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Sample records for intrinsic ellipticity correlation

  1. SELF-CALIBRATION OF GRAVITATIONAL SHEAR-GALAXY INTRINSIC ELLIPTICITY CORRELATION IN WEAK LENSING SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Pengjie

    2010-09-10

    The galaxy intrinsic alignment is a severe challenge to precision cosmic shear measurement. We propose self-calibrating the induced gravitational shear-galaxy intrinsic ellipticity correlation (the GI correlation) in weak lensing surveys with photometric redshift measurements. (1) We propose a method to extract the intrinsic ellipticity-galaxy density cross-correlation (I-g) from the galaxy ellipticity-density measurement in the same redshift bin. (2) We also find a generic scaling relation to convert the extracted I-g correlation to the necessary GI correlation. We perform a concept study under simplified conditions and demonstrate its capability to significantly reduce GI contamination. We discuss the impact of various complexities on the two key ingredients of the self-calibration technique, namely the method for extracting the I-g correlation and the scaling relation between the I-g and the GI correlation. We expect that none of them will likely be able to completely invalidate the proposed self-calibration technique.

  2. Surface brightness and intrinsic luminosity of ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Barun Kumar; Williams, Liliya L. R.

    2012-11-01

    We show that the surface brightness profiles of elliptical galaxies can be parametrized using a linear superposition of two or three components, each of which is described by functions developed in Dhar & Williams as the 2D projections of a 3D Einasto density profile. For a sample of 23 ellipticals in and around the Virgo Cluster with total absolute V magnitude -24 < MVT < -15, our multicomponent models span a dynamic range up to 106 in surface brightness and up to 105 in radius down to the resolution limit of the Hubble Space Telescope, have a median rms of 0.032 mag arcsec-2 consistent with the rms of 0.03 from random errors of the data, and are statistically justified at >3σ. Our models indicate that (i) the central component is more concentrated than the outer component; and (ii) the central component of massive shallow-cusp ('core') galaxies is much more luminous, extended and concentrated than that of steep-cusp ('cuspy') galaxies, with their near exponential central profiles indicating disc-like systems, whose existence must be verified spectroscopically. Galaxy structure can thus be modelled extremely well with a central mass excess for all galaxies. This is not necessarily contrary to the notion of a mass deficit in 'core' galaxies, since mass ejection due to core scouring by a supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary could have affected the shape of the central components. However, we show that the existence, amount, radial extent and sign of such deficits disagree substantially in the literature, both for a given galaxy and on an average over a sample. We discuss possible implications and suggest that SMBH binaries are unlikely to be the sole mechanism for producing the large 'cores' of massive galaxies. Using results from the SAURON survey, we deduce that under certain conditions of symmetry, inclination angles and degree of triaxiality, the intrinsic (3D) density of light can be well described with a multicomponent Einasto model for both steep- and

  3. The correlation function of galaxy ellipticities produced by gravitational lensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralda-Escude, Jordi

    1991-01-01

    The correlation of galaxy ellipticities produced by gravitational lensing is calculated as a function of the power spectrum of density fluctuations in the universe by generalizing an analytical method developed by Gunn (1967). The method is applied to a model where identical objects with spherically symmetric density profiles are randomly laid down in space, and to the cold dark matter model. The possibility of detecting this correlation is discussed. Although an ellipticity correlation can also be caused by an intrinsic alignment of the axes of galaxies belonging to a cluster or a supercluster, a method is suggested by which one type of correlation can be distinguished from another. The advantage of this ellipticity correlation is that it is one of the few astronomical observations that can directly probe large-scale mass fluctuations in the universe.

  4. Intrinsic galaxy shapes and alignments - I. Measuring and modelling COSMOS intrinsic galaxy ellipticities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, B.; Semboloni, E.; Bett, P. E.; Hartlap, J.; Hilbert, S.; Hoekstra, H.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.

    2013-05-01

    The statistical properties of the ellipticities of galaxy images depend on how galaxies form and evolve, and therefore constrain models of galaxy morphology, which are key to the removal of the intrinsic alignment contamination of cosmological weak lensing surveys, as well as to the calibration of weak lensing shape measurements. We construct such models based on the halo properties of the Millennium Simulation and confront them with a sample of 90 000 galaxies from the COSMOS Survey, covering three decades in luminosity and redshifts out to z = 2. The ellipticity measurements are corrected for effects of point spread function smearing, spurious image distortions and measurement noise. Dividing galaxies into early, late and irregular types, we find that early-type galaxies have up to a factor of 2 lower intrinsic ellipticity dispersion than late-type galaxies. None of the samples shows evidence for redshift evolution, while the ellipticity dispersion for late-type galaxies scales strongly with absolute magnitude at the bright end. The simulation-based models reproduce the main characteristics of the intrinsic ellipticity distributions although which model fares best depends on the selection criteria of the galaxy sample. We observe fewer close-to-circular late-type galaxy images in COSMOS than expected for a sample of randomly oriented circular thick discs and discuss possible explanations for this deficit.

  5. Elliptical Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahong; Liu, Lin; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-06-02

    A new kind of partially coherent beam with non-conventional correlation function named elliptical Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) beam is introduced. Analytical propagation formula for an elliptical LGCSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived. The elliptical LGCSM beam exhibits unique features on propagation, e.g., its intensity in the far field (or in the focal plane) displays an elliptical ring-shaped beam profile, being qualitatively different from the circular ring-shaped beam profile of the circular LGCSM beam. Furthermore, we carry out experimental generation of an elliptical LGCSM beam with controllable ellipticity, and measure its focusing properties. Our experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions. The elliptical LGCSM beam will be useful in atomic optics.

  6. Angular spectra of the intrinsic galaxy ellipticity field, their observability and their impact on lensing in tomographic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Björn Malte; Merkel, Philipp M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes intrinsic ellipticity correlations between galaxies, their statistical properties, their observability with future surveys and their interference with weak gravitational lensing measurements. Using an angular-momentum-based, quadratic intrinsic alignment model we derive correlation functions of the ellipticity components and project them to yield the four non-zero angular ellipticity spectra C^ɛ _E(ℓ), C^ɛ _B(ℓ), C^ɛ _C(ℓ) and C^ɛ _S(ℓ) in their generalization to tomographic surveys. For a Euclid-like survey, these spectra would have amplitudes smaller than the weak lensing effect on non-linear structures, but would constitute an important systematics. Computing estimation biases for cosmological parameters derived from an alignment-contaminated survey suggests biases of +5σw for the dark energy equation of state parameter w, -20σ _{Ω _m} for the matter density Ωm and -12σ _{σ _8} for the spectrum normalization σ8. Intrinsic alignments yield a signal that is easily observable with a survey similar to Euclid: while not independent, significances for estimates of each of the four spectra reach values of tens of σ if weak lensing and shape noise are considered as noise sources, which suggests relative uncertainties on alignment parameters at the percent level, implying that galaxy alignment mechanisms can be investigated by future surveys.

  7. A theoretical estimate of intrinsic ellipticity bispectra induced by angular momenta alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsically aligned galaxy shapes are one of the most important systematics in cosmic shear measurements. So far, theoretical studies of intrinsic alignments almost exclusively focus on their statistics at the two-point level. Results from numerical simulations, however, suggest that third-order measures might be even stronger affected. We therefore investigate the (angular) bispectrum of intrinsic alignments. In our fully analytical study, we describe intrinsic galaxy ellipticities by a physical alignment model, which makes use of tidal torque theory. We derive expressions for the various combinations of intrinsic and gravitationally induced ellipticities, i.e. III-, GII- and GGI-alignments, and compare our results to the shear bispectrum, the GGG-term. The latter is computed using hyperextended perturbation theory. Considering equilateral and squeezed configurations, we find that for a Euclid-like survey intrinsic alignments (III-alignments) start to dominate on angular scales smaller than 20 and 13 arcmin, respectively. This sensitivity to the configuration-space geometry may allow us to exploit the cosmological information contained in both the intrinsic and gravitationally induced ellipticity field. On smallest scales (ℓ ˜ 3000), III-alignments exceed the lensing signal by at least one order of magnitude. The amplitude of the GGI-alignments is the weakest. It stays below that of the shear field on all angular scales irrespective of the wavevector configuration.

  8. Intrinsic alignment contamination to CMB lensing-galaxy weak lensing correlations from tidal torquing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Patricia; Challinor, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Correlations of galaxy ellipticities with large-scale structure, due to galactic tidal interactions, provide a potentially significant contaminant to measurements of cosmic shear. However, these intrinsic alignments are still poorly understood for galaxies at the redshifts typically used in cosmic shear analyses. For spiral galaxies, it is thought that tidal torquing is significant in determining alignments resulting in zero correlation between the intrinsic ellipticity and the gravitational potential in linear theory. Here, we calculate the leading-order correction to this result in the tidal-torque model from non-linear evolution, using second-order perturbation theory, and relate this to the contamination from intrinsic alignments to the recently measured cross-correlation between galaxy ellipticities and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential. On the scales relevant for CMB lensing observations, the squeezed limit of the gravitational bispectrum dominates the correlation. Physically, the large-scale mode that sources CMB lensing modulates the small-scale power and hence the intrinsic ellipticity, due to non-linear evolution. We find that the angular cross-correlation from tidal torquing has a very similar scale dependence as in the linear alignment model, believed to be appropriate for elliptical galaxies. The amplitude of the cross-correlation is predicted to depend strongly on the formation redshift, being smaller for galaxies that formed at higher redshift when the bispectrum of the gravitational potential was smaller. Finally, we make simple forecasts for constraints on intrinsic alignments from the correlation of forthcoming cosmic shear measurements with current CMB lensing measurements. We note that cosmic variance can be significantly reduced in measurements of the difference in the intrinsic alignments for elliptical and spiral galaxies if these types can be separated (e.g. using colour).

  9. The removal of shear-ellipticity correlations from the cosmic shear signal via nulling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, B.; Schneider, P.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: To render cosmic shear an astronomical tool of high precision, it is essential to eliminate systematic effects upon its signal, one of the most significant ones being the intrinsic alignment of galaxies. The alignment in tidal fields that are created by the surrounding matter structure induces correlations between the intrinsic ellipticities of source galaxies, as well as correlations between the gravitational shear and the intrinsic ellipticity. While the former effect is restricted to physically close galaxy pairs and thus relatively easy to control, shear-ellipticity correlations occur for pairs at large separations. Because of the crudeness of current models of intrinsic alignment, we have developed a model-independent, purely geometrical method for removing the contamination of the cosmic shear signal by shear-ellipticity correlations. Methods: We remove the contributions to a tomographic cosmic shear signal that may be subject to contamination by shear-ellipticity correlations, making use of the characteristic dependence of these correlations on redshift. By introducing an appropriately chosen weight function to the lensing efficiency that nulls signals stemming from certain distances, new second-order measures of cosmic shear can be constructed that are free from intrinsic alignment. We present three approaches to determining such weight functions, optimized with respect to the amount of information the weighting preserves. After generalizing the construction of weight functions, the loss of information induced by this nulling technique and the subsequent degradation of constraints on cosmological parameters is quantified in a likelihood analysis. Results: For constructing optimal weight functions, good agreement is achieved between all approaches considered. In particular, a simplified analytical ansatz is shown to approximate the numerical results closely, significantly lowering computational efforts. For a survey divided into 20 redshift bins, we

  10. Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure from Gemini South

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S J; Treadway, T; de Vries, W H; Rosenberg, L J; Burke, D; Claver, C; Saha, A; Puxley, P

    2006-12-21

    Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.

  11. Properties of Ellipticity Correlation with Atmospheric Structure From Gemini South

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, Stephen J.; de Vries, W.H.; Rosenberg, L.J; Treadway, T.; Burke, D.; Claver, C.; Saha, A.; Puxley, P.; /Gemini Observ., La Serena

    2007-01-17

    Cosmic shear holds great promise for a precision independent measurement of {Omega}{sub m}, the mass density of the universe relative to the critical density. The signal is expected to be weak, so a thorough understanding of systematic effects is crucial. An important systematic effect is the atmosphere: shear power introduced by the atmosphere is larger than the expected signal. Algorithms exist to extract the cosmic shear from the atmospheric component, though a measure of their success applied to a range of seeing conditions is lacking. To gain insight into atmospheric shear, Gemini South imaging in conjunction with ground condition and satellite wind data were obtained. We find that under good seeing conditions Point-Spread-Function (PSF) correlations persist well beyond the separation typical of high-latitude stars. Under these conditions, ellipticity residuals based on a simple PSF interpolation can be reduced to within a factor of a few of the shot-noise induced ellipticity floor. We also find that the ellipticity residuals are highly correlated with wind direction. Finally, we correct stellar shapes using a more sophisticated procedure and generate shear statistics from stars. Under all seeing conditions in our data set the residual correlations lie everywhere below the target signal level. For good seeing we find that the systematic error attributable to atmospheric turbulence is comparable in magnitude to the statistical error (shape noise) over angular scales relevant to present lensing surveys.

  12. Intrinsic Correlations for Flaring Blazars Detected by Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Lin, C.; Constantin, D.; Luo, G. Y.; Pei, Z. Y.; Hao, J. M.; Mao, Y. W.

    2017-02-01

    Blazars are an extreme subclass of active galactic nuclei. Their rapid variability, luminous brightness, superluminal motion, and high and variable polarization are probably due to a beaming effect. However, this beaming factor (or Doppler factor) is very difficult to measure. Currently, a good way to estimate it is to use the timescale of their radio flares. In this Letter, we use multiwavelength data and Doppler factors reported in the literature for a sample of 86 flaring blazars detected by Fermi to compute their intrinsic multiwavelength data and intrinsic spectral energy distributions and investigate the correlations among observed and intrinsic data. Quite interestingly, intrinsic data show a positive correlation between luminosity and peak frequency, in contrast with the behavior of observed data, and a tighter correlation between γ-ray luminosity and the lower-energy ones. For flaring blazars detected by Fermi, we conclude that (1) observed emissions are strongly beamed; (2) the anti-correlation between luminosity and peak frequency from the observed data is an apparent result, the correlation between intrinsic data being positive; and (3) intrinsic γ-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with other intrinsic luminosities.

  13. The anisotropic Ising correlations as elliptic integrals: duality and differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, B. M.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2016-10-01

    We present the reduction of the correlation functions of the Ising model on the anisotropic square lattice to complete elliptic integrals of the first, second and third kind, the extension of Kramers-Wannier duality to anisotropic correlation functions, and the linear differential equations for these anisotropic correlations. More precisely, we show that the anisotropic correlation functions are homogeneous polynomials of the complete elliptic integrals of the first, second and third kind. We give the exact dual transformation matching the correlation functions and the dual correlation functions. We show that the linear differential operators annihilating the general two-point correlation functions are factorized in a very simple way, in operators of decreasing orders. Dedicated to A J Guttmann, for his 70th birthday.

  14. Characterizing the intrinsic correlations of scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito, J. B.; Sampaio Filho, C. I. N.; Moreira, A. A.; Andrade, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    When studying topological or dynamical properties of random scale-free networks, it is tacitly assumed that degree-degree correlations are not present. However, simple constraints, such as the absence of multiple edges and self-loops, can give rise to intrinsic correlations in these structures. In the same way that Fermionic correlations in thermodynamic systems are relevant only in the limit of low temperature, the intrinsic correlations in scale-free networks are relevant only when the extreme values for the degrees grow faster than the square root of the network size. In this situation, these correlations can significantly affect the dependence of the average degree of the nearest neighbors of a given vertex on this vertices degree. Here, we introduce an analytical approach that is capable to predict the functional form of this property. Moreover, our results indicate that random scale-free network models are not self-averaging, that is, the second moment of their degree distribution may vary orders of magnitude among different realizations. Finally, we argue that the intrinsic correlations investigated here may have profound impact on the critical properties of random scale-free networks.

  15. Inhibitory control of correlated intrinsic variability in cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Stringer, Carsen; Pachitariu, Marius; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Okun, Michael; Bartho, Peter; Harris, Kenneth D; Sahani, Maneesh; Lesica, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Cortical networks exhibit intrinsic dynamics that drive coordinated, large-scale fluctuations across neuronal populations and create noise correlations that impact sensory coding. To investigate the network-level mechanisms that underlie these dynamics, we developed novel computational techniques to fit a deterministic spiking network model directly to multi-neuron recordings from different rodent species, sensory modalities, and behavioral states. The model generated correlated variability without external noise and accurately reproduced the diverse activity patterns in our recordings. Analysis of the model parameters suggested that differences in noise correlations across recordings were due primarily to differences in the strength of feedback inhibition. Further analysis of our recordings confirmed that putative inhibitory neurons were indeed more active during desynchronized cortical states with weak noise correlations. Our results demonstrate that network models with intrinsically-generated variability can accurately reproduce the activity patterns observed in multi-neuron recordings and suggest that inhibition modulates the interactions between intrinsic dynamics and sensory inputs to control the strength of noise correlations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19695.001 PMID:27926356

  16. Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states for quantum communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sua Yongmeng; Scanlon, Erin; Beaulieu, Travis; Bollen, Viktor; Lee, Kim Fook

    2011-03-15

    Intrinsic quantum correlations of weak coherent states are observed between two parties through a novel detection scheme, which can be used as a supplement to the existence decoy-state Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the differential phase-shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) protocol. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we generate bipartite correlations of weak coherent states using weak local oscillator fields in two spatially separated balanced homodyne detections. We employ a nonlinearity of postmeasurement method to obtain the bipartite correlations from two single-field interferences at individual homodyne measurements. This scheme is then used to demonstrate bits correlations between two parties over a distance of 10 km through a transmission fiber. We believe that the scheme can add another physical layer of security to these protocols for quantum key distribution.

  17. Evaluation of sperm head shape at high magnification revealed correlation of sperm DNA fragmentation with aberrant head ellipticity and angularity.

    PubMed

    Utsuno, Hiroki; Oka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Ayako; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2013-05-01

    To test for an association between DNA fragmentation and head shape at high magnification in fresh motile spermatozoa. Observational study. Academic tertiary care center. A total of 60 men in our assisted reproductive program. Quantifying sperm head shape using elliptic Fourier analysis, and detecting DNA fragmentation by use of a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Correlation between percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal head shape and percentage of DNA fragmentation. Elliptic Fourier analysis decomposed sperm head shapes into four quantitative parameters: ellipticity, anteroposterior (AP) symmetry, lateral symmetry, and angularity. The DNA fragmentation was statistically significantly correlated with abnormal angularity, and moderately with abnormal ellipticity but not with abnormal AP symmetry or lateral symmetry. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significantly higher percentage of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa with abnormal ellipticity and abnormal angularity than in spermatozoa with normal-shaped head (6.1% and 5.4% vs. 2.8%). Spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles also correlated with sperm DNA fragmentation, and had a statistically significantly higher percentage of DNA fragmentation (4.7%). Among the morphologic features of the sperm head, abnormal ellipticity, angularity, and large nuclear vacuoles are associated with DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clique topology reveals intrinsic geometric structure in neural correlations

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Chad; Pastalkova, Eva; Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Detecting meaningful structure in neural activity and connectivity data is challenging in the presence of hidden nonlinearities, where traditional eigenvalue-based methods may be misleading. We introduce a novel approach to matrix analysis, called clique topology, that extracts features of the data invariant under nonlinear monotone transformations. These features can be used to detect both random and geometric structure, and depend only on the relative ordering of matrix entries. We then analyzed the activity of pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampus, recorded while the animal was exploring a 2D environment, and confirmed that our method is able to detect geometric organization using only the intrinsic pattern of neural correlations. Remarkably, we found similar results during nonspatial behaviors such as wheel running and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This suggests that the geometric structure of correlations is shaped by the underlying hippocampal circuits and is not merely a consequence of position coding. We propose that clique topology is a powerful new tool for matrix analysis in biological settings, where the relationship of observed quantities to more meaningful variables is often nonlinear and unknown. PMID:26487684

  19. Clique topology reveals intrinsic geometric structure in neural correlations.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Chad; Pastalkova, Eva; Curto, Carina; Itskov, Vladimir

    2015-11-03

    Detecting meaningful structure in neural activity and connectivity data is challenging in the presence of hidden nonlinearities, where traditional eigenvalue-based methods may be misleading. We introduce a novel approach to matrix analysis, called clique topology, that extracts features of the data invariant under nonlinear monotone transformations. These features can be used to detect both random and geometric structure, and depend only on the relative ordering of matrix entries. We then analyzed the activity of pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampus, recorded while the animal was exploring a 2D environment, and confirmed that our method is able to detect geometric organization using only the intrinsic pattern of neural correlations. Remarkably, we found similar results during nonspatial behaviors such as wheel running and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This suggests that the geometric structure of correlations is shaped by the underlying hippocampal circuits and is not merely a consequence of position coding. We propose that clique topology is a powerful new tool for matrix analysis in biological settings, where the relationship of observed quantities to more meaningful variables is often nonlinear and unknown.

  20. Intrinsic alignments of galaxies in the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Xu, Dandan; Schneider, Peter; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-06-01

    We study intrinsic alignments (IA) of galaxy image shapes within the Illustris cosmic structure formation simulations. We investigate how IA correlations depend on observable galaxy properties such as stellar mass, apparent magnitude, redshift and photometric type, and on the employed shape measurement method. The correlations considered include the matter density-intrinsic ellipticity (mI), galaxy density-intrinsic ellipticity (dI), gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI) and intrinsic ellipticity-intrinsic ellipticity (II) correlations. We find stronger correlations for more massive and more luminous galaxies, as well as for earlier photometric types, in agreement with observations. Moreover, the correlations significantly depend on the choice of shape estimator, even if calibrated to serve as unbiased shear estimators. In particular, shape estimators that down-weight the outer parts of galaxy images produce much weaker IA signals on intermediate and large scales than methods employing flat radial weights. The expected contribution of IA to the observed ellipticity correlation in tomographic cosmic shear surveys may be below one percent or several percent of the full signal depending on the details of the shape measurement method. A comparison of our results to a tidal alignment model indicates that such a model is able to reproduce the IA correlations well on intermediate and large scales, provided the effect of varying galaxy density is correctly taken into account. We also find that the GI contributions to the observed ellipticity correlations could be inferred directly from measurements of galaxy density-intrinsic ellipticity correlations, except on small scales, where systematic differences between mI and dI correlations are large.

  1. Ellipticities of Elliptical Galaxies in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Ko, Chung-Ming

    2016-10-01

    We studied the ellipticity distributions of elliptical galaxies in different environments. From the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we selected galaxies with absolute {r}\\prime -band magnitudes between -21 and -22. We used the volume number densities of galaxies as the criterion for selecting the environments of the galaxies. Our samples were divided into three groups with different volume number densities. The ellipticity distributions of the elliptical galaxies differed considerably in these three groups of different density regions. We deprojected the observed 2D ellipticity distributions into intrinsic 3D shape distributions, and the result showed that the shapes of the elliptical galaxies were relatively spherically symmetric in the high density region (HDR) and that relatively more flat galaxies were present in the low density region (LDR). This suggests that the ellipticals in the HDRs and LDRs have different origins or that different mechanisms might be involved. The elliptical galaxies in the LDR are likely to have evolved from mergers in relatively anisotropic structures, such as filaments and webs, and might contain information on the anisotropic spatial distribution of their parent mergers. By contrast, elliptical galaxies in the HDR might be formed in more isotropic structures, such as galaxy clusters, or they might encounter more torqueing effects compared with galaxies in LDRs, thereby becoming rounder.

  2. Gaussian intrinsic entanglement: An entanglement quantifier based on secret correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mišta, Ladislav; Tatham, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsic entanglement (IE) is a quantity which aims at quantifying bipartite entanglement carried by a quantum state as an optimal amount of the intrinsic information that can be extracted from the state by measurement. We investigate in detail the properties of a Gaussian version of IE, the so-called Gaussian intrinsic entanglement (GIE). We show explicitly how GIE simplifies to the mutual information of a distribution of outcomes of measurements on a conditional state obtained by a measurement on a purifying subsystem of the analyzed state, which is first minimized over all measurements on the purifying subsystem and then maximized over all measurements on the conditional state. By constructing for any separable Gaussian state a purification and a measurement on the purifying subsystem which projects the purification onto a product state, we prove that GIE vanishes on all Gaussian separable states. Via realization of quantum operations by teleportation, we further show that GIE is nonincreasing under Gaussian local trace-preserving operations and classical communication. For pure Gaussian states and a reduction of the continuous-variable GHZ state, we calculate GIE analytically and we show that it is always equal to the Gaussian Rényi-2 entanglement. We also extend the analysis of IE to a non-Gaussian case by deriving an analytical lower bound on IE for a particular form of the non-Gaussian continuous-variable Werner state. Our results indicate that mapping of entanglement onto intrinsic information is capable of transmitting also quantitative properties of entanglement and that this property can be used for introduction of a quantifier of Gaussian entanglement which is a compromise between computable and physically meaningful entanglement quantifiers.

  3. THE L{proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 8} CORRELATION FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH CORES: RELATION WITH BLACK HOLE MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf E-mail: bender@mpe.mpg.de

    2013-05-20

    We construct the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion {sigma} and total galaxy luminosity L{sub V} separately for elliptical galaxies with and without cores. The coreless ellipticals show the well-known, steep relationship dlog {sigma}/dlog L{sub V} = 0.268 or L{sub V} {proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 3.74}. This corresponds to dlog {sigma}/dlog M = 0.203, where M is the stellar mass and we use M/L{proportional_to}L {sup 0.32}. In contrast, the velocity dispersions of core ellipticals increase much more slowly with L{sub V} and M: dlog {sigma}/dlog L{sub V} = 0.120, L{sub V} {proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 8.33}, and dlog {sigma}/dlog M = 0.091. Dissipationless major galaxy mergers are expected to preserve {sigma} according to the simplest virial-theorem arguments. However, numerical simulations show that {sigma} increases slowly in dry major mergers, with dlog {sigma}/dlog M {approx_equal} +0.15. In contrast, minor mergers cause {sigma} to decrease, with dlog {sigma}/dlog M {approx_equal} -0.05. Thus, the observed relation argues for dry major mergers as the dominant growth mode of the most massive ellipticals. This is consistent with what we know about the formation of cores. We know no viable way to explain galaxy cores except through dissipationless mergers of approximately equal-mass galaxies followed by core scouring by binary supermassive black holes. The observed, shallow {sigma}{proportional_to}L{sub V}{sup +0.12} relation for core ellipticals provides further evidence that they formed in dissipationless and predominantly major mergers. Also, it explains the observation that the correlation of supermassive black hole mass with velocity dispersion, M{sub .}{proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 4}, ''saturates'' at high M{sub .} such that M{sub .} becomes almost independent of {sigma}.

  4. Modelling the impact of intrinsic size and luminosity correlations on magnification estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarlariello, Sandro; Crittenden, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Spatial correlations of the observed sizes and luminosities of galaxies can be used to estimate the magnification that arises through weak gravitational lensing. However, the intrinsic properties of galaxies can be similarly correlated through local physical effects, and these present a possible contamination to the weak lensing estimation. In an earlier paper we modelled the intrinsic size correlations using the halo model, assuming the galaxy sizes reflect the mass in the associated halo. Here we extend this work to consider galaxy magnitudes and show that these may be even more affected by intrinsic correlations than galaxy sizes, making this a bigger systematic for measurements of the weak lensing signal. We also quantify how these intrinsic correlations are affected by sample selection criteria based on sizes and magnitudes.

  5. Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on Vm-Fluctuations during Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kolind, Jens; Hounsgaard, Jørn; Berg, Rune W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons often receive massive concurrent bombardment of synaptic inhibition and excitation during functional network activity. This increases membrane conductance and causes fluctuations in membrane potential (Vm) and spike timing. The conductance increase is commonly attributed to synaptic conductance, but also includes the intrinsic conductances recruited during network activity. These two sources of conductance have contrasting dynamic properties at sub-threshold membrane potentials. Synaptic transmitter gated conductance changes abruptly and briefly with each presynaptic action potential. If the spikes arrive at random times the changes in synaptic conductance are therefore stochastic and rapid during intense network activity. In comparison, sub-threshold intrinsic conductances vary smoothly in time. In the present study this discrepancy is investigated using two conductance-based models: a (1) compartment model and a (2) compartment with realistic slow intrinsic conductances. We examine the effects of varying the relative contributions of non-fluctuating intrinsic conductance with fluctuating concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synaptic conductance. For given levels of correlation in the synaptic input we find that the magnitude of the membrane fluctuations uniquely determines the relative contribution of synaptic and intrinsic conductance. We also quantify how Vm-fluctuations vary with synaptic correlations for fixed ratios of synaptic and intrinsic conductance. Interestingly, the levels of Vm -fluctuations and conductance observed experimentally during functional network activity leave little room for intrinsic conductance to contribute. Even without intrinsic conductances the variance in Vm -fluctuations can only be explained by a high degree of correlated firing among presynaptic neurons. PMID:22783184

  6. Morphological analysis of nearby elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preetha, A. U.; Jithesh, V.; Joseph, Dhanya; Nikesh, N.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    We report correlations among bulge-disk parameters for a sample of twenty nearby (<30 Mpc) elliptical galaxies with K band observations from (Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)). The global photometric parameters were extracted using the code ``GALFIT'' assuming Sersic bulge with an optional exponential disk. The sample contains all elliptical galaxies from Swartz et al. (2004) with identified non nuclear ultra luminous sources (ULXs) with intrinsic luminosities of LX > 10^{39} ergs/s in the 0.5-8.0 keV energy band. Out of 20 galaxies, seven (35%) shows no significant disk component in it. The rest of the galaxies in the sample show significant disk component with a mean B/T ratio 0.29±0.06. No obvious differences were obtained in various two and three parameter correlations with that of Coma cluster ellipticals, even though our sample is from the nearby Universe.

  7. Suppression of elliptic-flow-induced correlations in an observable of possible local parity violation

    SciTech Connect

    Bzdak, Adam

    2012-04-01

    I show that fluctuations in elliptic anisotropy in heavy-ion collisions can be used to significantly reduce the contribution of transverse-momentum conservation, and of all background effects independent of the orientation of the reaction plane, from an observable of the chiral magnetic effect. I argue that for a given impact parameter, the magnetic field is approximately independent of the fluctuating shape of the fireball.

  8. A correlation test of the intrinsic interpretation of QSO absorption redshifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opher, R.

    1975-01-01

    It is noted that the general intrinsic interpretation of QSO absorption redshifts predicts a high probability of clustering for the expulsion velocities of clouds ejected from a QSO core and that a correlation function has been defined which depends on the probability of clustering of three or more expulsion velocities. A test of this correlation is formulated which utilizes data on pairs of QSOs with similar emission redshifts and at least three well established absorption redshifts with corresponding expulsion velocities greater than 0.02c. It is shown that the correlation should be positive (maximum value +100%) if the absorption systems are intrinsic and correlated, zero if there is no physical connection among these systems, and negative if a strong anticorrelation exists or QSOs tend to eject one or two clouds at well separated characteristic velocities. Data on five QSOs are analyzed, and large positive values are obtained for the correlations.

  9. Elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized quantum electron-positron plasma with effects of exchange-correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahmansouri, M.; Misra, A. P. E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com

    2016-07-15

    The dispersion properties of elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a magnetized electron-positron-pair (EP-pair) plasma are studied with the effects of particle dispersion associated with the Bohm potential, the Fermi degenerate pressure, and the exchange-correlation force. Two possible modes of the extraordinary or X wave, modified by these quantum effects, are identified and their propagation characteristics are investigated numerically. It is shown that the upper-hybrid frequency and the cutoff and resonance frequencies are no longer constants but are dispersive due to these quantum effects. It is found that the particle dispersion and the exchange-correlation force can have different dominating roles on each other depending on whether the X waves are of short or long wavelengths (in comparison with the Fermi Debye length). The present investigation should be useful for understanding the collective behaviors of EP plasma oscillations and the propagation of extraordinary waves in magnetized dense EP-pair plasmas.

  10. Variation in and correlation between intrinsic rate of increase and carrying capacity.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic population growth rate and density dependence are fundamental components of population dynamics. Theory suggests that variation in and correlations between these parameters among patches within a population can influence overall population size, but data on the degree of variation and correlation are rare. Replicate populations of a specialist aphid (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii) were followed on 11 genotypes of host plant (Fragaria chiloensis) in the greenhouse. Population models fit to these census data provide estimates of intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity for aphid populations on each plant genotype. Growth rate and carrying capacity varied substantially among plant genotypes, and these two parameters were not significantly correlated. These results support the existence of spatial variation in population dynamic parameters; data on frequency distributions and correlations of these parameters in natural populations are needed for evaluation of the importance of variation in growth rate and density dependence for population dynamics in the field.

  11. Correlation between Intrinsic Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Young Adults and Lower Extremity Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ohjeoung; Yun, Mijung; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intrinsic patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) in young adults and lower extremity biomechanics. [Subjects] This experiment was carried out with sixty (24 men and 32 women), who are normal university students as subjects. [Methods] All subjects underwent 3 clinical evaluations. For distinguishing the intrinsic PFPS from controls, we used the Modified Functional Index Questionnaire (MFIQ), Clarke's test and the Eccentric step test. Based on the results of the tests, subjects who were classified as positive for 2 more tests were allocated to the bilateral or unilateral intrinsic PFPS group (n=14), and the others were allocated to the control group (n=42). These two groups were tested for hamstring tightness, foot overpronation, and static Q-angle and dynamic Q-angle. These are the four lower extremity biomechanic, cited as risk factors of patellofemoral pain syndrome. [Results] The over pronation, static Q-angle and the dynamic Q-angle were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the hamstring tightness of the PFPS group was significantly greater than that of the controls. [Conclusion] We examined individuals for intrinsic patellofemoral pain syndrome in young adults and lower extremity biomechanics. We found a strong correlation between intrinsic PFPS and hamstring tightness.

  12. Systematic differences between the field and cluster elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Carvalho, R. R.; Djorgovski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques and fundamental plane fits are used here to study possible systematic differences between field ellipticals (FEs) and cluster ellipticals (CEs). The FEs show more intrinsic scatter in their properties, especially when stellar population variables are included. Pairwise correlations for the two samples are different; the correlations are systematically better for the cluster sample, meaning that ellipticals in the two samples populate their fundamental planes in different ways. Bivariate correlations are different for the two samples, implying that they have different fundamental planes. This is especially true for the correlations which include the population variables Mg2 and (B-V), which are sensitive both to the enrichment history and the storm formation history.

  13. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. I. Intrinsic dimension and correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kevin R.; Li, Jimmy J.; Delouille, Véronique; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The flare productivity of an active region is observed to be related to its spatial complexity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region's evolution for example. Aims: We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region's complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. Methods: We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region from its surrounding part. Results: We find relationships between the complexity of an active region as measured by its Mount Wilson classification and the intrinsic dimension of its image patches. Partial correlation patterns exhibit approximately a third-order Markov structure. CCA reveals different patterns of correlation between continuum and magnetogram within the sunspots and in the region surrounding the sunspots. Conclusions: Intrinsic dimension has the potential to distinguish simple from complex active regions. These results also pave the way for patch-based dictionary learning with a view toward automatic clustering of active regions.

  14. Brain correlates of the intrinsic subjective cost of effort in sedentary volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bernacer, J; Martinez-Valbuena, I; Martinez, M; Pujol, N; Luis, E; Ramirez-Castillo, D; Pastor, M A

    2016-01-01

    One key aspect of motivation is the ability of agents to overcome excessive weighting of intrinsic subjective costs. This contribution aims to analyze the subjective cost of effort and assess its neural correlates in sedentary volunteers. We recruited a sample of 57 subjects who underwent a decision-making task using a prospective, moderate, and sustained physical effort as devaluating factor. Effort discounting followed a hyperbolic function, and individual discounting constants correlated with an indicator of sedentary lifestyle (global physical activity questionnaire; R=-0.302, P=0.033). A subsample of 24 sedentary volunteers received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while performing a similar effort-discounting task. BOLD signal of a cluster located in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with the subjective value of the pair of options under consideration (Z>2.3, P<0.05; cluster corrected for multiple comparisons for the whole brain). Furthermore, effort-related discounting of reward correlated with the signal of a cluster in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Z>2.3, P<0.05; small volume cluster corrected for a region of interest including the ventral prefrontal cortex and striatum). This study offers empirical data about the intrinsic subjective cost of effort and its neural correlates in sedentary individuals.

  15. The Correlation Structure of Local Neuronal Networks Intrinsically Results from Recurrent Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Moritz; Tetzlaff, Tom; Diesmann, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Correlated neuronal activity is a natural consequence of network connectivity and shared inputs to pairs of neurons, but the task-dependent modulation of correlations in relation to behavior also hints at a functional role. Correlations influence the gain of postsynaptic neurons, the amount of information encoded in the population activity and decoded by readout neurons, and synaptic plasticity. Further, it affects the power and spatial reach of extracellular signals like the local-field potential. A theory of correlated neuronal activity accounting for recurrent connectivity as well as fluctuating external sources is currently lacking. In particular, it is unclear how the recently found mechanism of active decorrelation by negative feedback on the population level affects the network response to externally applied correlated stimuli. Here, we present such an extension of the theory of correlations in stochastic binary networks. We show that (1) for homogeneous external input, the structure of correlations is mainly determined by the local recurrent connectivity, (2) homogeneous external inputs provide an additive, unspecific contribution to the correlations, (3) inhibitory feedback effectively decorrelates neuronal activity, even if neurons receive identical external inputs, and (4) identical synaptic input statistics to excitatory and to inhibitory cells increases intrinsically generated fluctuations and pairwise correlations. We further demonstrate how the accuracy of mean-field predictions can be improved by self-consistently including correlations. As a byproduct, we show that the cancellation of correlations between the summed inputs to pairs of neurons does not originate from the fast tracking of external input, but from the suppression of fluctuations on the population level by the local network. This suppression is a necessary constraint, but not sufficient to determine the structure of correlations; specifically, the structure observed at finite network

  16. Correlated impurities and intrinsic spin-liquid physics in the kagome material herbertsmithite

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Tian-Heng; Norman, M. R.; Wen, J. -J.; ...

    2016-08-18

    Low energy inelastic neutron scattering on single crystals of the kagome spin-liquid compound ZnCu3(OD)6Cl2 (herbertsmithite) reveals in this paper antiferromagnetic correlations between impurity spins for energy transfers h(with stroke)ω < 0.8 meV (~ J/20). The momentum dependence differs significantly from higher energy scattering which arises from the intrinsic kagome spins. The low energy fluctuations are characterized by diffuse scattering near wave vectors (100) and (00 3/2), which is consistent with antiferromagnetic correlations between pairs of nearest-neighbor Cu impurities on adjacent triangular (Zn) interlayers. The corresponding impurity lattice resembles a simple cubic lattice in the dilute limit below the percolation threshold.more » Such an impurity model can describe prior neutron, NMR, and specific heat data. The low energy neutron data are consistent with the presence of a small spin gap (Δ ~ 0.7 meV) in the kagome layers, similar to that recently observed by NMR. Finally, the ability to distinguish the scattering due to Cu impurities from that of the planar kagome Cu spins provides an important avenue for probing intrinsic spin-liquid physics.« less

  17. Correlated impurities and intrinsic spin-liquid physics in the kagome material herbertsmithite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tian-Heng; Norman, M. R.; Wen, J.-J.; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Helton, Joel S.; Broholm, Collin; Lee, Young S.

    2016-08-01

    Low energy inelastic neutron scattering on single crystals of the kagome spin-liquid compound ZnCu3(OD) 6Cl2 (herbertsmithite) reveals antiferromagnetic correlations between impurity spins for energy transfers ℏ ω <0.8 meV (˜J /20 ). The momentum dependence differs significantly from higher energy scattering which arises from the intrinsic kagome spins. The low energy fluctuations are characterized by diffuse scattering near wave vectors (100) and (00 3/2 ), which is consistent with antiferromagnetic correlations between pairs of nearest-neighbor Cu impurities on adjacent triangular (Zn) interlayers. The corresponding impurity lattice resembles a simple cubic lattice in the dilute limit below the percolation threshold. Such an impurity model can describe prior neutron, NMR, and specific heat data. The low energy neutron data are consistent with the presence of a small spin gap (Δ ˜0.7 meV ) in the kagome layers, similar to that recently observed by NMR. The ability to distinguish the scattering due to Cu impurities from that of the planar kagome Cu spins provides an important avenue for probing intrinsic spin-liquid physics.

  18. Mechanical properties of structural amorphous steels: Intrinsic correlations, conflicts, and optimizing strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. Q. Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-12-28

    Amorphous steels have demonstrated superior properties and great potentials for structural applications since their emergence, yet it still remains unclear about how and why their mechanical properties are correlated with other factors and how to achieve intended properties by designing their compositions. Here, the intrinsic interdependences among the mechanical, thermal, and elastic properties of various amorphous steels are systematically elucidated and a general trade-off relation is exposed between the strength and ductility/toughness. Encouragingly, a breakthrough is achievable that the strength and ductility/toughness can be simultaneously improved by tuning the compositions. The composition dependences of the properties and alloying effects are further analyzed thoroughly and interpreted from the fundamental plastic flow and atomic bonding characters. Most importantly, systematic strategies are outlined for optimizing the mechanical properties of the amorphous steels. The study may help establish the intrinsic correlations among the compositions, atomic structures, and properties of the amorphous steels, and provide useful guidance for their alloy design and property optimization. Thus, it is believed to have implications for the development and applications of the structural amorphous steels.

  19. Correlated impurities and intrinsic spin-liquid physics in the kagome material herbertsmithite

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Tian-Heng; Norman, M. R.; Wen, J. -J.; Rodriguez-Rivera, Jose A.; Helton, Joel S.; Broholm, Collin; Lee, Young S.

    2016-08-18

    Low energy inelastic neutron scattering on single crystals of the kagome spin-liquid compound ZnCu3(OD)6Cl2 (herbertsmithite) reveals in this paper antiferromagnetic correlations between impurity spins for energy transfers h(with stroke)ω < 0.8 meV (~ J/20). The momentum dependence differs significantly from higher energy scattering which arises from the intrinsic kagome spins. The low energy fluctuations are characterized by diffuse scattering near wave vectors (100) and (00 3/2), which is consistent with antiferromagnetic correlations between pairs of nearest-neighbor Cu impurities on adjacent triangular (Zn) interlayers. The corresponding impurity lattice resembles a simple cubic lattice in the dilute limit below the percolation threshold. Such an impurity model can describe prior neutron, NMR, and specific heat data. The low energy neutron data are consistent with the presence of a small spin gap (Δ ~ 0.7 meV) in the kagome layers, similar to that recently observed by NMR. Finally, the ability to distinguish the scattering due to Cu impurities from that of the planar kagome Cu spins provides an important avenue for probing intrinsic spin-liquid physics.

  20. The properties of radio ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Disney, M. J.; Wall, J. V.; Rodgers, A. W.

    1984-03-01

    The authors present optical and additional radio data for the bright galaxies of the Disney & Wall survey. These data form the basis of a statistical comparison of the properties of radio elliptical galaxies to radio-quiet ellipticals. The correlations may be explained by the depth of the gravitational potential well in which the galaxy resides governing the circumstances under which an elliptical galaxy rids itself of internally produced gas.

  1. Inter-subject Functional Correlation Reveal a Hierarchical Organization of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Systems in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yudan; Nguyen, Vinh Thai; Guo, Lei; Guo, Christine Cong

    2017-09-07

    The brain is constantly monitoring and integrating both cues from the external world and signals generated intrinsically. These extrinsically and intrinsically-driven neural processes are thought to engage anatomically distinct regions, which are thought to constitute the extrinsic and intrinsic systems of the brain. While the specialization of extrinsic and intrinsic system is evident in primary and secondary sensory cortices, a systematic mapping of the whole brain remains elusive. Here, we characterized the extrinsic and intrinsic functional activities in the brain during naturalistic movie-viewing. Using a novel inter-subject functional correlation (ISFC) analysis, we found that the strength of ISFC shifts along the hierarchical organization of the brain. Primary sensory cortices appear to have strong inter-subject functional correlation, consistent with their role in processing exogenous information, while heteromodal regions that attend to endogenous processes have low inter-subject functional correlation. Those brain systems with higher intrinsic tendency show greater inter-individual variability, likely reflecting the aspects of brain connectivity architecture unique to individuals. Our study presents a novel framework for dissecting extrinsically- and intrinsically-driven processes, as well as examining individual differences in brain function during naturalistic stimulation.

  2. Functional connectivity within and between intrinsic brain networks correlates with trait mind wandering.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Christine A; Hunter, Michael A; Bezdek, Matthew A; Lieberman, Gregory; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Romero, Victoria L; Witkiewitz, Katie; Clark, Vincent P; Schumacher, Eric H

    2017-08-01

    Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). The extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processes, little research has investigated how large-scale brain networks at rest relate to mind wandering tendencies outside the laboratory. Here we examine the extent to which the DMN, along with the dorsal attention network (DAN) and frontoparietal control network (FPCN) correlate with the tendency to mind wander in daily life. Participants completed the Mind Wandering Questionnaire and a 5-min resting state fMRI scan. In addition, participants completed measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, and creativity. We observed significant positive correlations between trait mind wandering and 1) increased DMN connectivity at rest and 2) increased connectivity between the DMN and FPCN at rest. Lastly, we found significant positive correlations between trait mind wandering and fluid intelligence (Ravens) and creativity (Remote Associates Task). We interpret these findings within the context of current theories of mind wandering and executive function and discuss the possibility that certain instances of mind wandering may not be inherently harmful. Due to the controversial nature of global signal regression (GSReg) in functional connectivity analyses, we performed our analyses with and without GSReg and contrast the results from each set of analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On the Dichotomy between Normal and Dwarf Ellipticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schombert, James M.

    2017-05-01

    > ) which overlaps the dwarf elliptical sample (62 galaxies) in luminosity and size. The faint ellipticals extend the linear structural correlations found for bright ellipticals into parameter space not occupied by dwarf ellipticals indicating a dichotomy exists between the two types. In particular, many faint ellipticals have significantly higher effective surface brightnesses compared to dwarf ellipticals which eliminates any connection at a set stellar mass. Template analysis of the three subsets of ellipticals demonstrates that the bright and faint ellipticals follow the same trends of profile shape (weak homology), but that dwarf ellipticals form a separate and distinct structural class with lower central surface brightnesses and extended isophotal radii.

  4. THE COSMIC RATE, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, AND INTRINSIC CORRELATIONS OF LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Nathaniel R.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Poznanski, Dovi

    2010-03-01

    We calculate durations and spectral parameters for 207 Swift bursts detected by the Burst Alert Telescope from 2007 April to 2009 August, including 67 events with measured redshifts. This is the first supplement to our catalog of 425 Swift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; 147 with redshifts) starting from GRB 041220. This complete and extensive data set, analyzed with a unified methodology, allows us to conduct an accurate census of intrinsic GRB energetics, hardnesses, durations, and redshifts. The GRB world model we derive reproduces well the observables from both Swift and pre-Swift satellites. Comparing to the cosmic star formation rate, we estimate that only about 0.1% of massive stars explode as bright GRBs. There is strong evidence for evolution in the Swift population at intermediate and high-z, and we can rule out (at the 5sigma level) that this is due to evolution in the luminosity function of GRBs. Instead, the Swift sample suggests a modest propensity for low metallicity, evidenced by an increase in the rate density with redshift. Treating the multivariate data and selection effects rigorously, we find a real, intrinsic correlation between E{sub iso} and E{sub pk} (and possibly also T{sub r45,z}); however, the correlation is not a narrow log-log relation and its observed appearance is strongly detector-dependent. We also estimate the high-z rate (3%-9% of GRBs at z beyond 5) and discuss the extent of a large missing population of low-E{sub pk,obs} X-ray flashes as well as a potentially large missing population of short-duration GRBs that will be probed by EXIST.

  5. Nonlinear stochastic exclusion financial dynamics modeling and time-dependent intrinsic detrended cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In attempt to reproduce price dynamics of financial markets, a stochastic agent-based financial price model is proposed and investigated by stochastic exclusion process. The exclusion process, one of interacting particle systems, is usually thought of as modeling particle motion (with the conserved number of particles) in a continuous time Markov process. In this work, the process is utilized to imitate the trading interactions among the investing agents, in order to explain some stylized facts found in financial time series dynamics. To better understand the correlation behaviors of the proposed model, a new time-dependent intrinsic detrended cross-correlation (TDI-DCC) is introduced and performed, also, the autocorrelation analyses are applied in the empirical research. Furthermore, to verify the rationality of the financial price model, the actual return series are also considered to be comparatively studied with the simulation ones. The comparison results of return behaviors reveal that this financial price dynamics model can reproduce some correlation features of actual stock markets.

  6. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: correlations in molecular fluids with intrinsic angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J; Dyre, Jeppe C; Todd, B D; Bruus, Henrik

    2013-01-21

    The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies. To account for the correlations at these scales, we derive a phenomenological expression for the frequency dependent rotational viscosity and wavevector and frequency dependent longitudinal spin viscosity. From this we observe a significant coupling enhancement between the molecular angular velocity and translational velocity for large frequencies in the gas phase; this is not observed for the supercritical fluid and liquid state points.

  7. Microarray profiling of monocytic differentiation reveals miRNA-mRNA intrinsic correlation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xiang, Guangxing; Mitchelson, Keith; Zhou, Yuxiang

    2011-09-01

    MiRNAs (microRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in mammalian gene expression of cellular processes including differentiation, apoptosis and cancer development. Both specific miRNAs and mRNAs have been identified during monocytic differentiation, but their interactions have not been fully characterized. Here we report that by genome-wide microarray analysis for U937 monocytic differentiation induced by TPA, a large number of miRNAs and mRNAs were differentially expressed, and by bioinformatics analysis could demonstrate that their functional pathway patterns overlap strongly. While expected negative correlation between the expression levels of miRNAs and their target mRNAs was seen, several positive correlations between miRNAs and host mRNAs were also observed, such as C13orf25/miR17, MCM7/miR93, and MGC14376/miR22. These microarray data were verified by quantitative RT-PCR, and the TPA-induced differentiation of U937 cells was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. Our study suggests an intrinsic correlation between miRNAs and mRNAs underlying their interactions which would provide new insights for defining the mechanisms occurring during monocytic differentiation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Testing the tidal alignment model of galaxy intrinsic alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; McQuinn, Matthew E-mail: mmcquinn@berkeley.edu

    2011-05-01

    Weak gravitational lensing has become a powerful probe of large-scale structure and cosmological parameters. Precision weak lensing measurements require an understanding of the intrinsic alignment of galaxy ellipticities, which can in turn inform models of galaxy formation. It is hypothesized that elliptical galaxies align with the background tidal field and that this alignment mechanism dominates the correlation between ellipticities on cosmological scales (in the absence of lensing). We use recent large-scale structure measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to test this picture with several statistics: (1) the correlation between ellipticity and galaxy overdensity, w{sub g+}; (2) the intrinsic alignment auto-correlation functions; (3) the correlation functions of curl-free, E, and divergence-free, B, modes, the latter of which is zero in the linear tidal alignment theory; (4) the alignment correlation function, w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ), a recently developed statistic that generalizes the galaxy correlation function to account for the angle between the galaxy separation vector and the principle axis of ellipticity. We show that recent measurements are largely consistent with the tidal alignment model and discuss dependence on galaxy luminosity. In addition, we show that at linear order the tidal alignment model predicts that the angular dependence of w{sub g}(r{sub p},θ) is simply w{sub g+}(r{sub p})cos (2θ) and that this dependence is consistent with recent measurements. We also study how stochastic nonlinear contributions to galaxy ellipticity impact these statistics. We find that a significant fraction of the observed LRG ellipticity can be explained by alignment with the tidal field on scales ∼> 10 \\hMpc. These considerations are relevant to galaxy formation and evolution.

  9. Elliptical concentrators.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  10. Behavioral Correlates of Primates Conservation Status: Intrinsic Vulnerability to Anthropogenic Threats

    PubMed Central

    Lootvoet, Amélie Christelle; Philippon, Justine; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral traits are likely to influence species vulnerability to anthropogenic threats and in consequence, their risk of extinction. Several studies have addressed this question and have highlighted a correlation between reproductive strategies and different viability proxies, such as introduction success and local extinction risk. Yet, very few studies have investigated the effective impact of social behaviour, and evidence regarding global extinction risk remains scant. Here we examined the effects of three main behavioral factors: the group size, the social and reproductive system, and the strength of sexual selection on global extinction risk. Using Primates as biological model, we performed comparative analysis on 93 species. The conservation status as described by the IUCN Red List was considered as a proxy for extinction risk. In addition, we added previously identified intrinsic factors of vulnerability to extinction, and a measure of the strength of the human impact for each species, described by the human footprint. Our analysis highlighted a significant effect of two of the three studied behavioral traits, group size and social and reproductive system. Extinction risk is negatively correlated with mean group size, which may be due to an Allee effect resulting from the difficulties for solitary and monogamous species to find a partner at low densities. Our results also indicate that species with a flexible mating system are less vulnerable. Taking into account these behavioral variables is thus of high importance when establishing conservation plans, particularly when assessing species relative vulnerability. PMID:26444966

  11. Behavioral Correlates of Primates Conservation Status: Intrinsic Vulnerability to Anthropogenic Threats.

    PubMed

    Lootvoet, Amélie Christelle; Philippon, Justine; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral traits are likely to influence species vulnerability to anthropogenic threats and in consequence, their risk of extinction. Several studies have addressed this question and have highlighted a correlation between reproductive strategies and different viability proxies, such as introduction success and local extinction risk. Yet, very few studies have investigated the effective impact of social behaviour, and evidence regarding global extinction risk remains scant. Here we examined the effects of three main behavioral factors: the group size, the social and reproductive system, and the strength of sexual selection on global extinction risk. Using Primates as biological model, we performed comparative analysis on 93 species. The conservation status as described by the IUCN Red List was considered as a proxy for extinction risk. In addition, we added previously identified intrinsic factors of vulnerability to extinction, and a measure of the strength of the human impact for each species, described by the human footprint. Our analysis highlighted a significant effect of two of the three studied behavioral traits, group size and social and reproductive system. Extinction risk is negatively correlated with mean group size, which may be due to an Allee effect resulting from the difficulties for solitary and monogamous species to find a partner at low densities. Our results also indicate that species with a flexible mating system are less vulnerable. Taking into account these behavioral variables is thus of high importance when establishing conservation plans, particularly when assessing species relative vulnerability.

  12. Prediction of galaxy ellipticities and reduction of shape noise in cosmic shear measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Freeman, Peter E.; Schuster, Thomas S.; Schafer, Chad M.

    2017-08-01

    The intrinsic scatter in the ellipticities of galaxies about the mean shape, known as `shape noise', is the most important source of noise in weak lensing shear measurements. Several approaches for reducing shape noise have recently been put forward, using information beyond photometry, such as radio polarization and optical spectroscopy. Here we investigate how well the intrinsic ellipticities of galaxies can be predicted using other exclusively photometric parameters. These (such as galaxy colours) are already available in the data and do not necessitate additional, often expensive observations. We apply a regression technique, generalized additive models to the publicly released galaxy property data from CFHTLenS. We find that the individual galaxy ellipticities can be predicted from other photometric parameters to better precision than the scatter about the mean ellipticity. The ellipticity contribution to the shear can apparently therefore be measured to higher precision, comparable to using a larger sample of galaxies. Using only parameters unaffected by lensing (e.g. surface brightness, colour), our best-fitting model leads to a gain (for the ellipticity contribution only) equivalent to having 12 per cent more galaxies in the sample. Allowing parameters correlated with lensing increases the apparent gains (we find 52.5 per cent), but these would likely be negated by correlations between the predictor and measured shear. We caution that the ultimate usefulness of this method will depend on careful treatment of the effect of the point spread function and input parameter measurement. This is to avoid information on the ellipticity contaminating the estimated ellipticity through observational effects rather than true physical correlations.

  13. Intrinsic transverse momentum and parton correlations from dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Schweitzer, Mark Strikman, Christian Weiss

    2013-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is caused by nonperturbative interactions on a distance scale rho ~ 0.3 fm, much smaller than the typical hadronic size R ~ 1 fm. These short-distance interactions influence the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of partons and their correlations at a low normalization point. We study this phenomenon in an effective description of the low-energy dynamics in terms of chiral constituent quark degrees of freedom, which refers to the large-N_c limit of QCD. The nucleon is obtained as a system of constituent quarks and antiquarks moving in a self-consistent classical chiral field (relativistic mean-field approximation, or chiral quark-soliton model). The calculated transverse momentum distributions of constituent quarks and antiquarks are matched with QCD quarks, antiquarks and gluons at the chiral symmetry--breaking scale rho^{-2}. We find that the transverse momentum distribution of valence quarks is localized at p_T^2 ~ R^{-2} and roughly of Gaussian shape. The distribution of unpolarized sea quarks exhibits a would-be power-like tail ~1/p_T^2 extending up to the chiral symmetry-breaking scale. Similar behavior is observed in the flavor-nonsinglet polarized sea. The high-momentum tails are the result of short-range correlations between sea quarks in the nucleon's light-cone wave function, which are analogous to short-range NN correlations in nuclei. We show that the nucleon's light-cone wave function contains correlated pairs of transverse size rho << R with scalar-isoscalar (Sigma) and pseudoscalar-isovector (Pi) quantum numbers, whose internal wave functions have a distinctive spin structure and become identical at p_T^2 ~ rho^{-2} (restoration of chiral symmetry). These features are model-independent and represent an effect of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking on the nucleon's partonic structure. Our results have numerous implications for the transverse momentum distributions of particles produced in hard

  14. Elliptic flow in small systems due to elliptic gluon distributions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yoshikazu; Hatta, Yoshitaka; Xiao, Bo-Wen; Yuan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the contributions from the so-called elliptic gluon Wigner distributions to the rapidity and azimuthal correlations of particles produced in high energy pp and pA collisions by applying the double parton scattering mechanism. We compute the 'elliptic flow' parameter v2 as a function of the transverse momentum and rapidity, and find qualitative agreement with experimental observations. This shall encourage further developments with more rigorous studies of the elliptic gluon distributions and their applications in hard scattering processes in pp and pA collisions.

  15. Skin Intrinsic Fluorescence Correlates With Autonomic and Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Baqiyyah N.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Maynard, John D.; Matter, Nathaniel; Fernandez, Stephen; Ratner, Robert E.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF) was associated with autonomic neuropathy and confirmed distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (CDSP) in 111 individuals with type 1 diabetes (mean age 49 years, mean diabetes duration 40 years). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SIF was measured using the SCOUT DM device. Autonomic neuropathy was defined as an electrocardiographic abnormal heart rate response to deep breathing (expiration-to-inspiration ratio <1.1). CDSP was defined using the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial clinical exam protocol (the presence of two or more of the following: symptoms, sensory and/or motor signs, and/or reduced/absent tendon reflexes consistent with DSP) confirmed by the presence of an abnormal age-specific vibratory threshold (using a Vibratron II tester). RESULTS The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy and CDSP were 61 and 66%, respectively. SIF was higher in those with autonomic neuropathy (P < 0.0001). In multivariable analyses controlling for age and updated mean (18-year average) HbA1c, and allowing for other univariately and clinically significant correlates of autonomic neuropathy, each SD change in SIF was associated with a 2.6-greater likelihood of autonomic neuropathy (P = 0.006). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that SIF and updated mean HbA1c accounted for 80 and 57%, respectively, of the area under the curve (AUC) for autonomic neuropathy. SIF also was higher in those with CDSP (P < 0.0001) and remained so in multivariable analyses (odds ratio 2.70; P = 0.005). ROC analyses revealed that SIF and updated mean HbA1c accounted for 78 and 59%, respectively, of the AUC for CDSP. CONCLUSIONS SIF, a marker of dermal advanced glycation end products, appears to be more strongly associated with the presence of both CDSP and autonomic neuropathy than mean HbA1c. PMID:21307380

  16. Correlation between nitrate concentration in groundwater and parameters affecting aquifer intrinsic vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debernardi, Laura; de Luca, Domenico Antonio; Lasagna, Manuela

    2008-08-01

    This paper is the result of a study which was carried out in order to verify if the traditional methods to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability or vulnerability related parameters, are able to clarify the problem of nitrate pollution in groundwater. In particular, the aim was to evaluate limitations and problems connected to aquifer vulnerability methods applied to nitrate contamination prevision in groundwater. The investigation was carried out by comparing NO3 - concentrations, measured in March and November 2004 in the shallow aquifer, and the vulnerability classes, obtained by using GOD and TOT methods. Moreover, it deals with a comparison between NO3 - concentrations and single parameters (depth to water table, land use and nitrogen input). The study area is the plain sector of Piemonte (Northern Italy), where an unconfined aquifer nitrate contamination exists. In this area the anthropogenic presence is remarkable and the input of N-fertilizers and zootechnical effluents to the soil cause a growing amount of nitrates in groundwater. This approach, used in a large area (about 10,000 km2) and in several monitoring wells (about 500), allowed to compare the efficiency of different vulnerability methods and to verify the importance of every parameter on the nitrate concentrations in the aquifer. Furthermore it allowed to obtain interesting correlations in different hydrogeological situations. Correlations between depth to water table, land use and nitrogen input to the soil with nitrate concentrations in groundwater show unclear situations: in fact these comparisons describe the phenomenon trend and highlight the maximum nitrate concentrations for each circumstance but often show wide ranges of possible nitrate concentrations. The same situation could be observed by comparing vulnerability indexes and nitrate concentrations in groundwater. These results suggest that neither single parameters nor vulnerability methods (GOD and TOT) are able to describe individually

  17. Effects of intrinsic decoherence on various correlations and quantum dense coding in a two superconducting charge qubit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Maimaitiyiming-Tusun; Parouke-Paerhati; Ahmad-Abliz

    2015-09-01

    The influence of intrinsic decoherence on various correlations and dense coding in a model which consists of two identical superconducting charge qubits coupled by a fixed capacitor is investigated. The results show that, despite the intrinsic decoherence, the correlations as well as the dense coding channel capacity can be effectively increased via the combination of system parameters, i.e., the mutual coupling energy between the two charge qubits is larger than the Josephson energy of the qubit. The bigger the difference between them is, the better the effect is. Project supported by the Project to Develop Outstanding Young Scientific Talents of China (Grant No. 2013711019), the Natural Science Foundation of Xinjiang Province, China (Grant No. 2012211A052), the Foundation for Key Program of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 212193), and the Innovative Foundation for Graduate Students Granted by the Key Subjects of Theoretical Physics of Xinjiang Province, China (Grant No. LLWLL201301).

  18. The brain correlates of the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn. PMID:25278834

  19. The brain correlates of the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Konstanze; Abeler, Johannes; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Apart from everyday duties, such as doing the laundry or cleaning the house, there are tasks we do for pleasure and enjoyment. We do such tasks, like solving crossword puzzles or reading novels, without any external pressure or force; instead, we are intrinsically motivated: we do the tasks because we enjoy doing them. Previous studies suggest that external rewards, i.e., rewards from the outside, affect the intrinsic motivation to engage in a task: while performance-based monetary rewards are perceived as controlling and induce a business-contract framing, verbal rewards praising one's competence can enhance the perceived self-determination. Accordingly, the former have been shown to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas the latter have been shown to increase intrinsic motivation. The present study investigated the neural processes underlying the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on intrinsic motivation in a group of 64 subjects applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that, when participants received positive performance feedback, activation in the anterior striatum and midbrain was affected by the nature of the reward; compared to a non-rewarded control group, activation was higher while monetary rewards were administered. However, we did not find a decrease in activation after reward withdrawal. In contrast, we found an increase in activation for verbal rewards: after verbal rewards had been withdrawn, participants showed a higher activation in the aforementioned brain areas when they received success compared to failure feedback. We further found that, while participants worked on the task, activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex was enhanced after the verbal rewards were administered and withdrawn.

  20. Recent Development in Determining Spontaneous Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coals and Its Correlation with Intrinsic Parameters of Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Santosh Kumar; Panigrahi, Durga Charan

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a new electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation. Experiments have also been carried out for proximate and ultimate analyses of coal. Susceptibility index obtained from wet oxidation potential was correlated with intrinsic parameters of coal. It has been found that susceptibility index bears a good correlation with moisture content, volatile matter, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon content of coal.

  1. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Gallat, Francois-Xavier; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J; Weik, Martin

    2015-03-16

    Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translational component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240 K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity.

  2. Short-range correlations in carbon-12, oxygen-16, and neon-20: Intrinsic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braley, R. C.; Ford, W. F.; Becker, R. L.; Patterson, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) method has been applied to nuclei whose intrinsic structure is nonspherical. Reaction matrix elements were calculated as functions of starting energy for the Hamada-Johnston interaction using the Pauli operator appropriate to O-16 and a shifted oscillator spectrum for virtual excited states. Binding energies, single particle energies, radii, and shape deformations of the intrinsic state, in ordinary as well as renormalized BHF, are discussed and compared with previous HF studies and with experiment when possible. Results are presented for C-12, 0-16 and Ne-20. It is found that the binding energies and radii are too small, but that separation energies are well reproduced when the renormalized theory is used.

  3. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Gallat, Francois-Xavier; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J.; Weik, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translational component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240 K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity. PMID:25774711

  4. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Gallat, Francois-Xavier; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J.; Weik, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translational component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240 K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity.

  5. Intrinsic Visual-Motor Synchrony Correlates With Social Deficits in Autism.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Nettles, Carrie A; Sweeney, Kristie L; Ament, Katarina; Ward, Rebecca E; Choe, Ann S; Barber, Anita D; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-04-15

    Imitation, which is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and critically depends on the integration of visual input with motor output, likely impacts both motor and social skill acquisition in children with ASD; however, it is unclear what brain mechanisms contribute to this impairment. Children with ASD also exhibit what appears to be an ASD-specific bias against using visual feedback during motor learning. Does the temporal congruity of intrinsic activity, or functional connectivity, between motor and visual brain regions contribute to ASD-associated deficits in imitation, motor, and social skills? We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 100 8- to 12-year-old children (50 ASD). Group independent component analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity between visual and motor systems. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed by regressing functional connectivity measures with social deficit severity, imitation, and gesture performance scores. We observed increased intrinsic asynchrony between visual and motor systems in children with ASD and replicated this finding in an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Moreover, children with more out-of-sync intrinsic visual-motor activity displayed more severe autistic traits, while children with greater intrinsic visual-motor synchrony were better imitators. Our twice replicated findings confirm that visual-motor functional connectivity is disrupted in ASD. Furthermore, the observed temporal incongruity between visual and motor systems, which may reflect diminished integration of visual consequences with motor output, was predictive of the severity of social deficits and may contribute to impaired social-communicative skill development in children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intrinsic visual-motor synchrony correlates with social deficits in autism

    PubMed Central

    Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Nettles, Carrie A.; Sweeney, Kristie L.; Ament, Katarina; Ward, Rebecca E.; Choe, Ann S.; Barber, Anita D.; Pekar, James J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Imitation, which is impaired in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and critically depends on the integration of visual input with motor output, likely impacts both motor and social skill acquisition in children with ASD; however it is unclear what brain mechanisms contribute to this impairment. Children with ASD also exhibit what appears to be an ASD-specific bias against using visual feedback during motor learning. Does the temporal congruity of intrinsic activity, or functional connectivity, between motor and visual brain regions contribute to ASD-associated deficits in imitation, motor and social skills? Methods We acquired resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans from 100, 8-12 year-old children (50 ASD). Group independent component analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity between visual and motor systems. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed by regressing functional connectivity measures with social deficit severity, imitation and gesture performance scores. Results We observed increased intrinsic asynchrony between visual and motor systems in children with ASD and replicated this finding in an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Moreover, children with more out-of-sync intrinsic visual-motor activity displayed more severe autistic traits while children with greater intrinsic visual-motor synchrony were better imitators. Conclusions Our twice replicated findings confirm that visual-motor functional connectivity is disrupted in ASD. Furthermore, the observed temporal incongruity between visual and motor systems, which may reflect diminished integration of visual consequences with motor output, was predictive of the severity of social deficits and may contribute to impaired social-communicative skill development in children with ASD. PMID:26543004

  7. A Correlation Between Intrinsic Brightness and Average Decay Rate of Swift UVOT GRB Optical/UV Light Curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oates, S. R.; Page, M. J.; De Pasquale, M.; Schady, P.; Breeveld, A. A.; Holland, S. T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a sample of 48 Swift/UVOT long Gamma-ray Burst light curves and find a correlation between the logarithmic luminosity at 200s and average decay rate determined from 200s onwards, with a Spearman rank coefficient of -0.58 at a significance of 99.998% (4.2 sigma ). We discuss the causes of the log L200s - alpha (greater than) 200s correlation, finding it to be an intrinsic property of long GRBs, and not resulting from the selection criteria. We find two ways to produce the correlation. One possibility is that there is some property of the central engine, outflow or external medium that affects the rate of energy release so that the bright afterglows release their energy more quickly and decay faster than the fainter afterglows. Alternatively, the correlation may be produced by variation of the observers viewing angle, with observers at large viewing angles observing fainter and slower decaying light curves.

  8. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-03-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach.

  9. First order reversal curves and intrinsic parameter determination for magnetic materials; limitations of hysteron-based approaches in correlated systems

    PubMed Central

    Ruta, Sergiu; Hovorka, Ondrej; Huang, Pin-Wei; Wang, Kangkang; Ju, Ganping; Chantrell, Roy

    2017-01-01

    The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements. However, all methods rely on separating the contributions to the measurements of the intrinsic SFD and the extrinsic effects of magnetostatic and exchange interactions. We investigate the underlying physics of the FORC method by applying it to the output predictions of a kinetic Monte-Carlo model with known input parameters. We show that the FORC method is valid only in cases of weak spatial correlation of the magnetisation and suggest a more general approach. PMID:28338056

  10. Actinidia DRM1--an intrinsically disordered protein whose mRNA expression is inversely correlated with spring budbreak in kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Wood, Marion; Rae, Georgina M; Wu, Rong-Mei; Walton, Eric F; Xue, Bin; Hellens, Roger P; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a relatively recently defined class of proteins which, under native conditions, lack a unique tertiary structure whilst maintaining essential biological functions. Functional classification of IDPs have implicated such proteins as being involved in various physiological processes including transcription and translation regulation, signal transduction and protein modification. Actinidia DRM1 (Ade DORMANCY ASSOCIATED GENE 1), represents a robust dormancy marker whose mRNA transcript expression exhibits a strong inverse correlation with the onset of growth following periods of physiological dormancy. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that DRM1 is plant specific and highly conserved at both the nucleotide and protein levels. It is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein with two distinct highly conserved domains. Several Actinidia DRM1 homologues, which align into two distinct Actinidia-specific families, Type I and Type II, have been identified. No candidates for the Arabidopsis DRM1-Homologue (AtDRM2) an additional family member, has been identified in Actinidia.

  11. CCD surface photometry of galaxies with dynamical data. II. UBR photometry of 39 elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Peletier, R.F.; Davies, R.L.; Davis, L.E.; Illingworth, G.D.; Cawson, M. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA National Optical Astronomical Observatory, Tucson, AZ Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ Manchester Victoria Univ. )

    1990-10-01

    Intrinsic properties of elliptical galaxies and the mechanisms of their formation and evolution are discussed on the basis of high-precision, multicolor, surface photometry of 39 elliptical galaxies and measurements of rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles. Using the data collected, a number of correlations between the characteristic parameters of the stellar population of the galaxies have been made to explore their structure and kinematics. The luminosity dependence of color gradients is a good discriminant among various models of galaxy formation. The lowest luminosity galaxies in the sample do not show any color gradients. They have boxy isophotes, and are also rotationally flattened. These properties may be related to the fact that they are companions of larger ellipsoidal systems and it could also provide an important clue to the formation of ellipticals. 78 refs.

  12. Microglial responses around intrinsic CNS neurons are correlated with axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microglia/macrophages and lymphocytes (T-cells) accumulate around motor and primary sensory neurons that are regenerating axons but there is little or no microglial activation or T-cell accumulation around axotomised intrinsic CNS neurons, which do not normally regenerate axons. We aimed to establish whether there was an inflammatory response around the perikarya of CNS neurons that were induced to regenerate axons through a peripheral nerve graft. Results When neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and red nucleus were induced to regenerate axons along peripheral nerve grafts, a marked microglial response was found around their cell bodies, including the partial enwrapping of some regenerating neurons. T-cells were found amongst regenerating TRN neurons but not rubrospinal neurons. Axotomy alone or insertion of freeze-killed nerve grafts did not induce a similar perineuronal inflammation. Nerve grafts in the corticospinal tracts did not induce axonal regeneration or a microglial or T-cell response in the motor cortex. Conclusions These results strengthen the evidence that perineuronal microglial accumulation (but not T-cell accumulation) is involved in axonal regeneration by intrinsic CNS and other neurons. PMID:20137064

  13. Microglial responses around intrinsic CNS neurons are correlated with axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shokouhi, Bahman N; Wong, Bernadette Z Y; Siddiqui, Samir; Lieberman, A Robert; Campbell, Gregor; Tohyama, Koujiro; Anderson, Patrick N

    2010-02-05

    Microglia/macrophages and lymphocytes (T-cells) accumulate around motor and primary sensory neurons that are regenerating axons but there is little or no microglial activation or T-cell accumulation around axotomised intrinsic CNS neurons, which do not normally regenerate axons. We aimed to establish whether there was an inflammatory response around the perikarya of CNS neurons that were induced to regenerate axons through a peripheral nerve graft. When neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and red nucleus were induced to regenerate axons along peripheral nerve grafts, a marked microglial response was found around their cell bodies, including the partial enwrapping of some regenerating neurons. T-cells were found amongst regenerating TRN neurons but not rubrospinal neurons. Axotomy alone or insertion of freeze-killed nerve grafts did not induce a similar perineuronal inflammation. Nerve grafts in the corticospinal tracts did not induce axonal regeneration or a microglial or T-cell response in the motor cortex. These results strengthen the evidence that perineuronal microglial accumulation (but not T-cell accumulation) is involved in axonal regeneration by intrinsic CNS and other neurons.

  14. Loss of Intrinsic Organization of Cerebellar Networks in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1: Correlates with Disease Severity and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Peri, Eitan; Chen, E. Elinor; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Gomez, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of cerebellar degenerative disorders, characterized by progressive gait unsteadiness, hand incoordination, and dysarthria. The mutational mechanism in SCA1, a dominantly inherited form of SCA, consists of an expanded trinucleotide CAG repeat. In SCA1, there is loss of Purkinje cells, neuronal loss in dentate nucleus, olives, and pontine nuclei. In the present study, we sought to apply intrinsic functional connectivity analysis combined with diffusion tensor imaging to define the state of cerebellar connectivity in SCA1. Our results on the intrinsic functional connectivity in lateral cerebellum and thalamus showed progressive organizational changes in SCA1 noted as a progressive increase in the absolute value of the correlation coefficients. In the lateral cerebellum, the anatomical organization of functional clusters seen as parasagittal bands in controls is lost, changing to a patchy appearance in SCA1. Lastly, only fractional anisotropy in the superior peduncle and changes in functional organization in thalamus showed a linear dependence to duration and severity of disease. The present pilot work represents an initial effort describing connectivity biomarkers of disease progression in SCA1. The functional changes detected with intrinsic functional analysis and diffusion tensor imaging suggest that disease progression can be analyzed as a disconnection syndrome. PMID:20886327

  15. On the correlation between ‘non-local’ effects and intrinsic rotation reversals in Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, P.; Rice, J. E.; Cao, N. M.; Creely, A. J.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A. E.; Irby, J. H.; White, A. E.

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary predictive models for heat and particle transport in tokamak plasmas are based on the assumption that local fluxes can be described in terms of local plasma parameters, where electromagnetic drift-wave-type turbulence is driven by local gradients and results in cross-field transport. The question of whether or not transport could be dominated by non-local terms in certain circumstances is essential for our understanding of transport in magnetically confined plasmas, and critical for developing predictive models for future tokamaks, such as ITER. Perturbative transport experiments using cold-pulse injections at low density seem to challenge the local closure of anomalous transport: a rapid temperature increase in the core of the plasma following a sharp edge cooling is widely observed in tokamaks and helical devices. Past work in Ohmic plasmas in Alcator C-Mod and in ECH plasmas in KSTAR found that the temperature inversions disappear at higher densities, above the intrinsic toroidal rotation reversal density. These observations suggested that the so-called ‘non-local’ heat transport effects were related to the intrinsic rotation reversal, and therefore to changes in momentum transport. In this work, new experiments and analysis at Alcator C-Mod show that intrinsic rotation reversals and disappearance of temperature inversions are not concomitant in Ohmic plasmas at high plasma current and in ICRH L-modes. This new data set shows that the correlation between transient temperature inversions and intrinsic rotation reversals is not universal, suggesting that ‘non-local’ heat transport and momentum transport effects may be affected by different physical mechanisms.

  16. Correlating molar masses of nitrocelluloses with their intrinsic viscosities measured using capillary electrophoresis instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-09-05

    Specific viscosities for a set of six nitrocellulose (NC) standards comprising three different mass-average molar masses (between 20,000 and 300,000 g mol(-1)) of two different nitrogen contents (11.2 and 12.1%) were measured at 20 °C in tetrahydrofuran, using capillary electrophoresis instrumentation as a bench-top viscometer in frontal mode. Intrinsic viscosities were derived applying Huggins' and Kraemer's models, showing excellent convergence of both models at infinitely diluted polymer concentration. Good overall consistency was shown between viscosity data experimentally acquired by this new protocol and the mass-average molar masses provided by the manufacturers. This simple protocol should be of interest for a better understanding of the solvent interaction given by this complex polymer, and beyond this, for tailoring NC solutions devoted to film deposition, and for the determination of mass-average molar masses of unknown NC samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissolution testing of acetylsalicylic acid by a channel flow method-correlation to USP basket and intrinsic dissolution methods.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Leena; Liljeroth, Peter; Heikkilä, Tiina; Kontturi, Kyösti; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2003-08-01

    A new modification of the channel flow dissolution method is introduced together with the theoretical basis to extract the solubility and mass transfer parameters from the dissolution experiments. Correlation of drug dissolution profiles in the channel flow apparatus was evaluated with respect to USP basket and intrinsic dissolution methods at pH 1.2 or 6.8. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was studied as a pure drug substance and as three simple tablet compositions with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and/or lactose as excipients. The channel flow measurements of 100% ASA tablets correlated well with the results of intrinsic dissolution tests. In the channel flow method as well as in the USP basket method the release of ASA was fastest from the tablet compositions containing lactose, while the slowest dissolution rate was observed with the composition containing MCC as the only excipient. As presumed, the dissolution rate of the weak acid was decreased as the pH of the medium was lowered, which was clearly confirmed also by the three dissolution methods. MCC forms matrix tablets and in the USP basket method the dissolution profiles followed square root of time kinetics indicating that diffusion was the rate-controlling step of ASA dissolution. Also the channel flow results indicated that the dissolution of ASA was controlled by mass transfer. The swelling behaviour of the tablets is different in the channel flow method as compared to the basket method: only one tablet surface is exposed to the dissolution medium in the channel flow system. The contact between the tablet surface and the dissolution medium is more similar between the channel flow and intrinsic dissolution methods.

  18. Intrinsic alignment of redMaPPer clusters: cluster shape-matter density correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Joachimi, Benjamin

    2017-07-01

    We measure the alignment of the shapes of galaxy clusters, as traced by their satellite distributions, with the matter density field using the public redMaPPer catalogue based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey-Data Release 8 (SDSS-DR8), which contains 26 111 clusters up to z ˜ 0.6. The clusters are split into nine redshift and richness samples; in each of them, we detect a positive alignment, showing that clusters point towards density peaks. We interpret the measurements within the tidal alignment paradigm, allowing for a richness and redshift dependence. The intrinsic alignment (IA) amplitude at the pivot redshift z = 0.3 and pivot richness λ = 30 is A_IA^gen=12.6_{-1.2}^{+1.5}. We obtain tentative evidence that the signal increases towards higher richness and lower redshift. Our measurements agree well with results of maxBCG clusters and with dark-matter-only simulations. Comparing our results to the IA measurements of luminous red galaxies, we find that the IA amplitude of galaxy clusters forms a smooth extension towards higher mass. This suggests that these systems share a common alignment mechanism, which can be exploited to improve our physical understanding of IA.

  19. Geometry of an inflated membrane in elliptic bulge tests: Evaluation of an ellipsoidal shape approximation by stereoscopic digital image correlation measurements.

    PubMed

    Jayyosi, C; Bruyère-Garnier, K; Coret, M

    2017-10-01

    Elliptic bulge tests are conducted on liver capsule, a fibrous connective membrane, associated with a field measurement method to assess the global geometry of the samples during the tests. The experimental set up is derived from a previous experimental campaign of bulge tests under microscope. Here, a stereoscopic Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to measure global parameters on the test and investigate some assumptions made on the testing conditions which could not been assessed with microscopic measurements. In particular, the assumption of an ellipsoidal shape of the inflated membrane is tested by comparing the actual sample shape measured by stereoscopic DIC with an idealized ellipsoidal shape. Results indicate that a rather constant gap exists between the idealized and actual position. The approximation in the calculation of a macroscopic strain through analytical modeling of the test is estimated here. The study of the liver capsule case shows that important differences can be observed in strain calculation depending on the method and assumptions taken. Therefore, analytical modeling of mechanical tests through ellipsoidal approximation needs to be carefully evaluated in every application. Here the field measurement allows assessing the validity of these modeling assumptions. Moreover, it gives precious details about the boundary conditions of the bulge test and revealed the heterogeneous clamping, highlighted by strain concentrations. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic pinning by naturally occurring correlated defects in FeSe1-x Te x superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigó, M. L.; Ale Crivillero, M. V.; Franco, D. G.; Badía–Majós, A.; Guimpel, J.; Campo, J.; Damay, F.; Porcher, F.; Condó, A. M.; Nieva, G.

    2017-08-01

    We study the angular dependence of dissipation in the superconducting state of FeSe and Fe(Se1-x Te x ) through electrical transport measurements, using crystalline intergrown materials. We reveal the key role of the inclusions of the non superconducting magnetic phase Fe1-y (Se1-x Te x ), growing into the Fe(Se1-x Te x ) pure β-phase, in the development of a correlated defect structure. The matching of both atomic structures defines the growth habit of the crystalline material as well as the correlated planar defects orientation.

  1. Neuronal and Astroglial Correlates Underlying Spatiotemporal Intrinsic Optical Signal in the Rat Hippocampal Slice

    PubMed Central

    Pál, Ildikó; Nyitrai, Gabriella; Kardos, Julianna; Héja, László

    2013-01-01

    Widely used for mapping afferent activated brain areas in vivo, the label-free intrinsic optical signal (IOS) is mainly ascribed to blood volume changes subsequent to glial glutamate uptake. By contrast, IOS imaged in vitro is generally attributed to neuronal and glial cell swelling, however the relative contribution of different cell types and molecular players remained largely unknown. We characterized IOS to Schaffer collateral stimulation in the rat hippocampal slice using a 464-element photodiode-array device that enables IOS monitoring at 0.6 ms time-resolution in combination with simultaneous field potential recordings. We used brief half-maximal stimuli by applying a medium intensity 50 Volt-stimulus train within 50 ms (20 Hz). IOS was primarily observed in the str. pyramidale and proximal region of the str. radiatum of the hippocampus. It was eliminated by tetrodotoxin blockade of voltage-gated Na+ channels and was significantly enhanced by suppressing inhibitory signaling with gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin. We found that IOS was predominantly initiated by postsynaptic Glu receptor activation and progressed by the activation of astroglial Glu transporters and Mg2+-independent astroglial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Under control conditions, role for neuronal K+/Cl− cotransporter KCC2, but not for glial Na+/K+/Cl− cotransporter NKCC1 was observed. Slight enhancement and inhibition of IOS through non-specific Cl− and volume-regulated anion channels, respectively, were also depicted. High-frequency IOS imaging, evoked by brief afferent stimulation in brain slices provide a new paradigm for studying mechanisms underlying IOS genesis. Major players disclosed this way imply that spatiotemporal IOS reflects glutamatergic neuronal activation and astroglial response, as observed within the hippocampus. Our model may help to better interpret in vivo IOS and support diagnosis in the future. PMID:23469218

  2. Neuronal and astroglial correlates underlying spatiotemporal intrinsic optical signal in the rat hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Pál, Ildikó; Nyitrai, Gabriella; Kardos, Julianna; Héja, László

    2013-01-01

    Widely used for mapping afferent activated brain areas in vivo, the label-free intrinsic optical signal (IOS) is mainly ascribed to blood volume changes subsequent to glial glutamate uptake. By contrast, IOS imaged in vitro is generally attributed to neuronal and glial cell swelling, however the relative contribution of different cell types and molecular players remained largely unknown. We characterized IOS to Schaffer collateral stimulation in the rat hippocampal slice using a 464-element photodiode-array device that enables IOS monitoring at 0.6 ms time-resolution in combination with simultaneous field potential recordings. We used brief half-maximal stimuli by applying a medium intensity 50 Volt-stimulus train within 50 ms (20 Hz). IOS was primarily observed in the str. pyramidale and proximal region of the str. radiatum of the hippocampus. It was eliminated by tetrodotoxin blockade of voltage-gated Na(+) channels and was significantly enhanced by suppressing inhibitory signaling with gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin. We found that IOS was predominantly initiated by postsynaptic Glu receptor activation and progressed by the activation of astroglial Glu transporters and Mg(2+)-independent astroglial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Under control conditions, role for neuronal K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter KCC2, but not for glial Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 was observed. Slight enhancement and inhibition of IOS through non-specific Cl(-) and volume-regulated anion channels, respectively, were also depicted. High-frequency IOS imaging, evoked by brief afferent stimulation in brain slices provide a new paradigm for studying mechanisms underlying IOS genesis. Major players disclosed this way imply that spatiotemporal IOS reflects glutamatergic neuronal activation and astroglial response, as observed within the hippocampus. Our model may help to better interpret in vivo IOS and support diagnosis in the future.

  3. Intrinsic heterogeneity in oscillatory dynamics limits correlation-induced neural synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Shawn D.; Ermentrout, G. Bard

    2012-01-01

    Synchronous neural oscillations are found throughout the brain and are thought to contribute to neural coding and the propagation of activity. Several proposed mechanisms of synchronization have gained support through combined theoretical and experimental investigation, including mechanisms based on coupling and correlated input. Here, we ask how correlation-induced synchrony is affected by physiological heterogeneity across neurons. To address this question, we examined cell-to-cell differences in phase-response curves (PRCs), which characterize the response of periodically firing neurons to weak perturbations. Using acute slice electrophysiology, we measured PRCs across a single class of principal neurons capable of sensory-evoked oscillations in vivo: the olfactory bulb mitral cells (MCs). Periodically firing MCs displayed a broad range of PRCs, each of which was well fit by a simple three-parameter model. MCs also displayed differences in firing rate-current relationships and in preferred firing rate ranges. Both the observed PRC heterogeneity and moderate firing rate differences (∼10 Hz) separately reduced the maximum correlation-induced synchrony between MCs by up to 25–30%. Simulations further demonstrated that these components of heterogeneity alone were sufficient to account for the difference in synchronization among heterogeneous vs. homogeneous populations in vitro. Within this simulation framework, independent modulation of specific PRC features additionally revealed which aspects of PRC heterogeneity most strongly impact correlation-induced synchronization. Finally, we demonstrated good agreement of novel mathematical theory with our experimental and simulation results, providing a theoretical basis for the influence of heterogeneity on correlation-induced neural synchronization. PMID:22815400

  4. Intrinsic aging- and photoaging-dependent level changes of glycosaminoglycans and their correlation with water content in human skin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Jung, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jeong-eun; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul; Chung, Jin Ho

    2011-06-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have various structural and physiological regulatory functions in skin, including tissue water maintenance, due to their high water-holding capacity. To investigate changes of GAGs during intrinsic aging and photoaging of human skin and their correlations with water content. Samples of sun-protected buttock and sun-exposed forearm skin were obtained from young male (21-30 years, n=8) and female (20-33 years, n=8) subjects, as well as old male (70-78 years, n=8) and female (70-80 years, n=8) subjects, and their epidermal and dermal contents of hyaluronic acid (HA), total sulfated GAG (tsGAG), total uronic acid (tUA), and tissue water were measured. HA content was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using HA-binding protein, tsGAG by the sulfated GAG assay kit using 1,9-dimethylmethylene blue, tUA by carbazole reaction, and tissue water by subtraction of tissue dry weight from wet weight. In the buttock, HA was higher in dermis than in epidermis, while tsGAG and tUA were higher in epidermis. In intrinsically aged buttock, epidermal HA and dermal tsGAG and tUA decreased. However, when analyzed for each gender, epidermal tsGAG, tUA, and tissue water decreased only in females. Forearm/buttock ratios of each molecule were compared for determination of photoaging-dependent changes. Forearm/buttock ratios of HA, tsGAG, tUA, and tissue water increased in aged dermis, but showed no change in aged epidermis. When analyzed for each gender, ratios of epidermal HA and tissue water increased only in aged females, while ratios of epidermal tsGAG, tUA, and tissue water decreased only in aged males. Correlations of water content with HA, tsGAG, and tUA were found in epidermis, but not with tsGAG in dermis. These intrinsic aging- and photoaging-dependent GAG changes and their correlations with water content provide new insights into the pathophysiology of dry skin in the elderly. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  5. Actinidia DRM1 - An Intrinsically Disordered Protein Whose mRNA Expression Is Inversely Correlated with Spring Budbreak in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Marion; Rae, Georgina M.; Wu, Rong-Mei; Walton, Eric F.; Xue, Bin; Hellens, Roger P.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a relatively recently defined class of proteins which, under native conditions, lack a unique tertiary structure whilst maintaining essential biological functions. Functional classification of IDPs have implicated such proteins as being involved in various physiological processes including transcription and translation regulation, signal transduction and protein modification. Actinidia DRM1 (Ade DORMANCY ASSOCIATED GENE 1), represents a robust dormancy marker whose mRNA transcript expression exhibits a strong inverse correlation with the onset of growth following periods of physiological dormancy. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that DRM1 is plant specific and highly conserved at both the nucleotide and protein levels. It is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein with two distinct highly conserved domains. Several Actinidia DRM1 homologues, which align into two distinct Actinidia-specific families, Type I and Type II, have been identified. No candidates for the Arabidopsis DRM1-Homologue (AtDRM2) an additional family member, has been identified in Actinidia. PMID:23516402

  6. "Intrinsic" correlations and their temporal evolutions between winter-time PNA/EPW and winter drought in the west United States.

    PubMed

    Piao, Lin; Fu, Zuntao; Yuan, Naiming

    2016-01-27

    In this study, relations between winter-time Pacific-Northern America pattern (PNA)/East Pacific wave-train (EPW) and winter-time drought in the west United States over the period of 1951-2010 are analyzed. Considering traditional Pearson's Correlation Coefficient can be influenced by non-stationarity and nonlinearity, a recently proposed method, Detrended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA) is applied. With DPCCA, we analyzed the "intrinsic" correlations between PNA/EPW and the winter drought with possible effects of ENSO and PDO removed. We found, i) significant negative correlations between PNA/EPW and drought on time scales of 5-6 years after removing the effects of ENSO, ii) and significant negative correlations between PNA/EPW and drought on time scales of 15-25 years after removing the effects of PDO. By further studying the temporal evolutions of the "intrinsic" correlations, we found on time scales of 5-6 years, the "intrinsic" correlations between PNA/EPW and drought can vary severely with time, but for most time, the correlations are negative. While on interdecadal (15-25 years) time scales, after the effects of PDO removed, unlike the relations between PNA and drought, the "intrinsic" correlations between EPW and drought takes nearly homogeneous-sign over the whole period, indicating a better model can be designed by using EPW.

  7. Intrinsic correlation between β-relaxation and spatial heterogeneity in a metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, F.; Nguyen, H. K.; Song, S. X.; Aji, Daisman P. B.; Hirata, A.; Wang, H.; Nakajima, K.; Chen, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    β-relaxation has long been attributed to localized motion of constituent molecules or atoms confined to isolated regions in glasses. However, direct experimental evidence to support this spatially heterogeneous scenario is still missing. Here we report the evolution of nanoscale structural heterogeneity in a metallic glass during β-relaxation by utilizing amplitude-modulation dynamic atomic force microscopy. The successive degeneration of heterogeneity during β-relaxation can be well described by the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts equation. The characteristic relaxation time and activation energy of the heterogeneity evolution are in accord with those of excess enthalpy release by β-relaxation. Our study correlates β-relaxation with nanoscale spatial heterogeneity and provides direct evidence on the structural origins of β-relaxation in metallic glasses. PMID:27158084

  8. Intrinsic galaxy shapes and alignments - II. Modelling the intrinsic alignment contamination of weak lensing surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, B.; Semboloni, E.; Hilbert, S.; Bett, P. E.; Hartlap, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Schneider, P.

    2013-11-01

    Intrinsic galaxy alignments constitute the major astrophysical systematic of forthcoming weak gravitational lensing surveys but also yield unique insights into galaxy formation and evolution. We build analytic models for the distribution of galaxy shapes based on halo properties extracted from the Millennium Simulation, differentiating between early- and late-type galaxies as well as central galaxies and satellites. The resulting ellipticity correlations are investigated for their physical properties and compared to a suite of current observations. The best-faring model is then used to predict the intrinsic alignment contamination of planned weak lensing surveys. We find that late-type galaxy models generally have weak intrinsic ellipticity correlations, marginally increasing towards smaller galaxy separation and higher redshift. The signal for early-type models at fixed halo mass strongly increases by three orders of magnitude over two decades in galaxy separation, and by one order of magnitude from z = 0 to z = 2. The intrinsic alignment strength also depends strongly on halo mass, but not on galaxy luminosity at fixed mass, or galaxy number density in the environment. We identify models that are in good agreement with all observational data, except that all models overpredict alignments of faint early-type galaxies. The best model yields an intrinsic alignment contamination of a Euclid-like survey between 0.5 and 10 per cent at z > 0.6 and on angular scales larger than a few arcminutes. Cutting 20 per cent of red foreground galaxies using observer-frame colours can suppress this contamination by up to a factor of 2.

  9. Possible physical explanation of the intrinsic Ep,i-“intensity” correlation commonly used to “standardize” GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontera, Filippo; Amati, Lorenzo; Farinelli, Ruben; Dichiara, Simone; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Landi, Raffaella; Titarchuk, Lev

    2016-03-01

    It is recognized that very likely the correlation between peak energy Ep and bolometric intensity is intrinsic to GRBs. However, its physical origin is still debated. In this paper, we will discuss a possible interpretation of the correlation in the light of a GRB prompt emission spectral model, GRBCOMP, proposed in [L. Titarchuk, R. Farinelli, F. Frontera and L. Amati, Astrophys. J. 752 (2012) 116]. GRBCOMP is essentially a photospheric model for the prompt emission of GRBs. Its main ingredients are a thermal bath of soft seed photons and a subrelativistically expanding outflow plasma, consequence of the star explosion. The emerging spectrum is the result of two phases: first, up to the photospheric radius, Comptonization of a subrelativistic electron outflow with thermal bath of soft photons, then, convolution of the Comptonized photons in the first phase with a Green function. The result of this convolution is consistent with different physical processes, in particular Inverse Compton. GRBCOMP has been successfully tested using a significant sample of GRB time resolved spectra in the broad energy band from 2keV to 2MeV [F. Frontera, L. Amati, R. Farinelli, S. Dichiara, C. Guidorzi, R. Landi and L. Titarchuk, Astrophys. J. 779 (2013) 175].

  10. Intrinsic Noise Level of Noise Cross-Correlation Functions and its Implication to Source Population of Ambient noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Nien; Gung, Yuancheng; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Rhie, Junkee

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYWe present a quantitative procedure to evaluate the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> noise level (INL) of the noise cross-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> function (NCF). The method is applied to realistic NCFs derived from the continuous data recorded by the seismic arrays in Taiwan and Korea. The obtained temporal evolution of NCF noise level follows fairly the prediction of the theoretical formulation, confirming the feasibility of the method. We then apply the obtained INL to the assessment of data quality and the source characteristics of ambient noise. We show that the INL-based signal-to-noise ratio provides an exact measure for the true noise level within the NCF and better resolving power for the NCF quality, and such measurement can be implemented to any time windows of the NCFs to evaluate the quality of overtones or coda waves. Moreover, since NCF amplitudes are influenced by both the population and excitation strengths of noises, while INL is primarily sensitive to the overall source population, with information from both measurements, we may better constrain the source characteristics of seismic ambient noises.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1226936','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1226936"><span><span class="hlt">Correlating</span> optical damage threshold with <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> defect populations in fused silica as a function of heat treatment temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, N.; Matthews, M. J.; Elhadj, S.; Miller, P. E.; Nelson, A. J.; Hamilton, J.</p> <p>2013-04-03</p> <p>Here, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is used for the production of fused silica optics in high-power laser applications. However, relatively little is known about the ultraviolet laser damage threshold of CVD films and how they relate to <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> defects produced during deposition. We present here a study relating structural and electronic defects in CVD films to 355 nm pulsed-laser damage threshold as a function of post-deposition annealing temperature (T<sub>HT</sub>). Plasma-enhanced CVD based on SiH<sub>4</sub>/N<sub>2</sub>O under oxygen-rich conditions was used to deposit 1.5, 3.1 and 6.4 µm thick films on etched SiO2 substrates. Rapid annealing was performed using a scanned CO2 laser beam up to T<sub>HT</sub> ~ 2100 K. The films were then characterized using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A gradual transition in the damage threshold of annealed films was observed for T<sub>HT</sub> values up to 1600 K, <span class="hlt">correlating</span> with a decrease in non-bridging silanol and oxygen deficient centres. An additional sharp transition in damage threshold also occurs at ~1850 K indicating substrate annealing. Based on our results, a mechanism for damage-related defect annealing is proposed, and the potential of using high-T<sub>HT</sub> CVD SiO<sub>2</sub> to mitigate optical damage is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011997','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011997"><span>Supersonic <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Ramp Inlet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957799','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/957799"><span>Planar <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mineev, Mark</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The planar <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> growth are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.471.2431M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.471.2431M"><span>Imitating <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments: a bias to the CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> power spectrum induced by the large-scale structure bispectrum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>Cross-<span class="hlt">correlating</span> the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-<span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MNRAS.376...39O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007MNRAS.376...39O"><span>Bright and dark matter in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies: mass and velocity distributions from self-consistent hydrodynamical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oñorbe, J.; Domínguez-Tenreiro, R.; Sáiz, A.; Serna, A.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>We have analysed the mass and velocity distributions of two samples of relaxed <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>-like objects (ELOs) identified, at z = 0, in a set of self-consistent hydrodynamical simulations operating in the context of a concordance cosmological model. ELOs have been identified as those virtual galaxies having a prominent, dynamically relaxed stellar spheroidal component, with no extended discs and very low gas content. Our analysis shows that they are embedded in extended, massive dark matter haloes, and they also have an extended corona of hot diffuse gas. Dark matter haloes have experienced adiabatic contraction along their assembly process. The relative ELO dark- to bright-mass content and space distributions show broken homology, and they are consistent with observational results on the dark matter fraction at the central regions, as well as on the gradients of the mass-to-light ratio profiles for boxy <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, as a function of their stellar masses. These results indicate that massive <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> miss stars (i.e. baryons) at their central regions, as compared to less massive ones. Our simulations indicate that these missing baryons could be found beyond the virial radii as a hot, diffuse plasma. This mass homology breaking could have important implications to explain the physical origin of the Fundamental Plane relation. The projected stellar mass profiles of our virtual <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> can be well fitted by the Sérsic formula, with shape parameters n that agree, once a stellar mass-to-light ratio independent of position is assumed, with those obtained from surface brightness profiles of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. The agreement includes the empirical <span class="hlt">correlations</span> of n with size, luminosity and velocity dispersion. The total mass density profiles show a power-law behaviour over a large r/rvir interval, consistent with data on massive lens <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> at shorter radii. The velocity dispersion profiles show kinematical segregation, with no systematic mass dependence (i.e. no</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6062103','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6062103"><span>Disks in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rix, H.; White, S.D.M. )</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>The abundance and strength of disk components in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are investigated by studying the photometric properties of models containing a spheroidal r exp 1/4-law bulge and a weak exponential disk. Pointed isophotes are observed in a substantial fraction of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. If these isophote distortions are interpreted in the framework of the present models, then the statistics of observed samples suggest that almost all radio-weak <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> could have disks containing roughly 20 percent of the light. It is shown that the E5 galaxy NGC 4660 has the photometric signatures of a disk containing a third of the light. 30 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2588346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2588346"><span>Functional Anthology of <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Disorder. II. Cellular Components, Domains, Technical Terms, Developmental Processes and Coding Sequence Diversities <span class="hlt">Correlated</span> with Long Disordered Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vucetic, Slobodan; Xie, Hongbo; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Biologically active proteins without stable ordered structure (i.e., <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins) are attracting increased attention. Functional repertoires of ordered and disordered proteins are very different, and the ability to differentiate whether a given function is associated with <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> disorder or with a well-folded protein is crucial for modern protein science. However, there is a large gap between the number of proteins experimentally confirmed to be disordered and their actual number in nature. As a result, studies of functional properties of confirmed disordered proteins, while helpful in revealing the functional diversity of protein disorder, provide only a limited view. To overcome this problem, a bioinformatics approach for comprehensive study of functional roles of protein disorder was proposed in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Applying this novel approach to Swiss-Prot sequences and functional keywords, we found over 238 and 302 keywords to be strongly positively or negatively <span class="hlt">correlated</span>, respectively, with long <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered regions. This paper describes ~90 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative <span class="hlt">correlation</span> with long disordered regions. PMID:17391015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262373','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262373"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Thermodynamics and Structure <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> of Benzenesulfonamides with a Pyrimidine Moiety Binding to Carbonic Anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kišonaitė, Miglė; Zubrienė, Asta; Čapkauskaitė, Edita; Smirnov, Alexey; Smirnovienė, Joana; Kairys, Visvaldas; Michailovienė, Vilma; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Matulis, Daumantas</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The early stage of drug discovery is often based on selecting the highest affinity lead compound. To this end the structural and energetic characterization of the binding reaction is important. The binding energetics can be resolved into enthalpic and entropic contributions to the binding Gibbs free energy. Most compound binding reactions are coupled to the absorption or release of protons by the protein or the compound. A distinction between the observed and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> parameters of the binding energetics requires the dissection of the protonation/deprotonation processes. Since only the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> parameters can be <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with molecular structural perturbations associated with complex formation, it is these parameters that are required for rational drug design. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoforms are important therapeutic targets to treat a range of disorders including glaucoma, obesity, epilepsy, and cancer. For effective treatment isoform-specific inhibitors are needed. In this work we investigated the binding and protonation energetics of sixteen [(2-pyrimidinylthio)acetyl]benzenesulfonamide CA inhibitors using isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescent thermal shift assay. The compounds were built by combining four sulfonamide headgroups with four tailgroups yielding 16 compounds. Their <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> binding thermodynamics showed the limitations of the functional group energetic additivity approach used in fragment-based drug design, especially at the level of enthalpies and entropies of binding. Combined with high resolution crystal structural data <span class="hlt">correlations</span> were drawn between the chemical functional groups on selected inhibitors and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> thermodynamic parameters of CA-inhibitor complex formation. PMID:25493428</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800013899','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800013899"><span>The <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An independent variable different from the time for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22102469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22102469"><span>Age-related changes in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and in utrophin are not <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> laryngeal muscles protection in mdx mice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferretti, Renato; Pertille, Adriana; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In this study we investigate whether dystrophic <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> laryngeal muscles (ILM) from aged mdx mice show alterations in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components.Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses of beta-sarcoglycan, beta-dystroglycan, and utrophin showed that aged ILM had a similar pattern of changes in aged affected muscles (diaphragm and limb), suggesting that aging leads to changes in utrophin and DGC proteins in dystrophic ILM that cannot be <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with their protection from dystrophic change.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95e3805K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95e3805K"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Gaussian optical vortices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A.; Porfirev, A. P.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We analyze an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> optical vortex embedded into a Gaussian beam. Explicit closed expressions for the complex amplitude and normalized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of such a beam are derived. The resulting <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Gaussian vortex (EGV) is shown to have a fractional OAM whose maximal value equal to the topological charge n of a conventional Gauss vortex is attained for a zero-<span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> vortex. As the beam propagates, the major axis of the intensity ellipse in the beam cross section rotates, making the angle of 90° between the initial plane and the focal plane of a spherical lens. On the major axis of the intensity ellipse, there are n intensity nulls of the EGV, with the distance between them varying with propagation distance and varying <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. The distance between the intensity nulls is found to be maximal in the focal plane for a given <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. For zero <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, all intensity nulls get merged into a single n -times degenerate on-axis intensity null. The experimental results are in good agreement with theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AJ....150..162S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AJ....150..162S"><span>The Structure of Galaxies. III. Two Structural Families of <span class="hlt">Ellipticals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schombert, James M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Using isophotal radius <span class="hlt">correlations</span> for a sample of Two Micron All Sky Survey <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, we have constructed a series of template surface brightness profiles to describe the profile shapes of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> as a function of luminosity. The templates are a smooth function of luminosity, yet are not adequately matched to any fitting function supporting the view that <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> are weakly nonhomologous with respect to structure. Through comparison to the templates, it is discovered that <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> are divided into two families: those well matched to the templates, and a second class of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with distinctly shallower profile slopes. We refer to this second type of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> as D class, an old morphological designation acknowledging diffuse appearance on photographic material. D <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> cover the same range of luminosity, size, and kinematics as normal <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, but maintain a signature of recent equal-mass dry mergers. We propose that normal <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> grow after an initial dissipation formation era by accretion of low-mass companions as outlined in hierarchical formation scenarios, while D <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> are the result of later equal-mass mergers producing shallow luminosity profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.439.1909V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.439.1909V"><span>On the probability distributions of <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viola, M.; Kitching, T. D.; Joachimi, B.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In this paper we derive an exact full expression for the 2D probability distribution of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of an object measured from data, only assuming Gaussian noise in pixel values. This is a generalization of the probability distribution for the ratio of single random variables, that is well known, to the multivariate case. This expression is derived within the context of the measurement of weak gravitational lensing from noisy galaxy images. We find that the third flattening, or ɛ-<span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, has a biased maximum likelihood but an unbiased mean; and that the third eccentricity, or normalized polarization χ, has both a biased maximum likelihood and a biased mean. The very fact that the bias in the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> is itself a function of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> requires an accurate knowledge of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> distribution of the galaxies in order to properly calibrate shear measurements. We use this expression to explore strategies for calibration of biases caused by measurement processes in weak gravitational lensing. We find that upcoming weak-lensing surveys like KiDS or DES require calibration fields of the order of several square degrees and 1.2 mag deeper than the wide survey in order to correct for the noise bias. Future surveys like Euclid will require calibration fields of order 40 square degree and several magnitude deeper than the wide survey. We also investigate the use of the Stokes parameters to estimate the shear as an alternative to the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. We find that they can provide unbiased shear estimates at the cost of a very large variance in the measurement. The PYTHON code used to compute the distributions presented in the paper and to perform the numerical calculations are available on request.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJ...611L...5D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApJ...611L...5D"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies at z = 0 from Self-consistent Hydrodynamic Simulations: Clues on Age Effects in Their Stellar Populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Domínguez-Tenreiro, R.; Sáiz, A.; Serna, A.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>We present results of a study of the stellar age distributions in the sample of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>-like objects (ELOs) identified at z=0 in four hydrodynamic, self-consistent simulations operating in the context of a concordance cosmological model. The simulations show that the formation of most stars in each ELO of the sample is a consequence of violent dynamical events, either fast multiclump collapse at high z's, or mergers at lower z's. The latter can explain the age spread as well as the dynamical peculiarities observed in some <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, but its relative weight is never dominant and decreases as the ELO mass at the halo scale, Mvir, increases, to such an extent that some recent mergers contributing an important fraction to the total ELO mass can possibly contribute only a small fraction of newborn stars. More massive objects have older means and narrower spreads in their stellar age distributions than less massive objects. The ELO sample shows also a tight <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between Mvir and the central stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion, σstarlos,0. This gives a trend of the means and spreads of ELO stellar populations with σstarlos,0 that is consistent, even quantitatively, with the age effects observationally detected in the stellar populations of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. Therefore, these effects can be explained as the observational manifestation of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">correlations</span> found in the ELO sample between Mvir and the properties of the stellar age distribution, on the one hand, and Mvir and σstarlos,0, on the other hand. These <span class="hlt">correlations</span> hint, for the first time, at a possible way to reconcile age effects in <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, and, particularly, the increase of α/<Fe> ratios with σstarlos,0, with the hierarchical clustering paradigm. We briefly discuss the origin of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">correlations</span> shown by ELOs in terms of the adhesion model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21727754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21727754"><span><span class="hlt">Correlation</span> of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> in vitro and in vivo clearance for drugs metabolized by hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakamori, Fumihiro; Naritomi, Yoichi; Furutani, Masako; Takamura, Fujiko; Miura, Hiroya; Murai, Hidetsugu; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A method for quantitatively predicting the hepatic clearance of drugs by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) from in vitro data has not yet been established. We examined the relationship between in vitro and in vivo <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> clearance by rat hepatic UGTs using 10 drugs. For these 10 drugs, the in vitro <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> clearance by UGTs (CL(int, in vitro)) measured using alamethicin-activated rat liver microsomes was in the range 0.10-4500 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding (f(u, mic)) was determined to be in the range 0.29-0.95 and the unbound <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> clearance (CL(uint, in vitro)) to be in the range 0.11-9600 ml/min/kg. The contribution of rat hepatic glucuronidation to drug elimination was 12.0%-76.6% and in vivo <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> clearance by UGTs was 5.7-9000 ml/min/kg. To evaluate the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo values, a scaling factor was calculated (CL(int, in vivo)/CL(int, in vitro)); the values were found to be in the range 0.89-110. The average fold error of the scaling factor values incorporating f(u, mic) was closer to unity than that without f(u, mic). The scaling factor values incorporating f(u, mic) were <10 in 8/10 drugs and <2 in 6/10 drugs, indicating a small discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo values. Thus, using alamethicin-activated liver microsomes, incorporating f(u, mic) into CL(int, in vitro), and considering the contribution of glucuronidation may enable us to quantitatively predict in vivo hepatic glucuronidation from in vitro data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170002443&hterms=Evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEvolution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170002443&hterms=Evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DEvolution"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Scatter in the SFR-Stellar Mass <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> at 0.5 less than z Less Than 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Acquaviva, Viviana; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; De Mello, Duilia F.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grogin, Norman A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present estimates of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> scatter in the star formation rate (SFR)--stellar mass (M*) <span class="hlt">correlation</span> in the redshift range 0.5 less than z less than 3.0 and in the mass range 10(exp 7) less than M* less than 10(exp 11) solar mass. We utilize photometry in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF12) and Ultraviolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF) campaigns and CANDELS/GOODS-S and estimate SFR, M* from broadband spectral energy distributions and the best-available redshifts. The maximum depth of the UDF photometry (F160W 29.9 AB, 5 sigma depth) probes the SFR--M* <span class="hlt">correlation</span> down to M* approximately 10(exp 7) solar mass, a factor of 10-100 x lower in M* than previous studies, and comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We find the slope of the SFR-M* relationship to be near unity at all redshifts and the normalization to decrease with cosmic time. We find a moderate increase in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> scatter with cosmic time from 0.2 to 0.4 dex across the epoch of peak cosmic star formation. None of our redshift bins show a statistically significant increase in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> scatter approximately 100 Myr. Our results are consistent with a picture of gradual and self-similar assembly of galaxies across more than three orders of magnitude in stellar mass from as low as 10(exp 7) solar mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170002443&hterms=Evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEvolution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170002443&hterms=Evolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEvolution"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Scatter in the SFR-Stellar Mass <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> at 0.5 less than z Less Than 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Acquaviva, Viviana; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; De Mello, Duilia F.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grogin, Norman A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present estimates of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> scatter in the star formation rate (SFR)--stellar mass (M*) <span class="hlt">correlation</span> in the redshift range 0.5 less than z less than 3.0 and in the mass range 10(exp 7) less than M* less than 10(exp 11) solar mass. We utilize photometry in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF12) and Ultraviolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF) campaigns and CANDELS/GOODS-S and estimate SFR, M* from broadband spectral energy distributions and the best-available redshifts. The maximum depth of the UDF photometry (F160W 29.9 AB, 5 sigma depth) probes the SFR--M* <span class="hlt">correlation</span> down to M* approximately 10(exp 7) solar mass, a factor of 10-100 x lower in M* than previous studies, and comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We find the slope of the SFR-M* relationship to be near unity at all redshifts and the normalization to decrease with cosmic time. We find a moderate increase in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> scatter with cosmic time from 0.2 to 0.4 dex across the epoch of peak cosmic star formation. None of our redshift bins show a statistically significant increase in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> scatter approximately 100 Myr. Our results are consistent with a picture of gradual and self-similar assembly of galaxies across more than three orders of magnitude in stellar mass from as low as 10(exp 7) solar mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023531','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023531"><span>Multilevel filtering <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> preconditioners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kuo, C. C. Jay; Chan, Tony F.; Tong, Charles</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A class of preconditioners is presented for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problems built on ideas borrowed from the digital filtering theory and implemented on a multilevel grid structure. They are designed to be both rapidly convergent and highly parallelizable. The digital filtering viewpoint allows the use of filter design techniques for constructing <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> preconditioners and also provides an alternative framework for understanding several other recently proposed multilevel preconditioners. Numerical results are presented to assess the convergence behavior of the new methods and to compare them with other preconditioners of multilevel type, including the usual multigrid method as preconditioner, the hierarchical basis method and a recent method proposed by Bramble-Pasciak-Xu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LMaPh.tmp...74N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LMaPh.tmp...74N"><span>An <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Virasoro symmetry in 6d</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieri, Fabrizio</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We define an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> deformation of the Virasoro algebra. We conjecture that the R^4× T^2 Nekrasov partition function reproduces the chiral blocks of this algebra. We support this proposal by showing that at special points in the moduli space the 6d Nekrasov partition function reduces to the partition function of a 4d vortex theory supported on R^2× T^2 , which is in turn captured by a free field <span class="hlt">correlator</span> of vertex operators and screening charges of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Virasoro algebra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...816...11D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...816...11D"><span>The <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span> Distribution of Ambiguously Blended Objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dawson, William A.; Schneider, Michael D.; Tyson, J. Anthony; Jee, M. James</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Using overlapping fields with space-based Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based Subaru Telescope imaging we identify a population of blended galaxies that are blended to such a large degree that they are detected as single objects in the ground-based monochromatic imaging, which we label “ambiguous blends.” For deep imaging data, such as the depth targeted with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), the ambiguous blend population is both large (∼14%) and has a distribution of <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span> that is different from that of unblended objects in a way that will likely be important for weak lensing measurements. Most notably, for a limiting magnitude of i ∼ 27 we find that ambiguous blending results in a ∼14% increase in shear noise (or an ∼12% decrease in the effective projected number density of lensed galaxies; neff) due to (1) larger <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> dispersion, and (2) a scaling with the galaxy number density Ngal that is shallower than 1/&sqrt;{{N}{gal}}. For the LSST Gold Sample (i < 25.3) there is a ∼7% increase in shear noise (or ∼7% decrease in neff). More importantly than these increases in the shear noise, we find that the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> distribution of ambiguous blends has an rms that is 13% larger than that of non-blended galaxies. Given the need of future weak lensing surveys to constrain the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> distribution of galaxies to better than a percent in order to mitigate cosmic shear multiplicative biases, if it is unaccounted for, the different <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> distribution of ambiguous blends could be a dominant systematic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AcPPB..34.4241M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AcPPB..34.4241M"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Flow Fluctuations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mrowczynski, Stanislaw; Shuryak, Edward V.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>We suggest to perform systematic measurements of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow fluctuations which are sensitive to the early stage dynamics of heavy-ion collisions at high-energies. Significant flow fluctuations are shown to be generated due to the formation of topological clusters and development of the filamentation instability. The statistical noise and hydrodynamic fluctuations are also estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-hubble-views-a-young-elliptical-galaxy_22754376897_o.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-hubble-views-a-young-elliptical-galaxy_22754376897_o.html"><span>A young <span class="hlt">elliptical</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-11-16</p> <p>At the centre of this amazing image is the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy NGC 3610. Surrounding the galaxy are a wealth of other galaxies of all shapes. There are spiral galaxies, galaxies with a bar in their central regions, distorted galaxies and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies, all visible in the background. In fact, almost every bright dot in this image is a galaxy — the few foreground stars are clearly distinguishable due to the diffraction spikes that overlay their images. NGC 3610 is of course the most prominent object in this image — and a very interesting one at that! Discovered in 1793 by William Herschel, it was later found that this <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy contains a disc. This is very unusual, as discs are one of the main distinguishing features of a spiral galaxy. And NGC 3610 even hosts a memarkable bright disc. The reason for the peculiar shape of NGC 3610 stems from its formation history. When galaxies form, they usually resemble our galaxy, the Milky Way, with flat discs and spiral arms where star formation rates are high and which are therefore very bright. An <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy is a much more disordered object which results from the merging of two or more disc galaxies. During these violent mergers most of the internal structure of the original galaxies is destroyed. The fact that NGC 3610 still shows some structure in the form of a bright disc implies that it formed only a short time ago. The galaxy’s age has been put at around four billion years and it is an important object for studying the early stages of evolution in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826...45R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826...45R"><span>A <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> between the <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Brightness and Average Decay Rate of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Kocevski, D.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between the average temporal decay ({α }{{X},{avg},\\gt 200{{s}}}) and early-time luminosity ({L}{{X},200{{s}}}) of X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts as observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. Both quantities are measured relative to a rest-frame time of 200 s after the γ-ray trigger. The luminosity-average decay <span class="hlt">correlation</span> does not depend on specific temporal behavior and contains one scale-independent quantity minimizing the role of selection effects. This is a complementary <span class="hlt">correlation</span> to that discovered by Oates et al. in the optical light curves observed by the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope. The <span class="hlt">correlation</span> indicates that, on average, more luminous X-ray afterglows decay faster than less luminous ones, indicating some relative mechanism for energy dissipation. The X-ray and optical <span class="hlt">correlations</span> are entirely consistent once corrections are applied and contamination is removed. We explore the possible biases introduced by different light-curve morphologies and observational selection effects, and how either geometrical effects or <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> properties of the central engine and jet could explain the observed <span class="hlt">correlation</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910004829','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910004829"><span>Far-infrared emission from dusty <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Walsh, Duncan; Knapp, Jill</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The incidence of dust lanes in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies has been estimated at approx. 40 percent by Sadler and Gerhard (1985), although the observed fraction is lower because of inclination effects. A similar percentage of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> has been detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) at 100 microns (Knapp et al. 1989); these have far-infrared colors expected for emission from cool dust (S sub 60 micron/S sub 100 micron approx. 1/3). For the far-infrared detected galaxies, neither L sub 100 microns/L sub B nor L sub 60 microns/L sub 100 microns are very dependent on dust content, suggesting that the source of the infrared luminosity is the same in both cases; and hence that dust is responsible even when not detected optically. Despite this indication, L sub 100 microns does not prove to be a good indicator of the quantity of cool interstellar matter in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies, as measured by the mass of neutral hydrogen. There even exist several examples of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with dust, strong 100 micron flux density and sensitive limits on HI mass (Walsh et al. in preparation). Chief reasons for the lack of <span class="hlt">correlation</span> include the existence of other important sources of far-IR power in <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, such as nonthermal continuum emission extending from longer wavelengths in flat spectrum radio sources (Golombek, Miley and Neugebauer 1988); and the fact that far-infrared luminosity per unit dust mass is extremely sensitive to the temperature of the ambient radiation field, which is not accurately known. In addition to having their appearance distorted by dust, several <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> also show such features as shells, box-shaped isophotes or inner disks. These may be signatures of past mergers, which could also add to the ISM content of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26A...597A.122S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26A...597A.122S"><span>Cluster and field <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies at z 1.3. The marginal role of the environment and the relevance of the galaxy central regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Ciocca, F.; Marchesini, D.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>. Also the Σ1 kpc-mass relation follows two different regimes, above and below the transition mass (Σ1 kpc ∝ Μ*1.07<mt0.64>mt) defining a transition mass density Σ1 kpc ≃ 2-3 × 103M⊙ pc-2. The effective stellar mass density ΣRe does not <span class="hlt">correlate</span> with mass; dense/compact galaxies can be assembled over a wide mass regime, independently of the environment. The central stellar mass density, Σ1 kpc, besides being <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with the mass, is <span class="hlt">correlated</span> to the age of the stellar population: the higher the central stellar mass density, the higher the mass, the older the age of the stellar population. Conclusions: While we found some evidence of environmental effects on the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies as a population, we did not find differences between the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> properties of cluster and field <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies at comparable redshift. The structure and the shaping of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies at z 1.3 do not depend on the environment. However, a dense environment seems to be more efficient in assembling high-mass large <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, much rarer in the field at this redshift. The <span class="hlt">correlation</span> found between the central stellar mass density and the age of the galaxies beside the mass shows the close connection of the central regions to the main phases of mass growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...06..094C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...06..094C"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> scattering equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cardona, Carlos; Gomez, Humberto</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Recently the CHY approach has been extended to one loop level using <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions and modular forms over a Jacobian variety. Due to the difficulty in manipulating these kind of functions, we propose an alternative prescription that is totally algebraic. This new proposal is based on an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> algebraic curve embedded in a mathbb{C}{P}^2 space. We show that for the simplest integrand, namely the n - gon, our proposal indeed reproduces the expected result. By using the recently formulated Λ-algorithm, we found a novel recurrence relation expansion in terms of tree level off-shell amplitudes. Our results connect nicely with recent results on the one-loop formulation of the scattering equations. In addition, this new proposal can be easily stretched out to hyperelliptic curves in order to compute higher genus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2653868','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2653868"><span>High-Resolution fMRI Maps of Cortical Activation in Nonhuman Primates: <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> with <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Signal Optical Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roe, Anna W.; Chen, Li Min</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>One of the most widely used functional brain mapping tools is blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This method has contributed to new understandings of the functional roles of different areas in the human brain. However, its ability to map cerebral cortex at high spatial (submillimeter) resolution is still unknown. Other methods such as single- and multiunit electrophysiology and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> signal optical imaging have revealed submillimeter resolution of sensory topography and cortical columnar activations. However, they are limited either by spatial scale (electrophysiology characterizes only local groups of neurons) or by the inability to monitor deep structures in the brain (i.e., cortical regions buried in sulci or subcortical structures). A method that could monitor all regions of the brain at high spatial resolution would be ideal. This capacity would open the doors to investigating, for example, how networks of cerebral cortical columns relate to or produce behavior. In this article we demonstrate that, without benefit of contrast agents, at a magnetic field strength of 9.4 tesla, BOLD fMRI can reveal millimeter-sized topographic maps of digit representation in the somatosensory cortex of the anesthetized squirrel monkey. Furthermore, by mapping the “funneling illusion,” it is possible to detect even submillimeter shifts in activation in the cortex. Our data suggest that at high magnetic field strength, the positive BOLD signal can be used to reveal high spatial resolution maps of brain activity, a finding that weakens previous notions about the ultimate spatial specificity of the positive BOLD signal. PMID:18172338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26576651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26576651"><span>The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> combinatorial organization and information theoretic content of a sequence are <span class="hlt">correlated</span> to the DNA encoded nucleosome organization of eukaryotic genomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Utro, Filippo; Di Benedetto, Valeria; Corona, Davide F V; Giancarlo, Raffaele</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Thanks to research spanning nearly 30 years, two major models have emerged that account for nucleosome organization in chromatin: statistical and sequence specific. The first is based on elegant, easy to compute, closed-form mathematical formulas that make no assumptions of the physical and chemical properties of the underlying DNA sequence. Moreover, they need no training on the data for their computation. The latter is based on some sequence regularities but, as opposed to the statistical model, it lacks the same type of closed-form formulas that, in this case, should be based on the DNA sequence only. We contribute to close this important methodological gap between the two models by providing three very simple formulas for the sequence specific one. They are all based on well-known formulas in Computer Science and Bioinformatics, and they give different quantifications of how complex a sequence is. In view of how remarkably well they perform, it is very surprising that measures of sequence complexity have not even been considered as candidates to close the mentioned gap. We provide experimental evidence that the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> level of combinatorial organization and information-theoretic content of subsequences within a genome are strongly <span class="hlt">correlated</span> to the level of DNA encoded nucleosome organization discovered by Kaplan et al Our results establish an important connection between the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> complexity of subsequences in a genome and the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span>, i.e. DNA encoded, nucleosome organization of eukaryotic genomes. It is a first step towards a mathematical characterization of this latter 'encoding'. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. futro@us.ibm.com. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457.2301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.457.2301S"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> alignments of BOSS LOWZ galaxies - II. Impact of shape measurement methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Measurements of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments of galaxy shapes with the large-scale density field, and the inferred <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments model parameters, are sensitive to the shape measurement methods used. In this paper, we measure the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III (SDSS-III) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) low redshift (LOWZ) galaxies using three different shape measurement methods (re-Gaussianization, isophotal, and de Vaucouleurs), identifying a variation in the inferred <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments amplitude at the 40 per cent level between these methods, independent of the galaxy luminosity or other properties. We also carry out a suite of systematics tests on the shapes and their two-point <span class="hlt">correlation</span> functions, identifying a pronounced contribution from additive point spread function systematics in the de Vaucouleurs shapes. Since different methods measure galaxy shapes at different effective radii, the trends we identify in the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments amplitude are consistent with the interpretation that the outer regions of galaxy shapes are more responsive to tidal fields, resulting in isophote twisting and stronger alignments for isophotal shapes. We observe environment dependence of <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, with brightest galaxies in groups being rounder on average compared to satellite and field galaxies. We also study the anisotropy in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments measurements introduced by projected shapes, finding effects consistent with predictions of the non-linear alignment model and hydrodynamic simulations. The large variations seen using the different shape measurement methods have important implications for <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments forecasting and mitigation with future surveys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUS..308..437C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IAUS..308..437C"><span>How the cosmic web induces <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments of galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Codis, S.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Devriendt, J.; Slyz, A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> alignments are believed to be a major source of systematics for future generation of weak gravitational lensing surveys like Euclid or LSST. Direct measurements of the alignment of the projected light distribution of galaxies in wide field imaging data seem to agree on a contamination at a level of a few per cent of the shear <span class="hlt">correlation</span> functions, although the amplitude of the effect depends on the population of galaxies considered. Given this dependency, it is difficult to use dark matter-only simulations as the sole resource to predict and control <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments. We report here estimates on the level of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN that could be a major source of systematic errors in weak gravitational lensing measurements. In particular, assuming that the spin of galaxies is a good proxy for their <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, we show how those spins are spatially <span class="hlt">correlated</span> and how they couple to the tidal field in which they are embedded. We will also present theoretical calculations that illustrate and qualitatively explain the observed signals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255126-transition-recollision-trajectories-from-linear-elliptical-polarization','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255126-transition-recollision-trajectories-from-linear-elliptical-polarization"><span>Transition of recollision trajectories from linear to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Li, Yingbin; Yu, Benhai; Tang, Qingbin; ...</p> <p>2016-03-15</p> <p>Using a classical ensemble method, we revisit the topic of recollision and nonsequential double ionization with <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized laser fields. We focus on how the recollision mechanism transitions from short trajectories with linear polarization to long trajectories with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarization. Furthermore, we propose how this transition can be observed by measuring the carrier-envelop-phase dependence of the <span class="hlt">correlated</span> electron momentum spectra using currently available few-cycle laser pulses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721063"><span><span class="hlt">Correlation</span> between the temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> MR parameters and thermal dose measured by a rapid chemical shift imaging technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, B A; Elliott, A M; Hwang, K P; Hazle, J D; Stafford, R J</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In order to investigate simultaneous MR temperature imaging and direct validation of tissue damage during thermal therapy, temperature-dependent signal changes in proton resonance frequency (PRF) shifts, R(2)* values, and T1-weighted amplitudes are measured from one technique in ex vivo tissue. Using a multigradient echo acquisition and the Stieglitz-McBride algorithm, the temperature sensitivity coefficients of these parameters are measured in each tissue at high spatiotemporal resolutions (1.6 x 1.6 x 4 mm 3,≤ 5sec) at the range of 25-61 °C. Non-linear changes in MR parameters are examined and <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with an Arrhenius rate dose model of thermal damage. Using logistic regression, the probability of changes in these parameters is calculated as a function of thermal dose to determine if changes correspond to thermal damage. Temperature sensitivity of R(2)* and, in some cases, T1-weighted amplitudes are statistically different before and after thermal damage occurred. Significant changes in the slopes of R(2)* as a function of temperature are observed. Logistic regression analysis shows that these changes could be accurately predicted using the Arrhenius rate dose model (Ω = 1.01 ± 0.03), thereby showing that the changes in R(2)* could be direct markers of protein denaturation. Overall, by using a chemical shift imaging technique with simultaneous temperature estimation, R(2)* mapping and T1-W imaging, it is shown that changes in the sensitivity of R(2)* and, to a lesser degree, T1-W amplitudes are measured in ex vivo tissue when thermal damage is expected to occur. These changes could possibly be used for direct validation of thermal damage in contrast to model-based predictions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27463965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27463965"><span>Quantification of Valleys of Randomly Textured Substrates as a Function of Opening Angle: <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> to the Defect Density in <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> nc-Si:H.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Do Yun; Hänni, Simon; Schüttauf, Jan-Willem; van Swaaij, René A C M M; Zeman, Miro</p> <p>2016-08-17</p> <p>Optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells are strongly influenced by the morphology of underlying substrates. By texturing the substrates, the photogenerated current of nc-Si:H solar cells can increase due to enhanced light scattering. These textured substrates are, however, often incompatible with defect-less nc-Si:H growth resulting in lower Voc and FF. In this study we investigate the <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between the substrate morphology, the nc-Si:H solar-cell performance, and the defect density in the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> layer of the solar cells (i-nc-Si:H). Statistical surface parameters representing the substrate morphology do not show a strong <span class="hlt">correlation</span> with the solar-cell parameters. Thus, we first quantify the line density of potentially defective valleys of randomly textured ZnO substrates where the opening angle is smaller than 130° (ρ<130). This ρ<130 is subsequently compared with the solar-cell performance and the defect density of i-nc-Si:H (ρdefect), which is obtained by fitting external photovoltaic parameters from experimental results and simulations. We confirm that when ρ<130 increases the Voc and FF significantly drops. It is also observed that ρdefect increases following a power law dependence of ρ<130. This result is attributed to more frequently formed defective regions for substrates having higher ρ<130.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002829','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100002829"><span>Enhanced <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Grid Generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaul, Upender K.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>An enhanced method of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> grid generation has been invented. Whereas prior methods require user input of certain grid parameters, this method provides for these parameters to be determined automatically. "<span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> grid generation" signifies generation of generalized curvilinear coordinate grids through solution of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations (PDEs). Usually, such grids are fitted to bounding bodies and used in numerical solution of other PDEs like those of fluid flow, heat flow, and electromagnetics. Such a grid is smooth and has continuous first and second derivatives (and possibly also continuous higher-order derivatives), grid lines are appropriately stretched or clustered, and grid lines are orthogonal or nearly so over most of the grid domain. The source terms in the grid-generating PDEs (hereafter called "defining" PDEs) make it possible for the grid to satisfy requirements for clustering and orthogonality properties in the vicinity of specific surfaces in three dimensions or in the vicinity of specific lines in two dimensions. The grid parameters in question are decay parameters that appear in the source terms of the inhomogeneous defining PDEs. The decay parameters are characteristic lengths in exponential- decay factors that express how the influences of the boundaries decrease with distance from the boundaries. These terms govern the rates at which distance between adjacent grid lines change with distance from nearby boundaries. Heretofore, users have arbitrarily specified decay parameters. However, the characteristic lengths are coupled with the strengths of the source terms, such that arbitrary specification could lead to conflicts among parameter values. Moreover, the manual insertion of decay parameters is cumbersome for static grids and infeasible for dynamically changing grids. In the present method, manual insertion and user specification of decay parameters are neither required nor allowed. Instead, the decay parameters are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...tmp...57A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MAP...tmp...57A"><span>Multiscale characterization and prediction of monsoon rainfall in India using Hilbert-Huang transform and time-dependent <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">correlation</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adarsh, S.; Reddy, M. Janga</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) approach is used for the multiscale characterization of All India Summer Monsoon Rainfall (AISMR) time series and monsoon rainfall time series from five homogeneous regions in India. The study employs the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN) for multiscale decomposition of monsoon rainfall in India and uses the Normalized Hilbert Transform and Direct Quadrature (NHT-DQ) scheme for the time-frequency characterization. The cross-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> analysis between orthogonal modes of All India monthly monsoon rainfall time series and that of five climate indices such as Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO), El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Sunspot Number (SN), Atlantic Multi Decadal Oscillation (AMO), and Equatorial Indian Ocean Oscillation (EQUINOO) in the time domain showed that the links of different climate indices with monsoon rainfall are expressed well only for few low-frequency modes and for the trend component. Furthermore, this paper investigated the hydro-climatic teleconnection of ISMR in multiple time scales using the HHT-based running <span class="hlt">correlation</span> analysis technique called time-dependent <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">correlation</span> (TDIC). The results showed that both the strength and nature of association between different climate indices and ISMR vary with time scale. Stemming from this finding, a methodology employing Multivariate extension of EMD and Stepwise Linear Regression (MEMD-SLR) is proposed for prediction of monsoon rainfall in India. The proposed MEMD-SLR method clearly exhibited superior performance over the IMD operational forecast, M5 Model Tree (MT), and multiple linear regression methods in ISMR predictions and displayed excellent predictive skill during 1989-2012 including the four extreme events that have occurred during this period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005514','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110005514"><span>Modulated <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Slot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Abou-Khousa, M. A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>A novel modulated slot design has been proposed and tested. The proposed slot is aimed to replace the inefficient small dipoles used in conventional MST-based imaging systems. The developed slot is very attractive as MST array element due to its small size and high efficiency/modulation depth. In fact, the developed slot has been successfully used to implement the first prototype of a microwave camera operating at 24 GHZ. It is also being used in the design of the second generation of the camera. Finally, the designed <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> slot can be used as an electronically controlled waveguide iris for many other purposes (for instance in constructing waveguide reflective phase shifters and multiplexers/switches).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-hubble-peers-through-the-elliptical-haze_23409704522_o.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-hubble-peers-through-the-elliptical-haze_23409704522_o.html"><span>Through the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> haze</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-11-30</p> <p>Like a lighthouse in the fog the luminous core of NGC 2768 slowly fades outwards to a dull white haze in this image taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. NGC 2768 is an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy in the constellation of Ursa Major (The Great Bear). It is a huge bundle of stars, dominated by a bright central region, where a supermassive black hole feasts on a constant stream of gas and dust being fed to it by its galactic host. The galaxy is also marked by a prominent plume of dust reaching out from the centre and lying perpendicular to the galaxy’s plane. This dust conceals a symmetrical, s-shaped pair of jets that are being produced by the supermassive black hole as it feeds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMoSt.974..127Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMoSt.974..127Z"><span>Evaluation on <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> quality of licorice influenced by environmental factors by using FTIR combined with 2D-IR <span class="hlt">correlation</span> spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Ying-qun; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Yan-ling; Sun, Su-qin; Chen, Shi-lin; Zhao, Run-huai; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>To evaluate the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> quality of licorice influenced by environmental factors, the spectral comparison of licorice from two typical ecological habitats was conducted by using FTIR and 2D-IR <span class="hlt">correlation</span> spectroscopy. There were differences in the peak intensities of 1155, 1076 and 1048 cm -1 of FTIR profiles. The difference was amplified by the second derivative spectrum for the peak intensities at 1370, 1365 and 1317 cm -1 and the peak shape in 958-920 cm -1 and 1050-988 cm -1. The synchronous 2D-IR spectra within the range of 860-1300 cm -1 were classified into type I and type II and their frequency in the two groups was noticeably different. Although the chemical compounds of licorice samples from two areas were generally similar, the contents of starch, calcium oxalate, and some chemical compounds containing alcohol hydroxyl group were different, indicating the influence of precipitation and temperature. This study demonstrates that the systematical analysis of FTIR, the second derivative spectrum and 2D-IR can effectively determine the differences in licorice samples from different ecological habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...750...32G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...750...32G"><span>The Stellar Halos of Massive <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' × 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of ~20-70 pixel-1 in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions σ* > 150 km s-1, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by ~50%, and only a weak <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between σ* and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies that are ~ an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 Re , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high α-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034581','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22034581"><span>THE STELLAR HALOS OF MASSIVE <span class="hlt">ELLIPTICAL</span> GALAXIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greene, Jenny E.; Murphy, Jeremy D.; Comerford, Julia M.; Gebhardt, Karl; Adams, Joshua J.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>We use the Mitchell Spectrograph (formerly VIRUS-P) on the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope to search for the chemical signatures of massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy assembly. The Mitchell Spectrograph is an integral-field spectrograph with a uniquely wide field of view (107'' Multiplication-Sign 107''), allowing us to achieve remarkably high signal-to-noise ratios of {approx}20-70 pixel{sup -1} in radial bins of 2-2.5 times the effective radii of the eight galaxies in our sample. Focusing on a sample of massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} > 150 km s{sup -1}, we study the radial dependence in the equivalent widths (EW) of key metal absorption lines. By twice the effective radius, the Mgb EWs have dropped by {approx}50%, and only a weak <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between {sigma}{sub *} and Mgb EW remains. The Mgb EWs at large radii are comparable to those seen in the centers of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies that are {approx} an order of magnitude less massive. We find that the well-known metallicity gradients often observed within an effective radius continue smoothly to 2.5 R{sub e} , while the abundance ratio gradients remain flat. Much like the halo of the Milky Way, the stellar halos of our galaxies have low metallicities and high {alpha}-abundance ratios, as expected for very old stars formed in small stellar systems. Our observations support a picture in which the outer parts of massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are built by the accretion of much smaller systems whose star formation history was truncated at early times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043281&hterms=temper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtemper','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043281&hterms=temper&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dtemper"><span>Dwarf <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Dwarf <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/952928','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/952928"><span>Event-by-event <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow fluctuations from PHOBOS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Physics; BNL; Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; National Central Univ.; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Rochester</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Recently PHOBOS has focused on the study of fluctuations and <span class="hlt">correlations</span> in particle production in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies delivered by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report, we present results on event-by-event <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. A data-driven method was used to estimate the dominant contribution from non-flow <span class="hlt">correlations</span>. Over the broad range of collision centralities, the observed large <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow fluctuations are in agreement with the fluctuations in the initial source eccentricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26026609"><span>Activation of the Nrf2 response by <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> hepatotoxic drugs <span class="hlt">correlates</span> with suppression of NF-κB activation and sensitizes toward TNFα-induced cytotoxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herpers, Bram; Wink, Steven; Fredriksson, Lisa; Di, Zi; Hendriks, Giel; Vrieling, Harry; de Bont, Hans; van de Water, Bob</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important problem both in the clinic and in the development of new safer medicines. Two pivotal adaptation and survival responses to adverse drug reactions are oxidative stress and cytokine signaling based on the activation of the transcription factors Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Here, we systematically investigated Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling upon DILI-related drug exposure. Transcriptomics analyses of 90 DILI compounds in primary human hepatocytes revealed that a strong Nrf2 activation is associated with a suppression of endogenous NF-κB activity. These responses were translated into quantitative high-content live-cell imaging of induction of a selective Nrf2 target, GFP-tagged Srxn1, and the altered nuclear translocation dynamics of a subunit of NF-κB, GFP-tagged p65, upon TNFR signaling induced by TNFα using HepG2 cells. Strong activation of GFP-Srxn1 expression by DILI compounds typically <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with suppression of NF-κB nuclear translocation, yet reversely, activation of NF-κB by TNFα did not affect the Nrf2 response. DILI compounds that provided strong Nrf2 activation, including diclofenac, carbamazepine and ketoconazole, sensitized toward TNFα-mediated cytotoxicity. This was related to an adaptive primary protective response of Nrf2, since loss of Nrf2 enhanced this cytotoxic synergy with TNFα, while KEAP1 downregulation was cytoprotective. These data indicate that both Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling may be pivotal in the regulation of DILI. We propose that the NF-κB-inhibiting effects that coincide with a strong Nrf2 stress response likely sensitize liver cells to pro-apoptotic signaling cascades induced by <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> cytotoxic pro-inflammatory cytokines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=424398','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=424398"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> bioactivity of thyrotropin in human serum is inversely <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with thyroid hormone concentrations. Application of a new bioassay using the FRTL-5 rat thyroid cell strain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dahlberg, P A; Petrick, P A; Nissim, M; Menezes-Ferreira, M M; Weintraub, B D</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>We have developed a new bioassay for thyrotropin (TSH) in human serum to evaluate bioactivity in normal individuals and patients with different degrees of primary hypothyroidism. Unpurified TSH in serum showed no stimulation of cyclic AMP production in cultured FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, but after immunopurification showed potent stimulatory activity. Immunoaffinity purification permitted up to 400-fold concentration of serum TSH, allowing bioactivity measurements even in certain normal sera. The limit of detection in the FRTL-5 bioassay was 10 microU of human TSH per 0.5 ml incubate, and half-maximal responses for standard human TSH was 102 +/- 26 (+/- SE) microU/0.5 ml. Immunoaffinity-purified serum TSH varied in bioactivity-to-immunoactivity (B/I) ratios from less than 0.25 to 1.21 among four euthyroid subjects and eight primary hypothyroid patients. An inverse <span class="hlt">correlation</span> was found between B/I ratios of immunopurified basal TSH and the serum-free T4 (r = -0.7237, P less than 0.01), T4 (r = -0.6650, P less than 0.05), and T3 (r = -0.6382, P less than 0.05). B/I ratios of immunopurified TSH from three hypothyroid patients before and after acute stimulation by thyrotropin-releasing hormone showed no significant change, despite major changes in serum TSH. In summary, the present study shows an inverse relationship between the metabolic status of an individual and the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> bioactivity of TSH. Images PMID:3571493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940493','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940493"><span>Image <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span> from Atmospheric Aberrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L</p> <p>2007-03-06</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the PSF patterns. We find significant <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21313128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21313128"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> vortices in composite Mathieu lattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ye Fangwei; Mihalache, Dumitru; Hu Bambi</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>We address the <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> shaped vortex solitons in defocusing nonlinear media imprinted with a composite Mathieu lattice. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> vortices feature anisotropic patterns both in intensity and phase, and can only exist when their energy flows exceed some certain threshold. Single-charged <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> vortices are found to arise via bifurcation from dipole modes, which is an example in the context of optics studies of symmetry breaking bifurcations for the phase dislocations of different dimensionalities. Higher-order <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> vortices with topological charge S could exhibit spatially separated S single-charged phase singularities, leading to their stabilization. The salient features of reported <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> vortices qualitatively hold for other <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> shaped confining potentials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494865"><span>Decoupling antennas in printed technology using <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> metasurface cloaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bernety, Hossein M. E-mail: yakovlev@olemiss.edu; Yakovlev, Alexander B. E-mail: yakovlev@olemiss.edu</p> <p>2016-01-07</p> <p>In this paper, we extend the idea of reducing the electromagnetic interactions between transmitting radiators to the case of widely used planar antennas in printed technology based on the concept of mantle cloaking. Here, we show that how lightweight <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> metasurface cloaks can be engineered to restore the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> properties of printed antennas with strip inclusions. In order to present the novel approach, we consider two microstrip-fed monopole antennas resonating at slightly different frequencies cloaked by confocal <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> metasurfaces formed by arrays of sub-wavelength periodic elements, partially embedded in the substrate. The presence of the metasurfaces leads to the drastic suppression of mutual near-field and far-field couplings between the antennas, and thus, their radiation patterns are restored as if they were isolated. Moreover, it is worth noting that this approach is not limited to printed radiators and can be applied to other planar structures as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhTea..47..163N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhTea..47..163N"><span>Energy and the <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nettles, Bill</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SIGMA..13..069Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SIGMA..13..069Y"><span>An <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Garnier System from Interpolation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamada, Yasuhiko</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Considering a certain interpolation problem, we derive a series of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> difference isomonodromic systems together with their Lax forms. These systems give a multivariate extension of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Painlevé equation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeod..90..179B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeod..90..179B"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> polarisation of the polar motion excitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bizouard, Christian</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Because of its geophysical interpretation, Earth's polar motion excitation is generally decomposed into prograde (counter-clockwise) and retrograde (clockwise) circular terms at fixed frequency. Yet, these later are commonly considered as specific to the frequency and to the underlying geophysical process, and no study has raised the possibility that they could share features independent from frequency. Complex Fourier Transform permits to determine retrograde and prograde circular terms of the observed excitation and of its atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological counterparts. The total prograde and retrograde parts of these excitations are reconstructed in time domain. Then, complex linear <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between retrograde and conjugate prograde parts is observed for both the geodetic excitation and the matter term of the hydro-atmospheric excitation. In frequency domain, the ratio of the retrograde circular terms with their corresponding conjugate prograde terms favours specific values: the amplitude ratio follows a probabilistic gamma distribution centred around 1.5 (maximum for 1), and the argument ratio obeys a distribution close to a normal law centred around 2 α = 160°. These frequency and time domain characteristics mean an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarisation towards α ={˜ } 80° East with an <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of 0.8, mostly resulting from the matter term of the hydro-atmospheric excitation. Whatsoever the frequency band above 0.4 cpd, the hydro-atmospheric matter term tends to be maximal in the geographic areas surrounding the great meridian circle of longitude {˜ }80° or {˜ } 260° East. The favoured retrograde/prograde amplitude ratio around 1.5 or equivalently the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of 0.8 can result from the amplification of pressure waves propagating towards the west by the normal atmospheric mode Ψ _3^1 around 10 days.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1573..639D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1573..639D"><span>The ESS <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cavity cryomodules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Darve, Christine; Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Olivier, Gilles; Renard, Bertrand; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today's leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cavity cryomodules. An <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7045235','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7045235"><span>Wavelength meter having <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wedge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868570','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/868570"><span>Wavelength meter having <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wedge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Conservation+AND+Laws&pg=5&id=EJ852869','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Conservation+AND+Laws&pg=5&id=EJ852869"><span>Energy and the <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nettles, Bill</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In the January 2007 issue of "The Physics Teacher," Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22263966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22263966"><span>The ESS <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cavity cryomodules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Darve, Christine; Bosland, Pierre; Devanz, Guillaume; Renard, Bertrand; Olivier, Gilles; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2014-01-29</p> <p>The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a multi-disciplinary research centre under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. This new facility is funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries and is expected to be up to 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities and neutron sources. The ESS will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. A 5 MW long pulse proton accelerator is used to reach this goal. The pulsed length is 2.86 ms, the repetition frequency is 14 Hz (4 % duty cycle), and the beam current is 62.5 mA. The superconducting section of the Linac accelerates the beam from 80 MeV to 2.0 GeV. It is composed of one string of spoke cavity cryomodule and two strings of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cavity cryomodules. These cryomodules contain four <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> Niobium cavities operating at 2 K and at a frequency of 704.42 MHz. This paper introduces the thermo-mechanical design, the prototyping and the expected operation of the ESS <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cavity cryomodules. An <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Cavity Cryomodule Technology Demonstrator (ECCTD) will be built and tested in order to validate the ESS series production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=non-linear+AND+differential+AND+equations&id=EJ770453','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=non-linear+AND+differential+AND+equations&id=EJ770453"><span>Fourier Series and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fay, Temple H.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=angular+AND+momentum&pg=2&id=EJ852869','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=angular+AND+momentum&pg=2&id=EJ852869"><span>Energy and the <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nettles, Bill</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In the January 2007 issue of "The Physics Teacher," Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fourier&pg=6&id=EJ770453','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fourier&pg=6&id=EJ770453"><span>Fourier Series and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fay, Temple H.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Non-linear second-order differential equations whose solutions are the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions "sn"("t, k"), "cn"("t, k") and "dn"("t, k") are investigated. Using "Mathematica", high precision numerical solutions are generated. From these data, Fourier coefficients are determined yielding approximate formulas for these non-elementary functions that are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341983','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341983"><span>Mergers in galaxy groups. I. Structure and properties of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> remnants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taranu, Dan S.; Dubinski, John; Yee, H. K. C.</p> <p>2013-11-20</p> <p>We present collisionless simulations of dry mergers in groups of 3 to 25 galaxies to test the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies form at the centers of such groups. Mock observations of the central remnants confirm their similarity to <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, despite having no dissipational component. We vary the profile of the original spiral's bulge and find that <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> formed from spirals with exponential bulges have too low Sersic indices. Mergers of spirals with de Vaucouleurs (classical) bulges produce remnants with larger Sersic indices <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with luminosity, as with Sloan Digital Sky Survey <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. Exponential bulge mergers are better fits to faint <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, whereas classical bulge mergers better match luminous <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. Similarly, luminous <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> are better reproduced by remnants undergoing many (>5) mergers, and fainter <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> by those with fewer mergers. The remnants follow tight size-luminosity and velocity dispersion-luminosity (Faber-Jackson) relations (<0.12 dex scatter), demonstrating that stochastic merging can produce tight scaling relations if the merging galaxies also follow tight scaling relations. The slopes of the size-luminosity and Faber-Jackson relations are close to observations but slightly shallower in the former case. Both relations' intercepts are offset—remnants are too large but have too low dispersions at fixed luminosity. Some remnants show substantial (v/σ > 0.1) rotational support, although most are slow rotators and few are very fast rotators (v/σ > 0.5). These findings contrast with previous studies concluding that dissipation is necessary to produce <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> from binary mergers of spirals. Multiple, mostly minor and dry mergers can produce bright <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, whereas significant dissipation could be required to produce faint, rapidly rotating <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348931','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348931"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> integrals: Symmetry and symbolic integration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carlson, B.C. |</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>Computation of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals, whether numerical or symbolic, has been aided by the contributions of Italian mathematicians. Tricomi had a strong interest in iterative algorithms for computing <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals and other special functions, and his writings on <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals have taught these subjects to many modern readers (including the author). The theory of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals began with Fagnano`s duplication theorem, a generalization of which is now used iteratively for numerical computation in major software libraries. One of Lauricella`s multivariate hypergeometric functions has been found to contain all <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals as special cases and has led to the introduction of symmetric canonical forms. These forms provide major economies in new integral tables and offer a significant advantage also for symbolic integration of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals. Although partly expository the present paper includes some new proofs and proposes a new procedure for symbolic integration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995A%26A...297L..71W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995A%26A...297L..71W"><span>Cold dust in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiklind, T.; Henkel, C.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>We have observed the λ1250 µm flux in 8 <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies using the MPIfR 7-channel bolometer system attachet to the IRAM 30-m telescope. Five of the galaxies are detected at more than 3σ, two are tentatively detected and for one we obtained an upper limit. For two of the detected galaxies, the CO(2-1) line makes a significant contribution to the measured λ1250 µm flux. A comparison of the λ1250 µm fluxes, corrected for the CO(2-1) line contribution, with IRAS 60 and 100µm data shows that there is a colt dust component (Td~<20K) in two of the <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. The other galaxies have λ1250 µm fluxes consistent with a one-temperature component, with Td typically between 20-30K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT.........8B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT.........8B"><span>Counterrotating cores in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcella, Marc Comas</p> <p></p> <p>The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-<span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy was studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the pin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an <span class="hlt">elliptical-elliptical</span> merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22712105Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22712105Y"><span>The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Lyα Profile Reconstructions and UV, X-ray, and Optical <span class="hlt">Correlations</span> of Low-mass Exoplanet Host Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>UV stellar radiation can significantly impact planetary atmospheres through heating and photochemistry, even regulating production of potential biomarkers. Cool stars emit the majority of their UV radiation in the form of emission lines, and the incident UV radiation on close-in habitable-zone planets is significant. Lyα (1215.67 Å) dominates the 912 - 3200 Å spectrum of cool stars, but strong absorption from the interstellar medium (ISM) makes direct observations of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> Lyα emission of even nearby stars challenging. The MUSCLES Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Survey (Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems) has completed observations of 7 M and 4 K stars hosting exoplanets (d < 22 pc) with simultaneous X-ray and ground-based optical spectroscopy for many of the targets. We have reconstructed the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> Lyα profiles using an MCMC technique and used the results to estimate the extreme ultraviolet (100 - 911 Å) spectrum. We also present empirical relations between chromospheric UV and optical lines, e.g., Lyα, Mg II, Ca II H & K, and Hα, for use when direct UV observations of low-mass exoplanet host stars are not possible. The spectra presented here will be made publicly available through MAST to support exoplanet atmosphere modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8897210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8897210"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Fourier analysis of mandibular shape.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Guazzi, M; Serrao, G</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Craniofacial growth and development involve both size and shape variations. Shape variations can be assessed independently from size using mathematical methods such as the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Fourier analysis, which allows a global evaluation of the shape of organs identified by their outlines independently from size, spatial orientation, and relation to reference planes. The mandibular outlines were digitized from the tracings of the Bolton standards (lateral view) from 1 to 18 years of age, and the age differences in shape independently from size were quantified using the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Fourier series. A "morphologic distance" MD (i.e., a measurement of differences in shape) between each younger mandible and the oldest one was computed using the relevant Fourier coefficients like the cartesian coordinates in standard metric measurements. MD equals 0 when the profiles are identical. MD (Y) between the Bolton standard at 18 years of age and all the other Bolton tracings were significantly <span class="hlt">correlated</span> (<span class="hlt">correlation</span> coefficient r = 0.987, P < or = 0.001) with age (X) (semi-logarithmic interpolation Y = -3.87.log(e) X + 13.593). Differences between the size-independent shape of the Bolton standard at 18 years and the relevant plot at 1 year were located at the chin, gonion, coronoid process, anterior border of the ramus. Size differences were measured from the areas enclosed by the mandibular outlines. Mandibular area (Y) increased about 2.58 times from 1 to 18 years of age (X) (Y = -0.071.X2 + 4.917.X + 35.904, r = 0.997, P < or = 0.001). The shape effect was largely overwhelmed by the very evident size increments, and it could be measured only using the proper mathematical methods. The method developed could also be applied to the comparison between healthy and diseased individuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMP....57j3302K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMP....57j3302K"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Bessel processes and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Dyson models realized as temporally inhomogeneous processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katori, Makoto</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Bessel process with parameter D > 1 and the Dyson model of interacting Brownian motions with coupling constant β > 0 are extended to the processes in which the drift term and the interaction terms are given by the logarithmic derivatives of Jacobi's theta functions. They are called the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Bessel process, eBES(D), and the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Dyson model, eDYS(β), respectively. Both are realized on the circumference of a circle [0, 2πr) with radius r > 0 as temporally inhomogeneous processes defined in a finite time interval [0, t∗), t∗ < ∞. Transformations of them to Schrödinger-type equations with time-dependent potentials lead us to proving that eBES(D) and eDYS(β) can be constructed as the time-dependent Girsanov transformations of Brownian motions. In the special cases where D = 3 and β = 2, observables of the processes are defined and the processes are represented for them using the Brownian paths winding round a circle and pinned at time t∗. We show that eDYS(2) has the determinantal martingale representation for any observable. Then it is proved that eDYS(2) is determinantal for all observables for any finite initial configuration without multiple points. Determinantal processes are stochastic integrable systems in the sense that all spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">correlation</span> functions are given by determinants controlled by a single continuous function called the spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">correlation</span> kernel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SIGMA..10..021S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SIGMA..10..021S"><span>Commutative Families of the <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Macdonald Operator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saito, Yosuke</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In the paper [J. Math. Phys. 50 (2009), 095215, 42 pages], Feigin, Hashizume, Hoshino, Shiraishi, and Yanagida constructed two families of commuting operators which contain the Macdonald operator (commutative families of the Macdonald operator). They used the Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the trigonometric Feigin-Odesskii algebra. In the previous paper [arXiv:1301.4912], the present author constructed the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the free field realization of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Macdonald operator. In this paper, we show that by using the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Ding-Iohara-Miki algebra and the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Feigin-Odesskii algebra, we can construct commutative families of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Macdonald operator. In Appendix, we will show a relation between the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Macdonald operator and its kernel function by the free field realization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047891&hterms=dark+matter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bmatter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047891&hterms=dark+matter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddark%2Bmatter"><span>Dark matter in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047891&hterms=Dark+matter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bmatter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047891&hterms=Dark+matter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DDark%2Bmatter"><span>Dark matter in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........65B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........65B"><span>Counterrotating Cores in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcells, Marc Comas</p> <p></p> <p>The dynamics of the merger between a high- and a low-luminosity <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy has been studied to understand how kinematically peculiar cores in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies might form. Numerical simulations of mergers provide rotation curves, surface density profiles, surface density contour plots and velocity maps of the merger remnants, as well as diagnostics on the dynamics such as phase-space diagrams. This type of merger can create counterrotating cores. The core of the smaller galaxy, of higher density, is not disrupted by the primary tidal field and sinks to the center of the primary as an independent dynamical subsystem. Core counterrotation occurs only when the initial merger orbit is retrograde with respect to the spin of the primary. The remnant has higher effective radius and lower mean central surface density than the primary galaxy, but a smaller core radius. The adsorption of orbital energy and angular momentum by the primary particles greatly modifies the kinematic structure of the larger galaxy. Twisted rotation axes and isophote twists appear over the whole body of the remnant. These diagnostics may be used to determine whether observed peculiar cores might have formed via an <span class="hlt">elliptical-elliptical</span> merger. Galaxies with counterrotating cores should show a complex velocity field, isophotal irregularities, and, in general, a slow rotation in the main body of the galaxy. The present experiments are the first galaxy-satellite merger experiments involving an active, rotating secondary. They show that part of the orbital angular momentum is absorbed by the secondary, thus the secondary contributes to its own sinking: the sinking rate depends on the orientation of the secondary spin. Long-slit spectroscopic observations of NGC 3656 are reported. Rotation curves indicate that NGC 3656 contains a core spinning in a direction perpendicular to the rotation in the main body of the galaxy. Velocity reversals at intermediate radii are also observed. These features</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..95a4913G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..95a4913G"><span>Skewness of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow fluctuations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Giacalone, Giuliano; Yan, Li; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations, we find that the fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow (v2) in the reaction plane have a negative skew. We compare the skewness of v2 fluctuations to that of initial eccentricity fluctuations. We show that skewness is the main effect lifting the degeneracy between higher-order cumulants, with negative skew corresponding to the hierarchy v2{4 } >v2{6 } observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We describe how the skewness can be measured experimentally and show that hydrodynamics naturally reproduces its magnitude and centrality dependence.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92e3850F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvA..92e3850F"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> solitons in optical fiber media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fandio Jubgang, Défi, Jr.; Dikandé, Alain M.; Sunda-Meya, A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We examine the evolution of a time-varying perturbation signal pumped into a monomode fiber in the anomalous dispersion regime. We establish analytically that the perturbation evolves into a conservative pattern of periodic pulses whose structures and profiles share a close similarity with the so-called soliton-crystal states recently observed in fiber media [see, e.g., A. Haboucha et al., Phys. Rev. A 78, 043806 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.043806; D. Y. Tang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.153904; F. Amrani et al., Opt. Express 19, 13134 (2011), 10.1364/OE.19.013134]. We derive mathematically and generate numerically a crystal of solitons using time-division multiplexing of identical pulses. We suggest that at very fast pumping rates, the pulse signals overlap and create an unstable signal that is modulated by the fiber nonlinearity to become a periodic lattice of pulse solitons that can be described by <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions. We carry out a linear stability analysis of the soliton-crystal structure and establish that the <span class="hlt">correlation</span> of centers of mass of interacting pulses broadens their internal-mode spectrum, some modes of which are mutually degenerate. While it has long been known that high-intensity periodic pulse trains in optical fibers are generated from the phenomenon of modulational instability of continuous waves, the present study provides evidence that they can also be generated via temporal multiplexing of an infinitely large number of equal-intensity single pulses to give rise to stable <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> solitons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASSL..418...15M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ASSL..418...15M"><span>The <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Shape of Galaxy Bulges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Méndez-Abreu, Jairo</p> <p></p> <p>The knowledge of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> three-dimensional (3D) structure of galaxy components provides crucial information about the physical processes driving their formation and evolution. In this paper I discuss the main developments and results in the quest to better understand the 3D shape of galaxy bulges. I start by establishing the basic geometrical description of the problem. Our understanding of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shape of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and galaxy discs is then presented in a historical context, in order to place the role that the 3D structure of bulges play in the broader picture of galaxy evolution. Our current view on the 3D shape of the Milky Way bulge and future prospects in the field are also depicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.211..107M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.211..107M"><span>3-D sensitivity kernels of the Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maupin, Valérie</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the Rayleigh wave at the surface depends on the seismic structure beneath and in the vicinity of the seismological station where it is measured. We derive here the expression and compute the 3-D kernels that describe this dependence with respect to S-wave velocity, P-wave velocity and density. Near-field terms as well as coupling to Love waves are included in the expressions. We show that the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> kernels are the difference between the amplitude kernels of the radial and vertical components of motion. They show maximum values close to the station, but with a complex pattern, even when smoothing in a finite-frequency range is used to remove the oscillatory pattern present in mono-frequency kernels. In order to follow the usual data processing flow, we also compute and analyse the kernels of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> averaged over incoming wave backazimuth. The kernel with respect to P-wave velocity has the simplest lateral variation and is in good agreement with commonly used 1-D kernels. The kernels with respect to S-wave velocity and density are more complex and we have not been able to find a good <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between the 3-D and 1-D kernels. Although it is clear that the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> is mostly sensitive to the structure within half-a-wavelength of the station, the complexity of the kernels within this zone prevents simple approximations like a depth dependence times a lateral variation to be useful in the inversion of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...588A..79L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...588A..79L"><span>Isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in the local Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacerna, I.; Hernández-Toledo, H. M.; Avila-Reese, V.; Abonza-Sane, J.; del Olmo, A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Context. We have studied a sample of 89 very isolated, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies at z < 0.08 and compared their properties with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies located in a high-density environment such as the Coma supercluster. Aims: Our aim is to probe the role of environment on the morphological transformation and quenching of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies as a function of mass. In addition, we elucidate the nature of a particular set of blue and star-forming isolated <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> identified here. Methods: We studied physical properties of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, such as color, specific star formation rate, galaxy size, and stellar age, as a function of stellar mass and environment based on SDSS data. We analyzed the blue and star-forming isolated <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> in more detail, through photometric characterization using GALFIT, and infer their star formation history using STARLIGHT. Results: Among the isolated <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> ≈20% are blue, ≲8% are star forming, and ≈10% are recently quenched, while among the Coma <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> ≈8% are blue and just ≲1% are star forming or recently quenched. There are four isolated galaxies (≈4.5%) that are blue and star forming at the same time. These galaxies, with masses between 7 × 109 and 2 × 1010 h-2 M⊙, are also the youngest galaxies with light-weighted stellar ages ≲1 Gyr and exhibit bluer colors toward the galaxy center. Around 30-60% of their present-day luminosity, but only <5% of their present-day mass, is due to star formation in the last 1 Gyr. Conclusions: The processes of morphological transformation and quenching seem to be in general independent of environment since most of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are "red and dead", although the transition to the red sequence should be faster for isolated <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. In some cases, the isolated environment seems to propitiate the rejuvenation of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> by recent (<1 Gyr) cold gas accretion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........29I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT........29I"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> constructions of hyperkahler metrics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ionas, Radu Aurelian</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation we develop a twistor-theoretic method of constructing hyperkahler metrics from holomorphic functions and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> curves. We obtain, among other things, new results concerning the Atiyah-Hitchin manifold, asymptotically locally Euclidean spaces of type Dn and certain Swann bundles. For example, in the Atiyah-Hitchin case we derive in an explicit holomorphic coordinate basis closed-form formulas for the metric, the holomorphic symplectic form and all three Kahler potentials. The equation describing an asymptotically locally Euclidean space of type Dn is found to admit an algebraic formulation in terms of the group law on a Weierstrass cubic. This curve has the structure of a Cayley cubic for a pencil generated by two transversal plane conics, that is, it takes the form Y2 = det( A+XB ), where A and B are the defining 3 x 3 matrices of the conics. In this light, the equation can be interpreted as the closure condition for an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> billiard trajectory tangent to the conic B and bouncing into various conics of the pencil determined by the positions of the monopoles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995RScI...66.1895H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995RScI...66.1895H"><span>Advanced Light Source <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Minamihara, Y.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>A 3.5-m-long <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler, optimized to produce <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized light in the 50 eV to 10 keV range, is currently under design and construction at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Calculations of spectral performance show that the flux of circularly polarized photons exceeds 1013 photons/s over the 50 eV to 10 keV operating range for current of 0.4 A and 1.5 GeV electron energy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 141/2 periods, respectively. The period length is 20.0 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent magnet design with tapered pole tips that produce a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal structure is an iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally 1/4 period, that is tucked between the upper and lower vertical magnetic structure sections. A maximum peak oscillating field of 0.095 T at a frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current waveform. The vacuum chamber is an unconventional design that is removable from the magnetic structure, after magnetic measurements, for UHV processing. The chamber is fabricated from non-magnetic stainless steel to minimize the effects of eddy currents. Device design is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhB.910..431O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhB.910..431O"><span>Matrix factorizations and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> fibrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Omer, Harun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU (5) fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011768','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910011768"><span>Pressure algorithm for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow calculations with the PDF method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple <span class="hlt">correlations</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840020446','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840020446"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> orbit performance computer program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Myler, T. R.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A FORTRAN coded computer program which generates and plots <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit performance capability of space boosters for presentation purposes is described. Orbital performance capability of space boosters is typically presented as payload weight as a function of perigee and apogee altitudes. The parameters are derived from a parametric computer simulation of the booster flight which yields the payload weight as a function of velocity and altitude at insertion. The process of converting from velocity and altitude to apogee and perigee altitude and plotting the results as a function of payload weight is mechanized with the ELOPE program. The program theory, user instruction, input/output definitions, subroutine descriptions and detailed FORTRAN coding information are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059469','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059469"><span>Thermopile detector of light <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lu, Feng; Lee, Jongwon; Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Belkin, Mikhail A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Polarimetric imaging is widely used in applications from material analysis to biomedical diagnostics, vision and astronomy. The degree of circular polarization, or light <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, is associated with the S3 Stokes parameter which is defined as the difference in the intensities of the left- and right-circularly polarized components of light. Traditional way of determining this parameter relies on using several external optical elements, such as polarizers and wave plates, along with conventional photodetectors, and performing at least two measurements to distinguish left- and right-circularly polarized light components. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a thermopile photodetector element that provides bipolar voltage output directly proportional to the S3 Stokes parameter of the incident light. PMID:27703152</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JCoPh.100..409K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JCoPh.100..409K"><span>A Robust <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Grid Generator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knupp, Patrick M.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>A variational principle is proposed that results in a robust <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> grid generator having many of the strengths of original Winslow or homogeneous Thompson-Thames-Mastin method (hTTM). The new grid generator places grid lines more uniformly over the domain than does hTTM, without loss of orthogonality. Numerically generated examples are given to demonstrate these effects. Grid quality measures are introduced to quantify differences between discrete grids. Both the hTTM and the new grid generator can generate folded grids on certain pathological regions, but overall they are very robust. Grid weighting for solution-adaptive calculations is briefly considered. Generalization of the new method to surface and volume grid generation is straightforward.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900024602&hterms=ANTOLOVICH&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DANTOLOVICH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900024602&hterms=ANTOLOVICH&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DANTOLOVICH"><span>The <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between the temperature dependence of the CRSS and the formation of superlattice-<span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> stacking faults in the nickel-base superalloy PWA 1480. [critical resolved shear stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Milligan, Walter W.; Antolovich, Stephen D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The PWA 1480 nickel-base superalloy is known to exhibit a unique minimum in the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) at about 400 C. This paper reports an observation of a deformation mechanism whose temperature dependence <span class="hlt">correlates</span> exactly with the reduction in the CRSS. It was found that, after monotonic or cyclic deformation of PWA 1480 at 20 C, the deformation substructures typically contain high density of superlattice-<span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> stacking faults (S-ISFs) within the gamma-prime precipitates. As the temperature of deformation is increased, the density of S-ISFs is reduced, until finally no faults are observed after deformation in the range from 400 to 705 C. The reduction in the fault density corresponds exactly to the reduction in the CRSS, and the temperature at which the fault density is zero corresponds with the minimum in the CRRS. Two possible mechanisms related to the presence of the S-ISFs in the alloy are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8117727','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8117727"><span>Influence of substrates and MgADP on the time-resolved <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> fluorescence of phosphofructokinase from Escherichia coli. <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> of tryptophan dynamics to coupling entropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnson, J L; Reinhart, G D</p> <p>1994-03-08</p> <p>The influence of that MgADP and the substrate ligands MgATP and fructose 6-phosphate (Fru-6-P) have on the structure of E. coli phosphofructokinase (PFK) in the vicinity of the single tryptophan that exists in each subunit has been examined by employing both steady-state and time-resolved measurements of the tryptophan fluorescence. The accessibility of the tryptophan to iodide quenching is over 1 order of magnitude less than experienced by N-acetyltryptophanamide in solution but varies nonetheless with the state of ligation. Most, but not all, of these changes <span class="hlt">correlate</span> with changes in the degree of local motion available to the tryptophan side chain as determined by steady-state and time-resolved polarization measurements. When the data obtained from differential polarization experiments are fit to a model in which the motion of the tryptophan side chain is able to move with high frequency within a cone of limited amplitude as part of an otherwise slowly tumbling spherical protein, it was found that ligands primarily affect the amplitude of the available local motion. By interpreting these effects with reference to the disproportionation equilibria which define the negative coupling free energy between MgADP and Fru-6-P and the positive coupling free energy between MgADP and MgATP, it is apparent that changes in the local motion amplitudes <span class="hlt">correlate</span> with the sign of the component coupling entropy previously determined from van't Hoff analyses (Johnson & Reinhart, 1994).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.219...87H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.219...87H"><span>Sampling random directions within an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hall, D. C.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>This work extends the spherical surface sampling algorithm in order to uniformly generate random directions within an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cone. This has applications in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations, for example modeling asymmetric beam divergence or scattering interactions. Two methods are presented. The first obeys the strict boundary of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cone. The second relaxes this requirement, increasing the range of generated directions by up to 10% for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cones of extreme eccentricity. However, the second method is able to generate directions beyond the equator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA625578','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA625578"><span>On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Carmichael</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-27</p> <p>On Fibonacci numbers which are <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Carmichael Florian Luca School of Mathematics University of the Witwatersrand P. O. Box Wits 2050, South...CM <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> curve with CM field different from Q( √ −1), then the set of n for which the nth Fibonacci number Fn is <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Carmichael for E is of...number. 1. REPORT DATE 27 DEC 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28757651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28757651"><span>Sampling random directions within an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hall, D C</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>This work extends the spherical surface sampling algorithm in order to uniformly generate random directions within an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cone. This has applications in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations, for example modeling asymmetric beam divergence or scattering interactions. Two methods are presented. The first obeys the strict boundary of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cone. The second relaxes this requirement, increasing the range of generated directions by up to 10% for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cones of extreme eccentricity. However, the second method is able to generate directions beyond the equator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019196','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800019196"><span>Stresses and deformations in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamrock, B. J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Topics presented deal with defining conformal and nonconformal surfaces, curvature sum and difference, and surface and subsurface stresses in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts. Load-deflection relationships for nonconformal contacts are developed. The deformation within the contact is, among other things, a function of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> parameter and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals of the first and second kinds. Simplified expressions that allow quick calculations of the deformation to be made simply from a knowledge of the applied load, the material properties, and the geometry of the contacting elements are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBC...2650095K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBC...2650095K"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions with Disconnected Julia Sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koss, Lorelei</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, we investigate <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions of the form fΛ = 1/(1 + (℘Λ)2), where ℘Λ is the Weierstrass <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> function on a real rhombic lattice. We show that a typical function in this family has a superattracting fixed point at the origin and five other equivalence classes of critical points. We investigate conditions on the lattice which guarantee that fΛ has a double toral band, and we show that this family contains the first known examples of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions for which the Julia set is disconnected but not Cantor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25058429"><span>Lytic gene expression is frequent in HSV-1 latent infection and <span class="hlt">correlates</span> with the engagement of a cell-<span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> transcriptional response.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Joel Z; Russell, Tiffany A; Spelman, Tim; Carbone, Francis R; Tscharke, David C</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are significant human pathogens that provide one of the best-described examples of viral latency and reactivation. HSV latency occurs in sensory neurons, being characterized by the absence of virus replication and only fragmentary evidence of protein production. In mouse models, HSV latency is especially stable but the detection of some lytic gene transcription and the ongoing presence of activated immune cells in latent ganglia have been used to suggest that this state is not entirely quiescent. Alternatively, these findings can be interpreted as signs of a low, but constant level of abortive reactivation punctuating otherwise silent latency. Using single cell analysis of transcription in mouse dorsal root ganglia, we reveal that HSV-1 latency is highly dynamic in the majority of neurons. Specifically, transcription from areas of the HSV genome associated with at least one viral lytic gene occurs in nearly two thirds of latently-infected neurons and more than half of these have RNA from more than one lytic gene locus. Further, bioinformatics analyses of host transcription showed that progressive appearance of these lytic transcripts <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with alterations in expression of cellular genes. These data show for the first time that transcription consistent with lytic gene expression is a frequent event, taking place in the majority of HSV latently-infected neurons. Furthermore, this transcription is of biological significance in that it influences host gene expression. We suggest that the maintenance of HSV latency involves an active host response to frequent viral activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AJ....151..165L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AJ....151..165L"><span>Radial Motions in Disk Stars: <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span> or Secular Flows?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>López-Corredoira, M.; González-Fernández, C.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Average stellar orbits of the Galactic disk may have some small <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> which breaks the exact axisymmetry and there may also be some migration of stars inwards or outwards. Both phenomena can be detected through kinematic analyses. We use the red clump stars selected spectroscopically from the APO Galactic Evolution Experiment, with known distances and radial velocities, to measure the radial component of the Galactocentric velocities within 5 kpc < R < 16 kpc, | b| \\lt 5^\\circ , and within 20° from the Sun-Galactic center line. The average Galactocentric radial velocity is VR = (1.48 ± 0.35)[R(kpc) - (8.8 ± 2.7)] km s-1 outwards in the explored range, with a higher contribution from stars below the Galactic plane. Two possible explanations can be given for this result: (i) the mean orbit of the disk stars is <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> with a Galactocentric radial gradient of eccentricity around 0.01 kpc-1 or (ii) there is a net secular expansion of the disk, in which stars within R ≈ 9-11 kpc are migrating to the region R ≳ 11 kpc at the rate of ˜2 M⊙ yr-1, and stars with R ≲ 9 kpc are falling toward the center of the Galaxy. This migration ratio would be unattainable for a long time and should decelerate, otherwise the Galaxy would fade away in around 1 Gyr. At present, both hypotheses are speculative and one would need data on the Galactocentric radial velocities for other azimuths different to the center or anticenter in order to confirm one of the scenarios.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035159&hterms=Aachen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DAachen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035159&hterms=Aachen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DAachen"><span>The noise from supersonic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents calculations of the noise radiated by a supersonic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet. The large scale structures in the jet, that are the predominant source of noise in the downstream direction, are modeled as instability waves. The evolution of the instability waves is determined by a local, linear, inviscid analysis. An expression is derived for the acoustic field outside the jet and the far field directivity associated with each instability wave. Calculations are performed for a Mach 1.5 <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet with aspect ratio 3:1. The mean flow development is taken from experimental results. Comparisons are made with far field acoustic measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26406663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26406663"><span>Spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beam in nonlocal nonlinear media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi; Cheng, Wenjing; Yin, Naiqiang; Wu, Ping; Cao, Hongmin</p> <p>2015-09-21</p> <p>Analytically discussed is the dynamical properties of the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams in nonlocal nonlinear media. This class of spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams carry the orbital angular momentum (OAM), and can rotate on the cross section perpendicular to the propagation direction during the propagations. The optical intensity, the beam width, and specially the angular velocity are both analytically and numerically discussed in details. We shown that both the deviations from the critical power and the deviations from the critical OAM can make the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams breathe. The decrease (increase) of the OAM or the increase (decrease) of the power can both make the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> breathers contract (diffract), however, there still exist differences between them. The rotating speed can be changed by the input optical power or the input OAM, which may have potential applications in the controlling of the optical beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9358446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9358446"><span>Theory of the quadrature <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> birdcage coil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leifer, M C</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>This paper presents the theory of the quadrature birdcage coil wound on an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylindrical former. A conformal transformation of the ellipse to a circular geometry is used to derive the optimal sampling of the continuous surface current distribution to produce uniform magnetic fields within an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinder. The analysis is rigorous for ellipses of any aspect ratio and shows how to produce quadrature operation of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> birdcage with a conventional hybrid combiner. Insight gained from the transformation is also used to analyze field homogeneity, find the optimal RF shield shape, and specify component values to produce the correct current distribution in practice. Measurements and images from a 16-leg <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> birdcage coil at both low and high frequencies show good quadrature performance, homogeneity, and sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035159&hterms=aachen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Daachen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930035159&hterms=aachen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Daachen"><span>The noise from supersonic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Morris, Philip J.; Bhat, Thonse R. S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents calculations of the noise radiated by a supersonic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet. The large scale structures in the jet, that are the predominant source of noise in the downstream direction, are modeled as instability waves. The evolution of the instability waves is determined by a local, linear, inviscid analysis. An expression is derived for the acoustic field outside the jet and the far field directivity associated with each instability wave. Calculations are performed for a Mach 1.5 <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet with aspect ratio 2:1 and a Mach 2.0 <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet with aspect ratio 3:1. The mean flow development is taken from experimental results. Comparisons are made with far field acoustic measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApJ...622..235T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApJ...622..235T"><span>The Ages of <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies from Mid-Infrared Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Temi, Pasquale; Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The mid-infrared (10-20 μm) luminosity of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies is dominated by the integrated emission from circumstellar dust in red giant stars. As a single stellar population evolves, the rate of dusty mass loss from red giant stars decreases with time, so the mid-infrared luminosity should also decline with stellar age. To seek such a <span class="hlt">correlation</span>, we have used archival Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations to determine surface brightness profiles and central fluxes at 15 μm in 17 early-type galaxies for which stellar ages have been determined from optical spectral indices. The radial surface brightness distributions at 15 μm generally follow the stellar de Vaucouleurs profile, as expected. We find that the surface brightness ratio μ15μm/μIband is systematically higher in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with ages <~5 Gyr and in galaxies that exhibit evidence of recent mergers. Within the accuracy of our observations, μ15μm/μIband shows no age dependence for ages >~5 Gyr. The corresponding flux ratios F15μm/FIband within apertures scaled to the effective radius (Re/8) are proportional to the μ15μm/μIband ratios at larger galactic radii, indicating that no 15 μm emission is detected from central dust clouds visible in optical images in some of our sample galaxies. Emission at 15 μm is observed in noncentral massive clouds of dust and cold gas in NGC 1316, an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy that is thought to have had a recent merger. Recent Spitzer Space Telescope data also indicate the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 8 μm. Several <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> have extended regions of 15 μm emission that have no obvious counterparts at other frequencies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JMP....34.2257C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JMP....34.2257C"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> billiards and hyperelliptic functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crespi, Bruno; Chang, Shau-Jin; Shi, Kang-Jie</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>The geometrical properties of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> billiard system are related to Poncelet's theorem. This theorem states that if a polygon is inscribed in a conic and circumscribed about a second conic, every point of the former conic is a vertex of a polygon with the same number of sides and the same perimeter. Chang and Friedberg have extended this theorem to three and higher dimensions. They have shown that the geometrical properties of the hyperelliptic billiard system are related to the algebraic character of a Poincaré map in the phase space. The geometrical and algebraic properties of the system can be understood in terms of the analytical structure of the equations of motion. These equations form a complete system of Abelian integrals. The integrability of the physical system is reflected by the topology of the Riemann surfaces associated to these integrals. The algebraic properties are connected with the existence of addition formulas for hyperelliptic functions. The main purpose of this study is to establish such a connection, and to provide an algebraic proof of Poncelet's theorem in three and higher dimensions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810004847','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810004847"><span>Elastohydrodynamic lubrication of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamrock, B. J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The determination of the minimum film thickness within contact is considered for both fully flooded and starved conditions. A fully flooded conjunction is one in which the film thickness is not significantly changed when the amount of lubricant is increased. The fully flooded results presented show the influence of contact geometry on minimum film thickness as expressed by the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> parameter and the dimensionless speed, load, and materials parameters. These results are applied to materials of high elastic modulus (hard EHL), such as metal, and to materials of low elastic modulus(soft EHL), such as rubber. In addition to the film thickness equations that are developed, contour plots of pressure and film thickness are given which show the essential features of elastohydrodynamically lubricated conjunctions. The crescent shaped region of minimum film thickness, with its side lobes in which the separation between the solids is a minimum, clearly emerges in the numerical solutions. In addition to the 3 presented for the fully flooded results, 15 more cases are used for hard EHL contacts and 18 cases are used for soft EHL contacts in a theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure. From the starved results for both hard and soft EHL contacts, a simple and important dimensionless inlet boundary distance is specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA581793','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA581793"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Acoustic Particle Motion in Underwater Waveguides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-03-27</p> <p>source/receiver geometry. In waveguides with nearly horizontal boundaries, the vertical component of the instantaneous intensity can be used to provide an...cause a phase modu- lation of the vertical component of the particle velocity with resulting <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> particle motion in the vertical plane. This...<span class="hlt">elliptical</span> motion in the vertical plane can be approximated by vertical line array of closely spaced pressure sensors. We demonstrate in this paper how the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMP....51c2901F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMP....51c2901F"><span>Pendulum, <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions, and relative cohomology classes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Françoise, J.-P.; Garrido, P. L.; Gallavotti, G.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Revisiting canonical integration of the classical pendulum around its unstable equilibrium, normal hyperbolic canonical coordinates are constructed and an identity between <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions is found whose proof can be based on symplectic geometry and global relative cohomology. Alternatively it can be reduced to a well known identity between <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions. Normal canonical action-angle variables are also constructed around the stable equilibrium and a corresponding identity is exhibited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EAS....20..139M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EAS....20..139M"><span>Kinematical and Dynamical Modeling of <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mamon, G. A.; Łokas, E.; Dekel, A.; Stoehr, F.; Cox, T. J.</p> <p></p> <p>Elements of kinematical and dynamical modeling of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are presented. In projection, NFW models resemble Sérsic models, but with a very narrow range of shapes (m=3±1). The total density profile of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> cannot be NFW-like because the predicted local M/L and aperture velocity dispersion within an effective radius (R_e) are much lower than observed. Stars must then dominate <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> out to a few R_e. Fitting an NFW model to the total density profile of Sérsic+NFW (stars+dark matter [DM]) <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> results in very high concentration parameters, as found by X-ray observers. Kinematical modeling of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> assuming an isotropic NFW DM model underestimates M/L at the virial radius by a factor of 1.6 to 2.4, because dissipationless ΛCDM halos have slightly different density profiles and slightly radial velocity anisotropy. In N-body+gas simulations of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> as merger remnants of spirals embedded in DM halos, the slope of the DM density profile is steeper when the initial spiral galaxies are gas-rich. The Hansen & Moore (2006) relation between anisotropy and the slope of the density profile breaks down for gas and DM, but the stars follow an analogous relation with slightly less radial anisotropies for a given density slope. Using kurtosis (h_4) to infer anisotropy in <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> is dangerous, as h4 is also sensitive to small levels of rotation. The stationary Jeans equation provides accurate masses out to 8 R_e. The discrepancy between the modeling of Romanowsky et al. (2003), indicating a dearth of DM in <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, and the simulations analyzed by Dekel et al. (2005), which match the spectroscopic observations of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, is partly due to radial anisotropy and to observing oblate <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> face-on. However, one of the 15 solutions to the orbit modeling of Romanowsky et al. is found to have an amount and concentration of DM consistent with ΛCDM predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SuScT..30c3001S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SuScT..30c3001S"><span>Fabrication of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> SRF cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singer, W.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArRMA.219..255A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ArRMA.219..255A"><span>Lipschitz Regularity for <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Equations with Random Coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Scott N.; Mourrat, Jean-Christophe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We develop a higher regularity theory for general quasilinear <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations and systems in divergence form with random coefficients. The main result is a large-scale L ∞-type estimate for the gradient of a solution. The estimate is proved with optimal stochastic integrability under a one-parameter family of mixing assumptions, allowing for very weak mixing with non-integrable <span class="hlt">correlations</span> to very strong mixing (for example finite range of dependence). We also prove a quenched L 2 estimate for the error in homogenization of Dirichlet problems. The approach is based on subadditive arguments which rely on a variational formulation of general quasilinear divergence-form equations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28360212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28360212"><span><span class="hlt">Correlation</span> of (18)F-FDG PET and MRI Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Histogram Metrics with Survival in Diffuse <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Pontine Glioma: A Report from the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zukotynski, Katherine A; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Fahey, Frederic H; Kocak, Mehmet; Brown, Douglas; Ricci, Kelsey I; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Fouladi, Maryam; Poussaint, Tina Young</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to describe baseline (18)F-FDG PET voxel characteristics in pediatric diffuse <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> pontine glioma (DIPG) and to <span class="hlt">correlate</span> these metrics with baseline MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram metrics, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival. Methods: Baseline brain (18)F-FDG PET and MRI scans were obtained in 33 children from Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium clinical DIPG trials. (18)F-FDG PET images, postgadolinium MR images, and ADC MR images were registered to baseline fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images. Three-dimensional regions of interest on fluid attenuation inversion recovery MR images and postgadolinium MR images and (18)F-FDG PET and MR ADC histograms were generated. Metrics evaluated included peak number, skewness, and kurtosis. <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> between PET and MR ADC histogram metrics was evaluated. PET pixel values within the region of interest for each tumor were plotted against MR ADC values. The association of these imaging markers with survival was described. Results: PET histograms were almost always unimodal (94%, vs. 6% bimodal). None of the PET histogram parameters (skewness or kurtosis) had a significant association with PFS, although a higher PET postgadolinium skewness tended toward a less favorable PFS (hazard ratio, 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-16.28 [P = 0.11]). There was a significant association between higher MR ADC postgadolinium skewness and shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.11-5.91 [P = 0.028]), and there was the suggestion that this also led to shorter overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 0.95-5.04 [P = 0.067]). Higher MR ADC postgadolinium kurtosis tended toward shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.98-1.74 [P = 0.073]). PET and MR ADC pixel values were negatively <span class="hlt">correlated</span> using the Pearson <span class="hlt">correlation</span> coefficient. Further, the level of PET and MR ADC <span class="hlt">correlation</span> was significantly positively associated with PFS; tumors with higher</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733900','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3733900"><span>Modeling heterogeneous responsiveness of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> apoptosis pathway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p> molecular numbers. Furthermore, the extrinsic noise represented by random variations of two key apoptotic proteins, namely Cytochrome C and inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP), is modeled separately or in combination with <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> noise. The resultant stochasticity in the timing of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> apoptosis response shows that the fluctuating protein variations can induce cell-to-cell stochastic variability at a quantitative level agreeing with experiments. Finally, simulations illustrate that the mean abundance of fluctuating IAP protein is positively <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with the degree of cellular stochasticity of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> apoptosis pathway. Conclusions Our theoretical and computational study shows that the pronounced non-genetic heterogeneity in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> apoptosis responses among individual cells plausibly arises from extrinsic rather than <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> origin of fluctuations. In addition, it predicts that the IAP protein could serve as a potential therapeutic target for suppression of the cell-to-cell variation in the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> apoptosis responsiveness. PMID:23875784</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ApJ...563..527G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001ApJ...563..527G"><span>Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies in Formation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``<span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SuScT..30j5001N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SuScT..30j5001N"><span>Negative <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between enhanced crossover temperature and fluctuation-free critical current of the second switch in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}_{8+\\delta } <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> Josephson junction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nomura, Y.; Okamoto, R.; Kakeya, I.</p> <p>2017-10-01</p> <p>We have investigated the switching dynamics of the first and second switches in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> Josephson junctions (IJJs) of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}8+δ with different maximum Josephson current density J c to reveal the doping evolution of interaction between IJJs. For the second switch, the crossover temperature between temperature-independent switching similar to quantum tunneling and thermally activated switching {T}2{nd}* is remarkably higher than that for the first switch. Moreover, {T}2{nd}* slightly decreases with increasing J c, which violates the conventional relation between the crossover temperature and the critical current density. These features can be explained not by a change in the Josephson coupling energy but by a change in the charging energy of the Josephson junction. We argue that the capacitive coupling model explains the increase in the fluctuation in the quantum regime of the second switch and the anti-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> between {T}2{nd}* and J c. Furthermore, inductive coupling does not contribute to these peculiar phenomena in the switching dynamics of stacked IJJs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860004486','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860004486"><span>Multigrid solutions to quasi-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brandt, A.; Taasan, S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Quasi-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> schemes arise from central differencing or finite element discretization of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> systems with odd order derivatives on non-staggered grids. They are somewhat unstable and less accurate then corresponding staggered-grid schemes. When usual multigrid solvers are applied to them, the asymptotic algebraic convergence is necessarily slow. Nevertheless, it is shown by mode analyses and numerical experiments that the usual FMG algorithm is very efficient in solving quasi-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations to the level of truncation errors. Also, a new type of multigrid algorithm is presented, mode analyzed and tested, for which even the asymptotic algebraic convergence is fast. The essence of that algorithm is applicable to other kinds of problems, including highly indefinite ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMOp...61.1069J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMOp...61.1069J"><span>Highly confined photonic nanojet from <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jalali, T.; Erni, D.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptically</span> shaped particles with different size and refractive indices have been studied under plane wave illumination using simulation tools such as 2D-FDTD, 2D-MMP, and 3D-MMP. Owing to careful manipulation, the power distribution in the vicinity of the particles opposite boundary resulted in a tightly focused photonic nanojet. Their waists are significantly smaller than the diffraction limit while propagating over several optical wavelengths without significant divergence. In this paper, we report on the manipulation of the particles <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shapes and the underlying refractive indices with respect to a maximally confined power distribution in the resulting nanojet which has been parameterized according to both, the beam waist and the beam divergence. The result that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> particles (i.e. oblate spheroids) turned out to be superior to spherical ones was underpinned within a highly accurate and fast 3D-MMP simulation using ring multipoles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA158265','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA158265"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Nilpotent Approximation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p>RD-A1II58 265 <span class="hlt">INTRINSIC</span> NILPOTENT APPROXIMATION(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST 1/2 OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR INFORMATION AND, DECISION UMCLRSSI SYSTEMS C...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Nilpotent Approximation Technical Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER LIDS-R-1482 7. AUTHOR(.) S...certain infinite-dimensional filtered Lie algebras L by (finite-dimensional) graded nilpotent Lie algebras or g . where x E M, (x,,Z) E T*M/O. It</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=481851','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=481851"><span>Evaluation of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> area technique for calculating mitral blood flow by Doppler echocardiography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goldberg, S J; Dickinson, D F; Wilson, N</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate a method for measuring blood flow through the mitral valve 18 normal subjects and 19 patients with cardiac disease in whom mitral and aortic blood flows were identical were studied. Initially the mitral ring area was planimetered from the echocardiographic image, but the results of area calculation using the mathematical formula for the area of an ellipse were found to approximate to within 8% of the planimetered result in most cases. The formula was therefore used if the ring appeared <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> on the cross sectional echo image, and other shapes were planimetered. Mitral velocity, aligned with flow in three planes, was recorded just distal to the ring. Mitral flow calculated using the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> technique <span class="hlt">correlated</span> closely with flow measured in the ascending aorta by the Doppler technique and also with systemic flow measured by the Fick method at cardiac catheterisation in 10 patients. The mitral flow technique that assumed a circular orifice <span class="hlt">correlated</span> almost as well with Doppler aortic flow and with Fick flow but overestimated flow by a mean of 1446 ml, whereas the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> method had a mean error of only 138 ml. Both methods <span class="hlt">correlated</span> well with standards, but the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> method was easy to apply and gave a better <span class="hlt">correlation</span> with comparison reference values. Images PMID:4015919</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990RScI...61.3738P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990RScI...61.3738P"><span>Line focus of an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cone for an x-ray crystal spectrograph</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillion, D. W.; Hammel, B. A.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>The crystal in any flat crystal x-ray spectrograph with the film plane at any angle and any position may be bent sagittally into an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> conical shape such that a perfect line focus is formed on the film plane for a point source at a fixed location. However, for high spectral resolution, only a narrow strip along the cone can be utilized. This strip will be near the plane formed by the axis of the cone and the source point. The <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cone has mirror symmetry in this plane. The equation of this cone is determined and its properties are discussed. Any conical surface has zero <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> curvature since one of the two principal radii of curvature is zero, so it is no more difficult to bend a crystal to this shape than to a concave circular cylinder with the same principal radius of curvature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..08.3106R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSMTE..08.3106R"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> pfaffians and solvable lattice models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosengren, Hjalmar</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We introduce and study twelve multivariable theta functions defined by pfaffians with <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> function entries. We show that, when the crossing parameter is a cubic root of unity, the domain wall partition function for the eight-vertex-solid-on-solid model can be written as a sum of two of these pfaffians. As a limit case, we express the domain wall partition function for the three-colour model as a sum of two Hankel determinants. We also show that certain solutions of the TQ-equation for the supersymmetric eight-vertex model can be expressed in terms of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> pfaffians.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.M3004A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFD.M3004A"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Particle Clustering in Cellular Flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atis, Severine; Sapsis, Themistoklis; Peacock, Thomas</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The transport of finite-sized objects by fluid flows is relevant to a wide variety of phenomena, such as debris transport on the ocean surface or bacteria advection in fluid environment. The shape of the advected objects can strongly alter their coupling with the surrounding flow field, and hence, greatly affecting their dispersion by the flow. We present the results of investigations of the behavior of neutrally buoyant, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> particles in two-dimensional cellular flows. We find that their trajectories, and overall organization, are markedly different than for spherical particles, with clear clustering for the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> particles associated with vortices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950056918&hterms=brecht&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbrecht','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950056918&hterms=brecht&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbrecht"><span>Consideration of the Martian magnetotail as evidence for an <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brecht, Stephen H.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>It has been suggested by Verigin et al. (1993) that the response of the Martian magnetotail to changes in the solar wind ram pressure indicates the presence of an <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> dipole magnetic field. 3-D hybrid particle simulations of Mars were performed including the magnetotail regions. The simulations are in agreement with published Phobos 2 data from the 3 <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbits and reproduce the magnetopause diameter dependence on the solar wind ram pressure reported by Verigin et al. (1993). However, the simulations were performed with no <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> field present, indicating that the dependence of the magnetotail width on ram pressure, is not a discriminator for the presence of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860015840','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860015840"><span>Metallicity and the level of the ultraviolet rising branch in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Faber, S. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This final report concerns a project to study the systematics of the ultraviolet flux level in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. Prior to the inception of this work, the systematic behavior of the ultraviolet flux level was basically unknown and ultraviolet fluxes were observed to vary greatly from galaxy to galaxy. There was a suggestion, however, that there might be a dependence of ultraviolet flux on galaxy metallicity, but the <span class="hlt">correlation</span> was based on just six galaxies. IUE spectra of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies have been reanalyzed and placed on a consistent, homogenous flux system. The major conclusion is a confirmation of the original hypothesis: galaxies with stronger Mg2 lines show enhanced ultraviolet flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HMT....47...81E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011HMT....47...81E"><span>Experimental study of free convection in an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> annular enclosure in blunt and slender orientations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eid, Eldesouki Ibrahim</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, free convection heat transfer between two <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cylinders having different <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ratios in blunt and slender situations was studied experimentally. Three pairs of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cylinders having the same radius ratio of 2.0, the same surface area and different <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ratios of 0.662, 0.866 and 0.968 were cut using the computed numerically controlled wire-cut machining. The tests were carried out by keeping a constant heat flux on the inner cylinder while cooling the outer one to be isothermal. The effects of vertical eccentricity, lateral eccentricity, angle of attack of the inner cylinder on natural convection for both blunt and slender situations of each pair were investigated. Empirical <span class="hlt">correlation</span> was deduced within an acceptable uncertainty for the experimental results. Compatible and satisfactory to the conscience agreement was found in the comparison among the results of present and previous works. In the vision of the comparison, it was found that; the vertical eccentricity can enhance free convection by about 15% than the concentric case, the horizontal eccentricity can enhance natural convection by about 10% than concentric case and slender situation offers about 40% enhancement in free convection than the blunt situation for the same <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28788731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28788731"><span>Spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> solitons in lossy nonlocal nonlinear media.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Guo; Cheng, Wenjing; Dai, Zhiping; Jia, Tingjian; Wang, Meng; Li, Huangxin</p> <p>2017-05-15</p> <p>We address the propagation dynamics of the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams in nonlocal nonlinear media with losses based on the variational approach. It is found that the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams exhibit complicated behaviors, which result from the combined effects of the losses and orbital angular momentum (OAM). The OAM brings in an effective anisotropic diffraction and rotation for the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams. However, due to the losses, the rotation of the spiraling beams slows down. Besides, the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams is greatly affected by the lossesand the OAM. When the OAM is not equal to its critical value, a periodic oscillation of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> is found in the presence of losses. However, when the OAM is equal to the critical one, the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beam remains unchanged during propagation regardless of the loss factor. The comparisons between our approximate analytic solutions and numerical simulations confirm our results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10134497','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10134497"><span>Buckling of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> rings under uniform external pressure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tang, Y.</p> <p>1991-04-03</p> <p>A thin, elastic <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ring is subjected to uniform external pressure. The lowest critical pressure is computed and presented for various ratio of the major axis to the minor axis of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ring. It is found that the critical pressure for an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ring is higher than that for the circular ring whose diameter is equal to the major axis of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ring. It can be shown that under the same external pressure, the axial force developed in the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ring is less than that developed in the corresponding circular ring. Thus, a higher pressure is required to buckle the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> rings. Therefore, by changing the shape of the ring from circular to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, the capability of the ring to sustain the external pressure can be increased substantially. The results of this study can be useful in the design of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> reinforcing rings and thin-walled tubes subjected to external pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081267','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930081267"><span>Strength Tests of Thin-walled Duralumin Cylinders of <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lundquist, Eugene E; Burke, Walter F</p> <p>1935-01-01</p> <p>This report is the fifth of a series presenting the results of strength tests of thin-walled cylinders and truncated cones of circular and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> section; it includes the results obtained from torsion tests on 30 cylinders, pure bending tests on 30 cylinders, and combined transverse shear and bending tests on 60 cylinders. All the cylinders tested were <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> section with the ends clamped to rigid bulkheads. In the pure bending and combined transverse shear and bending tests the loads were applied in the plane of the major axis. The results of the tests on <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinders are <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with the results of corresponding tests on circular cylinders and are presented in charts suitable for use in design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930050781&hterms=new+galaxy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bgalaxy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930050781&hterms=new+galaxy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bgalaxy"><span>A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Franx, Marijn</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new parameterization for the line profiles of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies, the Gauss-Hermite series, is proposed. This approach expands the line profile as a sum of orthogonal functions which minimizes the <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between the errors in the parameters of the fit. This method also make use of the fact that Gaussians provide good low-order fits to observed line profiles. The method yields measurements of the line strength, mean radial velocity, and the velocity dispersion as well as two extra parameters, h3 and h4, that measure asymmetric and symmetric deviations of the line profiles from a Gaussian, respectively. The new method was used to derive profiles for three <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies which all have asymmetric line profiles on the major axis with symmetric deviations from a Gaussian. Results confirm that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies have complex structures due to their complex formation history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980030781','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980030781"><span>Design of Three-Dimensional Hypersonic Inlets with Rectangular to <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Shape Transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smart, M. K.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A methodology has been devised for the design of three-dimensional hypersonic inlets which include a rectangular to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape transition. This methodology makes extensive use of inviscid streamtracing techniques to generate a smooth shape transition from a rectangular-like capture to an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> throat. Highly swept leading edges and a significantly notched cowl enable use of these inlets in fixed geometry configurations. The design procedure includes a three dimensional displacement thickness calculation and uses established <span class="hlt">correlations</span> to check for boundary layer separation due to shock wave interactions. Complete details of the design procedure are presented and the characteristics of a modular inlet with rectangular to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape transition and a design point of Mach 7.1 are examined. Comparison with a classical two-dimensional inlet optimized for maximum total pressure recovery indicates that this three-dimensional inlet demonstrates good performance even well below its design point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127048','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127048"><span>DIRECT DETECTIONS OF YOUNG STARS IN NEARBY <span class="hlt">ELLIPTICAL</span> GALAXIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ford, H. Alyson; Bregman, Joel N.</p> <p>2013-06-20</p> <p>Small amounts of star formation in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are suggested by several results: surprisingly young ages from optical line indices, cooling X-ray gas, and mid-infrared dust emission. Such star formation has previously been difficult to directly detect, but using ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 imaging, we have identified individual young stars and star clusters in four nearby <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. Ongoing star formation is detected in all galaxies, including three <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> that have previously exhibited potential signposts of star-forming conditions (NGC 4636, NGC 4697, and NGC 4374), as well as the typical ''red and dead'' NGC 3379. The current star formation in our closest targets, where we are most complete, is between 2.0 and 9.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The star formation history was roughly constant from 0.5 to 1.5 Gyr (at (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), but decreased by a factor of several in the past 0.3 Gyr. Most star clusters have a mass between 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The specific star formation rates of {approx}10{sup -16} yr{sup -1} (at the present day) or {approx}10{sup -14} yr{sup -1} (when averaging over the past Gyr) imply that a fraction 10{sup -8} of the stellar mass is younger than 100 Myr and 10{sup -5} is younger than 1 Gyr, quantifying the level of frosting of recent star formation over the otherwise passive stellar population. There is no obvious <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between either the presence or spatial distribution of postulated star formation indicators and the star formation we detect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G11A0964B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G11A0964B"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> polarisation of the Earth polar motion excitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bizouard, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Because of its geophysical interpretation, Earth's polar motion excitation is generally decomposed into prograde (counter-clockwise) and retrograde (clockwise) circular terms at fixed frequency. Yet, these later are commonly considered as specific to the frequency and to the underlying geophysical process, and no study has raised the possibility that they could share features independent from frequency. Complex Fourier Transform permits to determine retrograde and prograde circular terms of the observed excitation and of its atmospheric, oceanic and hydrological counterparts. The total prograde and retrograde parts of these excitations are reconstructed in time domain. Then, complex linear <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between retrograde and conjugate prograde parts is observed for both the geodetic excitation and the matter term of the hydro-atmospheric excitation. In frequency domain, retrograde circular terms present with their corresponding conjugate prograde terms an amplitude ratio following a probabilistic gamma distribution centred around 1.5 (maximum for 1); their phase difference obeys a distribution close to a normal law centred around 2 x 80°. This means an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarisation towards ~80° East with an <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of 0.8, mostly resulting from the matter term of the hydro-atmospheric excitation. Whatsoever the frequency band above 0.4 cpd, the hydro-atmospheric matter term tends to be maximal in the geographic areas surrounding the great meridian circle of longitude ~80° or ~260° East. The favoured retrograde/prograde amplitude ratio around 1.5 or equivalently the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of 0.8 can result from the amplification of pressure waves progragating towards the west by the normal atmospheric mode Ψ31 around 10 days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/205931','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/205931"><span>Differential spectral synthesis with a library of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gregg, M.</p> <p>1995-12-07</p> <p>Spectrophotometry of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies spanning a large rang in luminosity is analyzed for cosmic variations in color and line strength. The results are used to construct a base sequence spectral energy distribution as a function line strength, color, and velocity dispersion, representing old, red, uniform <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy stellar populations. The sequence can be used as the starting point for investigating and modeling the stellar populations of other systems such as dwarf <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, merger remnants, and, eventually, high redshift <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740036752&hterms=polarized+light&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpolarized%2Blight','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740036752&hterms=polarized+light&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpolarized%2Blight"><span>Nomenclature of polarized light - <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Alternative handedness and sign conventions for relating the orientation of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarization are discussed. The discussion proceeds under two headings: (1) snapshot picture, where the emphasis for the convention is contained in the concept of handedness; and (2) angular momentum consideration, where the emphasis for the convention is strongly associated with mathematical convention and the sign of the fourth Stokes parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013337','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790013337"><span>Body tides on an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> rotating earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wahr, J. M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The complete tidal response of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, rotating, elastic Earth is found to contain small displacements which do not fit into the conventional Love number framework. Corresponding observable tidal quantities (gravity, tilt, strain, Eulerian potential, etc.) are modified by the addition of small latitude dependent terms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvL.119c4502L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvL.119c4502L"><span>Inertial Wave Turbulence Driven by <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Instability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Barker, Adrian J.; Le Bars, Michael</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The combination of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> deformation of streamlines and vorticity can lead to the destabilization of any rotating flow via the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability. Such a mechanism has been invoked as a possible source of turbulence in planetary cores subject to tidal deformations. The saturation of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability has been shown to generate turbulence composed of nonlinearly interacting waves and strong columnar vortices with varying respective amplitudes, depending on the control parameters and geometry. In this Letter, we present a suite of numerical simulations to investigate the saturation and the transition from vortex-dominated to wave-dominated regimes. This is achieved by simulating the growth and saturation of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability in an idealized triply periodic domain, adding a frictional damping to the geostrophic component only, to mimic its interaction with boundaries. We reproduce several experimental observations within one idealized local model and complement them by reaching more extreme flow parameters. In particular, a wave-dominated regime that exhibits many signatures of inertial wave turbulence is characterized for the first time. This regime is expected in planetary interiors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740036752&hterms=Nomenclature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DNomenclature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740036752&hterms=Nomenclature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DNomenclature"><span>Nomenclature of polarized light - <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> polarization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Alternative handedness and sign conventions for relating the orientation of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarization are discussed. The discussion proceeds under two headings: (1) snapshot picture, where the emphasis for the convention is contained in the concept of handedness; and (2) angular momentum consideration, where the emphasis for the convention is strongly associated with mathematical convention and the sign of the fourth Stokes parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...05..076G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHEP...05..076G"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> genera from multi-centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaddam, Nava</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>I show how <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera for various Calabi-Yau threefolds may be understood from supergravity localization using the quantization of the phase space of certain multi-center configurations. I present a simple procedure that allows for the enumeration of all multi-center configurations contributing to the polar sector of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera — explicitly verifying this in the cases of the quintic in {P} 4, the sextic in {W}{P} (2,1,1,1,1), the octic in {W}{P} (4,1,1,1,1) and the dectic in {W}{P} (5,2,1,1,1). With an input of the corresponding `single-center' indices (Donaldson-Thomas invariants), the polar terms have been known to determine the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera completely. I argue that this multi-center approach to the low-lying spectrum of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera is a stepping stone towards an understanding of the exact microscopic states that contribute to supersymmetric single center black hole entropy in {N} = 2 supergravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20366763','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20366763"><span>Suppression of collapse for spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> solitons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desyatnikov, Anton S; Buccoliero, Daniel; Dennis, Mark R; Kivshar, Yuri S</p> <p>2010-02-05</p> <p>We reveal that orbital angular momentum can suppress catastrophic self-focusing in nonlinear Kerr media supporting stable spiraling solitons with an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cross section. We discuss the necessary requirements for observation of this effect with coherent optical and matter waves.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SbMat.187.1691S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SbMat.187.1691S"><span>Relative <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> theory and the Sobolev problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sternin, B. Yu; Shatalov, V. E.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>An operator algebra associated with a smooth embedding i \\colon X\\hookrightarrow M is constructed. For <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> elements of this algebra a finiteness theorem (the Fredholm property) is established, and the index is computed. A connection with Sobolev problems is shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP23B1339V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGP23B1339V"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> instability in stably stratified fluid interiors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vidal, J.; Hollerbach, R.; Schaeffer, N.; Cebron, D.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Self-sustained magnetic fields in celestial bodies (planets, moons, stars) are due to flows in internal electrically conducting fluids. These fluid motions are often attributed to convection, as it is the case for the Earth's liquid core and the Sun. However some past or present liquid cores may be stably stratified. Alternative mechanisms may thus be needed to understand the dynamo process in these celestial objects. Turbulent flows driven by mechanical forcings, such as tides or precession, seem very promising since they are dynamo capable. However the effect of density stratification is not clear, because it can stabilize or destabilize mechanically-driven flows.To mimic an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> distortion due to tidal forcing in spherical geometry (full sphere and shell), we consider a theoretical base flow with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> streamlines and an associated density profile. It allows to keep the numerical efficiency of spectral methods in this geometry. The flow satisfies the stress-free boundary condition. We perform the stability analysis of the base state using three-dimensional simulations to study both the linear and nonlinear regimes. Stable and unstable density profiles are considered. A complementary local stability analysis (WKB) is also performed. We show that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability can still grow upon a stable stratification. We also study the mixing of the stratification by the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability. Finally we look at the dynamo capability of these flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DFD..GC01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DFD..GC01C"><span>Circular and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Submerged Impinging Water Jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000772&hterms=Mercator+projection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMercator%2Bprojection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920000772&hterms=Mercator+projection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMercator%2Bprojection"><span>Transverse Mercator Projection Via <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Integrals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wallis, David E.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Improved method of construction of U.S. Army's universal transverse Mercator grid system based on Gauss-Kruger transverse Mercator projection and on use of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals of second kind. Method can be used to map entire northern or southern hemisphere with respect to single principal meridian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921929"><span><span class="hlt">ELLIPTIC</span> FLOW, INITIAL ECCENTRICITY AND <span class="hlt">ELLIPTIC</span> FLOW FLUCTUATIONS IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>NOUICER,R.; ALVER, B.; BACK, B.B.; BAKER, M.D.; BALLINTIJN, M.; BARTON, D.S.; ET AL.</p> <p>2007-02-19</p> <p>We present measurements of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow and event-by-event fluctuations established by the PHOBOS experiment. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> flow scaled by participant eccentricity is found to be similar for both systems when collisions with the same number of participants or the same particle area density are compared. The agreement of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions provides evidence that the matter is created in the initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions with transverse granularity similar to that of the participant nucleons. The event-by-event fluctuation results reveal that the initial collision geometry is translated into the final state azimuthal particle distribution, leading to an event-by-event proportionality between the observed <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow and initial eccentricity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvL.105y2302A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvL.105y2302A"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Flow of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at sNN=2.76TeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamodt, K.; Abelev, B.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A. G.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdermann, E.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bergmann, C.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biolcati, E.; Blanc, A.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, N.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bombonati, C.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bortolin, C.; Bose, S.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Böttger, S.; Boyer, B.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bravina, L.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bugaiev, K.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Caselle, M.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Coffin, J.-P.; Coli, S.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Erasmo, G. D.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Azevedo Moregula, A.; de Barros, G. O. V.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; de Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Remigis, R.; de Rooij, R.; Debski, P. R.; Del Castillo Sanchez, E.; Delagrange, H.; Delgado Mercado, Y.; Dellacasa, G.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Dénes, E.; Deppman, A.; di Bari, D.; di Giglio, C.; di Liberto, S.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Dietel, T.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domínguez, I.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubuisson, J.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Dutta Majumdar, M. R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erdal, H. A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evrard, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Fekete, V.; Felea, D.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Fini, R.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Fragkiadakis, M.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furano, F.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gadrat, S.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Ganti, M. S.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gemme, R.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giraudo, G.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González Santos, H.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heide, M.; Heinz, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Hernández, C.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P. T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Huber, S.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Innocenti, P. G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jancurová, L.; Jangal, S.; Janik, R.; Jena, S.; Jirden, L.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jovanović, P.; Jung, H.; Jung, W.; Jusko, A.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalisky, M.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kamermans, R.; Kanaki, K.; Kang, E.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, H. N.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, S. H.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Klovning, A.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Koch, K.; Köhler, M. K.; Kolevatov, R.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskih, A.; Kornaś, E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kozlov, K.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krumbhorn, D.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Rocca, P.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lafage, V.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Larsen, D. T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lea, R.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C.; Lefèvre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Leistam, L.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Lévai, P.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, L.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Noriega, M.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastromarco, M.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Matyja, A.; Mayani, D.; Mayer, C.; Mazza, G.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Menis, I.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mereu, P.; Miake, Y.; Midori, J.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Munoz, J.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navach, F.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nendaz, F.; Newby, J.; Nicassio, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Obayashi, H.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otterlund, I.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Jayarathna, S. P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Peters, A. J.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piuz, F.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Platt, R.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rademakers, O.; Radomski, S.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Rammler, M.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Read, K. F.; Real, J.; Redlich, K.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Ricaud, H.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosinský, P.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Rousseau, S.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Rivetti, A.; Rusanov, I.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Saiz, P.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Samanta, T.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Saturnini, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Sgura, I.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silenzi, A.; Silvermyr, D.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Søgaard, C.; Soloviev, A.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Stefanini, G.; Steinbeck, T.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stocco, D.; Stock, R.; Stokkevag, C. H.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhorukov, M.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Swoboda, D.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szostak, A.; Tagridis, C.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tauro, A.; Tavlet, M.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Traczyk, T.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vacchi, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Kolk, N.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernekohl, D. C.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Øvrebekk, G.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabrodin, E.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zenin, A.; Zgura, I.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zichichi, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We report the first measurement of charged particle <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η|<0.8) and transverse momentum range 0.2<pt<5.0GeV/c. The <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow signal v2, measured using the 4-particle <span class="hlt">correlation</span> method, averaged over transverse momentum and pseudorapidity is 0.087±0.002(stat)±0.003(syst) in the 40%-50% centrality class. The differential <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow v2(pt) reaches a maximum of 0.2 near pt=3GeV/c. Compared to RHIC Au-Au collisions at sNN=200GeV, the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow increases by about 30%. Some hydrodynamic model predictions which include viscous corrections are in agreement with the observed increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...539A..78C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...539A..78C"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> instability in terrestrial planets and moons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cebron, D.; Le Bars, M.; Moutou, C.; Le Gal, P.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Context. The presence of celestial companions means that any planet may be subject to three kinds of harmonic mechanical forcing: tides, precession/nutation, and libration. These forcings can generate flows in internal fluid layers, such as fluid cores and subsurface oceans, whose dynamics then significantly differ from solid body rotation. In particular, tides in non-synchronized bodies and libration in synchronized ones are known to be capable of exciting the so-called <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability, i.e. a generic instability corresponding to the destabilization of two-dimensional flows with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> streamlines, leading to three-dimensional turbulence. Aims: We aim here at confirming the relevance of such an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability in terrestrial bodies by determining its growth rate, as well as its consequences on energy dissipation, on magnetic field induction, and on heat flux fluctuations on planetary scales. Methods: Previous studies and theoretical results for the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability are re-evaluated and extended to cope with an astrophysical context. In particular, generic analytical expressions of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability growth rate are obtained using a local WKB approach, simultaneously considering for the first time (i) a local temperature gradient due to an imposed temperature contrast across the considered layer or to the presence of a volumic heat source and (ii) an imposed magnetic field along the rotation axis, coming from an external source. Results: The theoretical results are applied to the telluric planets and moons of the solar system as well as to three Super-Earths: 55 CnC e, CoRoT-7b, and GJ 1214b. For the tide-driven <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability in non-synchronized bodies, only the early Earth core is shown to be clearly unstable. For the libration-driven <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability in synchronized bodies, the core of Io is shown to be stable, contrary to previously thoughts, whereas Europa, 55 CnC e, CoRoT-7b, and GJ 1214b cores can be unstable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183854','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1183854"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> alignments of galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation: Analysis of two-point statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tenneti, Ananth; Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Matteo, Tiziana Di; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta</p> <p>2015-03-11</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment of galaxies with the large-scale density field in an important astrophysical contaminant in upcoming weak lensing surveys. We present detailed measurements of the galaxy <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments and associated <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>-direction (ED) and projected shape (w<sub>g</sub>₊) <span class="hlt">correlation</span> functions for galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamic MassiveBlack-II (MB-II) simulation. We carefully assess the effects on galaxy shapes, misalignment of the stellar component with the dark matter shape and two-point statistics of iterative weighted (by mass and luminosity) definitions of the (reduced and unreduced) inertia tensor. We find that iterative procedures must be adopted for a reliable measurement of the reduced tensor but that luminosity versus mass weighting has only negligible effects. Both ED and w<sub>g</sub>₊ <span class="hlt">correlations</span> increase in amplitude with subhalo mass (in the range of 10¹⁰ – 6.0 X 10¹⁴h⁻¹ M<sub>⊙</sub>), with a weak redshift dependence (from z = 1 to z = 0.06) at fixed mass. At z ~ 0.3, we predict a w<sub>g</sub>₊ that is in reasonable agreement with SDSS LRG measurements and that decreases in amplitude by a factor of ~ 5–18 for galaxies in the LSST survey. We also compared the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment of centrals and satellites, with clear detection of satellite radial alignments within the host halos. Finally, we show that w<sub>g</sub>₊ (using subhalos as tracers of density and w<sub>δ</sub> (using dark matter density) predictions from the simulations agree with that of non-linear alignment models (NLA) at scales where the 2-halo term dominates in the <span class="hlt">correlations</span> (and tabulate associated NLA fitting parameters). The 1-halo term induces a scale dependent bias at small scales which is not modeled in the NLA model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1183854-intrinsic-alignments-galaxies-massiveblack-ii-simulation-analysis-two-point-statistics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1183854-intrinsic-alignments-galaxies-massiveblack-ii-simulation-analysis-two-point-statistics"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> alignments of galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation: Analysis of two-point statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Tenneti, Ananth; Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; ...</p> <p>2015-03-11</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment of galaxies with the large-scale density field in an important astrophysical contaminant in upcoming weak lensing surveys. We present detailed measurements of the galaxy <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments and associated <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>-direction (ED) and projected shape (wg₊) <span class="hlt">correlation</span> functions for galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamic MassiveBlack-II (MB-II) simulation. We carefully assess the effects on galaxy shapes, misalignment of the stellar component with the dark matter shape and two-point statistics of iterative weighted (by mass and luminosity) definitions of the (reduced and unreduced) inertia tensor. We find that iterative procedures must be adopted for a reliable measurement of the reduced tensormore » but that luminosity versus mass weighting has only negligible effects. Both ED and wg₊ <span class="hlt">correlations</span> increase in amplitude with subhalo mass (in the range of 10¹⁰ – 6.0 X 10¹⁴h⁻¹ M⊙), with a weak redshift dependence (from z = 1 to z = 0.06) at fixed mass. At z ~ 0.3, we predict a wg₊ that is in reasonable agreement with SDSS LRG measurements and that decreases in amplitude by a factor of ~ 5–18 for galaxies in the LSST survey. We also compared the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment of centrals and satellites, with clear detection of satellite radial alignments within the host halos. Finally, we show that wg₊ (using subhalos as tracers of density and wδ (using dark matter density) predictions from the simulations agree with that of non-linear alignment models (NLA) at scales where the 2-halo term dominates in the <span class="hlt">correlations</span> (and tabulate associated NLA fitting parameters). The 1-halo term induces a scale dependent bias at small scales which is not modeled in the NLA model.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.3522T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.448.3522T"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> alignments of galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation: analysis of two-point statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tenneti, Ananth; Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; di Matteo, Tiziana; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignment of galaxies with the large-scale density field is an important astrophysical contaminant in upcoming weak lensing surveys. We present detailed measurements of the galaxy <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments and associated <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>-direction (ED) and projected shape (wg+) <span class="hlt">correlation</span> functions for galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamic MassiveBlack-II simulation. We carefully assess the effects on galaxy shapes, misalignment of the stellar component with the dark matter shape and two-point statistics of iterative weighted (by mass and luminosity) definitions of the (reduced and unreduced) inertia tensor. We find that iterative procedures must be adopted for a reliable measurement of the reduced tensor but that luminosity versus mass weighting has only negligible effects. Both ED and wg+ <span class="hlt">correlations</span> increase in amplitude with subhalo mass (in the range of 1010-6.0 × 1014 h-1 M⊙), with a weak redshift dependence (from z = 1 to 0.06) at fixed mass. At z ˜ 0.3, we predict a wg+ that is in reasonable agreement with Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy measurements and that decreases in amplitude by a factor of ˜5-18 for galaxies in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope survey. We also compared the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> alignments of centrals and satellites, with clear detection of satellite radial alignments within their host haloes. Finally, we show that wg+ (using subhaloes as tracers of density) and wδ+ (using dark matter density) predictions from the simulations agree with that of non-linear alignment (NLA) models at scales where the two-halo term dominates in the <span class="hlt">correlations</span> (and tabulate associated NLA fitting parameters). The one-halo term induces a scale-dependent bias at small scales which is not modelled in the NLA model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1727b0006D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1727b0006D"><span>Performances study of UWB monopole antennas using half-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> radiator conformed on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> radiator conformed on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AJ....127.1502R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AJ....127.1502R"><span>The Ages of Dwarf <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rakos, Karl; Schombert, James</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We present narrowband photometry of 91 dwarf <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in the Coma and Fornax Clusters taken with the Strömgren (uvby) filter system. Dividing the sample by dwarf morphology into nucleated (dEN) and nonnucleated (dE) dwarfs reveals two distinct populations of early-type systems based on integrated colors. The class of dEN galaxies are redder in their continuum colors as compared to bright cluster <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and dE type dwarfs, and their position in multicolor diagrams can only be explained by an older mean age for their underlying stellar populations. By comparison with the narrowband photometry of the M87 globular cluster system, we find that dEN's are a higher metallicity continuation of the old, metal-poor color sequence of galactic globular clusters and the blue population of M87 globular clusters. Bright <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and dE dwarfs, on the other hand, follow the color sequence of the metal-rich, red population of M87 globular clusters. A comparison to SED models, convolved to a simple metallicity model, finds that dEN's and blue globular clusters are 3 to 4 Gyr older than cluster <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and 5 Gyr older than dE type galaxies. The implication is that globular clusters and dEN galaxies are primordial and have metallicities set by external constraints such as the enrichment of their formation clouds. Bright <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and dE galaxies have metallicities and ages that suggest an extended phase of initial star formation that produces a younger mean age, even if their formation epoch is similar to that of dEN's and blue globular clusters, and an internally driven chemical evolutionary history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V14B..03H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.V14B..03H"><span>Caldera <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span> Through Regional Tectonic Deformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holohan, E. P.; Troll, V. R.; Walter, T. R.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Byrne, P. K.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Collapse calderas are delimited by reverse ring faults and surrounded by peripheral concentric normal faults. In the simplest scenario, circular magma chambers produce circular calderas. Many calderas are <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> in shape, however, particularly those in highly active tectonic settings. Several factors may explain caldera <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> in such regimes: 1) Initial geometry of magma chamber(s) 2) Distribution and orientation of pre-existing regional faults, and 3) Influence of the regional stress field on caldera fault geometries. To better understand relationships between caldera morphology, reservoir geometry and regional tectonics, we conducted two analogue experimental series: One series investigated the influence of orthogonal tectonic stresses on caldera and chamber shapes. In all cases where tectonic stress was applied across circular chambers (balloons), <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> calderas were produced. Pre-existing basement structures also influenced the shape of calderas, either increasing or reducing elongation. Intrusion of silicon gel into tectonically active sand piles showed that silicon gel chambers responded systematically to applied tectonic stress, and that associated calderas would be <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> in shape. A second series examined the effect of strike slip faulting on magma chambers and associated calderas. We used sand to simulate brittle crust and cream honey to simulate granitic magma. With a sufficiently high transtensive component, pull-apart-like half grabens formed above the passive honey chamber. Chamber evacuation following strike-slip deformation produced arcuate reverse faults that were again occasionally affected by regional structures. From our results, we identify a number of controls for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> caldera formation in tectonically active settings, including initial chamber geometry, caldera fault distortion, and interaction with pre-existing structures. Our results indicate that the final caldera surface expression will be the result of interplay</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JEE....62..126Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JEE....62..126Z"><span>A New Type of Current Conveyor and its Application in Fully Balanced Differential Current-Mode <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Filter Design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Qiujing; Wang, Chunhua; Sun, Jingru; Du, Sichun</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a new type of CMOS-based current conveyor: current controlled fully balanced second generation current conveyor (CFBCCII) element which has a pair of differential Y terminals, a pair of differential X terminals and two pairs of Z terminals. The proposed circuit offers electronic tuning possibilities by means of a current adjustable <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance at its X terminal. An <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> filter realization is described as an example for its application in a current-mode fully balanced filter design, where the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistors in CFBCCIIs are used for the electronic tuning of the characteristic filter frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MAR.Z9013H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MAR.Z9013H"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Patterns of Human Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law <span class="hlt">correlations</span> that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22117926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22117926"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> contractures of the hand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Contractures of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> contracture or <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span>-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2928889','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2928889"><span>Evaluation of Spatial Anisotropy by Curvature Analysis of <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aleci, Carlo; Piana, Giulio; Anselmino, Franco</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Spatial relationship perception (SRP), defined as the function able to detect the difference between the perceived extent of a shape along the x/y cardinal coordinates, has been investigated in 42 eyes of 21 emmetropic subjects by means of a psychophysical test conceived on purpose. Aiming to the highest sensibility and since curvature detection is reckoned as an hyperacuity, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> stimuli have been chosen to measure the spatial relationship anisotropy (SRA) in the visual system. Observers turned out to be able to detect curvature differences along the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contour as low as 33.6 sec arc, which in terms of SRP means an aspect ratio (i.e. the ratio between the height and the width of the ellipse) as low as 1.0022-1.0035. By comparing these results with those obtained in previous investigations from other curvature discrimination tasks, it is argued that recognition threshold is conditioned by the amount of space anisotropy of the visual system. Indeed, in about half of the recruited subjects, vertical/horizontal anisotropy is found to a certain extent and such SRA <span class="hlt">correlates</span> with the recognition threshold (r= 0.69, p<0.01). There is direct evidence of visual spatial distortion and in particular increased anisotropy in neuro-ophtalmological diseases such as hemianopia and around scotomatous regions in the visual field. Thence, apart from theoretical considerations in physiological field, results collected in this study may be regarded as normative data for future clinical investigations. PMID:20802805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960027467&hterms=role+distribution&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drole%2Bdistribution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960027467&hterms=role+distribution&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Drole%2Bdistribution"><span>Role of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> width in fragment momentum distributions in heavy ion collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Townsend, L. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Khan, F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>It is demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> widths incorporating <span class="hlt">correlations</span> in conjunction with dynamical contributions give better agreement with experiments for collisions in the energy range of 200 A MeV to 2.4 GeV than using only <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> widths without <span class="hlt">correlations</span>. The sensitivity of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> width decreases with increasing projectile mass. A simple recipe for calculating <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> width <span class="hlt">correlations</span> is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000047&hterms=bessel&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbessel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890000047&hterms=bessel&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbessel"><span>Jacobi-Bessel Analysis Of Antennas With <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Apertures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rahmat-Samii, Y.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Coordinate transformation improves convergence pattern analysis of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>-aperture antennas. Modified version of Jacobi-Bessel expansion for vector diffraction analysis of reflector antennas uses coordinate transformation to improve convergence with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> apertures. Expansion converges rapidly for antennas with circular apertures, but less rapidly for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> apertures. Difference in convergence behavior between circular and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> Jacobi-Bessel algorithms indicated by highest values of indices m, n, and p required to achieve same accuracy in computed radiation pattern of offset paraboloidal antenna with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> aperture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatMa..12..291T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatMa..12..291T"><span>Wetting: <span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> robust hydrophobicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Ceramic surfaces can be rendered hydrophobic by using polymeric modifiers, but these are not robust to harsh environments. A known family of rare-earth oxide ceramics is now found to exhibit <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> hydrophobicity, even after exposure to high temperatures and abrasive wear.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED485061.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED485061.pdf"><span>Predicting <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Silberman&pg=6&id=EJ302148','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Silberman&pg=6&id=EJ302148"><span>Evaluating <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Goals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Silberman, Harry F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A social learning model focusing on <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> outcomes of vocational programs is proposed. It would assess technical skills and knowledge, communication skills and literacy, and personal skills and attitudes. Instruments should be devised to measure characteristics of the learning setting, learner involved activities, and nature of consequences of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19103543"><span>[<span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> cardiac ganglia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Birand, Ahmet</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Heart has been considered as the source and the seat of emotions, passion and love. But from the dawn of XIXth century, scientists have emphasized that the heart, though life depends on its ceaseless activity, is merely a electromechanical pump, pumping oxygenated blood. Nowadays, we all know that heart pumps blood commensurate with the needs of the body and this unending toil, and its regulation depends on the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> properties of the myocardium, Frank-Starling Law and neurohumoral contribution. It has been understood, though not clearly enough, that these time-tensions may cause structural or functional cardiac impairments and arrhythmias are related to the autonomic nervous system. Less well known and less taken in account in daily cardiology practice is the fact that heart has an <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> cardiac nervous system, or "heart brain" consisting of complex ganglia, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> cardiac ganglia containing afferent (receiving), local circuit (interneurons) and efferent (transmitting) sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. This review enlightens structural and functional aspects of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> cardiac ganglia as the very first step in the regulation of cardiac function. This issue is important for targets of pharmacological treatment and techniques of cardiac surgery interventions as repair of septal defects, valvular interventions and congenital corrections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tripathi&pg=2&id=EJ480276','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tripathi&pg=2&id=EJ480276"><span>Competition and <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Motivation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tripathi, Kailas Nath</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Reports on a study of competition, motivation, and performance among 60 adolescents in India. Finds that direct competition with another person led to higher levels of immediate performance. Also finds that indirect competition against a pre-set standard resulted in greater <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation. (CFR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=silberman&pg=6&id=EJ302148','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=silberman&pg=6&id=EJ302148"><span>Evaluating <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Goals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Silberman, Harry F.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A social learning model focusing on <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> outcomes of vocational programs is proposed. It would assess technical skills and knowledge, communication skills and literacy, and personal skills and attitudes. Instruments should be devised to measure characteristics of the learning setting, learner involved activities, and nature of consequences of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAMDS...6..484L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JAMDS...6..484L"><span>Analysis of the Dynamic Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Gears</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xing; Nagamura, Kazuteru; Ikejo, Kiyotaka</p> <p></p> <p>To date, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gear has been commonly used in automobile, automatic machinery, pumps, flow meters and printing presses for its particular non-uniform rotation. However, the dynamic characteristics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gears have not been clarified yet. In this study, The calculation as well as the experiment of two <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gears, which are a single <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gear and a double <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gear, is carried out to analyze the dynamic characteristics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gears. General factors including the torque, the rotation speed and the tooth root stress of the test gears are investigated. According to the analysis conducted in this study, the dynamic input torque variation of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gear becomes larger along with the increase of operating gear rotation speed and the experimental one increases much faster than the calculated one over the Critical Rotation Speed of Tooth Separation (CRSTS) of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gear. The experimental input rotation speed varies according to the variation of input torque, leading to the difference between the experimental output rotation speed and the desired one. The calculation results of the CRSTS of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gears are almost equal to the experimental ones. The dynamic load variation ratios of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gear at different angular position as well as their changing trends with operating gear rotation speed are quite different from each other. And the experimental dynamic load variation ratios of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> gear show difference from the calculated ones because of tooth separation and tooth impact. The agreement of the calculation and experimental results proves the validity of this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002tpet.conf..307O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002tpet.conf..307O"><span>Beyond CFT: Deformed Virasoro and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Algebras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Odake, Satoru</p> <p></p> <p>Introduction Conformal Field Theory and Virasoro Algebra Conformal Field Theory Virasoro Algebra Free Field Realization Deformed Virasoro Algebra (A1(1) Type) Definition and Consistency Conformal Limit Representation Theory Free Field Realization Higher DVA Currents Solvable Lattice Models and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Algebras Solvable Lattice Models and Yang-Baxter Equation Corner Transfer Matrices and Vertex Operators Introduction to Quasi-Hopf Algebra <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Quantum Groups Free Field Approach to ABF Model ABF Model Vertex Operators Local Height Probability Form Factor OPE and Trace Screening Operators and Vertex Operators DVA (A2(2) Type) and Dilute AL Models DVA (A2(2)) Free Field Realization Dilute AL Models Free Field Approach OPE and trace Conclusion References Some Formulas Some Functions Delta Function Some Summations Some Integrals Hausdorff Formula Trace Technique</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1331206-elliptic-genera-gravity','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1331206-elliptic-genera-gravity"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> genera and 3d gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Benjamin, Nathan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Kachru, Shamit; ...</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>Here, we describe general constraints on the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera of symmetric product orbifolds of K3, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the “Monster CFT”. We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions, we attempt to quantify the fractionmore » of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1331206','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1331206"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> genera and 3d gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benjamin, Nathan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Kachru, Shamit; Moore, Gregory W.; Paquette, Natalie M.</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>Here, we describe general constraints on the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera of symmetric product orbifolds of K<sub>3</sub>, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the “Monster CFT”. We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions, we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333527','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333527"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Genera and 3d Gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benjamin, Nathan; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Kachru, Shamit; Moore, Gregory W.; Paquette, Natalie M.</p> <p>2016-03-30</p> <p>We describe general constraints on the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genus of a 2d supersymmetric conformal field theory which has a gravity dual with large radius in Planck units. We give examples of theories which do and do not satisfy the bounds we derive, by describing the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera of symmetric product orbifolds of K3, product manifolds, certain simple families of Calabi–Yau hypersurfaces, and symmetric products of the “Monster CFT”. We discuss the distinction between theories with supergravity duals and those whose duals have strings at the scale set by the AdS curvature. Under natural assumptions, we attempt to quantify the fraction of (2,2) supersymmetric conformal theories which admit a weakly curved gravity description, at large central charge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=LV-2007-00040&hterms=Dvd&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDvd','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=LV-2007-00040&hterms=Dvd&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DDvd"><span>Performance Characteristics of a Preformed <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Parachute</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1963-01-01</p> <p>Performance Characteristics of a Preformed <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Parachute at Altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 Thousand Feet Obtained by In-Flight Photography. The performance characteristics of a pre-formed <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> parachute at altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 feet were obtained by means of in-flight photography. The tests demonstrate that this type of parachute will open at altitudes of about 200,000 feet if conditions such as twisting of the suspension lines or draping of the suspension lines over the canopy do not occur. Drag-coefficient values between 0.6 and 0.8 were found to be reasonable for this type of parachute system in the altitude range between 200,000 and 100,000 feet. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030980. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...10S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZaMP...68...10S"><span>Convergence results for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> quasivariational inequalities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sofonea, Mircea; Benraouda, Ahlem</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this paper, we state and prove various convergence results for a general class of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> quasivariational inequalities with constraints. Thus, we prove the convergence of the solution of a class of penalized problems to the solution of the original inequality, as the penalty parameter converges to zero. We also prove a continuous dependence result of the solution with respect the convex set of constraints. Then, we consider a mathematical model which describes the equilibrium of an elastic rod attached to a nonlinear spring. We derive the variational formulation of the model which is in a form of an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> quasivariational inequality for the displacement field. We prove the unique weak solvability of the model, and then we state and prove two convergence results and provide their corresponding mechanical interpretation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/197802','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/197802"><span>An <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler beamline for the ALS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martynov, V.V. |; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>A beamline for circularly polarized radiation produced by an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler has been designed at the ALS covering the broad energy range from 50 eV to 2000 eV. The rigorous theory of grating diffraction efficiency has been used to maximize transmitted flux. The nature of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler insertion device creates a challenging optical problem due to the large source size in the vertical and horizontal directions. The requirement of high resolving power, combined with the broad tuning range and high heat loads complicate the design. These problems have been solved by using a variable included angle monochromator of the ``constant length`` type with high demagnification onto its entrance slit, and cooled optics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhyB..385.1247M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhyB..385.1247M"><span>Performance of an <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> tapered neutron guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mühlbauer, Sebastian; Stadlbauer, Martin; Böni, Peter; Schanzer, Christan; Stahn, Jochen; Filges, Uwe</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Supermirror coated neutron guides are used at all modern neutron sources for transporting neutrons over large distances. In order to reduce the transmission losses due to multiple internal reflection of neutrons, ballistic neutron guides with linear tapering have been proposed and realized. However, these systems suffer from an inhomogeneous illumination of the sample. Moreover, the flux decreases significantly with increasing distance from the exit of the neutron guide. We propose using <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> tapered guides that provide a more homogeneous phase space at the sample position as well as a focusing at the sample. Moreover, the design of the guide system is simplified because ellipses are simply defined by their long and short axes. In order to prove the concept we have manufactured a doubly focusing guide and investigated its properties with neutrons. The experiments show that the predicted gains using the program package McStas are realized. We discuss several applications of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> guides in various fields of neutron physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10186744"><span>Performance of the ALS <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, C.X.; Schlueter, R.; Hoyer, E.; Heimann, P.</p> <p>1993-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler is a circularly polarized light source capable of providing very broad spectral coverage and high degree of circular polarization. The main features of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> wiggler can be understood through analogy to bending magnet radiation. However, some aspects, such as the end structure`s influence on the degree of circular polarization, require more elaborate methods to characterize. We present an algorithm based on the stationary phase method, which allows calculation of radiation properties from an arbitrary electron trajectory; so a non-sinusoidal magnetic field`s influence on the radiation performance can be taken into account. We show general radiation properties of an ellilptical wiggler and discuss factors affecting radiation performance. Practice issues encountered during the conceptual design of an ellilptical wiggler at the Advanced Light Source are addressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CeMDA.121...61R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CeMDA.121...61R"><span>Frozen-anomaly transformation for the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> rendezvous problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roa, Javier; Peláez, Jesús</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new solution to relative motion on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbits is presented, based on a novel transformation from the reference state vector to the relative state vector. The relative orbit is constructed assuming that the anomaly, and not the time, is the invariant element throughout the transformation. This concept arises naturally from the variational form of anomaly-explicit formulations. In particular, this paper explores the capabilities of a formulation developed by Peláez et al. (Celest Mech Dyn Astron. 97, 131-150, 2007), called Dromo. This formulation exploits the advantages of the ideal reference frames and quaternionic descriptions of the orbital plane. The linear variational form of the equations of motion in Dromo is developed herein, and the resulting transformation matrix is presented. When applied to the reference state vector, this linear transformation provides the relative state vector at any step. The invariance in the anomaly implies a certain time delay in the results. Physical times for leader and follower do not coincide after the transformation. To recover the sense of the solution an additional correction is applied a posteriori to cancel this <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> time delay. The performance of the new transformation is compared against previous solutions to the problem through a set of numerical examples. Important error reductions in determining the relative orbit are observed in these tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...730....9O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...730....9O"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptically</span> Weighted HOLICs for Weak-lensing Shear Measurement. I. Definitions and Isotropic Point-spread Function Correction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okura, Yuki; Futamase, Toshifumi</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>We develop a new method of estimating gravitational shear by adopting an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> weight function to measure background galaxy images. In doing so, we introduce the new concept of "zero plane," which is an imaginary source plane where shapes of all sources are perfect circles, and regard the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shear as the result of an imaginary lensing distortion. This makes the relation between the observed shear, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shear, and lensing distortion much simpler, and thus higher-order calculations are easier. The <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> weight function allows us to measure the multipole moments of the shapes of background galaxies more precisely by weighting brighter parts of the image highly, and to reduce systematic error due to insufficient expansion of the weight function in the original approach of Kaiser et al. (KSB). Point-spread function (PSF) correction in the <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> weighted higher-order lensing image characteristics (E-HOLICs) method becomes more complicated than in the KSB method. In this paper, we study isotropic PSF correction in detail. By adopting the lensing distortion as the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the weight function, we are able to show that the shear estimation in the E-HOLICs method reduces to solve a polynomial in the absolute magnitude of the distortion. We compare the systematic errors between our approach and that of KSB using the Shear Testing Programme 2 simulation. It is confirmed that the KSB method overestimates the input shear for images with large <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span>, and E-HOLICs correctly estimates the input shear even for such images. Anisotropic PSF correction and analysis of real data will be presented in a forthcoming paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078883','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078883"><span>MIB Galerkin method for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820035254&hterms=photoacoustic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphotoacoustic','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820035254&hterms=photoacoustic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphotoacoustic"><span>Photoacoustic cell using <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> acoustic focusing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heritier, J.-M.; Fouquet, J. E.; Siegman, A. E.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A photoacoustic cell has been developed in the form of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cylinder in which essentially all the acoustic energy generated by a laser beam passing down one axis is focused onto a cylindrical acoustic tranducer located along the other axis. Preliminary measurements on a liquid-filled cell of this design show high sensitivity and a notably clean impulse response. A similar design may be useful for photoacoustic measurements in vapors as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Ap%26SS.168...89G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Ap%26SS.168...89G"><span>Do <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies suffer from warp?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gamaleldin, A. I.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>Detailed surface isophotometry of NGC 1700 was performed. Luminosity profiles, <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> curve, reduced luminosity profiles, and the galaxy parameters are illustrated; the study also includes the variation of position angle with the distance from the center of the galaxy. An interesting feature of this object is the twisted shape of the outer isophote which does not appear as an ellipse but as an integral-sign shape, which is attributed to some kind of warp in the galaxy under investigation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ApJ...396..741L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ApJ...396..741L"><span>Molecular Gas in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies: Erratum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lees, Joanna F.; Knapp, G. R.; Rupen, Michael P.; Phillips, T. G.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>In the paper "Molecular Gas in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies" by Joanna F. Lees, G. R. Knapp, Michael P. Rupen, and T. G. Phillips (ApJ, 379,177 [1991]), an error appeared on page 208. Two numbers which were quoted from Young and Knezek (1989) were inadvertently not converted from their CO-H_2_ conversion factor to ours (a difference of 40%). Page 208, column (1), lines 6-7 should read:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA241798','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA241798"><span>Crack Path Prediction Near an <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Inhomogeneity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-09-01</p> <p>Prediction Near an <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Inhomogeneity 1L162618AH80 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward M. Patton 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8 . PERFORMING...oriented crack. Erdogan and Gupta [ 8 ] later solved the problem in which the crack crosses the interface. These solutions are based on the Green’s...the crack propagation direction 8 is greatest. This criterion implies that the stress parallel to that direction would be a minimum, or that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.354..753A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CMaPh.354..753A"><span>Deformed Virasoro Algebras from <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Quantum Algebras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avan, J.; Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We revisit the construction of deformed Virasoro algebras from <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> quantum algebras of vertex type, generalizing the bilinear trace procedure proposed in the 1990s. It allows us to make contact with the vertex operator techniques that were introduced separately at the same period. As a by-product, the method pinpoints two critical values of the central charge for which the center of the algebra is extended, as well as (in the gl(2) case) a Liouville formula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPhA...37.2721T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JPhA...37.2721T"><span>Integrable mappings via rational <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsuda, Teruhisa</p> <p>2004-02-01</p> <p>We present a geometric description of the QRT map (which is an integrable mapping introduced by Quispel, Roberts and Thompson) in terms of the addition formula of a rational <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> surface. By this formulation, we classify all the cases when the QRT map is periodic; and show that its period is 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. A generalization of the QRT map which acts birationally on a pencil of K3 surfaces, or Calabi-Yau manifolds, is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999292"><span>MIB Galerkin method for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei</p> <p>2014-12-15</p> <p>Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021491','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021491"><span>Spectral methods for exterior <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Canuto, C.; Hariharan, S. I.; Lustman, L.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Spectral approximations for exterior <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problems in two dimensions are discussed. As in the conventional finite difference or finite element methods, the accuracy of the numerical solutions is limited by the order of the numerical farfield conditions. A spectral boundary treatment is introduced at infinity which is compatible with the infinite order interior spectral scheme. Computational results are presented to demonstrate the spectral accuracy attainable. Although a simple Laplace problem is examined, the analysis covers more complex and general cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619858','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA619858"><span>Random Matrix Theory and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Curves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-11-24</p> <p>related to the intervals of prime numbers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Random Matrix theory, Riemann Hypothesis, <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Curves 16. SECURITY...range of quantities of fundamental importance in number theory. In the cases of the Riemann zeta function and Dirichlet L-functions, this information...investigation using analytic techniques. As an indication of their significance, two of the Clay Millennium Prize Problems, the Riemann Hypothesis and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ExFl...46..165H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ExFl...46..165H"><span>In-cylinder tumble flows and performance of a motorcycle engine with circular and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> intake ports</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, R. F.; Lin, K. H.; Yeh, C.-N.; Lan, J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The temporal and spatial evolution processes of the flows in the cylinder of a four-valve, four-stroke, single cylinder, reciprocating motorcycle engine installed with the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> and circular intake ports were experimentally studied by using the particle image velocimetry (PIV). The engine was modified to fit the requirements of PIV measurement. The velocity fields measured by the PIV were analyzed and quantitatively presented as the tumble ratio and turbulence intensity. In the symmetry plane, both the circular and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> intake ports could initiate a vortex around the central region during the intake stroke. During the compression stroke, the central vortex created in the cylinder of the engine with the circular intake port disappeared, while that in the engine cylinder with the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> intake port further developed into the tumble motion. In the offset plane, weak vortical structures were initiated by the bluff-body effect of the intake valves during the intake stroke. The vortical structures induced by the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> intake port were more coherent than those generated by the circular intake port; besides, this feature extends to the compression stroke. The cycle-averaged tumble ratio and the turbulence intensity of the engine with the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> intake port were dramatically larger than those of the engine with the circular intake port. The measured engine performance was improved a lot by installing the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> intake port. The <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between the flow features and the enhancement of the engine performance were argued and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24i3116H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24i3116H"><span>Electron dynamics in an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> bubble regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hemmati, Atefeh; Sedaghatizadeh, Mahmoud; Kordbacheh, Amir Hossein Ahmadkhan</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, the dynamics of the electron in an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> bubble regime is investigated. In this regime, a high intensity laser pulse in a plasma creates an electron cavity called the blow-out (bubble or cavitation) regime which is usually considered to be in a spherical shape at rest. Through balancing the ponderomotive potential of a non-plane laser pulse and bubble electrostatic potential, the shape of the bubble is analyzed to be <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> in contrast to most available theories which indicate the spherical bubble. Thus, the present model introduces a different dynamics for the electron compared with the spherical one. The longitudinal electric field experienced by the electron and also the electron energy gain in the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> model is investigated to be more than that in the spherical model. Moreover, it is found that the shape of the bubble will influence the electron trapping range so that the electron is bounded more in the spherical bubble. As a result, it is crucially important to take the shape of the bubble influence on the electron acceleration process into account. The results indicate that the distribution of the electromagnetic fields inside the bubble in the ellipse model is more close to particle-in-cell simulation compared to the spherical one [Kostyukov et al., Phys. Plasmas 11(11), 5256 (2004)].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PASP..107..502G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995PASP..107..502G"><span>Dust and Ionized Gas in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goudfrooij, Paul</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>The thesis presents results of a study of the optical and far-infrared properties of dust and ionized gas in a complete, blue magnitude-limited (B_T^0 < 12) sample of 56 luminous <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> (E) galaxies. The main aim is to investigate the origin and fate of this interstellar material and possible implications for scenarios of galaxy formation and evolution. To ensure consistency in the assignment of morphological types, the galaxy sample was drawn exclusively from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies. A deep, systematic optical survey has been performed, including CCD imaging through both broad-band filters and narrow-band filters. For each galaxy we have constructed colour index (B-V, B-I) images and images of the H-alpha+ [N II]-emitting gas to derive the distributions of dust features and ionized gas. Long-slit spectra have also been obtained in two resolutions. Low-resolution spectra (covering the whole optical region) are used to study the properties of the underlying stellar populations (e.g., metallicity gradients), and to study the excitation mechanism of the ionized gas. Additional medium-resolution (~2A) spectra in the wavelength region around H-alpha have been obtained for all sample <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies containing ionized gas to study the kinematics of the gas, and derive pure H-alpha luminosities. In this thesis, analysis of the extensive imaging data and of the medium-resolution spectra is reported. In Chapter 1 we report an early result of our survey: The galaxy IC 1459 is found to exhibit a large (15 Kpc diameter) H-alpha+[N II] emission-line region, showing spiral structure. Patchy dust absorption is also found in the inner part of the emission-line region. This galaxy was already shown to contain a massive stellar core which counter-rotates rapidly with respect to the stellar body of the galaxy. Interestingly, the sense of rotation of the spiral "arms" of the ionized gas distribution is the same as that of the rapidly rotating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763231','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763231"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.</p> <p>1999-06-03</p> <p>We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMMM..433...59Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMMM..433...59Z"><span>Vortex precession in thin <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ferromagnetic nanodisks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaspel, C. E.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The magnetostatic energy is calculated for a magnetic vortex in a noncircular <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nanodisk. It is well-known that the energy of a vortex in the circular disk is minimized though an ansatz that eliminates the magnetostatic charge at the disk edge. Beginning with this ansatz for the circular disk, a conformal mapping of a circle interior onto the interior of an ellipse results in the magnetization of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> disk. This magnetization in the interior of an ellipse also has no magnetostatic charge at the disk edge also minimizing the magnetostatic energy. As expected the energy has a quadratic dependence on the displacement of the vortex core from the ellipse center, but reflecting the lower symmetry of the ellipse. Through numerical integration of the magnetostatic integral a general expression for the energy is obtained for <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> values from 1.0 to about 0.3. Finally a general expression for the gyrotropic frequency as described by the Thiele equation is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232773','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18232773"><span>Tunable fermi acceleration in the driven <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> billiard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lenz, F; Diakonos, F K; Schmelcher, P</p> <p>2008-01-11</p> <p>We explore the dynamical evolution of an ensemble of noninteracting particles propagating freely in an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> billiard with harmonically driven boundaries. The existence of Fermi acceleration is shown thereby refuting the established assumption that smoothly driven billiards whose static counterparts are integrable do not exhibit acceleration dynamics. The underlying mechanism based on intermittent phases of laminar and stochastic behavior of the strongly <span class="hlt">correlated</span> angular momentum and velocity motion is identified and studied with varying parameters. The diffusion process in velocity space is shown to be anomalous and we find that the corresponding characteristic exponent depends monotonically on the breathing amplitude of the billiard boundaries. Thus it is possible to tune the acceleration law in a straightforwardly controllable manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5014B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PPCF...56i5014B"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> momentum transport in up-down asymmetric tokamaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael; Dorland, William; Hammett, Gregory W.; Rodrigues, Paulo; Loureiro, Nuno F.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Recent work has demonstrated that breaking the up-down symmetry of tokamak flux surfaces removes a constraint that limits <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> momentum transport, and hence toroidal rotation, to be small. We show, through MHD analysis, that <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> is most effective at introducing up-down asymmetry throughout the plasma. We detail an extension to GS2, a local δf gyrokinetic code that self-consistently calculates momentum transport, to permit up-down asymmetric configurations. Tokamaks with tilted <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> poloidal cross-sections were simulated to determine nonlinear momentum transport. The results, which are consistent with the experiment in magnitude, suggest that a toroidal velocity gradient, (∂uζi/∂ρ)/vthi, of 5% of the temperature gradient, (∂Ti/∂ρ)/Ti, is sustainable. Here vthi is the ion thermal speed, uζi is the ion toroidal mean flow, ρ is the minor radial coordinate normalized to the tokamak minor radius, and Ti is the ion temperature. Though other known core <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> momentum transport mechanisms scale poorly to larger machines, these results indicate that up-down asymmetry may be a feasible method to generate the current experimentally measured rotation levels in reactor-sized devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167534','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22167534"><span>THE DARK HALO-SPHEROID CONSPIRACY AND THE ORIGIN OF <span class="hlt">ELLIPTICAL</span> GALAXIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Burkert, Andreas; Dolag, Klaus; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Thomas, Jens</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Dynamical modeling and strong-lensing data indicate that the total density profiles of early-type galaxies are close to isothermal, i.e., {rho}{sub tot}{proportional_to}r {sup {gamma}} with {gamma} Almost-Equal-To -2. To understand the origin of this universal slope we study a set of simulated spheroids formed in isolated binary mergers as well as the formation within the cosmological framework. The total stellar plus dark matter density profiles can always be described by a power law with an index of {gamma} Almost-Equal-To -2.1 with a tendency toward steeper slopes for more compact, lower-mass <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. In the binary mergers the amount of gas involved in the merger determines the precise steepness of the slope. This agrees with results from the cosmological simulations where <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with steeper slopes have a higher fraction of stars formed in situ. Each gas-poor merger event evolves the slope toward {gamma} {approx} -2, once this slope is reached further merger events do not change it anymore. All our <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> have flat <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> combined stellar and dark matter velocity dispersion profiles. We conclude that flat velocity dispersion profiles and total density distributions with a slope of {gamma} {approx} -2 for the combined system of stars and dark matter act as a natural attractor. The variety of complex formation histories as present in cosmological simulations, including major as well as minor merger events, is essential to generate the full range of observed density slopes seen for present-day <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...779....9B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...779....9B"><span>Origin of a Bottom-heavy Stellar Initial Mass Function in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bekki, Kenji</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) recently observed in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies by using chemical evolution models with a non-universal IMF. We adopt the variable Kroupa IMF with the three slopes (α1, α2, and α3) dependent on metallicities ([Fe/H]) and densities (ρg) of star-forming gas clouds and thereby search for the best IMF model that can reproduce (1) the observed steep IMF slope (α2 ~ 3, i.e., bottom-heavy) for low stellar masses (m <= 1 M ⊙) and (2) the <span class="hlt">correlation</span> of α2 with chemical properties of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in a self-consistent manner. We find that if the IMF slope α2 depends on both [Fe/H] and ρg, then <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with higher [Mg/Fe] can have steeper α2 (~3) in our models. We also find that the observed positive <span class="hlt">correlation</span> of stellar mass-to-light ratios (M/L) with [Mg/Fe] in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies can be quantitatively reproduced in our models with α2vpropβ[Fe/H] + γlog ρg, where β ~ 0.5 and γ ~ 2. We discuss whether the IMF slopes for low-mass (α2) and high-mass stars (α3) need to vary independently from each other to explain a number of IMF-related observational results self-consistently. We also briefly discuss why α2 depends differently on [Fe/H] in dwarf and giant <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22591203','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22591203"><span>Performances study of UWB monopole antennas using half-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> radiator conformed on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Djidel, S.; Bouamar, M.; Khedrouche, D.</p> <p>2016-04-21</p> <p>This paper presents a performances study of UWB monopole antenna using half-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> radiator conformed on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> surface. The proposed antenna, simulated using microwave studio computer CST and High frequency simulator structure HFSS, is designed to operate in frequency interval over 3.1 to 40 GHz. Good return loss and radiation pattern characteristics are obtained in the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna structure is suitable for ultra-wideband applications, which is, required for many wearable electronics applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.417.1787F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.417.1787F"><span>The SAURON project - XIX. Optical and near-infrared scaling relations of nearby <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, lenticular and Sa galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R. F.; Bureau, M.; Jeong, H.; Bacon, R.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Sarzi, M.; Shapiro, K. L.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van der Wolk, G.; Weijmans, A.; Yi, S.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>We present ground-based MDM Observatory V-band and Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera 3.6-?m-band photometric observations of the 72 representative galaxies of the SAURON survey. Galaxies in our sample probe the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> E, lenticular S0 and spiral Sa populations in the nearby Universe, both in field and cluster environments. We perform aperture photometry to derive homogeneous structural quantities. In combination with the SAURON stellar velocity dispersion measured within an effective radius (σe), this allows us to explore the location of our galaxies in the colour-magnitude, colour-σe, Kormendy, Faber-Jackson and Fundamental Plane scaling relations. We investigate the dependence of these relations on our recent kinematical classification of early-type galaxies (i.e. slow/fast rotators) and the stellar populations. Slow rotator and fast rotator E/S0 galaxies do not populate distinct locations in the scaling relations, although slow rotators display a smaller <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> scatter. We find that Sa galaxies deviate from the colour-magnitude and colour-σe relations due to the presence of dust, while the E/S0 galaxies define tight relations. Surprisingly, extremely young objects do not display the bluest (V-[3.6]) colours in our sample, as is usually the case in optical colours. This can be understood in the context of the large contribution of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars to the infrared, even for young populations, resulting in a very tight (V-[3.6])-σe relation that in turn allows us to define a strong <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between metallicity and σe. Many Sa galaxies appear to follow the Fundamental Plane defined by E/S0 galaxies. Galaxies that appear offset from the relations correspond mostly to objects with extremely young populations, with signs of ongoing, extended star formation. We correct for this effect in the Fundamental Plane, by replacing luminosity with stellar mass using an estimate of the stellar mass-to-light ratio, so that all galaxies are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030065802','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030065802"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions and Integrals with Real Modulus in Fluid Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Legendre, Robert</p> <p>1958-01-01</p> <p>Advantage of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions and of the more general functions of Schwarz for fluid mechanics. Flows outside and inside polygons. Application to the calculation of an elbow diffuser for a wind tunnel. Properties of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals of the first kind and of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions. Properties of the theta functions and decomposition of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions into products of theta functions. Properties of the zeta functions. Decomposition of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions into sums of zeta functions and calculations of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> integrals. Applications to the calculation of wing profiles, of compressor profiles, and to the study of the vibrations of airplane wings and of compressor vanes. The manuscript of the present paper was checked by Mr. Eichelbrenner who corrected several imperfections and suggested numerous improvements to make reading of the paper easier. However, the limited subject does not permit filling in more than an incomplete knowledge of the properties of analytic functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017nova.pres.2272K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017nova.pres.2272K"><span>Curious Case of a Stripped <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, Susanna</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>MUSE fields of view (1 1 for each square) are superimposed on a pseudo-color image of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy in Abell 2670. The blue blobs lie in the opposite direction to the galactic center. [Sheen et al. 2017]An <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy in the cluster Abell 2670 has been discovered with some unexpected features. What conditions led to this galaxys unusual morphology?Unexpected JellyfishWe often see galaxies that have been disrupted or reshaped due to their motion within a cluster but these are usually late-type galaxies like our own. Such gas-rich galaxies are distorted by ram pressure as they fall into the cluster center, growing long tails of stripped gas and young stars that earn them the name jellyfish galaxies.But early-type, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies have long since used up or cleared out most of their gas, and they correspondingly form very few new stars. Its therefore unsurprising that theyve never before been spotted to have jellyfish-like features.Panels a and b show zoomed-in observations of some of the star-forming blobs with tadpole-like morphology. Panel c shows a schematic illustration of how ram-pressure stripping causes this shape. [Adapted from Sheen et al. 2017]New deep observations of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy in the cluster Abell 2670, however, have revealed some unexpected structures for an early-type galaxy. Led by Yun-Kyeong Sheen (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute), a team of scientists now reports on the optical and spectroscopic observations of this galaxy, made with the MUSE instrument on the Very Large Telescope in Chile.Tadpole BlobsThese observations reveal a number of features, including starbursts at the galactic center, 80-parsec-long tails of ionized gas, disturbed halo features, and several blue star-forming blobs with tadpole-like morphology in the surrounding region. The blobs have stellar tails that point in the direction of motion of the galaxy (toward the cluster center) and streams of ionized gas that point in the opposite</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28952717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28952717"><span>Hidden Structural Codes in Protein <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo</p> <p>2017-10-06</p> <p><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function <span class="hlt">correlation</span> in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered protein ensemble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22124206S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22124206S"><span>Properties of Dwarf <span class="hlt">Ellipticals</span> in Low-Density Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sur, Debnil; Guhathakurta, P.; Toloba, E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dwarf <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies have been studied only in dense cluster environments, where they are the most common type of object. While this suggests that their location affects their formation and evolution, the role of distance is not fully understood. Thus, to investigate the physical processes that shape these galaxies, we have conducted a study of dwarf <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies (dEs) in low-density environments to compare their properties with those in clusters. Catalogs of such objects have not been created; thus, we have developed a novel objective method to find new dEs through comparing photometric properties with those of galaxies in the Virgo Cluster Catalog. This method utilizes optical colors, surface brightness and <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, and it confirms smoothness through visual classification. In this last step, we found a very low contamination rate, which suggests the procedure’s utility in finding dEs. Through the NSA Sloan Atlas, we have analyzed the spectrophotometric properties of the dE candidates as a function of distance to the nearest massive galaxy, which we refer to as their host. We have found that these dEs are younger and more actively forming stars than dEs in denser regions. This is consistent with a transformation scenario in which low luminosity spiral galaxies are affected by the environment and transformed into quiescent galaxies. This low density regime contains objects in an intermediate state between the spiral galaxy and the classical dE in Virgo, where no star formation is ongoing. The <span class="hlt">correlation</span> of the studied properties with the distance to the host galaxy provides new evidence that the dEs are created by a process called ram-pressure stripping: the interstellar medium of a host galaxy removes the gas of a smaller star-forming galaxy and provokes its quenching. We are currently analysing Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of some of the dE candidates from our catalog to explore in more detail their connection to cluster dEs. Possible similarities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626966','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA626966"><span>On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Korselt Numbers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-11-17</p> <p>On Fibonacci numbers which are <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Korselt numbers Florian Luca School of Mathematics University of the Witwatersrand P. O. Box Wits 2050, South...is a CM <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> curve with CM field Q( √ −d), then the set of n for which the nth Fibonacci number Fn satisfies an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Korselt criterion for Q...SUBTITLE On Fibonacci Numbers Which Are <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Korselt Numbers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5926364','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5926364"><span>Mixing characteristics of a ducted, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> jet with dump</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schadow, K.C.; Wilson, K.J.; Parr, D.M.; Gutmark, E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Mixing between <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ducted air-jets with dump and nitrogen radially injected through the duct walls was experimentally studied using hot-wire anemometry and gas-sampling techniques. Mixing was considerably increased when the air-jet was issued from <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> relative to circular jet-exit cross-sections. <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> jets issued from orifices provided better mixing than issued from pipes. Additional mixing enhancement was achieved when the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> jets were acoustically forced by excited resonant pressure waves of the duct. The mean and turbulence velocity measurements provided insight into the mechanism of the observed mixing enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389709"><span>Two-dimensional <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zang, Xiaofei; Jiang, Chun</p> <p>2010-03-29</p> <p>Using coordinate transformation stated earlier by Pendry et al. [Science 312, 1780 (2006)], we investigate the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber, based on the concept of complementary media. Such an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> electromagnetic superscatterer (or superabsorber) is realized by coating an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> negative refractive material shell. The effectiveness of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber designs is verified by finite element simulations. The proposed design provides a more practical superscatterer (or superabsorber) geometry when compared to previous designs with axial and radial symmetries. Our results can be extended to an arbitrarily shaped electromagnetic superscatterer and superabsorber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...07..112B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...07..112B"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> multiple zeta values and one-loop superstring amplitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Broedel, Johannes; Mafra, Carlos R.; Matthes, Nils; Schlotterer, Oliver</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We investigate iterated integrals on an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> curve, which are a natural genus-one generalization of multiple polylogarithms. These iterated integrals coincide with the multiple <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> polylogarithms introduced by Brown and Levin when constrained to the real line. At unit argument they reduce to an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> analogue of multiple zeta values, whose network of relations we start to explore. A simple and natural application of this framework are one-loop scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory. In particular, <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> multiple zeta values are a suitable language to express their low energy limit. Similar to the techniques available at tree-level, our formalism allows to completely automatize the calculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AJ....152..214S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AJ....152..214S"><span>Colors of <span class="hlt">Ellipticals</span> from GALEX to Spitzer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schombert, James M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Multi-color photometry is presented for a large sample of local <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> selected by morphology and isolation. The sample uses data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and Spitzer to cover the filters NUV, ugri, JHK and 3.6 μm. Various two-color diagrams, using the half-light aperture defined in the 2MASS J filter, are very coherent from color to color, meaning that galaxies defined to be red in one color are always red in other colors. Comparison to globular cluster colors demonstrates that <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> are not composed of a single age, single metallicity (e.g., [Fe/H]) stellar population, but require a multi-metallicity model using a chemical enrichment scenario. Such a model is sufficient to explain two-color diagrams and the color-magnitude relations for all colors using only metallicity as a variable on a solely 12 Gyr stellar population with no evidence of stars younger than 10 Gyr. The [Fe/H] values that match galaxy colors range from -0.5 to +0.4, much higher (and older) than population characteristics deduced from Lick/IDS line-strength system studies, indicating an inconsistency between galaxy colors and line indices values for reasons unknown. The NUV colors have unusual behavior, signaling the rise and fall of the UV upturn with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> luminosity. Models with blue horizontal branch tracks can reproduce this behavior, indicating the UV upturn is strictly a metallicity effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050186558','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050186558"><span>Evolution of Hot Gas in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mathews, William G.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This theory grant was awarded to study the curious nature, origin and evolution of hot gas in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and their surrounding groups. Understanding the properties of this X-ray emitting gas has profound implications over the broad landscape of modern astrophysics: cosmology, galaxy formation, star formation, cosmic metal enrichment, galactic structure and dynamics, and the physics of hot gases containing dust and magnetic fields. One of our principal specific objectives was to interpret the marvelous new observations from the XMM and Chandru satellite X-ray telescopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21011330','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21011330"><span>Guided modes of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> metamaterial waveguides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Halterman, Klaus; Feng, Simin; Overfelt, P. L.</p> <p>2007-07-15</p> <p>The propagation of guided electromagnetic waves in open <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> metamaterial waveguide structures is investigated. The waveguide contains a negative-index media core, where the permittivity {epsilon} and permeability {mu} are negative over a given bandwidth. The allowed mode spectrum for these structures is numerically calculated by solving a dispersion relation that is expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. By probing certain regions of parameter space, we find the possibility exists to have extremely localized waves that transmit along the surface of the waveguide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20640295"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Rydberg states as direction indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lindner, Netanel H.; Peres, Asher; Terno, Daniel R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The orientation in space of a Cartesian coordinate system can be indicated by the two vectorial constants of motion of a classical Keplerian orbit: the angular momentum and the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector. In quantum mechanics, the states of a hydrogen atom that mimic classical <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> orbits are the coherent states of the SO(4) rotation group. It is known how to produce these states experimentally. They have minimal dispersions of the two conserved vectors and can be used as direction indicators. We compare the fidelity of this transmission method with that of the idealized optimal method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Ap%26SS.320...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Ap%26SS.320...51S"><span>Young circumnuclear disks in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sil'Chenko, Olga K.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>By means of integral-field spectroscopy with the Multi-Pupil Field/Fiber Spectrograph of the Russian 6-m telescope we have studied the central parts of NGC 759 and NGC 83— regular (non-interacting, without strong nuclear activity) round red luminous ( M B =-20.8--21.6) <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies which are however known to possess molecular gas. In both galaxies we have found central stellar disks with the extension of 1-2 kpc along the radius which are evidently being formed just now.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861524','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861524"><span>Attosecond Temporal Gating with <span class="hlt">Elliptically</span> Polarized Light</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dudovich, N.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M. Yu.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Levesque, J.; Zeidler, D.; Comtois, D.</p> <p>2006-12-22</p> <p>Temporal gating allows high accuracy time-resolved measurements of a broad range of ultrafast processes. By manipulating the interaction between an atom and an intense laser field, we extend gating into the nonlinear medium in which attosecond optical and electron pulses are generated. Our gate is an amplitude gate induced by <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the fundamental pulse. The gate modulates the spectrum of the high harmonic emission and we use the measured modulation to characterize the sub-laser-cycle dynamics of the recollision electron wave packet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.218a2011M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.218a2011M"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> waveforms for inspiralling compact binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mikóczi, Balázs</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The inspiral of supermassive black hole binary systems with high orbital eccentricity are the most promising sources for the gravitational wave observatories. The importance of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> gravitational waveforms in various physical scenarios has been emphasized by several authors (Wahlquist 1987, Moreno-Garrido, Buitrago and Mediavilla 1994, Martel and Poisson 1999). Taking into account the eccentricity of the orbit in the total waveform improves the parameter estimation for these sources, as it is shown by the construction and analyzation of the Fisher information matrix. In our work we use the Fourier-Bessel analysis of the Kepler motion and the stationary phase approximation of time-depend waveforms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...510386C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...510386C"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> Disordered Energy Landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Analysis of an <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘<span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4441119','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4441119"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> Disordered Energy Landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of an <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘<span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.427.3006R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012MNRAS.427.3006R"><span>The similar stellar populations of quiescent spiral and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robaina, Aday R.; Hoyle, Ben; Gallazzi, Anna; Jiménez, Raul; van der Wel, Arjen; Verde, Licia</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We compare the stellar population properties in the central regions of visually classified non-star-forming spiral and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies from Galaxy Zoo and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The galaxies lie in the redshift range 0.04 < z < 0.1 and have stellar masses larger than log M* = 10.4. We select only face-on spiral galaxies in order to avoid contamination by light from the disc in the SDSS fibre and enabling the robust visual identification of spiral structure. Overall, we find that galaxies with larger central stellar velocity dispersions, regardless of morphological type, have older ages, higher metallicities and an increased overabundance of α-elements. Age and α-enhancement, at fixed velocity dispersion, do not depend on morphological type. The only parameter that, at a given velocity dispersion, <span class="hlt">correlates</span> with morphological type is metallicity, where the metallicity of the bulges of spiral galaxies is 0.07 dex higher than that of the <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. However, for galaxies with a given total stellar mass, this dependence on morphology disappears. Under the assumption that, for our sample, the velocity dispersion traces the mass of the bulge alone, as opposed to the total mass (bulge+disc) of the galaxy, our results imply that the formation epoch of galaxy and the duration of its star-forming period are linked to the mass of the bulge. The extent to which metals are retained within the galaxy, and not removed as a result of outflows, is determined by the total mass of the galaxy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HEAD...1610634U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HEAD...1610634U"><span>The <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Demographics of Blazars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urry, C. Megan; Mao, Peiyuan; Brandt, Timothy D.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Blazar surveys over the past three decades have revealed a range of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), with large systematic differences depending on survey wavelength. This means blazar samples suffer from strong selection effects. To date there has been no agreement on how to infer <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> population demographics from these samples, with a key issue being whether blazar jet power is related to the shape of the spectral energy distribution. We investigate this issue using Monte Carlo simulations of BL Lac and flat-spectrum radio quasar populations. We rule out the hypothesis that the SED shape is not linked to luminosity, as the simulated samples in that case disagree strongly with observed surveys. This means that the low-power blazars found primarily in X-ray surveys must be more common than the high-power blazars found primarily in radio surveys. Given an <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between luminosity and SED shape, our simulations predict distributions of flux, redshift, luminosity, and spectral index consistent with existing surveys. We also show that the observed evolution of X-ray-selected blazars, as measured through the average V/Vmax ratio, appears to be negative even when the underlying evolution is actually mildly positive. The apparent negative evolution of X-ray bright BL Lacs is a selection effect caused by redshifting a steeply falling UV-to-X-ray spectrum out of the X-ray band. As this conclusion would suggest, our simulations also show that the deeper the X-ray flux limit and/or the lower the frequency of the synchrotron peak in the SED, the less negative the apparent evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22599007','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22599007"><span>Flow around a helically twisted <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Woojin; Lee, Jungil; Choi, Haecheon</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>In the present study, we conduct unsteady three-dimensional simulations of flows around a helically twisted <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> (HTE) cylinder at the Reynolds numbers of 100 and 3900, based on the free-stream velocity and square root of the product of the lengths of its major and minor axes. A parametric study is conducted for Re = 100 by varying the aspect ratio (AR) of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cross section and the helical spanwise wavelength (λ). Depending on the values of AR and λ, the flow in the wake contains the characteristic wavelengths of λ, 2λ, 6λ, or even longer than 60λ, showing a wide diversity of flows in the wake due to the shape change. The drag on the optimal (i.e., having lowest drag) HTE cylinder (AR = 1.3 and λ = 3.5d) is lower by 18% than that of the circular cylinder, and its lift fluctuations are zero owing to complete suppression of vortex shedding in the wake. This optimal HTE configuration reduces the drag by 23% for Re = 3900 where the wake is turbulent, showing that the HTE cylinder reduces the mean drag and lift fluctuations for both laminar and turbulent flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhB.907...77K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NuPhB.907...77K"><span>Thermodynamics of Inozemtsev's <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> spin chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klabbers, Rob</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We study the thermodynamic behaviour of Inozemtsev's long-range <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> spin chain using the Bethe ansatz equations describing the spectrum of the model in the infinite-length limit. We classify all solutions of these equations in that limit and argue which of these solutions determine the spectrum in the thermodynamic limit. Interestingly, some of the solutions are not selfconjugate, which puts the model in sharp contrast to one of the model's limiting cases, the Heisenberg XXX spin chain. Invoking the string hypothesis we derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations (TBA-equations) from which we determine the Helmholtz free energy in thermodynamic equilibrium and derive the associated Y-system. We corroborate our results by comparing numerical solutions of the TBA-equations to a direct computation of the free energy for the finite-length hamiltonian. In addition we confirm numerically the interesting conjecture put forward by Finkel and González-López that the original and supersymmetric versions of Inozemtsev's <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> spin chain are equivalent in the thermodynamic limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21474439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21474439"><span>THE COOL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN <span class="hlt">ELLIPTICAL</span> GALAXIES. II. GAS CONTENT IN THE VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE AND RESULTS FROM THE COMBINED <span class="hlt">ELLIPTICAL</span> AND LENTICULAR SURVEYS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Welch, Gary A.; Sage, Leslie J.; Young, Lisa M. E-mail: lsage@astro.umd.ed</p> <p>2010-12-10</p> <p>We report new observations of atomic and molecular gas in a volume-limited sample of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. Combining the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> sample with an earlier and similar lenticular one, we show that cool gas detection rates are very similar among low-luminosity E and S0 galaxies but are much higher among luminous S0s. Using the combined sample we revisit the <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between cool gas mass and blue luminosity which emerged from our lenticular survey, finding strong support for previous claims that the molecular gas in <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and lenticulars has different origins. Unexpectedly, however, and contrary to earlier claims, the same is not true for atomic gas. We speculate that both the active galactic nucleus feedback and merger paradigms might offer explanations for differences in detection rates, and might also point toward an understanding of why the two gas phases could follow different evolutionary paths in Es and S0s. Finally, we present a new and puzzling discovery concerning the global mix of atomic and molecular gas in early-type galaxies. Atomic gas comprises a greater fraction of the cool interstellar medium in more gas-rich galaxies, a trend which can be plausibly explained. The puzzle is that galaxies tend to cluster around molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios near either 0.05 or 0.5.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117x0505M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117x0505M"><span>Gaussian <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Entanglement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mišta, Ladislav; Tatham, Richard</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We introduce a cryptographically motivated quantifier of entanglement in bipartite Gaussian systems called Gaussian <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> entanglement (GIE). The GIE is defined as the optimized mutual information of a Gaussian distribution of outcomes of measurements on parts of a system, conditioned on the outcomes of a measurement on a purifying subsystem. We show that GIE vanishes only on separable states and exhibits monotonicity under Gaussian local trace-preserving operations and classical communication. In the two-mode case, we compute GIE for all pure states as well as for several important classes of symmetric and asymmetric mixed states. Surprisingly, in all of these cases, GIE is equal to Gaussian Rényi-2 entanglement. As GIE is operationally associated with the secret-key agreement protocol and can be computed for several important classes of states, it offers a compromise between computable and physically meaningful entanglement quantifiers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880035410&hterms=cepheid+variable&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcepheid%2Bvariable','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880035410&hterms=cepheid+variable&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcepheid%2Bvariable"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> variable stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The characteristics of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231654','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231654"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Feature Motion Tracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goddard, Jr., James S.</p> <p>2013-03-19</p> <p>Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880035410&hterms=Variable+stars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DVariable%2Bstars','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880035410&hterms=Variable+stars&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DVariable%2Bstars"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> variable stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The characteristics of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=orbit&pg=2&id=EJ891960','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=orbit&pg=2&id=EJ891960"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Orbit [arrow right] 1/r[superscript 2] Force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Newton's proof of the connection between <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation "<span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit" [arrow right]…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=orbit&pg=3&id=EJ891960','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=orbit&pg=3&id=EJ891960"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Orbit [arrow right] 1/r[superscript 2] Force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prentis, Jeffrey; Fulton, Bryan; Hesse, Carol; Mazzino, Laura</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Newton's proof of the connection between <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbits and inverse-square forces ranks among the "top ten" calculations in the history of science. This time-honored calculation is a highlight in an upper-level mechanics course. It would be worthwhile if students in introductory physics could prove the relation "<span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit" [arrow right]…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.668a2103G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.668a2103G"><span>Prospects of <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Flow Studies at NICA/MPD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geraksiev, Nikolay</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>As a key observable, anisotropic flow presents a unique insight into heavy ion collision physics. The presented poster reveals the prospects of studying <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow at the NICA/MPD facility through the UrQMD model. Here, results for the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow of simulated and reconstructed hadrons at the planned NICA energy range are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJ...693..617H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJ...693..617H"><span>The <span class="hlt">Ellipticities</span> of Cluster Early-type Galaxies from z ~ 1 to z ~ 0: No Evolution in the Overall Distribution of Bulge-to-Disk Ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holden, B. P.; Franx, M.; Illingworth, G. D.; Postman, M.; van der Wel, A.; Kelson, D. D.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Ford, H.; Demarco, R.; Mei, S.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p> <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> at z>0.3, suggesting that rounder S0s are being assigned as <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. Taking the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> measurements and assuming, as in all previous studies, that the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> distribution of both <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and S0 galaxies remains constant, then we conclude from the lack of evolution in the observed early-type <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> distribution that the relative fractions of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and S0s do not evolve from z ~ 1 to z = 0 for a red-sequence selected samples of galaxies in the cores of clusters of galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract No. NAS5-26555. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15972990"><span>An investigation into the vector <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L</p> <p>2005-07-07</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptically</span> polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 +/- 0.02 microT across all residences. In contrast, background field <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span> were high, on average 47 +/- 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span>: mean respective values of 21 +/- 21% and 21 +/- 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PMB....50.3197A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PMB....50.3197A"><span>An investigation into the vector <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of extremely low frequency magnetic fields from appliances in UK homes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ainsbury, Elizabeth A.; Conein, Emma; Henshaw, Denis L.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptically</span> polarized magnetic fields induce higher currents in the body compared with their plane polarized counterparts. This investigation examines the degree of vector <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) in the home, with regard to the adverse health effects reportedly associated with ELF-MFs, for instance childhood leukaemia. Tri-axial measurements of the magnitude and phase of the 0-3000 Hz magnetic fields, produced by 226 domestic mains-fed appliances of 32 different types, were carried out in 16 homes in Worcestershire in the summer of 2004. Magnetic field strengths were low, with average (RMS) values of 0.03 ± 0.02 µT across all residences. In contrast, background field <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span> were high, on average 47 ± 11%. Microwave and electric ovens produced the highest <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span>: mean respective values of 21 ± 21% and 21 ± 17% were observed 20 cm away from these appliances. There was a negative <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between field strength and field polarization, which we attribute to the higher relative field contribution close to each individual (single-phase) appliance. The measurements demonstrate that domestic magnetic fields are extremely complex and cannot simply be characterized by traditional measurements such as time-weighted average or peak exposure levels. We conclude that <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> should become a relevant metric for future epidemiological studies of health and ELF-MF exposure. This work is supported by the charity CHILDREN with LEUKAEMIA, registered charity number 298405.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001A%26A...379..767M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001A%26A...379..767M"><span>Energy, entropy and mass scaling relations for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. Towards a physical understanding of their photometric properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Márquez, I.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Capelato, H.; Durret, F.; Lanzoni, B.; Gerbal, D.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>In the present paper, we show that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies (Es) obey a scaling relation between potential energy and mass. Since they are relaxed systems in a post violent-relaxation stage, they are quasi-equilibrium gravitational systems and therefore they also have a quasi-constant specific entropy. Assuming that light traces mass, these two laws imply that in the space defined by the three Sérsic law parameters (intensity Sigma0 , scale a and shape nu ), <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are distributed on two intersecting 2-manifolds: the Entropic Surface and the Energy-Mass Surface. Using a sample of 132 galaxies belonging to three nearby clusters, we have verified that <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> indeed follow these laws. This also implies that they are distributed along the intersection line (the Energy-Entropy line), thus they constitute a one-parameter family. These two physical laws (separately or combined), allow to find the theoretical origin of several observed photometrical relations, such as the <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between absolute magnitude and effective surface brightness, and the fact that <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> are located on a surface in the [log Reff, -2.5 log Sigma0, log nu ] space. The fact that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are a one-parameter family has important implications for cosmology and galaxy formation and evolution models. Moreover, the Energy-Entropy line could be used as a distance indicator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.GB001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..DFD.GB001G"><span>Modeling roughness effects in turbulent boundary layers using <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> relaxation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>George, Jacob; de Simone, Alejandro; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Jimenez, Javier</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>We present results from the efforts towards modeling roughness in turbulent boundary layers using <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> relaxation. This scheme, included in the v^2-f model and first formulated by Durbin (1993, JFM, vol. 249, p.465) for smooth-walls, uses an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equation to incorporate near-wall turbulence anisotropy and non-local pressure-strain effects. The use of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDE is extended to model roughness effects in various transitionally-rough and fully-rough boundary layers consisting of a uniform and sparse distribution of cylinders for which experimental data is available. The roughness effects are incorporated through the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDE by including the length and time scales that the roughness imposes upon the flow, which the experiment has shown to be constant within the rough-walls. Further modeling of roughness effects is considered by altering the source terms in the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6f5026M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPA....6f5026M"><span>Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nanoring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Xu, Jianghong; Wen, Fusheng</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex) obtained in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950015346','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950015346"><span>Far-infrared mapping of dusty <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lees, Joanna F.; Harper, D. A.; Rupen, Michael P.; Knapp, G. R.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary results from a program to map the thermal far-infrared emission from cool dust in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies using the Yerkes 60-Channel Camera on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) are presented. The 160 micron emission from the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> NGC 6542 is apparently extended over the optical galaxy whereas the 100 micron emission is unresolved. This implies a dust temperature gradient consistent with that expected for dust with Galactic properties exposed to the general interstellar radiation field of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy. Observations of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> NGC 5666 and the NGC 7463/4/5 compact group (consisting of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> NGC 7464, the S0 NGC 7465, and the spiral NGC 7463) are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvA..58..910D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhRvA..58..910D"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> ion traps and trap arrays for quantum computation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Devoe, Ralph G.</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>The properties of a rf quadrupole trap, the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ion trap, are derived. <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> traps can confine large numbers of ions in the Lamb-Dicke regime due to a hitherto unrecognized mechanism unique to one-dimensional Coulomb crystals, implicit in the theories of Dubin and Schiffer. This follows from a linear crystal stability condition, which uniquely relates the crystal size to <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, and a micromotion relation, which reveals a 1/5-root dependence on the number of trapped ions. <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> traps offer several advantages over linear traps in the Cirac-Zoller model of quantum computing, both for initial tests and as a potential method of creating a full-scale quantum computer. Numerical solutions of a one-electrode structure show that microscopic <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> traps, each containing ~100 ions, can be constructed at a density of 100 traps/cm2, making possible arrays containing >106 ions in the Lamb-Dicke regime for precision spectroscopy or quantum computation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IAUS..295..232G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IAUS..295..232G"><span>Massive bulges are not just <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> surrounded by disks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gadotti, Dimitri A.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Using results from parametric multi-component multi-band image fitting of 1000 local massive galaxies in the SDSS, I investigate scaling relations of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and bulges of disk galaxies. I show that <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and bulges occupy different loci in both the edge-on and face-on views of the fundamental plane. In addition, <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and bulges have offset mass-size relations (see Fig. 1). These results imply that massive bulges are not just massive <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with a surrounding disk, a misconception driven by early studies. This is evidence that massive <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and bulges have different formation histories, with important consequences for studies on galaxy formation and evolution. Full details can be seen in Gadotti (2009).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20695625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20695625"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> silicon arrays with anisotropic optical and wetting properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Junhu; Wang, Xianzhe; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhang, Xun; Zhu, Difu; Hao, Yudong; Ren, Zhiyu; Yang, Bai</p> <p>2010-08-17</p> <p>We demonstrate a facile etching method to fabricate silicon <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> pillar arrays (Si-EPAs) with unique anisotropic optical and wetting characters using polystyrene <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> hemisphere arrays (EHAs) as mask. The EHAs were fabricated via a modified micromolding method. By varying the experimental conditions in the fabrication process, the morphology of the resulting microstructures can be controlled exactly. Because of the anisotropic morphology of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> pillar, the Si-EPA shows unique anisotropic properties, such as anisotropic surface reflection and anisotropic wetting property. Additionally, through oblique evaporation deposition of Au and selective chemical modification to turn the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> pillars into "Janus" <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> pillars, the "Janus" Si-EPA shows more peculiar anisotropic properties owing to the further increased asymmetry. We believe that the Si-EPAs will have potential applications in anisotropic optical and electronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25374115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25374115"><span>Exploring the <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between the sequence composition of the nucleotide binding G5 loop of the FeoB GTPase domain (NFeoB) and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rate of GDP release.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guilfoyle, Amy P; Deshpande, Chandrika N; Schenk, Gerhard; Maher, Megan J; Jormakka, Mika</p> <p>2014-12-12</p> <p>GDP release from GTPases is usually extremely slow and is in general assisted by external factors, such as association with guanine exchange factors or membrane-embedded GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors), which accelerate the release of GDP by several orders of magnitude. <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> factors can also play a significant role; a single amino acid substitution in one of the guanine nucleotide recognition motifs, G5, results in a drastically altered GDP release rate, indicating that the sequence composition of this motif plays an important role in spontaneous GDP release. In the present study, we used the GTPase domain from EcNFeoB (Escherichia coli FeoB) as a model and applied biochemical and structural approaches to evaluate the role of all the individual residues in the G5 loop. Our study confirms that several of the residues in the G5 motif have an important role in the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> affinity and release of GDP. In particular, a T151A mutant (third residue of the G5 loop) leads to a reduced nucleotide affinity and provokes a drastically accelerated dissociation of GDP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.867..128P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NIMPA.867..128P"><span>Multipacting studies in <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> SRF cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prakash, Ram; Jana, Arup Ratan; Kumar, Vinit</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Multipacting is a resonant process, where the number of unwanted electrons resulting from a parasitic discharge rapidly grows to a larger value at some specific locations in a radio-frequency cavity. This results in a degradation of the cavity performance indicators (e.g. the quality factor Q and the maximum achievable accelerating gradient Eacc), and in the case of a superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavity, it leads to a quenching of superconductivity. Numerical simulations are essential to pre-empt the possibility of multipacting in SRF cavities, such that its design can be suitably refined to avoid this performance limiting phenomenon. Readily available computer codes (e.g.FishPact, MultiPac,CST-PICetc.) are widely used to simulate the phenomenon of multipacting in such cases. Most of the contemporary two dimensional (2D) codes such as FishPact, MultiPacetc. are unable to detect the multipacting in <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cavities because they use a simplistic secondary emission model, where it is assumed that all the secondary electrons are emitted with same energy. Some three-dimensional (3D) codes such as CST-PIC, which use a more realistic secondary emission model (Furman model) by following a probability distribution for the emission energy of secondary electrons, are able to correctly predict the occurrence of multipacting. These 3D codes however require large data handling and are slower than the 2D codes. In this paper, we report a detailed analysis of the multipacting phenomenon in <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> SRF cavities and development of a 2D code to numerically simulate this phenomenon by employing the Furman model to simulate the secondary emission process. Since our code is 2D, it is faster than the 3D codes. It is however as accurate as the contemporary 3D codes since it uses the Furman model for secondary emission. We have also explored the possibility to further simplify the Furman model, which enables us to quickly estimate the growth rate of multipacting without</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJQI...1450028J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJQI...1450028J"><span>Qutrit teleportation under <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> decoherence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jafarpour, Mojtaba; Naderi, Negar</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We study qutrit teleportation and its fidelity in the presence and absence of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> decoherence through a qutrit channel. The channel consists of a Heisenberg chain with xyz interaction model and the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> decoherence is implemented through the Milburn model. It is shown that while the fidelity diminishes due to <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> decoherence, it may be enhanced if the channel is initially in an entangled state. It is also observed that, for stronger <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> decoherence, the initial entanglement of the channel is more effective in enhancing of fidelity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SHPMP..35..221R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SHPMP..35..221R"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> mixed states: an appreciation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruetsche, Laura</p> <p></p> <p>An "<span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> mixed" state is a mixed state of a system that is (in a sense to be elaborated) 'orthogonal' to every pure state of that system. Although the presence of such states in the quantum theories of infinite systems is well known to those who work with such theories, <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> mixed states are virtually unheralded in the philosophical literature. Rob Clifton was thoroughly familiar with <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> mixed states. I aim here to introduce them to a wider audience-and to encourage that audience to cultivate their acquaintance by suggesting that <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> mixed states undermine assumptions framing standard discussions of the quantum measurement problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT..........1U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MsT..........1U"><span>Investigating the Density of Isolated Field <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulgen, E. Kaan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this thesis, 215.590 <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with M(r) ≤ -21 in the CFHTLS-W1 field which is covering 72 sq. deg on the sky are examined . Criterion given by Smith et al. (2004) has been used to determine isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. 118 isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies have been determined in total. By using g, r and i photometric bands, the true-colour images of candidates are produced and visually inspected. In order to have a clean list of IfEs some candidates are excluded from the final sample after visual inspection. The final sample consists of 60 IfEs which corresponds to the 0.027 per cent of the whole sample. In other words, IfE density in the W1 is 0.8 IfE / sq.deg. Since the formation of the <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> in the isolated regions is not known clearly, it is crucial to determine IfEs and compare their photometric and morphological properties to the normal or cluster <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. When the (g-i) distributions of three different <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy class are compared, it is found that they have almost the same colours. When the redshift distributions of the galaxies are considered, it can be seen that IfEs formed later than the cluster and normal <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. The average redshift of IfEs is determined as zphot=0.284, while for normal and cluster <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, it is, respectively, 0.410 and 0.732. In addition, when the effective radii of the three <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> systems are considered, it is found that the IfEs are bigger than the other two <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> classes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212898','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21212898"><span>Effects of confining walls on heat transfer from a vertical array of isothermal horizontal <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yousefi, T.; Paknezhad, M.; Ashjaee, M.; Yazdani, S.</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Steady state two-dimensional natural convection heat transfer from the vertical array of five horizontal isothermal <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinders with vertical major axis which confined between two adiabatic walls has been studied experimentally. Experiments were carried out using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Rayleigh number based on cylinder major axis was in the range 10{sup 3}{<=}Ra{<=}2.5 x 10{sup 3}, and dimensionless wall spacing 1.5{<=} t/b{<=}9 and infinity. The effect of wall spacing and Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the individual cylinder and the array were investigated. Experiments are performed for ratio wall spacing to major diameter t/b = 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and infinity. A <span class="hlt">correlation</span> based on the experimental data for the average Nusselt number of the array as a function of Ra and t/b is presented in the aforementioned ranges. A relation has been derived for optimum wall spacing at which the Nusselt number of the array attains its maximum value. At optimum wall spacing, approximately 10% increase in the heat transfer from the confined array of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinders has been observed as compared to the unconfined case. Also, a heat transfer <span class="hlt">correlation</span> has been proposed for a single <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinder with vertical major axis and has been compared with earlier works. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhFl...12.2345M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhFl...12.2345M"><span>A new form of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> relaxation equation to account for wall effects in RANS modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manceau, Rémi; Hanjalić, Kemal</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>Different methods for improving the behavior in the logarithmic layer of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> relaxation equation, which enable the extension of Reynolds stress models or eddy viscosity models down to the wall, are tested in a channel flow at Reτ=590 and compared with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. First, a priori tests are performed in order to confirm the improvement predicted by the theory, either with the Rotta+IP (isotropization of production) model or the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) model as the source term of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> relaxation equation. The best form of the model is then used for full simulations, in Durbin second moment closure or in the frame of the v2¯-f model. It is shown that the results can be significantly improved, in particular by using a formulation based on the refinement of the modeling of the two-point <span class="hlt">correlations</span> involved in the redistribution term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22016124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22016124"><span>TESTING YUKAWA-LIKE POTENTIALS FROM f(R)-GRAVITY IN <span class="hlt">ELLIPTICAL</span> GALAXIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Napolitano, N. R.; Capozziello, S.; Capaccioli, M.; Romanowsky, A. J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present the first analysis of extended stellar kinematics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies where a Yukawa-like correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential derived from f(R)-gravity is considered as an alternative to dark matter. In this framework, we model long-slit data and planetary nebula data out to 7 R{sub eff} of three galaxies with either decreasing or flat dispersion profiles. We use the corrected Newtonian potential in a dispersion-kurtosis Jeans analysis to account for the mass-anisotropy degeneracy. We find that these modified potentials are able to fit nicely all three <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and the anisotropy distribution is consistent with that estimated if a dark halo is considered. The parameter which measures the 'strength' of the Yukawa-like correction is, on average, smaller than the one found previously in spiral galaxies and <span class="hlt">correlates</span> both with the scale length of the Yukawa-like term and the orbital anisotropy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhFl...16..853F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhFl...16..853F"><span>Craik-Criminale solutions and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> instability in nonlinear-reactive closure models for turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fabijonas, Bruce R.; Holm, Darryl D.</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>The Craik-Criminale class of exact solutions is examined for a nonlinear-reactive fluids theory that includes a family of turbulence closure models. These may be formally regarded as either large eddy simulation or Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes models of turbulence. All of the turbulence closure models in the class under investigation preserve the existence of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> instability, although they shift its angle of critical stability as a function of the rotation rate Ω of the coordinate system, the wave number β of the Kelvin wave, and the model parameter α, the turbulence <span class="hlt">correlation</span> length. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> instability allows a comparison among the properties of these models. It is emphasized that the physical mechanism for this instability is not wave-wave interaction, but rather wave, mean-flow interaction as governed by the choice of a model's nonlinearity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.216...18M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.216...18M"><span>A resilient domain decomposition polynomial chaos solver for uncertain <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mycek, Paul; Contreras, Andres; Le Maître, Olivier; Sargsyan, Khachik; Rizzi, Francesco; Morris, Karla; Safta, Cosmin; Debusschere, Bert; Knio, Omar</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>A resilient method is developed for the solution of uncertain <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs on extreme scale platforms. The method is based on a hybrid domain decomposition, polynomial chaos (PC) framework that is designed to address soft faults. Specifically, parallel and independent solves of multiple deterministic local problems are used to define PC representations of local Dirichlet boundary-to-boundary maps that are used to reconstruct the global solution. A LAD-lasso type regression is developed for this purpose. The performance of the resulting algorithm is tested on an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equation with an uncertain diffusivity field. Different test cases are considered in order to analyze the impacts of <span class="hlt">correlation</span> structure of the uncertain diffusivity field, the stochastic resolution, as well as the probability of soft faults. In particular, the computations demonstrate that, provided sufficiently many samples are generated, the method effectively overcomes the occurrence of soft faults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG34009K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG34009K"><span>Analytical study on the SGS force around an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Burgers vortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Hiromichi</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The subgrid-scale (SGS) force around an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Burgers vortex is analytically examined. In turbulence, there are a lot of vortex-tubes whose cross sections are known to be approximated as the ellipse. In this study, the biaxial <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Burgers vortex is produced by adding the compressive and extensional background straining flow to the conventional Burgers vortex. By using a filtering operation, we revealed that the energy transfer by the Reynolds stress term applying the Bardina model exhibits negative <span class="hlt">correlation</span> to that by the true SGS stress term. However, it has been recently reported that a combination of the Bardina Reynolds term and the eddy viscosity model gives good performance even for the coarse LES of turbulent channel flows. In order to understand that, we discuss some SGS forces: by the true SGS stress tensor, by the eddy viscosity model, by the modified Leonard term and by the Bardina Reynolds term. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26420122.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007181&hterms=Halo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHalo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007181&hterms=Halo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DHalo"><span>Subregions of Motion and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Halo Orbits in the <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Restricted Three-Body Problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007181&hterms=halo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhalo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007181&hterms=halo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhalo"><span>Subregions of Motion and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Halo Orbits in the <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Restricted Three-Body Problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Campagnola, Stefano; Lo, Martin; Newton, Paul</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present regions of motion and periodic orbits in the spatial <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> restricted three body problem (ER3BP). Periodic orbits and regions of motion are fundamental keys to understand any dynamical system; for this reason the Hill's surfaces or the families of halo orbits have been extensively studied in the frame of the circular restricted three body problem. It is our opinion that their natural extensions to the ER3BP have not been studied enough. We divide the position space into forbidden subregions, subregions of motion and low-velocity subregions.We use these notions to define necessary condition for a transfer trajectory in the ER3BP. Also we compute branches of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> halo orbits bifurcating from halo orbits in the circular restricted three body problem. The new periodic orbits have principal periods and stability properties different from those of the originating halo orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014548','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890014548"><span>Crack-face displacements for embedded <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> and semi-<span class="hlt">elliptical</span> surface cracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raju, I. S.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Analytical expressions for the crack-face displacements of an embedded <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> crack in infinite solid subjected to arbitrary tractions are obtained. The tractions on the crack faces are assumed to be expressed in a polynomial form. These displacements expressions complete the exact solution of Vijayakumar and Atluri, and Nishioki and Atluri. For the special case of an embedded crack in an infinite solid subjected to uniform pressure loading, the present displacements agree with those by Green and Sneddon. The displacement equations derived were used with the finite-element alternating method (FEAM) for the analysis of a semi-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> surface crack in a finite solid subjected to remote tensile loading. The maximum opening displacements obtained with FEAM are compared to those with the finite-element method with singularity elements. The maximum crack opening displacements by the two methods showed good agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021439','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021439"><span>Theoretical results for starved <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Eighteen cases were used in the theoretical study of the influence of lubricant starvation on film thickness and pressure in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> elastohydrodynamic conjunctions. From the results a simple and important critical dimensionless inlet boundary distance at which lubricant starvation becomes significant was specified. This inlet boundary distance defines whether a fully flooded or a starved condition exists in the contact. Furthermore, it was found that the film thickness for a starved condition is written in dimensionless terms as a function of the inlet distance parameter and the film thickness for a fully flooded condition. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact are shown for fully flooded and starved conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..758D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..758D"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span>-anisotropic eikonal phase velocity tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Ridder, S. A. L.; Biondi, B. L.; Nichols, D.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We formulated an anisotropic eikonal tomography approach for phase velocities based on a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>-anisotropic wave equation. We can fit the parameters of the ellipse directly from measured first-order traveltime surface gradients and constrain these parameters to vary smoothly over space. The method is applied to Scholte waves in virtual seismic sources from stations in the Life of Field Seismic Ocean Bottom Cable array installed over the Ekofisk field. The fast directions of the azimuthally anisotropic Scholte wave velocities form a large circular pattern over the Ekofisk field. This pattern dominates the Scholte wave phase velocities at Ekofisk between 0.7 and 1.1 Hz. It results from the overburden stress state and from seafloor subsidence induced by decades of hydrocarbon extraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91d4016H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvD..91d4016H"><span>Horizon complementarity in <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> de Sitter space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hackl, Lucas; Neiman, Yasha</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We study a quantum field in <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> de Sitter space dS4/Z2—the spacetime obtained from identifying antipodal points in dS4. We find that the operator algebra and Hilbert space cannot be defined for the entire space, but only for observable causal patches. This makes the system into an explicit realization of the horizon complementarity principle. In the absence of a global quantum theory, we propose a recipe for translating operators and states between observers. This translation involves information loss, in accordance with the fact that two observers see different patches of the spacetime. As a check, we recover the thermal state at the de Sitter temperature as a state that appears the same to all observers. This thermal state arises from the same functional that, in ordinary dS4, describes the Bunch-Davies vacuum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970020569&hterms=loudspeaker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dloudspeaker','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970020569&hterms=loudspeaker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dloudspeaker"><span>Splitting of Forced <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Jets and Flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hertzberg, J.; Carlton, J.; Schwieterman, M.; Davis, E.; Bradley, E.; Linne, M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this work is to understand the fluid dynamics in the interaction of large scale, three-dimensional vortex structures and transitional diffusion flames in a microgravity environment. The vortex structures are used to provide a known perturbation of the type used in passive and active shear layer control techniques. 'Passive techniques' refers to manipulation of the system geometry to influence the three dimensional dynamics of vortex structures, and 'active' refers to any technique which adds energy (acoustic or kinetic) to the flow to influence the shear layer vortex dynamics. In this work the passive forcing is provided by an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet cross-section, and the active forcing is incorporated by perturbing the jet velocity using a loudspeaker in the plenum section.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428836','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26428836"><span>Ultrasonic guided waves in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> annular cylinders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rajagopal, Prabhu; Pattanayak, Roson Kumar</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper studies the influence of cross-section ovalness or <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> on lower order axisymmetric guided wave modes in thin pipes. The second longitudinal mode L(0,2) and the fundamental torsional mode T(0,1) are studied, as these are of interest to current pipe inspection. The semi-analytical finite element (FE) method is mainly used, with three-dimensional FE simulations for visualization and cross-validation of results. The studies reveal that even a small degree of ovalness can affect mode shapes and velocities. The effect is more pronounced on the L(0,2) mode than on T(0,1) and this may be important for practical inspection applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9008003A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9008003A"><span>Universal geometrical scaling of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrés, C.; Dias de Deus, J.; Moscoso, A.; Pajares, C.; Salgado, Carlos A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The presence of scaling variables in experimental observables provide very valuable indications of the dynamics underlying a given physical process. In the last years, the search for geometric scaling, that is the presence of a scaling variable which encodes all geometrical information of the collision as well as other external quantities as the total energy, has been very active. This is motivated, in part, for being one of the genuine predictions of the Color Glass Condensate formalism for saturation of partonic densities. Here we extend these previous findings to the case of experimental data on <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow. We find an excellent scaling for all centralities and energies, from RHIC to LHC, with a simple generalization of the scaling previously found for other observables and systems. Interestingly, the case of the photons, difficult to reconcile in most formalisms, nicely fit the scaling curve. We discuss on the possible interpretations of this finding in terms of initial or final state effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870060839&hterms=magnetic+resonance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bresonance','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870060839&hterms=magnetic+resonance&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bresonance"><span>Magnetic <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarization of Schumann resonances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sentman, D. D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of orthogonal, horizontal components of the magnetic field in the ELF range obtained during September 1985 show that the Schumann resonance eigenfrequencies determined separately for the north-south and east-west magnetic components differ by as much as 0.5 Hz, suggesting that the underlying magnetic signal is not linearly polarized at such times. The high degree of magnetic <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> found suggests that the side multiplets of the Schumann resonances corresponding to azimuthally inhomogeneous normal modes are strongly excited in the highly asymmetric earth-ionosphere cavity. The dominant sense of polarization over the measurement passband is found to be right-handed during local daylight hours, and to be left-handed during local nighttime hours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066058&hterms=entropy+galaxy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dentropy%2Bgalaxy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910066058&hterms=entropy+galaxy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dentropy%2Bgalaxy"><span>On the velocity fields of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Statler, Thomas S.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A family of self-consistent maximum entropy dynamical models is presented for the triaxial 'perfect ellipsoids'. These models are projected in different viewing geometries to explore the possible morphologies of the 2D radial-velocity fields of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. It is found that, typically, about half the time an 'ordinary' velocity field is seen with a mixture of major- and minor-axis rotation. For other lines of sight, the velocity fields are more complicated, showing multiple peaks, steep gradients, strongly twisted contours, or kinematically distinct or counter-rotating cores. The origin of each of these velocity field morphologies is explained in terms of competing contributions from the major families of tube orbits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1327268','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1327268"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Muon Helical Cooling Channel Coils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kahn, S. A.; Flanagan, G.; Lopes, M. L.; Yonehara, K.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A helical cooling channel (HCC) consisting of a pressurized gas absorber imbedded in a magnetic channel that provides solenoid, helical dipole and helical quadrupole fields has shown considerable promise in providing six-dimensional phase space reduction for muon beams. The most effective approach to implementing the desired magnetic field is a helical solenoid (HS) channel composed of short solenoid coils arranged in a helical pattern. The HS channel along with an external solenoid allows the B$_z$ and B$_{\\phi}$ components along the reference orbit to be set to any desired values. To set dB$_{\\phi}$/dr to the desired value for optimum focusing requires an additional variable to tune. We shall show that using <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shaped coils in the HS channel allows the flexibility to achieve the desired dB$_{\\phi}$/dr on the reference orbit without significant change to B$_z$ and B$_{\\phi}$.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTFM.126..937W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJTFM.126..937W"><span>Applications of <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Integral and <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Function to Electric Power Cable Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Kazuo</p> <p></p> <p>The paper proposes an application of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> function to a new measuring method of electric resistivity of outer-semiconductive layer of XLPE cable. The new measuring method may substitute the conventional method. The resistivity can be obtained easily by measuring resistance between two electrodes which are attached to a circumferential edge on one side of the outer-semiconductive layer of a cable core sample. The solution process is applicable to heat conduction as well as hydromechanics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23482023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23482023"><span>Quantum-orbit analysis for yield and <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of high order harmonic generation with <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized laser field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Qin, Meiyan; Lu, Peixiang</p> <p>2013-02-25</p> <p>We perform a quantum-orbit analysis for the dependence of high-order-harmonic yield on the driving field <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> and the polarization properties of the generated high harmonics. The electron trajectories responsible for the emission of particular harmonics are identified. It is found that, in <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized driving field, the electrons have <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>-dependent initial velocities, which lead to the decrease of the ionization rate. Thus the harmonic yield steeply decreases with laser <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. Besides, we show that the polarization properties of the harmonics are related to the complex momenta of the electron. The physical origin of the harmonic <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> is interpreted as the consequence of quantum-mechanical uncertainty of the electron momentum. Our results are verified with the experimental results as well as the numerical solutions of the time dependent Schrödinger equation from the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052536','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21052536"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Undulators HU256 for Synchrotron SOLEIL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Batrakov, A.; Churkin, I.; Ilyin, I.; Kolokolnikov, Yu.; Rouvinski, E.; Semenov, E.; Steshov, A.; Vobly, P.; Briquez, F.; Chubar, O.; Dael, A.; Marcouile, O.; Marteau, F.; Roux, G.; Valleau, M.</p> <p>2007-01-19</p> <p>Three <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> undulators HU256 of electromagnetic type were produced, tested and magnetically measured by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russia) for Synchrotron Soleil (France). The undulators have a new design of a Bx and Bz closed structure for insertion vacuum chamber. In the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> undulator HU256 with period of the magnetic fields of 256 mm, the vertical magnetic field (Bzmax=0.44 T) formed by 27 Bz laminated dipole magnets is symmetric, and the horizontal magnetic field (Bxmax=0.33 T) formed by 28 Bx laminated dipole magnets is asymmetric. The undulator can work in standard mode as well as in a quasi-periodical mode. The vertical magnetic field may be modulated by switching on the modulation coils placed on the Bz dipoles. Two power supply systems allow us to modulate the horizontal magnetic field, and change the radiation spectrum. The magnetic calculations of the individual dipoles and dipoles in ''undulator'' environment were executed by means of Mermaid 3D Code. The magnetic measurements of the individual dipoles had confirmed the magnetic calculations. On basis of semiempirical dependences from the mechanical characteristics the estimates of the magnetic parameters for all dipoles were calculated. Sorting of dipoles in the undulators have been done, and it has improved the magnetic parameters of the assembled undulators in comparison with the statistical estimations. The magnetic measurements of the undulators HU256 were carried out at Budker INP by Hall probes and at Soleil by Hall probes and Stretched Wire. Now the 1st undulator HU256 is installed at Soleil Storage Ring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AAS...205.9201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AAS...205.9201B"><span><span class="hlt">Ellipticals</span>: core-Sérsic vs Nuker</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartlett, D. F.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>HST has given the first look at <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies on scales <1". Lauer et al (1995) used the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC -1) to map the intensity of light I(r) in the inner 10" of 45 type E and S0 galaxies. They discovered that about 40% of the 39 <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> could not be described by a single power law. These galaxies have a core region where the power law I ∝ r-γ is less steep than the outer region I ∝ r-β . The resulting Nuker law allows for a smooth transition between these regions at a break radius rb. The physical rb varies widely: 30 pc < rb < 1200 pc. Rest et al (2001) used WFPC -2 to confirm the original WFPC -1 results with additional galaxies. Using the full WFPC -2 mosaic, Trujillo, Erwin, Ramos, and Graham (2004) have extended the angular range of Rest et al by a factor between 3 and 8. They find that the extended outer region is incompatible with a Nuker law. Rather the power law for the outer region must be replaced by the Sérsic law, I(r) ∝ e-bn r1/n. They also find that the break radius is generally much reduced. Their published study of 9 core-Sérsic galaxies has 20 pc< rb <150 pc. The new range of rb fits well within 1 wavelength λ of the non-Newtonian sinusoidal gravity. Here the potential of a point mass is GM cos(2 π r/λ )/r and λ =425 pc. (Bartlett 2001, 2004). With this gravity, the potential towards the center of any spherical mass distribution varies as ± sin(2 π r/λ )/r. I identify the + sign with the core-Sérsic galaxies and the - sign with the pure Sérsic galaxies. I will relate Sérsic's n to cosmological time t.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865290','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865290"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> irreversible heat engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A class of heat engines based on an <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5215234','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5215234"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> irreversible heat engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A class of heat engines based on an <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7255177','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7255177"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> irreversible heat engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.</p> <p>1984-12-25</p> <p>A class of heat engines based on an <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..MAR.C1189K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..MAR.C1189K"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Friction Microscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knorr, Daniel; Overney, Rene</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>A novel scanning probe methodology based on lateral force microscopy is presented wherein kinetic friction measurements, obtained as a function of velocity for various temperatures, are used to deduce apparent Arrhenius-type activation energies for surface and subsurface molecular mobilities. Depending on the coupling strength (cooperativity) between molecular mobilities involved the dissipation energy can carry a significant entropic energy contribution, accounting for the majority of the apparent Arrhenius activation energy. The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> friction methodology also provides a means of directly separating enthalpic energy contributions from entropic ones by employing absolute rate theory. As such, the degree of cooperativity in the system is readily apparent. This methodology is illustrated with nanoscale tribological experiments on two systems, (1) monodisperse, atactic polystyrene and (2) self assembling molecular glassy chromophores. In polystyrene, dissipation was found to be a discrete function of loading, where the γ-relaxation (phenyl group rotation) was recovered for ultra low loads and the β-relaxation (local backbone translation) for higher loads in the same temperature range, indicating sensitivity to surface and subsurface mobilities. For self assembling glassy chromophores, the degree of intermolecular cooperativity was deduced using the methodology, resulting in an increased understanding of the interactions between self assembling molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electromagnetic+AND+radiation&pg=6&id=EJ203681','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=electromagnetic+AND+radiation&pg=6&id=EJ203681"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Angular Momentum of Light.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Santarelli, Vincent</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=torque+AND+physics&pg=4&id=EJ203681','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=torque+AND+physics&pg=4&id=EJ203681"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Angular Momentum of Light.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Santarelli, Vincent</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25916736"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> and extrinsic mortality reunited.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27806928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27806928"><span>The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance of bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gang, Zhang; Jie, Feng</p> <p>2016-10-20</p> <p>Antibiotic resistance is often considered to be a trait acquired by previously susceptible bacteria, on the basis of which can be attributed to the horizontal acquisition of new genes or the occurrence of spontaneous mutation. In addition to acquired resistance, bacteria have a trait of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance to different classes of antibiotics. An <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance gene is involved in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance, and its presence in bacterial strains is independent of previous antibiotic exposure and is not caused by horizontal gene transfer. Recently, interest in <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance genes has increased, because these gene products not only may provide attractive therapeutic targets for development of novel drugs that rejuvenate the activity of existing antibiotics, and but also might predict future emergence of resistant pathogens if they become mobilized. In the present review, we summarize the conventional examples of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance, including the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or lack of drug targets. We also demonstrate that transferases and enzymes involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes confer <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. We present as well information on the cryptic <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> resistance genes that do not confer resistance to their native hosts but are capable of conferring resistance when their expression levels are increased and the activation of the cryptic genes. Finally, we discuss that <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> genes could be the origin of acquired resistance, especially in the genus Acinetobacter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11173997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11173997"><span>Flow in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vessels calculated for a physiological waveform.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robertson, M B; Köhler, U; Hoskins, P R; Marshall, I</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the nature of pulsatile flow is an important issue in haemodynamics, especially the initiation and progression of vascular disease. The geometry of a non-circular vessel was idealised to an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-section, and the dynamic properties of the flow were calculated for a physiological waveform. The Fourier harmonics for a common carotid waveform were determined, and the velocity profile and wall shear stress were calculated from the superposition of the individual contributions from each harmonic. The effects of <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> on the flow pattern were found to be significant. The velocity profile along the major axis of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-section developed a flattened peak, which widened as the vessel became more <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>. Wall shear stress demonstrated an angular dependence in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vessels, where the point of minimum shear stress was located at the end of the major axis. Comparison with a cylindrical vessel demonstrated a 3% decrease in peak wall shear stress (tau = 2.96, N.m(-2)) at the end of the major axis, and 10% in the mean wall shear stress (tau = 0.44 N. m(-2)), for an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vessel (epsilon = 0.8). The temporal average wall shear stress, which has been associated with atherogenic sites, also displayed a minimum at the end of the major axis that decreased with more <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-sections. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..80e1904G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvE..80e1904G"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> curvature on semiflexible polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Surya K.; Singh, Kulveer; Sain, Anirban</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Recently many important biopolymers have been found to possess <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> curvature. Tubulin protofilaments in animal cells, FtsZ filaments in bacteria and double stranded DNA are examples. We examine how <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> curvature influences the conformational statistics of such polymers. We give exact results for the tangent-tangent spatial <span class="hlt">correlation</span> function C(r)=⟨t̂(s).t̂(s+r)⟩ , both in two and three dimensions. Contrary to expectation, C(r) does not show any oscillatory behavior, rather decays exponentially and the effective persistence length has strong length dependence for short polymers. We also compute the distribution function P(R) of the end to end distance R and show how curved chains can be distinguished from wormlike chains using loop formation probability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002237','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002237"><span>Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Far-infrared dust emission from <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031706&hterms=bessel&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbessel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880031706&hterms=bessel&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dbessel"><span>Jacobi-Bessel analysis of reflector antennas with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> apertures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rahmat-Samii, Yahya</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Although many reflector antennas possess circular projected apertures, there are recent satellite and ground antenna applications for which it is desirable to employ reflectors with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> apertures. Here a modification of the Jacobi-Bessel expansion is presented for the diffraction analysis of reflectors with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> apertures. A comparative study is also performed between this modified Jacobi-Bessel algorithm and the one which uses the Jacobi-Bessel expansion over a circumscribing circular region. Numerical results are presented for offset reflectors with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and circular apertures and the improved convergence properties of the modified algorithm are highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.110f5008D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.110f5008D"><span>Kinetic Stress and <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Flow in a Toroidal Plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Almagri, A. F.; Chapman, B. E.; Fiksel, G.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Sarff, J. S.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A new mechanism for <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> plasma flow has been experimentally identified in a toroidal plasma. For reversed field pinch plasmas with a few percent β (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure), measurements show that parallel pressure fluctuations <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with magnetic fluctuations create a kinetic stress that can affect momentum balance and the evolution of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> plasma flow. This implies kinetic effects are important for flow generation and sustainment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT.......218M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988PhDT.......218M"><span>Galerkin Methods for Nonlinear <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murdoch, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis exploits in the nonlinear situation the optimal approximation property of the finite element method for linear, <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problems. Of particular interest are the steady state semiconductor equations in one and two dimensions. Instead of discretising the differential equations by the finite element method and solving the nonlinear algebraic equations by Newton's method, a Newton linearisation of the continuous problem is preferred and a sequence of linear problems solved until some convergence criterion is achieved. For nonlinear Poisson equations, this approach reduces to solving a sequence of linear, <span class="hlt">elliptic</span>, self -adjoint problems, their approximation by the finite element being optimal in a suitably defined energy norm. Consequently, there is the potential to recover a smoother representation of the underlying solution at each step of the Newton iteration. When this approach is applied to the continuity equations for semiconductor devices, a sequence of linear problems of the form -_{nabla }(anabla u - bu) = f must be solved. The Galerkin method in its crude form does not adequately represent the true solution: however, generalising the framework to permit Petrov-Galerkin approximations remedies the situation. For one dimensional problems, the work of Barrett and Morton allows an optimal test space to be chosen at each step of the Newton iteration so that the resulting approximation is near optimal in a norm closely related to the standard L^2 norm. More detailed information about the underlying solution can then be obtained by recovering a solution of an appropriate form. For two-dimensional problems, since the optimal test functions are difficult to find in practice, an upwinding method due to Heinrich et.al. is used at each step of the Newton iteration. Also, a framework is presented in which various upwind methods may be compared. The thesis also addresses the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...837L...1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...837L...1M"><span>The Equilibrium Temperature of Planets in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Méndez, Abel; Rivera-Valentín, Edgard G.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>There exists a positive <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between orbital eccentricity and the average stellar flux that planets receive from their parent star. Often, though, it is assumed that the average equilibrium temperature would correspondingly increase with eccentricity. Here, we test this assumption by calculating and comparing analytic solutions for both the spatial and temporal averages of orbital distance, stellar flux, and equilibrium temperature. Our solutions show that the average equilibrium temperature of a planet, with a constant albedo, slowly decreases with eccentricity until converging to a value 90% that of a circular orbit. This might be the case for many types of planets (e.g., hot Jupiters); however, the actual equilibrium and surface temperature of planets also depend on orbital variations of albedo and greenhouse. Our results also have implications in understanding the climate, habitability, and the occurrence of potential Earth-like planets. For instance, it helps explain why the limits of the habitable zone for planets in highly <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbits are wider than expected from the mean flux approximation, as shown by climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......187D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......187D"><span>Tracing the Formation and Evolution of Massive <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davari, Roozbeh</p> <p></p> <p>Massive galaxies at higher redshift, z > 2, show different characteristics than their local counterparts. They are compact and most likely have a disk. Understanding the evolutionary path of these massive galaxies can give us some clues on how the universe has been behaving in the last 10 billion years. How well can we measure the bulge and disk properties of these systems? We perform two sets of comprehensive simulations in order to systematically quantify the effects of non-homology in structures and the methods employed. For the first set of simulations, by accurately capturing the detailed substructures of nearby <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and then rescaling their sizes and signal-to-noise to mimic galaxies at different redshifts, we confirm that the massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are significantly more compact <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> than their local counterparts. Their observed compactness is not a result of missing faint outer light due to systematic errors in modeling. For the second set of simulations, we employ empirical scaling relations to produce realistic-looking two-component local galaxies with a uniform and wide range of bulge-to-total ratios (B/T), and then rescale them to mimic the signal-to-noise ratios and sizes of observed galaxies at z ≈ 2. This provides the first set of simulations for which we can examine the robustness of two-component decomposition of compact disk galaxies at different B/T . We can measure B/T accurately without imposing any constraints on the light profile shape of the bulge, but, due to the small angular sizes of bulges at high redshift, their detailed properties can only be recovered for galaxies with B/T ≥ 0.2. The disk component, by contrast, can be measured with little difficulty. Next, we trace back the evolution of local massive galaxies but performing detailed morphological analysis: namely, single Swrsic fitting and bulge+disk decomposition. CANDELS images and catalogues offer an ideal dataset for this study. We</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...553A..99E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013A%26A...553A..99E"><span>Age and metallicity gradients in fossil <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eigenthaler, P.; Zeilinger, W. W.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Context. Fossil galaxy groups are speculated to be old and highly evolved systems of galaxies that formed early in the universe and had enough time to deplete their L∗ galaxies through successive mergers of member galaxies, building up one massive central <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, but retaining the group X-ray halo. Aims: Considering that fossils are the remnants of mergers in ordinary groups, the merger history of the progenitor group is expected to be imprinted in the fossil central galaxy (FCG). We present for the first time radial gradients of single-stellar population (SSP) ages and metallicites in a sample of FCGs to constrain their formation scenario. We also measure line-strength gradients for the strongest absorption features in these galaxies. Methods: We took deep spectra with the long-slit spectrograph ISIS at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) for six FCGs. The obtained spectra are fit with Pegase HR SSP models within the full-spectrum fitting package ULySS yielding SSP ages and metallicities of the stellar populations. We measure radial gradients of SSP ages and metallicities along the major axes. Lick indices are measured for the strongest absorption features to determine line-strength gradients and compare with the full-spectrum fitting results. Results: Our sample comprises some of the most massive galaxies in the universe exhibiting an average central velocity dispersion of σ0 = 271 ± 28 km s-1. Metallicity gradients are throughout negative with comparatively flat slopes of ∇[Fe/H] = -0.19 ± 0.08 while age gradients are found to be insignificant (∇age = 0.00 ± 0.05). All FCGs lie on the fundamental plane, suggesting that they are virialised systems. We find that gradient strengths and central metallicities are similar to those found in cluster <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> of similar mass. Conclusions: The comparatively flat metallicity gradients with respect to those predicted by monolithic collapse (∇Z = -0.5) suggest that fossils are indeed the result of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.13708008H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.13708008H"><span>Recent progress on <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> charm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobbs, T. J.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Over the past ˜10 years, the topic of the nucleon's nonperturbative or <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> charm (IC) content has enjoyed something of a renaissance, largely motivated by theoretical developments involving quark modelers and PDF-fitters. In this talk I will briefly describe the importance of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> charm to various issues in high-energy phenomenology, and survey recent progress in constraining its overall normalization and contribution to the momentum sum rule of the nucleon. I end with the conclusion that progress on the side of calculation has now placed the onus on experiment to unambiguously resolve the proton's <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> charm component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JDE...260.5043D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JDE...260.5043D"><span>C1,1 regularity for degenerate <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> obstacle problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-<span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.359...31W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OptCo.359...31W"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Hermite-Gaussian soliton in anisotropic strong nonlocal media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Qing; Li, JingZhen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The propagation of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam in strong nonlocal media with <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Gaussian-shaped response function was studied by variational approach as well as numerical simulate. The evolution equations of the beam widths in x- and y-directions are obtained and the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> HG soliton is found. For forming such a soliton, the ratio of the square of the beam width must be proportional to the ratio of the characteristic length of the material, and the initial power should be equal to the two critical powers in x- and y-directions. For the anisotropic nonlinearity of the media, the instability of the high-order <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> HG beam is increase as the increase of the order.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EJPh...37f2001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EJPh...37f2001H"><span>Stable equilibria of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> roly-poly toys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hong, Seok-In</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>As an instructive (gravitational potential) energy approach, we show that the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> roly-poly has a richer and more useful profile (including the tilted configuration) of stable equilibria than conventional spherical or cylindrical roly-polys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793986','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/793986"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillip, B.</p> <p>2000-07-24</p> <p>Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> solvers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008929','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008929"><span>Iterative methods for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> finite element equations on general meshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nicolaides, R. A.; Choudhury, Shenaz</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Iterative methods for arbitrary mesh discretizations of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations are surveyed. The methods discussed are preconditioned conjugate gradients, algebraic multigrid, deflated conjugate gradients, an element-by-element techniques, and domain decomposition. Computational results are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418498','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22418498"><span>Rigorous theory on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror focusing for point scanning microscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin; Wilson, Tony; Zhong, Cien</p> <p>2012-03-12</p> <p>A rigorous <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror focusing formula based on spherical wave transformation is derived as a kind of imaging technique with high NA for potential applications in molecule imaging, spectroscopy and industrial artifact microscopy. An apodization factor is given and used to compare the energy conversation rules in lens transmission and parabolic and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror reflections. Simulation results indicate that the axial HFWHM of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and parabolic mirrors is about 80% of the corresponding HFWHM of lens in case of NA = 1 and φs = 0, and the side lobe noise is also slightly lower than that of lens, but the transverse HFWHM of mirrors is comparatively wider despite the width of main lobe is still smaller. In comparison with parabolic mirror based system, an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror based system is potentially promising in aberration control of incident beam when the aperture of mirror is enlarged to adapt a large stage or specimen container at a small beam shading ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860026173&hterms=isophotes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Disophotes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860026173&hterms=isophotes&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Disophotes"><span>Boxy isophotes, discs and dust lanes in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lauer, T. R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>CCD images of 42 <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and S0 galaxies are examined for low-contrast structures or subtle distortions of the isophotes from perfect ellipses. 75 percent of the galaxies have isophotes completely describable as concentric ellipses to within the photometry errors. 'Boxy' isophotes, stellar discs, and dust lanes are detected in the remaining 25 percent of the sample. The boxy <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies appear dynamically indistinguishable from normal <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and are therefore different from boxy bulges, which rotate rapidly. Most of the galaxies with faint discs, however, appear dynamically similar to S0 galaxies. Nearly edge-on dust lanes are found in four galaxies, which suggests that dust lanes may commonly occur in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........27V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........27V"><span>To flow or not to flow : a study of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow and nonflow in proton-proton collisions in ALICE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van der Kolk, N.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The standard model of particle physics describes all known elementary particles and the forces between them. The strong force, which binds quarks inside hadrons and nucleons inside nuclei, is described by the theory of Quantum Chromodynamics. This theory predicts a new state of matter at extreme temperatures and densities: the Quark Gluon plasma. The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider near Geneva was build to study this QGP by looking at collisions of the most heavy stable ions: lead (Pb) ions. In such collisions one hopes to achieve sufficient energy density for the creation of a QGP. One of the signatures of QGP formation in high energy heavy ion collisions is the presence of collective behaviour in the system formed during the collision. This collectivity manifests itself in a common velocity in all produced particles: a collective flow. The most dominant contribution to collective flow is <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow, which originates from the anisotropic overlap region of the two nuclei in non-central collisions and is visible in the azimuthal distribution of the produced particles. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> flow is related to the equation of state of the system and its degree of thermalisation. The analysis of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow is complicated by the presence of <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between particles from other sources, summarised in the term nonflow. Several analysis methods have become available over the years and have been implemented for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow analysis within the ALICE computing framework. These methods have different sensitivities to these nonflow <span class="hlt">correlations</span>. Because the centre of mass energy at the LHC is so high, predictions have been made of collective behaviour even in proton-proton collisions. These predictions are very divers and give values between 0 and 0.2 for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow using different models. To constrain these predictions proton-proton data, recorded with the ALICE experiment at the LHC in the 2010 7 TeV proton-proton run, was studied. In proton-proton collisions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.444.3340W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.444.3340W"><span>The ATLAS 3D project - XXIV. The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shape distribution of early-type galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weijmans, Anne-Marie; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Young, Lisa M.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We use the ATLAS3D sample to perform a study of the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shapes of early-type galaxies, taking advantage of the available combined photometric and kinematic data. Based on our <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, and additional imaging from the Isaac Newton Telescope, we first invert the shape distribution of fast and slow rotators under the assumption of axisymmetry. The so-obtained <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shape distribution for the fast rotators can be described with a Gaussian with a mean flattening of q = 0.25 and standard deviation σq = 0.14, and an additional tail towards rounder shapes. The slow rotators are much rounder, and are well described with a Gaussian with mean q = 0.63 and σq = 0.09. We then checked that our results were consistent when applying a different and independent method to obtain <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shape distributions, by fitting the observed <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> distributions directly using Gaussian parametrizations for the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> axis ratios. Although both fast and slow rotators are identified as early-type galaxies in morphological studies, and in many previous shape studies are therefore grouped together, their shape distributions are significantly different, hinting at different formation scenarios. The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shape distribution of the fast rotators shows similarities with the spiral galaxy population. Including the observed kinematic misalignment in our <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> shape study shows that the fast rotators are predominantly axisymmetric, with only very little room for triaxiality. For the slow rotators though there are very strong indications that they are (mildly) triaxial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..95c4910A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..95c4910A"><span>Measurement of long-range angular <span class="hlt">correlations</span> and azimuthal anisotropies in high-multiplicity p +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aidala, C.; Akiba, Y.; Alfred, M.; Andrieux, V.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Ayuso, C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bandara, N. S.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Blau, D. S.; Boer, M.; Bok, J. S.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butler, C.; Campbell, S.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cervantes, R.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Citron, Z.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dion, A.; Dixit, D.; Do, J. H.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Dumancic, M.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Elder, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fan, W.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukuda, Y.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Goto, Y.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, K.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ito, Y.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jezghani, M.; Ji, Z.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Jorjadze, V.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kang, J. H.; Kapukchyan, D.; Karthas, S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, M. H.; Kim, M.; Kincses, D.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kotov, D.; Kudo, S.; Kurita, K.; Kwon, Y.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lallow, E. O.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leung, Y. H.; Lewis, N. A.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, M. X.; Loggins, V.-R.; Loggins, V.-R.; Lovasz, K.; Lynch, D.; Majoros, T.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Malaev, M.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masuda, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Mendoza, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mihalik, D. E.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Morrow, S. I. M.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nagashima, T.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Novotny, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ottino, G. J.; Ozawa, K.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, M.; Peng, W.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perezlara, C. E.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Phipps, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Pun, A.; Purschke, M. L.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richford, D.; Rinn, T.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Runchey, J.; Safonov, A. S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shioya, T.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Smith, K. L.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Syed, S.; Sziklai, J.; Takeda, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Tarnai, G.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Ueda, Y.; Ujvari, B.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Carson, S.; Velkovska, J.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vukman, N.; Wang, X. R.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wong, C. P.; Woody, C. L.; Xu, C.; Xu, Q.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamamoto, H.; Yanovich, A.; Yin, P.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zharko, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We present measurements of long-range angular <span class="hlt">correlations</span> and the transverse momentum dependence of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow v2 in high-multiplicity p +Au collisions at √{s NN}=200 GeV. A comparison of these results to previous measurements in high-multiplicity d +Au and 3He+Au collisions demonstrates a relation between v2 and the initial collision eccentricity ɛ2, suggesting that the observed momentum-space azimuthal anisotropies in these small systems have a collective origin and reflect the initial geometry. Good agreement is observed between the measured v2 and hydrodynamic calculations for all systems, and an argument disfavoring theoretical explanations based on initial momentum-space domain <span class="hlt">correlations</span> is presented. The set of measurements presented here allows us to leverage the distinct <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> geometry of each of these systems to distinguish between different theoretical descriptions of the long-range <span class="hlt">correlations</span> observed in small collision systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MNRAS.368L..67B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006MNRAS.368L..67B"><span>AGN-controlled cooling in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, P. N.; Kaiser, C. R.; Heckman, T. M.; Kauffmann, G.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>A long-standing problem for models of galaxy formation has been the mismatch between the predicted shape of the mass function of dark matter halos and the observed shape of the luminosity function of galaxies. The number of massive haloes is predicted to decrease as a power law (N~M-2) out to very large masses, while the galaxy luminosity function cuts off exponentially at luminosities above L*. This implies that the efficiency with which gas cools onto massive systems is lower than expected. This letter investigates the role of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) in continually re-heating the cooling gas. By combining two observational results, the time-averaged energy output associated with recurrent radio source activity is determined, as a function of the black hole mass of the host galaxy: . It is shown that for massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies this radio-source heating balances the radiative energy losses from the hot gas surrounding the galaxy. The recurrent radio-loud AGN activity may therefore provide a self-regulating feedback mechanism capable of controlling the rate of growth of galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92c4901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..92c4901A"><span>Universal geometrical scaling of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrés, C.; de Deus, J. Dias; Moscoso, A.; Pajares, C.; Salgado, Carlos A.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The presence of scaling variables in experimental observables provides very valuable indications of the dynamics underlying a given physical process. In the last years, the search for geometric scaling, that is the presence of a scaling variable which encodes all geometrical information of the collision as well as other external quantities as the total energy, has been very active. This is motivated, in part, for being one of the genuine predictions of the color glass condensate formalism for saturation of partonic densities. Here we extend these previous findings to the case of experimental data on <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow. We find an excellent scaling for all centralities and energies, from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to the CERN Large Hadron Collider, with a simple generalization of the scaling previously found for other observables and systems. Interestingly the case of the photons, difficult to reconcile in most formalisms, nicely fits the scaling curve. We discuss the possible interpretations of this finding in terms of initial or final state effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6431631','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6431631"><span>Beam-beam deflection and signature curves for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ziemann, V.</p> <p>1990-10-22</p> <p>In this note we will present closed expressions for the beam-beam deflection angle for arbitrary <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> beams including tilt. From these expressions signature curves, i.e., systematic deviations from the round beam deflection curve due to <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> or tilt are derived. In the course of the presentation we will prove that it is generally impossible to infer individual beam sizes from beam-beam deflection scans. 3 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA450432','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA450432"><span>Development of an <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Trainer Physical Fitness Test</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-04-02</p> <p>rear-drive model <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> trainer for placement in Navy gyms and ships. Despite the availability of the CT 9500 HR <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> trainer for Navy...service members, it has not been evaluated as an alternate method to assess cardiovascular fitness in the PRT. The CT 9500 HR rear-drive model ...calculations are not available due to an impending patent application. In two productions of the CT 9500 HR model , the software for the distance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021454','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021454"><span>Scatter of elastic waves by a thin flat <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> inhomogeneity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fu, L. S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Elastodynamic fields of a single, flat, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> inhomogeneity embedded in an infinite elastic medium subjected to plane time harmonic waves are studied. Scattered displacement amplitudes and stress intensities are obtained in series form for an incident wave in an arbitrary direction. The cases of a penny shaped crack and an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> crack are given as examples. The analysis is valid for alpha a up to about two, where alpha is longitudinal wave number and a is a typical geometric parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DPP.FP143F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..DPP.FP143F"><span>Bifurcations in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, asymmetric non-neutral plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fajans, Joel; Gilson, Erik</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>When subjected to a stationary, l=2 potential perturbation on the wall, a pure electron plasma will deform into an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape. At first, the plasma's <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> is proportional to the strength of the potential perturbation. Once the perturbation is increased beyond a critical value, the plasma equilibrium bifurcates into two off-axis states. This bifurcation has been observed experimentally and will be described in this poster. (see http://socrates.berkeley.edu/ fajans/EquilStab/EllipseBifurcation.avi)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JMP....40.6339G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JMP....40.6339G"><span>On the explicit solutions of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Calogero system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gavrilov, L.; Perelomov, A. M.</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Let q1,q2,…,qN be the coordinates of N particles on the circle, interacting with the integrable potential ∑j<kN℘(qj-qk), where ℘ is the Weierstrass <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> function. We show that every symmetric <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> function in q1,q2,…,qN is a meromorphic function in time. We give explicit formulas for these functions in terms of genus N-1 theta functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389..317J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389..317J"><span>Remarks of <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Curves Derived from Ant Colony Routing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Sangsu; Kim, Daeyeoul; Singh, Dhananjay</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We deal with an ant colony based routing model for wireless multi-hop networks. Our model adopts an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> curve equation, which is beneficial to design pheromone dynamics for load balancing and packet delivery robustness. Due to the attribute of an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> curve equation, our model prevents the over-utilization of a specific node, distinctively from conventional ant colony based schemes. Numerical simulations exhibit the characteristics of our model with respect to various parameters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4948636','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4948636"><span>Depth-resolved measurements with <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized reflectance spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bailey, Maria J.; Sokolov, Konstantin</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ability of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarized reflectance spectroscopy (EPRS) to detect spectroscopic alterations in tissue mimicking phantoms and in biological tissue in situ is demonstrated. It is shown that there is a linear relationship between light penetration depth and <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. This dependence is used to demonstrate the feasibility of a depth-resolved spectroscopic imaging using EPRS. The advantages and drawbacks of EPRS in evaluation of biological tissue are analyzed and discussed. PMID:27446712</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/55019','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/55019"><span>The presence and nature of <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> in Appalachian hardwood logs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>R. Edward Thomas; John S. Stanovick; Deborah. Conner</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of hardwood logs is most often observed and measured from either end of a log. However, due to the nature of hardwood tree growth and bucking practices, the assessment of <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> in thir manner may not be accurate. Trees grown on hillsides often develop supporting wood that gives the first few feet of the  log butt a significant degree of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Nonli..23.1741L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Nonli..23.1741L"><span>A class of variational-hemivariational inequalities of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> type</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhenhai; Motreanu, Dumitru</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to the existence of solutions for variational-hemivariational inequalities of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> type, with a higher order quasilinear principal part, at resonance as well as at nonresonance. The approach relies on the use of pseudomonotone operators. By means of the notion of Clarke's generalized gradient and the properties of the first eigenfunction of the quasilinear principal part, we also build a Landesman-Lazer theory in the nonsmooth framework of variational-hemivariational inequalities of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880060464&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880060464&hterms=monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dmonsters"><span>Do massive black holes reside in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fabian, A. C.; Canizares, C. R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The accretion by a central black hole of the hot interstellar medium in an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy is investigated, and the minimum expected luminosity and manner of its emission is estimated. It is not obviously detected at any wavelength. The problem of 'starving the monster', if indeed there is a monster, is raised. The simplest conclusion from the evidence is that most bright <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies do not contain massive black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880060464&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DMonsters','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880060464&hterms=Monsters&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DMonsters"><span>Do massive black holes reside in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fabian, A. C.; Canizares, C. R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The accretion by a central black hole of the hot interstellar medium in an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy is investigated, and the minimum expected luminosity and manner of its emission is estimated. It is not obviously detected at any wavelength. The problem of 'starving the monster', if indeed there is a monster, is raised. The simplest conclusion from the evidence is that most bright <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies do not contain massive black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/781479','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/781479"><span><span class="hlt">ELLIPT</span>2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.</p> <p>2001-03-22</p> <p>The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (<span class="hlt">ELLIPT</span>2D) has been written. <span class="hlt">ELLIPT</span>2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. <span class="hlt">ELLIPT</span>2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of <span class="hlt">ELLIPT</span>2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JOpt...15j5709L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JOpt...15j5709L"><span>Focusing of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror based system with aberrations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jian; Ai, Min; Zhang, He; Wang, Chao; Tan, Jiubin</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The effect of primary aberrations on the focusing of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror based system is studied by using the Debye integral. Specifically, the apodization function for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror is derived and expressed by the eccentricity of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror. For the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror with low aperture, intensity distributions in the presence of aberrations near focus are presented based on the derived scalar theory, while for the high-aperture condition, vectorial theory is used to describe the electric field in the focal region. In particular, the effect of aberrations is studied under radially polarized illumination. Moreover, tolerance conditions are given based on the knowledge of focusing with aberrations. It is found that the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror based system shares a similar level of tolerance conditions with that of the single lens, while both of them are more sensitive to the presence of astigmatism than other aberrations. It is believed that the results will theoretically support the application of the high-aperture <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirror in scanning microscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93j4408T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93j4408T"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> magnetization of antiferromagnetic textures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tveten, Erlend G.; Müller, Tristan; Linder, Jacob; Brataas, Arne</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Antiferromagnets (AFMs) exhibit <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> magnetization when the order parameter spatially varies. This <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> spin is present even at equilibrium and can be interpreted as a twisting of the homogeneous AFM into a state with a finite spin. Because magnetic moments couple directly to external magnetic fields, the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> magnetization can alter the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures under such influence. Starting from the discrete Heisenberg model, we derive the continuum limit of the free energy of AFMs in the exchange approximation and explicitly rederive that the spatial variation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter is associated with an <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> magnetization density. We calculate the magnetization profile of a domain wall and discuss how the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> magnetization reacts to external forces. We show conclusively, both analytically and numerically, that a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field can move and control the position of domain walls in AFMs. By comparing our model to a commonly used alternative parametrization procedure for the continuum fields, we show that the physical interpretations of these fields depend critically on the choice of parametrization procedure for the discrete-to-continuous transition. This can explain why a significant amount of recent studies of the dynamics of AFMs, including effective models that describe the motion of antiferromagnetic domain walls, have neglected the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> spin of the textured order parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21269160','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21269160"><span>STRUCTURE AND FORMATION OF <span class="hlt">ELLIPTICAL</span> AND SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kormendy, John; Fisher, David B.; Cornell, Mark E.; Bender, Ralf E-mail: dbfisher@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: bender@usm.uni-muenchen.de</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>New surface photometry of all known <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in the Virgo cluster is combined with published data to derive composite profiles of brightness, <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, position angle, isophote shape, and color over large radius ranges. These provide enough leverage to show that Sersic log I {proportional_to} r {sup 1/n} functions fit the brightness profiles I(r) of nearly all <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> remarkably well over large dynamic ranges. Therefore, we can confidently identify departures from these profiles that are diagnostic of galaxy formation. Two kinds of departures are seen at small radii. All 10 of our <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with total absolute magnitudes M{sub VT} {<=} -21.66 have cuspy cores-'missing light'-at small radii. Cores are well known and naturally scoured by binary black holes (BHs) formed in dissipationless ('dry') mergers. All 17 <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with -21.54 {<=} M{sub VT} {<=} -15.53 do not have cores. We find a new distinct component in these galaxies: all coreless <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> in our sample have extra light at the center above the inward extrapolation of the outer Sersic profile. In large <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, the excess light is spatially resolved and resembles the central components predicted in numerical simulations of mergers of galaxies that contain gas. In the simulations, the gas dissipates, falls toward the center, undergoes a starburst, and builds a compact stellar component that, as in our observations, is distinct from the Sersic-function main body of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>. But <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with extra light also contain supermassive BHs. We suggest that the starburst has swamped core scouring by binary BHs. That is, we interpret extra light components as a signature of formation in dissipative ('wet') mergers. Besides extra light, we find three new aspects to the ('E-E') dichotomy into two types of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. Core galaxies are known to be slowly rotating, to have relatively anisotropic velocity distributions, and to have boxy isophotes. We show that they have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MNRAS.405..477N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MNRAS.405..477N"><span>Formation, evolution and properties of isolated field <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niemi, Sami-Matias; Heinämäki, Pekka; Nurmi, Pasi; Saar, Enn</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>We study the properties, evolution and formation mechanisms of isolated field <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> (IfE) galaxies. We create a `mock' catalogue of IfE galaxies from the Millennium Simulation Galaxy Catalogue, and trace their merging histories. The formation, identity and assembly redshifts of simulated isolated and non-isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies are studied and compared. Observational and numerical data are used to compare age, mass and the colour-magnitude relation. Our results, based on simulation data, show that almost 7 per cent of all <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies brighter than -19mag in B band can be classified as IfE galaxies. Results also show that isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies have a rather flat luminosity function; a number density of ~3 × 10-6h3Mpc-3mag-1, throughout their B-band magnitudes. IfE galaxies show bluer colours than non-isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and they appear younger, in a statistical sense, according to their mass-weighted age. IfE galaxies also form and assemble at lower redshifts compared to non-isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. About 46 per cent of IfE galaxies have undergone at least one major merging event in their formation history, while the same fraction is only ~33 per cent for non-isolated <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. Almost all (~98 per cent) isolated <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies show merging activity during their evolution, pointing towards the importance of mergers in the formation of IfE galaxies. The mean time of the last major merging is at z ~ 0.6 or 6Gyr ago for isolated <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, while non-isolated <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> experience their last major merging significantly earlier at z ~ 1.1 or 8Gyr ago. After inspecting merger trees of simulated IfE galaxies, we conclude that three different, yet typical, formation mechanisms can be identified: solitude, coupling and cannibalism. Our results also predict a previously unobserved population of blue, dim and light galaxies that fulfil observational criteria to be classified as IfE galaxies. This separate population comprises</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.tmp...24M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.tmp...24M"><span>Retrieval of Rayleigh Wave <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span> from Ambient Vibration Recordings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maranò, Stefano; Hobiger, Manuel; Fäh, Donat</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of ambient vibrations is a useful tool in microzonation and geotechnical investigations. Ambient vibrations are composed to a large part of surface waves, both Love and Rayleigh waves. One reason to analyse surface waves is that they carry information about the subsurface. The dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves and Love waves can be retrieved using array processing techniques. The Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, including the sense of rotation of the particle motion, can also be retrieved using array techniques. These quantities are used in an inversion procedure aimed at obtaining a structural model of the subsurface. The focus of this work is the retrieval of Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. We show applications of the (ML) method presented in Maranó et al. (2012) to a number of sites in Switzerland. The sites examined are chosen to reflect a wide range of soil conditions that are of interest in microzonation studies. Using a synthetic wavefield with known structural model, we compare our results with theoretical <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> curves and we show the accuracy of the considered algorithm. The sense of rotation of the particle motion (prograde vs. retrograde) is also estimated. In addition, we show that by modelling the presence of both Love and Rayleigh waves it is possible to mitigate the disruptive influence of Love waves on the estimation of Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. Using recordings from several real sites, we show that it is possible to retrieve the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> curve over a broad range of frequencies. Fundamental modes and higher modes are retrieved. Singularities of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, corresponding to a change of the sense of rotation from prograde to retrograde (or vice versa), are detected with great accuracy. Knowledge of Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, including the sense of rotation, is useful in several ways. The <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> angle allows us to pinpoint accurately the frequency of singularities (i.e., peaks and zeros of the H/V representation of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.209..334M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.209..334M"><span>Retrieval of Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> from ambient vibration recordings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maranò, Stefano; Hobiger, Manuel; Fäh, Donat</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The analysis of ambient vibrations is a useful tool in microzonation and geotechnical investigations. Ambient vibrations are composed to a large part of surface waves, both Love and Rayleigh waves. One reason to analyse surface waves is that they carry information about the subsurface. The dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves and Love waves can be retrieved using array processing techniques. The Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, including the sense of rotation of the particle motion, can also be retrieved using array techniques. These quantities are used in an inversion procedure aimed at obtaining a structural model of the subsurface. The focus of this work is the retrieval of Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. We show applications of the maximum likelihood (ML) method presented in Maranò et al. to a number of sites in Switzerland. The sites examined are chosen to reflect a wide range of soil conditions that are of interest in microzonation studies. Using a synthetic wavefield with known structural model, we compare our results with theoretical <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> curves and we show the accuracy of the considered algorithm. The sense of rotation of the particle motion (prograde versus retrograde) is also estimated. In addition, we show that by modelling the presence of both Love and Rayleigh waves it is possible to mitigate the disruptive influence of Love waves on the estimation of Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. Using recordings from several real sites, we show that it is possible to retrieve the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> curve over a broad range of frequencies. Fundamental modes and higher modes are retrieved. Singularities of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, corresponding to a change of the sense of rotation from prograde to retrograde (or vice versa), are detected with great accuracy. Knowledge of Rayleigh wave <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, including the sense of rotation, is useful in several ways. The <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> angle allows us to pinpoint accurately the frequency of singularities (i.e. peaks and zeros of the H/V representation of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhB.871..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NuPhB.871..127B"><span>An <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> parameterisation of the Zamolodchikov model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bazhanov, Vladimir V.; Mangazeev, Vladimir V.; Okada, Yuichiro; Sergeev, Sergey M.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The Zamolodchikov model describes an exact relativistic factorized scattering theory of straight strings in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. It also defines an integrable 3D lattice model of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. The three-string S-matrix satisfies the tetrahedron equation which is a 3D analog of the Yang-Baxter equation. Each S-matrix depends on three dihedral angles formed by three intersecting planes, whereas the tetrahedron equation contains five independent spectral parameters, associated with angles of an Euclidean tetrahedron. The vertex weights are given by rather complicated expressions involving square roots of trigonometric function of the spectral parameters, which is quite unusual from the point of view of 2D solvable lattice models. In this paper we consider a particular four-parameter specialisation of the tetrahedron equation when one of its vertices goes to infinity and the tetrahedron itself degenerates into an infinite prism. We show that in this limit all the vertex weights in the tetrahedron equation can be represented as meromorphic functions on an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> curve. Moreover we show that a special reduction of the tetrahedron equation in this case leads precisely to an example of the tetrahedral Zamolodchikov algebra, previously constructed by Korepanov. This algebra plays important role for a "layered" construction of the Shastry's R-matrix and the 2D S-matrix appearing in the problem of the ADS/CFT correspondence for N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. Possible applications of our results in this field are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020061791','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020061791"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Relaxation of a Tensor Representation for the Redistribution Terms in a Reynolds Stress Turbulence Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carlson, J. R.; Gatski, T. B.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A formulation to include the effects of wall proximity in a second-moment closure model that utilizes a tensor representation for the redistribution terms in the Reynolds stress equations is presented. The wall-proximity effects are modeled through an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> relaxation process of the tensor expansion coefficients that properly accounts for both <span class="hlt">correlation</span> length and time scales as the wall is approached. Direct numerical simulation data and Reynolds stress solutions using a full differential approach are compared for the case of fully developed channel flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030000683','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030000683"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Relaxation of a Tensor Representation of the Pressure-Strain and Dissipation Rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Carlson, John R.; Gatski, Thomas B.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A formulation to include the effects of wall-proximity in a second moment closure model is presented that utilizes a tensor representation for the redistribution term in the Reynolds stress equations. The wall-proximity effects are modeled through an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> relaxation process of the tensor expansion coefficients that properly accounts for both <span class="hlt">correlation</span> length and time scales as the wall is approached. DNS data and Reynolds stress solutions using a full differential approach at channel Reynolds number of 590 are compared to the new model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.338..484A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptCo.338..484A"><span>Electron dynamics of molecular double ionization by <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized few-cycle laser pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ai-Hong, Tong; Guo-Qiang, Feng; Dan, Liu</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Using the classical ensemble method, we have investigated double ionization (DI) of diatomic molecules driven by <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized few-cycle laser pulses. The results show that DI channel depends strongly on internuclear distances (R), which is dominated by nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) for small and large R, while sequential double ionization (SDI) for mediate R. By tracing NSDI trajectories, we find that NSDI mainly originates from recollision process for small R and collision process for large R. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">correlated</span> momentum distributions along the long axis strongly depend on the carrier-envelope-phase (CEP), and this phase dependence is affected by R.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HMT....51..239E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HMT....51..239E"><span>Effect of opposed eccentricity on free convective heat transfer through <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> annulus enclosures in blunt and slender orientations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eid, E. I.; Abdel-Halim, M.; Easa, A. S.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents an experimental investigation for the effect of opposed lateral and vertical eccentricities on free convective heat transfer through <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> annulus enclosures in blunt and slender orientations. Three test specimens of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cylinders having an equal radius ratio and an equal length were prepared. The surface area of the inner cylinder is the same for each specimen as well as the area of the outer cylinder. Different <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ratios of 0.662, 0.866 and 0.968 were investigated. Experimental tests were done by maintaining constant heat flux on the inner cylinder and the outer one was exposed to approximately constant temperature of the closed laboratory. Both annuals ends of the annular <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cylinders were closed by cork to form the annular enclosure space. The experimental tests monitored Rayleigh number (1.642 × 103 ≤ Ra* ≤ 3.849 × 106). The effects of both opposed vertical and lateral eccentricities for both blunt and slender orientations were investigated. The experimental results were fitted by <span class="hlt">correlations</span>. Considerable agreement was found in the comparison among the results of present and previous works. Opposed eccentricity enhances free convective heat transfer by about 40 % from concentric. Slender orientation results in more enhancements in free convection than blunt one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21419547','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21419547"><span>Scaling of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow, recombination, and sequential freeze-out of hadrons in heavy-ion collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>He Min; Rapp, Ralf; Fries, Rainer J.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>The scaling properties of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow of hadrons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are investigated at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} < or approx. 2 GeV. Utilizing empirical parametrizations of a thermalized fireball with collective-flow fields, the resonance recombination model (RRM) is employed to describe hadronization via quark coalescence at the hadronization transition. We reconfirm that RRM converts equilibrium quark distribution functions into equilibrated hadron spectra including the effects of space-momentum <span class="hlt">correlations</span> on <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow. This provides the basis for a controlled extraction of quark distributions of the bulk matter at hadronization from spectra of multistrange hadrons which are beligeved to decouple close to the critical temperature. The resulting <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow from empirical fits at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider exhibits transverse kinetic-energy and valence-quark scaling. Utilizing the well-established concept of sequential freeze-out, the scaling at low momenta extends to bulk hadrons ({pi}, K, p) at thermal freeze-out, albeit with different source parameters compared to chemical freeze-out. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span>-flow scaling is thus compatible with both equilibrium hydrodynamics and quark recombination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001318','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001318"><span>Scaling of <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Flow, Recombination and Sequential Freeze-Out of Hadrons in Heavy-Ion Collisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fries, R.; He, M., and Rapp, R.</p> <p>2010-09-21</p> <p>The scaling properties of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow of hadrons produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are investigated at low transverse momenta, p{sub T} {le} 2 GeV. Utilizing empirical parametrizations of a thermalized fireball with collective-flow fields, the resonance recombination model (RRM) is employed to describe hadronization via quark coalescence at the hadronization transition. We reconfirm that RRM converts equilibrium quark distribution functions into equilibrated hadron spectra including the effects of space-momentum <span class="hlt">correlations</span> on <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow. This provides the basis for a controlled extraction of quark distributions of the bulk matter at hadronization from spectra of multistrange hadrons which are believed to decouple close to the critical temperature. The resulting <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow from empirical fits at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider exhibits transverse kinetic-energy and valence-quark scaling. Utilizing the well-established concept of sequential freeze-out, the scaling at low momenta extends to bulk hadrons ({pi}, K, p) at thermal freeze-out, albeit with different source parameters compared to chemical freeze-out. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span>-flow scaling is thus compatible with both equilibrium hydrodynamics and quark recombination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...380....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...380....1K"><span>Jacobi <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions: A review of nonlinear oscillatory application problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovacic, Ivana; Cveticanin, Livija; Zukovic, Miodrag; Rakaric, Zvonko</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>This review paper is concerned with the applications of Jacobi <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions to nonlinear oscillators whose restoring force has a monomial or binomial form that involves cubic and/or quadratic nonlinearity. First, geometric interpretations of three basic Jacobi <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions are given and their characteristics are discussed. It is shown then how their different forms can be utilized to express exact solutions for the response of certain free conservative oscillators. These forms are subsequently used as a starting point for a presentation of different quantitative techniques for obtaining an approximate response for free perturbed nonlinear oscillators. An illustrative example is provided. Further, two types of externally forced nonlinear oscillators are reviewed: (i) those that are excited by <span class="hlt">elliptic</span>-type excitations with different exact and approximate solutions; (ii) those that are damped and excited by harmonic excitations, but their approximate response is expressed in terms of Jacobi <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions. Characteristics of the steady-state response are discussed and certain qualitative differences with respect to the classical Duffing oscillator excited harmonically are pointed out. Parametric oscillations of the oscillators excited by an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span>-type forcing are considered as well, and the differences with respect to the stability chart of the classical Mathieu equation are emphasized. The adjustment of the Melnikov method to derive the general condition for the onset of homoclinic bifurcations in a system parametrically excited by an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span>-type forcing is provided and compared with those corresponding to harmonic excitations. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of Jacobi <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions in nonlinear oscillatory application problems are discussed and some suggestions for future work are given.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22111104R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AAS...22111104R"><span>An Integral View on Virgo and Field Dwarf <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies: Late-Type Origin and Environmental Transformations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rys, Agnieszka; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dwarf <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies (dEs) are the most common galaxy class in dense environments. They are also a surprisingly inhomogenous class, which has made it challenging both to relate different dE subtypes to each other, as well as place the whole class in the larger context of galaxy assembly and (trans)formation processes. Here we will show the effects of environmental evolution on Virgo Cluster and field dEs, presenting the first large-scale integral-field spectroscopic (SAURON) data for this galaxy class. Our sample consists of 12 galaxies and no two of them are alike. We find that the level of rotation is not tied to flattening; we observe kinematic twists; we discover large-scale kinematically-decoupled components; we see varying gradients in line-strength maps. This great variety of morphological, kinematic, and stellar population parameters supports the claim that dEs are defunct dwarf spiral/irregular galaxies and points to a formation scenario that allows for a stochastic shaping of galaxy properties. The combined influence of ram-pressure stripping and harassment fulfils this requirement, still, their exact impact is not yet understood. We thus further investigate the properties of our sample by performing a detailed comprehensive analysis of its kinematic, dynamical, and stellar population properties. We infer the total (dark and baryonic) matter distribution by fitting the observed stellar velocity and velocity dispersion with the solutions of the Jeans equations. We obtain 2D age, metallicity, and enrichment information from line-strength analysis. We then tie these results to the galaxies' <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> (i.e. deprojected) locations in the cluster with the use of surface-brightness fluctuation distances. This step is essential to providing unbiased <span class="hlt">correlations</span> with the local environment density. We show that the dark matter fraction, unlike the level of rotational support, appears to <span class="hlt">correlate</span> with the clustrocentric distance, and that our dwarfs have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PPCF...57d5002P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PPCF...57d5002P"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> rotation in tokamaks: theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Self-consistent equations for <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation in tokamaks with small poloidal magnetic field Bp compared to the total magnetic field B are derived. The model gives the momentum redistribution due to turbulence, collisional transport and energy injection. <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> rotation is determined by the balance between the momentum redistribution and the turbulent diffusion and convection. Two different turbulence regimes are considered: turbulence with characteristic perpendicular lengths of the order of the ion gyroradius, ρi, and turbulence with characteristic lengths of the order of the poloidal gyroradius, (B/Bp)ρi. <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> rotation driven by gyroradius scale turbulence is mainly due to the effect of neoclassical corrections and of finite orbit widths on turbulent momentum transport, whereas for the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation driven by poloidal gyroradius scale turbulence, the slow variation of turbulence characteristics in the radial and poloidal directions and the turbulent particle acceleration can be become as important as the neoclassical and finite orbit width effects. The magnetic drift is shown to be indispensable for the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation driven by the slow variation of turbulence characteristics and the turbulent particle acceleration. The equations are written in a form conducive to implementation in a flux tube code, and the effect of the radial variation of the turbulence is included in a novel way that does not require a global gyrokinetic formalism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365630','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365630"><span>The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> two-dimensional size of Sagittarius A*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bower, Geoffrey C.; Markoff, Sera; Brunthaler, Andreas; Falcke, Heino; Law, Casey; Maitra, Dipankar; Clavel, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Morris, M. R.; Witzel, Gunther; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, A. M.</p> <p>2014-07-20</p> <p>We report the detection of the two-dimensional structure of the radio source associated with the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*, obtained from Very Long Baseline Array observations at a wavelength of 7 mm. The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> source is modeled as an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> Gaussian with major-axis size 35.4 × 12.6 R{sub S} in position angle 95° east of north. This morphology can be interpreted in the context of both jet and accretion disk models for the radio emission. There is supporting evidence in large angular-scale multi-wavelength observations for both source models for a preferred axis near 95°. We also place a maximum peak-to-peak change of 15% in the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> major-axis size over five different epochs. Three observations were triggered by detection of near infrared (NIR) flares and one was simultaneous with a large X-ray flare detected by NuSTAR. The absence of simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous flares indicates that not all high energy events produce variability at radio wavelengths. This supports the conclusion that NIR and X-ray flares are primarily due to electron excitation and not to an enhanced accretion rate onto the black hole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008A%26A...484..679P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008A%26A...484..679P"><span>Formation of [α/Fe] radial gradients in the stars of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pipino, A.; D'Ercole, A.; Matteucci, F.</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Aims: We aim: i) to test and improve our previous models of an outside-in formation for the majority of <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> in the context of the SN-driven wind scenario, by means of a careful study of gas inflows/outflows; ii) to explain the observed slopes, either positive or negative, in the radial gradient of the mean stellar [α/Fe], and their apparent lack of <span class="hlt">correlation</span> with all other observables. Methods: We present a new class of hydrodynamical simulations for the formation of single <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in which we implement detailed prescriptions for the chemical evolution of H, He, O and Fe. Results: We find that all the models that predict chemical properties (such as the central mass-weighted abundance ratios, the colours or the [< Fe/H >] gradient) that lie within the observed ranges for a typical <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, also exhibit a variety of gradients in the [< α/Fe>] ratio, in agreement with the observations (namely positive, null or negative). All these models undergo an outside-in formation, in the sense that star formation stops earlier in the outermost than in the innermost regions, due to the onset of a galactic wind. We find that the predicted variety of gradients in the [< α/Fe>] ratio can be explained by physical processes generally not taken into account in simple chemical evolution models, such as radial flows coupled with different initial conditions for the galactic proto-cloud. The typical [< Z/H >] gradients predicted by our models have a slope of -0.3 dex per decade variation in radius, consistent with the mean values of several observational samples. However, we also find a quite extreme model in which this slope is -0.5 dex per decade, thus explaining some recent data on gradients in <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. Conclusions: We conclude that the history of star formation is fundamental for the creation of abundance gradients in <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> but that radial flows with different velocity in conjunction with the duration and efficiency of star formation in different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035870','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1035870"><span>Physics of <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ku, S; Dimond, P H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Kwon, J M; Sarazin, Y; Hahm, T S; Garbet, X; Chang, C S; Latu, G; Yoon, E S; Ghendrih, Ph; Yi, S; Strugarek, A; Solomon, W</p> <p>2012-02-23</p> <p>Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation in the co-current direction. <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> torque. Fluctuation intensity, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are <span class="hlt">correlated</span> and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NucFu..52f3013K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NucFu..52f3013K"><span>Physics of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation in flux-driven ITG turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ku, S.; Abiteboul, J.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kwon, J. M.; Sarazin, Y.; Hahm, T. S.; Garbet, X.; Chang, C. S.; Latu, G.; Yoon, E. S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Yi, S.; Strugarek, A.; Solomon, W.; Grandgirard, V.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation in the co-current direction. <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> torque. Fluctuation intensity, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E × B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are <span class="hlt">correlated</span> and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24708372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24708372"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> graph structure estimation using graph Laplacian.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noda, Atsushi; Hino, Hideitsu; Tatsuno, Masami; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A graph is a mathematical representation of a set of variables where some pairs of the variables are connected by edges. Common examples of graphs are railroads, the Internet, and neural networks. It is both theoretically and practically important to estimate the intensity of direct connections between variables. In this study, a problem of estimating the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> graph structure from observed data is considered. The observed data in this study are a matrix with elements representing dependency between nodes in the graph. The dependency represents more than direct connections because it includes influences of various paths. For example, each element of the observed matrix represents a co-occurrence of events at two nodes or a <span class="hlt">correlation</span> of variables corresponding to two nodes. In this setting, spurious <span class="hlt">correlations</span> make the estimation of direct connection difficult. To alleviate this difficulty, a digraph Laplacian is used for characterizing a graph. A generative model of this observed matrix is proposed, and a parameter estimation algorithm for the model is also introduced. The notable advantage of the proposed method is its ability to deal with directed graphs, while conventional graph structure estimation methods such as covariance selections are applicable only to undirected graphs. The algorithm is experimentally shown to be able to identify the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> graph structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6128592','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6128592"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wheatley, J.; Hofler, T.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p>Certain thermoacoustic effects are described which form the basis for a heat engine that is <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> irreversible in the sense that it requires thermal lags for its operation. After discussing several acoustical heating and cooling effects, including the behavior of a new structure called a ''thermoacoustic couple,'' we discuss structures that can be placed in acoustically resonant tubes to produce both substantial heat pumping effects and, for restricted heat inputs, large temperature differences. The results are analyzed quantitatively using a second-order thermoacoustic theory based on the work of Rott. The qualities of the acoustic engine are generalized to describe a class of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> irreversible heat engines of which the present acoustic engine is a special case. Finally the results of analysis of several idealized <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> irreversible engines are presented. These suggest that the efficiency of such engines may be determined primarily by geometry or configuration rather than by temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15891978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15891978"><span>Ulnar <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> anatomy and dysfunction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dell, Paul C; Sforzo, Christopher R</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Normal hand function is a balance between the extrinsic and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> musculature. Although individually the <span class="hlt">intrinsics</span> are small muscles in diameter, collectively they represent a large muscle that contributes approximately 50% of grip strength. Dysfunction of the <span class="hlt">intrinsics</span> consequently leads to impaired grip and pinch strength as well recognized deformities. Low ulnar nerve palsy preserves ulnar innervated extrinsics resulting in sensory loss, digital clawing, thumb deformity, abduction of the small finger, and asynchronous finger motion. High ulnar nerve palsy is characterized by the above plus paralysis of the ulnar profundi and the flexor carpi ulnaris. Understanding the normal anatomy allows the clinician to identify the site of the lesion and plan appropriate surgical intervention. This article revisits the classic work of Richard J. Smith on ulnar nerve palsy with contemporary perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..872A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPSC...10..872A"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> structure in Saturn's rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albers, N.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Saturn's rings are the most prominent in our Solar system and one example of granular matter in space. Dominated by tides and inelastic collisions the system is highly flattened being almost 300000km wide while only tens of meters thick. Individual particles are composed of primarily water ice and range from microns to few tens of meters in size. Apparent patterns comprise ringlets, gaps, kinematic wakes, propellers, bending waves, and the winding spiral arms of density waves. These large-scale structures are perturbations foremost created by external as well as embedded moons. Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft currently in orbit around Saturn show these structures in unprecedented detail. But high-resolution measurements reveal the presence of small-scale structures throughout the system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), overstable waves (100-300m), subkm structure at the A and B ring edges, "straw" and "ropy" structures (1-3km), and the C ring "ghosts". Most of these had not been anticipated and are found in perturbed regions, driven by resonances with external moons, where the system undergoes periodic phases of compression and relaxation that <span class="hlt">correlate</span> with the presence of structure. High velocity dispersion and the presence of large clumps imply structure formation on time scales as short as one orbit (about 10 hours). The presence of these <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> structures is seemingly the response to varying local conditions such as internal density, optical depth, underlying particle size distribution, granular temperature, and distance from the central planet. Their abundance provides evidence for an active and dynamic ring system where aggregation and fragmentation are ongoing on orbital timescales. Thus a kinetic description of the rings may be more appropriate than the fluid one. I will present Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) occultations, Voyager 1 and 2 Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19836901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19836901"><span>The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span>-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation were positively <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with adaptive motivation and negatively <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/<span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation and alcohol consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.4682U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.4682U"><span>Observations On The Stability Of <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Liquid Bridges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Uguz, A.</p> <p></p> <p>A liquid bridge is a region of liquid suspended between two solids. These bridges occur within natural and technological contexts. For long enough cylinders in zero gravity, the bridge collapses at what is known as the Plateau limit, i.e. the bridge becomes unstable when its length exceeds its circumference. This limit is reached when there is a balance between the stabilization effect of longitudinal curvature and the destabilization effect caused by transverse curvature. In this presentation, the effect of distortion of the circular end plates to the nearby <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> ones is studied. The circular disks can be distorted to an ellipse by many ways: usually by either keeping the area of the circle constant, or by keeping the perimeter constant, which determines the shape of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> liquid bridge. Our aim is to find out the critical length of a static <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> liquid bridge where the bridge collapses and compare it with the critical length of a cylindrical bridge by requiring that the volume of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> bridge suspended between the plates 'L' apart be equal to the volume of the nearby right circular. An analytical expression is given that will let us conclude that an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> liquid bridge is more stable than a circular one. In addition different results will be obtained for different operating conditions and these will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGM....18S0542F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGM....18S0542F"><span>Evolution of <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies in the FORS Deep Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fritz, A.; Böhm, A.; Ziegler, B. L.</p> <p></p> <p>Much work has been done to study the evolution of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in clusters of galaxies using scaling relations and line diagnostic diagrams. Concordant results are that the bulk of the stars for the majority of the galaxies are old and have been formed at a high redshift (e.g. Jørgensen et al. 1999, MNRAS 308, 833). But there are only a few observational studies on the evolution of field <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> (e.g. van Dokkum et al. 2001, ApJL 553, 39 or Koo, astro-ph/9906243) claiming that there is little difference to the cluster <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>. This is in contrast to expectations from hierarchical merging CDM models where giant field galaxies can still be formed at redshifts z<1 (e.g. Kauffmann 1996, MNRAS 218, 487). Therefore, we have observed spectroscopically most of the <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> in the FORS Deep Field (Appenzeller et al. 2000, The Messenger 100, 44) down to R=22m using the VLT/FORS1 and 2 instruments. The 34 galaxies are distributed in redshifts from z=0.16 to 0.62 with =0.35. Both the spectral resolution (1200) and the exposure times (5 h) were adequate to accurately determine absorption line strengths and velocity dispersions (σ). Here, we present first results on the evolution of the Faber-Jackson (L vs. σ) and Mg-σ relations and the age/metallicity and [Mg/Fe] abundance distributions of these field <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092359','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930092359"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Cones Alone and with Wings at Supersonic Speed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jorgensen, Leland H</p> <p>1958-01-01</p> <p>To help fill the gap in the knowledge of aerodynamics of shapes intermediate between bodies of revolution and flat triangular wings, force and moment characteristics for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cones have been experimentally determined for Mach numbers of 1.97 and 2.94. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> cones having cross-sectional axis ratios from 1 through 6 and with lengths and base areas equal to circular cones of fineness ratios 3.67 and 5 have been studied for angles of bank of 0 degree and 90 degrees. <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> and circular cones in combination with triangular wings of aspect ratios 1 and 1.5 also have been considered. The angle-of-attack range was from 0 degree to about 16 degrees, and the Reynolds number was 8 x 10(6), based on model length. In addition to the forces and moments at angle of attack, pressure distributions for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cones at zero angle of attack have been determined. The results of this investigation indicate that there are distinct aerodynamic advantages to the use of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5362738','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5362738"><span>Sessile Nanodroplets on <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Patches of Enhanced Lyophilicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We theoretically investigate the shape of a nanodroplet on a lyophilic <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> patch in lyophobic surroundings on a flat substrate. To compute the droplet equilibrium shape, we minimize its interfacial free energy using both Surface Evolver and Monte Carlo calculations, finding good agreement between the two methods. We observe different droplet shapes, which are controlled by the droplet volume and the aspect ratio of the ellipse. In particular, we study the behavior of the nanodroplet contact angle along the three-phase contact line, explaining the different droplet shapes. Although the nanodroplet contact angle is constant and fixed by Young’s law inside and outside the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> patch, its value varies along the rim of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> patch. We find that because of the pinning of the nanodroplet contact line at the rim of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> patch, which has a nonconstant curvature, there is a regime of aspect ratios of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> patch in which the nanodroplet starts expanding to the lyophobic part of the substrate, although there is still a finite area of the lyophilic patch free to be wetted. PMID:28248114</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......233G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......233G"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Boundary Value Problems On Non-Smooth Domains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geng, Jun</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>In this dissertation we study the Lp Neumann boundary problem for Laplace's equation in convex domains and the W1,p estimates for the second order <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations with Neumann boundary data in Lipschitz domains. We also study the uniform W1, p estimates for homogenization of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> systems. In the case of convex domains we are able to show that the Lp Neumann problem for Laplace's equation is uniquely solvable for 1 < p < infinity. In the case of second order <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations in Lipschitz domains, for any fixed p > 2, we prove that a weak reverse Holder inequality implies the W1, p estimates for solutions with Neumann boundary conditions. As a result, we are able to show that if the coefficient matrix for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equation is symmetric and in VMO( Rn ), the W1,p estimates hold for 32 -- epsilon < p < 3 + epsilon if n ≥ 3, and for 43 -- epsilon < p < 4 + epsilon if n = 2. Finally, we show that the uniform W 1,p estimates for homogenization of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> systems hold when | 1p -- 1/2| < 12n + delta. KEYWORDS: Lipschitz domains; convex domains; Neumann problem; Dirichlet problem; Homogenization problem</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tectp.712..344A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Tectp.712..344A"><span>Crustal structure beneath Portugal from teleseismic Rayleigh Wave <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Up until now, Portugal lacked a countrywide shear velocity model sampling short length-scale crustal structure, which limits interpretations of seismicity and tectonics, and predictions of strong ground motion. In turn, such interpretations and predictions are important to help mitigate risk of destruction from future large on- and offshore earthquakes similar to those that Portugal has experienced in the past (e.g. the Mw 8.5-8.7 tsunamigenic event in 1755). In this study, we measured teleseismic Rayleigh Wave <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span> (RWE) from 33 permanent and temporary seismic stations in Portugal with wave periods between 15 s and 60 s, and inverted it for 1-D models of shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath each station using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Because RWE is strongly sensitive to the uppermost few kilometres of the crust, both RWE measurements and Vs models are spatially <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with surface geology in Portugal. For instance, we find that sedimentary basins produced by rifting that had begun in the Mesozoic such as the Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB) are characterised by higher RWE (lower Vs). Interestingly, we observe similar RWE (and Vs) values in the interior of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is a metamorphic belt of Paleozoic age. Together with reduced crustal thickness previously estimated for the same parts of the CIZ, this suggests that the CIZ might have experienced an episode of extension possibly simultaneous to Mesozoic rifting. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ) that has undergone polyphased deformation since the Paleozoic is characterised by the lowest RWE (highest Vs) in Portugal. Ossa Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone exhibit intermediate Vs values when compared to that of basins and the GTMZ. Our crustal Vs model can be used to provide new insights into the tectonics, seismicity and strong ground motion in Portugal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2588348','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2588348"><span>Functional Anthology of <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Disorder. III. Ligands, Postranslational Modifications and Diseases Associated with <span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> Disordered Proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Currently, the understanding of the relationships between function, amino acid sequence and protein structure continues to represent one of the major challenges of the modern protein science. As much as 50% of eukaryotic proteins are likely to contain functionally important long disordered regions. Many proteins are wholly disordered but still possess numerous biologically important functions. However, the number of experimentally confirmed disordered proteins with known biological functions is substantially smaller than their actual number in nature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for novel bioinformatics approaches that allow projection of the current knowledge from a few experimentally verified examples to much larger groups of known and potential proteins. The elaboration of a bioinformatics tool for the analysis of functional diversity of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins and application of this data mining tool to >200,000 proteins from Swiss-Prot database, each annotated with at least one of the 875 functional keywords was described in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Using this tool, we have found that out of the 711 Swiss-Prot functional keywords associated with at least 20 proteins, 262 were strongly positively <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with long <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered regions, and 302 were strongly negatively <span class="hlt">correlated</span>. Illustrative examples of functional disorder or order were found for the vast majority of keywords showing strongest positive or negative <span class="hlt">correlation</span> with <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> disorder, respectively. Some 80 Swiss-Prot keywords associated with disorder- and order-driven biological processes and protein functions were described in the first paper (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...544A..83D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012A%26A...544A..83D"><span>Domain of validity for pseudo-<span class="hlt">elliptical</span> NFW lens models. Mass distribution, mapping to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> models, and arc cross section</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dúmet-Montoya, H. S.; Caminha, G. B.; Makler, M.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Context. Owing to their computational simplicity, models with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> potentials (pseudo-<span class="hlt">elliptical</span>) are often used in gravitational lensing applications, in particular for mass modeling using arcs and for arc statistics. However, these models generally lead to negative mass distributions in some regions and to dumbbell-shaped surface density contours for high <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span>. Aims: We revisit the physical limitations of the pseudo-<span class="hlt">elliptical</span> Navarro-Frenk-White (PNFW) model, focusing on the behavior of the mass distribution close to the tangential critical curve, where tangential arcs are expected to be formed. We investigate the shape of the mass distribution on this region and the presence of negative convergence. We obtain a mapping from the PNFW to the NFW model with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mass distribution (ENFW). We compare the arc cross section for both models, aiming to determine a domain of validity for the PNFW model in terms of its mass distribution and for the cross section. Methods: We defined a figure of merit to i) measure the deviation of the iso-convergence contours of the PNFW model to an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape, ii) assigned an <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> ɛΣ to these contours, iii) defined a corresponding iso-convergence contour for the ENFW model. We computed the arc cross section using the "infinitesimal circular source approximation". Results: We extend previous work by investigating the shape of the mass distribution of the PNFW model for a broad range of the potential <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> parameter ɛ and characteristic convergence Ks. We show that the maximum value of ɛ to avoid dumbbell-shaped mass distributions is explicitly dependent on Ks, with higher <span class="hlt">ellipticities</span> (ɛ ≃ 0.5, i.e., ɛΣ ≃ 0.65) allowed for small Ks. We determine a relation between the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the mass distribution ɛΣ and ɛ valid for any <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. We also derive the relation of characteristic convergences, obtaining a complete mapping from PNFW to ENFW models, and provide fitting formulae for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptCo.284..282W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OptCo.284..282W"><span>Nonclassical properties of odd and even <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yueyuan; Liao, Qinghong; Liu, Zhengjun; Wang, Jicheng; Liu, Shutian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>As a generalization of the optical circular states, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> states which are quantum superposition of coherent states on an ellipse in the α plane are constructed. The statistical properties of the states are investigated by using sub-Poissonian photon statistics, quadrature squeezing, Wigner function and phase distribution. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> states exhibit stronger quadrature squeezing. The interference fringes between the coherent states form the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> annuli of Fock states in the Wigner function picture. The phase distribution is no longer uniform as the circular states. An experimental scheme is proposed for generating equidistant coherent-state superpositions on an ellipse for the motion of the center of mass of a trapped ion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067320&hterms=phenomenon+child&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dphenomenon%2Bchild','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067320&hterms=phenomenon+child&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dphenomenon%2Bchild"><span>Precession and circularization of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> space-tether motion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chapel, Jim D.; Grosserode, Patrick</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present a simplified analytic model for predicting motion of long space tethers. The perturbation model developed here addresses skip rope motion, where each end of the tether is held in place and the middle of the tether swings with a motion similar to that of a child's skip rope. If the motion of the tether midpoint is <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> rather than circular, precession of the ellipse complicates the procedures required to damp this motion. The simplified analytic model developed in this paper parametrically predicts the precession of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> skip rope motion. Furthermore, the model shows that <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> skip rope motion will circularize when damping is present in the longitudinal direction. Compared with high-fidelity simulation results, this simplified model provides excellent predictions of these phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627309"><span>Dynamical properties of the soft-wall <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> billiard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kroetz, Tiago; Oliveira, Hércules A; Portela, Jefferson S E; Viana, Ricardo L</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Physical systems such as optical traps and microwave cavities are realistically modeled by billiards with soft walls. In order to investigate the influence of the wall softness on the billiard dynamics, we study numerically a smooth two-dimensional potential well that has the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> (hard-wall) billiard as a limiting case. Considering two parameters, the eccentricity of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> equipotential curves and the wall hardness, which defines the steepness of the well, we show that (1) whereas the hard-wall limit is integrable and thus completely regular, the soft wall <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> billiard exhibits chaos, (2) the chaotic fraction of the phase space depends nonmonotonically on the hardness of the wall, and (3) the effect of the hardness on the dynamics depends strongly on the eccentricity of the billiard. We further show that the limaçon billiard can exhibit enhanced chaos induced by wall softness, which suggests that our findings generalize to quasi-integrable systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyD..315....1F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyD..315....1F"><span>Polar rotation angle identifies <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> islands in unsteady dynamical systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farazmand, Mohammad; Haller, George</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We propose rotation inferred from the polar decomposition of the flow gradient as a diagnostic for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> (or vortex-type) invariant regions in non-autonomous dynamical systems. We consider here two- and three-dimensional systems, in which polar rotation can be characterized by a single angle. For this polar rotation angle (PRA), we derive explicit formulas using the singular values and vectors of the flow gradient. We find that closed level sets of the PRA reveal <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> islands in great detail, and singular level sets of the PRA uncover centers of such islands. Both features turn out to be objective (frame-invariant) for two-dimensional systems. We illustrate the diagnostic power of PRA for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> structures on several examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960049876&hterms=boerstoel&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dboerstoel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960049876&hterms=boerstoel&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dboerstoel"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> surface grid generation on minimal and parametrized surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Spekreijse, S. P.; Nijhuis, G. H.; Boerstoel, J. W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> grid generation method, which generates boundary conforming grids in a two dimensional physical space, is presented. The method is based on the composition of an algebraic and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> transformation. The composite mapping obeys the Poisson grid generation system with control functions specified by the algebraic transformation. It is shown that the grid generation on a minimal surface in a three dimensional space is equivalent to the grid generation in a two dimensional domain in physical space. A second <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> grid generation method, which generates boundary conforming grids on smooth surfaces, is presented. Concerning surface modeling, it is shown that bicubic Hermit interpolation is an excellent method to generate a smooth surface crossing a discrete set of control points.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410439','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410439"><span>Evolution of a barotropic shear layer into <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vortices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guha, Anirban; Rahmani, Mona; Lawrence, Gregory A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>When a barotropic shear layer becomes unstable, it produces the well-known Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). The nonlinear manifestation of the KHI is usually in the form of spiral billows. However, a piecewise linear shear layer produces a different type of KHI characterized by <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vortices of constant vorticity connected via thin braids. Using direct numerical simulation and contour dynamics, we show that the interaction between two counterpropagating vorticity waves is solely responsible for this KHI formation. We investigate the oscillation of the vorticity wave amplitude, the rotation and nutation of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vortex, and straining of the braids. Our analysis also provides a possible explanation for the formation and evolution of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vortices appearing in geophysical and astrophysical flows, e.g., meddies, stratospheric polar vortices, Jovian vortices, Neptune's Great Dark Spot, and coherent vortices in the wind belts of Uranus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920011130','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920011130"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> jets, part 2. Dynamics of coherent structures: Pairing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Husain, Hyder S.; Hussain, Fazle</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of the jet column mode of vortex pairing in the near field of an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> jet was investigated. Hot-wire measurements and flow visualization were used to examine the details of the pairing mechanism of nonplanar vortical <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> structures and its effect on such turbulence measures as coherent velocities, incoherent turbulence intensities, incoherent and coherent Reynolds, stresses, turbulence production, and mass entrainment. It was found that pairing of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> vortices in the jet column does not occur uniformly around the entire perimeter, unlike in a circular jet. Merger occurs only in the initial major-axis plane. In the initial minor-axis plane, the trailing vortex rushes through the leading vortex without pairing and then breaks down violently, producing considerably greater entrainment and mixing than in circular or plane jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820041687&hterms=Industrial+Revolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DIndustrial%2BRevolution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820041687&hterms=Industrial+Revolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DIndustrial%2BRevolution"><span>Ball bearing lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The history of ball bearings is examined, taking into account rollers and the wheel in the early civilizations, the development of early forms of rolling-element bearings in the classical civilizations, the Middle Ages, the Industrial Revolution, the emergence of the precision ball bearing, scientific studies of contact mechanics and rolling friction, and the past fifty years. An introduction to ball bearings is presented, and aspects of ball bearing mechanics are explored. Basic characteristics of lubrication are considered along with lubrication equations, the lubrication of rigid ellipsoidal solids, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. Attention is given to the theoretical results for fully flooded <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> hydrodynamic contacts, the theoretical results for starved <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts, experimental investigations, the elastohydrodynamics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts for materials of low elastic modulus, the film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication, and applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20953283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20953283"><span>System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.</p> <p>2007-06-15</p> <p>This Letter presents measurements of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040839&hterms=Radius&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DA.%2BRadius','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040839&hterms=Radius&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DA.%2BRadius"><span>Mass distributions in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies at large radii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sarazin, Craig L.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Recently, X-ray observations have shown that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies generally contain large quantities of hot gas. Central dominant cluster <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> have even more gas, which they have accreted from the surrounding clusters. The mass distributions in these galaxies can be derived from the condition of hydrostatic equilibrium. M87, the best studied central dominant galaxy, has a massive, dark halo with a total mass of about 4 x 10 to the 12th solar masses within a radius of 300 kpc. The total mass-to-light ratio within this radius is at least 150 solar mass/solar luminosity. The X-ray observations of normal <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> also strongly suggest that they have heavy halos, although the distribution of the mass is much less certain than in M87.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhRvB..39.9496M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhRvB..39.9496M"><span>Magneto-optic rotation and <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of ultrathin ferromagnetic films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moog, E. R.; Zak, J.; Huberman, M. L.; Bader, S. D.</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>Magneto-optic rotation φ' and <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> φ'' values are reported as a function of thickness for 0-400 Å of bcc Fe(100) epitaxially deposited on Au(100) for both s- and p-polarized He-Ne laser light. The values are derived from a formula that connects φ' and φ'' with our recently reported longitudinal Kerr-effect measurements of φm=(φ'2+φ''2)1/2 and the parameters of two optical compensators that are used to convert <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> to rotation. The measurements were made in situ through an ultrahigh-vacuum window; our approach eliminates the effect of the window birefringence. The dominant contribution to φm reverses from being φ'' in the ultrathin limit to being φ' in the thick-film limit. Also, in the 0-30 Å range, the rotation remains near zero while the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> increases linearly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23719023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23719023"><span>Calderón's method on an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> domain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muller, P A; Isaacson, D; Newell, J C; Saulnier, G J</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>One possible application for electrical impedance tomography is in medical imaging where lung and heart function may be monitored. One drawback of current algorithms is that they are implemented for use in a circular domain, but a human thorax is more <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> than circular. In this paper, a reconstruction algorithm based on the work of Calderón (1980 Seminar on Numerical Analysis and its Applications to Continuum Physics (Rio de Janeiro) pp 65-75) on the inverse conductivity problem is derived for an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> domain. It is explained how this reconstruction algorithm uses a transformed Dirichlet-to-Neumann map. Experimental results from an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> tank are given to show how correct domain modelling reduces the artefacts produced by this version of Calderón's reconstruction algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820041687&hterms=industrial+Revolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dindustrial%2BRevolution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820041687&hterms=industrial+Revolution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dindustrial%2BRevolution"><span>Ball bearing lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The history of ball bearings is examined, taking into account rollers and the wheel in the early civilizations, the development of early forms of rolling-element bearings in the classical civilizations, the Middle Ages, the Industrial Revolution, the emergence of the precision ball bearing, scientific studies of contact mechanics and rolling friction, and the past fifty years. An introduction to ball bearings is presented, and aspects of ball bearing mechanics are explored. Basic characteristics of lubrication are considered along with lubrication equations, the lubrication of rigid ellipsoidal solids, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory. Attention is given to the theoretical results for fully flooded <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> hydrodynamic contacts, the theoretical results for starved <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts, experimental investigations, the elastohydrodynamics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts for materials of low elastic modulus, the film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication, and applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CeMDA.125..383X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CeMDA.125..383X"><span>Cluster flight control for fractionated spacecraft on an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Ming; Liang, Yuying; Tan, Tian; Wei, Lixin</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the stabilization of cluster flight on an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> reference orbit by the Hamiltonian structure-preserving control using the relative position measurement only. The linearized Melton's relative equation is utilized to derive the controller and then the full nonlinear relative dynamics are employed to numerically evaluate the controller's performance. In this paper, the hyperbolic and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> eigenvalues and their manifolds are treated without distinction notations. This new treatment not only contributes to solving the difficulty in feedback of the unfixed-dimensional manifolds, but also allows more opportunities to set the controlled frequencies of foundational motions or to optimize control gains. Any initial condition can be stabilized on a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser torus near a controlled <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equilibrium. The motions are stabilized around the natural relative trajectories rather than track a reference relative configuration. In addition, the bounded quasi-periodic trajectories generated by the controller have advantages in rapid reconfiguration and unpredictable evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED188782.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED188782.pdf"><span>Individual Patterns in <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Motivation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hom, Harry L., Jr.; Maxwell, Frederick R.</p> <p></p> <p>The effects of extrinsic reward on students' <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> interest was investigated using a single-subject design in a behavior disorders classroom. Baseline measures of the interest level of five children (ages 9-11 years) were collected for academic and non-academic tasks. Assessment was then made of each subject's response hierarchy or level of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=body+AND+mind&id=EJ1076241','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=body+AND+mind&id=EJ1076241"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Motivation in Physical Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=body+AND+mind&id=EJ1076241','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=body+AND+mind&id=EJ1076241"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Motivation in Physical Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED155822.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED155822.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Rewards in School Crime.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Larson, Reed</p> <p></p> <p>One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter deals with the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation that the systemic structure of a school provides for opportunities for both prosocial and antisocial behavior. On the basis of previous research, the authors propose that the state of enjoyment occurs when a person is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GApFD.100..299L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GApFD.100..299L"><span>Magnetic field induced by <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability in a rotating spheroid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacaze, L.; Herreman, W.; Le Bars, M.; Le Dizès, S.; Le Gal, P.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>The tidal or the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability of the rotating fluid flows is generated by the resonant interaction of the inertial waves. In a slightly <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> deformed rotating sphere, the most unstable linear mode is called the spin-over mode, and is a solid body rotation versus an axis aligned with the maximum strain direction. In the non-viscous case, this instability corresponds to the median moment of the inertial instability of the solid rotating bodies. This analogy is furthermore illustrated by an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> top experiment, which shows the expected inviscid heteroclinic behaviour. In geophysics, the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability may appear in the molten liquid cores of the rotating planets, which are slightly deformed by the tidal gravitational effects of the close bodies. It may then participate in the general outer core dynamics and possibly the geodynamo process. In this context, Kerswell and Malkus (Kerswell, R.R. and Malkus, W.V.R., Tidal instability as the source for Io's magnetic signature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1998, 25, 603 606) showed that the puzzling magnetic field of the Jovian satellite Io may indeed be induced by the <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> unstable motions of its liquid core that deflect the Jupiter's magnetic field. Our magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) experiment is a toy-experiment of this geophysical situation and demonstrates for the first time the possibility of an induction of a magnetic field by the flow motions due to the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> instability. A full analytical calculation of the magnetic dipole induced by the spin-over is presented. Finally, exponential growths of this induced magnetic field in a slightly deformed rotating sphere filled with galinstan liquid metal are measured for different rotating rates. Their growth rates compare well with the theoretical predictions in the limit of a vanishing Lorentz force.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22911405A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22911405A"><span>Measuring the extent of x-ray emitting hot gas haloes around <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alpaslan, Mehmet; Marcum, Pamela M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The hot, x-ray emitting gas halos around galaxies can serve as tracers of previous merger history, and provide insight into the formation processes of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. In order to better understand the relationship between a galaxy's local environment and its x-ray emitting hot gas corona, we examine the x-ray emission from 117 early type galaxies selected from SDSS DR12 that have been observed with Chandra's ACIS detector. We have developed a new methodology for determining the effective and Petrosian radii of the x-ray emission from the hot coronae of these galaxies, and with it find a positive <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between fifth nearest neighbour density and corona size. Notably, we do not see a corresponding <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between size and other galaxy properties such as mass, r-band Petrosian radius, and metallicity. These results suggest that the physical processes that drive the extension of the hot gas halo do not significantly influence the stellar content of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820014262"><span>Neutral hydrogen in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with nuclear radio sources and optical emission lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dressel, L. L.; Bania, T. M.; Oconnell, R. W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An H I detection survey of eleven <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies with powerful nuclear radio sources was conducted, using the 305 m antenna of Arecibo Observatory, to test the hypothesis that large H I mass is conductive to the formation of nuclear radio sources in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. The H I was detected in emission in UGC 09114 and was possibly detected in absorption in UGC 06671. Observations of the remaining galaxies were not sensitive enough to support or refute the hypothesis. Data was combined from other H I surveys and spectroscopic surveys to search for <span class="hlt">correlations</span> of H I mass with other galactic properties and environmental conditions. Strong <span class="hlt">correlations</span> of (O II) lambda 3727 emission with H I content and with nuclear radio power were found. The latter two properties may simply indicate, respectively, whether a significant amount of gas is available to be ionized and whether energy is provided by nuclear activity for ionization. No dependence of H I content on optical luminosity or on degree of isolation from other galaxies was found.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22158244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22158244"><span>Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O</p> <p>2011-12-08</p> <p>Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these <span class="hlt">correlations</span> remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.410..280J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.410..280J"><span>The colour-magnitude relation of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and lenticular galaxies in the ESO Distant Cluster Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaffé, Yara L.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; De Lucia, Gabriella; Jablonka, Pascale; Rudnick, Gregory; Saglia, Roberto; Zaritsky, Dennis</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we study the colour-magnitude relation (CMR) for a sample of 172 morphologically classified <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and S0 cluster galaxies from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) at 0.4 ≲z≲ 0.8. The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> colour scatter about the CMR is very small (<σint>= 0.076) in rest-frame U-V. However, there is a small minority of faint early-type galaxies (7 per cent) that are significantly bluer than the CMR. We observe no significant dependence of σint with redshift or cluster velocity dispersion. Because our sample is strictly morphologically selected, this implies that by the time cluster <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and S0 galaxies achieve their morphology, the vast majority have already joined the red sequence. The only exception seems to be the very small fraction of faint blue early types. Assuming that the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> colour scatter is due to differences in stellar population ages, we estimate the galaxy formation redshift zF of each cluster and find that zF does not depend on the cluster velocity dispersion. However, zF increases weakly with cluster redshift within the EDisCS sample. This trend becomes very clear when higher redshift clusters from the literature are included. This suggests that, at any given redshift, in order to have a population of fully formed <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and S0s they needed to have formed most of their stars ≃2-4 Gyr prior to observation. That does not mean that all early-type galaxies in all clusters formed at these high redshifts. It means that the ones we see already having early-type morphologies also have reasonably old stellar populations. This is partly a manifestation of the `progenitor bias', but also a consequence of the fact that the vast majority of the early-type galaxies in clusters (in particular the massive galaxies) were already red (i.e. already had old stellar populations) by the time they achieved their morphology. <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> and S0 galaxies exhibit very similar colour scatter, implying similar stellar population ages. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvL..90l4501F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvL..90l4501F"><span>Mean Effects of Turbulence on <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Instability in Fluids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fabijonas, Bruce R.; Holm, Darryl D.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> instability in fluids is discussed in the context of the Lagrangian-averaged Navier-Stokes-alpha (LANS-α) turbulence model. This model preserves the Craik-Criminale (CC) family of solutions consisting of a columnar eddy and a Kelvin wave. The LANS-α model is shown to preserve <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> instability. However, the model shifts the critical stability angle. This shift increases (decreases) the maximum growth rate for long (short) waves. It also introduces a band of stable CC solutions for short waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001180&hterms=National+Radio+Astronomy+Observatory&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNational%2BRadio%2BAstronomy%2BObservatory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001180&hterms=National+Radio+Astronomy+Observatory&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DNational%2BRadio%2BAstronomy%2BObservatory"><span>Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, also radio source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Centaurus A galaxy, type EO peculiar <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, also radio source. CTIO 4-meter telescope, 1975. NGC 5128, a Type EO peculiar <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy in the constellation Centaurus. This galaxy is one of the most luminous and massive galaxies known and is a strong source of both radio and X-ray radiation. Current theories suggest that the nucleus is experiencing giant explosions involving millions of stars and that the dark band across the galactic disk is material being ejected outward. Cerro Toloto 4-meter telescope photo. Photo credit: National Optical Astronomy Observatories</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/925292','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/925292"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> flow in Au+Au collisions at RHIC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; George, N.; Wuosmaa, A.; Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.; BNL; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> flow is an interesting probe of the dynamical evolution of the dense system formed in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow dependences on transverse momentum, centrality and pseudorapidity were measured using data collected by the PHOBOS detector, which offers a unique opportunity to study the azimuthal anisotropies of charged particles over a wide range of pseudorapidity. These measurements are presented, together with an overview of the analysis methods and a discussion of the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1197880-plastic-deformation-profile-coated-elliptical-kb-mirrors','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1197880-plastic-deformation-profile-coated-elliptical-kb-mirrors"><span>Plastic Deformation in Profile-Coated <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> KB Mirrors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; ...</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Profile coating has been successfully applied to produce <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors using both cylindrical and flat Si substrates. Previously, focusing widths of 70 nm with 15-keV monochromatic and 80 nm with white beam were achieved using a flat Si substrate. Now, precision <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> KB mirrors with sub-nm figure errors are produced with both Au and Pt coatings on flat substrates. Recent studies of bare Si-, Au-, and Pt-coated KB mirrors under prolonged synchrotron X-ray radiation and low-temperature vacuum annealing will be discussed in terms of film stress relaxation and Si plastic deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApJ...590L...5M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ApJ...590L...5M"><span>Rapid Cooling of Dusty Gas in <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathews, William G.; Brighenti, Fabrizio</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>We propose a stellar origin for the central dust clouds observed in most giant <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. Dusty gas ejected from evolving red giant stars in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> or cD galaxies can cool rapidly even after entering the hot X-ray-emitting gas. Cooling by thermal collisions with dust grains can be faster than either the dynamical time in the galactic potential or the grain sputtering time. Some grains survive in the cooled gas. Dusty stellar outflows cool more efficiently in the central regions, where the stellar metallicity is higher. Mergers with gas and dust-rich dwarf galaxies may occasionally occur but are not required to explain the observed dust clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030090&hterms=neutron+star+luminosity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dneutron%2Bstar%2Bluminosity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920030090&hterms=neutron+star+luminosity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dneutron%2Bstar%2Bluminosity"><span>Gravitational radiation from dual neutron star <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> binaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hils, Dieter</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>General expressions are derived for the gravitational radiation incident on earth due to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> binary systems in the Galaxy. These results are applied to dual neutron star <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> binaries. Calculations show that eccentric dual neutron star binaries lead to a moderate increase in gravitational flux density compared with circular systems for frequencies above approximately 0.0001 Hz. Tables of various quantities such as average gravitational luminosity, number of sources per unit bandwidth, energy spectral flux density, and gravitational wave strain density are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091699','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091699"><span>Two-dimensional subsonic compressible flow past <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaplan, Carl</p> <p>1938-01-01</p> <p>The method of Poggi is used to calculate, for perfect fluids, the effect of compressibility upon the flow on the surface of an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinder at zero angle of attack and with no circulation. The result is expressed in a closed form and represents a rigorous determination of the velocity of the fluid at the surface of the obstacle insofar as the second approximation is concerned. Comparison is made with Hooker's treatment of the same problem according to the method of Janzen and Rayleight and it is found that, for thick <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> cylinders, the two methods agree very well. The labor of computation is considerably reduced by the present solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012389','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920012389"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> flux vortices in YBa2Cu3O7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hickman, H.; Dekker, A. J.; Chen, T. M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The most energetically favorable vortex in YBa2Cu3O7 forms perpendicular to an anisotropic plane. This vortex is <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> in shape and is distinguished by an effective interchange of London penetration depths from one axis of the ellipse to another. By generalizing qualitatively from the isotropic to the anisotropic case, we suggest that the flux flow resistivity for the vortex that forms perpendicular to an anistropic plane should have a preferred direction. Similar reasoning indicates that the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature for a vortex mediated transition should be lower if the vortex is <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> in shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86a6210G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvE..86a6210G"><span>Tunneling phenomena in the open <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> quantum billiard</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; Gutiérrez-Vega, Julio C.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The study of open quantum billiards has gained popularity in the last decades, including different common and uncommon geometries such as the circular and stadium billiards. We present an extensive analysis of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> quantum billiard with hyperbolic channels. We concentrate on the tunneling through an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> resonator-like structure. We analyze three different variations of the system: the first configuration has horizontal channels, then we study the system with vertical leads, and finally we displace both channels by the same angle to gain a more general perspective. We observed a very unusual phase distribution in the resonator cavity when there is no tunneling through the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LMaPh.102..203E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LMaPh.102..203E"><span>Twisted <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Genus for K3 and Borcherds Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>We discuss the relation between the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genus of K3 surface and the Mathieu group M 24. We find that some of the twisted <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> genera for K3 surface, defined for conjugacy classes of the Mathieu group M 24, can be represented in a very simple manner in terms of the η product of the corresponding conjugacy classes. It is shown that our formula is a consequence of the identity between the Borcherds product and additive lift of some Siegel modular forms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24589355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24589355"><span>New force field on modeling <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Wei; Ye, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Luo, Ray; Chen, Hai-Feng</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Intrinsically</span> disordered proteins or <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered protein regions comprise a large portion of eukaryotic proteomes (between 35% and 51%). These <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins were found to link with cancer and various other diseases. However, widely used additive force field parameter sets are insufficient in quantifying the structural properties of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins. Therefore, we explored to a systematic correction of a base additive force field parameter set (chosen as Amber ff99SBildn) to correct the biases that was first demonstrated in simulations with the base parameter set. Specifically, the φ/ψ distributions of disorder-promoting residues were systematically corrected with the CMAP method. Our simulations show that the CMAP corrected Amber parameter set, termed ff99IDPs, improves the φ/ψ distributions of the disorder-promoting residues with respect to the benchmark data of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered protein structures, with root mean-squared percentage deviation less than 0.15% between the simulation and the benchmark. Our further validation shows that the chemical shifts from the ff99IDPs simulations are in quantitative agreement with those from reported NMR measurements for two tested IDPs, MeV NTAIL , and p53. The predicted residue dipolar couplings also show high <span class="hlt">correlation</span> with experimental data. Interestingly, our simulations show that ff99IDPs can still be used to model the ordered state when the <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins are in complex, in contrast to ff99SBildn that can be applied well only to the ordered complex structures. These findings confirm that the newly proposed Amber ff99IDPs parameter set provides a reasonable tool in further studies of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered protein structures. In addition, our study also shows the importance of considering <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered protein structures in general-purposed force field developments for both additive and non-additive models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393832','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393832"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> randomness and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> irreversibility in classical dynamical systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Courbage, M.; Prigogine, I.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>We continue our previous work on dynamic “<span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> random” systems for which we can derive dissipative Markov processes through a one-to-one change of representation. For these systems, the unitary group of evolution can be transformed in this way into two distinct Markov processes leading to equilibrium for either t→ + ∞ or t→ - ∞. To lift the degeneracy, we first formulate the second principle as a selection rule that is meaningful in <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> random systems. For these systems, this excludes a set of unrealizable states. As a result of this exclusion, permitted initial conditions correspond to a set of states that is not invariant through velocity inversion. In this way, the time-reversal symmetry of dynamics is broken and these systems acquire a new feature we may call “<span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> irreversibility.” The set of admitted initial conditions can be characterized by an entropy displaying the amount of information necessary for their preparation. The initial conditions selected by the second law correspond to a finite amount of information, while the initial conditions that are rejected correspond to an infinite amount of information and are therefore “impossible.” We believe that our formulation permits a microscopic formulation of the second law of thermodynamics for well-defined classes of dynamical systems. PMID:16578774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27922899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27922899"><span>Nursing Students' <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Motivation and Performance on the Licensure Examination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hackney, Michele G</p> <p></p> <p>Unsuccessful attempts at licensure adversely affect graduates, prelicensure nursing education programs, health care agencies, and ultimately, patient safety. The purpose of this quantitative, <span class="hlt">correlational</span> study was to investigate the relationship between nursing students' <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> motivation and performance on the licensure examination. Nursing students responded to 12 questions related to reasons for learning as indicators of motivation type. Results indicated no statistically significant <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401561"><span>Optics <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> performance of an unobscured off-axis space telescope.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Fei; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jianping; Shi, Guangwei; Wu, Hongbo</p> <p>2014-10-20</p> <p>With the development of astronomy, more and more attention is paid to the survey of dark matter. Dark matter cannot be seen directly but can be detected by weak gravitational lensing measurement. <span class="hlt">Ellipticity</span> is an important parameter used to define the shape of a galaxy. Galaxy <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> changes with weak gravitational lensing and nonideal optics. With our design of an unobscured off-axis telescope, we implement the simulation and calculation of optics <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. With an accurate model of optics PSF, the characteristic of <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> is modeled and analyzed. It is shown that with good optical design, the full field <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> can be quite small. The spatial <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> change can be modeled by cubic interpolation with very high accuracy. We also modeled the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> variance with time and analyzed the tolerance. It is shown that the unobscured off-axis telescope has good <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> performance and fulfills the requirement of dark matter survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT....53.1439V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017HMT....53.1439V"><span>Influence of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and circular orifices on the local heat transfer distribution of a flat plate impinged by under-expanded jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vinze, Ravish; Limeye, M. D.; Prabhu, S. V.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Experimental study is carried out to explore the influence of nozzle profile on heat transfer for underexpanded impinging jets. Circular and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orifices are used to generate underexpanded jets for underexpantion ratio ranging from 1.25 to 2.67. The supply pressure maintained in the present study ranges from 2.36 to 5.08 times the ambient pressure. IR thermal imaging camera is used to measure surface temperature of thin foil at different nozzle to plate distances. Shadowgraph and pressure distribution are used to understand the flow structure and distribution of circular and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nozzle. It is observed that plate shock and pressure distribution over the plate have significant influence on the local heat transfer. The performance of the circular orifice is far better at lower z/d. The axis switching is observed for an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orifice. <span class="hlt">Correlation</span> for local heat transfer predicts Nusselt number comparable within 15 % of experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MNRAS.309..481L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MNRAS.309..481L"><span>The specific entropy of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies: an explanation for profile-shape distance indicators?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lima Neto, G. B.; Gerbal, D.; Márquez, I.</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Dynamical systems in equilibrium have a stationary entropy; we suggest that <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies, as stellar systems in a stage of quasi-equilibrium, may have in principle a unique specific entropy. This uniqueness, a priori unknown, should be reflected in <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between the fundamental parameters describing the mass (light) distribution in galaxies. Following recent photometrical work on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies by Caon et al., Graham & Colless and Prugniel & Simien, we use the Sérsic law to describe the light profile and an analytical approximation to its three-dimensional deprojection. The specific entropy is then calculated, supposing that the galaxy behaves as a spherical, isotropic, one-component system in hydrostatic equilibrium, obeying the ideal-gas equations of state. We predict a relation between the three parameters of the Sérsic law linked to the specific entropy, defining a surface in the parameter space, an `Entropic Plane', by analogy with the well-known Fundamental Plane. We have analysed <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in two rich clusters of galaxies (Coma and ABCG 85) and a group of galaxies (associated with NGC 4839, near Coma). We show that, for a given cluster, the galaxies follow closely a relation predicted by the constant specific entropy hypothesis with a typical dispersion (one standard deviation) of 9.5per cent around the mean value of the specific entropy. Moreover, assuming that the specific entropy is also the same for galaxies of different clusters, we are able to derive relative distances between Coma, ABGC 85, and the group of NGC 4839. If the errors are due only to the determination of the specific entropy (about 10per cent), then the error in the relative distance determination should be less than 20per cent for rich clusters. We suggest that the unique specific entropy may provide a physical explanation for the distance indicators based on the Sérsic profile put forward by Young & Currie and recently discussed by Binggeli & Jerjen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021441','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830021441"><span>Elastohydrodynamics of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> contacts for materials of low elastic modulus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The influence of the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> parameter k and the dimensionless speed U, load W, and materials G parameters on minimum film thickness for materials of low elastic modulus was investigated. The <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> parameter was varied from 1 (a ball-on-plane configuration) to 12 (a configuration approaching a line contact); U and W were each varied by one order of magnitude. Seventeen cases were used to generate the minimum- and central-film-thickness relations. The influence of lubricant starvation on minimum film thickness in starved <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, elastohydrodynamic configurations was also investigated for materials of low elastic modulus. Lubricant starvation was studied simply by moving the inlet boundary closer to the center of the conjunction in the numerical solutions. Contour plots of pressure and film thickness in and around the contact were presented for both fully flooded and starved lubrication conditions. It is evident from these figures that the inlet pressure contours become less circular and closer to the edge of the Hertzian contact zone and that the film thickness decreases substantially as the serverity of starvation increases. The results presented reveal the essential features of both fully flooded and starved, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>, elastohydrodynamic conjunctions for materials of low elastic modulus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22348031','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22348031"><span>The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.</p> <p>2014-02-10</p> <p>The most massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r{sub b} , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pendulum&pg=6&id=EJ963907','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pendulum&pg=6&id=EJ963907"><span>Exploring Strange Nonchaotic Attractors through Jacobian <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garcia-Hoz, A. Martinez; Chacon, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate the effectiveness of Jacobian <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions (JEFs) for inquiring into the reshaping effect of quasiperiodic forces in nonlinear nonautonomous systems exhibiting strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs). Specifically, we characterize analytically and numerically some reshaping-induced transitions starting from SNAs in the context of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pendulum&pg=4&id=EJ843924','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pendulum&pg=4&id=EJ843924"><span>A Primer on <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brizard, Alain J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Jacobi and Weierstrass <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..162B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..162B"><span>Shielding of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> guides with direct sight to the moderator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Böni, P.; Grünauer, F.; Schanzer, C.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>With the invention of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> guides, the neutron flux at instruments can be increased significantly even without sacrificing resolution. In addition, the phase space homogeneity of the delivered neutrons is improved. Using superpolished metal substrates that are coated with supermirror, it is now possible to install neutron guides close to the moderator thus decreasing the illumination losses of the guide and reducing the background because the entrance window of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> guide can be decreased significantly. We have performed Monte Carlo simulations using the program package MCNP5 to calculate the shielding requirements for an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> guide geometry assuming that the initial guide section elements are composed of Al substrates. We show that shielding made from heavy concrete shields the neutron and γ-radiation effectively to levels below 1 μSv/h. It is shown that the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> geometry allows to match the phase space of the transported neutrons easily to the needs of the instruments to be installed. In particular it is possible to maintain a compact phase space during the transport of the neutrons because the reflection losses are strongly reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nonlinear+AND+acoustics&id=EJ963907','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Nonlinear+AND+acoustics&id=EJ963907"><span>Exploring Strange Nonchaotic Attractors through Jacobian <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garcia-Hoz, A. Martinez; Chacon, R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate the effectiveness of Jacobian <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions (JEFs) for inquiring into the reshaping effect of quasiperiodic forces in nonlinear nonautonomous systems exhibiting strange nonchaotic attractors (SNAs). Specifically, we characterize analytically and numerically some reshaping-induced transitions starting from SNAs in the context of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPB..3050192M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJMPB..3050192M"><span>Micromagnetic simulation of hysteresis loop of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> permalloy nanorings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mishra, Amaresh Chandra</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Magnetic hysteresis behavior of isotropic permalloy <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> nanorings of outer semi-major axis length (aout) 100 nm and thickness (t) 20 nm were studied with respect to the variation of two parameters: outer semiminor axis length (bout) and the difference between outer and inner dimensions (r). The outer semiminor axis length (bout) varied from 90 nm to 20 nm which covers from nearly circular nanoring to <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> nanoring of high aspect ratio. The value of r varied in steps of 10 nm. Micromagnetic simulation of in-plane hysteresis curve of these nanorings revealed that the remanent state of all of these <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> rings are onion states if the magnetic field is applied along the longer side of the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> rings. If the magnetic field is applied along the shorter side, then the remanent states turn out to be vortex state. The hysteresis loss indicated by area of the hysteresis loop was found to be decreasing gradually with the increment of either r or bout. On the other hand, the remanent magnetization increased with increment of r but decreased with the increment of bout. The changes were attributed to three parameters mainly: inner curvature, exchange energy and demagnetization energy. The changes in loop area were discussed in light of variation of these three parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279950','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22279950"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> galaxies kinematics within general relativity with renormalization group effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Davi C.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The renormalization group framework can be applied to Quantum Field Theory on curved space-time, but there is no proof whether the beta-function of the gravitational coupling indeed goes to zero in the far infrared or not. In a recent paper [1] we have shown that the amount of dark matter inside spiral galaxies may be negligible if a small running of the General Relativity coupling G is present (δG/G{sub 0}∼<10{sup −7} across a galaxy). Here we extend the proposed model to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and present a detailed analysis on the modeling of NGC 4494 (an ordinary <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>) and NGC 4374 (a giant <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>). In order to compare our results to a well known alternative model to the standard dark matter picture, we also evaluate NGC 4374 with MOND. In this galaxy MOND leads to a significative discrepancy with the observed velocity dispersion curve and has a significative tendency towards tangential anisotropy. On the other hand, the approach based on the renormalization group and general relativity (RGGR) could be applied with good results to these <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies and is compatible with lower mass-to-light ratios (of about the Kroupa IMF type)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730012555','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730012555"><span>Supersonic flow calculations for a cone with an <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lehrhaupt, H.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional supersonic flow program is presented for calculating the flow field about a cone at zero angle of attack with an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> flare. The program is irrotational, and results remain valid in the region ahead of the first relected characteristic from the points of shock where the shock is no longer axisymmetric.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MeScT..10...25L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999MeScT..10...25L"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> polarization effects in a chromatically addressed Faraday current sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, G. D.; Aspey, R. A.; Kong, M. G.; Gibson, J. R.; Jones, G. R.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Optical polarization processes in a parallel-sided glass element used in a Faraday rotation current sensor have been considered. In such sensors the path length necessary to produce sufficient rotation of the plane of polarization is produced by a multiplicity of reflections within the glass element. It is shown that such reflections induce <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of polarization and that this affects the current-sensing performance of the sensor. Two reflection cases, corresponding to total internal reflections at a glass-air interface and reflections by aluminium-coated surfaces, are considered. The latter are shown to produce higher optical attenuation but a lower degree of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarization. The implications of the induced <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> polarization in relation to chromatically modulated polychromatic light are considered. It is shown that the resolution of the Faraday sensing is improved by minimizing the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the polarization with the aluminium-coated reflections. However a greater dynamic range and signal strength may be achievable with the total internal reflection element.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036632','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036632"><span>Spectroscopic ellipsometer based on direct measurement of polarization <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Watkins, Lionel R.</p> <p>2011-06-20</p> <p>A polarizer-sample-Wollaston prism analyzer ellipsometer is described in which the ellipsometric angles {psi} and {Delta} are determined by direct measurement of the <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized light reflected from the sample. With the Wollaston prism initially set to transmit p- and s-polarized light, the azimuthal angle P of the polarizer is adjusted until the two beams have equal intensity. This condition yields {psi}={+-}P and ensures that the reflected <span class="hlt">elliptically</span> polarized light has an azimuthal angle of {+-}45 deg. and maximum <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>. Rotating the Wollaston prism through 45 deg. and adjusting the analyzer azimuth until the two beams again have equal intensity yields the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> that allows {Delta} to be determined via a simple linear relationship. The errors produced by nonideal components are analyzed. We show that the polarizer dominates these errors but that for most practical purposes, the error in {psi} is negligible and the error in {Delta} may be corrected exactly. A native oxide layer on a silicon substrate was measured at a single wavelength and multiple angles of incidence and spectroscopically at a single angle of incidence. The best fit film thicknesses obtained were in excellent agreement with those determined using a traditional null ellipsometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830035772&hterms=1052&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231052','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830035772&hterms=1052&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231052"><span>The infrared emission from the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy NGC 1052</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Becklin, E. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Multi-aperture IR photometry of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxy NGC 1052 shows that its IR excess is confined to a region smaller than 2 arc sec (300 pc) in diameter coincident with the visible nucleus. It is suggested that the emission in the 5-20 micron range arises from dust heated by the nonthermal source seen at other wavelengths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.Q7013K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.Q7013K"><span>Effect of curvature on domain wall motion in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nanorings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaya, Fikriye Idil; Bickel, Jessica; Aidala, Katherine</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Understanding domain wall (DW) motion in ferromagnetic nanostructures is important to realize proposed magnetic data storage and logic devices. We investigate the effect of curvature on DW pinning and motion by studying <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> rings using micromagnetic simulations. <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> rings with constant width have varying curvature, with the lowest curvature at the minor axis, and the greatest curvature at the major axis. DWs can be created at any angular position within the ellipse by the application of an appropriate uniform magnetic field. However, only some of these positions are stable when the field is removed. We study the stability and depinning of the DWs by applying a slowly increasing <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> magnetic field to determine the magnitude of the field at which the DWs begin to move. By varying the major to minor axis ratio, we examine the effect of curvature on DW pinning. A larger field is required to move DWs in regions of higher curvature (near the major axis) than lower curvature (near the minor axis). Overall, we see that increasing the major to minor axis ratio of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> nanorings requires increasing field strength to depin the DWs along the major axis. Work supported in part by NSF DMR-1207924 and NSF CMMI-1025020. Simulations performed at the CNS computational facilities at Harvard University, a member of the NNIN supported by NSF Award No. ECS-0335765.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12114456K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..12114456K"><span>Deep convection in <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> and polygonal eyewalls of tropical cyclones</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuo, Hung-Chi; Cheng, Wei-Yi; Yang, Yi-Ting; Hendricks, Eric A.; Peng, Melinda S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In observations, tropical cyclones with cyclonically rotating <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> eyewalls are often characterized by wave number 2 (WN2) deep convection located at the edge of the major axis. A simple modeling framework is used to understand this phenomenon, where a nondivergent barotropic model (NBM) is employed to represent the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vortex in the free atmosphere, and an asymmetric slab boundary layer (SBL) model is used to simulate the frictional boundary layer (BL) underneath the free atmosphere. The interaction is one way in that the overlying cyclonic flow drives the BL, but the BL pumping does not feed back to the overlying flow. The nonlinear-balanced pressure field from the NBM drives the winds in the SBL model, which then causes BL convergence and pumping near the eyewall. The strong updrafts at the edge of the major axis for the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> vortex in the BL are induced by the larger convergent radial wind from the asymmetric distribution of the pressure fields of the free atmosphere with noncircular vortex. The large radial inflow maintains the supergradient wind at the edge of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vortex. The results emphasize the cyclonic rotation of the WN2 feature of strong updrafts at the top of the BL from the local shock-like BL radial wind structure. Similar radial profiles and strong BL top updrafts occur at the edges of higher-order polygonal eyewalls with the magnitude of the peak updraft decreasing as the wave number structure of the vortex increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoAM.206.1082T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoAM.206.1082T"><span>An <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> singularly perturbed problem with two parameters I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Teofanov, Lj.; Roos, H. G.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>In this paper we consider a singularly perturbed <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> problem with two small parameters posed on the unit square. Its solution may have exponential, parabolic and corner layers. We give a decomposition of the solution into regular and layer components and derive pointwise bounds on the components and their derivatives. The estimates are obtained by the analysis of appropriate problems on unbounded domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=classical+AND+physics&pg=7&id=EJ843924','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=classical+AND+physics&pg=7&id=EJ843924"><span>A Primer on <span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Functions with Applications in Classical Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brizard, Alain J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The Jacobi and Weierstrass <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> functions used to be part of the standard mathematical arsenal of physics students. They appear as solutions of many important problems in classical mechanics: the motion of a planar pendulum (Jacobi), the motion of a force-free asymmetric top (Jacobi), the motion of a spherical pendulum (Weierstrass) and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSSP...25.1674R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MSSP...25.1674R"><span>Static behaviour of a shaft with an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> crack</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rubio, L.; Muñoz-Abella, B.; Loaiza, G.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Cracks in mechanical components produce changes in their behaviour like increases of displacements or decreases of frequencies due to the flexibility increase. Some works related to the analysis of the behaviour of cracked shafts consider the front of the transversal fatigue cracks to be straight, but experience says that the front of these kind of cracks is approximately <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>. Many expressions have been given for the flexibility of a cracked shaft with a straight front whereas, for <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cracks, only an approximate expression for the flexibility has been found in the literature. In the present work, flexibility expressions for cracked shafts having <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cracks are obtained, based on the polynomial fitting of the stress intensity factors, taking into account the size and shape of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cracks showing results according with reality. The static displacements in bending of the shaft for different support conditions have been calculated. The comparisons between these results and those obtained by FEM analysis and by experimental tests show that the closed-form expressions for the flexibility give us a very good approximation to the behaviour of the cracked shaft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJASE...7....1K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJASE...7....1K"><span>Buckling characteristic of multi-laminated composite <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cylindrical shells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kassegne, Samuel Kinde; Chun, Kyoung-Sik</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Fiber-reinforced composite materials continue to experience increased adoption in aerospace, marine, automobile, and civil structures due to their high specific strength, high stiffness, and light weight. This increased use has been accompanied by applications involving non-traditional configurations such as compression members with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-sections. To model such shapes, we develop and report an improved generalized shell element called 4EAS-FS through a combination of enhanced assumed strain and the substitute shear strain fields. A flat shell element has been developed by combining a membrane element with drilling degree-of-freedom and a plate bending element. We use the element developed to determine specifically buckling loads and mode shapes of composite laminates with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-section including transverse shear deformations. The combined influence of shell geometry and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-sectional parameters, fiber angle, and lay-up on the buckling loads of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cylinder is examined. It is hoped that the critical buckling loads and mode shapes presented here will serve as a benchmark for future investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMMPh..55.1290D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMMPh..55.1290D"><span>On an algorithm for solving parabolic and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'Ascenzo, N.; Saveliev, V. I.; Chetverushkin, B. N.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The present-day rapid growth of computer power, in particular, parallel computing systems of ultrahigh performance requires a new approach to the creation of models and solution algorithms for major problems. An algorithm for solving parabolic and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations is proposed. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by solving astrophysical problems on high-performance computer systems with massive parallelism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JPhA...33.6279A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JPhA...33.6279A"><span>Towards a cladistics of double Yangians and <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> algebras*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnaudon, D.; Avan, J.; Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.; Rossi, M.</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>A self-contained description of algebraic structures, obtained by combinations of various limit procedures applied to vertex and face sl(2) <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> quantum affine algebras, is given. New double Yangian structures of dynamical type are defined. Connections between these structures are established. A number of them take the form of twist-like actions. These are conjectured to be evaluations of universal twists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ZaMP...65.1207Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ZaMP...65.1207Z"><span>On the semilinear <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations of electrostatic NEMS devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ruifeng; Cai, Liang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we analyze a class of semilinear <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations with boundary value problem based on electrostatic nanoelectromechanical system. First, we will use upper and lower solution method to study the existence of solutions and some properties of minimal solutions for the problem. Then, we will establish the existence of a second solution by variational method in some conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..303H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Ap%26SS.361..303H"><span>Quasar redshifts: the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> component</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hansen, Peter M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680013892','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19680013892"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> Capture Orbits for Missions to the Near Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Casal, Federico G.; Swenson, Byron L.; Mascy, Alfred C.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> capture orbits around Mars and Venus have often been considered as means for reducing arrival and departure energy requirements for two-way missions. It had also generally been feared that the energy savings obtained by capturing a spacecraft into a highly <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit (rather than a near circular orbit of the same periapsis) would largely be offset by the penalties incurred in aligning the semi-major axis of the ellipse in such a way as to obtain the proper orientation of the departure hyperbola. This paper, presents the results of an analysis which takes into consideration the penalties arising from the requirement to match the orientation of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbit with the asymptote of the departure hyperbola. The scientific aspects of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> orbits around the target planet are discussed, and it is shown that such orbits exhibit characteristics which may be considered advantageous or disadvantageous depending on the purpose of the mission. Alignment of ' the semi-major axis of the capture, ellipse relative to the, asymptote of the escape hyperbola was found not to be a critical requirement since the kinetic energy remains high over a substantial portion of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> capture orbit. This 'means that the escape stage can operate efficiently even when ignited at some angle from the true periapsis point. Considerable freedom in choosing this angle is available at little propulsive cost. The resulting latitude in the choice of angles between arrival and escape asymptotes makes it possible to consider a wide variety of interplanetary transfers and planetary staytimes without the need for separate propulsive maneuvers to realign the capture ellipse before departure., Special consideration has also been g1ven to plane change maneuvers around the planet. These may be required for reasons of orbit dynamics or scientific experimentation and are not uniquely tied to <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> captures. The sensitivity of the mass of the excursion module to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5424795','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5424795"><span>The alphabet of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Uversky, Vladimir N</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ability of a protein to fold into unique functional state or to stay <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Both ordered and <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins (IDPs) are natural polypeptides that use the same arsenal of 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues as their major building blocks. The exceptional structural plasticity of IDPs, their capability to exist as heterogeneous structural ensembles and their wide array of important disorder-based biological functions that complements functional repertoire of ordered proteins are all rooted within the peculiar differential usage of these building blocks by ordered proteins and IDPs. In fact, some residues (so-called disorder-promoting residues) are noticeably more common in IDPs than in sequences of ordered proteins, which, in their turn, are enriched in several order-promoting residues. Furthermore, residues can be arranged according to their “disorder promoting potencies,” which are evaluated based on the relative abundances of various amino acids in ordered and disordered proteins. This review continues a series of publications on the roles of different amino acids in defining the phenomenon of protein <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> disorder and concerns glutamic acid, which is the second most disorder-promoting residue. PMID:28516010</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RAA....17...66L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017RAA....17...66L"><span>The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> γ-ray emissions of Fermi blazars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Chao; Fan, Jun-Hui; Xiao, Hu-Bing</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The beaming effect is important for understanding the observational properties of blazars. In this work, we collect 91 Fermi blazars with available radio Doppler factors. γ-ray Doppler factors are estimated and compared with radio Doppler factors for some sources. The <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> (de-beamed) γ-ray flux density ({f}γ {{in}}), <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> γ-ray luminosity ({L}γ {{in}}) and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> synchrotron peak frequency ({v}{{p}}{{in}}) are calculated. Then we study the <span class="hlt">correlations</span> between {f}γ {{in}} and redshift and find that they follow the theoretical relation: {log} f=-2.0 {log} z+{{const}}. When the subclasses are considered, we find that stationary jets are perhaps dominant in low synchrotron peaked blazars. Sixty-three Fermi blazars with both available short variability time scales ({{Δ }}T) and Doppler factors are also collected. We find that the <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> relationship between {L}γ {{in}} and {{Δ }}{T}{{in}} obeys the Elliot & Shapiro and Abramowicz & Nobili relations. Strong positive <span class="hlt">correlation</span> between {f}γ {{in}} and {v}{{p}}{{in}} is found, suggesting that synchrotron emissions are highly <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with γ-ray emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27936491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27936491"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> α helix propensities compact hydrodynamic radii in <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>English, Lance R; Tilton, Erin C; Ricard, Benjamin J; Whitten, Steven T</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Proteins that lack tertiary stability under normal conditions, known as <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered, exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Molecular descriptions for the biology of <span class="hlt">intrinsically</span> disordered proteins (IDPs) consequently rely on disordered structural models, which in turn require experiments that assess the origins to structural features observed. For example, while hydrodynamic size is mostly insensitive to sequence composition in chemically denatured proteins, IDPs show strong sequence-specific effects in the hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) when measured under normal conditions. To investigate sequence-modulation of IDP Rh , disordered ensembles generated by a hard sphere collision model modified with a structure-based parameterization of the solution energetics were used to parse the contributions of net charge, main chain dihedral angle bias, and excluded volume on hydrodynamic size. Ensembles for polypeptides 10-35 residues in length were then used to establish power-law scaling relationships for comparison to experimental Rh from 26 IDPs. Results showed the expected outcomes of increased hydrodynamic size from increases in excluded volume and net charge, and compaction from chain-solvent interactions. Chain bias representing <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> preferences for α helix and polyproline II (PPII ), however, modulated Rh with intricate dependence on the simulated propensities. PPII propensities at levels expected in IDPs <span class="hlt">correlated</span> with heightened Rh sensitivity to even weak α helix propensities, indicating bias for common (φ, ψ) are important determinants of hydrodynamic size. Moreover, data show that IDP Rh can be predicted from sequence with good accuracy from a small set of physicochemical properties, namely <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> conformational propensities and net charge. Proteins 2017; 85:296-311. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3117633','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3117633"><span>MIB method for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations with multi-material interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely used to model real-world problems. Due to the heterogeneous characteristics of many naturally occurring materials and man-made structures, devices, and equipments, one frequently needs to solve <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources. The development of high-order <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface schemes has been an active research field for decades. However, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes and particularly, for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are originated from two or more material interfaces joining together or crossing each other. High-order methods for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations with multi-material interfaces have not been reported in the literature to our knowledge. The present work develops matched interface and boundary (MIB) method based schemes for solving two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs with geometric singularities of multi-material interfaces. A number of new MIB schemes are constructed to account for all possible topological variations due to two-material interfaces. The geometric singularities of three-material interfaces are significantly more difficult to handle. Three new MIB schemes are designed to handle a variety of geometric situations and topological variations, although not all of them. The performance of the proposed new MIB schemes is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of coefficient contrasts, geometric singularities, and solution types. Extensive numerical studies confirm the designed second order accuracy of the MIB method for multi-material interfaces, including a case where the derivative of the solution diverges. PMID:21691433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9283E..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9283E..04L"><span>Experimental study on <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vibration cutting for optical microstructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Guo; Che, Lin; Wang, Bo; Ding, Fei; Zhang, Chen Feng</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>In the processing technology of optical microstructure, mechanical processing with high efficiency and quality is still dominating. However, with microstructure surface quality higher and higher, the precision and ultra precision cutting technology has been difficult to meet the needs of reality, and it still remains a big issue in production efficiency and cost. In this case, the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vibration cutting method is created. At present, research on the effect of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vibration cutting on surface quality of microstructures with special optical properties such as V-groove, micro pyramid and sinusoidal grid surface is rarely seen. This paper focuses on the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vibration cutting process of arc groove and V-groove, aiming at finding the discipline of various parameters (frequency, amplitude, feed rate) and analyzing the surface quality through experiments. Firstly, the principle of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vibration cutting is introduced, the cutting mechanism and the theoretical error are analyzed, and a vibration cutting system is designed for precision machining. Because the surface quality and burr play have a huge impact on optical microstructure, effects of the vibration frequency (0-2kHz), amplitude (0.5-2.5μm) as well as feed rate (6-30mm/min) on surface quality and burr suppression are analyzed. The experimental results show that compared to normal cutting, <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> vibration cutting has obvious advantages. With the increases of the frequency and amplitude, the surface quality improves significantly, the surface roughness is changed from 61.5nm to 25.3nm, and burr has been suppressed to some extent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21691433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21691433"><span>MIB method for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations with multi-material interfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely used to model real-world problems. Due to the heterogeneous characteristics of many naturally occurring materials and man-made structures, devices, and equipments, one frequently needs to solve <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources. The development of high-order <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> interface schemes has been an active research field for decades. However, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes and particularly, for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are originated from two or more material interfaces joining together or crossing each other. High-order methods for <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> equations with multi-material interfaces have not been reported in the literature to our knowledge. The present work develops matched interface and boundary (MIB) method based schemes for solving two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> PDEs with geometric singularities of multi-material interfaces. A number of new MIB schemes are constructed to account for all possible topological variations due to two-material interfaces. The geometric singularities of three-material interfaces are significantly more difficult to handle. Three new MIB schemes are designed to handle a variety of geometric situations and topological variations, although not all of them. The performance of the proposed new MIB schemes is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of coefficient contrasts, geometric singularities, and solution types. Extensive numerical studies confirm the designed second order accuracy of the MIB method for multi-material interfaces, including a case where the derivative of the solution diverges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20653047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20653047"><span>From Flat Substrate to <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> KB Mirror by Profile Coating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Assoufid, L.; Cai, Z.; Qian, J.; Macrander, A.T.</p> <p>2004-05-12</p> <p>For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape is essential for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirrors to x-ray-quality smoothness. Profile coatings have been applied on both cylindrical and flat Si substrates to make the desired <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape. In a profile-coating process, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed to obtain a desired profile along the direction perpendicular to the substrate-moving direction. The shape of the contour was derived from a desired profile and the thickness distribution of the coating material at the substrate level. The thickness distribution was measured on films coated on Si wafers using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. The mirror coating profile is determined from the difference between the ideal surface figure of a focusing ellipse and the surface figure obtained from a long trace profiler measurement on the substrate. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration of a test run. A KB mirror pair was made using Au as a coating material and cylindrically polished mirrors as substrates. Synchrotron x-ray results using this KB mirror pair showed a focused spot size of 0.4 x 0.4 {mu}m2. This technique has also been applied for making <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> KB mirrors from flat Si substrates. The challenges and solutions associated with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> profile coating on flat substrates will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..705..704L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AIPC..705..704L"><span>From Flat Substrate to <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> KB Mirror by Profile Coating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Assoufid, L.; Cai, Z.; Qian, J.; Macrander, A. T.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>For microfocusing x-ray mirrors, an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape is essential for aberration-free optics. However, it is difficult to polish <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> mirrors to x-ray-quality smoothness. Profile coatings have been applied on both cylindrical and flat Si substrates to make the desired <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> shape. In a profile-coating process, the sputter source power is kept constant, while the substrate is passed over a contoured mask at a constant speed to obtain a desired profile along the direction perpendicular to the substrate-moving direction. The shape of the contour was derived from a desired profile and the thickness distribution of the coating material at the substrate level. The thickness distribution was measured on films coated on Si wafers using a spectroscopic ellipsometer with computer-controlled X-Y translation stages. The mirror coating profile is determined from the difference between the ideal surface figure of a focusing ellipse and the surface figure obtained from a long trace profiler measurement on the substrate. The number of passes and the moving speed of the substrate are determined according to the required thickness and the growth-rate calibration of a test run. A KB mirror pair was made using Au as a coating material and cylindrically polished mirrors as substrates. Synchrotron x-ray results using this KB mirror pair showed a focused spot size of 0.4 × 0.4 μm2. This technique has also been applied for making <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> KB mirrors from flat Si substrates. The challenges and solutions associated with <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> profile coating on flat substrates will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJS..182..216K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJS..182..216K"><span>Structure and Formation of <span class="hlt">Elliptical</span> and Spheroidal Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kormendy, John; Fisher, David B.; Cornell, Mark E.; Bender, Ralf</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>New surface photometry of all known <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies in the Virgo cluster is combined with published data to derive composite profiles of brightness, <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>, position angle, isophote shape, and color over large radius ranges. These provide enough leverage to show that Sérsic log I vprop r 1/n functions fit the brightness profiles I(r) of nearly all <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> remarkably well over large dynamic ranges. Therefore, we can confidently identify departures from these profiles that are diagnostic of galaxy formation. Two kinds of departures are seen at small radii. All 10 of our <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with total absolute magnitudes MVT <= -21.66 have cuspy cores—"missing light"—at small radii. Cores are well known and naturally scoured by binary black holes (BHs) formed in dissipationless ("dry") mergers. All 17 <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with -21.54 <= MVT <= -15.53 do not have cores. We find a new distinct component in these galaxies: all coreless <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> in our sample have extra light at the center above the inward extrapolation of the outer Sérsic profile. In large <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span>, the excess light is spatially resolved and resembles the central components predicted in numerical simulations of mergers of galaxies that contain gas. In the simulations, the gas dissipates, falls toward the center, undergoes a starburst, and builds a compact stellar component that, as in our observations, is distinct from the Sérsic-function main body of the <span class="hlt">elliptical</span>. But <span class="hlt">ellipticals</span> with extra light also contain supermassive BHs. We suggest that the starburst has swamped core scouring by binary BHs. That is, we interpret extra light components as a signature of formation in dissipative ("wet") mergers. Besides extra light, we find three new aspects to the ("E-E") dichotomy into two types of <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> galaxies. Core galaxies are known to be slowly rotating, to have relatively anisotropic velocity distributions, and to have boxy isophotes. We show that they have Sérsic indices n > 4 uncorrelated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16689620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16689620"><span>Development of a submaximal test to predict <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-trainer VO2max.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalleck, Lance C; Kravitz, Len; Robergs, Robert A</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to develop an equation to predict VO2max from a submaximal <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-trainer test. Fifty-four apparently healthy subjects (25 men and 29 women, mean +/- SD age: 29.5 +/- 7.1 years, height: 173.3 +/- 12.6 cm, weight: 72.3 +/- 7.9 kg, percent body fat: 17.3 +/- 5.0%, and <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-trainer VO2max: 43.9 +/- 7.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to an original sample group (n = 40) and a cross-validation group (n = 14). Each subject completed an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-trainer submaximal (3 5-minute submaximal stages) and a VO2max test on the same day, with a 15-minute rest period in between. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to develop an equation for estimating <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> cross-trainer VO2max from the data of the original sample group. The accuracy of the equation was tested by using data from the cross-validation group. Because there was no shrinkage in R2 between the original sample group and the cross-validation group, data were combined in the final prediction equation (R2 = 0.732, standard error of the estimate = 3.91 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), p < 0.05): VO2max = 73.676 + 7.383(gender) - 0.317(weight) + 0.003957(age x cadence) - 0.006452(age x heart rate at stage 2). The <span class="hlt">correlation</span> coefficient between the predicted and measured VO2max values was r = 0.86. Dependent t-tests resulted in no significant differences (p > 0.05) between predicted (43.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and measured (43.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) VO2max measurements. Results indicate that the protocol and equation developed in the current study can be used by exercise professionals to provide acceptably accurate estimates of VO2max in non-laboratory-based settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21904246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21904246"><span>Mechanically braked <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> Wingate test: modification considerations, load optimization, and reliability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozkaya, Ozgur; Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Kuzucu, Erinc O; Yildiztepe, Engin</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The 30-second, all-out Wingate test evaluates anaerobic performance using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer (cycle Wingate test). A recent study showed that using a modified electromagnetically braked <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> trainer for Wingate testing (EWT) leads to greater power outcomes because of larger muscle group recruitment. The main purpose of this study was to modify an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> trainer using an easily understandable mechanical brake system instead of an electromagnetically braked modification. Our secondary aim was to determine a proper test load for the EWT to reveal the most efficient anaerobic test outcomes such as peak power (PP), average power (AP), minimum power (MP), power drop (PD), and fatigue index ratio (FI%) and to evaluate the retest reliability of the selected test load. Delta lactate responses (ΔLa) were also analyzed to confirm all the anaerobic performance of the athletes. Thirty healthy and well-trained male university athletes were selected to participate in the study. By analysis of variance, an 18% body mass workload yielded significantly greater test outcomes (PP = 19.5 ± 2.4 W·kg, AP = 13.7 ± 1.7 W·kg, PD = 27.9 ± 5 W·s, FI% = 58.4 ± 3.3%, and ΔLa = 15.4 ± 1.7 mM) than the other (12-24% body mass) tested loads (p < 0.05). Test and retest results for relative PP, AP, MP, PD, FI%, and ΔLa were highly <span class="hlt">correlated</span> (r = 0.97, 0.98, 0.94, 0.91, 0.81, and 0.95, respectively). In conclusion, it was found that the mechanically braked modification of an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> trainer successfully estimated anaerobic power and capacity. A workload of 18% body mass was optimal for measuring maximal and reliable anaerobic power outcomes. Anaerobic testing using an EWT may be more useful to athletes and coaches than traditional cycle ergometers because a greater proportion of muscle groups are worked during exercise on an <span class="hlt">elliptical</span> trainer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Leeman&pg=4&id=EJ425386','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Leeman&pg=4&id=EJ425386"><span>On Not Using <span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> Justification in Debate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hill, Bill; Leeman, Richard W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Questions the theoretical justification for the standard of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> justification. Challenges the applicability of phenomenological constructs to academic debate, demonstrates that "essences" cannot be readily located in debate resolutions, and illustrates that proponents of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> justification have not adequately operationalized…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20802489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20802489"><span><span class="hlt">Intrinsic</span> biophysical diversity decorrelates neuronal firing while increasing information content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Padmanabhan, Krishnan; Urban, Nathaniel N</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Although examples of variation and diversity exist throughout the nervous system, their importance remains a source of debate. Even neurons of the same molecular type have notable <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> differences. Largely unknown, however, is the degree to which these differences impair or assist neural coding. We examined the outputs from a single type of neuron, the mitral cells of the mouse olfactory bulb, to identical stimuli and found that each cell's spiking response was dictated by its unique biophysical fingerprint. Using this <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> heterogeneity, diverse populations were able to code for twofold more information than their homogeneous counterparts. In addition, biophysical variability alone reduced pair-wise output spike <span class="hlt">correlations</span> to low levels. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> neuronal diversity is important for neural coding and is not simply the result of biological imprecision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...06..190A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHEP...06..190A"><span><span class="hlt">Elliptic</span> flow of identified hadrons in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. 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K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. 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B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow coefficient ( v 2) of identified particles in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV was measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results were obtained with the Scalar Product method, a two-particle <span class="hlt">correlation</span> technique, using a pseudo-rapidity gap of |Δ η| > 0 .9 between the identified hadron under study and the reference particles. The v 2 is reported for π ±, K±, K{S/0}, , ϕ, , and in several collision centralities. In the low transverse momentum ( p T) region, p T < 3 GeV/ c, v 2( p T) exhibits a particle mass dependence consistent with <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> flow accompanied by the transverse radial expansion of the system with a common velocity field. The experimental data for π ± and the combined K± and K{S/0} results, are described fairly well by hydrodynamic calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (VISHNU) for central collisions. However, the same calculations fail to reproduce the v 2( p T) for , ϕ, and . For transverse momentum values larger than about 3 GeV/ c, particles tend to group according to their type, i.e. mesons and baryons. The present measurements exhibit deviations from the number of constituent quark (NCQ) scaling at the level of ±20% for p T > 3 GeV/ c. [Figure not available: see fulltext.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCoPh.297..700V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JCoPh.297..700V"><span>A model and variance reduction method for computing statistical outputs of stochastic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vidal-Codina, F.; Nguyen, N. C.; Giles, M. B.; Peraire, J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>We present a model and variance reduction method for the fast and reliable computation of statistical outputs of stochastic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations. Our method consists of three main ingredients: (1) the hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) discretization of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations (PDEs), which allows us to obtain high-order accurate solutions of the governing PDE; (2) the reduced basis method for a new HDG discretization of the underlying PDE to enable real-time solution of the parameterized PDE in the presence of stochastic parameters; and (3) a multilevel variance reduction method that exploits the statistical <span class="hlt">correlation</span> among the different reduced basis approximations and the high-fidelity HDG discretization to accelerate the convergence of the Monte Carlo simulations. The multilevel variance reduction method provides efficient computation of the statistical outputs by shifting most of the computational burden from the high-fidelity HDG approximation to the reduced basis approximations. Furthermore, we develop a posteriori error estimates for our approximations of the statistical outputs. Based on these error estimates, we propose an algorithm for optimally choosing both the dimensions of the reduced basis approximations and the sizes of Monte Carlo samples to achieve a given error tolerance. We provide numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22465658','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22465658"><span>A model and variance reduction method for computing statistical outputs of stochastic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vidal-Codina, F.; Nguyen, N.C.; Giles, M.B.; Peraire, J.</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>We present a model and variance reduction method for the fast and reliable computation of statistical outputs of stochastic <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations. Our method consists of three main ingredients: (1) the hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) discretization of <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> partial differential equations (PDEs), which allows us to obtain high-order accurate solutions of the governing PDE; (2) the reduced basis method for a new HDG discretization of the underlying PDE to enable real-time solution of the parameterized PDE in the presence of stochastic parameters; and (3) a multilevel variance reduction method that exploits the statistical <span class="hlt">correlation</span> among the different reduced basis approximations and the high-fidelity HDG discretization to accelerate the convergence of the Monte Carlo simulations. The multilevel variance reduction method provides efficient computation of the statistical outputs by shifting most of the computational burden from the high-fidelity HDG approximation to the reduced basis approximations. Furthermore, we develop a posteriori error estimates for our approximations of the statistical outputs. Based on these error estimates, we propose an algorithm for optimally choosing both the dimensions of the reduced basis approximations and the sizes of Monte Carlo samples to achieve a given error tolerance. We provide numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IAUS..191P.530V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IAUS..191P.530V"><span>Extrinsic and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars in the Henize sample</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Eck, Sophie; Jorissen, Alain; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane; Burnet, Michel</p> <p></p> <p>Previous studies have identified two distinct families among S stars: <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars exhibiting Tc lines in their spectrum, and extrinsic S stars lacking Tc lines. Extrinsic S stars were found to be binaries, and probably owe their chemical peculiarities to mass transfer in the binary system. On the contrary, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars are thermally-pulsating AGB stars where the third dredge-up brought heavy elements to the surface. The Henize sample of 205 S stars south of declination -25^circ is especially well suited for inferring the relative frequency of extrinsic/<span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars, since it is not biased towards low galactic latitudes where <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars tend to concentrate. Each star has been measured 3 or 4 times over a period of 5 years with the spectrovelocimeter CORAVEL. The search for binaries is complicated by the fact that Mira-type pulsations are frequent among <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars. Fortunately, radial-velocity variations due to atmospheric motions are generally associated with very broad and asymmetric CORAVEL cross-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> profiles [see also poster P2-14!]. Therefore extrinsic and <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars can be distinguished thanks to (1) radial velocity variations, (2) the shape of the CORAVEL cross-<span class="hlt">correlation</span> profiles, (3) the presence or absence of the radioactive element Tc, as derived from high-resolution spectroscopy, (4) photometric variability, as derived from a survey in the Geneva photometric system. These criteria <span class="hlt">correlate</span> in a nice way and allow to derive the frequency of <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span>-genuine AGB-S stars. The galactic distributions of the two families of S stars are clearly distinct, <span class="hlt">intrinsic</span> S stars being much more concentrated along the galactic plane that extrinsic S stars. High-resolution spectroscopy led to the discovery of two symbiotic stars among the Henize sample (symbiotic stars are interacting binary systems in which a hot compact object accretes matter ejected by a cool (super)giant). The physical parameters responsible for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28607465','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28607465"><span>Spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Hermite-Gaussian solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media without anisotropy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liang, Guo; Dai, Zhiping</p> <p>2017-06-12</p> <p>We introduce a kind of the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Hermite-Gaussian solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media without anisotropy, which carries the orbital angular momentum and can rotate in the transverse. The n-th mode of the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Hermite-Gaussian solitons has n holes nested in the <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> profile. The analytical spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Hermite-Gaussian solitons solutions are obtained based on the variational approach, which agree well with the numerical simulations. It is found that the critical power and the critical angular velocity for the spiraling <span class="hlt">elliptic</span> Hermite-Gaussian solitons are the same as the counterpart of the ground mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23037070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23037070"><span>Imprints of the molecular-orbital geometry on the high-harmonic <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qin, Meiyan; Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Kunlong; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang</p> <p>2012-08-27</p> <p>The influence of the orbital symmetry on the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the high-order harmonics is investigated. It is found that the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> maps have distinct shapes for the molecular orbitals with different symmetry. Our analysis shows that the feature of the harmonic <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> map is essentially determined by the nodal structure of the nonsymmetric orbital. The results indicate that the molecular-orbital geometry is imprinted on the <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> of the high-order harmonics, which invites the use of <span class="hlt">ellipticity</span> measurements as a probe of the orbital structure for polar molecules.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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