID:19856915

  3. Investigation of a chemiluminescent system for the determination of ammonia by flow-injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, P.R.; Crouch, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A novel system for the determination of ammonia based on the chemiluminescent reaction between hypochlorite and luminol is presented. The technique of flow injection analysis was employed to automate the system. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite to form monochloramine in basic solution which decreases the observed chemiluminescence intensity. Several interferents are identified, and the reasons why they interfere are discussed. The effects of interferents are minimized through the use of a double-tube dialyzer where the ammonia is diffused across the dialyzer membrane into a recipient stream of hydrochloric acid.

  4. Portraying persons who inject drugs recently infected with hepatitis C accessing antiviral treatment: a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Roy, Elise; Zang, Geng; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Artenie, Andreea Adelina; Levesque, Annie; Bruneau, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To empirically determine a categorization of people who inject drug (PWIDs) recently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), in order to identify profiles most likely associated with early HCV treatment uptake. Methods. The study population was composed of HIV-negative PWIDs with a documented recent HCV infection. Eligibility criteria included being 18 years old or over, and having injected drugs in the previous 6 months preceding the estimated date of HCV exposure. Participant classification was carried out using a TwoStep cluster analysis. Results. From September 2007 to December 2011, 76 participants were included in the study. 60 participants were eligible for HCV treatment. Twenty-one participants initiated HCV treatment. The cluster analysis yielded 4 classes: class 1: Lukewarm health seekers dismissing HCV treatment offer; class 2: multisubstance users willing to shake off the hell; class 3: PWIDs unlinked to health service use; class 4: health seeker PWIDs willing to reverse the fate. Conclusion. Profiles generated by our analysis suggest that prior health care utilization, a key element for treatment uptake, differs between older and younger PWIDs. Such profiles could inform the development of targeted strategies to improve health outcomes and reduce HCV infection among PWIDs. PMID:25349730

  5. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect

    Refunjol, B.T.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  6. Flow injection analysis of picric acid explosive using a copper electrode as electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, João R C; de Araujo, William R; Salles, Maiara O; Paixão, Thiago R L C

    2013-01-30

    A simple and fast electrochemical method for quantitative analysis of picric acid explosive (nitro-explosive) based on its electrochemical reduction at copper surfaces is reported. To achieve a higher sample throughput, the electrochemical sensor was adapted in a flow injection system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the peak current response increases linearly with picric acid concentration over the range of 20-300 μmol L(-1). The repeatability of the electrode response in the flow injection analysis (FIA) configuration was evaluated as 3% (n=10), and the detection limit of the method was estimated to be 6.0 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sample throughput under optimised conditions was estimated to be 550 samples h(-1). Peroxide explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) were tested as potential interfering substances for the proposed method, and no significant interference by these explosives was noticed. The proposed method has interesting analytical parameters, environmental applications, and low cost compared with other electroanalytical methods that have been reported for the quantification of picric acid. Additionally, the possibility to develop an in situ device for the detection of picric acid using a disposable sensor was evaluated.

  7. The effect of intrauterine HCG injection on IVF outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Pundir, J; Elsherbini, M; Dave, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y

    2016-09-01

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of intrauterine HCG infusion before embryo transfer on IVF outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate and spontaneous aboretion rate) was investigated. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Randomized studies in women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection comparing intrauterine HCG administration at embryo transfer compared with no intrauterine HCG were eligible for inclusion. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 3087 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were enrolled (intrauterine HCG group: n = 1614; control group: n = 1473). No significant difference was found in the live birth rate (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53) and spontaneous abortion rate (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) between women who received intrauterine HCG and those who did not receive HCG. Although this review was extensive and included randomized controlled trials, no significant heterogeneity was found, and the overall included numbers are relatively small. In conclusion the current evidence does not support the use of intrauterine HCG administration before embryo transfer. Well-designed multicentre trials are needed to provide robust evidence.

  8. Flow injection analysis of picric acid explosive using a copper electrode as electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, João R C; de Araujo, William R; Salles, Maiara O; Paixão, Thiago R L C

    2013-01-30

    A simple and fast electrochemical method for quantitative analysis of picric acid explosive (nitro-explosive) based on its electrochemical reduction at copper surfaces is reported. To achieve a higher sample throughput, the electrochemical sensor was adapted in a flow injection system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the peak current response increases linearly with picric acid concentration over the range of 20-300 μmol L(-1). The repeatability of the electrode response in the flow injection analysis (FIA) configuration was evaluated as 3% (n=10), and the detection limit of the method was estimated to be 6.0 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sample throughput under optimised conditions was estimated to be 550 samples h(-1). Peroxide explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) were tested as potential interfering substances for the proposed method, and no significant interference by these explosives was noticed. The proposed method has interesting analytical parameters, environmental applications, and low cost compared with other electroanalytical methods that have been reported for the quantification of picric acid. Additionally, the possibility to develop an in situ device for the detection of picric acid using a disposable sensor was evaluated. PMID:23597904

  9. The effect of intrauterine HCG injection on IVF outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Osman, A; Pundir, J; Elsherbini, M; Dave, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y

    2016-09-01

    In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the effect of intrauterine HCG infusion before embryo transfer on IVF outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate and spontaneous aboretion rate) was investigated. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. Randomized studies in women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection comparing intrauterine HCG administration at embryo transfer compared with no intrauterine HCG were eligible for inclusion. Eight randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A total of 3087 women undergoing IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were enrolled (intrauterine HCG group: n = 1614; control group: n = 1473). No significant difference was found in the live birth rate (RR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.53) and spontaneous abortion rate (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.34) between women who received intrauterine HCG and those who did not receive HCG. Although this review was extensive and included randomized controlled trials, no significant heterogeneity was found, and the overall included numbers are relatively small. In conclusion the current evidence does not support the use of intrauterine HCG administration before embryo transfer. Well-designed multicentre trials are needed to provide robust evidence. PMID:27317131

  10. The Effect of Different Dosing Schedules of Intravitreal Sirolimus, a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Non-Infectious Uveitis (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Do, Diana V.; Sepah, Yasir J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if two different doses of intravitreal sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, can decrease inflammation and is safe in eyes with non-infectious posterior, intermediate, or panuveitis in the Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach UVEitis: Protocol-2 (SAVE-2) Study. Methods: SAVE-2 is a prospective randomized, phase II, open-label interventional clinical trial conducted at 4 clinical centers in the United States. Eligible subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Group 1 received 440µg of intravitreal sirolimus in study eyes on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150; group 2 received 880µg of intravitreal sirolimus on days 0, 60, and 120. Fellow eyes were also eligible to receive sirolimus (of opposite dose to that of study eye). Primary endpoint of the study was at month 6 (M6). Results: 24 subjects have been randomized in SAVE-2 and are included in the analysis. Vitreous haze decreased by ≥2 steps in 63.6% and 50% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively at M6 (p=0.695). Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity for subjects was +3.66 and −2.91 ETDRS letters in group 1 and 2, respectively. Among subjects with macular edema at baseline (n=13), the mean change in foveal thickness was −89.42µm in group 1 and +81.5µm in group 2 at M6. Conclusions: Both low and high doses of intravitreal sirolimus were found to decrease vitreous haze in eyes with non-infectious uveitis. Low dose (440µg) sirolimus administered monthly may be more efficacious in reducing uveitic macular edema than high dose (880µg) administered every 2 months.

  11. Effect of treatment of rectal cancer metastasis with intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in patient with subretinal fluid and macular oedema: short-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Boss, Joseph Daniel; Lieu, Philip; Tewari, Asheesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe the management of subretinal fluid and macular oedema due to colorectal cancer metastasis to the choroid using intravitreal bevacizumab. A patient with grade VI KRAS mutation rectal cancer with metastasis to the lung and cerebellum presented with left eye choroidal metastasis 1 week after being started on the experimental medication KTN3379. After intravitreal bevacizumab administration, the patient had improvement in macular subretinal fluid, but eventually progressed to severe cystoid macular oedema despite monthly intravitreal bevacizumab treatment. PMID:27591037

  12. Online concentration by field-amplified sample injection in acidic buffer for analysis of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in herbal medicine by flow injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-12-01

    A novel, rapid, and continuous online concentration approach based on field-amplified sample injection for the analysis of fangchinoline and tetrandrine was developed in this paper by combination of flow injection-MEKC. The BGE used was a solution composed of 75 mM H3PO4-triethylamine-2.5% v/v polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate-20% v/v methanol buffer (pH* 5.0). The analytes prepared in 50% v/v aqueous ethanol were used as the test analytes. Sample was injected electrokinetically between plugs of water. When the cations reached the boundary between the water plug and BGE, they slowed down and became concentrated. Thereafter, MEKC was initiated for the separation. This results in 6.8-8.9-fold improvement in concentration sensitivity relative to conventional CE methods. The separation could be achieved within 10 min and sample throughput rate can reach up to 50/h. The repeatability (defined as RSD) was 4.8, 4.4% with peak height evaluation and 3.6, 0.94% with peak area evaluation for TET and FAN, respectively. PMID:16259014

  13. Estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure duringgeological sequestration of CO2 using coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault-slip analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.; Cappa, F.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2006-10-17

    This paper demonstrates the use of coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault slip (fault reactivation) analysis to estimate themaximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration ofCO2. Two numerical modeling approaches for analyzing faultslip areapplied, one using continuum stress-strain analysis and the other usingdiscrete fault analysis. The results of these two approaches to numericalfault-slip analyses are compared to the results of a more conventionalanalytical fault-slip analysis that assumes simplified reservoirgeometry. It is shown that the simplified analytical fault-slip analysismay lead to either overestimation or underestimation of the maximumsustainable injection pressure because it cannot resolve importantgeometrical factors associated with the injection induced spatialevolution of fluid pressure and stress. We conclude that a fully couplednumerical analysis can more accurately account for the spatial evolutionof both insitu stresses and fluid pressure, and therefore results in amore accurate estimation of the maximum sustainable CO2 injectionpressure.

  14. Differential amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide in honeys using flow-injection analysis with enzymatic reactor.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Rômulo Augusto de Abreu; Matos, Maria Auxiliadora Costa; Colombara, Rosana; Matos, Renato Camargo

    2008-03-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) present in honey was rapidly determined by the differential amperometric method in association with flow-injection analysis (FIA) and a tubular reactor containing immobilized enzymes. A gold electrode modified by electrochemical deposition of platinum was employed as working electrode. Hydrogen peroxide was quantified in 14 samples of Brazilian commercial honeys using amperometric differential measurements at +0.60V vs. Ag/AgCl((sat)). For the enzymatic consumption of H2O2, a tubular reactor containing immobilized peroxidase was constructed using an immobilization of enzymes on Amberlite IRA-743 resin. The linear dynamic range in H2O2 extends from 1 to 100 x 10(-6) mol L(-1), at pH 7.0. At flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) and injecting 150 microL sample volumes, the sampling frequency of the 90 determinations per hour is afforded. This method is based on three steps involving the flow-injection of: (1) the sample spiked with a standard solution, (2) the pure sample and (3) the enzymatically treated sample with peroxidase immobilized. The reproducibility of the current peaks for hydrogen peroxide in 10(-5) mol L(-1) range concentration showed a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) better than 1%. The detection limit of this method is 2.9 x 10(-7) mol L(-1). The honey samples analyses were compared with the parallel spectrophotometric determination, and showed an excellent correlation between the methods. PMID:18371882

  15. Automated on-line renewable solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography exploiting multisyringe flow injection-bead injection lab-on-valve analysis.

    PubMed

    Quintana, José Benito; Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2006-04-15

    In this paper, the third generation of flow injection analysis, also named the lab-on-valve (LOV) approach, is proposed for the first time as a front end to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample processing by exploiting the bead injection (BI) concept. The proposed microanalytical system based on discontinuous programmable flow features automated packing (and withdrawal after single use) of a small amount of sorbent (<5 mg) into the microconduits of the flow network and quantitative elution of sorbed species into a narrow band (150 microL of 95% MeOH). The hyphenation of multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) with BI-LOV prior to HPLC analysis is utilized for on-line postextraction treatment to ensure chemical compatibility between the eluate medium and the initial HPLC gradient conditions. This circumvents the band-broadening effect commonly observed in conventional on-line SPE-based sample processors due to the low eluting strength of the mobile phase. The potential of the novel MSFI-BI-LOV hyphenation for on-line handling of complex environmental and biological samples prior to reversed-phase chromatographic separations was assessed for the expeditious determination of five acidic pharmaceutical residues (viz., ketoprofen, naproxen, bezafibrate, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) and one metabolite (viz., salicylic acid) in surface water, urban wastewater, and urine. To this end, the copolymeric divinylbenzene-co-n-vinylpyrrolidone beads (Oasis HLB) were utilized as renewable sorptive entities in the micromachined unit. The automated analytical method features relative recovery percentages of >88%, limits of detection within the range 0.02-0.67 ng mL(-1), and coefficients of variation <11% for the column renewable mode and gives rise to a drastic reduction in operation costs ( approximately 25-fold) as compared to on-line column switching systems. PMID:16615800

  16. Update on intravitreal anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapies for ocular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with a variety of ocular diseases. The currently available TNF-? inhibitors are etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab, and certolizumab. Experimental and clinical studies on the intravitreal use of these agents have been reported with etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab: etanercept has shown limited efficacy in scarce reports; infliximab has been associated with local safety concerns but appears to benefit certain cases; adalimumab has shown no efficacy in cases of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or diabetic macular edema (DME), but the combination with bevacizumab may be effective in refractory cases of macular diseases. Further preclinical and clinical studies are warranted in order to be able to obtain a more robust conclusion on the use of intravitreal TNF-? inhibitors. PMID:25825604

  17. Analysis of wastewater for anionic and cationic nutrients by ion chromatography in a single run with sequential flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, S V

    1999-07-30

    To prevent nutrient enrichment and, hence the undesirable ecological impacts, the nutrients monitored in wastewater samples include two anionic species, i.e., nitrate and orthophosphate, and a cationic species, ammonium. Ion chromatography (IC) is one of the popularly used techniques for determinations of nitrate and phosphate in these samples, whereas determination of ammonium in wastewater samples is typically done using manual or automated wet chemistry, e.g., flow injection analysis (FIA). We have developed a sequential IC-FIA method, using Lachat's QC8000 IC system, which allows determinations of nitrate, phosphate and ammonia in a single injection. In this system, a QuickChem Small Suppressor cartridge is regenerated in between the samples. A sample is injected while leaving the suppressor off-line. Ammonium, a cation, elutes in the void volume of an anion-exchange column. The unsuppressed column effluent, exiting the conductivity flow cell, up to this point is used for FIA determination of ammonia. When ammonia exits the conductivity flow cell, a fully regenerated suppressor is brought in-line for conductometric detection of the anions. Analog data are simultaneously acquired from colorimetric and conductometric detectors, for the cationic and anionic nutrients, respectively. The method is accurate with spike recoveries in wastewater samples ranging from 91% for nitrate to 114% for chloride. It is precise with RSD values, for replicate analyses (n = 7) of a mid-range standard, ranging from 0.4% for phosphate to 1% for nitrate.

  18. Analysis of Scaling Parameters of Event Magnitudes by Fluid Injections in Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinske, Carsten; Krüger, Oliver; Shapiro, Serge

    2014-05-01

    We continue to elaborate scaling parameters of observed frequency-magnitude distributions of injection-induced seismicity. In addition to pumped fluid mass, b-value and seismogenic index (Shapiro et al., 2010, Dinske and Shapiro, 2013), one more scaling was recognised by the analysis of the induced event magnitudes. A frequently observed under-representation of events with larger magnitudes in comparison with the Gutenberg-Richter relation is explained by the geometry and the dimensions of the hydraulically stimulated rock volume (Shapiro et al., 2011, 2013). This under-representation, however, introduces a bias in b-value estimations which then should be considered as an apparent and transient b-value depending on the size of the perturbed rock volume. We study in detail in which way the seismogenic index estimate is affected by the apparent b-value. For this purpose, we compare b-value and seismogenic index estimates using two different approaches. First, we perform standard Gutenberg-Richter power-law fitting and second, we apply frequency-magnitude lower bound probability fitting as proposed by Shapiro et al. (2013). The latter takes into account the finite size of the perturbed rock volume. Our result reveals that the smaller is the perturbed rock volume the larger are the deviations between the two sets of derived parameters. It means that the magnitude statistics of the induced events is most affected for low injection volumes and/or short injection times. At sufficiently large stimulated volumes both fitting approaches provide comparable b-value and seismogenic index estimates. In particular, the b-value is then in the range of b-values universally obtained for tectonic earthquakes (i.e., 0.8 - 1.2). Based on our findings, we introduce the specific magnitude which is a seismotectonic characteristic for a reservoir location. Defined as the ratio of seismogenic index and b-value, the specific magnitude is found to be a magnitude scaling parameter which is

  19. Polyion Selective Polymeric Membrane-Based Pulstrode as a Detector in Flow-Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A method for the detection of polyions using fully reversible polyion selective polymeric membrane type pulstrodes as detectors in a flow-injection analysis (FIA) system is examined. The detection electrode consists of a plasticized polymeric membrane doped with 10 wt % of tridodecylmethylammonium-dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate (TDMA/DNNS) ion-exchanger salt. The pulse sequence used involves a short (1 s) galvanostatic pulse, an open-circuit pulse (0.5 s) during which the EMF of the cell is measured, and a longer (15 s) potentiostatic pulse to return the membrane to its original chemical composition. It is shown that total pulse sequence times can be optimized to yield reproducible real-time detection of injected samples of protamine and heparin at up to 20 samples/h. Further, it is shown that the same membrane detector can be employed for FIA detection of both polycations at levels ≥10 μg/mL and polyanions at levels of ≥40 μg/mL by changing the direction of the galvanostatic pulse. The methodology described may also be applicable in the detection of polyionic species at low levels in other flowing configurations, such as in liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. PMID:24650129

  20. Sequential injection system for on-line analysis of total nitrogen with UV-mineralization.

    PubMed

    Oms, M T; Cerdà, A; Cerdà, V

    2003-02-01

    An automatic method for the determination of total nitrogen in wastewater by sequential injection analysis and mineralization with UV radiation has been developed. The method is based on the mineralization of the samples with sodium persulphate in basic medium under UV radiation. Small volumes of sample and reagents are firstly aspirated into a single channel and then propelled by flow reversal to the UV reactor and then to the detector. The organic and inorganic nitrogen compounds are oxidized to nitrate that is then measured at 226 nm. The sequential injection procedure has been optimized and the factors affecting the efficiency of the oxidation have been studied with a number of test substances with different chemical structures and properties. Solutions in the concentration range 1-56 gl(-1) of nitrogen can be analyzed with the described procedure. The sample rate is of 30-40 samples h(-1). The LOD is 0.6 mgl(-1) N and the reproducibility is 1.8% (28 mgl(-1) N). Organic carbon in the form of glucose was added to a number of test solutions to study the potential interference of organic matter. The method was compared with the Kjeldahl digestion method by analyzing 15 wastewater samples with both methods. The nitrate and nitrite content of the non-oxidized samples were subtracted from the corresponding nitrogen content determined after photo-oxidation and the value compared with the Kjeldahl nitrogen content.

  1. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A

    2000-05-31

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol. PMID:18967966

  2. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A

    2000-05-31

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol.

  3. Physics-based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Seismicity Induced by Fluid Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxall, W.; Hutchings, L. J.; Johnson, S.; Savy, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Risk associated with induced seismicity (IS) is a significant factor in the design, permitting and operation of enhanced geothermal, geological CO2 sequestration and other fluid injection projects. Whereas conventional probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis (PSHA, PSRA) methods provide an overall framework, they require adaptation to address specific characteristics of induced earthquake occurrence and ground motion estimation, and the nature of the resulting risk. The first problem is to predict the earthquake frequency-magnitude distribution of induced events for PSHA required at the design and permitting stage before the start of injection, when an appropriate earthquake catalog clearly does not exist. Furthermore, observations and theory show that the occurrence of earthquakes induced by an evolving pore-pressure field is time-dependent, and hence does not conform to the assumption of Poissonian behavior in conventional PSHA. We present an approach to this problem based on generation of an induced seismicity catalog using numerical simulation of pressure-induced shear failure in a model of the geologic structure and stress regime in and surrounding the reservoir. The model is based on available measurements of site-specific in-situ properties as well as generic earthquake source parameters. We also discuss semi-empirical analysis to sequentially update hazard and risk estimates for input to management and mitigation strategies using earthquake data recorded during and after injection. The second important difference from conventional PSRA is that in addition to potentially damaging ground motions a significant risk associated with induce seismicity in general is the perceived nuisance caused in nearby communities by small, local felt earthquakes, which in general occur relatively frequently. Including these small, usually shallow earthquakes in the hazard analysis requires extending the ground motion frequency band considered to include the high

  4. Persistent suppression of ocular neovascularization with intravitreal administration of AAVrh.10 coding for bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yanxiong; Kiss, Szilard; Boyer, Julie L; Hackett, Neil R; Qiu, Jianping; Carbone, Andrew; Mezey, Jason G; Kaminsky, Stephen M; D'Amico, Donald J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2011-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, is efficacious for these disorders, but requires monthly intravitreal administration, with associated discomfort, cost, and adverse event risk. We hypothesized that a single intravitreal administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing bevacizumab would result in persistent eye expression of bevacizumab and suppress VEGF-induced retinal neovascularization. We constructed an AAV rhesus serotype rh.10 vector to deliver bevacizumab (AAVrh.10BevMab) and assessed its ability to suppress neovascularization in transgenic mice overexpressing human VEGF165 in photoreceptors. Intravitreal AAVrh.10BevMab directed long-term bevacizumab expression in the retinal pigmented epithelium. Treated homozygous mice had reduced levels of neovascularization, with 90±4% reduction 168 days following treatment. Thus, a single administration of AAVrh.10BevMab provides long-term suppression of neovascularization without the costs and risks associated with the multiple administrations required for the current conventional bevacizumab monoclonal drug delivery.

  5. Development of a dexamethasone intravitreal implant for the treatment of noninfectious posterior segment uveitis.

    PubMed

    Whitcup, Scott M; Robinson, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    Uveitis is a group of ocular inflammatory disorders that can lead to severe vision loss. Despite advances in anti-inflammatory therapy, many patients are resistant to or intolerant of existing treatments. A biodegradable, sustained-release implant, dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg (Ozurdex), has been developed to deliver dexamethasone to target tissues in the posterior segment of the eye, minimizing systemic drug exposure and limiting side effects. The implant releases dexamethasone over a period of up to 6 months as the poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer matrix of the implant is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water. The implant is placed in the vitreous of the eye with a single-use applicator in a sutureless, office-based procedure. Treatment with a single dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with noninfectious intermediate or posterior uveitis has been shown to produce significant improvements in intraocular inflammation and best-corrected visual acuity with treatment benefit sustained for 6 months. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant has also been shown to reduce central retinal thickness and improve best-corrected visual acuity in patients with macular edema of various etiologies. The implant has been approved for treatment of noninfectious uveitis involving the posterior segment, diabetic macular edema, and macular edema associated with branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

  6. An eighteen-month follow-up study on the effects of Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant in diabetic macular edema refractory to anti-VEGF therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Fernanda; Romano, Maria Rosaria; Turchetti, Paolo; Tarquini, Giovanna; Carnovale, Anna; Mollicone, Antonella; Mastromatteo, Alessandra; Pacella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dexamethasone implants in subjects affected by diabetic macular edema (DME) resistant to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. METHODS Thirty-two DME patients were enrolled. A 700 microgram slow release Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex®) was placed in the vitreous cavity. All patients were followed for 18mo. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measured with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and central macular thickness (CMT) exams were carried out at baseline (T0) and after 1 (T1), 3 (T3), 4 (T4), 6 (T6), 9 (T9), 12 (T12), 15 (T15), and 18mo (T18) post injection. RESULTS Repeated measures ANOVA showed an effect of treatment on ETDRS (P<0.0001). Post hoc analyses revealed that ETDRS values were significantly increased at T1, T3, T4, T9, and T15 (P<0.001) as compared to baseline value (T0). At T6, T12, and T18, ETDRS values were still statistically higher than baseline (P<0.001 vs T0). However, at these time points, we observed a trend to return to baseline conditions. ANOVA also showed an effect of treatment (P<0.0001). CMT decreased significantly at T1, T3, T4, T9, and T15 (P<0.001). At T6 (P<0.01), T12 and T18 (P<0.001) CMT was also significantly lower than T0 although a trend to return to the baseline conditions was also observed. CONCLUSION Our findings demonstrate that Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant is a good option to improve BCVA and CMT in DME patients resistant to anti-VEGF therapy. Our data also show that the use of drugs administered directly into the vitreous allows achieving appropriate and long-lasting concentration at the site of disease without systemic side effects. PMID:27803859

  7. Selective chlorine dioxide determination using gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, D.A.; Gord, J.R.; Gordon, G.; Pacey, G.E.

    1986-06-01

    An automated chemiluminescent technique has been developed utilizing the advantages of gas-diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas-diffusion membrane separates the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream and removes ionic interferences. A novel chemiluminescence flow-through detector cell is used to measure the concentration of chlorine dioxide as a function of the intensity of the chemiluminescence produced from its reaction with luminol. The chemiluminescent reagent merges with the analyte directly in front of the photomultiplier tube in order to maximize the sensitivity of the system. The detection limit for chlorine dioxide is approximately 5 ppb. The method is over 1500 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than for chlorine on a mole basis. This method eliminates interference from iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite ion and chlorate ion.

  8. Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-09

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h⁻¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  9. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 μM for methanol and 0.2 μM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

  10. Determination of SO(2) in Wines Using a Flow Injection Analysis System with Potentiometric Detection.

    PubMed

    Araújo; Couto; Lima; Montenegro

    1998-01-19

    This paper describes the development and application of a flow injection analysis system manifold comprising a gas diffusion unit and a potentiometric detector to the determination of free and total SO(2) in white and red wines. A homogeneous crystalline iodide double-membrane tubular electrode was used as detector. SO(2) determination based on the Ripper method was carried out by dosing the iodide formed in the oxidation of SO(2) with iodine, followed by the separation of the formed compound through a diffusion Teflon membrane. The results obtained from the analyses of free and total SO(2) in 30 wine samples showed good agreement between the proposed method and the rapid assay method recommended by the UE and OIV. The relative error deviations of the results obtained by both methods were <6%. This procedure is suitable for samples with approximately 3.2-180 mg L(-)(1) SO(2), performing determinations of 75-100 samples h(-)(1).

  11. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498

  12. Lightning strike simulation using coaxial line technique and 3D linear injection current analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flourens, F.; Gauthier, D.; Serafin, D.

    1989-09-01

    The GORFFD code for determining aircraft responses to either a lightning event or to simulated current injection is based on the finite-difference solution of Maxwell's equation, and allows the simulation of complex, 3D metallic and dielectric composite structures. A transfer method is used to analyze the EM environment associated with in-flight measurements. Attention is given to a linear-analysis numerical model in which the lightning channel is simulated as a thin wire that is driven by a current source. Surface E-fields and current mappings are produced for the Transall transport and Mirage fighter aircraft. An experimental method has been devised for verification of these lightning-strike simulations.

  13. Optical Image Analysis Applied to Pore Network Quantification of Sandstones Under Experimental CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrezueta, E.; González, L.; Ordóñez, B.; Luquot, L.; Quintana, L.; Gallastegui, G.; Martínez, R.; Olaya, P.; Breitner, D.

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to propose a protocol for pore network quantification in sandstones applying the Optical Image Analysis (OIA) procedure, which guarantees the measurement reproducibility and its reliability. Two geological formations of sandstone, located in Spain and potentially suitable for CO2 sequestration, were selected for this study: a) the Cretaceous Utrillas unit, at the base of the Cenozoic Duero Basin and b) a Triassic unit at the base of the Cenozoic Guadalquivir Basin. Sandstone samples were studied before and after the CO2 experimental injection using Optical and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), while the quantification of petrographic changes was done with OIA. The first phase of the rersearch consisted on a detailed mineralogical and petrographic study of the sandstones (before and after CO2-injection), for which we observed thin sections. Later, the methodological and experimental processes of the investigation were focused on i) adjustment and calibration of OIA tools; ii) data acquisition protocol based on image capture with different polarization conditions (synchronized movement of polarizers), using 7 images of the same mineral scene (6 in crossed polarizer and 1 in parallel polarizer); and iii) automated identification and segmentation of pore in 2D mineral images, generating applications by executable macros. Finally, once the procedure protocols had been, the compiled data was interpreted through an automated approach and the qualitative petrography was carried out. The quantification of changes in the pore network through OIA (porosity increase ≈ 2.5%) has allowed corroborate the descriptions obtained by SEM and microscopic techniques, which consisted in an increase in the porosity when CO2 treatment occurs. Automated-image identification and quantification of minerals, pores and textures together with petrographic analysis can be applied to improve pore system characterization in sedimentary rocks. This research offers numerical

  14. Pushing quantitation limits in micro UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of steroid hormones by sample dilution using high volume injection.

    PubMed

    Márta, Zoltán; Bobály, Balázs; Fekete, Jenő; Magda, Balázs; Imre, Tímea; Mészáros, Katalin Viola; Szabó, Pál Tamás

    2016-09-10

    Ultratrace analysis of sample components requires excellent analytical performance in terms of limits of quantitation (LoQ). Micro UHPLC coupling with sensitive tandem mass spectrometry provides state of the art solutions for such analytical problems. Decreased column volume in micro LC limits the injectable sample volume. However, if analyte concentration is extremely low, it might be necessary to inject high sample volumes. This is particularly critical for strong sample solvents and weakly retained analytes, which are often the case when preparing biological samples (protein precipitation, sample extraction, etc.). In that case, high injection volumes may cause band broadening, peak distortion or even elution in dead volume. In this study, we evaluated possibilities of high volume injection onto microbore RP-LC columns, when sample solvent is diluted. The presented micro RP-LC-MS/MS method was optimized for the analysis of steroid hormones from human plasma after protein precipitation with organic solvents. A proper sample dilution procedure helps to increase the injection volume without compromising peak shapes. Finally, due to increased injection volume, the limit of quantitation can be decreased by a factor of 2-5, depending on the analytes and the experimental conditions. PMID:27423010

  15. Quantum analysis and experimental investigation of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator with unequally injected signal and idler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Yongmin

    2016-01-01

    We developed a quantum analysis of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator (NOPO) with unequally injected signal and idler. Both the steady-state output field and the two-mode quantum correlation spectrum are investigated under the condition of different injected idler-to-signal ratios (ISRs) and the relative phase between the pump and the injected seed. It is found that when the seed is injected through the output coupler, the NOPO allows for the robust generation of two-mode quantum entanglement even if the relative phase is free running and the ISR is as high as 0.7. At the specific relative phase of zero, a high degree of entanglement can exist across a whole range of ISRs. An experimental study of the NOPO with unequal seeds is presented, and the observed results verify the theoretical predictions.

  16. Polydrug use and HIV risk among people who inject heroin in Tijuana, Mexico: A Latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, M.C.; Rudolph, A.E.; Strathdee, S.A.; Rusch, M.L.; Brouwer, K.C.; Patterson, T.L.; Vera, A.; Rangel, G.; Roesch, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico, primarily inject heroin, injection and non-injection use of methamphetamine and cocaine is common. We examined patterns of polydrug use among heroin injectors to inform prevention and treatment of drug use and its health and social consequences. Methods Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana aged ≥ 18 years who reported heroin injection in the past 6 months and were recruited through respondent driven sampling (n=1025). Latent class analysis was conducted to assign individuals to classes on a probabilistic basis, using four indicators of past 6 month polydrug and polyroute use: cocaine injecting, cocaine smoking or snorting, methamphetamine injecting, methamphetamine smoking or snorting. Latent class membership was regressed onto covariates in a multinomial logistic regression. Results Latent class analyses testing 1, 2, 3, and 4 classes were fit, with the 3-class solution fitting best. Class 1 was defined by predominantly heroin use (50.2%, n=515); class 2 by methamphetamine and heroin use (43.7%, n=448), and class 3 by methamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin use (6.0%, n=62). Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated a group of methamphetamine and cocaine users that exhibited higher risk sexual practices and lower heroin injecting frequency, and a group of methamphetamine users who were younger and more likely to be female. Conclusions Discrete subtypes of heroin PWID were identified based on methamphetamine and cocaine use patterns. These findings have identified subtypes of heroin injectors who require more tailored interventions to reduce the health and social harms of injecting drug use. PMID:26444185

  17. Analysis of Injection-Induced Micro-Earthquakes in a Geothermal Steam Reservoir, The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2008-05-15

    In this study we analyze relative contributions to the cause and mechanism of injection-induced micro-earthquakes (MEQs) at The Geysers geothermal field, California. We estimated the potential for inducing seismicity by coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analysis of the geothermal steam production and cold water injection to calculate changes in stress (in time and space) and investigated if those changes could induce a rock mechanical failure and associated MEQs. An important aspect of the analysis is the concept of a rock mass that is critically stressed for shear failure. This means that shear stress in the region is near the rock-mass frictional strength, and therefore very small perturbations of the stress field can trigger an MEQ. Our analysis shows that the most important cause for injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers is cooling and associated thermal-elastic shrinkage of the rock around the injected fluid that changes the stress state in such a way that mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, the cooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shear strength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are then reactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slip along fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers.

  18. The Clinical Value of Huangqi Injection in the Treatment of Leucopenia: A Meta-Analysis of Clinical Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xifa; Dong, Chunlei; Luo, Judong; Liu, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    Background Huangqi injection is derived from Astragalus membranaceus root. In China, recent reports of Huangqi injection for the treatment of leucopenia have emerged. However, a systematic review of these reports has not been performed. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials to assess the clinical value of Huangqi injection in the treatment of leucopenia. Methods We searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP), as well as PubMed and EMBASE to collect the data about trials of Huangqi injection for treating leucopenia. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. Results A total of 13 studies involving 841 patients were included in this study. The overall study quality was lower according to the Jadad scale. The meta-analysis showed that experimentally treated patients experienced greater therapeutic efficacy and lower white blood cell counts than control groups treated with Western medicine (P < 0.05). No publication bias was evident, according to Egger’s test. Conclusions The validity of this meta-analysis was limited by the overall poor quality of the included studies. Huangqi injection may have potential clinical value in the treatment of leucopenia, but confirmation with rigorously well-designed multi-center trials is needed. PMID:24349444

  19. Efficacy and safety of steroid injections for shoulder and elbow tendonitis: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gaujoux-Viala, C; Dougados, M; Gossec, L

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of steroid injections for patients with tendonitis of the shoulder or elbow. Methods: A systematic review of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and manual searches was performed until April 2008. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting the efficacy on pain or functional disability, and/or the safety of steroid injections, versus placebo, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or physiotherapy in patients with tendonitis were selected. Pooled effect size (ES) was calculated by meta-analysis using the Mantel–Haenszel method. Results: In all, 20 RCTs were analysed (744 patients treated by injections and 987 patients treated by controls; 618 shoulders and 1113 elbows). The pooled analysis indicated only short-term effectiveness of steroids versus the pooled controls for pain and function (eg, pain at week 1–3 ES = 1.18 (95% CI 0.27 to 2.09), pain at week 4–8 ES = 1.30 (95% CI 0.55 to 2.04), pain at week 12–24 ES = −0.38 (95% CI −0.85 to 0.08) and pain at week 48 ES = 0.07 (95% CI −0.60 to 0.75)). Sensitivity analyses indicated similar results whatever the localisation, type of steroid and type of comparator except for NSAIDs: steroid injections were not significantly better than NSAIDs in the short-term. Steroid injections appeared more effective than pooled other treatments in acute or subacute tendonitis. The main side effects were transient pain after injection (10.7% of corticosteroid injections) and skin modification (4.0%). Conclusions: Steroid injections are well tolerated and more effective for tendonitis in the short-term than pooled other treatments, though similar to NSAIDs. No long-term benefit was shown. PMID:19054817

  20. Emerging flow injection mass spectrometry methods for high-throughput quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Kaldon, Laura G

    2016-01-01

    Where does flow injection analysis mass spectrometry (FIA-MS) stand relative to ambient mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography-MS? Improvements in FIA-MS methods have resulted in fast-expanding uses of this technique. Key advantages of FIA-MS over chromatography-MS are fast analysis (typical run time <60 s) and method simplicity, and FIA-MS offers high-throughput without compromising sensitivity, precision and accuracy as much as ambient MS techniques. Consequently, FIA-MS is increasingly becoming recognized as a suitable technique for applications where quantitative screening of chemicals needs to be performed rapidly and reliably. The FIA-MS methods discussed herein have demonstrated quantitation of diverse analytes, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, environmental contaminants, and endogenous compounds, at levels ranging from parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) in very complex matrices (such as blood, urine, and a variety of foods of plant and animal origin), allowing successful applications of the technique in clinical diagnostics, metabolomics, environmental sciences, toxicology, and detection of adulterated/counterfeited goods. The recent boom in applications of FIA-MS for high-throughput quantitative analysis has been driven in part by (1) the continuous improvements in sensitivity and selectivity of MS instrumentation, (2) the introduction of novel sample preparation procedures compatible with standalone mass spectrometric analysis such as salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) with volatile solutes and NH4(+) QuEChERS, and (3) the need to improve efficiency of laboratories to satisfy increasing analytical demand while lowering operational cost. The advantages and drawbacks of quantitative analysis by FIA-MS are discussed in comparison to chromatography-MS and ambient MS (e.g., DESI, LAESI, DART). Generally, FIA-MS sits 'in the middle' between ambient MS and chromatography-MS, offering a balance between analytical

  1. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail.

  2. Native fluorescent detection with sequential injection chromatography for doping control analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sequential injection chromatography (SIC) is a young, ten years old, separation technique. It was proposed with the benefits of reagent-saving, rapid analysis, system miniaturization and simplicity. SIC with UV detection has proven to be efficient mostly for pharmaceutical analysis. In the current study, a stand-alone multi-wavelength fluorescence (FL) detector was coupled to an SIC system. The hyphenation was exploited for developing an SIC-FL method for the separation and quantification of amiloride (AML) and furosemide (FSM) in human urine and tablet formulation. Results AML and FSM were detected using excitation maxima at 380 and 270 nm, respectively, and emission maxima at 413 and 470 nm, respectively. The separation was accomplished in less than 2.0 min into a C18 monolithic column (50 × 4.6 nm) with a mobile phase containing 25 mmol/L phosphate buffer (pH 4.0): acetonitrile: (35:65, v/v). The detection limits were found to be 12 and 470 ng/mL for AML and FSM, respectively. Conclusions The proposed SIC-FL method features satisfactory sensitivity for AML and FSM in urine samples for the minimum required performance limits recommended by the World Anti-Doping Agency, besides a downscaled consumption of reagents and high rapidity for industrial-scale analysis of pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23985079

  3. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail. PMID:24216194

  4. Single Event Analysis and Fault Injection Techniques Targeting Complex Designs Implemented in Xilinx-Virtex Family Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth; Kim, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An informative session regarding SRAM FPGA basics. Presenting a framework for fault injection techniques applied to Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Introduce an overlooked time component that illustrates fault injection is impractical for most real designs as a stand-alone characterization tool. Demonstrate procedures that benefit from fault injection error analysis.

  5. Numerical analysis of combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengen; Cai, Guobiao; Tian, Hui

    2016-06-01

    This paper is aimed to analyse the combustion characteristics of hybrid rocket motor with multi-section swirl injection by simulating the combustion flow field. Numerical combustion flow field and combustion performance parameters are obtained through three-dimensional numerical simulations based on a steady numerical model proposed in this paper. The hybrid rocket motor adopts 98% hydrogen peroxide and polyethylene as the propellants. Multiple injection sections are set along the axis of the solid fuel grain, and the oxidizer enters the combustion chamber by means of tangential injection via the injector ports in the injection sections. Simulation results indicate that the combustion flow field structure of the hybrid rocket motor could be improved by multi-section swirl injection method. The transformation of the combustion flow field can greatly increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency. The average fuel regression rate of the motor with multi-section swirl injection is improved by 8.37 times compared with that of the motor with conventional head-end irrotational injection. The combustion efficiency is increased to 95.73%. Besides, the simulation results also indicate that (1) the additional injection sections can increase the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency; (2) the upstream offset of the injection sections reduces the combustion efficiency; and (3) the fuel regression rate and the combustion efficiency decrease with the reduction of the number of injector ports in each injection section.

  6. Efficacy of Ligustrazine Injection as Adjunctive Therapy for Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Huikai; Zhao, Lingguo; Chen, Fuchao; Zeng, Shengbo; Liu, Shengquan; Li, Jiajia

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decades, a large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of ligustrazine injection combined with conventional antianginal drugs for angina pectoris have been reported. However, these RCTs have not been evaluated in accordance with PRISMA systematic review standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy for angina pectoris. Material/Methods The databases PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, Sino-Med, Wanfang Databases, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Google Scholar, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Science Citation Database were searched for published RCTs. Meta-analysis was performed on the primary outcome measures, including the improvements of electrocardiography (ECG) and the reductions in angina symptoms. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis based on the M score (the refined Jadad scores) were also used to evaluate the effect of quality, sample size, and publication year of the included RCTs on the overall effect of ligustrazine injection. Results Eleven RCTs involving 870 patients with angina pectoris were selected in this study. Compared with conventional antianginal drugs alone, ligustrazine injection combined with antianginal drugs significantly increased the efficacy in symptom improvement (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39 to 5.40) and in ECG improvement (OR, 3.42; 95% CI: 2.33 to 5.01). Sensitivity and subgroup analysis also confirmed that ligustrazine injection had better effect in the treatment of angina pectoris as adjunctive therapy. Conclusions The 11 eligible RCTs indicated that ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy was more effective than antianginal drugs alone. However, due to the low quality of included RCTs, more rigorously designed RCTs were still needed to verify the effects of ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy for angina

  7. Efficacy of Ligustrazine Injection as Adjunctive Therapy for Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huikai; Zhao, Lingguo; Chen, Fuchao; Zeng, Shengbo; Liu, Shengquan; Li, Jiajia

    2015-11-29

    BACKGROUND In the past decades, a large number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of ligustrazine injection combined with conventional antianginal drugs for angina pectoris have been reported. However, these RCTs have not been evaluated in accordance with PRISMA systematic review standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy for angina pectoris. MATERIAL AND METHODS The databases PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, Sino-Med, Wanfang Databases, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Google Scholar, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Science Citation Database were searched for published RCTs. Meta-analysis was performed on the primary outcome measures, including the improvements of electrocardiography (ECG) and the reductions in angina symptoms. Sensitivity and subgroup analysis based on the M score (the refined Jadad scores) were also used to evaluate the effect of quality, sample size, and publication year of the included RCTs on the overall effect of ligustrazine injection. RESULTS Eleven RCTs involving 870 patients with angina pectoris were selected in this study. Compared with conventional antianginal drugs alone, ligustrazine injection combined with antianginal drugs significantly increased the efficacy in symptom improvement (odds ratio [OR], 3.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39 to 5.40) and in ECG improvement (OR, 3.42; 95% CI: 2.33 to 5.01). Sensitivity and subgroup analysis also confirmed that ligustrazine injection had better effect in the treatment of angina pectoris as adjunctive therapy. CONCLUSIONS The 11 eligible RCTs indicated that ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy was more effective than antianginal drugs alone. However, due to the low quality of included RCTs, more rigorously designed RCTs were still needed to verify the effects of ligustrazine injection as adjunctive therapy for

  8. Treatment of recurrent retinal angiomatous proliferation with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide followed by photodynamic therapy with verteporfin: A retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Cardascia, Nicola; Furino, Claudio; Ferrara, Andrea; Boscia, Francesco; Alessio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to report the effect on tolerability of combined treatment with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with verteporfin in patients with stage II retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) who had been treated previously with PDT and presented with recurrent RAP (R-RAP). Methods: This was a retrospective case series of patients with R-RAP after PDT (1–5 treatments) treated once with IVT followed 1 month later by PDT. A visual acuity test, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and optical coherence tomography were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Results: Five patients (4 men, 1 woman; mean [SD] age, 76.8 [3.9] years) with 6 eyes diagnosed with stage II R-RAP who had previously been treated with PDT and who received an IVT injection and PDT within 1 month were included in the study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) remained stable after IVT in 5 eyes (83%) and deteriorated in 1 eye (17%). After PDT, BCVA remained stable in 2 eyes (33%) and deteriorated in 4 eyes (67%). IVT treatment combined with PDT also reduced fluorescein leakage. Median lesion size increased 24% before PDT and 61% at 6 months after PDT. One eye had intraocular hypertension at 3 months, and 1 eye developed a pigment epithelial tear after PDT. Conclusion: The results were limited by the number of eyes and relatively short follow-up, but in this study, PDT after IVT did not appear to be as effective or well tolerated in 5 patients who had already been treated with PDT and presented with R-RAP. PMID:24683234

  9. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. In the HPLC mode, the LODDs were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of four. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methyl-isobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organo-metallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered.

  11. Rate equation analysis of dynamic response in strongly injection-locked cascaded semiconductor microring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Fichou, Yann; Osinski, Marek

    2012-02-01

    A novel cascaded optical injection-locking scheme for modulation bandwidth enhancement and tailoring is proposed, involving a distributed-Bragg-reflector master laser monolithically integrated with two cascaded strongly injectionlocked whistle-geometry unidirectional microring lasers. Improved high-speed performance of the proposed cascaded injection-locking scheme is confirmed in numerical modeling by comparing it with the scheme based on a single strongly injection-locked whistle-geometry unidirectional microring laser.

  12. Hanford 100-N Area In Situ Apatite and Phosphate Emplacement by Groundwater and Jet Injection: Geochemical and Physical Core Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate emplacement of phosphate into subsurface sediments in the Hanford Site 100-N Area by two different technologies: groundwater injection of a Ca-citrate-PO4 solution and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate and/or fish-bone apatite. In situ emplacement of phosphate and apatite adsorbs, then incorporates Sr-90 into the apatite structure by substitution for calcium. Overall, both technologies (groundwater injection of Ca-citrate-PO4) and water-jet injection of sodium phosphate/fish-bone apatite) delivered sufficient phosphate to subsur¬face sediments in the 100-N Area. Over years to decades, additional Sr-90 will incorporate into the apatite precipitate. Therefore, high pressure water jetting is a viable technology to emplace phosphate or apatite in shallow subsurface sediments difficult to emplace by Ca-citrate-PO4 groundwater injections, but further analysis is needed to quantify the relevant areal extent of phosphate deposition (in the 5- to 15-ft distance from injection points) and cause of the high deposition in finer grained sediments.

  13. Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyu-Sang; Han, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Hyun-Sung; Shim, Jong-In

    2014-03-03

    Two kinds of green InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated in order to understand the different slopes in logarithmic light output power-current (L-I) curves. Through the analysis of the carrier rate equation and by considering the carrier density-dependent the injection efficiency into quantum wells, the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves can be more rigorously understood. The low current level, two as the tunneling current is initially dominant. The high current level beyond the peak of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) diminishes below one as the carrier overflow becomes dominant. In addition, the normalized carrier injection efficiency can be obtained by analyzing the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves. The carrier injection efficiency decreases after the EQE peak of the InGaN LEDs, determined from the analysis of the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves.

  14. [Analysis of nine narcotics in urine by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography-field samplified sample injection].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qin; Lu, Minghua; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan; Cai, Zongwei

    2011-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible method using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-field amplified sample injection (FASI) was developed for the analysis of nine narcotics (morphine, codeine, naloxone, heroin, thebaine, cocaine, pethidine, fentanyl and methadone) in urine. In the MEEKC method, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1-butanol and ethyl acetate were used as surfactant, co-surfactant and organic solvent, respectively. The effects of the acidity and concentration of borate buffer, SDS, 1-butanol and ethyl acetate contents were investigated. The optimum concentrations (by mass fraction) of microemulsion system were 0.6% SDS, 1.2% 1-butanol, 0.6% ethyl acetate and 97.6% 10 mmol/L Na2B4O7 buffer (pH 9.5). The applied voltage was 25 kV. FASI was coupled with the MEEKC method to increase the sensitivity. Under the optimum conditions, the nine narcotics were baseline separated within 15 min and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were in the range of 0.3 - 8.0 microg/L. The spiked recoveries in urine samples were between 79.4% and 119.9% with the intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5.5%. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of methadone in the samples from in vitro metabolism study.

  15. Orbital Injection of the SEDSAT Satellite: Tethered Systems Dynamics and Flight Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Gullahorn, Gordon E.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Ruiz, Manuel; Pelaez, Jesus

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with the following topics which are all related to the orbital injection of the SEDSAT satellite: Dynamics and Stability of Tether Oscillations after the First Cut. The dynamics of the tether after the first cut (i.e., without the Shuttle attached to it) is investigated. The tether oscillations with the free end are analyzed in order to assess the stability of the rectilinear configuration in between the two tether cuts; analysis of Unstable Modes. The unstable modes that appear for high libration angles are further investigated in order to determine their occurrences and the possible transition from bound librations to rotations; Orbital Release Strategies for SEDSAT. A parametric analysis of the orbital decay rate of the SEDSAT satellite after the two tether cuts has been carried out as a function of the following free parameters: libration amplitude at the end of deployment, deviation angle from LV at the first cut, and orbital anomaly at the second cut. The values of these parameters that provide a minimum orbital decay rate of the satellite (after the two cuts) have been computed; and Dynamics and Control of SEDSAT. The deployment control law has been modified to cope with the new ejection velocity of the satellite from the Shuttle cargo bay. New reference profiles have been derived as well as new control parameters. Timing errors at the satellite release as a function of the variations of the initial conditions and the tension model parameters have been estimated for the modified control law.

  16. Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.

  17. Flow Injection Analysis and Liquid Chromatography for Multifunctional Chemical Analysis (MCA) Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Ana V.; Loegel, Thomas N.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    The large class sizes of first-year chemistry labs makes it challenging to provide students with hands-on access to instrumentation because the number of students typically far exceeds the number of research-grade instruments available to collect data. Multifunctional chemical analysis (MCA) systems provide a viable alternative for large-scale…

  18. Hyphenation of sequential- and flow injection analysis with FTIR-spectroscopy for chemical analysis in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, B.; Schindler, R.; Kellner, R.

    1998-06-01

    A survey of the principles of sequential (SIA)-and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems with FTIR spectroscopic detection is presented to introduce these hyphenations as powerful techniques for performing chemical analysis in aqueous solution. The strength of FIA/SIA-FTIR systems lies in the possibility to perform highly reproducible and automated sample manipulations such as sample clean-up and/or chemical reactions prior to spectrum acquisition. It is shown that the hyphenation of FIA/SIA systems with an FTIR spectrometer enhances the problem solving capabilities of the FTIR spectrometer as also parameters which can not be measured directly (e.g. enzyme activities) can be determined. On the other hand application of FTIR spectroscopic detection in FIA or SIA is also of advantage as it allows to shorten conventional analysis procedures (e.g. sucrose or phosphate analysis) or to establish and apply a multivariate calibration model for simultaneous determinations (e.g. glucose, fructose and sucrose analysis). In addition to these examples two recent instrumental developments in miniaturized FIA/SIA-FTIR systems, a μ-Flow through cell based on IR fiber optics and a micromachined SI-enzyme reactor are presented in this paper.

  19. Preliminary analysis of the use of electrical resistance tomography for injectate tracking at the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Creed, Bob; Daily, Bill

    1996-01-24

    Current geochemical and geophysical injectate tracking methods are useful reservoir management techniques but do not track injectate movement quick enough to maximize injection efficiency or avoid negative impacts on nearby steam production wells. A preliminary analysis indicates that two dimensional electrical resistance tomography (ERT) may be useful for imaging plume movement resulting from Geysers/Lake County Effluent Pipeline injectate in near real time. ERT models comparing an injection plume resistivity of 50 Ohm-m with background resistivities of 10, 100 (typical Geysers greywacke), and 500 Ohm-m (typical Geysers felsite) indicate that liquid plumes can be imaged at depths of 6,000 feet to 8,000 feet or greater for resistivity contrasts of 2 to 1 or greater. Further refinement of the ERT model could be accomplished with more data on porosity in the vicinity of the borehole, resistivity measurements, and reservoir engineering estimates of plume temperature and saturation. Based on the results of this analysis and previous successes in using ERT to map shallow subsurface steam and water movement in porous media it is likely, but not certain, that ERT will prove to be an additional reservoir management tool to be used in conjunction with additional geochemical, geophysical, and reservoir engineering techniques. A field scale test at The Geysers is required to verify the utility of ERT for injectate tracking. The goal of this paper is to stimulate discussion among geothermal researchers regarding use of the ERT technique for injectate tracking at The Geysers and get some input on the appropriateness and utility of the assumptions used.

  20. Study of the Effect of Injection Bevacizumab through Various Routes in Neovascular Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kushal U; Tandel, Dipali

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the effect of injection bevacizumab on iris neovascularization (NVI) and angle neovascularization (NVA) and compare its efficacy in terms of visual outcome, NVI, NVA, and intraocular pressure (IOP) control between intracameral, intravitreal, and combined use. Materials and methods: This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary center for patients of neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including 20 eyes of 20 patients. After thorough evaluation, patients were divided into three groups: Intracameral, intravitreal, or combined, according to the route of injection bevacizumab required. Results: About 30% of patients belonged to the age group 51 to 60 years of which 80% were female. In 50%, vein occlusion was the cause of NVG, and 50% needed intravitreal injection bevacizumab. After 4th week of injection 90% and after 12th week 60% were found to have absence of NVI. Patients who had IOP in the range of 11 to 20 mm Hg and 21 to 30 mm Hg showed lower IOP as compared to other groups. But no significant difference was noted in higher IOP groups. Only two patients required antiglaucoma surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in visual outcomes in any groups. In all routes, there were statistically significant changes in NVI and NVG in the 1st and 4th weeks. Conclusion: The effect of injection in all routes deteriorates after 8 weeks. Intracameral route of injection is found to be most effective in terms of control of IOP. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in any route. Injection bevacizumab is effective and statistically significant in reducing the need of antiglaucoma surgery for NVG patients. How to cite this article: Bhagat PR, Agrawal KU, Tandel D. Study of the Effect of Injection Bevacizumab through Various Routes in Neovascular Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2016;10(2):39-48. PMID:27536046

  1. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Injection-Induced Seismicity Utilizing Physics-Based Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S.; Foxall, W.; Savy, J. B.; Hutchings, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    Risk associated with induced seismicity is a significant factor in the design, permitting and operation of enhanced geothermal, geological CO2 sequestration, wastewater disposal, and other fluid injection projects. The conventional probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach provides a framework for estimation of induced seismicity hazard but requires adaptation to address the particular occurrence characteristics of induced earthquakes and to estimation of the ground motions they generate. The assumption often made in conventional PSHA of Poissonian earthquake occurrence in both space and time is clearly violated by seismicity induced by an evolving pore pressure field. Our project focuses on analyzing hazard at the pre-injection design and permitting stage, before an induced earthquake catalog can be recorded. In order to accommodate the commensurate lack of pre-existing data, we have adopted a numerical physics-based approach to synthesizing and estimating earthquake frequency-magnitude distributions. Induced earthquake sequences are generated using the program RSQSIM (Dieterich and Richards-Dinger, PAGEOPH, 2010) augmented to simulate pressure-induced shear failure on faults and fractures embedded in a 3D geological structure under steady-state tectonic shear loading. The model uses available site-specific data on rock properties and in-situ stress, and generic values of frictional properties appropriate to the shallow reservoir depths at which induced events usually occur. The space- and time-evolving pore pressure field is coupled into the simulation from a multi-phase flow model. In addition to potentially damaging ground motions, induced seismicity poses a risk of perceived nuisance in nearby communities caused by relatively frequent, low magnitude earthquakes. Including these shallow local earthquakes in the hazard analysis requires extending the magnitude range considered to as low as M2 and the frequency band to include the short

  2. A simple direct injection method for GC/MS analysis of PAHs in particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Ono-Ogasawara, Mariko; Myojo, Toshihiko; Smith, Thomas J

    2008-12-01

    A simple direct injection method for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or other organic components of particulate matter by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed. This method uses a small custom brass capsule to insert a particulate sample deposited on a quartz fiber filter or powdery sample directly into a GC injector inlet. This approach was applied in the analysis of PAHs in diesel emissions and other particulate samples, which are introduced into the GC and analyzed by MS using selected ion monitoring mode. Quantitation is based on the concentration of PAHs in a standard reference material (SRM), which are certified by US National Institute of Standard Technology to avoid matrix effects on extraction efficiency. A standard filter is prepared by deposition of small amount of SRM of diesel particulate or ambient PM on quartz fiber filter. By this method, the linearity for 12 kinds of PAHs (3 to 6 rings) was demonstrated from 0.022 mg to 0.65 mg of SRM 1650. The linearity of BaP, for example, was confirmed from 0.028 to 0.845 ng. The reproducibility of this method determined by analyzing the standard filter was 15.4%. By selecting an appropriate SRM as a standard material, this method is applicable for analyzing PAHs in fine particulate matter of less than 1 microm from various origins. Preliminary results for a series of ambient particulate matter, roadside PM, diesel soot and sidestream smoke, are presented. This method enables analysis of organic chemical substances, for example PAHs, in PM without any pretreatment using organic solvent, and without any expensive modification of GC instrument.

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Analysis of the thermo-optic effect in lateral-carrier-injection SOI ridge waveguide devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiate, Zhao; Yong, Zhao; Wanjun, Wang; Yinlei, Hao; Qiang, Zhou; Jianyi, Yang; Minghua, Wang; Xiaoqing, Jiang

    2010-06-01

    The thermo-optic effect in the lateral-carrier-injection pin junction SOI ridge waveguide is analyzed according to the thermal field equation. Numerical analysis and experimental results show that the thermo-optic effect caused by carrier injection is significant in such devices, especially for small structure ones. For a device with a 1000 μm modulation length, the refractive index rise introduced by heat accounts for 1/8 of the total effect under normal working conditions. A proposal of adjusting the electrode position to cool the devices to diminish the thermal-optic effect is put forward.

  4. Microfluidic Flow Injection Analysis with Thermal Lens Microscopic Detection for Determination of NGAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanović, Tatjana; Liu, Mingqiang; Likar, Polona; Klemenc, Matjaž; Franko, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    A combined microfluidic flow injection analysis-thermal lens microscopy (FIA-TLM) system was applied for determination of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)—a biomarker of acute kidney injury. NGAL was determined following a commercial ELISA assay and transfer of the resulting solution into the FIA-TLM system with a 100 m deep microchannel. At an excitation power of 100 mW, the FIA-TLM provided about seven times lower limits of detection (1.5 pg as compared to a conventional ELISA test, and a sample throughput of six samples per minute, which compares favorably with sample throughput of the microtiter plate reader, which reads 96 wells in about 30 min. Comparison of results for NGAL in plasma samples from healthy individuals and for NGAL dynamics in patients undergoing coronary angiography measured with transmission mode spectrometry on a microtiter plate reader and with FIA-TLM showed good agreement. In addition to improved LOD, the high sensitivity of FIA-TLM offers possibilities of a further reduction of the total reaction time of the NGAL ELISA test by sacrificing some of the sensitivity while reducing the duration of individual incubation steps.

  5. Spectrofluorimetric kinetic determination of selenium (IV) by flow injection analysis in cationic micellar medium.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Mirzaee, M

    2000-02-01

    A sensitive catalytic kinetic spectrofluorimetric method for determining ng ml(-1) of selenium by flow injection analysis has been developed. The method, based on the catalytic effect of Se (IV) on the reduction of resorufin by sulphide, in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride, is monitored spectrofluorimetrically (lambda(ex)=480 nm; lambda(em)=583 nm). The linearity range of the calibration graph is dependent on the concentration of sulphide. The variables affecting the rate of the reaction were investigated. The method is simple, rapid, precise, sensitive, and widely applicable. The limit of detection is 1 ng ml(-1) Se (IV), and the calibration range is 5-1000 ng ml(-1). Sampling rate is 60 samples h(-1), and the relative standard deviation of 12 determinations of 100 ng ml(-1) Se was 0.76%. The determination of Se (IV) in the presence of Se (VI) and total selenium is described. The method was applied to the determination of Se in selenium tablets, and several synthetic samples.

  6. Flow injection analysis of nitrate and nitrite in commercial baby foods.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Adrian A; Prasad, Surendra

    2016-04-15

    Commercial baby foods are an easy alternative to home-made meals especially for working parents in a nuclear family therefore it is imperative to determine the nitrate and nitrite content in commercially available baby foods varieties marketed in Fiji. A total of 108 baby food samples were analyzed for nitrate and nitrite using our standardized flow injection analysis (FIA) technique with colorimetric detection technique employing sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as color reagents where the samples throughput was 38 h(-1). The commercial baby food varieties chosen comprised of vegetables, cereals, fruits and milk. The study shows that the nitrate content of the baby foods studied ranges from 2.10 to 220.67 mg kg(-1) whereas the nitrite content ranges from 0.44 to 3.67 mg kg(-1). Typical recoveries of spiked nitrate residues ranged from 92% to 106%. The study shows that the average nitrate content of commercially available baby foods in Fiji descends below the maximum level proposed by the European Union Legislation. PMID:26616981

  7. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol on titania nanotubes functionalised indium tin oxide glass for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Xiao, Changbin; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    The titania nanotubes (TiNTs) had been immobilised onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass to intensify the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The morphology, structure and properties such as specific surface area and transmittance of synthesised TiNTs were characterised. The results indicated that the TiNTs was several hundred nanometres in length with the diameter of 20 nm. In flow injection analysis (FIA) mode, the TiNTs dramatically enhanced the ECL emission of luminol for about 25 multiple, meanwhile decreased the requirement of buffer pH and exciting potential. The ECL emission of luminol on functionalised ITO electrode has sensitive response toward hydrogen peroxide, and extraordinarily responsive toward the antioxidant. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL emission exhibited a linear response within the concentration range from 0.1 mg L(-1) to 30 mg L(-1) and an absolute detection limit of 1.65×10(-10) g of resveratrol. The gross antioxidant activity of blueberry and kiwi were determined with satisfactory recoveries.

  8. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample. PMID:22165025

  9. Flow injection analysis of nitrate and nitrite in commercial baby foods.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Adrian A; Prasad, Surendra

    2016-04-15

    Commercial baby foods are an easy alternative to home-made meals especially for working parents in a nuclear family therefore it is imperative to determine the nitrate and nitrite content in commercially available baby foods varieties marketed in Fiji. A total of 108 baby food samples were analyzed for nitrate and nitrite using our standardized flow injection analysis (FIA) technique with colorimetric detection technique employing sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as color reagents where the samples throughput was 38 h(-1). The commercial baby food varieties chosen comprised of vegetables, cereals, fruits and milk. The study shows that the nitrate content of the baby foods studied ranges from 2.10 to 220.67 mg kg(-1) whereas the nitrite content ranges from 0.44 to 3.67 mg kg(-1). Typical recoveries of spiked nitrate residues ranged from 92% to 106%. The study shows that the average nitrate content of commercially available baby foods in Fiji descends below the maximum level proposed by the European Union Legislation.

  10. Kinetic flow-injection analysis of boron using 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde and H-acid.

    PubMed

    Sarenqiqige; Kodani, Takamasa; Kajiwara, Mari; Takehara, Kô; Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Boric acid reacts with 5-fluorosalicylaldehyde (F-SA) and 8-amino-1-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid (HA) to form the boric acid-fluoroazomethine H complex (F-AzB) that is now being used for the flow-injection analysis (FIA) of boric acid. At pH 6.5, the F-AzB complexation proceeded fairly fast, whereas the fluoroazomethine H (F-AzH) formation was slow. Thus, highly sensitive measurement of F-AzB was possible if the reaction time was controlled using the FIA method to decrease the background absorbance of F-AzH at the analytical wavelength. The optimum conditions for the color developing reaction were investigated for single and dual channel systems. The former system was simple, applicable to the determination of boron in reversed osmosis (RO) desalination water with a detection limit (LOD) of 4 μg B dm(-3). For the latter system, the calibration range was 0.005 to 10 mg B dm(-3) with an LOD of 1 μg B dm(-3), which can be applicable to natural water analyses of boron. These methods could analyze 15 - 20 samples in one hour. The results of the boron concentration measurement for water samples from an RO desalination plant, industrial wastewater and river water were in fairly good agreement with those obtained by other methods.

  11. Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0 μg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032 μg mL-1 and 0.055 μg mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n = 11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60 h-1.

  12. Visualization analysis of injection molding phenomena in hot-runner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Hidetoshi; Kanetoh, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Ryohei; Endo, Takumi; Chang, Hao; Chayamichi, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Various unsolved defects are known to occur in hot-runner molds, such as stagnation of resins in the manifold channel, asymmetrical cavity filling behavior, flow marks, gate marks, etc. We have been clarifying the causes of various molding defects specifically using visualization technologies inside mold cavity and manifold. This report introduces and discusses the following topics, particularly focusing on clarifying the behavior of resins; (1) Comparison of the imbalanced cavity filling phenomena in between side-fed and center-fed types of valve-gate hot-runner systems, (2) Visualization analysis of the melt flow behaviors and stagnation phenomena inside hot-runner manifolds, (3) Behavior of each stagnant melt around the valve-pin and inner hot-nozzle surfaces, (4) Void generation phenomena remaining on the surface of the valve-pin tip, (5) Melt temperature distribution on the cavity surface during the filling process, (6) Melt temperature profile inside the flowing melt injected from the valve gate, etc.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of magnesium in pharmaceutical preparations by cost-effective sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Tesfaldet, Zeriet O; van Staden, Jacobus F; Stefan, Raluca I

    2004-11-15

    A simple and rapid, inexpensive spectrophotometric method was proposed for magnesium assay in pharmaceutical preparations by sequential injection analysis (SIA). The method is based on the reaction between o-cresolphthalein complexone (CPC) and Mg(II) in alkaline media, yielding a pink colored complex with absorption maximum at 570nm. Since the formation constant between Ca-CPC and Mg-CPC is similar, initially a sample/standard solution was aspirated into the holding coil followed by a mixture of masking-buffer solutions. This was done because masking of calcium should be accomplished before Mg-CPC complexation. Then the reagent was introduced into the reaction coil to produce a colored complex, which is measured spectrophotometrically at 570nm. In this way the interference of calcium was reduced. Furthermore, all the parameters that affect the reaction were evaluated. The calibration curve is linear over a range of 0-20mgl(-1) of Mg(II) with a detection limit of 0.24mgl(-1). A sample throughput of 80 samples per hour and relative standard deviation <2.0% were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the assay of magnesium in three different compositions of pharmaceutical preparations (tablets). The results were found to be in good agreement with the manual flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods and with the claimed values by the manufactures. The t-test shows no significant difference at 95% confidence level.

  14. Sensitive and simple flow injection analysis of formaldehyde using an activated barrel plating nickel electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yen; Yangi, Hsueh-Hui; Zen, Jyh-Myng; Shih, Ying

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection analysis coupled with electrochemical detection at an activated barrel plating nickel electrode (Ni-BPE) was developed as a sensitive, simple, and low-cost formaldehyde sensor. The mechanism of Ni-BPE toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline medium at ambient temperature was proposed to be based on the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde by Ni(III)O(OH) species. Under the optimized conditions (flow rate = 1.2 mL/min; detection potential = +0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl), a good linearity in the window of 0.037 to 10 microg/mL formaldehyde was observed, and the LOD of 0.23 microg/L was calculated. The RSDs of intraday (n = 10) and interday (n = 6) replicate measurements of 0.185-5 microg/mL formaldehyde ranged from 1.45 to 3.60%, indicating good reproducibility of the proposed method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of formaldehyde in commercial nail polish samples and a drinking water sample.

  15. Determination of Trace Nickel in Natural Water by Flow Injection Analysis with Cetrimonium Bromide as Sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. X.; Zhang, C. X.; Li, N.; Zhang, X. S.

    2015-11-01

    2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is a highly sensitive chromogenic reagent that can react with most of the transition and alkaline earth metals. The Ni(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex is more stable than other metal-5-Br-PADAP complexes. In the presence of seignette salt, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can decompose most of the 5-Br-PADAP complexes with metals except for iron, cobalt, and nickel. Cetrimonium bromide (CTMAB) as a sensitizer for the color reaction forms a ternary complex with nickel and 5-Br-PADAP with maximum absorption wavelength at 561 nm. CTMAB can significantly improve the sensitivity and selectivity of nickel determination, as well as the stability and solubility of compounds. In this study, the determination of trace nickel in natural water samples was performed by flow injection analysis. The calibration lines were established in the range of 0-200 μg/l of nickel (n ≥ 3), and the limit of detection was 0.093 μg/l. The relative standard deviation was 2.55% for the determination of 25 μg/l nickel (n ≥ 20). The recoveries of this method ranged from 91.0 to 101% for environmental water samples. A large amount of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, bicarbonate, magnesium, zinc, and iron, except for cobalt, did not interfere with the determination of nickel.

  16. Irreversible and reversible reactive chromatography: analytical solutions and moment analysis for rectangular pulse injections.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Sameena; Qamar, Shamsul; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    This work is concerned with the analysis of models for linear reactive chromatography describing irreversible A→B and reversible A↔B reactions. In contrast to previously published results rectangular reactant pulses are injected into initially empty or pre-equilibrated columns assuming both Dirichlet and Danckwerts boundary conditions. The models consist of two partial differential equations, accounting for convection, longitudinal dispersion and first order chemical reactions. Due to the effect of involved mechanisms on solute transport, analytical and numerical solutions of the models could be helpful to understand, design and optimize chromatographic reactors. The Laplace transformation is applied to solve the model equations analytically for linear adsorption isotherms. Statistical temporal moments are derived from solutions in the Laplace domain. Analytical results are compared with numerical predictions generated using a high-resolution finite volume scheme for two sets of boundary conditions. Several case studies are carried out to analyze reactive liquid chromatographic processes for a wide range of mass transfer and reaction kinetics. Good agreements in the results validate the correctness of the analytical solutions and accuracy of the proposed numerical algorithm.

  17. The determination of trace lead in Chinese medicinal herbs by flow injection analysis in polyethyleneglycol medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaqin

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pb 2+ in Chinese medicinal herbs was developed. In the buffer solution of borax-NaOH (pH 10.5), Pb 2+ reacted with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)-azo]-5-(diethyl-amino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) to form a complex. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was enhanced in the presence of polyethyleneglycol-800 (PG-800). The main factors affecting the determination were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range and detection limit is 0.0-0.3 μg/mL and 1.5 ng/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.9996), respectively. The linear regression equation is A = -0.005 + 0.60 c (μg/mL). The sample throughout is 10 h -1. Foreign substrates effects were also investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in reference material, goldthread and lepidium seed.

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy of Intravitreal Aflibercept and Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Kang; Su, Pei-Yuan; Hsu, Yung-Ray; Chen, Yun-Ju; Chen, Fang-Ting; Tseng, Ying-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-two eyes of 52 patients with treatment-naïve macular edema associated with perfused branch retinal vein occlusion were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven cases received PRN intravitreal bevacizumab, and 25 cases were treated by PRN intravitreal aflibercept with monthly follow-ups for 12 months. Both aflibercept and bevacizumab were effective in reduction of macular thickness and improvement of visual acuity for the participants. Both antivascular endothelial growth factor agents had similar efficacy and duration of treatment for these eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion during a 12-month period. No serious systemic or ocular adverse events were reported. PMID:27190640

  19. Laser Photocoagulation Induces Transduction of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Intravitreally Administered Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kong, Yoon Jin; Lyu, Jungmook; Lee, Heuiran; Park, Keerang; Park, Tae Kwann

    2015-10-01

    Retinal transduction by intravitreally administered adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector is previously known to be extremely limited to the neural retina except AAV2 capsid type. Recently, we showed that prior laser photocoagulation enhances retinal transduction of intravitreally administered AAV vectors, including the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Here, by performing short-pulse laser pretreatment on the mouse retina, we demonstrate RPE cells transduced by three different capsid types of AAV vectors, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV8, using RPE wholemounts. For all capsid types, laser pretreatment effectively induced the transduction of RPE cells in and around the laser site.

  20. Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.

    2005-09-01

    The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

  1. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector), the device will usually be applied to your ...

  2. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  3. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  4. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the ... other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Optimization of field-amplified sample injection for analysis of peptides by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2006-07-15

    A versatile experimental approach is described to achieve very high sensitivity analysis of peptides by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry with sheath flow configuration based on optimization of field-amplified sample injection. Compared to traditional hydrodynamic injection methods, signal enhancement in terms of detection sensitivity of the bioanalytes by more than 3000-fold can be achieved. The effects of injection conditions, composition of the acid and organic solvent in the sample solution, length of the water plug, sample injection time, and voltage on the efficiency of the sample stacking have been systematically investigated, with peptides in the low-nanomolar (10(-9) M) range readily detected under the optimized conditions. Linearity of the established stacking method was found to be excellent over 2 orders of magnitude of concentration. The method was further evaluated for the analysis of low concentration bioactive peptide mixtures and tryptic digests of proteins. A distinguishing feature of the described approach is that it can be employed directly for the analysis of low-abundance protein fragments generated by enzymatic digestion and a reversed-phase-based sample-desalting procedure. Thus, rapid identification of protein fragments as low-abundance analytes can be achieved with this new approach by comparison of the actual tandem mass spectra of selected peptides with the predicted fragmentation patterns using online database searching algorithms. PMID:16841892

  6. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ << 1, M <1; (2) Γ << 1, M =1; (3) Γ << 1, M >1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low

  7. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-07-13

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  8. Clinical Effect of Shenfu Injection in Patients with Septic Shock: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Zijun; Lv, Zhengtao; Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Xu, Qun; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy of Shenfu injection for treating patients with septic shock when compared with conventional therapy. Methods. Eight databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and CBM were searched up to October 2014. Randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of Shenfu injection were identified. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, lactate, and mortality were included as outcome measurements. Results. We analyzed data from 12 randomized controlled trials involving 904 participants. Compared with conventional therapy, Shenfu injection could further increase the mean arterial pressure at 1 hour (SMD 0.38; 95% CI, 0.01–0.74) and 6 hours (SMD 0.82; 95% CI, 0.03–1.61). Shenfu injection could further normalize heart rate at 6 hours (SMD −0.90; 95% CI, −1.47–0.33) and clear serum lactate at 6 hours (SMD −0.51; 95% CI, −0.70–0.32) and 24 hours (SMD, 0.52; 95% CI, −0.77–0.26). As the endpoint of mortality was not unified, it was not meta-analyzed. Conclusions. Based on the findings in present review, Shenfu injection is more effective than conventional therapy in increasing mean arterial pressure, normalizing heart rate, clearing serum lactate, and reducing mortality. These results should be confirmed in higher level clinical trials in the future. PMID:26199638

  9. Short-Term Cessation of Sex Work and Injection Drug Use: Evidence from a Recurrent Event Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Urada, Lianne; Martinez, Gustavo; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Rangel, Gudelia; Reed, Elizabeth; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study quantitatively examined the prevalence and correlates of short-term sex work cessation among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) and determined whether injection drug use was independently associated with cessation. Methods We used data from FSW-IDUs (n=467) enrolled into an intervention designed to increase condom use and decrease sharing of injection equipment but was not designed to promote sex work cessation. We applied a survival analysis that accounted for quit-re-entry patterns of sex work over 1-year stratified by city, Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Results Overall, 55% of participants stopped sex work at least once during follow-up. Controlling for other characteristics and intervention assignment, injection drug use was inversely associated with short-term sex work cessation in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, women receiving drug treatment during follow-up had a 2-fold increase in the hazard of stopping sex work. In both cities, income from sources other than sex work, police interactions and healthcare access were independently and significantly associated with shorter-term cessation. Conclusions Short-term sex work cessation was significantly affected by injection drug use. Expanded drug treatment and counseling coupled with supportive services such as relapse prevention, job training, and provision of alternate employment opportunities may promote longer-term cessation among women motivated to leave the sex industry. PMID:25644589

  10. Analysis of Anaphylactic Shock Caused by 17 Types of Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections Used to Treat Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-Jiao; Wang, De-Wang; Meng, Ling; Wang, Yong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Several reports describing anaphylactic shock following treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese herbal injections were described. Our analysis of these reports showed that anaphylactic shock caused by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is common but also sometimes fatal. Therefore, we proposed the following four suggestions for improving the clinical safety of delivering Chinese herbal injections and reducing the occurrence of allergic shock. First, patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are at high risk, so they should only be given TCM injections after a doctor's diagnosis and approval. Second, people in allergic groups can suffer anaphylactic shock, so vigilance is important in the treatment of all age groups, although even more caution should be exercised when treating children or elderly people. In fact, TCM injections may not be appropriate for those age groups, so that they should be carefully considered before treatment. Third, no significant gender differences have been noted in patients with anaphylactic shock, so all patients should be carefully monitored, irrespective of gender. Fourth, the timeframe in which different drugs cause anaphylactic shock varies; thus, patients should be observed as long as possible. PMID:26000291

  11. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  12. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  13. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for

  14. Analysis of Removal Torque of Injection Molded Zirconia Implants; An Experimental Study on Beagles.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Ban, Jae-Sam; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lee, Kwang-Min; Vang, Mong-Sook; Yang, Hong-So; Kang, Seong-Soo; Shin, Jin-Ho; Kim, Ga-Hyun; Ji, Min-Kyung; Park, Sang-Won; Fisher, John G

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the removal torque between injection molded zirconia implants and titanium implants with resorbable blast media (RBM) surfaces in beagle humeri. Fifteen screw-shaped implants were classified into 3 groups; titanium implant with RBM surface (Group RT), injection molded zirconia implant (Group Zr) and injection molded zirconia implant with sand-blasted surface (Group ZrS). Implants were inserted into beagle humeri. After 12 weeks, removal torque values were measured. The Zr group has a slightly higher removal torque value than the RT and ZrS groups but there were no significant differences among groups. Zirconia implants shows a similar removal torque to RBM titanium implants. This in vivo study showed injection molded zirconia implants could be an alternative to RBM titanium implants in terms of removal torque.

  15. Theoretical and experimental analysis of injection seeding a Q-switched alexandrite laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, C. R.; Lee, H. S.; Glesne, T. R.; Monosmith, B.; Schwemmer, G. K.

    1991-01-01

    Injection seeding is a method for achieving linewidths of less than 500 MHz in the output of broadband, tunable, solid state lasers. Dye lasers, CW and pulsed diode lasers, and other solid state lasers have been used as injection seeders. By optimizing the fundamental laser parameters of pump energy, Q-switched pulse build-up time, injection seed power and mode matching, one can achieve significant improvements in the spectral purity of the Q-switched output. These parameters are incorporated into a simple model for analyzing spectral purity and pulse build-up processes in a Q-switched, injection-seeded laser. Experiments to optimize the relevant parameters of an alexandrite laser show good agreement.

  16. Off-design analysis of a gas turbine powerplant augmented by steam injection using various fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Results are compared using coal derived low and intermediate heating valve fuel gases and a conventional distillate. The results indicate that steam injection provides substantial increases in both power and efficiency within the available compressor surge margin. The results also indicate that these performance gains are relatively insensitive as to the type of fuel. Also, in a cogeneration application, steam injection could provide some degree of flexibility by varying the split between power and process steam.

  17. Analysis of the response of the Raft River monitor wells to the 1979 injection tests

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.G.; Callan, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    The geothermal resource for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Raft River Geothermal 5 MWe Power Project is located in a closed ground water basin in southcentral Idaho. Chemical analyses indicate the existence of natural communication along fractures between the geothermal reservoir and the shallower aquifers developed for irrigation. Much of the ground water that is presently used for irrigation is of poor quality. Injection of geothermal fluids at intermediate depths may increase communication between the reservoir and the aquifer, resulting in further degradation of shallow ground water quality over time. Seven monitor wells, ranging in depth from 150 m to 400 m, were drilled to evaluate the potential for this degradation. Monitoring of these wells during two 21-day injection tests at the Raft River Geothermal Injection Well-6 (RRGI-6) indicates two types of response in the shallow aquifer system. First, the water level in Monitor Well-4 (MW-4) increased an average of 0.4 m/week during injection, indicating direct fracture connection between the injection zone and the aquifer penetrated by MW-4. Second, water levels in MW-5, MW-6, and MW-7 showed a step function decrease which coincided with the period of the injection tests. Analyses indicate that this response may be caused by elastic deformation in the aquifer matrix.

  18. Analysis of Tests of Subsurface Injection, Storage, and Recovery of Freshwater in Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Steven P.; Carlson, Carl S.; Metzger, Loren F.; Howle, James F.; Galloway, Devin L.; Sneed, Michelle; Ikehara, Marti E.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; King, Nancy E.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water levels in Lancaster, California, declined more than 200 feet during the 20th century, resulting in reduced ground-water supplies and more than 6 feet of land subsidence. Facing continuing population growth, water managers are seeking solutions to these problems. Injection of imported, treated fresh water into the aquifer system when it is most available and least expensive, for later use during high-demand periods, is being evaluated as part of a management solution. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, monitored a pilot injection program, analyzed the hydraulic and subsidence-related effects of injection, and developed a simulation/optimization model to help evaluate the effectiveness of using existing and proposed wells in an injection program for halting the decline of ground-water levels and avoiding future land subsidence while meeting increasing ground-water demand. A variety of methods were used to measure aquifer-system response to injection. Water levels were measured continuously in nested (multi-depth) piezometers and monitoring wells and periodically in other wells that were within several miles of the injection site. Microgravity surveys were done to estimate changes in the elevation of the water table in the absence of wells and to estimate specific yield. Aquifer-system deformation was measured directly and continuously using a dual borehole extensometer and indirectly using continuous Global Positioning System (GPS), first-order spirit leveling, and an array of tiltmeters. The injected water and extracted water were sampled periodically and analyzed for constituents, including chloride and trihalomethanes. Measured injection rates of about 750 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well at the injection site during a 5-month period showed that injection at or above the average extraction rates at that site (about 800 gal/min) was

  19. Fast quantification of α-lipoic acid in biological samples and dietary supplements using batch injection analysis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Santos Pereira, Laise Nayra Dos; da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Araújo, Thaylan Pinheiro; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Angnes, Lúcio

    2016-07-01

    Batch injection analysis (BIA) with amperometric detection, using a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (PG/CoPc), was employed for determination of α-lipoic acid (ALA) in pharmaceutical product and in synthetic urine samples. The proposed BIA method is based on the application of a potential of +0.9V vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl sat, enabling quantification of ALA over a concentration range from 1.3×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-8)molL(-1). A sampling rate of 180 injections per hour was attained and measurements of the reproducibility of successive injections (100µmolL(-1) ALA on the same electrode) showed a RSD of 2.11% for 40 successive injections. The new sensor was utilised for ALA quantification in a dietary pharmaceutical supplement and in synthetic urine and the results obtained for both samples were compared with parallel analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the method recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia. The results obtained were similar (at a 95% confidence level) and in the case of the synthetic urine sample (prepared with a known amount of ALA) the recovery was situated between 98.0% and 102.6%.

  20. Fast quantification of α-lipoic acid in biological samples and dietary supplements using batch injection analysis with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Santos Pereira, Laise Nayra Dos; da Silva, Iranaldo Santos; Araújo, Thaylan Pinheiro; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Angnes, Lúcio

    2016-07-01

    Batch injection analysis (BIA) with amperometric detection, using a pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with cobalt phthalocyanine (PG/CoPc), was employed for determination of α-lipoic acid (ALA) in pharmaceutical product and in synthetic urine samples. The proposed BIA method is based on the application of a potential of +0.9V vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl sat, enabling quantification of ALA over a concentration range from 1.3×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-4)molL(-1), with a detection limit of 1.5×10(-8)molL(-1). A sampling rate of 180 injections per hour was attained and measurements of the reproducibility of successive injections (100µmolL(-1) ALA on the same electrode) showed a RSD of 2.11% for 40 successive injections. The new sensor was utilised for ALA quantification in a dietary pharmaceutical supplement and in synthetic urine and the results obtained for both samples were compared with parallel analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the method recommended by the United States Pharmacopeia. The results obtained were similar (at a 95% confidence level) and in the case of the synthetic urine sample (prepared with a known amount of ALA) the recovery was situated between 98.0% and 102.6%. PMID:27154671

  1. Metagenomic Analysis Indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a Potential Cause of Microbial Corrosion in Pipelines Injected with Bisulfite.

    PubMed

    An, Dongshan; Dong, Xiaoli; An, Annie; Park, Hyung S; Strous, Marc; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Sodium bisulfite (SBS) is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur, and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reduction of aqueous protons at the iron surface, or use low potential electrons from iron and aqueous protons directly for sulfate reduction. In order to reveal the effects of SBS treatment in more detail, metagenomic analysis was performed with pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from a pipe section upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP) of the SBS injection point. A major SBS-induced change in microbial community composition and in affiliated hynL genes for the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenase was the appearance of sulfur-metabolizing Epsilonproteobacteria of the genera Sulfuricurvum and Sulfurovum. These are chemolithotrophs, which oxidize sulfide or sulfur with O2 or reduce sulfur with H2. Because O2 was absent, this class likely catalyzed reduction of sulfur (S(0)) originating from the metabolism of bisulfite with cathodic H2 (or low potential electrons and aqueous protons) originating from the corrosion of steel (Fe(0)). Overall this accelerates reaction of of S(0) and Fe(0) to form FeS, making this class a potentially powerful contributor to microbial corrosion. The PAS-821TP metagenome also had increased fractions of Deltaproteobacteria including the SRB Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa. Altogether, SBS increased the fraction of hydrogen-utilizing Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria in brackish-water-transporting pipelines, potentially stimulating anaerobic pipeline corrosion if dosed in excess of the intended oxygen scavenger function. PMID:26858705

  2. An experimental analysis of lateral jet injection into confined swirling crossflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fintel, Bradley W.

    Recently, attention has been devoted to better understanding the complex flows inherent to gas turbine combustors so that fuel efficiency and flame stability may be enhanced. As a contributing factor to the success of these two endeavors, the laterally oriented diffusion jets must be characterized accurately. The current experiment measures lateral jets as injected into a variety of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric flowfields using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and characterizes the general flowfield behavior through the laser sheet method of flow visualization. The investigation also introduces an alternate means of effectively simulating the resulting jet trajectory in a confined circular crossflow. Through a dimensional analysis of the measured data, it was concluded that the jet penetration distances, z/D(sub j), for the nonswirling crossflow cases were found to be best represented in terms of a jet to crossflow momentum ratio, J, and an axial distance, x/D(sub j), according to: z/D(sub j) = 1.373(J)(exp 0.3882)(x/D(sub j))(exp 0.3878). A three dimensional force balance approach was also investigated. The jet trajectory was deduced from the path of a solid sphere. The sphere diameter was found to be a function of the trajectory and the jet to crossflow velocity ratio. The agreement reached between data presented herein and results of previous 2D analyses utilizing conventional hot wire anemometry and pilot probe techniques lends credibility to the LDA measurement technique. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated how a two color, two component LDA data acquisition system offers a desirable alternative for obtaining velocity measurements within a confined rotating flow. In addition, the drag force analogy coupled with the numerical method analyses were found to provide a low cost means of estimating three dimensional jet trajectories for a wide range of crossflow conditions.

  3. Metagenomic Analysis Indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a Potential Cause of Microbial Corrosion in Pipelines Injected with Bisulfite

    PubMed Central

    An, Dongshan; Dong, Xiaoli; An, Annie; Park, Hyung S.; Strous, Marc; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Sodium bisulfite (SBS) is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur, and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reduction of aqueous protons at the iron surface, or use low potential electrons from iron and aqueous protons directly for sulfate reduction. In order to reveal the effects of SBS treatment in more detail, metagenomic analysis was performed with pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from a pipe section upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP) of the SBS injection point. A major SBS-induced change in microbial community composition and in affiliated hynL genes for the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenase was the appearance of sulfur-metabolizing Epsilonproteobacteria of the genera Sulfuricurvum and Sulfurovum. These are chemolithotrophs, which oxidize sulfide or sulfur with O2 or reduce sulfur with H2. Because O2 was absent, this class likely catalyzed reduction of sulfur (S0) originating from the metabolism of bisulfite with cathodic H2 (or low potential electrons and aqueous protons) originating from the corrosion of steel (Fe0). Overall this accelerates reaction of of S0 and Fe0 to form FeS, making this class a potentially powerful contributor to microbial corrosion. The PAS-821TP metagenome also had increased fractions of Deltaproteobacteria including the SRB Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa. Altogether, SBS increased the fraction of hydrogen-utilizing Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria in brackish-water-transporting pipelines, potentially stimulating anaerobic pipeline corrosion if dosed in excess of the intended oxygen scavenger function. PMID:26858705

  4. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of cinobufacini injection using rapid separation liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and HPLC-photodiode array detection, a feasible strategy for the quality control of Chinese medicine injections.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyu; Wu, Xu; Wang, Hongjie; Gao, Bo; Yang, Jian; Si, Nan; Bian, Baolin

    2013-02-01

    Cinobufacini injection, prepared from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, has presented its significant effects on the treatment of hepatitis and various cancers in the clinic. However, as an unclear complex chemical system, the optimization of its quality control markers has been a long-term challenge. In present study, a feasible strategy integrated markers screening, determination, and statistical analysis was efficiently proposed, especially for the undefined Chinese medicine injections. First, rapid separation LC-quadrupole-TOF-MS method was applied in the identification of 19 major compounds in the cinobufacini injection for the first time. Further, nine high-level contents active compounds were selected as quality control markers for the quantification analysis. An acceptable and validated determination method was established in 17 batches of cinobufacini injection by HPLC-photodiode array detection method, including linear regression relationship (r(2), 0.9996-1), precisions (RSD, 0.02-1.35%), repeatability (RSD, 0.05-1.97%), stability (RSD, 0.1-3.85%), and recovery (95.88-104.89%). Each analyte was detected at its maximum ultraviolet spectra wavelength. Finally, based on the quantification results, principal component analysis was performed on the quality assessment of cinobufacini injections. This three-step strategy provides a newly feasible solution for the quality control of Chinese medicine injections.

  6. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of proposed supervised injection facilities in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper will determine whether expanding Insite (North America’s first and only supervised injection facility) to more locations in Canada such as Montreal, cost less than the health care consequences of not having such expanded programs for injection drug users. Methods By analyzing secondary data gathered in 2012, this paper relies on mathematical models to estimate the number of new HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infections prevented as a result of additional SIF locations in Montreal. Results With very conservative estimates, it is predicted that the addition of each supervised injection facility (up-to a maximum of three) in Montreal will on average prevent 11 cases of HIV and 65 cases of HCV each year. As a result, there is a net cost saving of CDN$0.686 million (HIV) and CDN$0.8 million (HCV) for each additional supervised injection site each year. This translates into a net average benefit-cost ratio of 1.21: 1 for both HIV and HCV. Conclusions Funding supervised injection facilities in Montreal appears to be an efficient and effective use of financial resources in the public health domain. PMID:23837814

  7. [Analysis of 103 cases with adverse drug reactions induced by sanqizongzaogan injection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yamei; Li, Yaowang; Zhu, Guanghui

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the characteristics and relative factors of adverse drug reactions (ADR) induced by sanqizongzaogan injection, in order to provide reference for the clinical use of sanqizongzaogan injection properly. The 103 reported cases of ADR induced by sanqizongzaogan injection in China over 15 years were retrospectively analyzed. The 103 ADR cases, 41.7% occurred in patients aged above 60. The most common presentation of ADR was drug eruption, followed by allergic reactions (20.4%) and allergic shock (9.7%). The occurrence of ADR is affected by many factors. We should control the drug indication strictly, check patients drug allergy history carefully before prescription, monitor ADR afterwards, promote clinical rational drug-usage. PMID:20394303

  8. Quantum analysis of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator with injected signal

    SciTech Connect

    Coutinho dos Santos, B.; Dechoum, K.; Khoury, A.Z.; Silva, L.F. da; Olsen, M.K.

    2005-09-15

    In this paper we study the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator with injected signal, both analytically and numerically. We develop a perturbation approach which allows us to find approximate analytical solutions, starting from the full equations of motion in the positive-P representation. We demonstrate the regimes of validity of our approximations via comparison with the full stochastic results. We find that, with reasonably low levels of injected signal, the system allows for demonstrations of quantum entanglement and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. In contrast to the normal optical parametric oscillator operating below threshold, these features are demonstrated with relatively intense fields.

  9. The Effectiveness of Corticosteroid Injection for De Quervain's Stenosing Tenosynovitis (DQST): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Patrick; Phelan, Nigel; Gardiner, Sean; Linton, Kenneth N; Galvin, Rose

    2015-01-01

    De Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis (DQST) treatments include corticosteroid injection around the tendon sheath; however there is some ambiguity concerning the efficacy of this treatment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the totality of evidence relating to the use of corticosteroid injection in DQST when compared to placebo or other active treatments. A systematic literature search was conducted in July 2014. Only randomized control trials (RCTs) were included. Outcome measures included impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction. Five RCTs were identified with 165 patients, 88 in the treatment group and 77 in the control group.Patients who received corticosteroid injection (n=142) had a higher rate of resolution of symptoms [RR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.25 to 5.37, p=0.05, I2=62%]. This group reported greater pain relief as assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at first assessment [mean difference -2.51, 95% CI: -3.11 to -1.90, p=0.0003, I2=65%] and demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in function (n=78) as measured by the DASH score and Dutch AIMS-HFF score [SMD -0.83, 95% CI: -1.54 to -0.12, p=0.02, I2=48]. This review confirms that corticosteroid injection results in a statistically significant increase in resolution of symptoms, pain relief and increased function in the treatment of DQST. PMID:26587059

  10. Analysis of clinical records of dental patients attending Jordan University Hospital: Documentation of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections

    PubMed Central

    Dar-Odeh, Najla; Ryalat, Soukaina; Shayyab, Mohammad; Abu-Hammad, Osama

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical records of dental patients attending the Dental Department at the University of Jordan Hospital: a teaching hospital in Jordan. Analysis aimed at determining whether dental specialists properly documented the drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections given to their patients. Methods: Dental records of the Dental Department at the Jordan University Hospital were reviewed during the period from April 3rd until April 26th 2007 along with the issued prescriptions during that period. Results: A total of 1000 records were reviewed with a total of 53 prescriptions issued during that period. Thirty records documented the prescription by stating the category of the prescribed drug. Only 13 records stated the generic or the trade names of the prescribed drugs. Of these, 5 records contained the full elements of a prescription. As for local anesthetic injections, the term “LA used” was found in 22 records while the names and quantities of the local anesthetics used were documented in only 13 records. Only 5 records documented the full elements of a local anesthetic injection. Conclusion: The essential data of drug prescriptions and local anesthetic injections were poorly documented by the investigated group of dental specialists. It is recommended that the administration of the hospital and the dental department implement clear and firm guidelines for dental practitioners in particular to do the required documentation procedure. PMID:19209291

  11. Analysis of the steam injection at the Visalia Superfund Project with fully compositional nonisothermal finite difference simulations.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Myron I

    2002-05-01

    By injecting steam, over 1.1 million pounds of creosote has been recovered at the Visalia, California Superfund Site from an aquifer 102ft underground. In the first 6 weeks of injection 320,000lb of creosote were recovered or destroyed versus <1lb per day in a pump and treat. The finite difference simulator STARS1, which is widely used in the oil industry to model thermal recovery, has been used to simulate simplified models of the project, to analyze recovery mechanisms, and to demonstrate how the operation of similar projects can be improved. The simulations indicate that vaporization of dense, nonaqueous, phase liquids (DNAPLs) is the most important recovery mechanism, that liquid production is enhanced because a gas phase is present, and that the project could have been completed more rapidly if an additional injector or producer had been added in the center of the site. In addition, the mineralization (conversion to carbon dioxide) of DNAPLs could result from reaction with water, injected air or, most likely, both. The mechanisms are likely to be similar to subcritical water oxidation. While this analysis suggests methods to improve operation of future steam projects, Visalia has been a very successful demonstration of the potential of steam injection to clean up recalcitrant hydrocarbons and will be an inspiration for future projects.

  12. The Effectiveness of Corticosteroid Injection for De Quervain’s Stenosing Tenosynovitis (DQST): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Patrick; Phelan, Nigel; Gardiner, Sean; Linton, Kenneth N; Galvin, Rose

    2015-01-01

    De Quervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis (DQST) treatments include corticosteroid injection around the tendon sheath; however there is some ambiguity concerning the efficacy of this treatment. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the totality of evidence relating to the use of corticosteroid injection in DQST when compared to placebo or other active treatments. A systematic literature search was conducted in July 2014. Only randomized control trials (RCTs) were included. Outcome measures included impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction. Five RCTs were identified with 165 patients, 88 in the treatment group and 77 in the control group. Patients who received corticosteroid injection (n=142) had a higher rate of resolution of symptoms [RR 2.59, 95% CI: 1.25 to 5.37, p=0.05, I2=62%]. This group reported greater pain relief as assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at first assessment [mean difference -2.51, 95% CI: -3.11 to -1.90, p=0.0003, I2=65%] and demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in function (n=78) as measured by the DASH score and Dutch AIMS-HFF score [SMD -0.83, 95% CI: -1.54 to -0.12, p=0.02, I2=48]. This review confirms that corticosteroid injection results in a statistically significant increase in resolution of symptoms, pain relief and increased function in the treatment of DQST. PMID:26587059

  13. Effect of breviscapine injection on clinical parameters in diabetic nephropathy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yao, Li; Sun, Da; Zhu, Xinwang; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Tianhua; Wang, Lining

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is currently a major public health problem worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effect of breviscapine injections in patients with DN. A meta-analysis was performed using the following databases to obtain published reports in any language: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Evidence-Based Medicine, Wanfang Digital Periodicals, Chinese Academic Journals Full-text Database, Chinese Biological and Medical Database, China Doctoral and Masters Dissertations Full-text Database and the Chinese Proceedings of Conference Full-text Database. Two assessors independently reviewed each trial. A total of 35 randomized controlled trials, which performed studies on a total of 2,320 patients (1,188 in treatment groups and 1,132 in control groups), were included in the present meta-analysis. Data were analyzed using Stata version 11.0 for Windows. The results from the analysis demonstrated that breviscapine injections have greater therapeutic effects in patients with DN in comparison with the control group, including renal protective effects (reducing urine protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) and adjustment for dyslipidemia (affecting levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoproteins). These effects indicate that breviscapine injections are beneficial to patients with DN. Further studies are required to determine the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of breviscapine. PMID:27588060

  14. Burkholderia cepacia endophthalmitis, in a penicillin allergic patient, following a ranibizumab injection.

    PubMed

    Saffra, Norman; Moriarty, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia, a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found in water and soil, is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. The authors report a case of a penicillin-allergic patient who presented 15 days after an uneventful injection of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration with culture-positive B cepacia endophthalmitis. Initial antibiotic therapy using non-penicillin-based medications was not successful in eradicating the bacteria. Subsequent treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin resulted in complete resolution of the infection. B cepacia should be included among the bacterial species that may cause endophthalmitis after intravitreal injections. PMID:24526197

  15. Aneuploid analysis of tripronuclear zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in humans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zijiang; Yan, Junhao; Feng, Huai L

    2005-06-01

    This study demonstrates that the diploid ratio of tripronuclear zygotes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is significantly higher as compared with that after conventional IVF; the extra pronucleus of tripronuclear zygotes after ICSI are mostly from the second polar body, not from sperm. PMID:15950663

  16. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  17. Technical and economic analysis of steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Eric D.; Williams, Robert H.

    1985-11-01

    Industrial cogeneration is gaining popularity as an energy and money saving alternative to separate steam and electricity generation. Among cogeneration technologies, gas-turbine systems are attractive largely because of their lower capital cost and high thermodynamic efficiency. However, at industrial plants where steam and electricity loads vary daily, seasonally, or unpredictably, the economics of conventional gas turbines are often unfavorable due to low capacity utilization. Steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration overcomes the part-load problem by providing for excess steam to be injected back into the turbine to raise electrical output and generating efficiency. Under provisions of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, any excess electricity can be sold to the local grid at the prevailing avoided cost of electricity. Steam-injected gas-turbine cogeneration can result in a consistently high rate of return on investment over a wide range of variation in process steam loads. Moreover, this technology can also give rise to greater annual electricity production and fuel savings per unit of process steam generated, compared to simple-cycle cogeneration, making the technology attractive from the perspective of society, as well as that of the user. Steam-injected gas-turbines may soon find applications in electric utility base-load generation, as well, since it appears that electrical generating efficiencies in excess of 50% can be obtained from turbines producing of the order of 100 MW of electricity at a fully-installed capital cost as low as 500/kW.

  18. Reduced retinal transduction and enhanced transgene-directed immunogenicity with intravitreal delivery of rAAV following posterior vitrectomy in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, RF; Boye, SL; Conlon, TJ; Erger, KE; Sledge, DG; Langohr, IM; Hauswirth, WW; Komáromy, AM; Boye, SE; Petersen-Jones, SM; Bartoe, JT

    2016-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-based gene therapy is a promising treatment strategy for delivery of neurotrophic transgenes to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma patients. Retinal distribution of transgene expression following intravitreal injection (IVT) of AAV is variable in animal models and the vitreous humor may represent a barrier to initial vector penetration. The primary goal of our study was to investigate the effect of prior core vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid membrane peeling on pattern and efficiency of transduction of a capsid amino acid substituted AAV2 vector, carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgene following IVT in dogs. When progressive intraocular inflammation developed starting 4 weeks post IVT, the study plan was modified to allow detailed characterization of the etiology as a secondary goal. Unexpectedly, surgical vitrectomy was found to significantly limit transduction, whereas in non-vitrectomized eyes transduction efficiency reached upwards to 37.3% of RGC layer cells. The developing retinitis was characterized by mononuclear cell infiltrates resulting from a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction, which we suspect was directed at the GFP transgene. Our results, in a canine large animal model, support caution when considering surgical vitrectomy before IVT for retinal gene therapy in patients, as prior vitrectomy appears to significantly reduce transduction efficiency and may predispose the patient to development of vector-induced immune reactions. PMID:27052802

  19. Analysis and design modifications for upgrade of storage ring bump pulse system driving the injection bump magnets at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, G.D.

    1995-04-01

    A fast (4.0 ms half period) resonant discharge pulse system, using SCRs, was designed and constructed to drive the injection bump magnet system at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). The commissioning process revealed a high frequency resonance (T = 800 NS) superimposed on the driver discharge wave form. In addition, the peak amplitude of the magnet load recovery current exceeded design specifications. A SPICE analysis confirmed the suspected mechanisms for the parasitic ringing and the excessive load current {open_quotes}undershoot{close_quotes}. This paper will address the subsequent analysis, measurements, and modifications carried out during the maintenance shutdown in June 1993.

  20. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  1. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in women with breast cancer who are receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection ( ...

  2. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not be ... solution (liquid) to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a vein). Your dosing schedule ...

  3. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  4. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  5. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  6. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  7. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  8. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  9. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  10. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testopel) are also used to stimulate puberty in males with delayed puberty. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) injection may ... to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection ...

  11. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  12. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... of opiate withdrawal such as body aches, diarrhea, fast heart beat, fever, runny nose, sneezing, sweating, yawning, ...

  13. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  14. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  15. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  16. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  17. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  18. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud homodyne coherent receivers relying on line-coding and injection locking in lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xydas, Yannis; Ressopoulos, Constantinos; Bogris, Adonis

    2015-12-01

    We present a numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud coherent detection enabled by injection locked lasers and line coding. The coherent receiver was tested with respect to an ideal receiver for two higher order modulation formats (16-QAM, QPSK) and under diverse operating regimes relating to the slave laser linewidth properties, the injection level and the frequency detuning between the incoming signal and the slave laser. The impact of the slave laser properties and line coding techniques on the receiver performance is highlighted showing that the technique could be used as a practical solution in order to enable low-cost and short reach n × 100 Gb/s Ethernet communication systems with the potential of flexibility in terms of the data rate.

  20. Steam injection pilot study in a contaminated fractured limestone (Maine, USA): Modeling and analysis of borehole radar reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregoire, C.; Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    Steam-enhanced remediation (SER) has been successfully used to remove DNAPL and LNAPL contaminants in porous media. Between August and November 2002, SER was tested in fractured limestone at the former Loring Air Force Base, in Maine, USA. During the SER investigation, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a series of borehole radar surveys to evaluate the effectiveness of radar methods for monitoring the movement of steam and heat through the fractured limestone. The data were collected before steam injection, 10 days after the beginning of injection, and at the end of injection. In this paper, reflection-mode borehole radar data from wells JBW-7816 and JBW-7817A are presented and discussed. Theoretical modeling was performed to predict the variation of fracture reflectivity owed to heating, to show displacement of water and to assess the effect of SER at the site. Analysis of the radar profile data indicates some variations resulting from heating (increase of continuity of reflectors, attenuation of deeper reflections) but no substantial variation of traveltimes. Spectral content analysis of several individual reflections surrounding the boreholes was used to investigate the replacement of water by steam in the fractures. Observed decrease in radar reflectivity was too small to be explained by a replacement of water by steam, except for two high-amplitude reflectors, which disappeared near the end of the injection; moreover, no change of polarity, consistent with steam replacing water, was observed. The decrease of amplitude was greater for reflectors near well JBW-7817A and is explained by a greater heating around this well.

  1. Attack methodology Analysis: SQL Injection Attacks and Their Applicability to Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bri Rolston

    2005-09-01

    Database applications have become a core component in control systems and their associated record keeping utilities. Traditional security models attempt to secure systems by isolating core software components and concentrating security efforts against threats specific to those computers or software components. Database security within control systems follows these models by using generally independent systems that rely on one another for proper functionality. The high level of reliance between the two systems creates an expanded threat surface. To understand the scope of a threat surface, all segments of the control system, with an emphasis on entry points, must be examined. The communication link between data and decision layers is the primary attack surface for SQL injection. This paper facilitates understanding what SQL injection is and why it is a significant threat to control system environments.

  2. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. PTV analysis of the entrained air into the diesel spray at high-pressure injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Naoki; Yamashita, Hayato; Mashida, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In order to clarify the effect of high-pressure injection on soot reduction in terms of the air entrainment into spray, the air flow surrounding the spray and set-off length indicating the distance from the nozzle tip to the flame region in diffusion diesel combustion were investigated using 300MPa injection of a multi-hole injector. The measurement of the air entrainment flow was carried out at non-evaporating condition using consecutive PTV (particle tracking velocimetry) method with a high-speed camera and a high-frequency pulse YAG laser. The set-off length was measured at highpressure and high-temperature using the combustion bomb of constant volume and optical system of shadow graph method. And the amount of air entrainment into spray until reaching set-off length in diffusion combustion was studied as a factor of soot formation.

  4. Analysis of ICRH antenna loading data in TEXTOR obtained during gas injection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, I.; Van Wassenhove, G.; Dumortier, P.; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.; Vervier, M.

    2011-12-23

    The possibility of increasing the coupling of ICRH power to plasmas on TEXTOR by gas injection was investigated, for a given voltage applied at the input of an antenna pair. The antenna pair was operated in the conjugated T mode, D(H) heating was used. Modeling of the antenna by transmission line theory shows that load resilience is maintained in a broad range of independent resistance variation for each strap. It is found that the absolute value of the reflection coefficient can be maintained below 0.2 for typical values of resistance measured in plasma shots (2-10 {Omega}/m) in good matching conditions. During gas injection, the loading resistance showed a clear increase with increasing line average electron density measured close to the plasma edge. Evidence of fast wave eigenmodes was also found, as characteristic resonant behavior of loading resistance and antenna self-inductance, due to poor absorption in the plasma caused by high H minority concentration.

  5. [Local injection of bleomycin A 5 in children with hemangiomas. Analysis of 210 cases].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Q T

    1991-05-01

    210 children with hemangiomas were treated by local injection of Bleomycin A5. Bleomycin A5 was effective in all patients with strawberry and mixed hemangiomas, 91.2% of patients with cavernous hemangiomas, 44.4% of patients with port-wine stain. There was no response in pampiniform hemangioma. The therapeutic mechanism, indications and complications of the new method for treatment of hemangioma are discussed. PMID:1717207

  6. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  7. Flow injection analysis of ketoprofen based on the order transform second chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Cao, Guiping; Ge, Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores an order-transform-second-chemiluminescence (OTSCL) method combining the flow injection technique for the determination of ketoprofen. When ketoprofen solution was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of alkaline luminol and sodium periodate or sodium periodate solution was injected into the reaction mixture of ketoprofen and alkaline luminol, a new chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was initiated and strong CL signal was detected. A mechanism for the OTSCL has been proposed on the basis of the chemiluminescence kinetic characteristic, UV-visible absorption and chemiluminescent spectra. Under optimal experimental conditions, the CL response is proportional to the concentration of ketoprofen over the range of 2.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9950 and a detection limit of 8.0 × 10 -9 mol/L (3 σ). The relative standard deviation for 11 repetitive determinations of 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L ketoprofen is 2.9%. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining ketoprofen in pharmaceutical formulations without interference from its potential impurities.

  8. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors: oncolytic virus efficiency predicted by boolean models.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains.   Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start.

  9. [Expansion behavior of intravitreous sulfur hexafluoride in exposure to nitrous oxide].

    PubMed

    Kroll, P; Reinhold, R; Radig, C; Eckard, R; Ostmeier, H

    1986-07-01

    In experiments with 19 rabbits the changes in volume and concentration of intravitreously instilled sulfur hexafluoride were investigated under normal air conditions (10 rabbits in group A) and with application of laughing, gas to the inspiration system for 3 hours (9 rabbits in group B). Under normal air conditions the SF6 gas bubble attained its greatest volume after 24 hours (twice its initial volume). With the addition of 67% laughing gas to the inspiration system the largest expansion in volume (260%) was found after 3 hours, i.e., at the end of application of laughing gas, and was followed by another peak after 24 hours. With regard to the sulfur hexafluoride concentration in the gas bubble, the results in the two groups were similar. The authors conclude that in retinal surgery with application of sulfur hexafluoride general anesthesia should not include laughing gas. PMID:3761976

  10. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  11. The Intravitreal Autologous Platelet Concentrate Injection as an Adjunct of Vitrectomy for the Treatment of Refractory Macular Holes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-06

    Macular Hole With High Myopia (Spherical Equivalent ≤ -6.0 Diopters) or,; Large Size Macular Hole (Diameter > 600 Microns) or; Recurred or Failed Macular Hole From Previous Surgery; or Chronic Macular Hole (Symptom Duration > 6 Months)

  12. A batch injection analysis system with square-wave voltammetric detection for fast and simultaneous determination of naphazoline and zinc.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Thiago da Costa; Freitas, Jhonys Machado; Munoz, Rodrigo Alejandro Abarza; Richter, Eduardo Mathias

    2016-05-15

    In this work, a batch-injection analysis system with square-wave voltammetric (BIA-SWV) detection was applied for the first time to the simultaneous determination of inorganic (zinc) and organic (naphazoline) species. Both compounds were detected in a single run (70 injections h(-1)) with a small injection volume (∼100 µL). The calibration curves exhibited linear response range between 3.0 and 21.0 μmol L(-1) (r=0.999) for naphazoline and between 10.0 and 60.0 μmol L(-1) (r=0.992) for zinc. The detection limits were 0.13 and 0.04 μmol L(-1) for zinc and naphazoline, respectively. Good reproducibility was achieved for multiple measurements of a solution containing both species (RSD<1.0%; n=20). The results obtained with the BIA-SWV method for the simultaneous determination of naphazoline and zinc were compared to those obtained by HPLC (naphazoline) and by FAAS (zinc); no statistically significant differences were observed (95% confidence level).

  13. Analysis of the oocyte activating capacity and chromosomal complement of round-headed human spermatozoa by their injection into mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rybouchkin, A; Dozortsev, D; Pelinck, M J; De Sutter, P; Dhont, M

    1996-10-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in the human is a very effective procedure which allows the fertilization of the majority of oocytes even in cases of extreme oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Round-headed acrosomeless human spermatozoa, however, form an exception to this rule, because in about half of the couples with globozoospermia all oocytes remain unfertilized after injection. The incapacity of the spermatozoon to activate the oocyte following injection of round-headed spermatozoa could be the underlying mechanism. To investigate this hypothesis, activation rates of mouse oocytes injected with spermatozoa from a patient with globozoospermia were compared with those obtained after injection with normal spermatozoa. Of mouse oocytes surviving the injection with donor spermatozoa, 95% underwent activation, compared to none of the 88 mouse oocytes surviving the injection with round-headed spermatozoa. After fixation, prematurely condensed sperm chromosomes were found in these oocytes. Parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocytes (8% ethanol at 40 min after injection) injected with round-headed spermatozoa led to the activation of 96% of oocytes. These oocytes developed normally to the first mitosis and were fixed for analysis of the sperm karyotypes. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities of round-headed spermatozoa (6%) was similar to that in spermatozoa from a fertile donor (9%). These data provide further information on the basic defect in cases of globozoospermia and demonstrate that globozoospermia is not associated with sperm karyotype abnormalities.

  14. On-chip integrated multi-thermo-actuated microvalves of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for microflow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiming; He, Qiaohong; Ma, Dan; Chen, Hengwu

    2010-04-30

    An array of thermo-actuated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) multivalves was designed and fabricated to perform volume-based sample injection for microflow injection analysis on a glass microfluidic chip. The PNIPAAm monolithic plug valves were prepared inside the vinylized glass channels by photopolymerization in water-ethanol (1:1) medium using 2-hydroxy-2-methyl propiophenone (Darocure-1173) as the initiator and a photo-mask for micropattern transferring. Experimental conditions for the photopolymerization were studied, and the thermo-responsive behavior of the synthesized monolithic plug valves was investigated. To perform active heating and cooling of the on-chip integrated thermo-actuated valves, micro-Peltier devices were used and operation times of 3-s for opening and 7-s for closing were obtained. In the close status, a 2-mm long monolithic plug valve could endure a pressure of no higher than 0.45 MPa. The volume-based sample and reagent injector was composed of two groups of valves (total valve number of 5) and two loops. When the two groups of valves were alternatively opened and closed via thermo-actuation, the sampling loops were able to be switched between loading and injection position without any mechanical moving parts. Cooperating with syringe pumps, the microfluidic chip with the integrated sample injector has been demonstrated for microflow injection chemiluminescence detection of hydrogen peroxide. For a sampling volume of 6 nL, linear response was observed over the H(2)O(2) concentration range of 0-2 mmol L(-1), and a precision of 0.6% (RSD, n=11) was achieved for a standard H(2)O(2) solution 2 mmol L(-1). PMID:20417320

  15. Determination of gallic acid with rhodanine by reverse flow injection analysis using simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Phakthong, Wilaiwan; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2014-12-01

    A reversed flow injection (rFI) system was designed and constructed for gallic acid determination. Gallic acid was determined based on the formation of chromogen between gallic acid and rhodanine, resulting in a colored product with a λmax at 520 nm. The optimum conditions for determining gallic acid were also investigated. Optimizations of the experimental conditions were carried out based on the so-call univariate method. The conditions obtained were 0.6% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 0.9 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2.0 mL min(-1) flow rate, 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. Comparative optimizations of the experimental conditions were also carried out by multivariate or simplex optimization method. The conditions obtained were 1.2% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 1.2 mol L(-1) NaOH, flow rate 2.5 mL min(-1), 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. It was found that the optimum conditions obtained by the former optimization method were mostly similar to those obtained by the latter method. The linear relationship between peak height and the concentration of gallic acid was obtained over the range of 0.1-35.0 mg L(-1) with the detection limit 0.081 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations were found to be in the ranges 0.46-1.96% for 1, 10, 30 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (n=11). The method has the advantages of simplicity extremely high selectivity and high precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of gallic acid in longan samples without interferent effects from other common phenolic compounds that might be present in the longan samples collected in northern Thailand.

  16. A qualitative analysis of methotrexate self-injection education videos on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Rittberg, Rebekah; Dissanayake, Tharindri; Katz, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the quality of videos for patients available on YouTube for learning to self-administer subcutaneous methotrexate. Using the search term "Methotrexate injection," two clinical reviewers analyzed the first 60 videos on YouTube. Source and search rank of video, audience interaction, video duration, and time since video was uploaded on YouTube were recorded. Videos were classified as useful, misleading, or a personal patient view. Videos were rated for reliability, comprehensiveness, and global quality scale (GQS). Reasons for misleading videos were documented, and patient videos were documented as being either positive or negative towards methotrexate (MTX) injection. Fifty-one English videos overlapped between the two geographic locations; 10 videos were classified as useful (19.6 %), 14 misleading (27.5 %), and 27 personal patient view (52.9 %). Total views of videos were 161,028: 19.2 % useful, 72.8 % patient, and 8.0 % misleading. Mean GQS: 4.2 (±1.0) useful, 1.6 (±1.1) misleading, and 2.0 (±0.9) for patient videos (p < 0.0001). Mean reliability: 3.3 (±0.6) useful, 0.9 (±1.2) misleading, and 1.0 (±0.7) for patient videos (p < 0.0001). Comprehensiveness: 2.2 (±1.9) useful, 0.1 (±0.3) misleading, and 1.5 (±1.5) for patient view videos (p = 0.0027). This study demonstrates a minority of videos are useful for teaching MTX injection. Further, video quality does not correlate with video views. While web video may be an additional educational tool available, clinicians need to be familiar with specific resources to help guide and educate their patients to ensure best outcomes.

  17. A qualitative analysis of methotrexate self-injection education videos on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Rittberg, Rebekah; Dissanayake, Tharindri; Katz, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the quality of videos for patients available on YouTube for learning to self-administer subcutaneous methotrexate. Using the search term "Methotrexate injection," two clinical reviewers analyzed the first 60 videos on YouTube. Source and search rank of video, audience interaction, video duration, and time since video was uploaded on YouTube were recorded. Videos were classified as useful, misleading, or a personal patient view. Videos were rated for reliability, comprehensiveness, and global quality scale (GQS). Reasons for misleading videos were documented, and patient videos were documented as being either positive or negative towards methotrexate (MTX) injection. Fifty-one English videos overlapped between the two geographic locations; 10 videos were classified as useful (19.6 %), 14 misleading (27.5 %), and 27 personal patient view (52.9 %). Total views of videos were 161,028: 19.2 % useful, 72.8 % patient, and 8.0 % misleading. Mean GQS: 4.2 (±1.0) useful, 1.6 (±1.1) misleading, and 2.0 (±0.9) for patient videos (p < 0.0001). Mean reliability: 3.3 (±0.6) useful, 0.9 (±1.2) misleading, and 1.0 (±0.7) for patient videos (p < 0.0001). Comprehensiveness: 2.2 (±1.9) useful, 0.1 (±0.3) misleading, and 1.5 (±1.5) for patient view videos (p = 0.0027). This study demonstrates a minority of videos are useful for teaching MTX injection. Further, video quality does not correlate with video views. While web video may be an additional educational tool available, clinicians need to be familiar with specific resources to help guide and educate their patients to ensure best outcomes. PMID:25739847

  18. State and national energy environmental risk analysis systems for underground injection control. Final report, April 7, 1992--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop and demonstrate the concept of a national Energy and Environmental Risk Analysis System that could support DOE policy analysis and decision-making. That effort also includes the development and demonstration of a methodology for assessing the risks of groundwater contamination from underground injection operations. EERAS is designed to enhance DOE`s analytical capabilities by working with DOE`s existing resource analysis models for oil and gas. The full development of EERAS was not planned as part of this effort. The design and structure for the system were developed, along with interfaces that facilitate data input to DOE`s other analytical tools. The development of the database for EERAS was demonstrated with the input of data related to underground injection control, which also supported the risk assessment being performed. The utility of EERAS has been demonstrated by this effort and its continued development is recommended. Since the absolute risk of groundwater contamination due to underground injection is quite low, the risk assessment methodology focuses on the relative risk of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this methodology is to provide DOE with an enhanced understanding of the relative risks posed nationwide as input to DOE decision-making and resource allocation. Given data problems encountered, a broad assessment of all oil reservoirs in DOE`s resource database was not possible. The methodology was demonstrated using a sample of 39 reservoirs in 15 states. While data difficulties introduce substantial uncertainties, the results found are consistent with expectations and with prior analyses. Therefore the methodology for performing assessments appears to be sound. Recommendations on steps that can be taken to resolve uncertainties or obtain improved data are included in the report.

  19. Automatic flow injection analysis (FIA) determination of total reducing capacity in serum and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Segundo, Marcela A; Tóth, Ildikó V; Magalhães, Luís M; Reis, Salette

    2015-01-01

    Automation of total antioxidant capacity assessment can substantially increase the determination throughput, allowing large scale studies and screening experiments. Total reducing capacity evaluation can be implemented under different chemistries, including the CUPRAC-Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity -assay. This assay is based on reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine complex to highly colored Cu(I)-neocuproine complex by reducing (antioxidant) components of biological samples. In this chapter, we propose an automatic flow injection method for evaluation of total reducing capacity in serum and urine samples, attaining end-point data within 4 min using a kinetic matching strategy.

  20. Shuttle cryogenics supply system. Optimization study. Volume 5 B-4: Programmers manual for space shuttle orbit injection analysis (SOPSA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer program for space shuttle orbit injection propulsion system analysis (SOPSA) is described to show the operational characteristics and the computer system requirements. The program was developed as an analytical tool to aid in the preliminary design of propellant feed systems for the space shuttle orbiter main engines. The primary purpose of the program is to evaluate the propellant tank ullage pressure requirements imposed by the need to accelerate propellants rapidly during the engine start sequence. The SOPSA program will generate parametric feed system pressure histories and weight data for a range of nominal feedline sizes.

  1. Direct and comprehensive analysis of ginsenosides and diterpene alkaloids in Shenfu injection by combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Lei; Gao, Wen; Liu, Ke; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Shenfu injection (SFI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formulation for cardiac diseases prepared from red ginseng and processed aconite root. Clinical observations and pharmacological effects on SFI have been well investigated. Chemical analysis and quality control studies of this formulation, however, are relatively limited, especially regarding toxic aconite alkaloids. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in SFI. Highly sensitive MS allows direct analysis of injections without additional sample pretreatment required. Using diagnostic ions and fragmentation rules, we identified 23 trace diterpene alkaloids, nineteen ginseng saponins, one panaxytriol, and one 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in SFI. A LC-MS method with selected ion monitoring was then used to quantify 24 major alkaloids and ginsenosides. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Especially, the limits of quantification were low to 0.4-18ng/mL for diterpene alkaloids. The total concentrations of saponins and alkaloids were about 676-742μg/mL and 3-7μg/mL in five batches of SFI samples, respectively. Finally, cosine ratio and euclidean distance were introduced to evaluate the batch-to-batch reproducibility of SFI samples, and the results demonstrated high quality consistency. Global identification and quantification of complex constituents based on LC-MS promises wide applications in quality control and batch monitoring for herbal products.

  2. Incorporation of flow injection analysis or capillary electrophoresis with resonance Rayleigh scattering detection for inorganic ion analysis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Han, Zhi-qiang; Chen, Yi

    2006-03-31

    Resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) has been explored as a detection (RRSD) technique for capillary electrophoresis (CE) or flow injection analysis (FIA) of inorganic ions. The detection was achieved through a scattering probe of ion-association complex formed from rhodamine B (Rh B) and iodine. The probe scatters strongly at 630 nm when oxidants such as Cr(2)O(7)(2-), MnO(4)(-) and ClO(-) present in a mixed solution of Rh B and iodide. The scattering disappears once iodine is reduced by reductants. Oxidant or reductant species in a sample can thus be detected by positive or negative RRS signal. To verify the RRSD, FIA-RRSD was first constructed and continuous measurement of testing samples containing Cr(2)O(7)(2-), MnO(4)(-) and/or ClO(-) was performed. The detection limits reached a level of decade nM and a linear range was found between peak height and concentration at the range of 0.255-2.04microM for Cr(2)O(7)(2-), 0.158-3.16microM for MnO(4)(-), and 1.18-9.43microM for ClO(-), with linear regression coefficients of all above 0.99. The run-to-run relative standard deviation of peak height was less than 3% (n=6). CE-RRSD was then set up and studied, using a capillary of 75microm i.d.x33cm filled with a running buffer of 50mM citrate and 25mM Tris (pH 3.32) and worked under -12kV at room temperature. The CE eluent was at-line conducted into a stream of rhodamine B and iodine flowing inner a wide tube by plugging the capillary outlet into the wide tube. Different mixtures prepared from Cr(2)O(7)(2-), MnO(4)(-) and ClO(-) were successfully separated and detected by the CE-RRSD. PMID:16455096

  3. Determination of ammonia in beers by pervaporation flow injection analysis and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Cardwell, Terence J; Cattrall, Robert W; Luque de Castro, Maria D; Kolev, Spas D

    2003-08-29

    A pervaporation flow injection (PFI) method is described for the determination of ammonia in beers. After injecting the sample into a NaOH donor solution, ammonia and other volatiles are transferred in the pervaporation unit from the donor stream to an acceptor stream containing sodium salicylate and nitroprusside, which subsequently mixes with alkaline sodium dichloroisocyanurate to allow the classical Berthelot reaction to take place. The blue-coloured complex formed is monitored spectrophotometrically at 655 nm. A linear calibration curve with a range of 0.1-40 mg l(-1) was obtained. The method has a detection limit of 0.05 mg l(-1) and is capable of a sampling frequency of 11 h(-1) at 4 mg l(-1) ammonia. It was applied successfully to the determination of ammonia in synthetic samples and unfiltered lager beers. The advantages of the present method over the ammonia ion-selective electrode method and the PFI system based on mixed indicator detection are discussed. PMID:18969154

  4. SNS RING INJECTION STRIPPED ELECTRON COLLECTION: DESIGN ANALYSIS AND TECHNICAL ISSUES.

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, Y.; MAHLER, G.; MENG, W.; RAPARIA, D.; WANG, L.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    This paper describes the simulation studies on the motions of stripped electrons generated in the injection section of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring and the effective collection mechanism. Such studies are important for high intensity machines, in order to reduce beam loss and protect other components in the vicinity. The magnetic field is applied to guide electrons to a collector, which is located at the bottom of the beam vacuum chamber. Part of the study results with and without considering the interactions between electrons and materials are presented and discussed. The final engineering design of the electron collector (catcher). The electron multi-pacting induced by beam loss and residual gas ionization along the ring has been studied in detail [l]. In the SNS accumulator ring straight section, electrons are stripped from the injected H{sup -} beam through a carbon foil. These protons must make 1100 turns to be compressed from 1 ms Linac pulse into a 700 ns bunch with 2E14 protons. The stripped electrons will have the same initial velocity but twice the intensity (current) of the H{sup -} beam. In this paper, we report the studies on electrons, and the optimum design of the collector.

  5. Impact of injection therapy on retinal patients with diabetic macular edema or retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Oyetunde, Sesan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An important factor in the choice of therapy is the impact it has on the patient’s quality of life. This survey aimed to understand treatment burden, treatment-related anxiety and worry, and practical issues such as appointment attendance and work absence in patients receiving injection therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME) or retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Patients and methods A European sample of 131 retinal patients completed a detailed questionnaire to elucidate the impact of injection therapy on individuals with DME or RVO. Results RVO and DME greatly impact a patient’s quality of life. An intensive injection regimen and the requirements for multiple hospital visits place a large practical burden on the patient. Each intravitreal injection appointment (including travel time) was reported to take an average of 4.5 hours, with a total appointment burden over 6 months of 13.5 hours and 20 hours for RVO and DME patients, respectively. This creates a significant burden on patient time and may make appointment attendance difficult. Indeed, 53% of working patients needed to take at least 1 day off work per appointment and 71% of patients required a carer’s assistance at the time of the injection appointment, ~6.3 hours per injection. In addition to practical issues, three-quarters of patients reported experiencing anxiety about their most recent injection treatment, with 54% of patients reporting that they were anxious for at least 2 days prior to the injection. Patients’ most desired improvement to their treatment regimen was to have fewer injections and to require fewer appointments, to achieve the same visual results. Conclusion Patients’ quality of life is clearly very affected by having to manage an intensive intravitreal injection regimen, with a considerable treatment burden having a large negative effect. Reducing the appointment burden to achieve the same visual outcomes and the provision of additional support for patients to attend

  6. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    PubMed

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study suggested the influence factors of adverse reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication.

  7. [Incidence rate of adverse reaction/event by Qingkailing injection: a Meta-analysis of single rate].

    PubMed

    Ai, Chun-ling; Xie, Yan-ming; Li, Ming-quan; Wang, Lian-xin; Liao, Xing

    2015-12-01

    To systematically review the incidence rate of adverse drug reaction/event by Qingkailing injection. Such databases as the PubMed, EMbase, the Cochrane library, CNKI, VIP WanFang data and CBM were searched by computer from foundation to July 30, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data and cross check data. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by using the R 3.2.0 software, subgroup sensitivity analysis was performed based on age, mode of medicine, observation time and research quality. Sixty-three studies involving 9,793 patients with Qingkailing injection were included, 367 cases of adverse reactions/events were reported in total. The incidence rate of adverse reaction in skin and mucosa group was 2% [95% CI (0.02; 0.03)]; the digestive system adverse reaction was 6% [95% CI(0.05; 0.07); the injection site adverse reaction was 4% [95% CI (0.02; 0.07)]. In the digestive system as the main types of adverse reactions/events, incidence of children and adults were 4.6% [0.021 1; 0.097 7] and 6.9% [0.053 5; 0.089 8], respectively. Adverse reactions to skin and mucous membrane damage as the main performance/event type, the observation time > 7 days and ≤ 7 days incidence of 3% [0.012 9; 0.068 3] and 1.9% [0.007 8; 0.046 1], respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that different types of adverse reactions, combination in the incidence of adverse reactions/events were higher than that of single drug, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). This study suggested the influence factors of adverse reactions occur, and clinical rational drug use, such as combination, age and other fators, and the influence factors vary in different populations. Therefore, clinical doctors for children and the elderly use special care was required for a clear and open spirit injection, the implementation of individualized medication. PMID:27245021

  8. Linear Stability Analysis of Gravitational Effects on a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Anthony L.; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of buoyancy on the absolute instability of low-density gas jets injected into high-density gas mediums. Most of the existing analyses of low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient have been carried out neglecting effects of gravity. In order to investigate the influence of gravity on the near-injector development of the flow, a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round jet injected into a high-density ambient gas was performed. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel; viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The variables were represented as the sum of the mean value and a normal-mode small disturbance. An ordinary differential equation governing the amplitude of the pressure disturbance was derived. The velocity and density profiles in the shear layer, and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) were the three important parameters in this equation. Together with the boundary conditions, an eigenvalue problem was formulated. Assuming that the velocity and density profiles in the shear layer to be represented by hyperbolic tangent functions, the eigenvalue problem was solved for various values of Froude number. The Briggs-Bers criterion was combined with the spatio-temporal stability analysis to determine the nature of the absolute instability of the jet whether absolutely or convectively unstable. The roles of the density ratio, Froude number, Schmidt number, and the lateral shift between the density and velocity profiles on the absolute instability of the jet were determined. Comparisons of the results with previous experimental studies show good agreement when the effects of these variables are combined together. Thus, the combination of these variables determines how absolutely unstable the jet will be.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Mixture Preparation Processes in New Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Teruyuki; Kakuho, Akihiko; Hiraya, Koji; Takahashi, Eiji; Urushihara, Tomonori

    Visualization plays an effective role in the establishment of a new combustion concept by helping to find the optimal results quickly among many different parameters and contributing to a shorter development period. Laser-induced fluorescence, Raman scattering and infrared absorption were used to measure the air/fuel ratio quantitatively in a third-generation direct-injection gasoline (DIG) engine with a spray-guided mixture formation process and comparisons were made with the mixture formation concepts of the first- and second-generation DIG engines. The optimum combination of fuel spray, gas flow and combustion chamber configuration was found to be different for the three generations of DIG engines. The characteristics of the stable combustion region for obtaining higher thermal efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions differed among the three mixture formation concepts.

  10. Chemiluminescence determination of folic acid by a flow injection analysis assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Eldesoky, Gaber E.

    2013-03-01

    A flow injection (FI) method is reported for the determination of folic acid by chemiluminescence method. This method is based on the reaction of folic acid with Ru(bipy)32+ and Ce(IV) to produce chemiluminescence. The calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.5 × 10-5-3.1 × 10-7 mol/L with a detection limit of 2.3 × 10-8 mol/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation of 1.0 × 10-6 mol/L folic acid was found 3.5% (n = 11). The influences of potential interfering substances were studied. The recovery was higher than 95.3%. The method was accurate, sensitive, and effective for assay of folic acid. This CL method was successfully applied to the determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied.

  11. In vitro analysis of PNIPAAm-PEG, a novel, injectable scaffold for spinal cord repair

    PubMed Central

    Comolli, Noelle; Neuhuber, Birgit; Fischer, Itzhak

    2010-01-01

    Nervous tissue engineering in combination with other therapeutic strategies is an emerging trend for the treatment of different CNS disorders and injuries. We propose to use poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-poly (ethylene glycol) (PNIPAAm-PEG) as a minimally invasive, injectable scaffold platform for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI). The scaffold allows cell attachment, provides mechanical support and a sustained release of neurotrophins. In order to use PNIPAAm-PEG as an injectable scaffold for treatment of SCI it must maintain its mass and volume over time in physiological conditions. To provide mechanical support at the injury site, it is also critical that the engineered scaffold matches the compressive modulus of the native neuronal tissue. This study focused on studying the ability of the scaffold to release bioactive neurotrophins and on matching the material properties to those of the native neuronal tissue. We found that the release of both BDNF and NT-3 was sustained for up to four weeks, with a minimal burst exhibited for both neurotrophins. The bioactivity of the released NT-3 and BDNF was confirmed after four weeks. In addition, our results show that the PNIPAAm-PEG scaffold can be designed to match the desired mechanical properties of the native neuronal tissue, with a compressive modulus in the 3–5kPa range. The scaffold was also compatible with bone marrow stromal cells, allowing their survival and attachment for up to 31 days. These results indicate that PNIPAAm-PEG is a promising multifunctional scaffold for the treatment of SCI. PMID:19054721

  12. A Analysis of the Scex 3 Ionospheric Electron Beam Injection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerke, Roger Theodore

    1992-09-01

    The SCEX 3 experiment (Several Compatible EXperiments using a rocket-borne accelerator) was carried to ionospheric altitudes (375 km) by a Black Brant 11 rocket on February 1, 1990. The experiment was launched from Poker Flat Research Range (65.1^circ N, 147.5 ^circ W) at 1207 UT. The payload split into two parts (hereafter forward and aft payloads) 116 seconds after launch. The aft payload carried two electron accelerators as well as several diagnostic instruments. The forward payload was ejected at an angle of 6^ circ with the magnetic field in a northwesterly direction. This payload carried a multiband plasma wave receiver and various particle detectors to make in situ measurements of the Beam Plasma Interaction (BPI) region. Two Throw Away Detectors (TADs 1 and 2) were also ejected from the aft payload in the east and west directions respectively. TAD 1 also carried a multiband plasma wave receiver. Preceding the launch an auroral arc along the southern boundary of a diffuse auroral patch suddenly brightened, split into two separate arcs and moved to a position north of the rocket's trajectory. SCEX 3 was launched into an active breakup aurora consisting of tall rays and diffuse patches. The purposes of this experiment were (1) to observe injected electrons reflected from the naturally occurring parallel electric field structures which are thought to accelerate the auroral electrons, (2) to observe a variety of plasma effects caused by the artificial electron beam and the associated spacecraft charging and (3) study the natural phenomena associated with auroral activity. This work is a summary of the interesting observations made by the SCEX 3 experiment. These observations include VHF emissions produced by the electron beam via the Beam Plasma Discharge (BPD), Diffuse resonance emissions by the hot plasma region surrounding the electron beam and auroral Z-mode emissions. The response of the plasma to the initiation of the electron beam injection will also be

  13. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Peter J.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔPpit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔPpit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5–10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔPpit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔPpit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally. PMID:24069025

  14. Functional analysis of embolism induced by air injection in Acer rubrum and Salix nigra.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Peter J; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of induced embolism with air injection treatments on the function of xylem in Acer rubrum L. and Salix nigra Marsh. Measurements made on mature trees of A. rubrum showed that pneumatic pressurization treatments that created a pressure gradient of 5.5 MPa across pit membranes (ΔP pit) had no effect on stomatal conductance or on branch-level sap flow. The same air injection treatments made on 3-year-old potted A. rubrum plants also had no effect on whole plant transpiration. A separate study made on mature A. rubrum trees showed that 3.0 and 5.5 MPa of ΔP pit values resulted in an immediate 100% loss in hydraulic conductance (PLC) in petioles. However, the observed change in PLC was short lived, and significant hydraulic recovery occurred within 5-10 min post air-pressurization treatments. Similar experiments conducted on S. nigra plants exposed to ΔP pit of 3 MPa resulted in a rapid decline in whole plant transpiration followed by leaf wilting and eventual plant death, showing that this species lacks the ability to recover from induced embolism. A survey that measured the effect of air-pressurization treatments on seven other species showed that some species are very sensitive to induction of embolism resulting in leaf wilting and branch death while others show minimal to no effect despite that in each case, the applied ΔP pit of 5.5 MPa significantly exceeded any native stress that these plants would experience naturally.

  15. Fast gas chromatographic residue analysis in animal feed using split injection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tienstra, M; Portolés, T; Hernández, F; Mol, J G J

    2015-11-27

    Significant speed improvement for instrumental runtime would make GC–MS much more attractive for determination of pesticides and contaminants and as complementary technique to LC–MS. This was the trigger to develop a fast method (time between injections less than 10 min) for the determination of pesticides and PCBs that are not (or less) amenable to LC–MS. A key factor in achieving shorter analysis time was the use of split injection (1:10) which allowed the use of a much higher initial GC oven temperature. A shorter column (15 m), higher temperature ramp, and higher carrier gas flow rate (6 mL/min) further contributed to analysis-time reduction. Chromatographic resolution was slightly compromised but still well fit-for-purpose. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique used (GC–APCI-triple quadrupole MS/MS), quantification and identification were still possible down to the 10 μg/kg level, which was demonstrated by successful validation of the method for complex feed matrices according to EU guidelines. Other advantages of the method included a better compatibility of acetonitrile extracts (e.g. QuEChERS) with GC, and a reduced transfer of co-extractants into the GC column and mass spectrometer. PMID:26601712

  16. The effect of surgery and intracerebral injections on motor skill learning in rats: results from a database analysis.

    PubMed

    Schubring-Giese, M; Luft, A R; Hosp, J A

    2016-10-15

    Male Long-Evans rats are often used to investigate neural mechanisms of learning in the motor system. Successful acquisition of a skilled motor task is influenced by various variables such as animal supplier and batch membership. In this retrospective analysis of our laboratory database, we investigate how head and brain surgery as well as intracerebral injections that were performed to address particular scientific questions affect motor learning. Overall, invasive interventions (n=90) slow the acquisition of a skilled-reaching task when compared to naïve animals (n=184; P=0.01). With respect to subgroups, this detrimental effect widely differs between particular procedures: whereas epidural implantations of thin-film electrode arrays and punctual injection through pre-implanted cannulas into primary motor cortex (M1) do not interfere with learning, skill acquisition is slowed after chronic infusion using osmotic minipumps into M1 and skill acquisition is lastingly impaired after bilateral cannula implantation within the dorsal striatum. In line with previous reports, breeder-specific differences could be observed in the analysis of the overall population. In summary, interventions may impair learning-behavior in an unpredictable fashion. Thus, a comparison of behavioral data to a naïve population is recommended to be aware of these drawbacks. PMID:27457136

  17. An environmental friendly method for the automatic determination of hypochlorite in commercial products using multisyringe flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Soto, N Ornelas; Horstkotte, B; March, J G; López de Alba, P L; López Martínez, L; Cerdá Martín, V

    2008-03-24

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis system was used for the determination of hypochlorite in cleaning agents, by measurement of the native absorbance of hypochlorite at 292 nm. The methodology was based on the selective decomposition of hypochlorite by a cobalt oxide catalyst giving chloride and oxygen. The difference of the absorbance of the sample before and after its pass through a cobalt oxide column was selected as analytical signal. As no further reagent was required this work can be considered as a contribution to environmental friendly analytical chemistry. The entire analytical procedure, including in-line sample dilution in three steps was automated by first, dilution in a stirred miniature vessel, second by dispersion and third by in-line addition of water using multisyringe flow injection technique. The dynamic concentration range was 0.04-0.78 gL(-1) (relative standard deviation lower than 3%), where the extension of the hypochlorite decomposition was of 90+/-4%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial cleaning products. The accuracy of the method was established by iodometric titration. PMID:18328319

  18. Fast gas chromatographic residue analysis in animal feed using split injection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tienstra, M; Portolés, T; Hernández, F; Mol, J G J

    2015-11-27

    Significant speed improvement for instrumental runtime would make GC–MS much more attractive for determination of pesticides and contaminants and as complementary technique to LC–MS. This was the trigger to develop a fast method (time between injections less than 10 min) for the determination of pesticides and PCBs that are not (or less) amenable to LC–MS. A key factor in achieving shorter analysis time was the use of split injection (1:10) which allowed the use of a much higher initial GC oven temperature. A shorter column (15 m), higher temperature ramp, and higher carrier gas flow rate (6 mL/min) further contributed to analysis-time reduction. Chromatographic resolution was slightly compromised but still well fit-for-purpose. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique used (GC–APCI-triple quadrupole MS/MS), quantification and identification were still possible down to the 10 μg/kg level, which was demonstrated by successful validation of the method for complex feed matrices according to EU guidelines. Other advantages of the method included a better compatibility of acetonitrile extracts (e.g. QuEChERS) with GC, and a reduced transfer of co-extractants into the GC column and mass spectrometer.

  19. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed. PMID:25633600

  20. Monitoring lipase/esterase activity by stopped flow in a sequential injection analysis system using p-nitrophenyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05-1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed. PMID:25633600

  1. Comprehensive analysis of chemical constituents in Xingxiong injection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Dou, Li-Li; Duan, Li; Liu, Ke; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2015-09-01

    Xingxiong injection (XXI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formula prepared by the folium ginkgo extract and ligustrazine for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared with the pharmacological studies, chemical analysis and quality control studies on this formula are relatively limited. In the present study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in XXI. According to the fragmentation rules and previous reports, thirty ginkgo flavonoids, four ginkgo terpene lactones, and one alkaloid were identified. A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ MS) method was then applied to quantify ten major constituents in XXI. The method validation results indicated that the developed method had desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The total contents of ginkgo flavonoids were about 22.05-25.51 μg·mL(-1) and the ginkgo terpene lactones amounts were about 4.41-8.70 μg·mL(-1) in six batches of XXI samples, respectively. Furthermore, cosine ratio algorithm and distance measurements were employed to evaluate the similarity of XXI samples, and the results demonstrated a high-quality consistency. This work could provide comprehensive information on the quality control of Xingxiong injection, which be helpful in the establishment of a rational quality control standard.

  2. Change of Distribution and Timing of Bite Force after Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection Evaluated by a Computerized Occlusion Analysis System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji Hee; Cho, Eunae S.; Kim, Seong Taek

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the force distribution and pattern of mastication after injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) into both masseter muscles. The hypothesis to be tested was that the difference between right and left balance of occlusal force diminishes over time following BTX-A injection. Materials and Methods Fifteen patients were submitted to BTX-A injection therapy for subjective masseter hypertrophy. A total of 25 U of BTX-A (50 U in total) was injected into two points located 1 cm apart at the center of the lower one-third of both masseter muscles. All patients were examined using the T-Scan occlusion analysis system before and 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after BTX-A injection. Results A significant change in force balance was found between the right and left sides over time and the difference between the two sides decreased with the time post-injection, reaching a minimum at 12 weeks. Comparison of the force balance between the anterior and posterior occlusions revealed no significant difference at any of the time points. The occlusion and disclusion times (right and left sides) did not differ significantly with time since BTX-A injection. Conclusion A decline in the difference in the clenching force between the left and right sides was found with increasing time up to 12 weeks following BTX-A injection. PMID:24954346

  3. More than just someone to inject drugs with: injecting within primary injection partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. Methods In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Main Findings Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Conclusions Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. PMID:26460140

  4. Analysis of stress changes and fault stability related to CO2 injection at the Tomakomai offshore site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Y.; Funatsu, T.; Nakao, S.; Kusunose, K.; Ishido, T.; Lei, X.; Tosha, T.

    2013-12-01

    A carbon capture and storage demonstration project is planned at the Tomakomai offshore site, which is located in the southwestern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The project includes geological CO2 storage at a rate of 0.25 Mt/year for three and a half years and a coherent system of capture (from petroleum refineries) and transportation (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2012). Two different reservoirs are candidates: one is the Moebetsu formation which is shallow, gently inclined and composed of relatively homogeneous sandstone, and another is the Takinoue T1 formation which is deep, sharply inclined, overpressured and composed of heterogeneous volcanic rocks. Effects of the CO2 injection are expected to be considerably different between these two reservoirs. As part of a safety assessment, Kano et al. (2013) investigated stress changes and corresponding fault stability in the deeper Takinoue T1 formation, based on an estimated initial stress field and numerically-simulated changes in fluid pressure caused by a planned CO2 injection. One of the important features was that the slip tendency becomes maximal near the top of the dipping Takinoue formation which is substantially shallower than the injection depth. This is thought to be due to a combination of the overpressure and heterogeneous structure. In this presentation we will report results of additional analysis and discuss different behaviours between the Takinoue and Moebetsu formations. Sensitivity to uncertain geomechanical properties such as the friction coefficient and the effects of poro-elastic stress development due to changes in fluid pressure and temperature are also discussed. This research was partly funded and supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. We would like to acknowledge Japan CCS Co., Ltd., for providing their survey and research data on the Tomakomai site. References: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2012. CCS demonstration project at the Tomakomai site (in

  5. Community characteristics associated with HIV risk among injection drug users in the San Francisco Bay Area: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian; Martinez, Alexis; Edlin, Brian R; Kral, Alex H

    2007-09-01

    Community characteristics have been associated with racial and ethnic health disparities for a wide range of ailments and conditions. Previous research has found that rates of AIDS cases among injection drug users (IDUs) vary by community characteristics. However, few studies have examined whether community characteristics are associated with HIV risk behaviors among IDUs. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the associations between census-tract-level community characteristics and injection-related and sex-related HIV risk behaviors among IDUs in the San Francisco Bay Area. Individual HIV risk behaviors were collected from 4,956 IDUs between 1998 and 2002. Using 2000 US census data, we constructed four census-level community measures: percent African American, percent male unemployment, percent of households that receive public assistance, and median household income. All community variables were measured continuously. Multilevel modeling was used to determine if community characteristics were associated with recent (in the last 6 months) receptive and distributive syringe sharing, multiple sex partners, and unprotected sex risk while controlling for potential individual-level confounders. In bivariate analysis, most of the census-tract-level community characteristics were significantly associated with injection-related HIV risk, while no community characteristics were associated with sex-related risk. However, results from multivariate multilevel models indicate that only percent African American in a census tract was associated with receptive [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89, 0.99] and distributive syringe sharing (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.92, 0.99), net of individual-level characteristics. Accounting for individual-level factors in the multivariate model in the sex-related risk models revealed a significant inverse relationship between percent African American and propensity to engage in unprotected sex (AOR = 0

  6. The determination of levofloxacin by flow injection analysis using UV detection, potentiometry, and conductometry in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Altiokka, G; Atkosar, Z; Can, N O

    2002-10-15

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) using UV detection, potentiometry and conductometry for levofloxacin (LVF) are described in this study. The best solvent system was found to consist of 0.2 M acetate buffer at pH 3 having 10% MeOH. A flow rate of 1 ml min(-1) was pumped and active material was detected at 288 nm. The detection limit (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for FIA were calculated to be 3 x 10(-7) M (S/N = 3) and 1 x 10(-7) M (S/N = 10), respectively. In the analysis of tablets, the RSD values were found to be 0.83, 0.98 and 0.99 for FIA, potentiometric and conductometric methods, respectively.

  7. Evaluation of flow injection analysis method with spectrophotometric detection for the determination of atrazine in soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Elisandra C; Melo, Vander De F; Abate, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining atrazine in soil extracts was evaluated by flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the reaction of atrazine with pyridine in an acid medium followed by the reaction with NaOH and sulfanilic acid. Several analytical conditions were previously studied and optimized. Under the best conditions of analysis, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.15 and 0.45 mg L(-1), respectively, for a linear response between 0.50 and 2.50 mg L(-1), and a sampling throughput of 21 determinations per hour. Using the standard addition method, the maximum relative standard deviation of 17% and recovery values between 80 and 100% were observed for three extracts from soil samples with different composition. The proposed method is simple, low-cost and easy to use, and can be employed for studies involving atrazine in soil samples or for screening of atrazine in soils.

  8. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to triptorelin injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about triptorelin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  9. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to leuprolide injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about leuprolide injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  10. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  11. Analysis of batch-related influences on injection molding processes viewed in the context of electro plating quality demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepmann, Jens P.; Wortberg, Johannes; Heinzler, Felix A.

    2016-03-01

    The injection molding process is mandatorily influenced by the viscosity of the material. By varying the material batch the viscosity of the polymer changes. For the process and part quality the initial conditions of the material in addition to the processing parameters define the process and product quality. A high percentage of technical polymers processed in injection molding is refined in a follow-up production step, for example electro plating. Processing optimized for electro plating often requires avoiding high shear stresses by using low injection speed and pressure conditions. Therefore differences in the material charges' viscosity occur especially in the quality related low shear rate area. These differences and quality related influences can be investigated by high detail rheological analysis and process simulation based on adapted material describing models. Differences in viscosity between batches can be detected by measurements with high-pressure-capillary-rheometers or oscillatory rheometers for low shear rates. A combination of both measurement techniques is possible by the Cox-Merz-Relation. The detected differences in the rheological behavior of both charges are summarized in two material behavior describing model approaches and added to the simulation. In this paper the results of processing-simulations with standard filling parameters are presented with two ABS charges. Part quality defining quantities such as temperature, pressure and shear stress are investigated and the influence of charge variations is pointed out with respect to electro plating quality demands. Furthermore, the results of simulations with a new quality related process control are presented and compared to the standard processing.

  12. Studies of the analyte-carrier interface in flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical analysis in flowing solution is popular for automation of classical methods. However, most of the classical methods are not specific enough for direct multicomponent analysis of simple mixtures. This research project has the goals of study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media, and investigations of chemical reactions at interfaces and of effects of competition on distribution of products from interfacial reaction. This report summarizes work done over the past 4.5 years; support has been terminated.

  13. Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Xingnaojing Injection on Consciousness Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Hua; Xing, Yanwei; Gao, Yonghong; Li, Yanda; Ren, Xiaomeng; Li, Jie; Nie, Bo; Zhu, Lingqun; Shang, Hongcai; Gao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Xingnaojing (XNJ) is commonly extracted from Angongniuhuang, a classic Chinese emergency prescription, and widely used in the treatment of nervous system disorders including consciousness disturbance in China. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of XNJ injection, on consciousness disturbance. Seven major electronic databases were searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of XNJ alone or combined with Western medicine in treating consciousness disturbance caused by conditions such as high fever, poisoning, and stroke. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, and analyzed using the RevMan 5.3.0 software. Seventeen randomized controlled trials on XNJ were included in this study and the trials generally showed low methodological quality. The results revealed that XNJ alone or in combination with other medicines and adjuvant methods had a positive effect on patients with fever-, poisoning-, and stroke-induced coma. XNJ effectively treated consciousness disturbances that were caused by high fever, poisoning, or stroke. PMID:26886655

  14. Analysis of optical properties in injection-molded and compression-molded optical lenses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung Yen; Wang, Pei Jen

    2014-04-10

    Numerical mold-flow simulations and experimental measurements for injection-molded lenses have been investigated in form accuracy on a two-cavity mold with various process conditions. First, form profiles of the molded lenses have been measured together with the corresponding simulated mold-temperature distribution and displacement distribution of the lens in the z direction. A flow-through type layout of cooling channels has been devised for balance of mold-temperature distribution in mold cavities with various parametric distances for assessments in uniformity of temperature distribution. Finally, a compression-molding process is proposed for the post-process of birefringence relaxation as well as adequate form accuracy of lenses. In conclusion, optimization of process parameters to achieve good form accuracy in a multicavity mold with symmetric geometry but nonuniform cooling conditions is difficult. A good design of cooling channels plus optimized process conditions could provide uniform mold-temperature distribution so that molded lenses of good quality would be possible. Then, the profile deviation of lenses could be further compensated by profile geometry corrections. In conclusion, the post-compression-molding process could make birefringence-free plastic lenses with good form accuracy.

  15. Spatial Analysis of HIV Positive Injection Drug Users in San Francisco, 1987 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alexis N.; Mobley, Lee R.; Lorvick, Jennifer; Novak, Scott P.; Lopez, Andrea M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial analyses of HIV/AIDS related outcomes are growing in popularity as a tool to understand geographic changes in the epidemic and inform the effectiveness of community-based prevention and treatment programs. The Urban Health Study was a serial, cross-sectional epidemiological study of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco between 1987 and 2005 (N = 29,914). HIV testing was conducted for every participant. Participant residence was geocoded to the level of the United States Census tract for every observation in dataset. Local indicator of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) tests were used to identify univariate and bivariate Census tract clusters of HIV positive IDUs in two time periods. We further compared three tract level characteristics (% poverty, % African Americans, and % unemployment) across areas of clustered and non-clustered tracts. We identified significant spatial clustering of high numbers of HIV positive IDUs in the early period (1987–1995) and late period (1996–2005). We found significant bivariate clusters of Census tracts where HIV positive IDUs and tract level poverty were above average compared to the surrounding areas. Our data suggest that poverty, rather than race, was an important neighborhood characteristic associated with the spatial distribution of HIV in SF and its spatial diffusion over time. PMID:24722543

  16. On-line node fault injection training algorithm for MLP networks: objective function and convergence analysis.

    PubMed

    Sum, John Pui-Fai; Leung, Chi-Sing; Ho, Kevin I-J

    2012-02-01

    Improving fault tolerance of a neural network has been studied for more than two decades. Various training algorithms have been proposed in sequel. The on-line node fault injection-based algorithm is one of these algorithms, in which hidden nodes randomly output zeros during training. While the idea is simple, theoretical analyses on this algorithm are far from complete. This paper presents its objective function and the convergence proof. We consider three cases for multilayer perceptrons (MLPs). They are: (1) MLPs with single linear output node; (2) MLPs with multiple linear output nodes; and (3) MLPs with single sigmoid output node. For the convergence proof, we show that the algorithm converges with probability one. For the objective function, we show that the corresponding objective functions of cases (1) and (2) are of the same form. They both consist of a mean square errors term, a regularizer term, and a weight decay term. For case (3), the objective function is slight different from that of cases (1) and (2). With the objective functions derived, we can compare the similarities and differences among various algorithms and various cases. PMID:24808501

  17. Effect of Prednisolone Administration on Patients with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage and in Routine Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dan, Song; Wei, Wang; Yichao, Shi; Hongbo, Cheng; Shenmin, Yang; Jiaxiong, Wang; Hong, Li

    2015-07-01

    The effects of prednisolone on pregnancy outcome are open to debate. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficiency of prednisolone administration on unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) and the process of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Relevant publications were searched from databases and the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated effects of prednisolone administration in women with unexplained RM or during ART. The outcomes in our analysis were measured in terms of risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random effect models. This meta-analysis was performed based on pregnancy outcomes following prednisolone treatment. This meta-analysis provides evidence that prednisolone therapy improves pregnancy outcomes in women with idiopathic RM (live birth rate: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.23-2.02; successful pregnancy outcome: RR 7.63, 95% CI 3.71-15.69; miscarriage rate: RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28-0.61). Our meta-analysis revealed a non-significant effect of prednisolone on pregnancy outcome during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles (pregnancy rate: RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.24; clinical pregnancy rate: RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82-1.24; implantation rate: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.85-1.28). Prednisolone administration may improve pregnancy outcomes in women with idiopathic RM; its efficacy in women undergoing ICSI is not significant. PMID:25753479

  18. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems. PMID:26592613

  19. Danhong Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pengda; Wang, Lei; Guo, Liheng; Zeng, Ruixiang; Huang, Juming; Zhang, Minzhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Danhong injection (DHI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods. We searched several electrical databases and hand searched several Chinese medical journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine plus placebo and RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine were retrieved. Study screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. Results. 13 RCTs enrolling 979 patients were included. Danhong injection could significantly reduce the risk of mortality, recurrent angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure. In addition, DHI was associated with improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and reperfusion. No significant difference of DHI was found on recurrent acute myocardial infarction. However, the safety of DHI remained unknown for limited data. Conclusion. DHI might be a potentially efficacious treatment for AMI patients. Nevertheless, the safety of DHI remained uncertain for limited information. Due to the fact that the overall quality of all included studies is generally low, more high quality RCTs are expected to validate the efficacy and safety of DHI for AMI patients.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium content in parenteral solutions by combined cloud point preconcentration-flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Sombra, L; Luconi, M; Silva, M F; Olsina, R A; Fernandez, L

    2001-07-01

    A cloud point preconcentration and flow injection (FI) analysis methodology for aluminium(III) determination has been developed. The analyte in the initial aqueous solution was complexed with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) in the presence of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BDTAC). The absorption spectroscopic characteristics of the ternary complex [Al(III)-CAS-BDTAC] were examined in detail. The preconcentration step was carried out by means of the non-ionic surfactant polyethylene glycol p-nonylphenyl ether (PONPE 7.5). The enriched analyte solution was injected into an FI system using an HPLC pump. The chemical variables affecting the analytical performance of the combined methodology were studied and optimised. The developed approach was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in parenteral solutions without previous treatment. Under the optimum experimental conditions, 99.9% extraction was achieved for a preconcentration factor of 50. The limit of detection was 1.12 x 10(-7) mol(-1). The calibration plot was linear over at least two orders of magnitude of aluminium concentration. The developed coupled methodology, which thoroughly satisfies the typical requirements for pharmaceutical control processes, is appropriate for monitoring the aluminium concentration in parenteral nutrition.

  1. Electrochemical analysis of acetaminophen using a boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Wangfuengkanagul, Nattakarn; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2002-06-01

    The electrochemistry of acetaminophen in phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) was studied at a boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry, hydrodynamic voltammetry, and flow injection with amperometric detection. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the reaction as a function of concentration of analyte. Comparison experiments were performed using a polished glassy carbon (GC) electrode. Acetaminophen undergoes quasi-reversible reaction at both of these two electrodes. The BDD and GC electrodes provided well-resolved cyclic voltammograms but the voltammetric signal-to-background ratios obtained from the diamond electrode were higher than those obtained from the GC electrode. The diamond electrode provided a linear dynamic range from 0.1 to 8 mM and a detection of 10 microM (S/B approximately 3) for voltammetric measurement. The flow injection analysis results at the diamond electrode indicated a linear dynamic range from 0.5 to 50 microM and a detection limit of 10 nM (S/N approximately 4). Acetaminophen in syrup samples has also been investigated. The results obtained in the recovery study (24.68+/-0.26 mg/ml) were comparable to those labeled (24 mg/ml). PMID:12039625

  2. Linear Temporal Stability Analysis of a Low-Density Round Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Anthony L.; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar N.

    2002-01-01

    It has been observed in previous experimental studies that round helium jets injected into air display a repetitive structure for a long distance, somewhat similar to the buoyancy-induced flickering observed in diffusion flames. In order to investigate the influence of gravity on the near-injector development of the flow, a linear temporal stability analysis of a round helium jet injected into air was performed. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel; viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The variables were represented as the sum of the mean value and a normal-mode small disturbance. An ordinary differential equation governing the amplitude of the pressure disturbance was derived. The velocity and density profiles in the shear layer, and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) were the three important parameters in this equation. Together with the boundary conditions, an eigenvalue problem was formulated. Assuming that the velocity and density profiles in the shear layer to be represented by hyperbolic tangent functions, the eigenvalue problem was solved for various values of Froude number. The temporal growth rates and the phase velocity of the disturbances were obtained. The temporal growth rates of the disturbances increased as the Froude number was reduced (i.e. gravitational effects increased), indicating the destabilizing role played by gravity.

  3. Field-amplified sample injection in capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection for the ultratrace analysis of diastereomeric ephedrine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yanxia; Wang, Shaoyun; Song, Yunping; Tang, Fengxiang; Wu, Xiaoping

    2015-08-01

    A coupling method of field-amplified sample injection (FASI) CE with amperometric detection is developed for ultratrace analysis of ephedrine alkaloids stereoisomers. FASI was introduced by injecting electrokinetically the sample solution for 10 s into the capillary filled with highly conductive background electrolyte (BGE). The diastereomeric selectivity and the detection sensitivity were improved by using borate buffer of high ionic strength as BGE. Parameters affecting FASI and CE separation were investigated to achieve the optimal conditions. Four analytes were separated within 15 min using 200 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 9.5) and separation voltage of +18 kV, with detection potential at +1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and carbon disc electrode as working electrode. Excellent linearity was observed between peak current and concentration of analytes in the range of 0.1-100 ng/mL. The LODs (S/N = 3) for (-)-ephedrine, (+)-pseudoephedrine, (-)-N-methylephedrine and (+)-N-methylpseudoephedrine were 39.3, 54.9, 30.8, and 44.1 pg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of alkaloids in Ephedra sinica, with results agreed well with HPLC method. Mean recoveries of 102.1-109.7% and RSDs less than 6% were found. And the merits of high sensitivity and selectivity, as well as a simple and stable operation, have been demonstrated.

  4. Development of a flow-injection analysis system with fluorescence detection for gatifloxacin determination in organized medium.

    PubMed

    Lima Vaz, Monica F; de Oliveira, João Vitor F; Cassella, Ricardo J; Pacheco, Wagner F

    2015-05-01

    This work reports the development and optimization of a flow injection analysis system with fluorescence detection (FIA-FLUO) for gatifloxacin (GFX) determination in organized medium. The analytical system was based on the enhanced fluorescence of gatifloxacin in micellar medium containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at pH 6.0. The influence of physical (carrier flow rate, sample volume and volume of reaction coil) and chemical (pH, concentration of buffer and concentration of SDS) parameters that could affect the performance of the FIA system was evaluated in order to reach optimum conditions in terms of sensitivity and analytical throughput. Under optimized conditions, the FIA-FLUO system allowed the injection of 40 samples per hour with a limit of quantification of 72 µg/L and a RSD of 3.5% at 0.20 mg/L. Real samples of commercial pharmaceutical formulations containing GFX were analyzed, and no statistical difference was observed between the results obtained using the developed system and those obtained using the reference method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

  5. Polyclonal IgE increase after HgCl2 injections in BN and LEW rats: a genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sapin, C; Hirsch, F; Delaporte, J P; Bazin, H; Druet, P

    1984-01-01

    An autoimmune disease and a dramatic increase in total serum IgE concentration are observed in BN rats that are chronically injected with HgCl2. In contrast, LEW rats do not develop the characteristic glomerulonephritis and are very "low IgE responders". In this study, we examined the genetic control of total serum IgE increase after HgCl2 injection in F1 and F2 hybrids, in both backcrosses between LEW and BN rats, and in LEW.1N congenic rats. Genetic analysis was performed using peak IgE concentrations expressed as log microgram/ml. A high IgE phenotype was found to be dominant. Eighty-five percent of F2 variance was due to genetic factors (VG) while only 15% of this variance was caused by environmental factors (VE). From observations in F2 hybrids and backcrosses, estimations of additive variance (VA) and dominance variance (VD) were made following three different methods. Genetic control by about four loci is demonstrated. One of these genes is RT1-linked. This gene contributes to 25% of the phenotypic difference observed between BN and LEW rats. No correlation was found between the peak total IgE level and autoimmune disease based on IgG deposition in spleen and/or kidney.

  6. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems.

  7. [Correlation analysis on combined medication with of Xiyanping injection in treatment of lung infection in real world].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-ping; Xie, Yan-ming; Zhi, Ying-jie; Yang, Wei; Wang, Zhi-fei; Huo, Jian

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the regularity in combined medication with Xiyanping injection (Xiyanping for short) in the real world by as- sociation rules. Totally 5 822 patients using Xiyanping injection was collected from the 18 Class III Grade I hospitals nationwide to study the combined medication information of the patient with lung infection and make the analysis by using association rules and Apriori. According to the results, major drugs combined with Xiyanping in treatment of lung infection included compound amino acid, inosine, coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, vitamin C. Common drugs combined with Xiyanping can be divided into 5 categories: nutrition support therapy (vitamin C, compound amino acid) , coenzymes (coenzyme A, cytidine triphosphate, inosine), expectorants and antiasthmatics (ambroxol, salbutamol, doxofylline), hormones (dexamethasone, budesonide), antibiotics (mainly cefminox). The main combined medicines mostly conformed to the regularity for drugs treating lung infection. In addition, there were two most common medical combination models: the model for Xiyanping combined a single medicine is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy, while the model for Xiyanping combined two or more than two medicines is Xiyanping + nutrition support therapy + coenzyme. Pharmacologically, Xiyanping is mostly combined with western medicines with similar pharmacological effects to substitute or supplement the antibiotic effect in treating lung infection. However, further studies shall be conducted for the safety and rationality of the combined medication based on clinical practices, in order to provide reference for clinical medication. PMID:26591539

  8. [Intra-articular injections].

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  9. DEPRESSION AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOURS AMONG PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS: A GENDER-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Pettes, Tyler; Kerr, Thomas; Voon, Pauline; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Hayashi, Kanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many people who inject drugs (PID) contend with comorbidities, including high rates of mental illness, limited attention has been given to the differences in comorbidities among men and women or the potential links between psychiatric disorders and HIV risk behaviours. We sought to longitudinally examine associations between depression and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among PID, stratified by gender. Methods Data were derived from a prospective cohort of PID in Vancouver, Canada between December 2005 and November 2009. Using generalised estimating equations, we examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and two types of sexual HIV risk behaviours: engaging in unprotected sex; and having multiple sexual partners. All analyses were stratified by self-reported gender. Results Overall, 1017 PID participated in this study, including 331 (32.5%) women. At baseline, women reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than men (P < 0.001). In multivariate generalised estimating equations analyses, after adjustment for potential social, demographic and behavioural confounders, more severe depressive symptomology remained independently associated with engaging in unprotected sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18 – 2.23] and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.19) among women, but was only marginally associated with having multiple sexual partners among men (AOR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.98 – 1.41). Conclusions These findings call for improved integration of psychiatric screening and treatment services within existing public health initiatives designed for PID, particularly for women. Efforts are also needed to address sexual risk-taking among female PID contending with clinically significant depression. PMID:25982173

  10. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods.

  11. Intravitreal delivery of a novel AAV vector targets ON bipolar cells and restores visual function in a mouse model of complete congenital stationary night blindness.

    PubMed

    Scalabrino, Miranda L; Boye, Sanford L; Fransen, Kathryn M H; Noel, Jennifer M; Dyka, Frank M; Min, Seok Hong; Ruan, Qing; De Leeuw, Charles N; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Gregg, Ronald G; McCall, Maureen A; Peachey, Neal S; Boye, Shannon E

    2015-11-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) effectively targets therapeutic genes to photoreceptors, pigment epithelia, Müller glia and ganglion cells of the retina. To date, no one has shown the ability to correct, with gene replacement, an inherent defect in bipolar cells (BCs), the excitatory interneurons of the retina. Targeting BCs with gene replacement has been difficult primarily due to the relative inaccessibility of BCs to standard AAV vectors. This approach would be useful for restoration of vision in patients with complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1), where signaling through the ON BCs is eliminated due to mutations in their G-protein-coupled cascade genes. For example, the majority of CSNB1 patients carry a mutation in nyctalopin (NYX), which encodes a protein essential for proper localization of the TRPM1 cation channel required for ON BC light-evoked depolarization. As a group, CSNB1 patients have a normal electroretinogram (ERG) a-wave, indicative of photoreceptor function, but lack a b-wave due to defects in ON BC signaling. Despite retinal dysfunction, the retinas of CSNB1 patients do not degenerate. The Nyx(nob) mouse model of CSNB1 faithfully mimics this phenotype. Here, we show that intravitreally injected, rationally designed AAV2(quadY-F+T-V) containing a novel 'Ple155' promoter drives either GFP or YFP_Nyx in postnatal Nyx(nob) mice. In treated Nyx(nob) retina, robust and targeted Nyx transgene expression in ON BCs partially restored the ERG b-wave and, at the cellular level, signaling in ON BCs. Our results support the potential for gene delivery to BCs and gene replacement therapy in human CSNB1. PMID:26310623

  12. Waiting time reduction in intravitreal clinics by optimization of appointment scheduling: balancing demand and supply.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed guided by the Model for Improvement framework to reduce waiting times and visit duration in the intravitreal therapy clinic, while improving patient and staff experience. In our aim to provide good quality, patient-centred care and constantly improve, we optimised the appointment profile and patient flow. We involved a multidisciplinary team (one consultant, junior doctors, staff nurses, technicians, and receptionist), as well as patients and relatives, to try to understand the main delays in the clinic. Process mapping, a fishbone diagram, run charts, together with feedback from patients and staff, provided an insight on the possible roots of the delays experienced by our patients. The results of the inquiry led us to take actions focused on optimising appointment scheduling. After implementing the new scheduling profile (with a gap in the middle of the session), various cycles of plan-do-study-act and a comparative, qualitative study by interviewing 10 patients demonstrated that the waiting times decreased, and patients and staff experience improved. PMID:26734454

  13. Thermoanalytical characterization of clindamycin-loaded intravitreal implants prepared by hot melt extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Tamaddon, Lana; Mostafavi, Seyed Abolfazl; Karkhane, Reza; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate a non-destructive fabrication method in for the development of sustained-release poly (L, D-lactic acid)-based biodegradable clindamycin phosphate implants for the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Materials and Methods: The rod-shaped intravitreal implants with an average length of 5 mm and a diameter of 0.4 mm were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) studies were employed in order to study the characteristics of these formulations. Results: Drug content uniformity test confirmed the uniformity in different implant batches. Furthermore, the DSC, FTIR, and 1H NMR studies proved that the fabrication process did not have any destructive effects either on the drug or on the polymer structures. Conclusion: These studies showed that the developed sustained-release implants could be of interest for long-term sustained intraocular delivery of clindamycin, which can provide better patient compliance and also have good potential in terms of industrial feasibility. PMID:26322295

  14. Development of a murine ocular posterior segment explant culture for the study of intravitreous vector delivery

    PubMed Central

    Denk, Nora; Misra, Vikram; Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Bauer, Bianca B.; Singh, Jaswant; Forsyth, George W.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a murine retinal/choroidal/scleral explant culture system to facilitate the intravitreous delivery of vectors. Posterior segment explants from adult mice of 2 different age groups (4 wk and 15 wk) were cultured in serum-free medium for variable time periods. Tissue viability was assessed by gross morphology, cell survival quantification, activated caspase-3 expression, and immunohistochemistry. To model ocular gene therapy, explants were exposed to varying transducing units of a lentiviral vector expressing the gene for green fluorescent protein for 48 h. Explant retinal cells remained viable for approximately 1 wk, although the ganglion cell layer developed apoptosis between 4 and 7 d. Following vector infusion into the posterior segment cups, viral transduction was noted in multiple retinal layers in both age groups. An age of donor mouse influence was noted and older mice did not transduce as well as younger mice. This explant offers an easily managed posterior segment ocular culture with minimum disturbance of the tissue, and may be useful for investigating methods of enhancing retinal gene therapy under controlled conditions. PMID:25673906

  15. Waiting time reduction in intravitreal clinics by optimization of appointment scheduling: balancing demand and supply

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed guided by the Model for Improvement framework to reduce waiting times and visit duration in the intravitreal therapy clinic, while improving patient and staff experience. In our aim to provide good quality, patient-centred care and constantly improve, we optimised the appointment profile and patient flow. We involved a multidisciplinary team (one consultant, junior doctors, staff nurses, technicians, and receptionist), as well as patients and relatives, to try to understand the main delays in the clinic. Process mapping, a fishbone diagram, run charts, together with feedback from patients and staff, provided an insight on the possible roots of the delays experienced by our patients. The results of the inquiry led us to take actions focused on optimising appointment scheduling. After implementing the new scheduling profile (with a gap in the middle of the session), various cycles of plan-do-study-act and a comparative, qualitative study by interviewing 10 patients demonstrated that the waiting times decreased, and patients and staff experience improved. PMID:26734454

  16. Waiting time reduction in intravitreal clinics by optimization of appointment scheduling: balancing demand and supply.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed guided by the Model for Improvement framework to reduce waiting times and visit duration in the intravitreal therapy clinic, while improving patient and staff experience. In our aim to provide good quality, patient-centred care and constantly improve, we optimised the appointment profile and patient flow. We involved a multidisciplinary team (one consultant, junior doctors, staff nurses, technicians, and receptionist), as well as patients and relatives, to try to understand the main delays in the clinic. Process mapping, a fishbone diagram, run charts, together with feedback from patients and staff, provided an insight on the possible roots of the delays experienced by our patients. The results of the inquiry led us to take actions focused on optimising appointment scheduling. After implementing the new scheduling profile (with a gap in the middle of the session), various cycles of plan-do-study-act and a comparative, qualitative study by interviewing 10 patients demonstrated that the waiting times decreased, and patients and staff experience improved.

  17. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before you plan to inject it to allow the medication to ... supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications ...

  18. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  19. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... including other medications or surgery to remove the spleen. Romiplostim injection should not be used to treat ... tell your doctor if you have had your spleen removed.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  20. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling and scales on the skin). ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... you are using golimumab injection to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ...

  1. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  2. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  3. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  4. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is also used to treat malignant effusions ( ... how you respond to thiotepa.When used for bladder cancer, thiotepa is infused (injected slowly) into your bladder ...

  5. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  6. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  7. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  8. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  9. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  10. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  11. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dolasetron injection is used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron ... should not be used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting in people receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. ...

  12. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  13. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  14. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  15. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  16. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... drowsiness uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body problems with coordination, balance, or walking weakness itching redness, irritation, pain, or discomfort at the injection spot Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  17. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction.Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  18. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  19. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  20. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...