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Sample records for intrinsically disordered protein

  1. Intrinsically disordered proteins and intrinsically disordered protein regions.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions fail to form a stable structure, yet they exhibit biological activities. Their mobile flexibility and structural instability are encoded by their amino acid sequences. They recognize proteins, nucleic acids, and other types of partners; they accelerate interactions and chemical reactions between bound partners; and they help accommodate posttranslational modifications, alternative splicing, protein fusions, and insertions or deletions. Overall, IDP-associated biological activities complement those of structured proteins. Recently, there has been an explosion of studies on IDP regions and their functions, yet the discovery and investigation of these proteins have a long, mostly ignored history. Along with recent discoveries, we present several early examples and the mechanisms by which IDPs contribute to function, which we hope will encourage comprehensive discussion of IDPs and IDP regions in biochemistry textbooks. Finally, we propose future directions for IDP research.

  2. Structure and intrinsic disorder in protein autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Travis; Nassar, Roy; Cumberworth, Alexander; Wong, Eric T C; Woollard, Geoffrey; Gsponer, Jörg

    2013-03-05

    Autoinhibition plays a significant role in the regulation of many proteins. By analyzing autoinhibited proteins, we demonstrate that these proteins are enriched in intrinsic disorder because of the properties of their inhibitory modules (IMs). A comparison of autoinhibited proteins with structured and intrinsically disordered IMs revealed that in the latter group (1) multiple phosphorylation sites are highly abundant; (2) splice variants occur in greater number than in their structured cousins; and (3) activation is often associated with changes in secondary structure in the IM. Analyses of families of autoinhibited proteins revealed that the levels of disorder in IMs can vary significantly throughout homologous proteins, whereas residues located at the interfaces between the IMs and inhibited domains are conserved. Our findings suggest that intrinsically disordered IMs provide advantages over structured ones that are likely to be exploited in the fine-tuning of the equilibrium between active and inactive states of autoinhibited proteins.

  3. Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo

    2017-10-06

    Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.

  4. Frustration-induced protein intrinsic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous folding into a specific native structure is the most important property of protein to perform their biological functions within organisms. Spontaneous folding is understood on the basis of an energy landscape picture based on the minimum frustration principle. Therefore, frustration seemingly only leads to protein functional disorder. However, frustration has recently been suggested to have a function in allosteric regulation. Functional frustration has the possibility to be a key to our deeper understanding of protein function. To explore another functional frustration, we theoretically examined structural frustration, which is designed to induce intrinsic disorder of a protein and its function through the coupled folding and binding. We extended the Wako-Saitô-Muñoz-Eaton model to take into account a frustration effect. With the model, we analyzed the binding part of neuron-restrictive silencer factor and showed that designed structural frustration in it induces intrinsic disorder. Furthermore, we showed that the folding and the binding are cooperative in interacting with a target protein. The cooperativity enables an intrinsically disordered protein to exhibit a sharp switch-like folding response to binding chemical potential change. Through this switch-like response, the structural frustration may contribute to the regulation function of interprotein interaction of the intrinsically disordered protein.

  5. Computer Simulations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Chatterjee, Prathit; Ham, Sihyun

    2017-05-01

    The investigation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is a new frontier in structural and molecular biology that requires a new paradigm to connect structural disorder to function. Molecular dynamics simulations and statistical thermodynamics potentially offer ideal tools for atomic-level characterizations and thermodynamic descriptions of this fascinating class of proteins that will complement experimental studies. However, IDPs display sensitivity to inaccuracies in the underlying molecular mechanics force fields. Thus, achieving an accurate structural characterization of IDPs via simulations is a challenge. It is also daunting to perform a configuration-space integration over heterogeneous structural ensembles sampled by IDPs to extract, in particular, protein configurational entropy. In this review, we summarize recent efforts devoted to the development of force fields and the critical evaluations of their performance when applied to IDPs. We also survey recent advances in computational methods for protein configurational entropy that aim to provide a thermodynamic link between structural disorder and protein activity.

  6. Intrinsically disordered proteins as molecular shields†

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabortee, Sohini; Tripathi, Rashmi; Watson, Matthew; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Kurniawan, Davy P.; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Wise, Michael J.; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The broad family of LEA proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) with several potential roles in desiccation tolerance, or anhydrobiosis, one of which is to limit desiccation-induced aggregation of cellular proteins. We show here that this activity, termed molecular shield function, is distinct from that of a classical molecular chaperone, such as HSP70 – while HSP70 reduces aggregation of citrate synthase (CS) on heating, two LEA proteins, a nematode group 3 protein, AavLEA1, and a plant group 1 protein, Em, do not; conversely, the LEA proteins reduce CS aggregation on desiccation, while HSP70 lacks this ability. There are also differences in interaction with client proteins – HSP70 can be co-immunoprecipitated with a polyglutamine-containing client, consistent with tight complex formation, whereas the LEA proteins can not, although a loose interaction is observed by Förster resonance energy transfer. In a further exploration of molecular shield function, we demonstrate that synthetic polysaccharides, like LEA proteins, are able to reduce desiccation-induced aggregation of a water-soluble proteome, consistent with a steric interference model of anti-aggregation activity. If molecular shields operate by reducing intermolecular cohesion rates, they should not protect against intramolecular protein damage. This was tested using the monomeric red fluorescent protein, mCherry, which does not undergo aggregation on drying, but the absorbance and emission spectra of its intrinsic fluorophore are dramatically reduced, indicative of intramolecular conformational changes. As expected, these changes are not prevented by AavLEA1, except for a slight protection at high molar ratios, and an AavLEA1-mCherry fusion protein is damaged to the same extent as mCherry alone. A recent hypothesis proposed that proteomes from desiccation-tolerant species contain a higher degree of disorder than intolerant examples, and that this might provide greater intrinsic stability

  7. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Busch, David J.; Houser, Justin R.; Hayden, Carl C.; Sherman, Michael B.; Lafer, Eileen M.; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures. PMID:26204806

  8. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, David J.; Houser, Justin R.; Hayden, Carl C.; Sherman, Michael B.; Lafer, Eileen M.; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.

    2015-07-01

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  9. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature.

    PubMed

    Busch, David J; Houser, Justin R; Hayden, Carl C; Sherman, Michael B; Lafer, Eileen M; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2015-07-24

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  10. Intrinsically disordered proteins and multicellular organisms.

    PubMed

    Dunker, A Keith; Bondos, Sarah E; Huang, Fei; Oldfield, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions lack stable tertiary structure yet carry out numerous biological functions, especially those associated with signaling, transcription regulation, DNA condensation, cell division, and cellular differentiation. Both post-translational modifications (PTMs) and alternative splicing (AS) expand the functional repertoire of IDPs. Here we propose that an "IDP-based developmental toolkit," which is comprised of IDP regions, PTMs, especially multiple PTMs, within these IDP regions, and AS events within segments of pre-mRNA that code for these same IDP regions, allows functional diversification and environmental responsiveness for molecules that direct the development of complex metazoans.

  11. Stimuli-sensitive intrinsically disordered protein brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Nithya; Bhagawati, Maniraj; Ananthanarayanan, Badriprasad; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Grafting polymers onto surfaces at high density to yield polymer brush coatings is a widely employed strategy to reduce biofouling and interfacial friction. These brushes almost universally feature synthetic polymers, which are often heterogeneous and do not readily allow incorporation of chemical functionalities at precise sites along the constituent chains. To complement these synthetic systems, we introduce a biomimetic, recombinant intrinsically disordered protein that can assemble into an environment-sensitive brush. This macromolecule adopts an extended conformation and can be grafted to solid supports to form oriented protein brushes that swell and collapse dramatically with changes in solution pH and ionic strength. We illustrate the value of sequence specificity by using proteases with mutually orthogonal recognition sites to modulate brush height in situ to predictable values. This study demonstrates that stimuli-responsive brushes can be fabricated from proteins and introduces them as a new class of smart biomaterial building blocks.

  12. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  13. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  14. Intrinsically disordered regions in autophagy proteins.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yang; Su, Minfei; Soni, Gaurav; Salem, Saeed; Colbert, Christopher L; Sinha, Sangita C

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy is an essential eukaryotic pathway required for cellular homeostasis. Numerous key autophagy effectors and regulators have been identified, but the mechanism by which they carry out their function in autophagy is not fully understood. Our rigorous bioinformatic analysis shows that the majority of key human autophagy proteins include intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which are sequences lacking stable secondary and tertiary structure; suggesting that IDRs play an important, yet hitherto uninvestigated, role in autophagy. Available crystal structures corroborate the absence of structure in some of these predicted IDRs. Regions of orthologs equivalent to the IDRs predicted in the human autophagy proteins are poorly conserved, indicating that these regions may have diverse functions in different homologs. We also show that IDRs predicted in human proteins contain several regions predicted to facilitate protein-protein interactions, and delineate the network of proteins that interact with each predicted IDR-containing autophagy protein, suggesting that many of these interactions may involve IDRs. Lastly, we experimentally show that a BCL2 homology 3 domain (BH3D), within the key autophagy effector BECN1 is an IDR. This BH3D undergoes a dramatic conformational change from coil to α-helix upon binding to BCL2s, with the C-terminal half of this BH3D constituting a binding motif, which serves to anchor the interaction of the BH3D to BCL2s. The information presented here will help inform future in-depth investigations of the biological role and mechanism of IDRs in autophagy proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Protein intrinsic disorder toolbox for comparative analysis of viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2008-01-01

    To examine the usefulness of protein disorder predictions as a tool for the comparative analysis of viral proteins, a relational database has been constructed. The database includes proteins from influenza A and HIV-related viruses. Annotations include viral protein sequence, disorder prediction, structure, and function. Location of each protein within a virion, if known, is also denoted. Our analysis reveals a clear relationship between proximity to the RNA core and the percentage of predicted disordered residues for a set of influenza A virus proteins. Neuraminidases (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) of major influenza A pandemics tend to pair in such a way that both proteins tend to be either ordered-ordered or disordered-disordered by prediction. This may be the result of these proteins evolving from being lipid-associated. High abundance of intrinsic disorder in envelope and matrix proteins from HIV-related viruses likely represents a mechanism where HIV virions can escape immune response despite the availability of antibodies for the HIV-related proteins. This exercise provides an example showing how the combined use of intrinsic disorder predictions and relational databases provides an improved understanding of the functional and structural behaviour of viral proteins. PMID:18831795

  16. Disorder in milk proteins: caseins, intrinsically disordered colloids.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; Xue, Bin; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This article opens a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. The focus of this introductory article on caseins is symbolic, since caseins were among the first recognized functional unfolded proteins and since they are definitely the most disordered, the most abundant, and the most studied of all milk proteins. In eutherian milks, the casein family includes at least three and usually four major members (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins) that are unrelated in sequence. However, in some species, two different αS2-casein genes are active, and therefore the total number of caseins can be as high as five. These proteins have found a number of uses in food industry. The functional repertoire of caseins ranges from nutritional function to involvement in the improving and/or maintaining cardiovascular health, to crucial contribution to the milk capacity to transport calcium phosphate, to serve as molecular chaperones, and to protect the mother's mammary gland against amyloidoses and ectopic calcification. An intricate feature of caseins is their ability to assemble to colloidal protein particles, casein micelles, serving to sequester and transport amorphous calcium phosphate. These and many other functions of caseins are obviously dependent on their intrinsically disordered nature and are controlled by various posttranslational modifications. Since various aspects of casein structure and function are rather well studied and since several recent reviews emphasized the functional roles of caseins' intrinsic disorder, the major goal of this article is to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequences of these proteins.

  17. Intrinsic disorder in proteins involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Nikolas; Alhothali, Marwa; Alfonso, Maria Harreguy; Breydo, Leonid; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-04-01

    Five structurally and functionally different proteins, an enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a TAR-DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), an RNA-binding protein FUS, a cofilin-binding protein C9orf72, and polypeptides generated as a result of its intronic hexanucleotide expansions, and to lesser degree actin-binding profilin-1 (PFN1), are considered to be the major drivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the features common to these proteins is the presence of significant levels of intrinsic disorder. The goal of this study is to consider these neurodegeneration-related proteins from the intrinsic disorder perspective. To this end, we employed a broad set of computational tools for intrinsic disorder analysis and conducted intensive literature search to gain information on the structural peculiarities of SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9orf72, and PFN1 and their intrinsic disorder predispositions, and the roles of intrinsic disorder in their normal and pathological functions.

  18. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. III. Ligands, Postranslational Modifications and Diseases Associated with Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the understanding of the relationships between function, amino acid sequence and protein structure continues to represent one of the major challenges of the modern protein science. As much as 50% of eukaryotic proteins are likely to contain functionally important long disordered regions. Many proteins are wholly disordered but still possess numerous biologically important functions. However, the number of experimentally confirmed disordered proteins with known biological functions is substantially smaller than their actual number in nature. Therefore, there is a crucial need for novel bioinformatics approaches that allow projection of the current knowledge from a few experimentally verified examples to much larger groups of known and potential proteins. The elaboration of a bioinformatics tool for the analysis of functional diversity of intrinsically disordered proteins and application of this data mining tool to >200,000 proteins from Swiss-Prot database, each annotated with at least one of the 875 functional keywords was described in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Using this tool, we have found that out of the 711 Swiss-Prot functional keywords associated with at least 20 proteins, 262 were strongly positively correlated with long intrinsically disordered regions, and 302 were strongly negatively correlated. Illustrative examples of functional disorder or order were found for the vast majority of keywords showing strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder, respectively. Some 80 Swiss-Prot keywords associated with disorder- and order-driven biological processes and protein functions were described in the first paper (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic

  19. New force field on modeling intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ye, Wei; Jiang, Cheng; Luo, Ray; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins or intrinsically disordered protein regions comprise a large portion of eukaryotic proteomes (between 35% and 51%). These intrinsically disordered proteins were found to link with cancer and various other diseases. However, widely used additive force field parameter sets are insufficient in quantifying the structural properties of intrinsically disordered proteins. Therefore, we explored to a systematic correction of a base additive force field parameter set (chosen as Amber ff99SBildn) to correct the biases that was first demonstrated in simulations with the base parameter set. Specifically, the φ/ψ distributions of disorder-promoting residues were systematically corrected with the CMAP method. Our simulations show that the CMAP corrected Amber parameter set, termed ff99IDPs, improves the φ/ψ distributions of the disorder-promoting residues with respect to the benchmark data of intrinsically disordered protein structures, with root mean-squared percentage deviation less than 0.15% between the simulation and the benchmark. Our further validation shows that the chemical shifts from the ff99IDPs simulations are in quantitative agreement with those from reported NMR measurements for two tested IDPs, MeV NTAIL , and p53. The predicted residue dipolar couplings also show high correlation with experimental data. Interestingly, our simulations show that ff99IDPs can still be used to model the ordered state when the intrinsically disordered proteins are in complex, in contrast to ff99SBildn that can be applied well only to the ordered complex structures. These findings confirm that the newly proposed Amber ff99IDPs parameter set provides a reasonable tool in further studies of intrinsically disordered protein structures. In addition, our study also shows the importance of considering intrinsically disordered protein structures in general-purposed force field developments for both additive and non-additive models.

  20. Analysis of Structured and Intrinsically Disordered Regions of Transmembrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bin; Li, Liwei; Meroueh, Samy O.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins display two major types of transmembrane structures, helical bundles and beta barrels. The main functional roles of transmembrane proteins are the transport of small molecules and cell signaling, and sometimes these two roles are coupled. For cytosolic, water-soluble proteins, signaling and regulatory functions are often carried out by intrinsically disordered regions. Our long range goal is to determine whether integral membrane proteins likewise often use disordered regions for signaling and regulation. Here we carried out a systematic bioinformatics investigation of intrinsically disordered regions obtained from integral membrane proteins for which crystal structures have been determined, and for which the intrinsic disorder was identified as missing electron density. We found 120 disorder-containing integral membrane proteins having a total of 33,675 residues, with 3209 of the residues distributed among 240 different disordered regions. These disordered regions were compared with those obtained from water-soluble proteins with regard to their amino acid compositional biases, and with regard to accuracies of various disorder predictors. The results of these analyses show that the disordered regions from helical bundle integral membrane proteins, those from beta barrel integral membrane proteins, and those from water soluble proteins all exhibit statistically distinct amino acid compositional biases. Despite these differences in composition, current algorithms make reasonably accurate predictions of disorder for these membrane proteins. Although the small size of the current data sets are limiting, these results suggest that developing new predictors that make use of data from disordered regions in helical bundles and beta barrels, especially as these datasets increase in size, will likely lead to significantly more accurate disorder predictions for these two classes of integral membrane proteins. PMID:19585006

  1. Electronegativity and intrinsic disorder of preeclampsia-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Uversky, Vladimir N; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego Mendoza, José Lino; Calva, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia, hemorrhage, and infection are the leading causes of maternal death in underdeveloped countries. Since several proteins associated with preeclampsia are known, we conducted a computational study which evaluated the commonness and potential functionality of intrinsic disorder of these proteins and also made an attempt to characterize their origin. The origin of the preeclampsia-related proteins was assessed with a supervised technique, a Polarity Index Method (PIM), which evaluates the electronegativity of proteins based solely on their sequence. The commonness of intrinsic disorder was evaluated using several disorder predictors from the PONDR family, the charge-hydropathy plot (CH-plot) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) analyses, and using the MobiDB web-based tool, whereas potential functionality of intrinsic disorder was studied with the D2P2 resource and ANCHOR predictor of disorder-based binding sites, and the STRING tool was used to build the interactivity networks of the preeclampsia-related proteins. Peculiarities of the PIM-derived polar profile of the group of preeclampsia-related proteins were then compared with profiles of a group of lipoproteins, antimicrobial peptides, angiogenesis-related proteins, and the intrinsically disordered proteins. Our results showed a high graphical correlation between preeclampsia proteins, lipoproteins, and the angiogenesis proteins. We also showed that many preeclampsia-related proteins contain numerous functional disordered regions. Therefore, these bioinformatics results led us to assume that the preeclampsia proteins are highly associated with the lipoproteins group, and that some preeclampsia-related proteins contain significant amounts of functional disorders.

  2. Diffusion of Hydration Water around Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-10-22

    Hydration water dynamics around globular proteins have attracted considerable attention in the past decades. This work investigates the hydration water dynamics around partially/fully intrinsically disordered proteins and compares it to that of the globular proteins via molecular dynamics simulations. The translational diffusion of the hydration water is examined by evaluating the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function, while the rotational diffusion is probed through the dipole-dipole time correlation function. The results reveal that the translational and rotational motions of water molecules at the surface of intrinsically disordered proteins/regions are less restricted as compared to those around globular proteins/ordered regions, which is reflected in their higher diffusion coefficient and lower orientational relaxation time. The restricted mobility of hydration water in the vicinity of the protein leads to a sublinear diffusion in a heterogeneous interface. A positive correlation between the mean number of hydrogen bonds and the diffusion coefficient of hydration water implies higher mobility of water molecules at the surface of disordered proteins, which is due to their higher number of hydrogen bonds. Enhanced hydration water mobility around disordered proteins/regions is also related to their higher hydration capacity, low hydrophobicity, and increased internal protein motions. Thus, we generalize that the intrinsically disordered proteins/regions are associated with higher hydration water mobility as compared to globular protein/ordered regions, which may help to elucidate their varied functional specificity.

  3. Molecular Recognition by Templated Folding of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toto, Angelo; Camilloni, Carlo; Giri, Rajanish; Brunori, Maurizio; Vendruscolo, Michele; Gianni, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins often become structured upon interacting with their partners. The mechanism of this ‘folding upon binding’ process, however, has not been fully characterised yet. Here we present a study of the folding of the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of c-Myb (c-Myb) upon binding its partner KIX. By determining the structure of the folding transition state for the binding of wild-type and three mutational variants of KIX, we found a remarkable plasticity of the folding pathway of c-Myb. To explain this phenomenon, we show that the folding of c-Myb is templated by the structure of KIX. This adaptive folding behaviour, which occurs by heterogeneous nucleation, differs from the robust homogeneous nucleation typically observed for globular proteins. We suggest that this templated folding mechanism may enable intrinsically disordered proteins to achieve specific and reliable binding with multiple partners while avoiding aberrant interactions.

  4. Molecular Recognition by Templated Folding of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    PubMed Central

    Toto, Angelo; Camilloni, Carlo; Giri, Rajanish; Brunori, Maurizio; Vendruscolo, Michele; Gianni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins often become structured upon interacting with their partners. The mechanism of this ‘folding upon binding’ process, however, has not been fully characterised yet. Here we present a study of the folding of the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of c-Myb (c-Myb) upon binding its partner KIX. By determining the structure of the folding transition state for the binding of wild-type and three mutational variants of KIX, we found a remarkable plasticity of the folding pathway of c-Myb. To explain this phenomenon, we show that the folding of c-Myb is templated by the structure of KIX. This adaptive folding behaviour, which occurs by heterogeneous nucleation, differs from the robust homogeneous nucleation typically observed for globular proteins. We suggest that this templated folding mechanism may enable intrinsically disordered proteins to achieve specific and reliable binding with multiple partners while avoiding aberrant interactions. PMID:26912067

  5. Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Drive Emergence and Inheritance of Biological Traits.

    PubMed

    Chakrabortee, Sohini; Byers, James S; Jones, Sandra; Garcia, David M; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Chang, Amelia; She, Richard; Lee, Laura; Fremin, Brayon; Lindquist, Susan; Jarosz, Daniel F

    2016-10-06

    Prions are a paradigm-shifting mechanism of inheritance in which phenotypes are encoded by self-templating protein conformations rather than nucleic acids. Here, we examine the breadth of protein-based inheritance across the yeast proteome by assessing the ability of nearly every open reading frame (ORF; ∼5,300 ORFs) to induce heritable traits. Transient overexpression of nearly 50 proteins created traits that remained heritable long after their expression returned to normal. These traits were beneficial, had prion-like patterns of inheritance, were common in wild yeasts, and could be transmitted to naive cells with protein alone. Most inducing proteins were not known prions and did not form amyloid. Instead, they are highly enriched in nucleic acid binding proteins with large intrinsically disordered domains that have been widely conserved across evolution. Thus, our data establish a common type of protein-based inheritance through which intrinsically disordered proteins can drive the emergence of new traits and adaptive opportunities.

  6. Mutual effects of disorder and order in fusion proteins between intrinsically disordered domains and fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Marina; Longhi, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are being paid an increasing amount of interest due to the understanding of the crucial role that flexible regions play in molecular recognition and in signaling. Accordingly, reports focusing on the structural and functional characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins or regions are growing exponentially. Relatively few studies have however been reported on the mutual effects of ordered and disordered moieties in artificial fusion proteins. In this review, we focus on the few available experimental data based on the use of chimeras in which fluorescent proteins were fused to disordered domains of different lengths, compactness and propensity to form secondary structures. The impact of the artificial fusion on the conformational and functional properties of the resulting proteins is discussed.

  7. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M.; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the “fly-casting” hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context. PMID:27668217

  8. Binding Mechanisms of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Theory, Simulation, and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Luca; Bessa, Luiza M; Hanoulle, Xavier; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Blackledge, Martin; Schneider, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, protein science has been revolutionized by the discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In contrast to the classical paradigm that a given protein sequence corresponds to a defined structure and an associated function, we now know that proteins can be functional in the absence of a stable three-dimensional structure. In many cases, disordered proteins or protein regions become structured, at least locally, upon interacting with their physiological partners. Many, sometimes conflicting, hypotheses have been put forward regarding the interaction mechanisms of IDPs and the potential advantages of disorder for protein-protein interactions. Whether disorder may increase, as proposed, e.g., in the "fly-casting" hypothesis, or decrease binding rates, increase or decrease binding specificity, or what role pre-formed structure might play in interactions involving IDPs (conformational selection vs. induced fit), are subjects of intense debate. Experimentally, these questions remain difficult to address. Here, we review experimental studies of binding mechanisms of IDPs using NMR spectroscopy and transient kinetic techniques, as well as the underlying theoretical concepts and numerical methods that can be applied to describe these interactions at the atomic level. The available literature suggests that the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters characterizing interactions involving IDPs can vary widely and that there may be no single common mechanism that can explain the different binding modes observed experimentally. Rather, disordered proteins appear to make combined use of features such as pre-formed structure and flexibility, depending on the individual system and the functional context.

  9. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.; Pino, James C.; Chennubhotla, S. Chakra; Ramanathan, Arvind; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Berthelier, Valerie; Stanley, Christopher B.

    2016-10-11

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.

  10. High GC content causes orphan proteins to be intrinsically disordered.

    PubMed

    Basile, Walter; Sachenkova, Oxana; Light, Sara; Elofsson, Arne

    2017-03-01

    De novo creation of protein coding genes involves the formation of short ORFs from noncoding regions; some of these ORFs might then become fixed in the population. These orphan proteins need to, at the bare minimum, not cause serious harm to the organism, meaning that they should for instance not aggregate. Therefore, although the creation of short ORFs could be truly random, the fixation should be subjected to some selective pressure. The selective forces acting on orphan proteins have been elusive, and contradictory results have been reported. In Drosophila young proteins are more disordered than ancient ones, while the opposite trend is present in yeast. To the best of our knowledge no valid explanation for this difference has been proposed. To solve this riddle we studied structural properties and age of proteins in 187 eukaryotic organisms. We find that, with the exception of length, there are only small differences in the properties between proteins of different ages. However, when we take the GC content into account we noted that it could explain the opposite trends observed for orphans in yeast (low GC) and Drosophila (high GC). GC content is correlated with codons coding for disorder promoting amino acids. This leads us to propose that intrinsic disorder is not a strong determining factor for fixation of orphan proteins. Instead these proteins largely resemble random proteins given a particular GC level. During evolution the properties of a protein change faster than the GC level causing the relationship between disorder and GC to gradually weaken.

  11. Computational approaches for inferring the functions of intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Mihaly; Vranken, Wim; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are ubiquitously involved in cellular processes and often implicated in human pathological conditions. The critical biological roles of these proteins, despite not adopting a well-defined fold, encouraged structural biologists to revisit their views on the protein structure-function paradigm. Unfortunately, investigating the characteristics and describing the structural behavior of IDPs is far from trivial, and inferring the function(s) of a disordered protein region remains a major challenge. Computational methods have proven particularly relevant for studying IDPs: on the sequence level their dependence on distinct characteristics determined by the local amino acid context makes sequence-based prediction algorithms viable and reliable tools for large scale analyses, while on the structure level the in silico integration of fundamentally different experimental data types is essential to describe the behavior of a flexible protein chain. Here, we offer an overview of the latest developments and computational techniques that aim to uncover how protein function is connected to intrinsic disorder. PMID:26301226

  12. Conformational Entropy of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins from Amino Acid Triads

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Anupaul; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2015-01-01

    This work quantitatively characterizes intrinsic disorder in proteins in terms of sequence composition and backbone conformational entropy. Analysis of the normalized relative composition of the amino acid triads highlights a distinct boundary between globular and disordered proteins. The conformational entropy is calculated from the dihedral angles of the middle amino acid in the amino acid triad for the conformational ensemble of the globular, partially and completely disordered proteins relative to the non-redundant database. Both Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used to characterize the conformational ensemble of the representative proteins of each group. The results show that the globular proteins span approximately half of the allowed conformational states in the Ramachandran space, while the amino acid triads in disordered proteins sample the entire range of the allowed dihedral angle space following Flory’s isolated-pair hypothesis. Therefore, only the sequence information in terms of the relative amino acid triad composition may be sufficient to predict protein disorder and the backbone conformational entropy, even in the absence of well-defined structure. The predicted entropies are found to agree with those calculated using mutual information expansion and the histogram method. PMID:26138206

  13. Elastin-like Polypeptides as Models of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Stefan; Dzuricky, Michael; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a class of stimuli-responsive biopolymers inspired by the intrinsically disordered domains of tropoelastin that are composed of repeats of the VPGXG pentapeptide motif, where X is a “guest residue”. They undergo a reversible, thermally triggered lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition, which has been utilized for a variety of applications including protein purification, affinity capture, immunoassays, and drug delivery. ELPs have been extensively studied as protein polymers and as biomaterials, but their relationship to other disordered proteins has heretofore not been established. The biophysical properties of ELPs that lend them their unique material behavior are similar to the properties of many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP). Their low sequence complexity, phase behavior, and elastic properties make them an interesting “minimal” artificial IDP, and the study of ELPs can hence provide insights into the behavior of other more complex IDPs. Motivated by this emerging realization of the similarities between ELPs and IDPs, this review discusses the biophysical properties of ELPs, their biomedical utility, and their relationship to other disordered polypeptide sequences. PMID:26325592

  14. Intrinsic Structural Disorder Confers Cellular Viability on Oncogenic Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Hedi; Buday, László; Tompa, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations, which often generate chimeric proteins by fusing segments of two distinct genes, represent the single major genetic aberration leading to cancer. We suggest that the unifying theme of these events is a high level of intrinsic structural disorder, enabling fusion proteins to evade cellular surveillance mechanisms that eliminate misfolded proteins. Predictions in 406 translocation-related human proteins show that they are significantly enriched in disorder (43.3% vs. 20.7% in all human proteins), they have fewer Pfam domains, and their translocation breakpoints tend to avoid domain splitting. The vicinity of the breakpoint is significantly more disordered than the rest of these already highly disordered fusion proteins. In the unlikely event of domain splitting in fusion it usually spares much of the domain or splits at locations where the newly exposed hydrophobic surface area approximates that of an intact domain. The mechanisms of action of fusion proteins suggest that in most cases their structural disorder is also essential to the acquired oncogenic function, enabling the long-range structural communication of remote binding and/or catalytic elements. In this respect, there are three major mechanisms that contribute to generating an oncogenic signal: (i) a phosphorylation site and a tyrosine-kinase domain are fused, and structural disorder of the intervening region enables intramolecular phosphorylation (e.g., BCR-ABL); (ii) a dimerisation domain fuses with a tyrosine kinase domain and disorder enables the two subunits within the homodimer to engage in permanent intermolecular phosphorylations (e.g., TFG-ALK); (iii) the fusion of a DNA-binding element to a transactivator domain results in an aberrant transcription factor that causes severe misregulation of transcription (e.g. EWS-ATF). Our findings also suggest novel strategies of intervention against the ensuing neoplastic transformations. PMID:19888473

  15. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series on Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-03-25

    In this thematic minireview series, the JBC presents six exciting articles on low complexity or intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The dynamical and fluctuating structures of IDPs or of disordered regions within proteins result in virtually all of their primary sequence being exposed, at least at some time, to potential interacting partners. Their structural versatility underlies their often wide functional repertoires, which is further expanded by post-translational modifications. Given these characteristics, it is not surprising that IDPs serve as important hubs in signaling networks, scaffolding multivalent interactions. They are also important for organizing membrane-less protein organelles. This collection of reviews discusses biophysical approaches for studying IDPs and illuminates their importance to critical functions such as cell cycle control, transcription, and translation, as well as their regulation via cellular input signals. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Tardigrades Use Intrinsically Disordered Proteins to Survive Desiccation.

    PubMed

    Boothby, Thomas C; Tapia, Hugo; Brozena, Alexandra H; Piszkiewicz, Samantha; Smith, Austin E; Giovannini, Ilaria; Rebecchi, Lorena; Pielak, Gary J; Koshland, Doug; Goldstein, Bob

    2017-03-16

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals that survive a remarkable array of stresses, including desiccation. How tardigrades survive desiccation has remained a mystery for more than 250 years. Trehalose, a disaccharide essential for several organisms to survive drying, is detected at low levels or not at all in some tardigrade species, indicating that tardigrades possess potentially novel mechanisms for surviving desiccation. Here we show that tardigrade-specific intrinsically disordered proteins (TDPs) are essential for desiccation tolerance. TDP genes are constitutively expressed at high levels or induced during desiccation in multiple tardigrade species. TDPs are required for tardigrade desiccation tolerance, and these genes are sufficient to increase desiccation tolerance when expressed in heterologous systems. TDPs form non-crystalline amorphous solids (vitrify) upon desiccation, and this vitrified state mirrors their protective capabilities. Our study identifies TDPs as functional mediators of tardigrade desiccation tolerance, expanding our knowledge of the roles and diversity of disordered proteins involved in stress tolerance.

  17. Intrinsic α helix propensities compact hydrodynamic radii in intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    English, Lance R; Tilton, Erin C; Ricard, Benjamin J; Whitten, Steven T

    2017-02-01

    Proteins that lack tertiary stability under normal conditions, known as intrinsically disordered, exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Molecular descriptions for the biology of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) consequently rely on disordered structural models, which in turn require experiments that assess the origins to structural features observed. For example, while hydrodynamic size is mostly insensitive to sequence composition in chemically denatured proteins, IDPs show strong sequence-specific effects in the hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) when measured under normal conditions. To investigate sequence-modulation of IDP Rh , disordered ensembles generated by a hard sphere collision model modified with a structure-based parameterization of the solution energetics were used to parse the contributions of net charge, main chain dihedral angle bias, and excluded volume on hydrodynamic size. Ensembles for polypeptides 10-35 residues in length were then used to establish power-law scaling relationships for comparison to experimental Rh from 26 IDPs. Results showed the expected outcomes of increased hydrodynamic size from increases in excluded volume and net charge, and compaction from chain-solvent interactions. Chain bias representing intrinsic preferences for α helix and polyproline II (PPII ), however, modulated Rh with intricate dependence on the simulated propensities. PPII propensities at levels expected in IDPs correlated with heightened Rh sensitivity to even weak α helix propensities, indicating bias for common (φ, ψ) are important determinants of hydrodynamic size. Moreover, data show that IDP Rh can be predicted from sequence with good accuracy from a small set of physicochemical properties, namely intrinsic conformational propensities and net charge. Proteins 2017; 85:296-311. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cryoprotective mechanism of a small intrinsically disordered dehydrin protein

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Stephanie; Graether, Steffen P

    2011-01-01

    Dehydration proteins (Dehydrins) are expressed during dehydration stress in plants and are thought to protect plant proteins and membranes from the loss of water during drought and at cold temperatures. Several different dehydrins have been shown to protect lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from damage from being frozen and thawed. We show here that a 48 residue K2 dehydrin from Vitis riparia protects LDH more effectively than bovine serum albumin, a protein with known cryoprotective function. Light scattering and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate fluorescence experiments show that dehydrins prevent aggregation and unfolding of the enzyme. The cryoprotective effects of LDH are reduced by the addition of salt, suggesting that the positively charged K-segments are attracted to a negatively charged surface but this does not result in binding. Overall K2 is an intrinsically disordered protein; nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments indicate that the two-terminal, Lys-rich K-segments show a weak propensity for α-helicity and are flexible, and that the central, polar rich phi-segment has no secondary structure preference and is highly flexible. We propose that the phi-segments in dehydrins are important for maintaining the disordered structure so that the protein can act as a molecular shield to prevent partially denatured proteins from interacting with one another, whereas the K-segments may help to localize the dehydrin near the enzyme surface. PMID:21031484

  19. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress

    DOE PAGES

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR). Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain a-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scatteringmore » (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. In conclusion, by focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding.« less

  20. Folding propensity of intrinsically disordered proteins by osmotic stress†

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Amanda L.; Grese, Laura N.; Rowe, Erica L.; Pino, James C.; Chennubhotla, S. Chakra; Ramanathan, Arvind; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Berthelier, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Proteins imparted with intrinsic disorder conduct a range of essential cellular functions. To better understand the folding and hydration properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used osmotic stress to induce conformational changes in nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) and activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptor (ACTR) separate from their mutual binding. Osmotic stress was applied by the addition of small and polymeric osmolytes, where we discovered that water contributions to NCBD folding always exceeded those for ACTR. Both NCBD and ACTR were found to gain α-helical structure with increasing osmotic stress, consistent with their folding upon NCBD/ACTR complex formation. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we further characterized NCBD structural changes with the osmolyte ethylene glycol. Here a large reduction in overall size initially occurred before substantial secondary structural change. By focusing on folding propensity, and linked hydration changes, we uncover new insights that may be important for how IDP folding contributes to binding. PMID:27752679

  1. Computational and theoretical advances in studies of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Best, Robert B

    2017-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are increasingly realized to play diverse biological roles, ranging from molecular signaling to the formation of membraneless organelles. Their high degree of disorder makes them more challenging to study using the techniques of conventional structural biology, because any observable will be averaged over a heterogeneous ensemble of structures. Molecular simulations and theory are therefore a natural complement to experiment for studying the structure, dynamics and function of IDPs. The diverse time and length scales relevant to the roles played by IDPs require flexibility in the techniques applied. Here, I summarize some of the developments in simulation and theory in recent years, which have been driven by the desire to better capture IDP properties at different time- and length-scales. I also provide an outlook for how methods can be improved in the future and emerging problems which may be addressed by theory and simulation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Ensemble Calculation for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Using NMR Parameters.

    PubMed

    Kragelj, Jaka; Blackledge, Martin; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) perform their function despite their lack of well-defined tertiary structure. Residual structure has been observed in IDPs, commonly described as transient/dynamic or expressed in terms of fractional populations. In order to understand how the protein primary sequence dictates the dynamic and structural properties of IDPs and in general to understand how IDPs function, atomic-level descriptions are needed. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides information about local and long-range structure in IDPs at amino acid specific resolution and can be used in combination with ensemble descriptions to represent the dynamic nature of IDPs. In this chapter we describe sample-and-select approaches for ensemble modelling of local structural propensities in IDPs with specific emphasis on validation of these ensembles.

  3. Molecular signaling involving intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anna; Manna, Sara La; Novellino, Ettore; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Marasco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on cellular protein interaction networks (PINs) reveal that proteins that constitute hubs in a PIN are notably enriched in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) compared to proteins that constitute edges, highlighting the role of IDPs in signaling pathways. Most IDPs rapidly undergo disorder-to-order transitions upon binding to their biological targets to perform their function. Conformational dynamics enables IDPs to be versatile and to interact with a broad range of interactors under normal physiological conditions where their expression is tightly modulated. IDPs are involved in many cellular processes such as cellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, and splicing; thus, their high-specificity/low-affinity interactions play crucial roles in many human diseases including cancer. Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in men worldwide. Therefore, identifying molecular mechanisms of the oncogenic signaling pathways that are involved in prostate carcinogenesis is crucial. In this review, we focus on the aspects of cellular pathways leading to PCa in which IDPs exert a primary role. PMID:27212129

  4. High-throughput characterization of intrinsic disorder in proteins from the Protein Structure Initiative.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derrick E; Xue, Bin; Sickmeier, Megan D; Meng, Jingwei; Cortese, Marc S; Oldfield, Christopher J; Le Gall, Tanguy; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2012-10-01

    The identification of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) among the targets that fail to form satisfactory crystal structures in the Protein Structure Initiative represents a key to reducing the costs and time for determining three-dimensional structures of proteins. To help in this endeavor, several Protein Structure Initiative Centers were asked to send samples of both crystallizable proteins and proteins that failed to crystallize. The abundance of intrinsic disorder in these proteins was evaluated via computational analysis using predictors of natural disordered regions (PONDR®) and the potential cleavage sites and corresponding fragments were determined. Then, the target proteins were analyzed for intrinsic disorder by their resistance to limited proteolysis. The rates of tryptic digestion of sample target proteins were compared to those of lysozyme/myoglobin, apomyoglobin, and α-casein as standards of ordered, partially disordered and completely disordered proteins, respectively. At the next stage, the protein samples were subjected to both far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism (CD) analysis. For most of the samples, a good agreement between CD data, predictions of disorder and the rates of limited tryptic digestion was established. Further experimentation is being performed on a smaller subset of these samples in order to obtain more detailed information on the ordered/disordered nature of the proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Viral Transmission Behavior via Protein Intrinsic Disorder Prediction: Coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Gerard Kian-Meng; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2012-01-01

    Besides being a common threat to farm animals and poultry, coronavirus (CoV) was responsible for the human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2002–4. However, many aspects of CoV behavior, including modes of its transmission, are yet to be fully understood. We show that the amount and the peculiarities of distribution of the protein intrinsic disorder in the viral shell can be used for the efficient analysis of the behavior and transmission modes of CoV. The proposed model allows categorization of the various CoVs by the peculiarities of disorder distribution in their membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). This categorization enables quick identification of viruses with similar behaviors in transmission, regardless of genetic proximity. Based on this analysis, an empirical model for predicting the viral transmission behavior is developed. This model is able to explain some behavioral aspects of important coronaviruses that previously were not fully understood. The new predictor can be a useful tool for better epidemiological, clinical, and structural understanding of behavior of both newly emerging viruses and viruses that have been known for a long time. A potentially new vaccine strategy could involve searches for viral strains that are characterized by the evolutionary misfit between the peculiarities of the disorder distribution in their shells and their behavior. PMID:23097708

  6. Dihedral angle entropy measures for intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Cukier, Robert I

    2015-03-05

    Protein stability is based on a delicate balance between energetic and entropic factors. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) interacting with a folded partner protein in the act of binding can order the IDP to form the correct functional interface by decrease in the overall free energy. In this work, we evaluate the part of the entropic cost of ordering an IDP arising from their dihedral states. The IDP studied is a leucine zipper dimer that we simulate with molecular dynamics and find that it does show disorder in six phi and psi dihedral angles of the N terminal sequence of one monomer. Essential to ascertain is the degree of disorder in the IDP, and we do so by considering the entire, discretized probability distribution function of N dihedrals with M conformers per dihedral. A compositional clustering method is introduced, whereby the NS = N(M) states are formed from the Cartesian product of each dihedral's conformational space. Clustering is carried out with a version of a k-means algorithm that accounts for the circular nature of dihedral angles. For the 12 dihedrals each found to have three conformers, among the resulting 531441 states, their populations show that the first 100 (500) most populated states account for ∼65% (∼90%) of the entire population, indicating that there are strong dependencies among the dihedrals' conformations. These state populations are used to evaluate a Kullback-Leibler divergence entropy measure and obtain the dihedral configurational entropy S. At 300 K, TS ∼ 3 kcal/mol, showing that IDP entropy, while roughly half that would be expected from independently distributed dihedrals, can be a decisive contributor to the free energy of this IDP binding and ordering.

  7. Experimental Inferential Structure Determination of Ensembles for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Brookes, David H; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2016-04-06

    We develop a Bayesian approach to determine the most probable structural ensemble model from candidate structures for intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) that takes full advantage of NMR chemical shifts and J-coupling data, their known errors and variances, and the quality of the theoretical back-calculation from structure to experimental observables. Our approach differs from previous formulations in the optimization of experimental and back-calculation nuisance parameters that are treated as random variables with known distributions, as opposed to structural or ensemble weight optimization or use of a reference ensemble. The resulting experimental inferential structure determination (EISD) method is size extensive with O(N) scaling, with N = number of structures, that allows for the rapid ranking of large ensemble data comprising tens of thousands of conformations. We apply the EISD approach on singular folded proteins and a corresponding set of ∼25 000 misfolded states to illustrate the problems that can arise using Boltzmann weighted priors. We then apply the EISD method to rank IDP ensembles most consistent with the NMR data and show that the primary error for ranking or creating good IDP ensembles resides in the poor back-calculation from structure to simulated experimental observable. We show that a reduction by a factor of 3 in the uncertainty of the back-calculation error can improve the discrimination among qualitatively different IDP ensembles for the amyloid-beta peptide.

  8. Phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer: role of intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Steven M; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Levine, Herbert; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A striking characteristic of cancer cells is their remarkable phenotypic plasticity, which is the ability to switch states or phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic changes such as a partial or complete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that play important roles in their survival and proliferation, and development of resistance to therapeutic treatments, are widely believed to arise due to somatic mutations in the genome. However, there is a growing concern that such a deterministic view is not entirely consistent with multiple lines of evidence, which indicate that stochasticity may also play an important role in driving phenotypic plasticity. Here, we discuss how stochasticity in protein interaction networks (PINs) may play a key role in determining phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer (PCa). Specifically, we point out that the key players driving transitions among different phenotypes (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal), including ZEB1, SNAI1, OVOL1, and OVOL2, are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and discuss how plasticity at the molecular level may contribute to stochasticity in phenotypic switching by rewiring PINs. We conclude by suggesting that targeting IDPs implicated in EMT in PCa may be a new strategy to gain additional insights and develop novel treatments for this disease, which is the most common form of cancer in adult men. PMID:27427552

  9. Electrostatically Accelerated Coupled Binding and Folding of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Debabani; Otieno, Steve; Waddell, Brett; Iconaru, Luigi; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Chen, Jianhan

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are now recognized to be prevalent in biology, and many potential functional benefits have been discussed. However, the frequent requirement of peptide folding in specific interactions of IDPs could impose a kinetic bottleneck, which could be overcome only by efficient folding upon encounter. Intriguingly, existing kinetic data suggest that specific binding of IDPs is generally no slower than that of globular proteins. Here, we exploited the cell cycle regulator p27Kip1 (p27) as a model system to understand how IDPs might achieve efficient folding upon encounter for facile recognition. Combining experiments and coarse-grained modeling, we demonstrate that long-range electrostatic interactions between enriched charges on p27 and near its binding site on cyclin A not only enhance the encounter rate (i.e., electrostatic steering), but also promote folding-competent topologies in the encounter complexes, allowing rapid subsequent formation of short-range native interactions en route to the specific complex. In contrast, nonspecific hydrophobic interactions, while hardly affecting the encounter rate, can significantly reduce the efficiency of folding upon encounter and lead to slower binding kinetics. Further analysis of charge distributions in a set of known IDP complexes reveals that, although IDP binding sites tend to be more hydrophobic compared to the rest of the target surface, their vicinities are frequently enriched with charges to complement those on IDPs. This observation suggests that electrostatically accelerated encounter and induced folding might represent a prevalent mechanism for promoting facile IDP recognition. PMID:22721951

  10. Topology-based modeling of intrinsically disordered proteins: balancing intrinsic folding and intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Debabani; Chen, Jianhan

    2011-04-01

    Coupled binding and folding is frequently involved in specific recognition of so-called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), a newly recognized class of proteins that rely on a lack of stable tertiary fold for function. Here, we exploit topology-based Gō-like modeling as an effective tool for the mechanism of IDP recognition within the theoretical framework of minimally frustrated energy landscape. Importantly, substantial differences exist between IDPs and globular proteins in both amino acid sequence and binding interface characteristics. We demonstrate that established Gō-like models designed for folded proteins tend to over-estimate the level of residual structures in unbound IDPs, whereas under-estimating the strength of intermolecular interactions. Such systematic biases have important consequences in the predicted mechanism of interaction. A strategy is proposed to recalibrate topology-derived models to balance intrinsic folding propensities and intermolecular interactions, based on experimental knowledge of the overall residual structure level and binding affinity. Applied to pKID/KIX, the calibrated Gō-like model predicts a dominant multistep sequential pathway for binding-induced folding of pKID that is initiated by KIX binding via the C-terminus in disordered conformations, followed by binding and folding of the rest of C-terminal helix and finally the N-terminal helix. This novel mechanism is consistent with key observations derived from a recent NMR titration and relaxation dispersion study and provides a molecular-level interpretation of kinetic rates derived from dispersion curve analysis. These case studies provide important insight into the applicability and potential pitfalls of topology-based modeling for studying IDP folding and interaction in general. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Fuzzy regions in an intrinsically disordered protein impair protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Gruet, Antoine; Dosnon, Marion; Blocquel, David; Brunel, Joanna; Gerlier, Denis; Das, Rahul K; Bonetti, Daniela; Gianni, Stefano; Fuxreiter, Monika; Longhi, Sonia; Bignon, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Despite the partial disorder-to-order transition that intrinsically disordered proteins often undergo upon binding to their partners, a considerable amount of residual disorder may be retained in the bound form, resulting in a fuzzy complex. Fuzzy regions flanking molecular recognition elements may enable partner fishing through non-specific, transient contacts, thereby facilitating binding, but may also disfavor binding through various mechanisms. So far, few computational or experimental studies have addressed the effect of fuzzy appendages on partner recognition by intrinsically disordered proteins. In order to shed light onto this issue, we used the interaction between the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus (MeV) nucleoprotein (NTAIL ) and the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein as model system. After binding to XD, the N-terminal region of NTAIL remains conspicuously disordered, with α-helical folding taking place only within a short molecular recognition element. To study the effect of the N-terminal fuzzy region on NTAIL /XD binding, we generated N-terminal truncation variants of NTAIL , and assessed their binding abilities towards XD. The results revealed that binding increases with shortening of the N-terminal fuzzy region, with this also being observed with hsp70 (another MeV NTAIL binding partner), and for the homologous NTAIL /XD pairs from the Nipah and Hendra viruses. Finally, similar results were obtained when the MeV NTAIL fuzzy region was replaced with a highly dissimilar artificial disordered sequence, supporting a sequence-independent inhibitory effect of the fuzzy region.

  12. Structural flexibility of intrinsically disordered proteins induces stepwise target recognition.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Nobu C; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-12-14

    An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) lacks a stable three-dimensional structure, while it folds into a specific structure when it binds to a target molecule. In some IDP-target complexes, not all target binding surfaces are exposed on the outside, and intermediate states are observed in their binding processes. We consider that stepwise target recognition via intermediate states is a characteristic of IDP binding to targets with "hidden" binding sites. To investigate IDP binding to hidden target binding sites, we constructed an IDP lattice model based on the HP model. In our model, the IDP is modeled as a chain and the target is modeled as a highly coarse-grained object. We introduced motion and internal interactions to the target to hide its binding sites. In the case of unhidden binding sites, a two-state transition between the free states and a bound state is observed, and we consider that this represents coupled folding and binding. Introducing hidden binding sites, we found an intermediate bound state in which the IDP forms various structures to temporarily stabilize the complex. The intermediate state provides a scaffold for the IDP to access the hidden binding site. We call this process multiform binding. We conclude that structural flexibility of IDPs enables them to access hidden binding sites and this is a functional advantage of IDPs.

  13. Structural flexibility of intrinsically disordered proteins induces stepwise target recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobu C.; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-12-01

    An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) lacks a stable three-dimensional structure, while it folds into a specific structure when it binds to a target molecule. In some IDP-target complexes, not all target binding surfaces are exposed on the outside, and intermediate states are observed in their binding processes. We consider that stepwise target recognition via intermediate states is a characteristic of IDP binding to targets with "hidden" binding sites. To investigate IDP binding to hidden target binding sites, we constructed an IDP lattice model based on the HP model. In our model, the IDP is modeled as a chain and the target is modeled as a highly coarse-grained object. We introduced motion and internal interactions to the target to hide its binding sites. In the case of unhidden binding sites, a two-state transition between the free states and a bound state is observed, and we consider that this represents coupled folding and binding. Introducing hidden binding sites, we found an intermediate bound state in which the IDP forms various structures to temporarily stabilize the complex. The intermediate state provides a scaffold for the IDP to access the hidden binding site. We call this process multiform binding. We conclude that structural flexibility of IDPs enables them to access hidden binding sites and this is a functional advantage of IDPs.

  14. Dancing Protein Clouds: The Strange Biology and Chaotic Physics of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biologically active but floppy proteins represent a new reality of modern protein science. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and hybrid proteins containing ordered and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) constitute a noticeable part of any given proteome. Functionally, they complement ordered proteins, and their conformational flexibility and structural plasticity allow them to perform impossible tricks and be engaged in biological activities that are inaccessible to well folded proteins with their unique structures. The major goals of this minireview are to show that, despite their simplified amino acid sequences, IDPs/IDPRs are complex entities often resembling chaotic systems, are structurally and functionally heterogeneous, and can be considered an important part of the structure-function continuum. Furthermore, IDPs/IDPRs are everywhere, and are ubiquitously engaged in various interactions characterized by a wide spectrum of binding scenarios and an even wider spectrum of structural and functional outputs. PMID:26851286

  15. Dancing Protein Clouds: The Strange Biology and Chaotic Physics of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-25

    Biologically active but floppy proteins represent a new reality of modern protein science. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and hybrid proteins containing ordered and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) constitute a noticeable part of any given proteome. Functionally, they complement ordered proteins, and their conformational flexibility and structural plasticity allow them to perform impossible tricks and be engaged in biological activities that are inaccessible to well folded proteins with their unique structures. The major goals of this minireview are to show that, despite their simplified amino acid sequences, IDPs/IDPRs are complex entities often resembling chaotic systems, are structurally and functionally heterogeneous, and can be considered an important part of the structure-function continuum. Furthermore, IDPs/IDPRs are everywhere, and are ubiquitously engaged in various interactions characterized by a wide spectrum of binding scenarios and an even wider spectrum of structural and functional outputs. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Sweeping away protein aggregation with entropic bristles: Intrinsically disordered protein fusions enhance soluble expression

    PubMed Central

    Santner, Aaron A.; Croy, Carrie H.; Vasanwala, Farha H.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Van, Ya-Yue J.; Dunker, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered, highly charged protein sequences act as entropic bristles (EBs), which, when translationally fused to partner proteins, serve as effective solubilizers by creating both large favorable surface area for water interactions and large excluded volumes around the partner. By extending away from the partner and sweeping out large molecules, EBs can enable the target protein to fold free from interference. Using both naturally-occurring and artificial polypeptides we demonstrate the successful implementation of intrinsically disordered fusions as protein solubilizers. The artificial fusions discussed herein have low sequence complexity and high net charge, but are diversified by means of distinctive amino acid compositions and lengths. Using 6xHis fusions as controls, soluble protein expression enhancements from 65% (EB60A) to 100% (EB250) were observed for a 20-protein portfolio. Additionally, these EBs were able to more effectively solubilize targets compared to frequently-used fusions such as maltose-binding-protein, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, and N utilization substance A. Finally, although these EBs possess very distinct physio-chemical properties they did not perturb the structure, conformational stability nor function of the green fluorescent protein or the glutathione S-transferase protein. This work thus illustrates the successful de novo design of intrinsically-disordered fusions, and presents a promising technology and complementary resource for researchers attempting to solubilize recalcitrant proteins. PMID:22924672

  17. Sweeping away protein aggregation with entropic bristles: intrinsically disordered protein fusions enhance soluble expression.

    PubMed

    Santner, Aaron A; Croy, Carrie H; Vasanwala, Farha H; Uversky, Vladimir N; Van, Ya-Yue J; Dunker, A Keith

    2012-09-18

    Intrinsically disordered, highly charged protein sequences act as entropic bristles (EBs), which, when translationally fused to partner proteins, serve as effective solubilizers by creating both a large favorable surface area for water interactions and large excluded volumes around the partner. By extending away from the partner and sweeping out large molecules, EBs can allow the target protein to fold free from interference. Using both naturally occurring and artificial polypeptides, we demonstrate the successful implementation of intrinsically disordered fusions as protein solubilizers. The artificial fusions discussed herein have a low level of sequence complexity and a high net charge but are diversified by means of distinctive amino acid compositions and lengths. Using 6xHis fusions as controls, soluble protein expression enhancements from 65% (EB60A) to 100% (EB250) were observed for a 20-protein portfolio. Additionally, these EBs were able to more effectively solubilize targets compared to frequently used fusions such as maltose-binding protein, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, and N utilization substance A. Finally, although these EBs possess very distinct physiochemical properties, they did not perturb the structure, conformational stability, or function of the green fluorescent protein or the glutathione S-transferase protein. This work thus illustrates the successful de novo design of intrinsically disordered fusions and presents a promising technology and complementary resource for researchers attempting to solubilize recalcitrant proteins.

  18. MetaDisorder: a meta-server for the prediction of intrinsic disorder in proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Some of them may assume a locally stable structure under specific conditions, e.g. upon interaction with another molecule, while others function in a permanently unstructured state. The discovery of IUPs challenged the traditional protein structure paradigm, which stated that a specific well-defined structure defines the function of the protein. As of December 2011, approximately 60 methods for computational prediction of protein disorder from sequence have been made publicly available. They are based on different approaches, such as utilizing evolutionary information, energy functions, and various statistical and machine learning methods. Results Given the diversity of existing intrinsic disorder prediction methods, we decided to test whether it is possible to combine them into a more accurate meta-prediction method. We developed a method based on arbitrarily chosen 13 disorder predictors, in which the final consensus was weighted by the accuracy of the methods. We have also developed a disorder predictor GSmetaDisorder3D that used no third-party disorder predictors, but alignments to known protein structures, reported by the protein fold-recognition methods, to infer the potentially structured and unstructured regions. Following the success of our disorder predictors in the CASP8 benchmark, we combined them into a meta-meta predictor called GSmetaDisorderMD, which was the top scoring method in the subsequent CASP9 benchmark. Conclusions A series of disorder predictors described in this article is available as a MetaDisorder web server at http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/metadisorder/. Results are presented both in an easily interpretable, interactive mode and in a simple text format suitable for machine processing. PMID:22624656

  19. Roles of intrinsic disorder in protein-nucleic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Dyson, H Jane

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between proteins and nucleic acids typify the role of disordered segments, linkers, tails and other entities in the function of complexes that must form with high affinity and specificity but which must be capable of dissociating when no longer needed. While much of the emphasis in the literature has been on the interactions of disordered proteins with other proteins, disorder is also frequently observed in nucleic acids (particularly RNA) and in the proteins that interact with them. The interactions of disordered proteins with DNA most often manifest as molding of the protein onto the B-form DNA structure, although some well-known instances involve remodeling of the DNA structure that seems to require that the interacting proteins be disordered to various extents in the free state. By contrast, induced fit in RNA-protein interactions has been recognized for many years-the existence and prevalence of this phenomenon provides the clearest possible evidence that RNA and its interactions with proteins must be considered as highly dynamic, and the dynamic nature of RNA and its multiplicity of folded and unfolded states is an integral part of its nature and function.

  20. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-11

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

  1. Proteins without unique 3D structures: biotechnological applications of intrinsically unstable/disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are functional proteins or regions that do not have unique 3D structures under functional conditions. Therefore, from the viewpoint of their lack of stable 3D structure, IDPs/IDPRs are inherently unstable. As much as structure and function of normal ordered globular proteins are determined by their amino acid sequences, the lack of unique 3D structure in IDPs/IDPRs and their disorder-based functionality are also encoded in the amino acid sequences. Because of their specific sequence features and distinctive conformational behavior, these intrinsically unstable proteins or regions have several applications in biotechnology. This review introduces some of the most characteristic features of IDPs/IDPRs (such as peculiarities of amino acid sequences of these proteins and regions, their major structural features, and peculiar responses to changes in their environment) and describes how these features can be used in the biotechnology, for example for the proteome-wide analysis of the abundance of extended IDPs, for recombinant protein isolation and purification, as polypeptide nanoparticles for drug delivery, as solubilization tools, and as thermally sensitive carriers of active peptides and proteins.

  2. Malleable ribonucleoprotein machine: protein intrinsic disorder in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Coelho Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes; Espinosa, Julio; Islam, Sameen; Martinez, Osvaldo; Thanki, Jayesh Jamnadas; Mazariegos, Stephanie; Nguyen, Tam; Larina, Maya; Xue, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that a significant fraction of any given proteome is presented by proteins that do not have unique 3D structures as a whole or in significant parts. These intrinsically disordered proteins possess dramatic structural and functional variability, being especially enriched in signaling and regulatory functions since their lack of fixed structure defines their ability to be involved in interaction with several proteins and allows them to be re-used in multiple pathways. Among recognized disorder-based protein functions are interactions with nucleic acids and multi-target binding; i.e., the functions ascribed to many spliceosomal proteins. Therefore, the spliceosome, a multimegadalton ribonucleoprotein machine catalyzing the excision of introns from eukaryotic pre-mRNAs, represents an attractive target for the focused analysis of the abundance and functionality of intrinsic disorder in its proteinaceous components. In yeast cells, spliceosome consists of five small nuclear RNAs (U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6) and a range of associated proteins. Some of these proteins constitute cores of the corresponding snRNA-protein complexes known as small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Other spliceosomal proteins have various auxiliary functions. To gain better understanding of the functional roles of intrinsic disorder, we have studied the prevalence of intrinsically disordered proteins in the yeast spliceosome using a wide array of bioinformatics methods. Our study revealed that similar to the proteins associated with human spliceosomes (Korneta & Bujnicki, 2012), proteins found in the yeast spliceosome are enriched in intrinsic disorder. PMID:23638354

  3. An Unusual Intrinsically Disordered Protein from the Model Legume Lotus japonicus Stabilizes Proteins in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Haaning, Svend; Radutoiu, Simona; Hoffmann, Søren V.; Dittmer, Jens; Giehm, Lise; Otzen, Daniel E.; Stougaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic structural disorder is a prevalent feature of proteins with chaperone activity. Using a complementary set of techniques, we have structurally characterized LjIDP1 (intrinsically disordered protein 1) from the model legume Lotus japonicus, and our results provide the first structural characterization of a member of the Lea5 protein family (PF03242). Contrary to in silico predictions, we show that LjIDP1 is intrinsically disordered and probably exists as an ensemble of conformations with limited residual β-sheet, turn/loop, and polyproline II secondary structure. Furthermore, we show that LjIDP1 has an inherent propensity to undergo a large conformational shift, adopting a largely α-helical structure when it is dehydrated and in the presence of different detergents and alcohols. This is consistent with an overrepresentation of order-promoting residues in LjIDP1 compared with the average of intrinsically disordered proteins. In line with functioning as a chaperone, we show that LjIDP1 effectively prevents inactivation of two model enzymes under conditions that promote protein misfolding and aggregation. The LjIdp1 gene is expressed in all L. japonicus tissues tested. A higher expression level was found in the root tip proximal zone, in roots inoculated with compatible endosymbiotic M. loti, and in functional nitrogen-fixing root nodules. We suggest that the ability of LjIDP1 to prevent protein misfolding and aggregation may play a significant role in tissues, such as symbiotic root nodules, which are characterized by high metabolic activity. PMID:18779323

  4. Autophagy-related intrinsically disordered proteins in intra-nuclear compartments.

    PubMed

    Na, Insung; Meng, Fanchi; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-08-16

    Recent analyses indicated that autophagy can be regulated via some nuclear transcriptional networks and many important players in the autophagy and other forms of programmed cell death are known to be intrinsically disordered. To this end, we analyzed similarities and differences in the intrinsic disorder distribution of nuclear and non-nuclear proteins related to autophagy. We also looked at the peculiarities of the distribution of the intrinsically disordered autophagy-related proteins in various intra-nuclear organelles, such as the nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinucleolar compartment. This analysis revealed that the autophagy-related proteins constitute about 2.5% of the non-nuclear proteins and 3.3% of the nuclear proteins, which corresponds to a substantial enrichment by about 32% in the nucleus. Curiously, although, in general, the autophagy-related proteins share similar characteristics of disorder with a generic set of all non-nuclear proteins, chromatin and nuclear speckles are enriched in the intrinsically disordered autophagy proteins (29 and 37% of these proteins are disordered, respectively) and have high disorder content at 0.24 and 0.27, respectively. Therefore, our data suggest that some of the nuclear disordered proteins may play important roles in autophagy.

  5. Consequences of inducing intrinsic disorder in a high-affinity protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Papadakos, Grigorios; Sharma, Amit; Lancaster, Lorna E; Bowen, Rebecca; Kaminska, Renata; Leech, Andrew P; Walker, Daniel; Redfield, Christina; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-04-29

    The kinetic and thermodynamic consequences of intrinsic disorder in protein-protein recognition are controversial. We address this by inducing one partner of the high-affinity colicin E3 rRNase domain-Im3 complex (K(d) ≈ 10(-12) M) to become an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). Through a variety of biophysical measurements, we show that a single alanine mutation at Tyr507 within the hydrophobic core of the isolated colicin E3 rRNase domain causes the enzyme to become an IDP (E3 rRNase(IDP)). E3 rRNase(IDP) binds stoichiometrically to Im3 and forms a structure that is essentially identical to the wild-type complex. However, binding of E3 rRNase(IDP) to Im3 is 4 orders of magnitude weaker than that of the folded rRNase, with thermodynamic parameters reflecting the disorder-to-order transition on forming the complex. Critically, pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the E3 rRNase(IDP)-Im3 complex demonstrates that the decrease in affinity is mostly accounted for by a drop in the electrostatically steered association rate. Our study shows that, notwithstanding the advantages intrinsic disorder brings to biological systems, this can come at severe kinetic and thermodynamic cost.

  6. ff14IDPs force field improving the conformation sampling of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ye, Wei; Ji, Dingjue; Luo, Ray; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are proteins which lack of specific tertiary structure and unable to fold spontaneously without the partner binding. These intrinsically disordered proteins are found to associate with various diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, current widely used force fields, such as ff99SB, ff14SB, OPLS/AA, and Charmm27, are insufficient in sampling the conformational characters of intrinsically disordered proteins. In this study, the CMAP method was used to correct the φ/ψ distributions of disorder-promoting amino acids. The simulation results show that the force filed parameters (ff14IDPs) can improve the φ/ψ distributions of the disorder-promoting amino acids, with RMSD less than 0.10% relative to the benchmark data of intrinsically disordered proteins. Further test suggests that the calculated secondary chemical shifts under ff14IDPs are in quantitative agreement with the data of NMR experiment for five tested systems. In addition, the simulation results show that ff14IDPs can still be used to model structural proteins, such as tested lysozyme and ubiquitin, with better performance in coil regions than the original general Amber force field ff14SB. These findings confirm that the newly developed Amber ff14IDPs is a robust model for improving the conformation sampling of intrinsically disordered proteins.

  7. Compartmentalization and Functionality of Nuclear Disorder: Intrinsic Disorder and Protein-Protein Interactions in Intra-Nuclear Compartments.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanchi; Na, Insung; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-12-25

    The cell nucleus contains a number of membrane-less organelles or intra-nuclear compartments. These compartments are dynamic structures representing liquid-droplet phases which are only slightly denser than the bulk intra-nuclear fluid. They possess different functions, have diverse morphologies, and are typically composed of RNA (or, in some cases, DNA) and proteins. We analyzed 3005 mouse proteins localized in specific intra-nuclear organelles, such as nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinuclear compartment and compared them with ~29,863 non-nuclear proteins from mouse proteome. Our analysis revealed that intrinsic disorder is enriched in the majority of intra-nuclear compartments, except for the nuclear pore and lamina. These compartments are depleted in proteins that lack disordered domains and enriched in proteins that have multiple disordered domains. Moonlighting proteins found in multiple intra-nuclear compartments are more likely to have multiple disordered domains. Protein-protein interaction networks in the intra-nuclear compartments are denser and include more hubs compared to the non-nuclear proteins. Hubs in the intra-nuclear compartments (except for the nuclear pore) are enriched in disorder compared with non-nuclear hubs and non-nuclear proteins. Therefore, our work provides support to the idea of the functional importance of intrinsic disorder in the cell nucleus and shows that many proteins associated with sub-nuclear organelles in nuclei of mouse cells are enriched in disorder. This high level of disorder in the mouse nuclear proteins defines their ability to serve as very promiscuous binders, possessing both large quantities of potential disorder-based interaction sites and the ability of a single such site to be involved in a large number of interactions.

  8. Compartmentalization and Functionality of Nuclear Disorder: Intrinsic Disorder and Protein-Protein Interactions in Intra-Nuclear Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanchi; Na, Insung; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    The cell nucleus contains a number of membrane-less organelles or intra-nuclear compartments. These compartments are dynamic structures representing liquid-droplet phases which are only slightly denser than the bulk intra-nuclear fluid. They possess different functions, have diverse morphologies, and are typically composed of RNA (or, in some cases, DNA) and proteins. We analyzed 3005 mouse proteins localized in specific intra-nuclear organelles, such as nucleolus, chromatin, Cajal bodies, nuclear speckles, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, nuclear lamina, nuclear pores, and perinuclear compartment and compared them with ~29,863 non-nuclear proteins from mouse proteome. Our analysis revealed that intrinsic disorder is enriched in the majority of intra-nuclear compartments, except for the nuclear pore and lamina. These compartments are depleted in proteins that lack disordered domains and enriched in proteins that have multiple disordered domains. Moonlighting proteins found in multiple intra-nuclear compartments are more likely to have multiple disordered domains. Protein-protein interaction networks in the intra-nuclear compartments are denser and include more hubs compared to the non-nuclear proteins. Hubs in the intra-nuclear compartments (except for the nuclear pore) are enriched in disorder compared with non-nuclear hubs and non-nuclear proteins. Therefore, our work provides support to the idea of the functional importance of intrinsic disorder in the cell nucleus and shows that many proteins associated with sub-nuclear organelles in nuclei of mouse cells are enriched in disorder. This high level of disorder in the mouse nuclear proteins defines their ability to serve as very promiscuous binders, possessing both large quantities of potential disorder-based interaction sites and the ability of a single such site to be involved in a large number of interactions. PMID:26712748

  9. Differential dehydration effects on globular proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins during film formation.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Juliana Sakamoto; Miles, Andew J; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian; Wallace, B A

    2017-04-01

    Globular proteins composed of different secondary structures and fold types were examined by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the effects of dehydration on their secondary structures. They exhibited only minor changes upon removal of bulk water during film formation, contrary to previously reported studies of proteins dehydrated by lyophilization (where substantial loss of helical structure and gain in sheet structure was detected). This near lack of conformational change observed for globular proteins contrasts with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) dried in the same manner: the IDPs, which have almost completely unordered structures in solution, exhibited increased amounts of regular (mostly helical) secondary structures when dehydrated, suggesting formation of new intra-protein hydrogen bonds replacing solvent-protein hydrogen bonds, in a process which may mimic interactions that occur when IDPs bind to partner molecules. This study has thus shown that the secondary structures of globular and intrinsically disordered proteins behave very differently upon dehydration, and that films are a potentially useful format for examining dehydrated soluble proteins and assessing IDPs structures.

  10. Differential dehydration effects on globular proteins and intrinsically disordered proteins during film formation

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Juliana Sakamoto; Miles, Andew J.; Araujo, Ana Paula Ulian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Globular proteins composed of different secondary structures and fold types were examined by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the effects of dehydration on their secondary structures. They exhibited only minor changes upon removal of bulk water during film formation, contrary to previously reported studies of proteins dehydrated by lyophilization (where substantial loss of helical structure and gain in sheet structure was detected). This near lack of conformational change observed for globular proteins contrasts with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) dried in the same manner: the IDPs, which have almost completely unordered structures in solution, exhibited increased amounts of regular (mostly helical) secondary structures when dehydrated, suggesting formation of new intra‐protein hydrogen bonds replacing solvent‐protein hydrogen bonds, in a process which may mimic interactions that occur when IDPs bind to partner molecules. This study has thus shown that the secondary structures of globular and intrinsically disordered proteins behave very differently upon dehydration, and that films are a potentially useful format for examining dehydrated soluble proteins and assessing IDPs structures. PMID:28097742

  11. Protein intrinsic disorder within the Potyvirus genus: from proteome-wide analysis to functional annotation.

    PubMed

    Charon, Justine; Theil, Sébastien; Nicaise, Valérie; Michon, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Within proteins, intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are devoid of stable secondary and tertiary structures under physiological conditions and rather exist as dynamic ensembles of inter-converting conformers. Although ubiquitous in all domains of life, the intrinsic disorder content is highly variable in viral genomes. Over the years, functional annotations of disordered regions at the scale of the whole proteome have been conducted for several animal viruses. But to date, similar studies applied to plant viruses are still missing. Based on disorder prediction tools combined with annotation programs and evolutionary studies, we analyzed the intrinsic disorder content in Potyvirus, using a 10-species dataset representative of this genus diversity. In this paper, we revealed that: (i) the Potyvirus proteome displays high disorder content, (ii) disorder is conserved during Potyvirus evolution, suggesting a functional advantage of IDRs, (iii) IDRs evolve faster than ordered regions, and (iv) IDRs may be associated with major biological functions required for the Potyvirus cycle. Notably, the proteins P1, Coat protein (CP) and Viral genome-linked protein (VPg) display a high content of conserved disorder, enriched in specific motifs mimicking eukaryotic functional modules and suggesting strategies of host machinery hijacking. In these three proteins, IDRs are particularly conserved despite their high amino acid polymorphism, indicating a link to adaptive processes. Through this comprehensive study, we further investigate the biological relevance of intrinsic disorder in Potyvirus biology and we propose a functional annotation of potyviral proteome IDRs.

  12. Orderly order in protein intrinsic disorder distribution: disorder in 3500 proteomes from viruses and the three domains of life.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bin; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and intrinsically disordered protein regions are highly abundant in nature. However, the quantitative and qualitative measures of protein intrinsic disorder in species with known genomes are still not available. Furthermore, although the correlation between high fraction of disordered residues and advanced species has been reported, the details of this correlation and the connection between the disorder content and proteome complexity have not been reported as of yet. To fill this gap, we analysed entire proteomes of 3484 species from three domains of life (archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes) and from viruses. Our analysis revealed that the evolution process is characterized by distinctive patterns of changes in the protein intrinsic disorder content. We are showing here that viruses are characterized by the widest spread of the proteome disorder content (the percentage of disordered residues ranges from 7.3% in human coronavirus NL63 to 77.3% in Avian carcinoma virus). For several organisms, a clear correlation is seen between their disorder contents and habitats. In multicellular eukaryotes, there is a weak correlation between the complexity of an organism (evaluated as a number of different cell types) and its overall disorder content. For both the prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the disorder content is generally independent of the proteome size. However, disorder shows a sharp increase associated with the transition from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells. This suggests that the increased disorder content in eukaryotic proteomes might be used by nature to deal with the increased cell complexity due to the appearance of the various cellular compartments.

  13. Glutamate promotes SSB protein-protein Interactions via intrinsically disordered regions.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Alexander G; Shinn, Min Kyung; Weiland, Elizabeth A; Lohman, Timothy M

    2017-09-01

    E. coli single strand (ss) DNA binding protein (SSB) is an essential protein that binds to ssDNA intermediates formed during genome maintenance. SSB homotetramers bind ssDNA in several modes that differ in occluded site size and cooperativity. High "unlimited" cooperativity is associated with the 35 site size ((SSB)35) mode at low [NaCl], whereas the 65 site size ((SSB)65) mode formed at higher [NaCl] (> 200mM), where ssDNA wraps completely around the tetramer, displays "limited" cooperativity forming dimers of tetramers. It was previously thought that high cooperativity was associated only with the (SSB)35 binding mode. However, we show here that highly cooperative binding also occurs in the (SSB)65/(SSB)56 binding modes at physiological salt concentrations containing either glutamate or acetate. Highly cooperative binding requires the 56 amino acid intrinsically disordered C-terminal linker (IDL) that connects the DNA binding domain with the 9 amino acid C-terminal acidic tip that is involved in SSB binding to other proteins involved in genome maintenance. These results suggest that high cooperativity involves interactions between IDL regions from different SSB tetramers. Glutamate, which is preferentially excluded from protein surfaces, may generally promote interactions between intrinsically disordered regions of proteins. Since glutamate is the major monovalent anion in E. coli, these results suggest that SSB likely binds to ssDNA with high cooperativity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrinsic Disorder in Male Sex Determination: Disorderedness of Proteins from the Sry Transcriptional Network.

    PubMed

    Merone, Jean; Nwogu, Onyekahi; Redington, Jennifer M; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-10-28

    Sex differentiation is a complex process where sexually indifferent embryo progressively acquires male or female characteristics via tightly controlled, perfectly timed, and sophisticatedly intertwined chain of events. This process is controlled and regulated by a set of specific proteins, with one of the first steps in sex differentiation being the activation of the Y-chromosomal Sry gene (sex-determining region Y) in males that acts as a switch from undifferentiated gonad somatic cells to testis development. There are several key players in this process, which constitute the Sry transcriptional network, and collective action of which governs testis determination. Although it is accepted now that many proteins engaged in signal transduction as well as regulation and control of various biological processes are intrinsically disordered (i.e., do not have unique structure and remain unstructured, or incompletely structured, under physiological conditions), the roles and profusion of intrinsic disorder in proteins involved in the male sex determination have not been accessed as of yet. The goal of this study is to cover this gap by analyzing some key players of the Sry transcriptional network. To this end, we employed a broad set of computational tools for intrinsic disorder analysis and conducted intensive literature search in order to gain information on the structural peculiarities of the Sry network-related proteins, their intrinsic disorder predispositions, and the roles of intrinsic disorder in their functions.

  15. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Gallat, Francois-Xavier; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J; Weik, Martin

    2015-03-16

    Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translational component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240 K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity.

  16. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Gallat, Francois-Xavier; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J.; Weik, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translational component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240 K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity. PMID:25774711

  17. Translational diffusion of hydration water correlates with functional motions in folded and intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fichou, Yann; Gallat, Francois-Xavier; Wood, Kathleen; Gabel, Frank; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Heyden, Matthias; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Orecchini, Andrea; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Wuttke, Joachim; Tobias, Douglas J.; Weik, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300 K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translational component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240 K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity.

  18. Intramolecular three-colour single pair FRET of intrinsically disordered proteins with increased dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Milles, Sigrid; Koehler, Christine; Gambin, Yann; Deniz, Ashok A; Lemke, Edward A

    2012-10-01

    Single molecule observation of fluorescence resonance energy transfer can be used to provide insight into the structure and dynamics of proteins. Using a straightforward triple-colour labelling strategy, we present a measurement and analysis scheme that can simultaneously study multiple regions within single intrinsically disordered proteins.

  19. Functional Advantages of Conserved Intrinsic Disorder in RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Mihaly; Zsolyomi, Fruzsina; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Proteins form large macromolecular assemblies with RNA that govern essential molecular processes. RNA-binding proteins have often been associated with conformational flexibility, yet the extent and functional implications of their intrinsic disorder have never been fully assessed. Here, through large-scale analysis of comprehensive protein sequence and structure datasets we demonstrate the prevalence of intrinsic structural disorder in RNA-binding proteins and domains. We addressed their functionality through a quantitative description of the evolutionary conservation of disordered segments involved in binding, and investigated the structural implications of flexibility in terms of conformational stability and interface formation. We conclude that the functional role of intrinsically disordered protein segments in RNA-binding is two-fold: first, these regions establish extended, conserved electrostatic interfaces with RNAs via induced fit. Second, conformational flexibility enables them to target different RNA partners, providing multi-functionality, while also ensuring specificity. These findings emphasize the functional importance of intrinsically disordered regions in RNA-binding proteins. PMID:26439842

  20. Intrinsically disordered tau protein in Alzheimer's tangles: a coincidence or a rule?

    PubMed

    Skrabana, R; Skrabanova, M; Csokova, N; Sevcik, J; Novak, M

    2006-01-01

    Tau protein, the major constituent of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies, is classified as intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). IDPs in contrast to globular proteins contain high proportion of polar and charged amino acids in their sequence, which results in the absence of a well-defined three-dimensional structure of the free protein. Structural flexibility of IDPs is required to perform their important role in many cellular processes. In the course of tauopathies, highly soluble disordered tau protein acquires rigid fold and forms highly insoluble filaments. Beneficial intrinsic disorder transforms into a fatal order: is it a coincidence, or is there an underlying reason for preferential IDPs assembly? In this review we present the structural characteristics of tau protein filamentous lesions in AD and discuss the tendency of IDPs to assembly and to form amyloid deposits (Ref: 65).

  1. Intrinsically disordered protein from a pathogenic mesophile Mycobacterium tuberculosis adopts structured conformation at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niti; Shukla, Swati; Kumar, Sanjiv; Suryawanshi, Anju; Chaudhry, Uma; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Maiti, Souvik

    2008-05-15

    Compared to eukaryotes, the occurrence of "intrinsically disordered" or "natively unfolded" proteins in prokaryotes has not been explored extensively. Here, we report the occurrence of an intrinsically disordered protein from the mesophilic human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The Histidine-tagged recombinant Rv3221c biotin-binding protein is intrinsically disordered at ambient and physiological growth temperatures as revealed by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies. However, an increase in temperature induces a transition from disordered to structured state with a folding temperature of approximately 53 degrees C. Addition of a structure inducing solvent trifluoroethanol (TFE) causes the protein to fold at lower temperatures suggesting that TFE fosters hydrophobic interactions, which drives protein folding. Differential Scanning Calorimetry studies revealed that folding is endothermic and the transition from a disordered to structured state is continuous (higher-order), implying existence of intermediates during folding process. Secondary structure analysis revealed that the protein has propensity to form beta-sheets. This is in conformity with FTIR spectrum that showed an absorption peak at wave number of 1636 cm(-1), indicative of disordered beta-sheet conformation in the native state. These data suggest that although Rv3221c may be disordered under ambient or optimal growth temperature conditions, it has the potential to fold into ordered structure at high temperature driven by increased hydrophobic interactions. In contrast to the generally known behavior of other intrinsically disordered proteins folding at high temperature, Rv3221c does not appear to oligomerize or aggregate as revealed through numerous experiments including Congo red binding, Thioflavin T-binding, turbidity measurements, and examining molar ellipticity as a function of protein concentration. The amino acid composition of Rv3221c reveals that

  2. Amino acid recognition for automatic resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Piai, Alessandro; Gonnelli, Leonardo; Felli, Isabella C; Pierattelli, Roberta; Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Grudziąż, Katarzyna; Koźmiński, Wiktor; Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Resonance assignment is a prerequisite for almost any NMR-based study of proteins. It can be very challenging in some cases, however, due to the nature of the protein under investigation. This is the case with intrinsically disordered proteins, for example, whose NMR spectra suffer from low chemical shifts dispersion and generally low resolution. For these systems, sequence specific assignment is highly time-consuming, so the prospect of using automatic strategies for their assignment is very attractive. In this article we present a new version of the automatic assignment program TSAR dedicated to intrinsically disordered proteins. In particular, we demonstrate how the automatic procedure can be improved by incorporating methods for amino acid recognition and information on chemical shifts in selected amino acids. The approach was tested in silico on 16 disordered proteins and experimentally on α-synuclein, with remarkably good results.

  3. Toward a quantitative theory of intrinsically disordered proteins and their function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jintao; Faeder, James R; Camacho, Carlos J

    2009-11-24

    A large number of proteins are sufficiently unstable that their full 3D structure cannot be resolved. The origins of this intrinsic disorder are not well understood, but its ubiquitous presence undercuts the principle that a protein's structure determines its function. Here we present a quantitative theory that makes predictions regarding the role of intrinsic disorder in protein structure and function. In particular, we discuss the implications of analytical solutions of a series of fundamental thermodynamic models of protein interactions in which disordered proteins are characterized by positive folding free energies. We validate our predictions by assigning protein function by using the gene ontology classification--in which "protein binding", "catalytic activity", and "transcription regulator activity" are the three largest functional categories--and by performing genome-wide surveys of both the amount of disorder in these functional classes and binding affinities for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Specifically, without assuming any a priori structure-function relationship, the theory predicts that both catalytic and low-affinity binding (K(d) greater, >or= 0(-7) M) proteins prefer ordered structures, whereas only high-affinity binding proteins (found mostly in eukaryotes) can tolerate disorder. Relevant to both transcription and signal transduction, the theory also explains how increasing disorder can tune the binding affinity to maximize the specificity of promiscuous interactions. Collectively, these studies provide insight into how natural selection acts on folding stability to optimize protein function.

  4. An assignment of intrinsically disordered regions of proteins based on NMR structures.

    PubMed

    Ota, Motonori; Koike, Ryotaro; Amemiya, Takayuki; Tenno, Takeshi; Romero, Pedro R; Hiroaki, Hidekazu; Dunker, A Keith; Fukuchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not adopt stable three-dimensional structures in physiological conditions, yet these proteins play crucial roles in biological phenomena. In most cases, intrinsic disorder manifests itself in segments or domains of an IDP, called intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), but fully disordered IDPs also exist. Although IDRs can be detected as missing residues in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography, no protocol has been developed to identify IDRs from structures obtained by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Here, we propose a computational method to assign IDRs based on NMR structures. We compared missing residues of X-ray structures with residue-wise deviations of NMR structures for identical proteins, and derived a threshold deviation that gives the best correlation of ordered and disordered regions of both structures. The obtained threshold of 3.2Å was applied to proteins whose structures were only determined by NMR, and the resulting IDRs were analyzed and compared to those of X-ray structures with no NMR counterpart in terms of sequence length, IDR fraction, protein function, cellular location, and amino acid composition, all of which suggest distinct characteristics. The structural knowledge of IDPs is still inadequate compared with that of structured proteins. Our method can collect and utilize IDRs from structures determined by NMR, potentially enhancing the understanding of IDPs.

  5. Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein remains intrinsically disordered when covalently attached to proteasomal target proteins.

    PubMed

    Barandun, Jonas; Damberger, Fred F; Delley, Cyrille L; Laederach, Juerg; Allain, Frédéric H T; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2017-02-01

    The post-translational modification pathway referred to as pupylation marks proteins for proteasomal degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other actinobacteria by covalently attaching the small protein Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) to target lysine residues. In contrast to the functionally analogous eukaryotic ubiquitin, Pup is intrinsically disordered in its free form. Its unfolded state allows Pup to adopt different structures upon interaction with different binding partners like the Pup ligase PafA and the proteasomal ATPase Mpa. While the disordered behavior of free Pup has been well characterized, it remained unknown whether Pup adopts a distinct structure when attached to a substrate. Using a combination of NMR experiments and biochemical analysis we demonstrate that Pup remains unstructured when ligated to two well-established pupylation substrates targeted for proteasomal degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, malonyl transacylase (FabD) and ketopantoyl hydroxylmethyltransferase (PanB). Isotopically labeled Pup was linked to FabD and PanB by in vitro pupylation to generate homogeneously pupylated substrates suitable for NMR analysis. The single target lysine of PanB was identified by a combination of mass spectroscopy and mutational analysis. Chemical shift comparison between Pup in its free form and ligated to substrate reveals intrinsic disorder of Pup in the conjugate. When linked to the proteasomal substrates FabD and PanB, Pup is unstructured and retains the ability to interact with its different binding partners. This suggests that it is not the conformation of Pup attached to these two substrates which determines their delivery to the proteasome, but the availability of the degradation complex and the depupylase.

  6. The lifestyle switch protein Bd0108 of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an intrinsically disordered protein.

    PubMed

    Prehna, Gerd; Ramirez, Benjamin E; Lovering, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a δ-proteobacterium that preys upon Salmonella spp., E. coli, and other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio can grow axenically (host-independent, HI, rare and mutation-driven) or subsist via a predatory lifecycle (host-dependent, HD, the usual case). Upon contact with prey, B. bacteriovorus enters the host periplasm from where it slowly drains the host cytosol of nutrients for its own replication. At the core of this mechanism is a retractile pilus, whose architecture is regulated by the protein Bd0108 and its interaction with the neighboring gene product Bd0109. Deletion of bd0108 results in negligible pilus formation, whereas an internal deletion (the one that instigates host-independence) causes mis-regulation of pilus length. These mutations, along with a suite of naturally occurring bd0108 mutant strains, act to control the entry to HI growth. To further study the molecular mechanism of predatory regulation, we focused on the apparent lifecycle switch protein Bd0108. Here we characterize the solution structure and dynamics of Bd0108 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complemented with additional biophysical methods. We then explore the interaction between Bd0108 and Bd0109 in detail utilizing isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy. Together our results demonstrate that Bd0108 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) and that the interaction with Bd0109 is of low affinity. Furthermore, we observe that Bd0108 retains an IDP nature while binding Bd0109. From our data we conclude that Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus utilizes an intrinsically disordered protein to regulate its pilus and control predation signaling.

  7. The Lifestyle Switch Protein Bd0108 of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Is an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    PubMed Central

    Prehna, Gerd; Ramirez, Benjamin E.; Lovering, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a δ-proteobacterium that preys upon Salmonella spp., E. coli, and other Gram-negative bacteria. Bdellovibrio can grow axenically (host-independent, HI, rare and mutation-driven) or subsist via a predatory lifecycle (host-dependent, HD, the usual case). Upon contact with prey, B. bacteriovorus enters the host periplasm from where it slowly drains the host cytosol of nutrients for its own replication. At the core of this mechanism is a retractile pilus, whose architecture is regulated by the protein Bd0108 and its interaction with the neighboring gene product Bd0109. Deletion of bd0108 results in negligible pilus formation, whereas an internal deletion (the one that instigates host-independence) causes mis-regulation of pilus length. These mutations, along with a suite of naturally occurring bd0108 mutant strains, act to control the entry to HI growth. To further study the molecular mechanism of predatory regulation, we focused on the apparent lifecycle switch protein Bd0108. Here we characterize the solution structure and dynamics of Bd0108 using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy complemented with additional biophysical methods. We then explore the interaction between Bd0108 and Bd0109 in detail utilizing isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy. Together our results demonstrate that Bd0108 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) and that the interaction with Bd0109 is of low affinity. Furthermore, we observe that Bd0108 retains an IDP nature while binding Bd0109. From our data we conclude that Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus utilizes an intrinsically disordered protein to regulate its pilus and control predation signaling. PMID:25514156

  8. Supercharging SpyCatcher toward an intrinsically disordered protein with stimuli-responsive chemical reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yang; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Bin

    2017-08-03

    We report a supercharged, intrinsically disordered protein, SpyCatcher(-), possessing stimuli-responsive reactivity toward SpyTag with tunable yields ranging from 4% to 98% depending on pH, temperature, ionic strength, etc. The CD and NMR studies reveal that the reaction occurs through a folded intermediate formed probably via a different mechanism from that of SpyCatcher.

  9. Multifarious roles of intrinsic disorder in proteins illustrate its broad impact on plant biology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolin; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Jones, William T; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in eukaryotic proteomes. Plant IDPs play critical roles in plant biology and often act as integrators of signals from multiple plant regulatory and environmental inputs. Binding promiscuity and plasticity allow IDPs to interact with multiple partners in protein interaction networks and provide important functional advantages in molecular recognition through transient protein-protein interactions. Short interaction-prone segments within IDPs, termed molecular recognition features, represent potential binding sites that can undergo disorder-to-order transition upon binding to their partners. In this review, we summarize the evidence for the importance of IDPs in plant biology and evaluate the functions associated with intrinsic disorder in five different types of plant protein families experimentally confirmed as IDPs. Functional studies of these proteins illustrate the broad impact of disorder on many areas of plant biology, including abiotic stress, transcriptional regulation, light perception, and development. Based on the roles of disorder in the protein-protein interactions, we propose various modes of action for plant IDPs that may provide insight for future experimental approaches aimed at understanding the molecular basis of protein function within important plant pathways.

  10. Intrinsic disorder modulates protein self-assembly and aggregation.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Alfonso; Kitchen, Craig; Kwan, Ann H; Sunde, Margaret; Dobson, Christopher M; Frenkel, Daan

    2012-05-01

    Protein molecules have evolved to adopt distinctive and well-defined functional and soluble states under physiological conditions. In some circumstances, however, proteins can self-assemble into fibrillar aggregates designated as amyloid fibrils. In vivo these processes are normally associated with severe pathological conditions but can sometimes have functional relevance. One such example is the hydrophobins, whose aggregation at air-water interfaces serves to create robust protein coats that help fungal spores to resist wetting and thus facilitate their dispersal in the air. We have performed multiscale simulations to address the molecular determinants governing the formation of functional amyloids by the class I fungal hydrophobin EAS. Extensive samplings of full-atom replica-exchange molecular dynamics and coarse-grained simulations have allowed us to identify factors that distinguish aggregation-prone from highly soluble states of EAS. As a result of unfavourable entropic terms, highly dynamical regions are shown to exert a crucial influence on the propensity of the protein to aggregate under different conditions. More generally, our findings suggest a key role that specific flexible structural elements can play to ensure the existence of soluble and functional states of proteins under physiological conditions.

  11. A Critical Evaluation of in silico Methods for Detection of Membrane Protein Intrinsic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Edward E.; Wiener, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions in proteins possess important biological roles including transcriptional regulation, molecular recognition, and provision of sites for posttranslational modification. In three-dimensional crystallization of both soluble and membrane proteins, identification and removal of disordered regions is often necessary for obtaining crystals possessing sufficient long-range order for structure determination. Disordered regions can be identified experimentally, with techniques such as limited proteolysis coupled with mass spectrometry, or computationally, by using disorder prediction programs, of which many are available. Although these programs use various methods to predict disorder from a protein’s primary sequence, they all were developed using information derived from soluble protein structures. Therefore, their performance and accuracy when applied to integral membrane proteins remained an open question. We evaluated the performance of 13 disorder prediction programs on a dataset containing 343 membrane proteins, and upon subdatasets containing only α-helical or β-barrel proteins. These programs were ranked using multiple metrics, including metrics specifically created for membrane proteins. Analysis of these data shows a clear distinction between programs that accurately predict disordered regions in membrane proteins and programs which perform poorly, and allows for the robust integration of in silico disorder prediction into our PSI:Biology membrane protein structural genomics pipeline. PMID:24739163

  12. HSF transcription factor family, heat shock response, and protein intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    Westerheide, Sandy D; Raynes, Rachel; Powell, Chase; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2012-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are highly abundant in all kingdoms of life, and several protein functional classes, such as transcription factors, transcriptional regulators, hub and scaffold proteins, signaling proteins, and chaperones are especially enriched in intrinsic disorder. One of the unique cellular reactions to protein damaging stress is the so-called heat shock response that results in the upregulation of heat shock proteins including molecular chaperones. This molecular protective mechanism is conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and allows an organism to respond to various proteotoxic stressors, such as heat shock, oxidative stress, exposure to heavy metals, and drugs. The heat shock response- related proteins can be expressed during normal conditions (e.g., during the cell growth and development) or can be induced by various pathological conditions, such as infection, inflammation, and protein conformation diseases. The initiation of the heat shock response is manifested by the activation of the heat shock transcription factors HSF 1, part of a family of related HSF transcription factors. This review analyzes the abundance and functional roles of intrinsic disorder in various heat shock transcription factors and clearly shows that the heat shock response requires HSF flexibility to be more efficient. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers

  13. Structural diversity in free and bound states of intrinsically disordered protein phosphatase 1 regulators

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Joseph A.; Dancheck, Barbara; Ragusa, Michael J.; Allaire, Marc; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Peti, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Complete folding is not a prerequisite for protein function, as disordered and partially folded states of proteins frequently perform essential biological functions. In order to understand their functions at the molecular level, we utilized diverse experimental measurements to calculate ensemble models of three non-homologous, intrinsically disordered proteins: I-2, spinophilin and DARPP-32, which bind to and regulate protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The models demonstrate that these proteins have dissimilar propensities for secondary and tertiary structure in their unbound forms. Direct comparison of these ensemble models with recently determined PP1 complex structures suggests a significant role for transient, pre-formed structure in the interactions of these proteins with PP1. Finally, we generated an ensemble model of partially disordered I-2 bound to PP1 that provides insight into the relationship between flexibility and biological function in this dynamic complex. PMID:20826336

  14. Structural Diversity in Free and Bound States of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.A.; Allaire, M.; Dancheck, B.; Ragusa, M.J.; Forman-Kay, J.D.; Peti, Wolfgang

    2010-09-08

    Complete folding is not a prerequisite for protein function, as disordered and partially folded states of proteins frequently perform essential biological functions. In order to understand their functions at the molecular level, we utilized diverse experimental measurements to calculate ensemble models of three nonhomologous, intrinsically disordered proteins: I-2, spinophilin, and DARPP-32, which bind to and regulate protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The models demonstrate that these proteins have dissimilar propensities for secondary and tertiary structure in their unbound forms. Direct comparison of these ensemble models with recently determined PP1 complex structures suggests a significant role for transient, preformed structure in the interactions of these proteins with PP1. Finally, we generated an ensemble model of partially disordered I-2 bound to PP1 that provides insight into the relationship between flexibility and biological function in this dynamic complex.

  15. Thermally induced structural changes of intrinsically disordered small heat shock protein Hsp22.

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Alexey S; Markov, Denis I; Gusev, Nikolai B; Levitsky, Dmitrii I

    2009-12-01

    We applied different methods (differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and intrinsic fluorescence) to investigate the thermal-induced changes in the structure of small heat shock protein Hsp22. It has been shown that this protein undergoes thermal-induced unfolding that occurs within a very broad temperature range (from 27 degrees C to 80 degrees C and above), and this is accompanied by complete disappearance of alpha-helices, significant decrease in beta-sheets content, and by pronounced changes in the intrinsic fluorescence. The results confirm predictions that Hsp22 belongs to the family of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) with certain parts of its molecule (presumably, in the alpha-crystallin domain) retaining folded structure and undergoing reversible thermal unfolding. The results are also discussed in terms of downhill folding scenario.

  16. The contribution of intrinsically disordered regions to protein function, cellular complexity, and human disease

    PubMed Central

    Babu, M. Madan

    2016-01-01

    In the 1960s, Christian Anfinsen postulated that the unique three-dimensional structure of a protein is determined by its amino acid sequence. This work laid the foundation for the sequence–structure–function paradigm, which states that the sequence of a protein determines its structure, and structure determines function. However, a class of polypeptide segments called intrinsically disordered regions does not conform to this postulate. In this review, I will first describe established and emerging ideas about how disordered regions contribute to protein function. I will then discuss molecular principles by which regulatory mechanisms, such as alternative splicing and asymmetric localization of transcripts that encode disordered regions, can increase the functional versatility of proteins. Finally, I will discuss how disordered regions contribute to human disease and the emergence of cellular complexity during organismal evolution. PMID:27911701

  17. Ligand clouds around protein clouds: a scenario of ligand binding with intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fan; Yu, Chen; Lai, Luhua; Liu, Zhirong

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) were found to be widely associated with human diseases and may serve as potential drug design targets. However, drug design targeting IDPs is still in the very early stages. Progress in drug design is usually achieved using experimental screening; however, the structural disorder of IDPs makes it difficult to characterize their interaction with ligands using experiments alone. To better understand the structure of IDPs and their interactions with small molecule ligands, we performed extensive simulations on the c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ peptide and its binding to a reported small molecule inhibitor, ligand 10074-A4. We found that the conformational space of the apo c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ peptide was rather dispersed and that the conformations of the peptide were stabilized mainly by charge interactions and hydrogen bonds. Under the binding of the ligand, c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ remained disordered. The ligand was found to bind to c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ at different sites along the chain and behaved like a 'ligand cloud'. In contrast to ligand binding to more rigid target proteins that usually results in a dominant bound structure, ligand binding to IDPs may better be described as ligand clouds around protein clouds. Nevertheless, the binding of the ligand and a non-ligand to the c-Myc₃₇₀₋₄₀₉ target could be clearly distinguished. The present study provides insights that will help improve rational drug design that targets IDPs.

  18. Liquid demixing of intrinsically disordered proteins is seeded by poly(ADP-ribose)

    PubMed Central

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Neelsen, Kai J.; Teloni, Federico; Pozdnyakova, Irina; Pellegrino, Stefania; Grøfte, Merete; Rask, Maj-Britt Druedahl; Streicher, Werner; Jungmichel, Stephanie; Nielsen, Michael Lund; Lukas, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins can phase separate from the soluble intracellular space, and tend to aggregate under pathological conditions. The physiological functions and molecular triggers of liquid demixing by phase separation are not well understood. Here we show in vitro and in vivo that the nucleic acid-mimicking biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) nucleates intracellular liquid demixing. PAR levels are markedly induced at sites of DNA damage, and we provide evidence that PAR-seeded liquid demixing results in rapid, yet transient and fully reversible assembly of various intrinsically disordered proteins at DNA break sites. Demixing, which relies on electrostatic interactions between positively charged RGG repeats and negatively charged PAR, is amplified by aggregation-prone prion-like domains, and orchestrates the earliest cellular responses to DNA breakage. We propose that PAR-seeded liquid demixing is a general mechanism to dynamically reorganize the soluble nuclear space with implications for pathological protein aggregation caused by derailed phase separation. PMID:26286827

  19. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease.

  20. Unfoldomics of prostate cancer: on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Kevin S; Na, Insung; Schenck, Ryan O; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic diseases such as prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are highly prevalent among men. The number of studies focused on the abundance and roles of intrinsically disordered proteins in prostate cancer is rather limited. The goal of this study is to analyze the prevalence and degree of disorder in proteins that were previously associated with the prostate cancer pathogenesis and to compare these proteins to the entire human proteome. The analysis of these datasets provides means for drawing conclusions on the roles of disordered proteins in this common male disease. We also hope that the results of our analysis can potentially lead to future experimental studies of these proteins to find novel pathways associated with this disease. PMID:27453073

  1. Intrinsically disordered regions as affinity tuners in protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Vuzman, Dana; Levy, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions, terminal tails, and flexible linkers are abundant in DNA-binding proteins and play a crucial role by increasing the affinity and specificity of DNA binding. Disordered tails often undergo a disorder-to-order transition during interactions with DNA and improve both the kinetics and thermodynamics of specific DNA binding. The DNA search by proteins that interact nonspecifically with DNA can be supported by disordered tails as well. The disordered tail may increase the overall protein-DNA interface and thus increase the affinity of the protein to the DNA and its sliding propensity while slowing linear diffusion. The exact effect of the disordered tails on the sliding rate depends on the degree of positive charge clustering, as has been shown for homeodomains and p53 transcription factors. The disordered tails, which may be viewed as DNA recognizing subdomains, can facilitate intersegment transfer events that occur via a "monkey bar" mechanism in which the domains bridge two different DNA fragments simultaneously. The "monkey bar" mechanism can be facilitated by internal disordered linkers in multidomain proteins that mediate the cross-talks between the constituent domains and especially their brachiation dynamics and thus their overall capability to search DNA efficiently. The residue sequence of the disordered tails has unique characteristics that were evolutionarily selected to achieve the optimized function that is unique to each protein. Perturbation of the electrostatic characteristics of the disordered tails by post-translational modifications, such as acetylation and phosphorylation, may affect protein affinity to DNA and therefore can serve to regulate DNA recognition. Modifying the disordered protein tails or the flexibility of the inter-domain linkers of multidomain proteins may affect the cross-talk between the constituent domains so as to facilitate the search kinetics of non-specific DNA sequences and increase affinity to

  2. Intrinsic Disorder in Transmembrane Proteins: Roles in Signaling and Topology Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Bürgi, Jérôme; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are peculiar stretches of amino acids that lack stable conformations in solution. Intrinsic Disorder containing Proteins (IDP) are defined by the presence of at least one large IDR and have been linked to multiple cellular processes including cell signaling, DNA binding and cancer. Here we used computational analyses and publicly available databases to deepen insight into the prevalence and function of IDRs specifically in transmembrane proteins, which are somewhat neglected in most studies. We found that 50% of transmembrane proteins have at least one IDR of 30 amino acids or more. Interestingly, these domains preferentially localize to the cytoplasmic side especially of multi-pass transmembrane proteins, suggesting that disorder prediction could increase the confidence of topology prediction algorithms. This was supported by the successful prediction of the topology of the uncharacterized multi-pass transmembrane protein TMEM117, as confirmed experimentally. Pathway analysis indicated that IDPs are enriched in cell projection and axons and appear to play an important role in cell adhesion, signaling and ion binding. In addition, we found that IDP are enriched in phosphorylation sites, a crucial post translational modification in signal transduction, when compared to fully ordered proteins and to be implicated in more protein-protein interaction events. Accordingly, IDPs were highly enriched in short protein binding regions called Molecular Recognition Features (MoRFs). Altogether our analyses strongly support the notion that the transmembrane IDPs act as hubs in cellular signal events. PMID:27391701

  3. Intrinsic Disorder in Transmembrane Proteins: Roles in Signaling and Topology Prediction.

    PubMed

    Bürgi, Jérôme; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are peculiar stretches of amino acids that lack stable conformations in solution. Intrinsic Disorder containing Proteins (IDP) are defined by the presence of at least one large IDR and have been linked to multiple cellular processes including cell signaling, DNA binding and cancer. Here we used computational analyses and publicly available databases to deepen insight into the prevalence and function of IDRs specifically in transmembrane proteins, which are somewhat neglected in most studies. We found that 50% of transmembrane proteins have at least one IDR of 30 amino acids or more. Interestingly, these domains preferentially localize to the cytoplasmic side especially of multi-pass transmembrane proteins, suggesting that disorder prediction could increase the confidence of topology prediction algorithms. This was supported by the successful prediction of the topology of the uncharacterized multi-pass transmembrane protein TMEM117, as confirmed experimentally. Pathway analysis indicated that IDPs are enriched in cell projection and axons and appear to play an important role in cell adhesion, signaling and ion binding. In addition, we found that IDP are enriched in phosphorylation sites, a crucial post translational modification in signal transduction, when compared to fully ordered proteins and to be implicated in more protein-protein interaction events. Accordingly, IDPs were highly enriched in short protein binding regions called Molecular Recognition Features (MoRFs). Altogether our analyses strongly support the notion that the transmembrane IDPs act as hubs in cellular signal events.

  4. Not an exception to the rule: the functional significance of intrinsically disordered protein regions in enzymes.

    PubMed

    DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-02-28

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are remarkably common and have unique and important biological functions. Enzymes have long been considered an exception to the rule of protein intrinsic disorder due to the structural requirements for catalysis. Although functionally significant IDPRs have been described in several enzymes, there has been no study quantifying the extent of this phenomenon. We have conducted a multilevel computational analysis of missing regions in X-ray crystal structures in the PDB and predicted disorder in 66 representative proteomes. We found that the fraction of predicted disorder was higher in non-enzymes than enzymes, because non-enzymes were more likely to be fully disordered. However, we also found that transferases, hydrolases and enzymes with multiple assigned functional classifications were similar to non-enzymes in terms of the length of the longest continuous stretch of predicted disorder. Both eukaryotic enzymes and non-enzymes had a greater disorder content than was seen in bacteria. Disorder at the proteome level appears to emerge in response to organismic and functional complexity, and enzymes are not an exception to this rule.

  5. Intermolecular Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement (PRE) Studies of Transient Complexes in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Janowska, Maria K; Baum, Jean

    2016-01-01

    NMR interchain paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) techniques are a very powerful approach for detecting transient interchain interactions between intrinsically disordered proteins. These experiments, requiring a mixed sample containing a 1:1 ratio of isotope-labeled (15)N protein and natural abundance (14)N protein with a paramagnetic spin label, provide data that is limited to interchain interactions only. Application of these experiments to weakly associated transient species such as those that are present in the very early stages of self-assembly processes will aid our understanding of protein aggregation or fibril formation processes.

  6. Deciphering the cause of evolutionary variance within intrinsically disordered regions in human proteins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sanghita; Chakraborty, Sandip; De, Rajat K

    2017-02-01

    Why the intrinsically disordered regions evolve within human proteome has became an interesting question for a decade. Till date, it remains an unsolved yet an intriguing issue to investigate why some of the disordered regions evolve rapidly while the rest are highly conserved across mammalian species. Identifying the key biological factors, responsible for the variation in the conservation rate of different disordered regions within the human proteome, may revisit the above issue. We emphasized that among the other biological features (multifunctionality, gene essentiality, protein connectivity, number of unique domains, gene expression level and expression breadth) considered in our study, the number of unique protein domains acts as a strong determinant that negatively influences the conservation of disordered regions. In this context, we justified that proteins having a fewer types of domains preferably need to conserve their disordered regions to enhance their structural flexibility which in turn will facilitate their molecular interactions. In contrast, the selection pressure acting on the stretches of disordered regions is not so strong in the case of multi-domains proteins. Therefore, we reasoned that the presence of conserved disordered stretches may compensate the functions of multiple domains within a single domain protein. Interestingly, we noticed that the influence of the unique domain number and expression level acts differently on the evolution of disordered regions from that of well-structured ones.

  7. Single-Molecule FRET Spectroscopy and the Polymer Physics of Unfolded and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Benjamin; Soranno, Andrea; Hofmann, Hagen; Nettels, Daniel

    2016-07-05

    The properties of unfolded proteins have long been of interest because of their importance to the protein folding process. Recently, the surprising prevalence of unstructured regions or entirely disordered proteins under physiological conditions has led to the realization that such intrinsically disordered proteins can be functional even in the absence of a folded structure. However, owing to their broad conformational distributions, many of the properties of unstructured proteins are difficult to describe with the established concepts of structural biology. We have thus seen a reemergence of polymer physics as a versatile framework for understanding their structure and dynamics. An important driving force for these developments has been single-molecule spectroscopy, as it allows structural heterogeneity, intramolecular distance distributions, and dynamics to be quantified over a wide range of timescales and solution conditions. Polymer concepts provide an important basis for relating the physical properties of unstructured proteins to folding and function.

  8. Identifying solubility-promoting buffers for intrinsically disordered proteins prior to purification.

    PubMed

    Churion, Kelly A; Bondos, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are anticipated to be more prone to aggregation than folded, stable proteins. Chemical additives included in the buffer can help maintain proteins in a soluble, monomeric state. However, the array of chemicals that impact protein solubility is staggering, precluding iterative testing of chemical conditions during purification. Herein, we describe a filter-based aggregation assay to rapidly identify chemical additives that maintain solubility for a protein of interest. A hierarchical approach to buffer selection is provided, in which the type of chemical which best improves solubility is first determined, followed by identifying the optimal chemical and its most effective concentration. Finally, combinations of chemical additives can be assessed if necessary. Although this assay can be applied to purified protein, partially purified protein, or aggregated protein, this protocol specifically details the use of this assay for crude cell lysate. This approach allows identification of solubility-promoting buffers prior to the initial protein purification.

  9. Intrinsic Disorder of the C-Terminal Domain of Drosophila Methoprene-Tolerant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kolonko, Marta; Ożga, Katarzyna; Hołubowicz, Rafał; Taube, Michał; Kozak, Maciej; Ożyhar, Andrzej; Greb-Markiewicz, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Methoprene tolerant protein (Met) has recently been confirmed as the long-sought juvenile hormone (JH) receptor. This protein plays a significant role in the cross-talk of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and JH signalling pathways, which are important for control of insect development and maturation. Met belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors. In these proteins, bHLH domains are typically responsible for DNA binding and dimerization, whereas the PAS domains are crucial for the choice of dimerization partner and the specificity of target gene activation. The C-terminal region is usually responsible for the regulation of protein complex activity. The sequence of the Met C-terminal region (MetC) is not homologous to any sequence deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and has not been structurally characterized to date. In this study, we show that the MetC exhibits properties typical for an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). The final averaged structure obtained with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments indicates that intrinsically disordered MetC exists in an extended conformation. This extended shape and the long unfolded regions characterise proteins with high flexibility and dynamics. Therefore, we suggest that the multiplicity of conformations adopted by the disordered MetC is crucial for its activity as a biological switch modulating the cross-talk of different signalling pathways in insects. PMID:27657508

  10. Targeting intrinsically disordered proteins in neurodegenerative and protein dysfunction diseases: another illustration of the D(2) concept.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2010-08-01

    Many biologically active proteins, which are usually called intrinsically disordered or natively unfolded proteins, lack stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Their functions complement the functional repertoire of ordered proteins, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) often being involved in regulation, signaling and control. Their amino acid sequences and compositions are very different from those of ordered proteins, making reliable identification of IDPs possible at the proteome level. IDPs are highly abundant in various human diseases, including neurodegeneration and other protein dysfunction maladies and, therefore, represent attractive novel drug targets. Some of the aspects of IDPs, as well as their roles in neurodegeneration and protein dysfunction diseases, are discussed in this article, together with the peculiarities of IDPs as potential drug targets.

  11. Hydrodynamic Radii of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Determined from Experimental Polyproline II Propensities.

    PubMed

    Tomasso, Maria E; Tarver, Micheal J; Devarajan, Deepa; Whitten, Steven T

    2016-01-01

    The properties of disordered proteins are thought to depend on intrinsic conformational propensities for polyproline II (PPII) structure. While intrinsic PPII propensities have been measured for the common biological amino acids in short peptides, the ability of these experimentally determined propensities to quantitatively reproduce structural behavior in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has not been established. Presented here are results from molecular simulations of disordered proteins showing that the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) can be predicted from experimental PPII propensities with good agreement, even when charge-based considerations are omitted. The simulations demonstrate that Rh and chain propensity for PPII structure are linked via a simple power-law scaling relationship, which was tested using the experimental Rh of 22 IDPs covering a wide range of peptide lengths, net charge, and sequence composition. Charge effects on Rh were found to be generally weak when compared to PPII effects on Rh. Results from this study indicate that the hydrodynamic dimensions of IDPs are evidence of considerable sequence-dependent backbone propensities for PPII structure that qualitatively, if not quantitatively, match conformational propensities measured in peptides.

  12. Intrinsically Disordered Segments Affect Protein Half-Life in the Cell and during Evolution

    PubMed Central

    van der Lee, Robin; Lang, Benjamin; Kruse, Kai; Gsponer, Jörg; Sánchez de Groot, Natalia; Huynen, Martijn A.; Matouschek, Andreas; Fuxreiter, Monika; Babu, M. Madan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Precise control of protein turnover is essential for cellular homeostasis. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is well established as a major regulator of protein degradation, but an understanding of how inherent structural features influence the lifetimes of proteins is lacking. We report that yeast, mouse, and human proteins with terminal or internal intrinsically disordered segments have significantly shorter half-lives than proteins without these features. The lengths of the disordered segments that affect protein half-life are compatible with the structure of the proteasome. Divergence in terminal and internal disordered segments in yeast proteins originating from gene duplication leads to significantly altered half-life. Many paralogs that are affected by such changes participate in signaling, where altered protein half-life will directly impact cellular processes and function. Thus, natural variation in the length and position of disordered segments may affect protein half-life and could serve as an underappreciated source of genetic variation with important phenotypic consequences. PMID:25220455

  13. From sequence and forces to structure, function, and evolution of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Forman-Kay, Julie D; Mittag, Tanja

    2013-09-03

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which lack persistent structure, are a challenge to structural biology due to the inapplicability of standard methods for characterization of folded proteins as well as their deviation from the dominant structure/function paradigm. Their widespread presence and involvement in biological function, however, has spurred the growing acceptance of the importance of IDPs and the development of new tools for studying their structure, dynamics, and function. The interplay of folded and disordered domains or regions for function and the existence of a continuum of protein states with respect to conformational energetics, motional timescales, and compactness are shaping a unified understanding of structure-dynamics-disorder/function relationships. In the 20(th) anniversary of Structure, we provide a historical perspective on the investigation of IDPs and summarize the sequence features and physical forces that underlie their unique structural, functional, and evolutionary properties.

  14. From Sequence and Forces to Structure, Function and Evolution of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Mittag, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which lack persistent structure, are a challenge to structural biology due to the inapplicability of standard methods for characterization of folded proteins as well as their deviation from the dominant structure/function paradigm. Their widespread presence and involvement in biological function, however, has spurred the growing acceptance of the importance of IDPs and the development of new tools for studying their structure, dynamics and function. The interplay of folded and disordered domains or regions for function and the existence of a continuum of protein states with respect to conformational energetics, motional timescales and compactness is shaping a unified understanding of structure-dynamics-disorder/function relationships. On the 20th anniversary of this journal, Structure, we provide a historical perspective on the investigation of IDPs and summarize the sequence features and physical forces that underlie their unique structural, functional and evolutionary properties. PMID:24010708

  15. Disease-associated mutations disrupt functionally important regions of intrinsic protein disorder.

    PubMed

    Vacic, Vladimir; Markwick, Phineus R L; Oldfield, Christopher J; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Haynes, Chad; Uversky, Vladimir N; Iakoucheva, Lilia M

    2012-01-01

    The effects of disease mutations on protein structure and function have been extensively investigated, and many predictors of the functional impact of single amino acid substitutions are publicly available. The majority of these predictors are based on protein structure and evolutionary conservation, following the assumption that disease mutations predominantly affect folded and conserved protein regions. However, the prevalence of the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and regions (IDRs) in the human proteome together with their lack of fixed structure and low sequence conservation raise a question about the impact of disease mutations in IDRs. Here, we investigate annotated missense disease mutations and show that 21.7% of them are located within such intrinsically disordered regions. We further demonstrate that 20% of disease mutations in IDRs cause local disorder-to-order transitions, which represents a 1.7-2.7 fold increase compared to annotated polymorphisms and neutral evolutionary substitutions, respectively. Secondary structure predictions show elevated rates of transition from helices and strands into loops and vice versa in the disease mutations dataset. Disease disorder-to-order mutations also influence predicted molecular recognition features (MoRFs) more often than the control mutations. The repertoire of disorder-to-order transition mutations is limited, with five most frequent mutations (R→W, R→C, E→K, R→H, R→Q) collectively accounting for 44% of all deleterious disorder-to-order transitions. As a proof of concept, we performed accelerated molecular dynamics simulations on a deleterious disorder-to-order transition mutation of tumor protein p63 and, in agreement with our predictions, observed an increased α-helical propensity of the region harboring the mutation. Our findings highlight the importance of mutations in IDRs and refine the traditional structure-centric view of disease mutations. The results of this study offer a new

  16. Disease-Associated Mutations Disrupt Functionally Important Regions of Intrinsic Protein Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vacic, Vladimir; Markwick, Phineus R. L.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Haynes, Chad; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of disease mutations on protein structure and function have been extensively investigated, and many predictors of the functional impact of single amino acid substitutions are publicly available. The majority of these predictors are based on protein structure and evolutionary conservation, following the assumption that disease mutations predominantly affect folded and conserved protein regions. However, the prevalence of the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and regions (IDRs) in the human proteome together with their lack of fixed structure and low sequence conservation raise a question about the impact of disease mutations in IDRs. Here, we investigate annotated missense disease mutations and show that 21.7% of them are located within such intrinsically disordered regions. We further demonstrate that 20% of disease mutations in IDRs cause local disorder-to-order transitions, which represents a 1.7–2.7 fold increase compared to annotated polymorphisms and neutral evolutionary substitutions, respectively. Secondary structure predictions show elevated rates of transition from helices and strands into loops and vice versa in the disease mutations dataset. Disease disorder-to-order mutations also influence predicted molecular recognition features (MoRFs) more often than the control mutations. The repertoire of disorder-to-order transition mutations is limited, with five most frequent mutations (R→W, R→C, E→K, R→H, R→Q) collectively accounting for 44% of all deleterious disorder-to-order transitions. As a proof of concept, we performed accelerated molecular dynamics simulations on a deleterious disorder-to-order transition mutation of tumor protein p63 and, in agreement with our predictions, observed an increased α-helical propensity of the region harboring the mutation. Our findings highlight the importance of mutations in IDRs and refine the traditional structure-centric view of disease mutations. The results of this study offer a new

  17. Osmolyte-induced folding of an intrinsically disordered protein: folding mechanism in the absence of ligand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chu; Oas, Terrence G

    2010-06-29

    Understanding the interconversion between thermodynamically distinguishable states present in a protein folding pathway provides not only the kinetics and energetics of protein folding but also insights into the functional roles of these states in biological systems. The protein component of the bacterial RNase P holoenzyme from Bacillus subtilis (P protein) was previously shown to be unfolded in the absence of its cognate RNA or other anionic ligands. P protein was used in this study as a model system to explore general features of intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) folding mechanisms. The use of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), an osmolyte that stabilizes the unliganded folded form of the protein, enabled us to study the folding process of P protein in the absence of ligand. Transient stopped-flow kinetic traces at various final TMAO concentrations exhibited multiphasic kinetics. Equilibrium "cotitration" experiments were performed using both TMAO and urea during the titration to produce a urea-TMAO titration surface of P protein. Both kinetic and equilibrium studies show evidence of a previously undetected intermediate state in the P protein folding process. The intermediate state is significantly populated, and the folding rate constants are relatively slow compared to those of intrinsically folded proteins similar in size and topology. The experiments and analysis described serve as a useful example for mechanistic folding studies of other IDPs.

  18. Study conformational dynamics of intrinsically disordered protein by PET-FCS (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderlein, Joerg; Zhou, Man; Van, Qui; Gregor, Ingo

    2016-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) form a large and functionally important class of proteins that lack an ordered three-dimensional structure. IDPs play an important role in cell signaling, transcription, or chromatin remodeling. The discovery of IDPs has challenged the traditional paradigm of protein structure which states that protein function depends on a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Due to their high conformational flexibility and the lack of ordered secondary structure, it is challenging to study the flexible structure, dynamics and energetics of these proteins with conventional methods. In our work, we employ photoinduced electron transfer (PET) combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) for studying the conformational dynamics of one specific class of IDPs: phenylalanine-glycine rich protein domains (FG repeats) which are dominant building blocks within the pore of nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear pore complexes are large protein assemblies that cross the nuclear envelope and form selective barrier, which regulate bidirectional exchange between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  19. Quantifying internal friction in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins with single-molecule spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Soranno, Andrea; Buchli, Brigitte; Nettels, Daniel; Cheng, Ryan R.; Müller-Späth, Sonja; Pfeil, Shawn H.; Hoffmann, Armin; Lipman, Everett A.; Makarov, Dmitrii E.; Schuler, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Internal friction, which reflects the “roughness” of the energy landscape, plays an important role for proteins by modulating the dynamics of their folding and other conformational changes. However, the experimental quantification of internal friction and its contribution to folding dynamics has remained challenging. Here we use the combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer, nanosecond fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and microfluidic mixing to determine the reconfiguration times of unfolded proteins and investigate the mechanisms of internal friction contributing to their dynamics. Using concepts from polymer dynamics, we determine internal friction with three complementary, largely independent, and consistent approaches as an additive contribution to the reconfiguration time of the unfolded state. We find that the magnitude of internal friction correlates with the compactness of the unfolded protein: its contribution dominates the reconfiguration time of approximately 100 ns of the compact unfolded state of a small cold shock protein under native conditions, but decreases for more expanded chains, and approaches zero both at high denaturant concentrations and in intrinsically disordered proteins that are expanded due to intramolecular charge repulsion. Our results suggest that internal friction in the unfolded state will be particularly relevant for the kinetics of proteins that fold in the microsecond range or faster. The low internal friction in expanded intrinsically disordered proteins may have implications for the dynamics of their interactions with cellular binding partners. PMID:22492978

  20. Unreported intrinsic disorder in proteins: Building connections to the literature on IDPs

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    This review opens a new series entitled “Unreported intrinsic disorder in proteins.” The goal of this series is to bring attention of researchers to an interesting phenomenon of missed (or overlooked, or ignored, or unreported) disorder. This series serves as a companion to “Digested Disorder” which provides a quarterly review of papers on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) found by standard literature searches. The need for this alternative series results from the observation that there are numerous publications that describe IDPs (or hybrid proteins with ordered and disordered regions) yet fail to recognize many of the key discoveries and publications in the IDP field. By ignoring the body of work on IDPs, such publications often fail to relate their findings to prior discoveries or fail to explore the obvious implications of their work. Thus, the goal of this series is not only to review these very interesting and important papers, but also to point out how each paper relates to the IDP field and show how common tools in the IDP field can readily take the findings in new directions or provide a broader context for the reported findings. PMID:28232880

  1. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  2. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  3. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level. PMID:26390327

  4. Sequence heuristics to encode phase behaviour in intrinsically disordered protein polymers.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-11-01

    Proteins and synthetic polymers that undergo aqueous phase transitions mediate self-assembly in nature and in man-made material systems. Yet little is known about how the phase behaviour of a protein is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Here, by synthesizing intrinsically disordered, repeat proteins to test motifs that we hypothesized would encode phase behaviour, we show that the proteins can be designed to exhibit tunable lower or upper critical solution temperature (LCST and UCST, respectively) transitions in physiological solutions. We also show that mutation of key residues at the repeat level abolishes phase behaviour or encodes an orthogonal transition. Furthermore, we provide heuristics to identify, at the proteome level, proteins that might exhibit phase behaviour and to design novel protein polymers consisting of biologically active peptide repeats that exhibit LCST or UCST transitions. These findings set the foundation for the prediction and encoding of phase behaviour at the sequence level.

  5. Structural transitions in the intrinsically disordered Parkinson's protein alpha-synuclein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliezer, David

    2013-03-01

    The protein alpha-synuclein is genetically and histopathologically associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. Although considered to belong to the category of intrinsically disordered proteins for well over a decade, recent reports have suggested that synuclein may actually exist predominantly in a native, well-structured, tetrameric form. Experiments using in-cell NMR, which bypass potential structural perturbations caused by purification protocols, conclusively demonstrate that recombinant synuclein is in fact highly disordered and monomeric. In the presence of membranes, however, the protein undergoes a coil-to-helix transition to adopt several highly helical conformations, which are proposed to mediate both its normal function and its membrane-induced aggregation into amyloid fibrils. Supported by NIH grant R37AG019391

  6. The alphabet of intrinsic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The ability of a protein to fold into unique functional state or to stay intrinsically disordered is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Both ordered and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are natural polypeptides that use the same arsenal of 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues as their major building blocks. The exceptional structural plasticity of IDPs, their capability to exist as heterogeneous structural ensembles and their wide array of important disorder-based biological functions that complements functional repertoire of ordered proteins are all rooted within the peculiar differential usage of these building blocks by ordered proteins and IDPs. In fact, some residues (so-called disorder-promoting residues) are noticeably more common in IDPs than in sequences of ordered proteins, which, in their turn, are enriched in several order-promoting residues. Furthermore, residues can be arranged according to their “disorder promoting potencies,” which are evaluated based on the relative abundances of various amino acids in ordered and disordered proteins. This review continues a series of publications on the roles of different amino acids in defining the phenomenon of protein intrinsic disorder and concerns glutamic acid, which is the second most disorder-promoting residue. PMID:28516010

  7. Insights into the Immunological Properties of Intrinsically Disordered Malaria Proteins Using Proteome Scale Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Andrew J.; Irani, Vashti; MacRaild, Christopher A.; Anders, Robin F.; Norton, Raymond S.; Beeson, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a significant global health burden. The development of an effective malaria vaccine remains as a major challenge with the potential to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. While Plasmodium spp. have been shown to contain a large number of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or disordered protein regions, the relationship of protein structure to subcellular localisation and adaptive immune responses remains unclear. In this study, we employed several computational prediction algorithms to identify IDPs at the proteome level of six Plasmodium spp. and to investigate the potential impact of protein disorder on adaptive immunity against P. falciparum parasites. IDPs were shown to be particularly enriched within nuclear proteins, apical proteins, exported proteins and proteins localised to the parasitophorous vacuole. Furthermore, several leading vaccine candidates, and proteins with known roles in host-cell invasion, have extensive regions of disorder. Presentation of peptides by MHC molecules plays an important role in adaptive immune responses, and we show that IDP regions are predicted to contain relatively few MHC class I and II binding peptides owing to inherent differences in amino acid composition compared to structured domains. In contrast, linear B-cell epitopes were predicted to be enriched in IDPs. Tandem repeat regions and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be strongly associated with regions of disorder. In summary, immune responses against IDPs appear to have characteristics distinct from those against structured protein domains, with increased antibody recognition of linear epitopes but some constraints for MHC presentation and issues of polymorphisms. These findings have major implications for vaccine design, and understanding immunity to malaria. PMID:26513658

  8. p53 Proteoforms and Intrinsic Disorder: An Illustration of the Protein Structure-Function Continuum Concept.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-11-10

    Although it is one of the most studied proteins, p53 continues to be an enigma. This protein has numerous biological functions, possesses intrinsically disordered regions crucial for its functionality, can form both homo-tetramers and isoform-based hetero-tetramers, and is able to interact with many binding partners. It contains numerous posttranslational modifications, has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage or alternative initiation of translation, and is commonly mutated in different cancers. Therefore, p53 serves as an important illustration of the protein structure-function continuum concept, where the generation of multiple proteoforms by various mechanisms defines the ability of this protein to have a multitude of structurally and functionally different states. Considering p53 in the light of a proteoform-based structure-function continuum represents a non-canonical and conceptually new contemplation of structure, regulation, and functionality of this important protein.

  9. p53 Proteoforms and Intrinsic Disorder: An Illustration of the Protein Structure–Function Continuum Concept

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is one of the most studied proteins, p53 continues to be an enigma. This protein has numerous biological functions, possesses intrinsically disordered regions crucial for its functionality, can form both homo-tetramers and isoform-based hetero-tetramers, and is able to interact with many binding partners. It contains numerous posttranslational modifications, has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage or alternative initiation of translation, and is commonly mutated in different cancers. Therefore, p53 serves as an important illustration of the protein structure–function continuum concept, where the generation of multiple proteoforms by various mechanisms defines the ability of this protein to have a multitude of structurally and functionally different states. Considering p53 in the light of a proteoform-based structure–function continuum represents a non-canonical and conceptually new contemplation of structure, regulation, and functionality of this important protein. PMID:27834926

  10. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions. PMID:26216991

  11. Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Sormanni, Pietro; Aprile, Francesco A; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-08-11

    Antibodies are powerful tools in life sciences research, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic applications, because of their ability to bind given molecules with high affinity and specificity. Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). Our results show that all these designed antibodies bind their targets with good affinity and specificity. As an example of an application, we show that one of these antibodies inhibits the aggregation of α-synuclein at substoichiometric concentrations and that binding occurs at the selected epitope. Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions.

  12. Genome-scale prediction of proteins with long intrinsically disordered regions.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhenling; Mizianty, Marcin J; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Proteins with long disordered regions (LDRs), defined as having 30 or more consecutive disordered residues, are abundant in eukaryotes, and these regions are recognized as a distinct class of biologically functional domains. LDRs facilitate various cellular functions and are important for target selection in structural genomics. Motivated by the lack of methods that directly predict proteins with LDRs, we designed Super-fast predictor of proteins with Long Intrinsically DisordERed regions (SLIDER). SLIDER utilizes logistic regression that takes an empirically chosen set of numerical features, which consider selected physicochemical properties of amino acids, sequence complexity, and amino acid composition, as its inputs. Empirical tests show that SLIDER offers competitive predictive performance combined with low computational cost. It outperforms, by at least a modest margin, a comprehensive set of modern disorder predictors (that can indirectly predict LDRs) and is 16 times faster compared to the best currently available disorder predictor. Utilizing our time-efficient predictor, we characterized abundance and functional roles of proteins with LDRs over 110 eukaryotic proteomes. Similar to related studies, we found that eukaryotes have many (on average 30.3%) proteins with LDRs with majority of proteomes having between 25 and 40%, where higher abundance is characteristic to proteomes that have larger proteins. Our first-of-its-kind large-scale functional analysis shows that these proteins are enriched in a number of cellular functions and processes including certain binding events, regulation of catalytic activities, cellular component organization, biogenesis, biological regulation, and some metabolic and developmental processes. A webserver that implements SLIDER is available at http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/SLIDER/. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Primary structure and solution conditions determine conformational ensemble properties of intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Hsuan-Han Alberto

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that do not exhibit well-defined three-dimensional structures. The absence of structure is intrinsic to their amino acid sequences, which are characterized by low hydrophobicity and high net charge per residue compared to folded proteins. Contradicting the classic structure-function paradigm, IDPs are capable of interacting with high specificity and affinity, often acquiring order in complex with protein and nucleic acid binding partners. This phenomenon is evident during cellular activities involving IDPs, which include transcriptional and translational regulation, cell cycle control, signal transduction, molecular assembly, and molecular recognition. Although approximately 30% of eukaryotic proteomes are intrinsically disordered, the nature of IDP conformational ensembles remains unclear. In this dissertation, we describe relationships connecting characteristics of IDP conformational ensembles to their primary structures and solution conditions. Using molecular simulations and fluorescence experiments on a set of base-rich IDPs, we find that net charge per residue segregates conformational ensembles along a globule-to-coil transition. Speculatively generalizing this result, we propose a phase diagram that predicts an IDP's average size and shape based on sequence composition and use it to generate hypotheses for a broad set of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Simulations reveal that acid-rich IDRs, unlike their oppositely charged base-rich counterparts, exhibit disordered globular ensembles despite intra-chain repulsive electrostatic interactions. This apparent asymmetry is sensitive to simulation parameters for representing alkali and halide salt ions, suggesting that solution conditions modulate IDP conformational ensembles. We refine the ion parameters using a calibration procedure that relies exclusively on crystal lattice properties. Simulations with these parameters recover swollen

  14. Synonymous Constraint Elements Show a Tendency to Encode Intrinsically Disordered Protein Segments

    PubMed Central

    Macossay-Castillo, Mauricio; Kosol, Simone; Tompa, Peter; Pancsa, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Synonymous constraint elements (SCEs) are protein-coding genomic regions with very low synonymous mutation rates believed to carry additional, overlapping functions. Thousands of such potentially multi-functional elements were recently discovered by analyzing the levels and patterns of evolutionary conservation in human coding exons. These elements provide a good opportunity to improve our understanding of how the redundant nature of the genetic code is exploited in the cell. Our premise is that the protein segments encoded by such elements might better comply with the increased functional demands if they are structurally less constrained (i.e. intrinsically disordered). To test this idea, we investigated the protein segments encoded by SCEs with computational tools to describe the underlying structural properties. In addition to SCEs, we examined the level of disorder, secondary structure, and sequence complexity of protein regions overlapping with experimentally validated splice regulatory sites. We show that multi-functional gene regions translate into protein segments that are significantly enriched in structural disorder and compositional bias, while they are depleted in secondary structure and domain annotations compared to reference segments of similar lengths. This tendency suggests that relaxed protein structural constraints provide an advantage when accommodating multiple overlapping functions in coding regions. PMID:24809503

  15. An Overview of Predictors for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins over 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzong; Feng, Yu; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Jing; Liu, Wen; Rong, Li; Bao, Jinku

    2015-01-01

    The sequence-structure-function paradigm of proteins has been changed by the occurrence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Benefiting from the structural disorder, IDPs are of particular importance in biological processes like regulation and signaling. IDPs are associated with human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, amyloidoses, and several other maladies. IDPs attract a high level of interest and a substantial effort has been made to develop experimental and computational methods. So far, more than 70 prediction tools have been developed since 1997, within which 17 predictors were created in the last five years. Here, we presented an overview of IDPs predictors developed during 2010–2014. We analyzed the algorithms used for IDPs prediction by these tools and we also discussed the basic concept of various prediction methods for IDPs. The comparison of prediction performance among these tools is discussed as well. PMID:26426014

  16. An Overview of Predictors for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins over 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzong; Feng, Yu; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Jing; Liu, Wen; Rong, Li; Bao, Jinku

    2015-09-29

    The sequence-structure-function paradigm of proteins has been changed by the occurrence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Benefiting from the structural disorder, IDPs are of particular importance in biological processes like regulation and signaling. IDPs are associated with human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, amyloidoses, and several other maladies. IDPs attract a high level of interest and a substantial effort has been made to develop experimental and computational methods. So far, more than 70 prediction tools have been developed since 1997, within which 17 predictors were created in the last five years. Here, we presented an overview of IDPs predictors developed during 2010-2014. We analyzed the algorithms used for IDPs prediction by these tools and we also discussed the basic concept of various prediction methods for IDPs. The comparison of prediction performance among these tools is discussed as well.

  17. Inherent Relationships among Different Biophysical Prediction Methods for Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fan; Liu, Zhirong

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins do not have stable secondary and/or tertiary structures but still function. More than 50 prediction methods have been developed and inherent relationships may be expected to exist among them. To investigate this, we conducted molecular simulations and algorithmic analyses on a minimal coarse-grained polypeptide model and discovered a common basis for the charge-hydropathy plot and packing-density algorithms that was verified by correlation analysis. The correlation analysis approach was applied to realistic datasets, which revealed correlations among some physical-chemical properties (charge-hydropathy plot, packing density, pairwise energy). The correlations indicated that these biophysical methods find a projected direction to discriminate ordered and disordered proteins. The optimized projection was determined and the ultimate accuracy limit of the existing algorithms is discussed. PMID:23442871

  18. Cooperative folding of intrinsically disordered domains drives assembly of a strong elongated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszka, Dominika T.; Whelan, Fiona; Farrance, Oliver E.; Fung, Herman K. H.; Paci, Emanuele; Jeffries, Cy M.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Baldock, Clair; Baumann, Christoph G.; Brockwell, David J.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Clarke, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria exploit surface proteins to adhere to other bacteria, surfaces and host cells. Such proteins need to project away from the bacterial surface and resist significant mechanical forces. SasG is a protein that forms extended fibrils on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus and promotes host adherence and biofilm formation. Here we show that although monomeric and lacking covalent cross-links, SasG maintains a highly extended conformation in solution. This extension is mediated through obligate folding cooperativity of the intrinsically disordered E domains that couple non-adjacent G5 domains thermodynamically, forming interfaces that are more stable than the domains themselves. Thus, counterintuitively, the elongation of the protein appears to be dependent on the inherent instability of its domains. The remarkable mechanical strength of SasG arises from tandemly arrayed `clamp' motifs within the folded domains. Our findings reveal an elegant minimal solution for the assembly of monomeric mechano-resistant tethers of variable length.

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Powder Model of the Intrinsically Disordered Protein Tau.

    PubMed

    Fichou, Yann; Heyden, Matthias; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Weik, Martin; Tobias, Douglas J

    2015-10-01

    The tau protein, whose aggregates are involved in Alzheimer's disease, is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that regulates microtubule activity in neurons. An IDP lacks a single, well-defined structure and, rather, constantly exchanges among multiple conformations. In order to study IDP dynamics, the combination of experimental techniques, such as neutron scattering, and computational techniques, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, is a powerful approach. Amorphous hydrated powder samples have been very useful for studying protein internal dynamics experimentally, e.g., using neutron scattering. Thus, there is demand for realistic in silico models of hydrated protein powders. Here we present an MD simulation analysis of a powder hydrated at 0.4 g water/g protein of the IDP tau in the temperature range 20-300 K. By comparing with neutron scattering data, we identify the protein-water interface as the predominant feature determining IDP dynamics. The so-called protein dynamical transition is shown to be attenuated, but not suppressed, in the parts of the protein that are not exposed to the solvent. In addition, we find similarities in the mean-squared displacements of the core of a globular protein and "dry" clusters formed by the IDP in hydrated powders. Thus, the ps to ns dynamics of proteins in hydrated powders originate mainly from those residues in contact with solvent. We propose that by measuring the dynamics of protein assemblies, such as aggregates, one might assess qualitatively their state of hydration.

  20. SS-Stabilizing Proteins Rationally: Intrinsic Disorder-Based Design of Stabilizing Disulphide Bridges in GFP.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bogdan S; Povarnitsyna, Tatiana V; Glukhov, Anatoly S; Melnik, Tatyana N; Uversky, Vladimir N; Sarma, Ramaswamy H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The most attractive and methodologically convenient way to enhance protein stability is via the introduction of disulphide bond(s). However, the effect of the artificially introduced SS-bond on protein stability is often quite unpredictable. This raises the question of how to choose the protein sites in an intelligent manner, so that the 'fastening' of these sites by the SS-bond(s) would provide maximal protein stability. We hypothesize that the successful design of a stabilizing SS-bond requires finding highly mobile protein regions. Using GFP as an illustrative example, we demonstrate that the knowledge of the peculiarities of the intramolecular hydrophobic interactions, combined with the understanding of the local intrinsic disorder propensities (that can be evaluated by various disorder predictors, e.g., PONDRFIT), is sufficient to find the candidate sites for the introduction of stabilizing SS-bridge(s). In fact, our analysis revealed that the insertion of the engineered SS-bridge between two highly flexible regions of GFP noticeably increased the conformational stability of this protein toward the thermal and chemical unfolding. Therefore, our study represents a novel approach for the rational design of stabilizing disulphide bridges in proteins.

  1. A decade and a half of protein intrinsic disorder: Biology still waits for physics

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The abundant existence of proteins and regions that possess specific functions without being uniquely folded into unique 3D structures has become accepted by a significant number of protein scientists. Sequences of these intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) are characterized by a number of specific features, such as low overall hydrophobicity and high net charge which makes these proteins predictable. IDPs/IDPRs possess large hydrodynamic volumes, low contents of ordered secondary structure, and are characterized by high structural heterogeneity. They are very flexible, but some may undergo disorder to order transitions in the presence of natural ligands. The degree of these structural rearrangements varies over a very wide range. IDPs/IDPRs are tightly controlled under the normal conditions and have numerous specific functions that complement functions of ordered proteins and domains. When lacking proper control, they have multiple roles in pathogenesis of various human diseases. Gaining structural and functional information about these proteins is a challenge, since they do not typically “freeze” while their “pictures are taken.” However, despite or perhaps because of the experimental challenges, these fuzzy objects with fuzzy structures and fuzzy functions are among the most interesting targets for modern protein research. This review briefly summarizes some of the recent advances in this exciting field and considers some of the basic lessons learned from the analysis of physics, chemistry, and biology of IDPs. PMID:23553817

  2. Prediction of Spontaneous Protein Deamidation from Sequence-Derived Secondary Structure and Intrinsic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, J Ramiro; Alonso, Leonardo G; Sánchez, Ignacio E

    2015-01-01

    Asparagine residues in proteins undergo spontaneous deamidation, a post-translational modification that may act as a molecular clock for the regulation of protein function and turnover. Asparagine deamidation is modulated by protein local sequence, secondary structure and hydrogen bonding. We present NGOME, an algorithm able to predict non-enzymatic deamidation of internal asparagine residues in proteins in the absence of structural data, using sequence-based predictions of secondary structure and intrinsic disorder. Compared to previous algorithms, NGOME does not require three-dimensional structures yet yields better predictions than available sequence-only methods. Four case studies of specific proteins show how NGOME may help the user identify deamidation-prone asparagine residues, often related to protein gain of function, protein degradation or protein misfolding in pathological processes. A fifth case study applies NGOME at a proteomic scale and unveils a correlation between asparagine deamidation and protein degradation in yeast. NGOME is freely available as a webserver at the National EMBnet node Argentina, URL: http://www.embnet.qb.fcen.uba.ar/ in the subpage "Protein and nucleic acid structure and sequence analysis".

  3. Prediction of Spontaneous Protein Deamidation from Sequence-Derived Secondary Structure and Intrinsic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, J. Ramiro; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Sánchez, Ignacio E.

    2015-01-01

    Asparagine residues in proteins undergo spontaneous deamidation, a post-translational modification that may act as a molecular clock for the regulation of protein function and turnover. Asparagine deamidation is modulated by protein local sequence, secondary structure and hydrogen bonding. We present NGOME, an algorithm able to predict non-enzymatic deamidation of internal asparagine residues in proteins in the absence of structural data, using sequence-based predictions of secondary structure and intrinsic disorder. Compared to previous algorithms, NGOME does not require three-dimensional structures yet yields better predictions than available sequence-only methods. Four case studies of specific proteins show how NGOME may help the user identify deamidation-prone asparagine residues, often related to protein gain of function, protein degradation or protein misfolding in pathological processes. A fifth case study applies NGOME at a proteomic scale and unveils a correlation between asparagine deamidation and protein degradation in yeast. NGOME is freely available as a webserver at the National EMBnet node Argentina, URL: http://www.embnet.qb.fcen.uba.ar/ in the subpage “Protein and nucleic acid structure and sequence analysis”. PMID:26674530

  4. In-cell NMR of intrinsically disordered proteins in prokaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yutaka; Mikawa, Tsutomu; Smith, Brian O

    2012-01-01

    In-cell NMR, i.e., the acquisition of heteronuclear multidimensional NMR of biomacromolecules inside living cells, is, to our knowledge, the only method for investigating the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of proteins at atomic detail in the intracellular environment. Since the inception of the method, intrinsically disordered proteins have been regarded as particular targets for in-cell NMR, due to their expected sensitivity to the molecular crowding in the intracellular environment. While both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells can be used as host cells for in-cell NMR, prokaryotic in-cell NMR, particularly employing commonly used protein overexpression systems in Escherichia coli cells, is the most accessible approach. In this chapter we describe general procedures for obtaining in-cell NMR spectra in E. coli cells.

  5. Simple biophysics underpins collective conformations of the intrinsically disordered proteins of the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Vovk, Andrei; Gu, Chad; Opferman, Michael G; Kapinos, Larisa E; Lim, Roderick Yh; Coalson, Rob D; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton

    2016-05-20

    Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs) are key cellular transporter that control nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotic cells, but its transport mechanism is still not understood. The centerpiece of NPC transport is the assembly of intrinsically disordered polypeptides, known as FG nucleoporins, lining its passageway. Their conformations and collective dynamics during transport are difficult to assess in vivo. In vitro investigations provide partially conflicting results, lending support to different models of transport, which invoke various conformational transitions of the FG nucleoporins induced by the cargo-carrying transport proteins. We show that the spatial organization of FG nucleoporin assemblies with the transport proteins can be understood within a first principles biophysical model with a minimal number of key physical variables, such as the average protein interaction strengths and spatial densities. These results address some of the outstanding controversies and suggest how molecularly divergent NPCs in different species can perform essentially the same function.

  6. Novel methods based on 13C detection to study intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, Isabella C.; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are characterized by highly flexible solvent exposed backbones and can sample many different conformations. These properties confer them functional advantages, complementary to those of folded proteins, which need to be characterized to expand our view of how protein structural and dynamic features affect function beyond the static picture of a single well defined 3D structure that has influenced so much our way of thinking. NMR spectroscopy provides a unique tool for the atomic resolution characterization of highly flexible macromolecules in general and of IDPs in particular. The peculiar properties of IDPs however have profound effects on spectroscopic parameters. It is thus worth thinking about these aspects to make the best use of the great potential of NMR spectroscopy to contribute to this fascinating field of research. In particular, after many years of dealing with exclusively heteronuclear NMR experiments based on 13C direct detection, we would like here to address their relevance when studying IDPs.

  7. Smoothing molecular interactions: the "kinetic buffer" effect of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongqi; Liu, Zhirong

    2010-12-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) widely participate in molecular recognition and signaling processes in cells by interacting with other molecules. Compared with ordered proteins, IDPs usually possess stronger intermolecular interactions in binding. As a result, the interface structure of IDPs in complexes is distinct from that of ordered-protein complexes, and this difference may have essential effect on the response to various perturbations in a cell. In this study, we examined the perturbations of intermolecular interactions and temperature on the coupled folding and binding processes of pKID to KIX domains by performing molecular dynamics simulations. By comparing a series of virtual pKID systems with various degree of disorder, we found that the complex stability and the binding kinetics of the disordered systems were less sensitive to the perturbations than the ordered systems. The origin of the lower response sensitivity of IDPs was attributed to their higher flexibility in the complex interface, which was further supported by an analysis on protein complex structures. On the basis of our simulations and results from the literature, we speculate IDPs may not only interact with their biological partners with high specificity and low affinity but also may be resistant to the perturbations in the environment and transmit signals fast and smooth. We proposed to name it the "kinetic buffer" effect.

  8. Large-scale analysis of intrinsic disorder flavors and associated functions in the protein sequence universe.

    PubMed

    Necci, Marco; Piovesan, Damiano; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2016-12-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins has been extensively described for the last decade; a large-scale classification of ID in proteins is mostly missing. Here, we provide an extensive analysis of ID in the protein universe on the UniProt database derived from sequence-based predictions in MobiDB. Almost half the sequences contain an ID region of at least five residues. About 9% of proteins have a long ID region of over 20 residues which are more abundant in Eukaryotic organisms and most frequently cover less than 20% of the sequence. A small subset of about 67,000 (out of over 80 million) proteins is fully disordered and mostly found in Viruses. Most proteins have only one ID, with short ID evenly distributed along the sequence and long ID overrepresented in the center. The charged residue composition of Das and Pappu was used to classify ID proteins by structural propensities and corresponding functional enrichment. Swollen Coils seem to be used mainly as structural components and in biosynthesis in both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. In Bacteria, they are confined in the nucleoid and in Viruses provide DNA binding function. Coils & Hairpins seem to be specialized in ribosome binding and methylation activities. Globules & Tadpoles bind antigens in Eukaryotes but are involved in killing other organisms and cytolysis in Bacteria. The Undefined class is used by Bacteria to bind toxic substances and mediate transport and movement between and within organisms in Viruses. Fully disordered proteins behave similarly, but are enriched for glycine residues and extracellular structures.

  9. Identification of a Drug Targeting an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Involved in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Neira, José L.; Bintz, Jennifer; Arruebo, María; Rizzuti, Bruno; Bonacci, Thomas; Vega, Sonia; Lanas, Angel; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Iovanna, Juan L.; Abián, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are prevalent in eukaryotes, performing signaling and regulatory functions. Often associated with human diseases, they constitute drug-development targets. NUPR1 is a multifunctional IDP, over-expressed and involved in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development. By screening 1120 FDA-approved compounds, fifteen candidates were selected, and their interactions with NUPR1 were characterized by experimental and simulation techniques. The protein remained disordered upon binding to all fifteen candidates. These compounds were tested in PDAC-derived cell-based assays, and all induced cell-growth arrest and senescence, reduced cell migration, and decreased chemoresistance, mimicking NUPR1-deficiency. The most effective compound completely arrested tumor development in vivo on xenografted PDAC-derived cells in mice. Besides reporting the discovery of a compound targeting an intact IDP and specifically active against PDAC, our study proves the possibility to target the ‘fuzzy’ interface of a protein that remains disordered upon binding to its natural biological partners or to selected drugs. PMID:28054562

  10. Identification of a Drug Targeting an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Involved in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Neira, José L; Bintz, Jennifer; Arruebo, María; Rizzuti, Bruno; Bonacci, Thomas; Vega, Sonia; Lanas, Angel; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Iovanna, Juan L; Abián, Olga

    2017-01-05

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are prevalent in eukaryotes, performing signaling and regulatory functions. Often associated with human diseases, they constitute drug-development targets. NUPR1 is a multifunctional IDP, over-expressed and involved in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development. By screening 1120 FDA-approved compounds, fifteen candidates were selected, and their interactions with NUPR1 were characterized by experimental and simulation techniques. The protein remained disordered upon binding to all fifteen candidates. These compounds were tested in PDAC-derived cell-based assays, and all induced cell-growth arrest and senescence, reduced cell migration, and decreased chemoresistance, mimicking NUPR1-deficiency. The most effective compound completely arrested tumor development in vivo on xenografted PDAC-derived cells in mice. Besides reporting the discovery of a compound targeting an intact IDP and specifically active against PDAC, our study proves the possibility to target the 'fuzzy' interface of a protein that remains disordered upon binding to its natural biological partners or to selected drugs.

  11. Identification of a Drug Targeting an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Involved in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, José L.; Bintz, Jennifer; Arruebo, María; Rizzuti, Bruno; Bonacci, Thomas; Vega, Sonia; Lanas, Angel; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Iovanna, Juan L.; Abián, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are prevalent in eukaryotes, performing signaling and regulatory functions. Often associated with human diseases, they constitute drug-development targets. NUPR1 is a multifunctional IDP, over-expressed and involved in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development. By screening 1120 FDA-approved compounds, fifteen candidates were selected, and their interactions with NUPR1 were characterized by experimental and simulation techniques. The protein remained disordered upon binding to all fifteen candidates. These compounds were tested in PDAC-derived cell-based assays, and all induced cell-growth arrest and senescence, reduced cell migration, and decreased chemoresistance, mimicking NUPR1-deficiency. The most effective compound completely arrested tumor development in vivo on xenografted PDAC-derived cells in mice. Besides reporting the discovery of a compound targeting an intact IDP and specifically active against PDAC, our study proves the possibility to target the ‘fuzzy’ interface of a protein that remains disordered upon binding to its natural biological partners or to selected drugs.

  12. Absence of residual structure in the intrinsically disordered regulatory protein CP12 in its reduced state

    SciTech Connect

    Launay, Hélène; Barré, Patrick; Puppo, Carine; Manneville, Stéphanie; Gontero, Brigitte; Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique

    2016-08-12

    The redox switch protein CP12 is a key player of the regulation of the Benson–Calvin cycle. Its oxidation state is controlled by the formation/dissociation of two intramolecular disulphide bridges during the day/night cycle. CP12 was known to be globally intrinsically disordered on a large scale in its reduced state, while being partly ordered in the oxidised state. By combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments, we showed that, contrary to secondary structure or disorder predictions, reduced CP12 is fully disordered, with no transient or local residual structure likely to be precursor of the structures identified in the oxidised active state and/or in the bound state with GAPDH or PRK. These results highlight the diversity of the mechanisms of regulation of conditionally disordered redox switches, and question the stability of oxidised CP12 scaffold. - Highlights: • CP12 is predicted to form two helices in its N-terminal sequence. • Reduced CP12 is disordered as a random coil according to SAXS. • Limited or no transient structures are observed in reduced CP12 by NMR.

  13. CIDER: Resources to Analyze Sequence-Ensemble Relationships of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Holehouse, Alex S; Das, Rahul K; Ahad, James N; Richardson, Mary O G; Pappu, Rohit V

    2017-01-10

    Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs) represent a large class of proteins that are defined by conformational heterogeneity and lack of persistent tertiary/secondary structure. IDPs play important roles in a range of biological functions, and their dysregulation is central to numerous diseases, including neurodegeneration and cancer. The conformational ensembles of IDPs are encoded by their amino acid sequences. Here, we present two computational tools that are designed to enable rapid and high-throughput analyses of a wide range of physicochemical properties encoded by IDP sequences. The first, CIDER, is a user-friendly webserver that enables rapid analysis of IDP sequences. The second, localCIDER, is a high-performance software package that enables a wide range of analyses relevant to IDP sequences. In addition to introducing the two packages, we demonstrate the utility of these resources using examples where sequence analysis offers biophysical insights. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How Random are Intrinsically Disordered Proteins? A Small Angle Scattering Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique; Durand, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    While the crucial role of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) in the cell cycle is now recognized, deciphering their molecular mode of action at the structural level still remains highly challenging and requires a combination of many biophysical approaches. Among them, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has been extremely successful in the last decade and has become an indispensable technique for addressing many of the fundamental questions regarding the activities of IDPs. After introducing some experimental issues specific to IDPs and in relation to the latest technical developments, this article presents the interest of the theory of polymer physics to evaluate the flexibility of fully disordered proteins. The different strategies to obtain 3-dimensional models of IDPs, free in solution and associated in a complex, are then reviewed. Indeed, recent computational advances have made it possible to readily extract maximum information from the scattering curve with a special emphasis on highly flexible systems, such as multidomain proteins and IDPs. Furthermore, integrated computational approaches now enable the generation of ensembles of conformers to translate the unique flexible characteristics of IDPs by taking into consideration the constraints of more and more various complementary experiment. In particular, a combination of SAXS with high-resolution techniques, such as x-ray crystallography and NMR, allows us to provide reliable models and to gain unique structural insights about the protein over multiple structural scales. The latest neutron scattering experiments also promise new advances in the study of the conformational changes of macromolecules involving more complex systems. PMID:22044150

  15. Wrecked regulation of intrinsically disordered proteins in diseases: pathogenicity of deregulated regulators

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2014-01-01

    Biologically active proteins without stable tertiary structure are common in all known proteomes. Functions of these intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are typically related to regulation, signaling, and control. Cellular levels of these important regulators are tightly regulated by a variety mechanisms ranging from firmly controlled expression to precisely targeted degradation. Functions of IDPs are controlled by binding to specific partners, alternative splicing, and posttranslational modifications among other means. In the norm, right amounts of precisely activated IDPs have to be present in right time at right places. Wrecked regulation brings havoc to the ordered world of disordered proteins, leading to protein misfolding, misidentification, and missignaling that give rise to numerous human diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Among factors inducing pathogenic transformations of IDPs are various cellular mechanisms, such as chromosomal translocations, damaged splicing, altered expression, frustrated posttranslational modifications, aberrant proteolytic degradation, and defective trafficking. This review presents some of the aspects of deregulated regulation of IDPs leading to human diseases. PMID:25988147

  16. Dissecting partner recognition by an intrinsically disordered protein using descriptive random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Gruet, Antoine; Dosnon, Marion; Vassena, Andrea; Lombard, Vincent; Gerlier, Denis; Bignon, Christophe; Longhi, Sonia

    2013-09-23

    In view of getting insights into the molecular determinants of the binding efficiency of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we used random mutagenesis. As a proof of concept, we chose the interaction between the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL) and the X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein and assessed how amino acid substitutions introduced at random within NTAIL affect partner recognition. In contrast with directed evolution approaches, we did not apply any selection and used the gene library approach not for production purposes but for achieving a better understanding of the NTAIL/XD interaction. For that reason, and to differentiate our approach from similar approaches that make use of systematic (i.e., targeted) mutagenesis, we propose to call it "descriptive random mutagenesis" (DRM). NTAIL variants generated by error-prone PCR were picked at random in the absence of selection pressure and were characterized in terms of sequence and binding abilities toward XD. DRM not only identified determinants of NTAIL/XD interaction that were in good agreement with previous work but also provided new insights. In particular, we discovered that the primary interaction site is poorly evolvable in terms of binding abilities toward XD. We also identified a critical NTAIL residue whose role in stabilizing the NTAIL/XD complex had previously escaped detection, and we identified NTAIL regulatory sites that dampen the interaction while being located outside the primary interaction site. Results show that DRM is a valuable approach to study binding abilities of IDPs.

  17. Bioinformatics analysis identifies several intrinsically disordered human E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system targets misfolded proteins for degradation. Since the accumulation of such proteins is potentially harmful for the cell, their prompt removal is important. E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases mediate substrate ubiquitination by bringing together the substrate with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which transfers ubiquitin to the substrate. For misfolded proteins, substrate recognition is generally delegated to molecular chaperones that subsequently interact with specific E3 ligases. An important exception is San1, a yeast E3 ligase. San1 harbors extensive regions of intrinsic disorder, which provide both conformational flexibility and sites for direct recognition of misfolded targets of vastly different conformations. So far, no mammalian ortholog of San1 is known, nor is it clear whether other E3 ligases utilize disordered regions for substrate recognition. Here, we conduct a bioinformatics analysis to examine >600 human and S. cerevisiae E3 ligases to identify enzymes that are similar to San1 in terms of function and/or mechanism of substrate recognition. An initial sequence-based database search was found to detect candidates primarily based on the homology of their ordered regions, and did not capture the unique disorder patterns that encode the functional mechanism of San1. However, by searching specifically for key features of the San1 sequence, such as long regions of intrinsic disorder embedded with short stretches predicted to be suitable for substrate interaction, we identified several E3 ligases with these characteristics. Our initial analysis revealed that another remarkable trait of San1 is shared with several candidate E3 ligases: long stretches of complete lysine suppression, which in San1 limits auto-ubiquitination. We encode these characteristic features into a San1 similarity-score, and present a set of proteins that are plausible candidates as San1 counterparts in humans. In conclusion, our work indicates that San1 is

  18. The Protein Kingdom Extended: Ordered and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, Their Folding, Supramolecular Complex Formation, and Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Turoverov, Konstantin K.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    The native state of a protein is usually associated with a compact globular conformation possessing a rigid and highly ordered structure. At the turn of the last century certain studies arose which concluded that many proteins cannot, in principle, form a rigid globular structure in an aqueous environment, but they are still able to fulfill their specific functions — i.e., they are native. The existence of the disordered regions allows these proteins to interact with their numerous binding partners. Such interactions are often accompanied by the formation of complexes that possess a more ordered structure than the original components. The functional diversity of these proteins, combined with the variability of signals related to the various intra-and intercellular processes handled by these proteins and their capability to produce multi-variant and multi-directional responses allow them to form a unique regulatory net in a cell. The abundance of disordered proteins inside the cell is precisely controlled at the synthesis and clearance levels as well as via interaction with specific binding partners and posttranslational modifications. Another recently recognized biologically active state of proteins is the functional amyloid. The formation of such functional amyloids is tightly controlled and therefore differs from the uncontrolled formation of pathogenic amyloids which are associated with the pathogenesis of several conformational diseases, the development of which is likely to be determined by the failures of the cellular regulatory systems rather than by the formation of the proteinaceous deposits and/or by the protofibril toxicity. PMID:20097220

  19. NS3 Protease from Hepatitis C Virus: Biophysical Studies on an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Domain

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Sonia; Neira, Jose L.; Marcuello, Carlos; Lostao, Anabel; Abian, Olga; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) from the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is responsible for processing the non-structural region of the viral precursor polyprotein in infected hepatic cells. NS3 protease activity, located at the N-terminal domain, is a zinc-dependent serine protease. A zinc ion, required for the hydrolytic activity, has been considered as a structural metal ion essential for the structural integrity of the protein. In addition, NS3 interacts with another cofactor, NS4A, an accessory viral protein that induces a conformational change enhancing the hydrolytic activity. Biophysical studies on the isolated protease domain, whose behavior is similar to that of the full-length protein (e.g., catalytic activity, allosteric mechanism and susceptibility to inhibitors), suggest that a considerable global conformational change in the protein is coupled to zinc binding. Zinc binding to NS3 protease can be considered as a folding event, an extreme case of induced-fit binding. Therefore, NS3 protease is an intrinsically (partially) disordered protein with a complex conformational landscape due to its inherent plasticity and to the interaction with its different effectors. Here we summarize the results from a detailed biophysical characterization of this enzyme and present new experimental data. PMID:23803659

  20. pE-DB: a database of structural ensembles of intrinsically disordered and of unfolded proteins

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Mihaly; Kosol, Simone; Lebrun, Pierre; Valentini, Erica; Blackledge, Martin; Dunker, A. Keith; Felli, Isabella C.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Pierattelli, Roberta; Sussman, Joel; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Wishart, David; Wright, Peter E.; Tompa, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The goal of pE-DB (http://pedb.vib.be) is to serve as an openly accessible database for the deposition of structural ensembles of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and of denatured proteins based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and other data measured in solution. Owing to the inherent flexibility of IDPs, solution techniques are particularly appropriate for characterizing their biophysical properties, and structural ensembles in agreement with these data provide a convenient tool for describing the underlying conformational sampling. Database entries consist of (i) primary experimental data with descriptions of the acquisition methods and algorithms used for the ensemble calculations, and (ii) the structural ensembles consistent with these data, provided as a set of models in a Protein Data Bank format. PE-DB is open for submissions from the community, and is intended as a forum for disseminating the structural ensembles and the methodologies used to generate them. While the need to represent the IDP structures is clear, methods for determining and evaluating the structural ensembles are still evolving. The availability of the pE-DB database is expected to promote the development of new modeling methods and leads to a better understanding of how function arises from disordered states. PMID:24174539

  1. Intrinsically disordered mollusk shell prismatic protein that modulates calcium carbonate crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Ndao, Moise; Keene, Ellen; Amos, Fairland F; Rewari, Gita; Ponce, Christopher B; Estroff, Lara; Evans, John Spencer

    2010-10-11

    The formation of calcite prism architecture in the prismatic layer of the mollusk shell involves the participation of a number of different proteins. One protein family, Asprich, has been identified as a participant in amorphous calcium carbonate stabilization and calcite architecture in the prismatic layer of the mollusk, Atrina rigida . However, the functional role(s) of this protein family are not fully understood due to the fact that insufficient quantities of these proteins are available for experimentation. To overcome this problem, we employed stepwise solid-phase synthesis to recreate one of the 10 members of the Asprich family, the 61 AA single chain protein, Asprich "3". We find that the Asprich "3" protein inhibits the formation of rhombohedral calcite crystals and induces the formation of round calcium carbonate deposits in vitro that contain calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). This mineralization behavior does not occur under control conditions, and the formation of ACC and calcite is similar to that reported for the recombinant form of the Asprich "g" protein. Circular dichroism studies reveal that Asprich "3" is an intrinsically disordered protein, predominantly random coil (66%), with 20-30% β-strand content, a small percentage of β-turn, and little if any α-helical content. This protein is not extrinsically stabilized by Ca(II) ions but can be stabilized by 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol to form a structure consisting of turn-like and random coil characteristics. This finding suggests that Asprich "3" may require other extrinsic interactions (i.e., with mineral or ionic clusters or other macromolecules) to achieve folding. In conclusion, Asprich "3" possesses in vitro functional and structural qualities that are similar to other reported for other Asprich protein sequences.

  2. Exploring intrinsically disordered proteins using site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Nolwenn; Martinho, Marlène; Mileo, Elisabetta; Etienne, Emilien; Gerbaud, Guillaume; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Belle, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are highly variable biological systems, not only in their structures but also in their dynamics. The most extreme example of dynamics is encountered within the family of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs), which are proteins lacking a well-defined 3D structure under physiological conditions. Among the biophysical techniques well-suited to study such highly flexible proteins, Site-Directed Spin Labeling combined with EPR spectroscopy (SDSL-EPR) is one of the most powerful, being able to reveal, at the residue level, structural transitions such as folding events. SDSL-EPR is based on selective grafting of a paramagnetic label on the protein under study and is limited neither by the size nor by the complexity of the system. The objective of this mini-review is to describe the basic strategy of SDSL-EPR and to illustrate how it can be successfully applied to characterize the structural behavior of IDPs. Recent developments aimed at enlarging the panoply of SDSL-EPR approaches are presented in particular newly synthesized spin labels that allow the limitations of the classical ones to be overcome. The potentialities of these new spin labels will be demonstrated on different examples of IDPs. PMID:26042221

  3. Deducing conformational variability of intrinsically disordered proteins from infrared spectroscopy with Bayesian statistics

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Anurag; Anunciado, Divina; Tian, Jianhui; Vu, Dung M.; Gnanakaran, S.

    2013-01-01

    As it remains practically impossible to generate ergodic ensembles for large intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, it becomes critical to compare spectroscopic characteristics of the theoretically generated ensembles to corresponding measurements. We develop a Bayesian framework to infer the ensemble properties of an IDP using a combination of conformations generated by MD simulations and its measured infrared spectrum. We performed 100 different MD simulations totaling more than 10 µs to characterize the conformational ensemble of αsynuclein, a prototypical IDP, in water. These conformations are clustered based on solvent accessibility and helical content. We compute the amide-I band for these clusters and predict the thermodynamic weights of each cluster given the measured amide-I band. Bayesian analysis produces a reproducible and non-redundant set of thermodynamic weights for each cluster, which can then be used to calculate the ensemble properties. In a rigorous validation, these weights reproduce measured chemical shifts. PMID:24187427

  4. Intrinsically disordered proteins as crucial constituents of cellular aqueous two phase systems and coacervates.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Turoverov, Konstantin K; Zaslavsky, Boris

    2015-01-02

    Here, we hypothesize that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) serve as important drivers of the intracellular liquid-liquid phase separations that generate various membrane-less organelles. This hypothesis is supported by the overwhelming abundance of IDPs in these organelles. Assembly and disassembly of these organelles are controlled by changes in the concentrations of IDPs, their posttranslational modifications, binding of specific partners, and changes in the pH and/or temperature of the solution. Each resulting phase provides a distinct solvent environment for other solutes leading to their unequal distribution within phases. The specificity and efficiency of such partitioning is determined by the nature of the IDP(s) and defines "targeted" enrichment of specific molecules in the resulting membrane-less organelles that determines their specific activities. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the importance of polar interactions for complexes containing intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eric T C; Na, Dokyun; Gsponer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing recognition for the importance of proteins with large intrinsically disordered (ID) segments in cell signaling and regulation. ID segments in these proteins often harbor regions that mediate molecular recognition. Coupled folding and binding of the recognition regions has been proposed to confer high specificity to interactions involving ID segments. However, researchers recently questioned the origin of the interaction specificity of ID proteins because of the overrepresentation of hydrophobic residues in their interaction interfaces. Here, we focused on the role of polar and charged residues in interactions mediated by ID segments. Making use of the extended nature of most ID segments when in complex with globular proteins, we first identified large numbers of complexes between globular proteins and ID segments by using radius-of-gyration-based selection criteria. Consistent with previous studies, we found the interfaces of these complexes to be enriched in hydrophobic residues, and that these residues contribute significantly to the stability of the interaction interface. However, our analyses also show that polar interactions play a larger role in these complexes than in structured protein complexes. Computational alanine scanning and salt-bridge analysis indicate that interfaces in ID complexes are highly complementary with respect to electrostatics, more so than interfaces of globular proteins. Follow-up calculations of the electrostatic contributions to the free energy of binding uncovered significantly stronger Coulombic interactions in complexes harbouring ID segments than in structured protein complexes. However, they are counter-balanced by even higher polar-desolvation penalties. We propose that polar interactions are a key contributing factor to the observed high specificity of ID segment-mediated interactions.

  6. Ordered water within the collapsed globules of an amyloidogenic intrinsically disordered protein.

    PubMed

    Arya, Shruti; Mukhopadhyay, Samrat

    2014-08-07

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) confront the traditional sequence-structure-function paradigm and are associated with important functions and amyloid disorders. Water molecules residing in the vicinity of the polypeptide chain play potentially important roles in directing the course of binding-induced folding and amyloid aggregation of IDP. Here we characterized the nature of water molecules entrapped within the collapsed globules of an amyloidogenic IDP, namely, κ-casein. These globules can undergo further compaction in the presence of an anionic detergent that is capable of diminishing the intrachain repulsion from the positively charged glutamine/asparagine-rich amyloidogenic N-terminal domain comprising 100 residues. Using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, we estimated the longer component of the solvation time to be ∼1.4 ns, which is 3 orders of magnitude slower than that in bulk water and more than an order of magnitude slower than the "biological water" present at the protein surface. Profoundly restrained water within the collapsed IDP globules resembles the ordered water cluster found under nanoconfinement. We suggest that the association of these globules would result in the release of ordered water molecules into the bulk milieu causing an entropic gain that would eventually drive the formation of the key (obligatory) oligomeric intermediates on the pathway to amyloids via nucleation-dependent polymerization.

  7. Phosphorylation Regulates the Bound Structure of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein: The p53-TAZ2 Case.

    PubMed

    Ithuralde, Raúl Esteban; Turjanski, Adrián Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Disordered regions and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) are involved in critical cellular processes and may acquire a stable three-dimensional structure only upon binding to their partners. IDPs may follow a folding-after-binding process, known as induced folding, or a folding-before-binding process, known as conformational selection. The transcription factor p53 is involved in the regulation of cellular events that arise upon stress or DNA damage. The p53 domain structure is composed of an N-terminal transactivation domain (p53TAD), a DNA Binding Domain and a tetramerization domain. The activity of TAD is tightly regulated by interactions with cofactors, inhibitors and phosphorylation. To initiate transcription, p53TAD binds to the TAZ2 domain of CBP, a co-transcription factor, and undergoes a folding and binding process, as revealed by the recent NMR structure of the complex. The activity of p53 is regulated by phosphorylation at multiple sites on the TAD domain and recent studies have shown that modifications at three residues affect the binding towards TAZ2. However, we still do not know how these phosphorylations affect the structure of the bound state and, therefore, how they regulate the p53 function. In this work, we have used computational simulations to understand how phosphorylation affects the structure of the p53TAD:TAZ2 complex and regulates the recognition mechanism. Phosphorylation has been proposed to enhance binding by direct interaction with the folded protein or by changing the unbound conformation of IDPs, for example by pre-folding the protein favoring the recognition mechanism. Here, we show an interesting turn in the p53 case: phosphorylation mainly affects the bound structure of p53TAD, highlighting the complexity of IDP protein-protein interactions. Our results are in agreement with previous experimental studies, allowing a clear picture of how p53 is regulated by phosphorylation and giving new insights into how post

  8. Time Window Expansion for HDX Analysis of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Devrishi; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chalmers, Michael J.; Pascal, Bruce D.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2013-10-01

    Application of typical HDX methods to examine intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP), proteins that are natively unstructured and highly dynamic at physiological pH, is limited because of the rapid exchange of unprotected amide hydrogens with solvent. The exchange rates of these fast exchanging amides are usually faster than the shortest time scale (10 s) employed in typical automated HDX-MS experiments. Considering the functional importance of IDPs and their association with many diseases, it is valuable to develop methods that allow the study of solution dynamics of these proteins as well as the ability to probe the interaction of IDPs with their wide range of binding partners. Here, we report the application of time window expansion to the millisecond range by altering the on-exchange pH of the HDX experiment to study a well-characterized IDP; the activation domain of the nuclear receptor coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α). This method enabled mapping the regions of PGC-1α that are stabilized upon binding the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). We further demonstrate the method's applicability to other binding partners of the IDP PGC-1α and pave the way for characterizing many other biologically important ID proteins.

  9. Time window expansion for HDX analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Devrishi; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Chalmers, Michael J; Pascal, Bruce D; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Griffin, Patrick R

    2013-01-01

    Application of typical HDX methods to examine intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP), proteins that are natively unstructured and highly dynamic at physiological pH, is limited due to the rapid exchange of unprotected amide hydrogens with solvent. The exchange rates of these fast exchanging amides are usually faster than the shortest time scale (10s) employed in typical automated HDX-MS experiments. Considering the functional importance of IDPs and their association with many diseases, it is valuable to develop methods that allow the study of solution dynamics of these proteins as well as the ability to probe the interaction of IDPs with their wide range of binding partners. Here, we report the application of time window expansion to the millisecond range by altering the on-exchange pH of the HDX experiment to study a well characterized IDP; the activation domain of the nuclear receptor coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α). This method enabled mapping the regions of PGC-1α that are stabilized upon binding the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). We further demonstrate the method’s applicability to other binding partners of the IDP PGC-1α and pave the way for characterizing many other biologically important ID proteins. PMID:23884631

  10. Advantages of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy to study intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Patricia S; DeMarco, Ricardo; Lopes, Jose L S

    2017-03-03

    The unordered secondary structural content of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) is susceptible to conformational changes induced by many different external factors, such as the presence of organic solvents, removal of water, changes in temperature, binding to partner molecules, and interaction with lipids and/or other ligands. In order to characterize the high-flexibility nature of an IDP, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a particularly useful method due to its capability of monitoring both subtle and remarkable changes in different environments, relative ease in obtaining measurements, the small amount of sample required, and the capability for sample recovery (sample not damaged) and others. Using synchrotron radiation as the light source for CD spectroscopy represents the state-of-the-art version of this technique with feasibility of accessing the lower wavelength UV region, and therefore presenting a series of advantages over conventional circular dichroism (cCD) to monitor a protein conformational behavior, check protein stability, detect ligand binding, and many others. In this paper, we have performed a comparative study using cCD and SRCD methods for investigating the secondary structure and the conformational behavior of natively unfolded proteins: MEG-14 and soybean trypsin inhibitor. We show that the SRCD technique greatly improves the analysis and accuracy of the studies on the conformations of IDPs.

  11. Programming molecular self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins containing sequences of low complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Joseph R.; Carroll, Nick J.; Rubinstein, Michael; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; López, Gabriel P.

    2017-06-01

    Dynamic protein-rich intracellular structures that contain phase-separated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) composed of sequences of low complexity (SLC) have been shown to serve a variety of important cellular functions, which include signalling, compartmentalization and stabilization. However, our understanding of these structures and our ability to synthesize models of them have been limited. We present design rules for IDPs possessing SLCs that phase separate into diverse assemblies within droplet microenvironments. Using theoretical analyses, we interpret the phase behaviour of archetypal IDP sequences and demonstrate the rational design of a vast library of multicomponent protein-rich structures that ranges from uniform nano-, meso- and microscale puncta (distinct protein droplets) to multilayered orthogonally phase-separated granular structures. The ability to predict and program IDP-rich assemblies in this fashion offers new insights into (1) genetic-to-molecular-to-macroscale relationships that encode hierarchical IDP assemblies, (2) design rules of such assemblies in cell biology and (3) molecular-level engineering of self-assembled recombinant IDP-rich materials.

  12. Cooperative folding of intrinsically disordered domains drives assembly of a strong elongated protein

    PubMed Central

    Gruszka, Dominika T.; Whelan, Fiona; Farrance, Oliver E.; Fung, Herman K. H.; Paci, Emanuele; Jeffries, Cy M.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Baldock, Clair; Baumann, Christoph G.; Brockwell, David J.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Clarke, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria exploit surface proteins to adhere to other bacteria, surfaces and host cells. Such proteins need to project away from the bacterial surface and resist significant mechanical forces. SasG is a protein that forms extended fibrils on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus and promotes host adherence and biofilm formation. Here we show that although monomeric and lacking covalent cross-links, SasG maintains a highly extended conformation in solution. This extension is mediated through obligate folding cooperativity of the intrinsically disordered E domains that couple non-adjacent G5 domains thermodynamically, forming interfaces that are more stable than the domains themselves. Thus, counterintuitively, the elongation of the protein appears to be dependent on the inherent instability of its domains. The remarkable mechanical strength of SasG arises from tandemly arrayed ‘clamp' motifs within the folded domains. Our findings reveal an elegant minimal solution for the assembly of monomeric mechano-resistant tethers of variable length. PMID:26027519

  13. An intrinsically disordered protein, CP12: jack of all trades and master of the Calvin cycle.

    PubMed

    Gontero, Brigitte; Maberly, Stephen C

    2012-10-01

    Many proteins contain disordered regions under physiological conditions and lack specific three-dimensional structure. These are referred to as IDPs (intrinsically disordered proteins). CP12 is a chloroplast protein of approximately 80 amino acids and has a molecular mass of approximately 8.2-8.5 kDa. It is enriched in charged amino acids and has a small number of hydrophobic residues. It has a high proportion of disorder-promoting residues, but has at least two (often four) cysteine residues forming one (or two) disulfide bridge(s) under oxidizing conditions that confers some order. However, CP12 behaves like an IDP. It appears to be universally distributed in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and has recently been detected in a cyanophage. The best studied role of CP12 is its regulation of the Calvin cycle responsible for CO2 assimilation. Oxidized CP12 forms a supramolecular complex with two key Calvin cycle enzymes, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and PRK (phosphoribulokinase), down-regulating their activity. Association-dissociation of this complex, induced by the redox state of CP12, allows the Calvin cycle to be inactive in the dark and active in the light. CP12 is promiscuous and interacts with other enzymes such as aldolase and malate dehydrogenase. It also plays other roles in plant metabolism such as protecting GAPDH from inactivation and scavenging metal ions such as copper and nickel, and it is also linked to stress responses. Thus CP12 seems to be involved in many functions in photosynthetic cells and behaves like a jack of all trades as well as being a master of the Calvin cycle.

  14. Electrostatically accelerated encounter and folding for facile recognition of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Debabani; Zhang, Weihong; Chen, Jianhan

    2013-01-01

    Achieving facile specific recognition is essential for intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) that are involved in cellular signaling and regulation. Consideration of the physical time scales of protein folding and diffusion-limited protein-protein encounter has suggested that the frequent requirement of protein folding for specific IDP recognition could lead to kinetic bottlenecks. How IDPs overcome such potential kinetic bottlenecks to viably function in signaling and regulation in general is poorly understood. Our recent computational and experimental study of cell-cycle regulator p27 (Ganguly et al., J. Mol. Biol. (2012)) demonstrated that long-range electrostatic forces exerted on enriched charges of IDPs could accelerate protein-protein encounter via "electrostatic steering" and at the same time promote "folding-competent" encounter topologies to enhance the efficiency of IDP folding upon encounter. Here, we further investigated the coupled binding and folding mechanisms and the roles of electrostatic forces in the formation of three IDP complexes with more complex folded topologies. The surface electrostatic potentials of these complexes lack prominent features like those observed for the p27/Cdk2/cyclin A complex to directly suggest the ability of electrostatic forces to facilitate folding upon encounter. Nonetheless, similar electrostatically accelerated encounter and folding mechanisms were consistently predicted for all three complexes using topology-based coarse-grained simulations. Together with our previous analysis of charge distributions in known IDP complexes, our results support a prevalent role of electrostatic interactions in promoting efficient coupled binding and folding for facile specific recognition. These results also suggest that there is likely a co-evolution of IDP folded topology, charge characteristics, and coupled binding and folding mechanisms, driven at least partially by the need to achieve fast association kinetics for cellular

  15. The role of intrinsically disordered regions in the structure and functioning of small heat shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Sudnitsyna, Maria V; Mymrikov, Evgeny V; Seit-Nebi, Alim S; Gusev, Nikolai B

    2012-02-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsp) form a large ubiquitous family of proteins expressed in all phyla of living organisms. The members of this family have low molecular masses (13-43 kDa) and contain a conservative α-crystallin domain. This domain (about 90 residues) consists of several β-strands forming two β-sheets packed in immunoglobulinlike manner. The α-crystallin domain plays an important role in formation of stable sHsp dimers, which are the building blocks of the large sHsp oligomers. A large N-terminal domain and a short C-terminal extension flank the α-crystallin domain. Both the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal extension are flexible, susceptible to proteolysis, prone to posttranslational modifications, and are predominantly intrinsically disordered. Differently oriented N-terminal domains interact with each other, with the core α-crystallin domain of the same or neighboring dimers and play important role in formation of large sHsp oligomers. Phosphorylation of certain sites in the N-terminal domain affects the sHsp quaternary structure, the sHsp interaction with target proteins and the sHsp chaperone-like activity. The C-terminal extension often carrying the conservative tripeptide (I/V/L)-X-(I/V/L) is capable of binding to a hydrophobic groove on the surface of the core α-crystallin domain of neighboring dimer, thus affecting the plasticity and the overall structure of sHsp oligomers. The Cterminal extension interacts with target proteins and affects their interaction with the α-crystallin domain increasing solubility of the complexes formed by sHsp and their targets. Thus, disordered N- and C-terminal sequences play important role in the structure, regulation and functioning of sHsp. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers

  16. Intrinsic disorder within an AKAP-protein kinase A complex guides local substrate phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Smith, F Donelson; Reichow, Steve L; Esseltine, Jessica L; Shi, Dan; Langeberg, Lorene K; Scott, John D; Gonen, Tamir

    2013-11-05

    Anchoring proteins sequester kinases with their substrates to locally disseminate intracellular signals and avert indiscriminate transmission of these responses throughout the cell. Mechanistic understanding of this process is hampered by limited structural information on these macromolecular complexes. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) spatially constrain phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA). Electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstructions of type-II PKA-AKAP18γ complexes reveal hetero-pentameric assemblies that adopt a range of flexible tripartite configurations. Intrinsically disordered regions within each PKA regulatory subunit impart the molecular plasticity that affords an ∼16 nanometer radius of motion to the associated catalytic subunits. Manipulating flexibility within the PKA holoenzyme augmented basal and cAMP responsive phosphorylation of AKAP-associated substrates. Cell-based analyses suggest that the catalytic subunit remains within type-II PKA-AKAP18γ complexes upon cAMP elevation. We propose that the dynamic movement of kinase sub-structures, in concert with the static AKAP-regulatory subunit interface, generates a solid-state signaling microenvironment for substrate phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01319.001.

  17. Charge-dependent secretion of an intrinsically disordered protein via the autotransporter pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kang’ethe, Wanyoike; Bernstein, Harris D.

    2013-01-01

    Autotransporters are a large class of virulence proteins produced by Gram-negative bacteria. They contain an N-terminal extracellular (“passenger”) domain that folds into a β-helical structure and a C-terminal β-barrel (“β”) domain that anchors the protein to the outer membrane. Because the periplasm lacks ATP, the source of energy that drives passenger domain secretion is unknown. The prevailing model postulates that vectorial folding of the β-helix in the extracellular space facilitates unidirectional secretion of the passenger domain. In this study we used a chimeric protein composed of the 675-residue receptor-binding domain (RD) of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin CyaA fused to the C terminus of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 autotransporter EspP to test this hypothesis. The RD is a highly acidic, repetitive polypeptide that is intrinsically disordered in the absence of calcium. Surprisingly, we found that the RD moiety was efficiently secreted when it remained in an unfolded conformation. Furthermore, we found that neutralizing or reversing the charge of acidic amino acid clusters stalled translocation in the vicinity of the altered residues. These results challenge the vectorial folding model and, together with the finding that naturally occurring passenger domains are predominantly acidic, provide evidence that a net negative charge plays a significant role in driving the translocation reaction. PMID:24145447

  18. Caught in action: selecting peptide aptamers against intrinsically disordered proteins in live cells.

    PubMed

    Cobbert, Jacqueline D; DeMott, Christopher; Majumder, Subhabrata; Smith, Eric A; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; McDonough, Kathleen A; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2015-03-24

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or unstructured segments within proteins play an important role in cellular physiology and pathology. Low cellular concentration, multiple binding partners, frequent post-translational modifications and the presence of multiple conformations make it difficult to characterize IDP interactions in intact cells. We used peptide aptamers selected by using the yeast-two-hybrid scheme and in-cell NMR to identify high affinity binders to transiently structured IDP and unstructured segments at atomic resolution. Since both the selection and characterization of peptide aptamers take place inside the cell, only physiologically relevant conformations of IDPs are targeted. The method is validated by using peptide aptamers selected against the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein, Pup, of the mycobacterium proteasome. The selected aptamers bind to distinct sites on Pup and have vastly different effects on rescuing mycobacterial proteasome substrate and on the survival of the Bacille-Calmette-Guèrin, BCG, strain of M. bovis. This technology can be applied to study the elusive action of IDPs under near physiological conditions.

  19. Simple biophysics underpins collective conformations of the intrinsically disordered proteins of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Vovk, Andrei; Gu, Chad; Opferman, Michael G; Kapinos, Larisa E; Lim, Roderick YH; Coalson, Rob D; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Pore Complexes (NPCs) are key cellular transporter that control nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotic cells, but its transport mechanism is still not understood. The centerpiece of NPC transport is the assembly of intrinsically disordered polypeptides, known as FG nucleoporins, lining its passageway. Their conformations and collective dynamics during transport are difficult to assess in vivo. In vitro investigations provide partially conflicting results, lending support to different models of transport, which invoke various conformational transitions of the FG nucleoporins induced by the cargo-carrying transport proteins. We show that the spatial organization of FG nucleoporin assemblies with the transport proteins can be understood within a first principles biophysical model with a minimal number of key physical variables, such as the average protein interaction strengths and spatial densities. These results address some of the outstanding controversies and suggest how molecularly divergent NPCs in different species can perform essentially the same function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10785.001 PMID:27198189

  20. The intrinsically disordered Sem1 protein functions as a molecular tether during proteasome lid biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tomko, Robert J; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2014-02-06

    The intrinsically disordered yeast protein Sem1 (DSS1 in mammals) participates in multiple protein complexes, including the proteasome, but its role(s) within these complexes is uncertain. We report that Sem1 enforces the ordered incorporation of subunits Rpn3 and Rpn7 into the assembling proteasome lid. Sem1 uses conserved acidic segments separated by a flexible linker to grasp Rpn3 and Rpn7. The same segments are used for protein binding in other complexes, but in the proteasome lid they are uniquely deployed for recognizing separate polypeptides. We engineered TEV protease-cleavage sites into Sem1 to show that the tethering function of Sem1 is important for the biogenesis and integrity of the Rpn3-Sem1-Rpn7 ternary complex but becomes dispensable once the ternary complex incorporates into larger lid precursors. Thus, although Sem1 is a stoichiometric component of the mature proteasome, it has a distinct, chaperone-like function specific to early stages of proteasome assembly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of intrinsically disordered regions in proteins using signal processing methods: application to heat-shock proteins.

    PubMed

    Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Heat-shock protein (HSP)-based immunotherapy is believed to be a promising area of development for cancer treatment as such therapy is characterized by a unique approach to every tumour. It was shown that by inhibition of HSPs it is possible to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Interestingly, there are a great number of disordered regions in proteins associated with cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, signalling, and diabetes. HSPs and some specific enzymes were shown to have these disordered regions in their primary structures. The experimental studies of HSPs confirmed that their intrinsically disordered (ID) regions are of functional importance. These ID regions play crucial roles in regulating the specificity of interactions between dimer complexes and their interacting partners. Because HSPs are overexpressed in cancer, predicting the locations of ID regions and binding sites in these proteins will be important for developing novel cancer therapeutics. In our previous studies, signal processing methods have been successfully used for protein structure-function analysis (i.e. for determining functionally important amino acids and the locations of protein active sites). In this paper, we present and discuss a novel approach for predicting the locations of ID regions in the selected cancer-related HSPs.

  2. Actinidia DRM1--an intrinsically disordered protein whose mRNA expression is inversely correlated with spring budbreak in kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Wood, Marion; Rae, Georgina M; Wu, Rong-Mei; Walton, Eric F; Xue, Bin; Hellens, Roger P; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a relatively recently defined class of proteins which, under native conditions, lack a unique tertiary structure whilst maintaining essential biological functions. Functional classification of IDPs have implicated such proteins as being involved in various physiological processes including transcription and translation regulation, signal transduction and protein modification. Actinidia DRM1 (Ade DORMANCY ASSOCIATED GENE 1), represents a robust dormancy marker whose mRNA transcript expression exhibits a strong inverse correlation with the onset of growth following periods of physiological dormancy. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that DRM1 is plant specific and highly conserved at both the nucleotide and protein levels. It is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein with two distinct highly conserved domains. Several Actinidia DRM1 homologues, which align into two distinct Actinidia-specific families, Type I and Type II, have been identified. No candidates for the Arabidopsis DRM1-Homologue (AtDRM2) an additional family member, has been identified in Actinidia.

  3. Free-energy landscape of intrinsically disordered proteins investigated by all-atom multicanonical molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Higo, Junichi; Umezawa, Koji

    2014-01-01

    We introduce computational studies on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Especially, we present our multicanonical molecular dynamics (McMD) simulations of two IDP-partner systems: NRSF-mSin3 and pKID-KIX. McMD is one of enhanced conformational sampling methods useful for conformational sampling of biomolecular systems. IDP adopts a specific tertiary structure upon binding to its partner molecule, although it is unstructured in the unbound state (i.e. the free state). This IDP-specific property is called "coupled folding and binding". The McMD simulation treats the biomolecules with an all-atom model immersed in an explicit solvent. In the initial configuration of simulation, IDP and its partner molecules are set to be distant from each other, and the IDP conformation is disordered. The computationally obtained free-energy landscape for coupled folding and binding has shown that native- and non-native-complex clusters distribute complicatedly in the conformational space. The all-atom simulation suggests that both of induced-folding and population-selection are coupled complicatedly in the coupled folding and binding. Further analyses have exemplified that the conformational fluctuations (dynamical flexibility) in the bound and unbound states are essentially important to characterize IDP functioning.

  4. Proteus: a random forest classifier to predict disorder-to-order transitioning binding regions in intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sankar; Söderquist, Fredrik; Wallner, Björn

    2017-05-01

    The focus of the computational structural biology community has taken a dramatic shift over the past one-and-a-half decades from the classical protein structure prediction problem to the possible understanding of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) or proteins containing regions of disorder (IDPR). The current interest lies in the unraveling of a disorder-to-order transitioning code embedded in the amino acid sequences of IDPs/IDPRs. Disordered proteins are characterized by an enormous amount of structural plasticity which makes them promiscuous in binding to different partners, multi-functional in cellular activity and atypical in folding energy landscapes resembling partially folded molten globules. Also, their involvement in several deadly human diseases (e.g. cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases) makes them attractive drug targets, and important for a biochemical understanding of the disease(s). The study of the structural ensemble of IDPs is rather difficult, in particular for transient interactions. When bound to a structured partner, an IDPR adapts an ordered conformation in the complex. The residues that undergo this disorder-to-order transition are called protean residues, generally found in short contiguous stretches and the first step in understanding the modus operandi of an IDP/IDPR would be to predict these residues. There are a few available methods which predict these protean segments from their amino acid sequences; however, their performance reported in the literature leaves clear room for improvement. With this background, the current study presents `Proteus', a random forest classifier that predicts the likelihood of a residue undergoing a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to a potential partner protein. The prediction is based on features that can be calculated using the amino acid sequence alone. Proteus compares favorably with existing methods predicting twice as many true positives as the second best method (55

  5. Probing the Action of Chemical Denaturant on an Intrinsically Disordered Protein by Simulation and Experiment.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwei; Borgia, Alessandro; Buholzer, Karin; Grishaev, Alexander; Schuler, Benjamin; Best, Robert B

    2016-09-14

    Chemical denaturants are the most commonly used agents for unfolding proteins and are thought to act by better solvating the unfolded state. Improved solvation is expected to lead to an expansion of unfolded chains with increasing denaturant concentration, providing a sensitive probe of the denaturant action. However, experiments have so far yielded qualitatively different results concerning the effects of chemical denaturation. Studies using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and other methods found an increase in radius of gyration with denaturant concentration, but most small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies found no change. This discrepancy therefore challenges our understanding of denaturation mechanism and more generally the accuracy of these experiments as applied to unfolded or disordered proteins. Here, we use all-atom molecular simulations to investigate the effect of urea and guanidinium chloride on the structure of the intrinsically disordered protein ACTR, which can be studied by experiment over a wide range of denaturant concentration. Using unbiased molecular simulations with a carefully calibrated denaturant model, we find that the protein chain indeed swells with increasing denaturant concentration. This is due to the favorable association of urea or guanidinium chloride with the backbone of all residues and with the side-chains of almost all residues, with denaturant-water transfer free energies inferred from this association in reasonable accord with experimental estimates. Interactions of the denaturants with the backbone are dominated by hydrogen bonding, while interactions with side-chains include other contributions. By computing FRET efficiencies and SAXS intensities at each denaturant concentration, we show that the simulation trajectories are in accord with both experiments on this protein, demonstrating that there is no fundamental inconsistency between the two types of experiment. Agreement with experiment also supports the

  6. Thermal stability and folding kinetics analysis of intrinsically disordered protein, securin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Ching; Chu, Hsueh-Liang; Ho, Li-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Lacking a stable tertiary structure, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) possess particular functions in cell regulation, signaling, and controlling pathways. The study of their unique structure features, thermal stabilities, and folding kinetics is intriguing. In this study, an identified IDP, securin, was used as a model protein. By using a quasi-static five-step (on-path) folding process, the function of securin was restored and analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Fluorescence spectroscopy and particle size analysis indicated that securin possessed a compact hydrophobic core and particle size. The glass transition of securin was characterized using differential scanning microcalorimetry. Furthermore, the folding/unfolding rates (kobs) of securin were undetectable, implying that the folding/unfolding rate is very fast and that the conformation of securin is sensitive to solvent environment change. Therefore, securin may fold properly under specific physiological conditions. In summary, the thermal glass transition behavior and undetectable kobs of folding/unfolding reactions may be two of the indices of IDP. This study was supported in part by grants NSC 97-2112-M-009-009-YM3 and NSC 100-2112-M-009-004-MY3, Taiwan, R.O.C.

  7. Ferritin nanocage with intrinsically disordered proteins and affibody: A platform for tumor targeting with extended pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Na Kyeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Soyoun; Nam, Gi-Hoon; Kih, Minwoo; Hong, Yeonsun; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Yang, Yoosoo; Byun, Youngro; Kim, In-San

    2017-08-15

    Ferritin nanocages are of particular interest as a novel platform for drug and vaccine delivery, diagnosis, biomineralization scaffold and more, due to their perfect and complex symmetry, ideal physical properties, high biocompatibility, low toxicity profiles as well as easy manipulation by genetic or chemical strategies. However, a short half-life is still a hurdle for the translation of ferritin-based nanomedicines into the clinic. Here, we developed a series of rationally designed long circulating ferritin nanocages (LCFNs) with 'Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDP)' as a stealth layer for extending the half-life of ferritin nanocages. Through predictions with 3D modelling, the LCFNs were designed, generated and their pharmacokinetic parameters including half-life, clearance rate, mean residence time, and more, were evaluated by qualitative and quantitative analysis. LCFNs have a tenfold increased half-life and overall improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to wild-type ferritin nanocages (wtFN), corresponding to the low binding against bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and endothelial cells. Subsequently, a tumor targeting moiety, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting affibody peptide, was fused to LCFNs for evaluating their potential as a theragnostic platform. The tumor targeting-LCFNs successfully accumulated to the tumor tissue, by efficient targeting via active and passive properties, and also the shielding effect of IDP in vivo. This strategy can be applied to other protein-based nanocages for further progressing their use in the field of nanomedicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polymorphism Analysis Reveals Reduced Negative Selection and Elevated Rate of Insertions and Deletions in Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tahsin; Douglas, Gavin M; Patel, Priyenbhai; Nguyen Ba, Alex N; Moses, Alan M

    2015-06-04

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions are abundant in eukaryotic proteins and lack stable tertiary structures and enzymatic functions. Previous studies of disordered region evolution based on interspecific alignments have revealed an increased propensity for indels and rapid rates of amino acid substitution. How disordered regions are maintained at high abundance in the proteome and across taxa, despite apparently weak evolutionary constraints, remains unclear. Here, we use single nucleotide and indel polymorphism data in yeast and human populations to survey the population variation within disordered regions. First, we show that single nucleotide polymorphisms in disordered regions are under weaker negative selection compared with more structured protein regions and have a higher proportion of neutral non-synonymous sites. We also confirm previous findings that nonframeshifting indels are much more abundant in disordered regions relative to structured regions. We find that the rate of nonframeshifting indel polymorphism in intrinsically disordered regions resembles that of noncoding DNA and pseudogenes, and that large indels segregate in disordered regions in the human population. Our survey of polymorphism confirms patterns of evolution in disordered regions inferred based on longer evolutionary comparisons.

  9. Polymorphism Analysis Reveals Reduced Negative Selection and Elevated Rate of Insertions and Deletions in Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tahsin; Douglas, Gavin M.; Patel, Priyenbhai; Nguyen Ba, Alex N.; Moses, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered protein regions are abundant in eukaryotic proteins and lack stable tertiary structures and enzymatic functions. Previous studies of disordered region evolution based on interspecific alignments have revealed an increased propensity for indels and rapid rates of amino acid substitution. How disordered regions are maintained at high abundance in the proteome and across taxa, despite apparently weak evolutionary constraints, remains unclear. Here, we use single nucleotide and indel polymorphism data in yeast and human populations to survey the population variation within disordered regions. First, we show that single nucleotide polymorphisms in disordered regions are under weaker negative selection compared with more structured protein regions and have a higher proportion of neutral non-synonymous sites. We also confirm previous findings that nonframeshifting indels are much more abundant in disordered regions relative to structured regions. We find that the rate of nonframeshifting indel polymorphism in intrinsically disordered regions resembles that of noncoding DNA and pseudogenes, and that large indels segregate in disordered regions in the human population. Our survey of polymorphism confirms patterns of evolution in disordered regions inferred based on longer evolutionary comparisons. PMID:26047845

  10. DisoMCS: Accurately Predicting Protein Intrinsically Disordered Regions Using a Multi-Class Conservative Score Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiheng; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Tonghua; Cong, Peisheng

    2015-01-01

    The precise prediction of protein intrinsically disordered regions, which play a crucial role in biological procedures, is a necessary prerequisite to further the understanding of the principles and mechanisms of protein function. Here, we propose a novel predictor, DisoMCS, which is a more accurate predictor of protein intrinsically disordered regions. The DisoMCS bases on an original multi-class conservative score (MCS) obtained by sequence-order/disorder alignment. Initially, near-disorder regions are defined on fragments located at both the terminus of an ordered region connecting a disordered region. Then the multi-class conservative score is generated by sequence alignment against a known structure database and represented as order, near-disorder and disorder conservative scores. The MCS of each amino acid has three elements: order, near-disorder and disorder profiles. Finally, the MCS is exploited as features to identify disordered regions in sequences. DisoMCS utilizes a non-redundant data set as the training set, MCS and predicted secondary structure as features, and a conditional random field as the classification algorithm. In predicted near-disorder regions a residue is determined as an order or a disorder according to the optimized decision threshold. DisoMCS was evaluated by cross-validation, large-scale prediction, independent tests and CASP (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction) tests. All results confirmed that DisoMCS was very competitive in terms of accuracy of prediction when compared with well-established publicly available disordered region predictors. It also indicated our approach was more accurate when a query has higher homologous with the knowledge database. Availability The DisoMCS is available at http://cal.tongji.edu.cn/disorder/. PMID:26090958

  11. Phosphorylation Regulates the Bound Structure of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein: The p53-TAZ2 Case

    PubMed Central

    Ithuralde, Raúl Esteban; Turjanski, Adrián Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Disordered regions and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) are involved in critical cellular processes and may acquire a stable three-dimensional structure only upon binding to their partners. IDPs may follow a folding-after-binding process, known as induced folding, or a folding-before-binding process, known as conformational selection. The transcription factor p53 is involved in the regulation of cellular events that arise upon stress or DNA damage. The p53 domain structure is composed of an N-terminal transactivation domain (p53TAD), a DNA Binding Domain and a tetramerization domain. The activity of TAD is tightly regulated by interactions with cofactors, inhibitors and phosphorylation. To initiate transcription, p53TAD binds to the TAZ2 domain of CBP, a co-transcription factor, and undergoes a folding and binding process, as revealed by the recent NMR structure of the complex. The activity of p53 is regulated by phosphorylation at multiple sites on the TAD domain and recent studies have shown that modifications at three residues affect the binding towards TAZ2. However, we still do not know how these phosphorylations affect the structure of the bound state and, therefore, how they regulate the p53 function. In this work, we have used computational simulations to understand how phosphorylation affects the structure of the p53TAD:TAZ2 complex and regulates the recognition mechanism. Phosphorylation has been proposed to enhance binding by direct interaction with the folded protein or by changing the unbound conformation of IDPs, for example by pre-folding the protein favoring the recognition mechanism. Here, we show an interesting turn in the p53 case: phosphorylation mainly affects the bound structure of p53TAD, highlighting the complexity of IDP protein-protein interactions. Our results are in agreement with previous experimental studies, allowing a clear picture of how p53 is regulated by phosphorylation and giving new insights into how post

  12. Protein intrinsic disorder-based liquid-liquid phase transitions in biological systems: Complex coacervates and membrane-less organelles.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    It is clear now that eukaryotic cells contain numerous membrane-less organelles, many of which are formed in response to changes in the cellular environment. Being typically liquid in nature, many of these organelles can be described as products of the reversible and highly controlled liquid-liquid phase transitions in biological systems. Many of these membrane-less organelles are complex coacervates containing (almost invariantly) intrinsically disordered proteins and often nucleic acids. It seems that the lack of stable structure in major proteinaceous constituents of these organelles is crucial for the formation of phase-separated droplets. This review considers several biologically relevant liquid-liquid phase transitions, introduces some general features attributed to intrinsically disordered proteins, represents several illustrative examples of intrinsic disorder-based phase separation, and provides some reasons for the abundance of intrinsically disordered proteins in organelles formed as a result of biological liquid-liquid phase transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural Ensembles of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Depend Strongly on Force Field: A Comparison to Experiment.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Sarah; Gapsys, Vytautas; Gajda, Michal J; Zweckstetter, Markus; de Groot, Bert L; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2015-11-10

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are notoriously challenging to study both experimentally and computationally. The structure of IDPs cannot be described by a single conformation but must instead be described as an ensemble of interconverting conformations. Atomistic simulations are increasingly used to obtain such IDP conformational ensembles. Here, we have compared the IDP ensembles generated by eight all-atom empirical force fields against primary small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and NMR data. Ensembles obtained with different force fields exhibit marked differences in chain dimensions, hydrogen bonding, and secondary structure content. These differences are unexpectedly large: changing the force field is found to have a stronger effect on secondary structure content than changing the entire peptide sequence. The CHARMM 22* ensemble performs best in this force field comparison: it has the lowest error in chemical shifts and J-couplings and agrees well with the SAXS data. A high population of left-handed α-helix is present in the CHARMM 36 ensemble, which is inconsistent with measured scalar couplings. To eliminate inadequate sampling as a reason for differences between force fields, extensive simulations were carried out (0.964 ms in total); the remaining small sampling uncertainty is shown to be much smaller than the observed differences. Our findings highlight how IDPs, with their rugged energy landscapes, are highly sensitive test systems that are capable of revealing force field deficiencies and, therefore, contributing to force field development.

  14. An Intrinsically Disordered Motif Mediates Diverse Actions of Monomeric C-reactive Protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yun; Wang, Jing; Meng, Fan; Jia, Zhe-Kun; Su, Yang; Bai, Qi-Feng; Lv, Ling-Ling; Ma, Fu-Rong; Potempa, Lawrence A; Yan, Yong-Bin; Ji, Shang-Rong; Wu, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Most proinflammatory actions of C-reactive protein (CRP) are only expressed following dissociation of its native pentameric assembly into monomeric form (mCRP). However, little is known about what underlies the greatly enhanced activities of mCRP. Here we show that a single sequence motif, i.e. cholesterol binding sequence (CBS; a.a. 35-47), is responsible for mediating the interactions of mCRP with diverse ligands. The binding of mCRP to lipoprotein component ApoB, to complement component C1q, to extracellular matrix components fibronectin and collagen, to blood coagulation component fibrinogen, and to membrane lipid component cholesterol, are all found to be markedly inhibited by the synthetic CBS peptide but not by other CRP sequences tested. Likewise, mutating CBS in mCRP also greatly impairs these interactions. Functional experiments further reveal that CBS peptide significantly reduces the effects of mCRP on activation of endothelial cells in vitro and on acute induction of IL-6 in mice. The potency and specificity of CBS are critically determined by the N-terminal residues Cys-36, Leu-37, and His-38; while the versatility of CBS appears to originate from its intrinsically disordered conformation polymorphism. Together, these data unexpectedly identify CBS as the major recognition site of mCRP and suggest that this motif may be exploited to tune the proinflammatory actions of mCRP.

  15. Residual Structures, Conformational Fluctuations, and Electrostatic Interactions in the Synergistic Folding of Two Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihong; Ganguly, Debabani; Chen, Jianhan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the interplay of residual structures and conformational fluctuations in the interaction of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), we first combined implicit solvent and replica exchange sampling to calculate atomistic disordered ensembles of the nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) of transcription coactivator CBP and the activation domain of the p160 steroid receptor coactivator ACTR. The calculated ensembles are in quantitative agreement with NMR-derived residue helicity and recapitulate the experimental observation that, while free ACTR largely lacks residual secondary structures, free NCBD is a molten globule with a helical content similar to that in the folded complex. Detailed conformational analysis reveals that free NCBD has an inherent ability to substantially sample all the helix configurations that have been previously observed either unbound or in complexes. Intriguingly, further high-temperature unbinding and unfolding simulations in implicit and explicit solvents emphasize the importance of conformational fluctuations in synergistic folding of NCBD with ACTR. A balance between preformed elements and conformational fluctuations appears necessary to allow NCBD to interact with different targets and fold into alternative conformations. Together with previous topology-based modeling and existing experimental data, the current simulations strongly support an “extended conformational selection” synergistic folding mechanism that involves a key intermediate state stabilized by interaction between the C-terminal helices of NCBD and ACTR. In addition, the atomistic simulations reveal the role of long-range as well as short-range electrostatic interactions in cooperating with readily fluctuating residual structures, which might enhance the encounter rate and promote efficient folding upon encounter for facile binding and folding interactions of IDPs. Thus, the current study not only provides a consistent mechanistic understanding of

  16. Multiple interactions of the intrinsically disordered region between the helicase and nuclease domains of the archaeal Hef protein.

    PubMed

    Ishino, Sonoko; Yamagami, Takeshi; Kitamura, Makoto; Kodera, Noriyuki; Mori, Tetsuya; Sugiyama, Shyogo; Ando, Toshio; Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Hiroaki, Hidekazu; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2014-08-01

    Hef is an archaeal protein that probably functions mainly in stalled replication fork repair. The presence of an unstructured region was predicted between the two distinct domains of the Hef protein. We analyzed the interdomain region of Thermococcus kodakarensis Hef and demonstrated its disordered structure by CD, NMR, and high speed atomic force microscopy (AFM). To investigate the functions of this intrinsically disordered region (IDR), we screened for proteins interacting with the IDR of Hef by a yeast two-hybrid method, and 10 candidate proteins were obtained. We found that PCNA1 and a RecJ-like protein specifically bind to the IDR in vitro. These results suggested that the Hef protein interacts with several different proteins that work together in the pathways downstream from stalled replication fork repair by converting the IDR structure depending on the partner protein.

  17. The Tooth Enamel Protein, Porcine Amelogenin, Is an Intrinsically Disordered Protein with an Extended Molecular Configuration in the Monomeric Form†

    PubMed Central

    Delak, Katya; Harcup, Craig; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sun, Zhi; Fan, Yuwwei; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Evans, John Spencer

    2009-01-01

    Amelogenins make up a class of proteins associated with the formation of mineralized enamel in vertebrates, possess highly conserved N- and C-terminal sequence regions, and represent an interesting model protein system for understanding biomineralization and protein assembly. Using bioinformatics, we report here the identification of molecular traits that classify 12 amelogenin proteins as members of the intrinsically disordered or unstructured protein family (IDPs), a group of proteins that normally exist as unfolded species but are capable of transformation to a folded state as part of their overall function. Using biophysical techniques (CD and NMR), we follow up on our bioinformatics studies and confirm that one of the amelogenins, recombinant porcine rP172, exists in an extended, unfolded state in the monomeric form. This protein exhibits evidence of conformational exchange between two states, and this exchange may be mediated by Pro residues in the sequence. Although the protein is globally unfolded, we detect the presence of local residual secondary structure [α-helix, extended β-strand, turn/loop, and polyproline type II (PPII)] that may serve several functional roles within the enamel matrix. The extended, labile conformation of rP172 amelogenin is compatible with the known functions of amelogenin in enamel biomineralization, i.e., self-assembly, associations with other enamel matrix proteins and with calcium phosphate biominerals, and interaction with cell receptors. It is likely that the labile structure of this protein facilitates interactions of amelogenin with other macromolecules or with minerals for achievement of internal protein stabilization. PMID:19236004

  18. A Set of Efficient nD NMR Protocols for Resonance Assignments of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Bellstedt, Peter; Häfner, Sabine; Herbst, Christian; Bordusa, Frank; Görlach, Matthias; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Ramachandran, Ramadurai

    2016-07-04

    The RF pulse scheme RN[N-CA HEHAHA]NH, which provides a convenient approach to the acquisition of different multidimensional chemical shift correlation NMR spectra leading to backbone resonance assignments, including those of the proline residues of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), is experimentally demonstrated. Depending on the type of correlation data required, the method involves the generation of in-phase ((15) N)(x) magnetisation via different magnetisation transfer pathways such as H→N→CO→N, HA→CA→CO→N, H→N→CA→N and H→CA→N, the subsequent application of (15) N-(13) C(α) heteronuclear Hartmann-Hahn mixing over a period of ≈100 ms, chemical-shift labelling of relevant nuclei before and after the heteronuclear mixing step and amide proton detection in the acquisition dimension. It makes use of the favourable relaxation properties of IDPs and the presence of (1) JCαN and (2) JCαN couplings to achieve efficient correlation of the backbone resonances of each amino acid residue "i" with the backbone amide resonances of residues "i-1" and "i+1". It can be implemented in a straightforward way through simple modifications of the RF pulse schemes commonly employed in protein NMR studies. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated using a uniformly ((15) N,(13) C) labelled sample of α-synuclein. The different possibilities for obtaining the amino-acid-type information, simultaneously with the connectivity data between the backbone resonances of sequentially neighbouring residues, have also been outlined.

  19. Thermal compaction of the intrinsically disordered protein tau: entropic, structural, and hydrophobic factors.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Anna; Ciasca, Gabriele; Grottesi, Alessandro; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2017-03-28

    Globular denatured proteins have structural properties similar to those of random coils. Experiments on denatured proteins have shown that when the temperature is increased thermal compaction may take place, resulting in a reduction of their radius of gyration Rg to range between 5% and 35% of its initial value. This phenomenon has been attributed to various causes, namely entropic, hydrophobic, and structural factors. The intrinsically disordered protein tau, which helps in nucleating and stabilizing microtubules in the axons of the neurons, also undergoes a relevant compaction process: when its temperature is increased from 293 K to 333 K its gyration radius decreases by 18%. We have performed an atomistic simulation of this molecule, at the lowest and highest temperatures of the mentioned interval, using both standard molecular dynamics and metadynamics, in parallel with small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. Using the fit of the experimental data and a genetic algorithm to select the most probable configurations among those produced in both atomistic simulations (standard MD and metadynamics), we were able to compute relevant changes, related to the temperature increase, in the average angles between residues, in the transient secondary structures, in the solvent accessible surface area, and in the number of intramolecular H-bonds. The analysis of the data showed how to decompose the compaction phenomenon into three contributions. An estimate of the entropic contribution to the compaction was obtained using the changes in the mean values of the angles between contiguous residues. The computation of the solvent accessible surface at the two temperatures allowed an estimation of the second factor contributing to the compaction, namely the increase in the hydrophobic interaction. We also measured the change in the average number of residues temporarily being in α-helices, 3-helices, PP II helices, β-sheets and β-turns. Those changes in the secondary

  20. Large-scale Analysis of Thermo-stable, Mammalian Proteins Provides Insights into the Intrinsically Disordered Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Charles A.; High, Anthony; Obenauer, John C.; Mishra, Ashutosh; Park, Cheon-Gil; Punta, Marco; Schlessinger, Avner; Ma, Jing; Rost, Burkhard; Slaughter, Clive A.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are predicted to be highly abundant and play broad biological roles in eukaryotic cells. In particular, by virtue of their structural malleability and propensity to interact with multiple binding partners, disordered proteins are thought to be specialized for roles in signaling and regulation. However, these concepts are based on in silico analyses of translated whole genome sequences, not on large-scale analyses of proteins expressed in living cells. Therefore, whether these concepts broadly apply to expressed proteins is currently unknown. Previous studies have shown that heat-treatment of cell extracts lead to partial enrichment of soluble, disordered proteins. Based on this observation, we sought to address the current dearth of knowledge about expressed, disordered proteins by performing a large-scale proteomics study of thermo-stable proteins isolated from mouse fibroblast cells. Using novel multidimensional chromatography methods and mass spectrometry, we identified a total of 1,320 thermo-stable proteins from these cells. Further, we used a variety of bioinformatics methods to analyze the structural and biological properties of these proteins. Interestingly, more than 900 of these expressed proteins were predicted to be substantially disordered. These were divided into two categories, with 514 predicted to be predominantly disordered and 395 predicted to exhibit both disordered and ordered/folded features. In addition, 411 of the thermo-stable proteins were predicted to be folded. Despite the use of heat treatment (60 min. at 98 °C) to partially enrich for disordered proteins, which might have been expected to select for small proteins, the sequences of these proteins exhibited a wide range of lengths (622 ± 555 residues (average length ± standard deviation) for disordered proteins and 569 ± 598 residues for folded proteins). Computational structural analyses revealed several unexpected features of the thermo

  1. Intrinsic Disorder in the Human Spliceosomal Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Korneta, Iga; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2012-01-01

    The spliceosome is a molecular machine that performs the excision of introns from eukaryotic pre-mRNAs. This macromolecular complex comprises in human cells five RNAs and over one hundred proteins. In recent years, many spliceosomal proteins have been found to exhibit intrinsic disorder, that is to lack stable native three-dimensional structure in solution. Building on the previous body of proteomic, structural and functional data, we have carried out a systematic bioinformatics analysis of intrinsic disorder in the proteome of the human spliceosome. We discovered that almost a half of the combined sequence of proteins abundant in the spliceosome is predicted to be intrinsically disordered, at least when the individual proteins are considered in isolation. The distribution of intrinsic order and disorder throughout the spliceosome is uneven, and is related to the various functions performed by the intrinsic disorder of the spliceosomal proteins in the complex. In particular, proteins involved in the secondary functions of the spliceosome, such as mRNA recognition, intron/exon definition and spliceosomal assembly and dynamics, are more disordered than proteins directly involved in assisting splicing catalysis. Conserved disordered regions in spliceosomal proteins are evolutionarily younger and less widespread than ordered domains of essential spliceosomal proteins at the core of the spliceosome, suggesting that disordered regions were added to a preexistent ordered functional core. Finally, the spliceosomal proteome contains a much higher amount of intrinsic disorder predicted to lack secondary structure than the proteome of the ribosome, another large RNP machine. This result agrees with the currently recognized different functions of proteins in these two complexes. PMID:22912569

  2. Intrinsically disordered segments and the evolution of protein half-life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, M.

    2013-03-01

    Precise turnover of proteins is essential for cellular homeostasis and is primarily mediated by the proteasome. Thus, a fundamental question is: What features make a protein an efficient substrate for degradation? Here I will present results that proteins with a long terminal disordered segment or internal disordered segments have a significantly shorter half-life in yeast. This relationship appears to be evolutionarily conserved in mouse and human. Furthermore, upon gene duplication, divergence in the length of terminal disorder or variation in the number of internal disordered segments results in significant alteration of the half-life of yeast paralogs. Many proteins that exhibit such changes participate in signaling, where altered protein half-life will likely influence their activity. We suggest that variation in the length and number of disordered segments could serve as a remarkably simple means to evolve protein half-life and may serve as an underappreciated source of genetic variation with important phenotypic consequences. MMB acknowledges the Medical Research Council for funding his research program.

  3. Temperature effects on the hydrodynamic radius of the intrinsically disordered N-terminal region of the p53 protein.

    PubMed

    Langridge, Timothy D; Tarver, Micheal J; Whitten, Steven T

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are often characterized in terms of the hydrodynamic radius, Rh . The Rh of IDPs are known to depend on fractional proline content and net charge, where increased numbers of proline residues and increased net charge cause larger Rh . Though sequence and charge effects on the Rh of IDPs have been studied, the temperature sensitivity has been noted only briefly. Reported here are Rh measurements in the temperature range of 5-75°C for the intrinsically disordered N-terminal region of the p53 protein, p53(1-93). Of note, the Rh of this protein fragment was highly sensitive to temperature, decreasing from 35 Å at 5°C to 26 Å at 75°C. Computer generated simulations of conformationally dynamic and disordered polypeptide chains were performed to provide a hypothesis for the heat-induced compaction of p53(1-93) structure, which was opposite to the heat-induced increase in Rh observed for a model folded protein. The simulations demonstrated that heat caused Rh to trend toward statistical coil values for both proteins, indicating that the effects of heat on p53(1-93) structure could be interpreted as thermal denaturation. The simulation data also predicted that proline content contributed minimally to the native Rh of p53(1-93), which was confirmed by measuring Rh for a substitution variant that had all 22 proline residues changed for glycine.

  4. Actinidia DRM1 - An Intrinsically Disordered Protein Whose mRNA Expression Is Inversely Correlated with Spring Budbreak in Kiwifruit

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Marion; Rae, Georgina M.; Wu, Rong-Mei; Walton, Eric F.; Xue, Bin; Hellens, Roger P.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a relatively recently defined class of proteins which, under native conditions, lack a unique tertiary structure whilst maintaining essential biological functions. Functional classification of IDPs have implicated such proteins as being involved in various physiological processes including transcription and translation regulation, signal transduction and protein modification. Actinidia DRM1 (Ade DORMANCY ASSOCIATED GENE 1), represents a robust dormancy marker whose mRNA transcript expression exhibits a strong inverse correlation with the onset of growth following periods of physiological dormancy. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that DRM1 is plant specific and highly conserved at both the nucleotide and protein levels. It is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein with two distinct highly conserved domains. Several Actinidia DRM1 homologues, which align into two distinct Actinidia-specific families, Type I and Type II, have been identified. No candidates for the Arabidopsis DRM1-Homologue (AtDRM2) an additional family member, has been identified in Actinidia. PMID:23516402

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: On the Accuracy of the TIP4P-D Water Model and the Representativeness of Protein Disorder Models.

    PubMed

    Henriques, João; Skepö, Marie

    2016-07-12

    Here, we first present a follow-up to a previous work by our group on the problematic of molecular dynamics simulations of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) [ Henriques et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2015 , 11 , 3420 - 3431 ], using the recently developed TIP4P-D water model. When used in conjunction with the standard AMBER ff99SB-ILDN force field and applied to the simulation of Histatin 5, our IDP model, we obtain results which are in excellent agreement with the best performing IDP-suitable force field from the earlier study and with experiment. We then assess the representativeness of the IDP models used in these and similar studies, finding that most are too short in comparison to the average IDP and contain a bias toward hydrophilic amino acid residues. Moreover, several key order- and disorder-promoting residues are also found to be misrepresented. It seems appropriate for future studies to address these issues.

  6. Monitoring structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins using QCM-D: application to the bacterial cell division protein ZipA.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Gil, Pablo; Tsortos, Achilleas; Vélez, Marisela; Gizeli, Electra

    2016-05-05

    The sensitivity of QCM-D to molecular hydrodynamic properties is applied in this work to study conformational changes of the intrinsically disordered protein ZipA. Acoustic measurements can clearly follow ZipA's unstructured domain expansion and contraction with salt content and be correlated with changes in the hydrodynamic radius of 1.8 nm or less.

  7. Intrinsically disordered and pliable Starmaker-like protein from medaka (Oryzias latipes) controls the formation of calcium carbonate crystals.

    PubMed

    Różycka, Mirosława; Wojtas, Magdalena; Jakób, Michał; Stigloher, Christian; Grzeszkowiak, Mikołaj; Mazur, Maciej; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Fish otoliths, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate with a small amount of organic matrix, are involved in the functioning of the inner ear. Starmaker (Stm) from zebrafish (Danio rerio) was the first protein found to be capable of controlling the formation of otoliths. Recently, a gene was identified encoding the Starmaker-like (Stm-l) protein from medaka (Oryzias latipes), a putative homologue of Stm and human dentine sialophosphoprotein. Although there is no sequence similarity between Stm-l and Stm, Stm-l was suggested to be involved in the biomineralization of otoliths, as had been observed for Stm even before. The molecular properties and functioning of Stm-l as a putative regulatory protein in otolith formation have not been characterized yet. A comprehensive biochemical and biophysical analysis of recombinant Stm-l, along with in silico examinations, indicated that Stm-l exhibits properties of a coil-like intrinsically disordered protein. Stm-l possesses an elongated and pliable structure that is able to adopt a more ordered and rigid conformation under the influence of different factors. An in vitro assay of the biomineralization activity of Stm-l indicated that Stm-l affected the size, shape and number of calcium carbonate crystals. The functional significance of intrinsically disordered properties of Stm-l and the possible role of this protein in controlling the formation of calcium carbonate crystals is discussed.

  8. Intrinsically Disordered and Pliable Starmaker-Like Protein from Medaka (Oryzias latipes) Controls the Formation of Calcium Carbonate Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Różycka, Mirosława; Wojtas, Magdalena; Jakób, Michał; Stigloher, Christian; Grzeszkowiak, Mikołaj; Mazur, Maciej; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Fish otoliths, biominerals composed of calcium carbonate with a small amount of organic matrix, are involved in the functioning of the inner ear. Starmaker (Stm) from zebrafish (Danio rerio) was the first protein found to be capable of controlling the formation of otoliths. Recently, a gene was identified encoding the Starmaker-like (Stm-l) protein from medaka (Oryzias latipes), a putative homologue of Stm and human dentine sialophosphoprotein. Although there is no sequence similarity between Stm-l and Stm, Stm-l was suggested to be involved in the biomineralization of otoliths, as had been observed for Stm even before. The molecular properties and functioning of Stm-l as a putative regulatory protein in otolith formation have not been characterized yet. A comprehensive biochemical and biophysical analysis of recombinant Stm-l, along with in silico examinations, indicated that Stm-l exhibits properties of a coil-like intrinsically disordered protein. Stm-l possesses an elongated and pliable structure that is able to adopt a more ordered and rigid conformation under the influence of different factors. An in vitro assay of the biomineralization activity of Stm-l indicated that Stm-l affected the size, shape and number of calcium carbonate crystals. The functional significance of intrinsically disordered properties of Stm-l and the possible role of this protein in controlling the formation of calcium carbonate crystals is discussed. PMID:25490041

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: an Intrinsically Disordered Protein.

    PubMed

    Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Sampedro, José G; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Cervantes-González, Miguel A; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2015-08-01

    A novel Cu/ZnSOD from Amaranthus hypochondriacus was cloned, expressed, and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame (ORF) of 456 bp, which was predicted to encode a 15.6-kDa molecular weight protein with a pI of 5.4. Structural analysis showed highly conserved amino acid residues involved in Cu/Zn binding. Recombinant amaranth superoxide dismutase (rAhSOD) displayed more than 50 % of catalytic activity after incubation at 100 °C for 30 min. In silico analysis of Amaranthus hypochondriacus SOD (AhSOD) amino acid sequence for globularity and disorder suggested that this protein is mainly disordered; this was confirmed by circular dichroism, which showed the lack of secondary structure. Intrinsic fluorescence studies showed that rAhSOD undergoes conformational changes in two steps by the presence of Cu/Zn, which indicates the presence of two binding sites displaying different affinities for metals ions. Our results show that AhSOD could be classified as an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that is folded when metals are bound and with high thermal stability.

  10. Structural and hydrodynamic properties of an intrinsically disordered region of a germ cell-specific protein on phase separation.

    PubMed

    Brady, Jacob P; Farber, Patrick J; Sekhar, Ashok; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Huang, Rui; Bah, Alaji; Nott, Timothy J; Chan, Hue Sun; Baldwin, Andrew J; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Kay, Lewis E

    2017-09-26

    Membrane encapsulation is frequently used by the cell to sequester biomolecules and compartmentalize their function. Cells also concentrate molecules into phase-separated protein or protein/nucleic acid "membraneless organelles" that regulate a host of biochemical processes. Here, we use solution NMR spectroscopy to study phase-separated droplets formed from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal 236 residues of the germ-granule protein Ddx4. We show that the protein within the concentrated phase of phase-separated Ddx4, [Formula: see text], diffuses as a particle of 600-nm hydrodynamic radius dissolved in water. However, NMR spectra reveal sharp resonances with chemical shifts showing [Formula: see text] to be intrinsically disordered. Spin relaxation measurements indicate that the backbone amides of [Formula: see text] have significant mobility, explaining why high-resolution spectra are observed, but motion is reduced compared with an equivalently concentrated nonphase-separating control. Observation of a network of interchain interactions, as established by NOE spectroscopy, shows the importance of Phe and Arg interactions in driving the phase separation of Ddx4, while the salt dependence of both low- and high-concentration regions of phase diagrams establishes an important role for electrostatic interactions. The diffusion of a series of small probes and the compact but disordered 4E binding protein 2 (4E-BP2) protein in [Formula: see text] are explained by an excluded volume effect, similar to that found for globular protein solvents. No changes in structural propensities of 4E-BP2 dissolved in [Formula: see text] are observed, while changes to DNA and RNA molecules have been reported, highlighting the diverse roles that proteinaceous solvents play in dictating the properties of dissolved solutes.

  11. Discriminating binding mechanisms of an intrinsically disordered protein via a multi-state coarse-grained model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, Michael; Best, Robert B.

    2014-05-01

    Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an "induced fit" or "conformational selection" mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD.

  12. Discriminating binding mechanisms of an intrinsically disordered protein via a multi-state coarse-grained model

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, Michael; Best, Robert B.

    2014-05-07

    Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an “induced fit” or “conformational selection” mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD.

  13. Discriminating binding mechanisms of an intrinsically disordered protein via a multi-state coarse-grained model

    PubMed Central

    Knott, Michael; Best, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an “induced fit” or “conformational selection” mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD. PMID:24811666

  14. Combining short- and long-range fluorescence reporters with simulations to explore the intramolecular dynamics of an intrinsically disordered protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zosel, Franziska; Haenni, Dominik; Soranno, Andrea; Nettels, Daniel; Schuler, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are increasingly recognized as a class of molecules that can exert essential biological functions even in the absence of a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Understanding the conformational distributions and dynamics of these highly flexible proteins is thus essential for explaining the molecular mechanisms underlying their function. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful tool for probing intramolecular distances and the rapid long-range distance dynamics in IDPs. To complement the information from FRET, we combine it with photoinduced electron transfer (PET) quenching to monitor local loop-closure kinetics at the same time and in the same molecule. Here we employed this combination to investigate the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase. The results show that both long-range dynamics and loop closure kinetics on the sub-microsecond time scale can be obtained reliably from a single set of measurements by the analysis with a comprehensive model of the underlying photon statistics including both FRET and PET. A more detailed molecular interpretation of the results is enabled by direct comparison with a recent extensive atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of integrase. The simulations are in good agreement with experiment and can explain the deviation from simple models of chain dynamics by the formation of persistent local secondary structure. The results illustrate the power of a close combination of single-molecule spectroscopy and simulations for advancing our understanding of the dynamics and detailed mechanisms in unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins.

  15. A practical guide to small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of flexible and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Kikhney, Alexey G; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2015-09-14

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a biophysical method to study the overall shape and structural transitions of biological macromolecules in solution. SAXS provides low resolution information on the shape, conformation and assembly state of proteins, nucleic acids and various macromolecular complexes. The technique also offers powerful means for the quantitative analysis of flexible systems, including intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Here, the basic principles of SAXS are presented, and profits and pitfalls of the characterization of multidomain flexible proteins and IDPs using SAXS are discussed from the practical point of view. Examples of the synergistic use of SAXS with high resolution methods like X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as other experimental and in silico techniques to characterize completely, or partially unstructured proteins, are presented.

  16. Single-molecule force spectroscopy of rapidly fluctuating, marginally stable structures in the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Allison; Neupane, Krishna; Woodside, Michael T

    2014-04-18

    Intrinsically disordered proteins form transient, fluctuating structures that are difficult to observe directly. We used optical tweezers to apply force to single α-synuclein molecules and measure their extension, characterizing the resulting conformational transitions. Force-extension curves revealed rapid fluctuations at low force, arising from the folding of two different classes of structure that were only marginally stable. The energy landscape for these transitions was characterized via the force-dependent kinetics derived from correlation analysis of the extension trajectories. The barriers were small, only a few kBT, but the diffusion was slow, revealing a landscape that is flat but rough.

  17. Small angle neutron scattering for the structural study of intrinsically disordered proteins in solution: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) allows studying bio-macromolecular structures and interactions in solution. It is particularly well-suited to study structural properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) over a wide range of length-scales ranging from global aspects (radii of gyration and molecular weight) down to short-distance properties (e.g., cross-sectional analysis). In this book chapter, we provide a practical guide on how to carry out SANS experiments on IDPs and discuss the complementary aspects and strengths of SANS with respect to small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).

  18. Intrinsic Disorder in Pathogen Effectors: Protein Flexibility as an Evolutionary Hallmark in a Molecular Arms Race[W

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Macarena; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Ott, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Effector proteins represent a refined mechanism of bacterial pathogens to overcome plants’ innate immune systems. These modular proteins often manipulate host physiology by directly interfering with immune signaling of plant cells. Even if host cells have developed efficient strategies to perceive the presence of pathogenic microbes and to recognize intracellular effector activity, it remains an open question why only few effectors are recognized directly by plant resistance proteins. Based on in-silico genome-wide surveys and a reevaluation of published structural data, we estimated that bacterial effectors of phytopathogens are highly enriched in long-disordered regions (>50 residues). These structurally flexible segments have no secondary structure under physiological conditions but can fold in a stimulus-dependent manner (e.g., during protein–protein interactions). The high abundance of intrinsic disorder in effectors strongly suggests positive evolutionary selection of this structural feature and highlights the dynamic nature of these proteins. We postulate that such structural flexibility may be essential for (1) effector translocation, (2) evasion of the innate immune system, and (3) host function mimicry. The study of these dynamical regions will greatly complement current structural approaches to understand the molecular mechanisms of these proteins and may help in the prediction of new effectors. PMID:24038649

  19. The intrinsically disordered C-RING biomineralization protein, AP7, creates protein phases that introduce nanopatterning and nanoporosities into mineral crystals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric P; Russ, Jennie A; Verch, Andreas; Kröger, Roland; Estroff, Lara A; Evans, John Spencer

    2014-07-15

    We report an interesting process whereby the formation of nanoparticle assemblies on and nanoporosities within calcite crystals is directed by an intrinsically disordered C-RING mollusk shell nacre protein, AP7. Under mineralization conditions, AP7 forms protein phases that direct the nucleation of ordered calcite nanoparticles via a repetitive protein phase deposition process onto calcite crystals. These organized nanoparticles are separated by gaps or spaces that become incorporated into the forming bulk crystal as nanoporosities. This is an unusual example of organized nanoparticle biosynthesis and mineral modification directed by a C-RING protein phase.

  20. The Intrinsically Disordered C-RING Biomineralization Protein, AP7, Creates Protein Phases That Introduce Nanopatterning and Nanoporosities into Mineral Crystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report an interesting process whereby the formation of nanoparticle assemblies on and nanoporosities within calcite crystals is directed by an intrinsically disordered C-RING mollusk shell nacre protein, AP7. Under mineralization conditions, AP7 forms protein phases that direct the nucleation of ordered calcite nanoparticles via a repetitive protein phase deposition process onto calcite crystals. These organized nanoparticles are separated by gaps or spaces that become incorporated into the forming bulk crystal as nanoporosities. This is an unusual example of organized nanoparticle biosynthesis and mineral modification directed by a C-RING protein phase. PMID:24977921

  1. Role of Intrinsic Protein Disorder in the Function and Interactions of the Transcriptional Coactivators CREB-binding Protein (CBP) and p300.

    PubMed

    Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2016-03-25

    The transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 undergo a particularly rich set of interactions with disordered and partly ordered partners, as a part of their ubiquitous role in facilitating transcription of genes. CBP and p300 contain a number of small structured domains that provide scaffolds for the interaction of disordered transactivation domains from a wide variety of partners, including p53, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), NF-κB, and STAT proteins, and are the targets for the interactions of disordered viral proteins that compete with cellular factors to disrupt signaling and subvert the cell cycle. The functional diversity of the CBP/p300 interactome provides an excellent example of the power of intrinsic disorder to facilitate the complexity of living systems.

  2. Role of Intrinsic Protein Disorder in the Function and Interactions of the Transcriptional Coactivators CREB-binding Protein (CBP) and p300*

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 undergo a particularly rich set of interactions with disordered and partly ordered partners, as a part of their ubiquitous role in facilitating transcription of genes. CBP and p300 contain a number of small structured domains that provide scaffolds for the interaction of disordered transactivation domains from a wide variety of partners, including p53, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), NF-κB, and STAT proteins, and are the targets for the interactions of disordered viral proteins that compete with cellular factors to disrupt signaling and subvert the cell cycle. The functional diversity of the CBP/p300 interactome provides an excellent example of the power of intrinsic disorder to facilitate the complexity of living systems. PMID:26851278

  3. Biophysical characterization of the structural change of Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered protein, in the interaction with CK2α

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Yuyoung; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Song, Seung Soo; Cha, Sun-Shin; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2016-08-19

    Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140) is a nucleolar protein, more than 80% of which is disordered. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Nopp140 (residues 568–596) interacts with protein kinase CK2α, and inhibits the catalytic activity of CK2. Although the region of Nopp140 responsible for the interaction with CK2α was identified, the structural features and the effect of this interaction on the structure of Nopp140 have not been defined due to the difficulty of structural characterization of disordered protein. In this study, the disordered feature of Nopp140 and the effect of CK2α on the structure of Nopp140 were examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The interaction with CK2α was increased conformational rigidity of the CK2α-interacting region of Nopp140 (Nopp140C), suggesting that the disordered and flexible conformation of Nopp140C became more rigid conformation as it binds to CK2α. In addition, site specific spin labeling and EPR analysis confirmed that the residues 574–589 of Nopp140 are critical for binding to CK2α. Similar technical approaches can be applied to analyze the conformational changes in other IDPs during their interactions with binding partners. - Highlights: • Nopp140 is intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). • Conformation of Nopp140 became more rigid conformation due to interaction with CK2α. • smFRET and EPR could be applied to analyze the structural changes of IDPs.

  4. Intrinsic disorder of the bacterial cell division protein ZipA: coil-to-brush conformational transition.

    PubMed

    López-Montero, Iván; López-Navajas, Pilar; Mingorance, Jesús; Rivas, Germán; Vélez, Marisela; Vicente, Miguel; Monroy, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    The full-length ZipA protein from Escherichia coli, one of the essential elements of the cell division machinery, was studied in a surface model built as adsorbed monolayers. The interplay between lateral packing and molecular conformation was probed using a combined methodology based on the scaling analysis of the surface pressure isotherms and ellipsometry measurements of the monolayer thickness. The observed behavior is compatible with the one expected for an intrinsically disordered and highly flexible protein that is preferentially structured in a random coil conformation. At low grafting densities, ZipA coils organize in a mushroom-like regime, whereas a coil-to-brush transition occurs on increasing lateral packing. The structural results suggest a functional scenario in which ZipA acts as a flexible tether anchoring bacterial proto-ring elements to the membrane during the earlier stages of division.

  5. Solvent effects in the helix-coil transition model can explain the unusual biophysics of intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badasyan, Artem; Mamasakhlisov, Yevgeni Sh.; Podgornik, Rudolf; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2015-07-01

    We analyze a model statistical description of the polypeptide chain helix-coil transition, where we take into account the specificity of its primary sequence, as quantified by the phase space volume ratio of the number of all accessible states to the number corresponding to a helical conformation. The resulting transition phase diagram is then juxtaposed with the unusual behavior of the secondary structures in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) and a number of similarities are observed, even if the protein folding is a more complex transition than the helix-coil transition. In fact, the deficit in bulky and hydrophobic amino acids observed in IDPs, translated into larger values of phase space volume, allows us to locate the region in parameter space of the helix-coil transition that would correspond to the secondary structure transformations that are intrinsic to conformational transitions in IDPs and that is characterized by a modified phase diagram when compared to globular proteins. Here, we argue how the nature of this modified phase diagram, obtained from a model of the helix-coil transition in a solvent, would illuminate the turned-out response of IDPs to the changes in the environment conditions that follow straightforwardly from the re-entrant (cold denaturation) branch in their folding phase diagram.

  6. Minimal effects of macromolecular crowding on an intrinsically disordered protein: a small-angle neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, David P; Argyle, Brian

    2014-02-18

    Small-angle neutron scattering was used to study the effects of macromolecular crowding by two globular proteins, i.e., bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and equine metmyoglobin, on the conformational ensemble of an intrinsically disordered protein, the N protein of bacteriophage λ. The λ N protein was uniformly labeled with (2)H, and the concentrations of D2O in the samples were adjusted to match the neutron scattering contrast of the unlabeled crowding proteins, thereby masking their contribution to the scattering profiles. Scattering from the deuterated λ N was recorded for samples containing up to 0.12 g/mL bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor or 0.2 g/mL metmyoglobin. The radius of gyration of the uncrowded protein was estimated to be 30 Å and was found to be remarkably insensitive to the presence of crowders, varying by <2 Å for the highest crowder concentrations. The scattering profiles were also used to estimate the fractal dimension of λ N, which was found to be ∼1.8 in the absence or presence of crowders, indicative of a well-solvated and expanded random coil under all of the conditions examined. These results are contrary to the predictions of theoretical treatments and previous experimental studies demonstrating compaction of unfolded proteins by crowding with polymers such as dextran and Ficoll. A computational simulation suggests that some previous treatments may have overestimated the effective volumes of disordered proteins and the variation of these volumes within an ensemble. The apparent insensitivity of λ N to crowding may also be due in part to weak attractive interactions with the crowding proteins, which may compensate for the effects of steric exclusion.

  7. Are Charge-State Distributions a Reliable Tool Describing Molecular Ensembles of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins by Native MS?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natalello, Antonino; Santambrogio, Carlo; Grandori, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) has become a central tool of structural proteomics, but its applicability to the peculiar class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is still object of debate. IDPs lack an ordered tridimensional structure and are characterized by high conformational plasticity. Since they represent valuable targets for cancer and neurodegeneration research, there is an urgent need of methodological advances for description of the conformational ensembles populated by these proteins in solution. However, structural rearrangements during electrospray-ionization (ESI) or after the transfer to the gas phase could affect data obtained by native ESI-MS. In particular, charge-state distributions (CSDs) are affected by protein conformation inside ESI droplets, while ion mobility (IM) reflects protein conformation in the gas phase. This review focuses on the available evidence relating IDP solution ensembles with CSDs, trying to summarize cases of apparent consistency or discrepancy. The protein-specificity of ionization patterns and their responses to ligands and buffer conditions suggests that CSDs are imprinted to protein structural features also in the case of IDPs. Nevertheless, it seems that these proteins are more easily affected by electrospray conditions, leading in some cases to rearrangements of the conformational ensembles.

  8. Combining a PagP fusion protein system with nickel ion-catalyzed cleavage to produce intrinsically disordered proteins in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Somaya; Pan, Jonathan S; Liu, Philip B; Hwang, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions that are highly solvent-exposed and susceptible to post-translational modifications. Studying these protein segments is critical to understanding their physiologic regulation, but proteolytic degradation can make them difficult to express and purify. We have designed a new protein expression vector that fuses the target protein to the N-terminus of the integral membrane protein, PagP. The two proteins are connected by a short linker containing the sequence SRHW, previously shown to be optimal for nickel ion-catalyzed cleavage. The methodology is demonstrated for an intrinsically disordered segment of cardiac troponin I. cTnI[135-209]-SRHW-PagP-His6 fusion protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, accumulating in insoluble inclusion bodies. The protein was solubilized, purified using nickel affinity chromatography, and then cleaved with 0.5mM NiSO4 at pH 9.0 and 45 °C, all in 6M guanidine-HCl. Nickel ion-catalyzed peptide bond hydrolysis is an effective chemical cleavage technique under denaturing conditions that preclude the use of proteases. Moreover, nickel-catalyzed cleavage is more specific than the most commonly used agent, cyanogen bromide, which cleaves C-terminal to methionine residues. We were able to produce 15 mg of purified cTnI[135-209] from 1L of M9 minimal media using this protocol. The methodology is more generally applicable to the production of intrinsically disordered protein segments.

  9. The Effect of Intrinsic Disorder and Self-association on the Translational Diffusion of Proteins: the Case of α-Casein.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Daria L; Skirda, Vladimir Dmitrievich; Nesmelova, Irina V

    2017-03-27

    Translational diffusion is the major mode of macromolecular transport in leaving organisms and therefore it is vital to many biological and biotechnological processes. Although translational diffusion of proteins has received considerable theoretical and experimental scrutiny, much of that attention has been directed towards the description of globular proteins. The translational diffusion of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), however, is much less studied. Here, we use a pulsed-gradient nuclear magnetic resonance technique (PFG NMR) to investigate the translational diffusion of a disordered protein in a wide range of concentrations using α-casein that belongs to the class of natively disordered proteins as an example.

  10. Structural analysis of the complex between calmodulin and full-length myelin basic protein, an intrinsically disordered molecule.

    PubMed

    Majava, Viivi; Wang, Chaozhan; Myllykoski, Matti; Kangas, Salla M; Kang, Sung Ung; Hayashi, Nobuhiro; Baumgärtel, Peter; Heape, Anthony M; Lubec, Gert; Kursula, Petri

    2010-06-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is present between the cytoplasmic leaflets of the compact myelin membrane in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and characterized to be intrinsically disordered in solution. One of the best-characterized protein ligands for MBP is calmodulin (CaM), a highly acidic calcium sensor. We pulled down MBP from human brain white matter as the major calcium-dependent CaM-binding protein. We then used full-length brain MBP, and a peptide from rodent MBP, to structurally characterize the MBP-CaM complex in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering, NMR spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy, and size exclusion chromatography. We determined 3D structures for the full-length protein-protein complex at different stoichiometries and detect ligand-induced folding of MBP. We also obtained thermodynamic data for the two CaM-binding sites of MBP, indicating that CaM does not collapse upon binding to MBP, and show that CaM and MBP colocalize in myelin sheaths. In addition, we analyzed the post-translational modifications of rat brain MBP, identifying a novel MBP modification, glucosylation. Our results provide a detailed picture of the MBP-CaM interaction, including a 3D model of the complex between full-length proteins.

  11. Coil-to-helix transitions in intrinsically disordered methyl CpG binding protein 2 and its isolated domains

    PubMed Central

    Hite, Kristopher C; Kalashnikova, Anna A; Hansen, Jeffrey C

    2012-01-01

    Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a canonical intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), that is, it lacks stable secondary structure throughout its entire polypeptide chain. Because IDPs often have the propensity to become locally ordered, we tested whether full-length MeCP2 and its constituent domains would gain secondary structure in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE), a cosolvent that stabilizes intramolecular hydrogen bonding in proteins. The α-helix, β-strand/turn, and unstructured content were determined as a function of TFE concentration by deconvolution of circular dichroism data. Results indicate that approximately two-thirds of the unstructured residues present in full-length MeCP2 were converted to α-helix in 70% TFE without a change in β-strand/turn. Thus, much of the MeCP2 polypeptide chain undergoes coil-to-helix transitions under conditions that favor intrachain hydrogen bond formation. The unstructured residues of the N-terminal (NTD) and C-terminal (CTD) domains were partially converted to α-helix in 70% TFE. In contrast, the central transcription regulation domain (TRD) became almost completely α-helical in 70% TFE. Unlike the NTD, CTD, and TRD, the unstructured content of the methyl DNA binding domain and the intervening domain did not change with increasing TFE concentration. These results indicate that the coil-to-helix transitions that occur in full-length MeCP2 are localized to the NTD, CTD, and TRD, with the TRD showing the greatest tendency for helix formation. The potential relationships between intrinsic disorder, coil-to-helix transitions, and MeCP2 structure and function are discussed. PMID:22294343

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Fluctuating Conformational Dynamics of the Intrinsically Disordered Proteins α-Synuclein and τ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.; Schreck, Carl; Nath, Abhinav; Rhoades, Elizabeth; O'Hern, Corey

    2013-03-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not possess well-defined three-dimensional structures in solution under physiological conditions. We develop united-atom and coarse-grained Langevin dynamics simulations for the IDPs α-synuclein and τ that include geometric,attractive hydrophobic, and screened electrostatic interactions and are calibrated to the inter-residue separations measured in recent smFRET experiments. We find that these IDPs have conformational statistics that are intermediate between random walk and collapsed globule behavior and demonstrate close resemblance to the known experimental data, with both electrostatics and hydrophobicity strongly influencing the dynamics. We investigate the propensity of α-synuclein to aggregate and form oligomers, and present preliminary results for the aggregation of τ and interactions between these IDPs and small molecules such as heparin and spermine which are known to induce aggregation.

  13. Paradoxes and wonders of intrinsic disorder: Complexity of simplicity.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    At first glance it may seem that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) are simpler than ordered proteins and domains on multiple levels. However, such multilevel simplicity equips these proteins with the ability to have very complex behavior.

  14. Hamiltonian Switch Metropolis Monte Carlo Simulations for Improved Conformational Sampling of Intrinsically Disordered Regions Tethered to Ordered Domains of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Anuradha; Lyle, Nicholas; Harmon, Tyler S; Pappu, Rohit V

    2014-08-12

    There is growing interest in the topic of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Atomistic Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations based on novel implicit solvation models have yielded useful insights regarding sequence-ensemble relationships for IDPs modeled as autonomous units. However, a majority of naturally occurring IDPs are tethered to ordered domains. Tethering introduces additional energy scales and this creates the challenge of broken ergodicity for standard MMC sampling or molecular dynamics that cannot be readily alleviated by using generalized tempering methods. We have designed, deployed, and tested our adaptation of the Nested Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm. We refer to our adaptation as Hamiltonian Switch Metropolis Monte Carlo (HS-MMC) sampling. In this method, transitions out of energetic traps are enabled by the introduction of an auxiliary Markov chain that draws conformations for the disordered region from a Boltzmann distribution that is governed by an alternative potential function that only includes short-range steric repulsions and conformational restraints on the ordered domain. We show using multiple, independent runs that the HS-MMC method yields conformational distributions that have similar and reproducible statistical properties, which is in direct contrast to standard MMC for equivalent amounts of sampling. The method is efficient and can be deployed for simulations of a range of biologically relevant disordered regions that are tethered to ordered domains.

  15. A Fragment-Based Method of Creating Small-Molecule Libraries to Target the Aggregation of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Priyanka; Chia, Sean; Habchi, Johnny; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-03-14

    The aggregation process of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has been associated with a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, however, no drug in clinical use targets IDP aggregation. To facilitate drug discovery programs in this important and challenging area, we describe a fragment-based approach of generating small-molecule libraries that target specific IDPs. The method is based on the use of molecular fragments extracted from compounds reported in the literature to inhibit of the aggregation of IDPs. These fragments are used to screen existing large generic libraries of small molecules to form smaller libraries specific for given IDPs. We illustrate this approach by describing three distinct small-molecule libraries to target, Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein, which are three IDPs implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The strategy described here offers novel opportunities for the identification of effective molecular scaffolds for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disorders and to provide insights into the mechanism of small-molecule binding to IDPs.

  16. Intrinsically disordered inhibitor of glutamine synthetase is a functional protein with random-coil-like pKa values.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Concetta; Neira, José L; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Rizzuti, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    The sequential action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in cyanobacteria allows the incorporation of ammonium into carbon skeletons. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the activity of GS is modulated by the interaction with proteins, which include a 65-residue-long intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), the inactivating factor IF7. This interaction is regulated by the presence of charged residues in both IF7 and GS. To understand how charged amino acids can affect the binding of an IDP with its target and to provide clues on electrostatic interactions in disordered states of proteins, we measured the pKa values of all IF7 acidic groups (Glu32, Glu36, Glu38, Asp40, Asp58, and Ser65, the backbone C-terminus) at 100 mM NaCl concentration, by using NMR spectroscopy. We also obtained solution structures of IF7 through molecular dynamics simulation, validated them on the basis of previous experiments, and used them to obtain theoretical estimates of the pKa values. Titration values for the two Asp and three Glu residues of IF7 were similar to those reported for random-coil models, suggesting the lack of electrostatic interactions around these residues. Furthermore, our results suggest the presence of helical structure at the N-terminus of the protein and of conformational changes at acidic pH values. The overall experimental and in silico findings suggest that local interactions and conformational equilibria do not play a role in determining the electrostatic features of the acidic residues of IF7. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  17. Spatial patterning of P granules by RNA-induced phase separation of the intrinsically-disordered protein MEG-3.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jarrett; Calidas, Deepika; Schmidt, Helen; Lu, Tu; Rasoloson, Dominique; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2016-12-03

    RNA granules are non-membrane bound cellular compartments that contain RNA and RNA binding proteins. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the spatial distribution of RNA granules in cells are poorly understood. During polarization of the C. elegans zygote, germline RNA granules, called P granules, assemble preferentially in the posterior cytoplasm. We present evidence that P granule asymmetry depends on RNA-induced phase separation of the granule scaffold MEG-3. MEG-3 is an intrinsically disordered protein that binds and phase separates with RNA in vitro. In vivo, MEG-3 forms a posterior-rich concentration gradient that is anti-correlated with a gradient in the RNA-binding protein MEX-5. MEX-5 is necessary and sufficient to suppress MEG-3 granule formation in vivo, and suppresses RNA-induced MEG-3 phase separation in vitro. Our findings suggest that MEX-5 interferes with MEG-3's access to RNA, thus locally suppressing MEG-3 phase separation to drive P granule asymmetry. Regulated access to RNA, combined with RNA-induced phase separation of key scaffolding proteins, may be a general mechanism for controlling the formation of RNA granules in space and time.

  18. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Elvin, Christopher M.; Hill, Anita J.; Choudhury, Namita R.; Dutta, Naba K.

    2015-06-01

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution.

  19. Spatial patterning of P granules by RNA-induced phase separation of the intrinsically-disordered protein MEG-3

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jarrett; Calidas, Deepika; Schmidt, Helen; Lu, Tu; Rasoloson, Dominique; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    RNA granules are non-membrane bound cellular compartments that contain RNA and RNA binding proteins. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the spatial distribution of RNA granules in cells are poorly understood. During polarization of the C. elegans zygote, germline RNA granules, called P granules, assemble preferentially in the posterior cytoplasm. We present evidence that P granule asymmetry depends on RNA-induced phase separation of the granule scaffold MEG-3. MEG-3 is an intrinsically disordered protein that binds and phase separates with RNA in vitro. In vivo, MEG-3 forms a posterior-rich concentration gradient that is anti-correlated with a gradient in the RNA-binding protein MEX-5. MEX-5 is necessary and sufficient to suppress MEG-3 granule formation in vivo, and suppresses RNA-induced MEG-3 phase separation in vitro. Our findings suggest that MEX-5 interferes with MEG-3’s access to RNA, thus locally suppressing MEG-3 phase separation to drive P granule asymmetry. Regulated access to RNA, combined with RNA-induced phase separation of key scaffolding proteins, may be a general mechanism for controlling the formation of RNA granules in space and time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21337.001 PMID:27914198

  20. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Elvin, Christopher M.; Hill, Anita J.; Choudhury, Namita R.; Dutta, Naba K.

    2015-01-01

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution. PMID:26042819

  1. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin.

    PubMed

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P; Elvin, Christopher M; Hill, Anita J; Choudhury, Namita R; Dutta, Naba K

    2015-06-04

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution.

  2. Ensemble Methods Enable a New Definition for the Solution to Gas-Phase Transfer of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Borysik, Antoni J; Kovacs, Denes; Guharoy, Mainak; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-04

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are important for health and disease, yet their lack of net structure precludes an understanding of their function using classical methods. Gas-phase techniques provide a promising alternative to access information on the structure and dynamics of IDPs, but the fidelity to which these methods reflect the solution conformations of these proteins has been difficult to ascertain. Here we use state of the art ensemble techniques to investigate the solution to gas-phase transfer of a range of different IDPs. We show that IDPs undergo a vast conformational space expansion in the absence of solvent to sample a conformational space 3-5 fold broader than in solution. Moreover, we show that this process is coupled to the electrospray ionization process, which brings about the generation of additional subpopulations for these proteins not observed in solution due to competing effects on protein charge and shape. Ensemble methods have permitted a new definition of the solution to gas-phase transfer of IDPs and provide a roadmap for future investigations into flexible systems by mass spectrometry.

  3. Rethinking gene regulatory networks in light of alternative splicing, intrinsically disordered protein domains, and post-translational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Karl J.; Bondos, Sarah E.; Dunker, A. Keith; Newman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Models for genetic regulation and cell fate specification characteristically assume that gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are essentially deterministic and exhibit multiple stable states specifying alternative, but pre-figured cell fates. Mounting evidence shows, however, that most eukaryotic precursor RNAs undergo alternative splicing (AS) and that the majority of transcription factors contain intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) domains whose functionalities are context dependent as well as subject to post-translational modification (PTM). Consequently, many transcription factors do not have fixed cis-acting regulatory targets, and developmental determination by GRNs alone is untenable. Modeling these phenomena requires a multi-scale approach to explain how GRNs operationally interact with the intra- and intercellular environments. Evidence shows that AS, IDP, and PTM complicate gene expression and act synergistically to facilitate and promote time- and cell-specific protein modifications involved in cell signaling and cell fate specification and thereby disrupt a strict deterministic GRN-phenotype mapping. The combined effects of AS, IDP, and PTM give proteomes physiological plasticity, adaptive responsiveness, and developmental versatility without inefficiently expanding genome size. They also help us understand how protein functionalities can undergo major evolutionary changes by buffering mutational consequences. PMID:25767796

  4. A Novel Hepacivirus with an Unusually Long and Intrinsically Disordered NS5A Protein in a Wild Old World Primate

    PubMed Central

    Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D.; Lara, James; Purdy, Michael A.; Khudyakov, Yury; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Switzer, William M.; Chapman, Colin A.; Hughes, Austin L.; Friedrich, Thomas C.; O'Connor, David H.

    2013-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B; family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus) has been studied in New World primates as a model for human hepatitis C virus infection, but the distribution of GBV-B and its relatives in nature has remained obscure. Here, we report the discovery of a novel and highly divergent GBV-B-like virus in an Old World monkey, the black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), in Uganda. The new virus, guereza hepacivirus (GHV), clusters phylogenetically with GBV-B and recently described hepaciviruses infecting African bats and North American rodents, and it shows evidence of ancient recombination with these other hepaciviruses. Direct sequencing of reverse-transcribed RNA from blood plasma from three of nine colobus monkeys yielded near-complete GHV genomes, comprising two distinct viral variants. The viruses contain an exceptionally long nonstructural 5A (NS5A) gene, approximately half of which codes for a protein with no discernible homology to known proteins. Computational structure-based analyses indicate that the amino terminus of the GHV NS5A protein may serve a zinc-binding function, similar to the NS5A of other viruses within the family Flaviviridae. However, the 521-amino-acid carboxy terminus is intrinsically disordered, reflecting an unusual degree of structural plasticity and polyfunctionality. These findings shed new light on the natural history and evolution of the hepaciviruses and on the extent of structural variation within the Flaviviridae. PMID:23740998

  5. The inactivating factor of glutamine synthetase IF17 is an intrinsically disordered protein, which folds upon binding to its target.

    PubMed

    Saelices, Lorena; Galmozzi, Carla V; Florencio, Francisco J; Muro-Pastor, M Isabel; Neira, José L

    2011-11-15

    In cyanobacteria, ammonium is incorporated into carbon skeletons by the sequential action of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). The activity of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 glutamine synthetase type I (GS) is controlled by a post-transcriptional process involving protein-protein interactions with two inactivating factors: the 65-residue-long protein (IF7) and the 149-residue-long one (IF17). The sequence of the C terminus of IF17 is similar to IF7; IF7 is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). In this work, we study the structural propensities and affinity for GS of IF17 and a chimera protein, IF17N/IF7 (constructed by fusing the first 82 residues of IF17 with the whole IF7) by fluorescence, CD, and NMR. IF17 and IF17N/IF7 are IDPs with residual non-hydrogen-bonded structure, probably formed by α-helical, turn-like, and PPII conformations; several theoretical predictions support these experimental findings. IF17 seems to fold upon binding to GS, as suggested by CD thermal denaturations and steady-state far-UV spectra. The apparent affinity of IF17 for GS, as measured by fluorescence, is slightly smaller (K(D) ~1 μM) than that measured for IF7 (~0.3 μM). The K(D)s determined by CD are similar to those measured by fluorescence, but slightly larger, suggesting possible conformational rearrangements in the IFs and/or GS upon binding. Further, the results with IFN17/IF7 suggest that (i) binding of IF17 to the GS is modulated not only by its C-terminal region but also by its N-terminus and (ii) there are weakly structured (that is, "fuzzy") complexes in the ternary GS-IF system.

  6. Tunable membrane binding of the intrinsically disordered dehydrin Lti30, a cold-induced plant stress protein.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Sylvia K; Kutzer, Michael; Procek, Jan; Gröbner, Gerhard; Harryson, Pia

    2011-06-01

    Dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins whose expression is upregulated under conditions of desiccation and cold stress. Their molecular function in ensuring plant survival is not yet known, but several studies suggest their involvement in membrane stabilization. The dehydrins are characterized by a broad repertoire of conserved and repetitive sequences, out of which the archetypical K-segment has been implicated in membrane binding. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these K-segments, we examined the interaction between lipid membranes and a dehydrin with a basic functional sequence composition: Lti30, comprising only K-segments. Our results show that Lti30 interacts electrostatically with vesicles of both zwitterionic (phosphatidyl choline) and negatively charged phospholipids (phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidic acid) with a stronger binding to membranes with high negative surface potential. The membrane interaction lowers the temperature of the main lipid phase transition, consistent with Lti30's proposed role in cold tolerance. Moreover, the membrane binding promotes the assembly of lipid vesicles into large and easily distinguishable aggregates. Using these aggregates as binding markers, we identify three factors that regulate the lipid interaction of Lti30 in vitro: (1) a pH dependent His on/off switch, (2) phosphorylation by protein kinase C, and (3) reversal of membrane binding by proteolytic digest.

  7. An optimized N(pro)-based method for the expression and purification of intrinsically disordered proteins for an NMR study.

    PubMed

    Goda, Natsuko; Matsuo, Naoki; Tenno, Takeshi; Ishino, Sonoko; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Ota, Motonori; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are an emerging concept. IDPs have high flexibility in their polypeptide chains, lacking a stable 3-dimensional structure. Because of the difficulty in performing X-ray crystallography for IDPs, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the first choice for atomic-level investigation of their nature. Given that isotopically labeled IDP samples are necessary for NMR study, a robust and cost-effective protocol for bacterial expression and purification of IDP is also needed. We employed the N(pro) (EDDIE)-autoprotease fusion protein system. Although IDPs are believed to be readily degraded by endogenous proteases when expressed in Escherichia coli, N(pro)-fused IDPs showed excellent resistance to degradation. Seven IDPs of uncharacterized function sampled from the human genome as well as 3 constructs from IDP regions derived from human FancM and Thermococcus kodakarensis Hef were prepared. We improved the protocol of refolding of N(pro) (EDDIE) to use dialysis, which is convenient for subsequent purification using reversed-phase (RP) HPLC. The method is robust and widely applicable to any IDP sample, promoting the acquisition of experimental data for IDPs in a high-throughput manner.

  8. Tunable Membrane Binding of the Intrinsically Disordered Dehydrin Lti30, a Cold-Induced Plant Stress Protein[W

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Sylvia K.; Kutzer, Michael; Procek, Jan; Gröbner, Gerhard; Harryson, Pia

    2011-01-01

    Dehydrins are intrinsically disordered plant proteins whose expression is upregulated under conditions of desiccation and cold stress. Their molecular function in ensuring plant survival is not yet known, but several studies suggest their involvement in membrane stabilization. The dehydrins are characterized by a broad repertoire of conserved and repetitive sequences, out of which the archetypical K-segment has been implicated in membrane binding. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of these K-segments, we examined the interaction between lipid membranes and a dehydrin with a basic functional sequence composition: Lti30, comprising only K-segments. Our results show that Lti30 interacts electrostatically with vesicles of both zwitterionic (phosphatidyl choline) and negatively charged phospholipids (phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidic acid) with a stronger binding to membranes with high negative surface potential. The membrane interaction lowers the temperature of the main lipid phase transition, consistent with Lti30’s proposed role in cold tolerance. Moreover, the membrane binding promotes the assembly of lipid vesicles into large and easily distinguishable aggregates. Using these aggregates as binding markers, we identify three factors that regulate the lipid interaction of Lti30 in vitro: (1) a pH dependent His on/off switch, (2) phosphorylation by protein kinase C, and (3) reversal of membrane binding by proteolytic digest. PMID:21665998

  9. Regulation of RNA granule dynamics by phosphorylation of serine-rich, intrinsically disordered proteins in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jennifer T; Smith, Jarrett; Chen, Bi-Chang; Schmidt, Helen; Rasoloson, Dominique; Paix, Alexandre; Lambrus, Bramwell G; Calidas, Deepika; Betzig, Eric; Seydoux, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    RNA granules have been likened to liquid droplets whose dynamics depend on the controlled dissolution and condensation of internal components. The molecules and reactions that drive these dynamics in vivo are not well understood. In this study, we present evidence that a group of intrinsically disordered, serine-rich proteins regulate the dynamics of P granules in C. elegans embryos. The MEG (maternal-effect germline defective) proteins are germ plasm components that are required redundantly for fertility. We demonstrate that MEG-1 and MEG-3 are substrates of the kinase MBK-2/DYRK and the phosphatase PP2APPTR−½. Phosphorylation of the MEGs promotes granule disassembly and dephosphorylation promotes granule assembly. Using lattice light sheet microscopy on live embryos, we show that GFP-tagged MEG-3 localizes to a dynamic domain that surrounds and penetrates each granule. We conclude that, despite their liquid-like behavior, P granules are non-homogeneous structures whose assembly in embryos is regulated by phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04591.001 PMID:25535836

  10. Origin of a folded repeat protein from an intrinsically disordered ancestor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongbo; Sepulveda, Edgardo; Hartmann, Marcus D; Kogenaru, Manjunatha; Ursinus, Astrid; Sulz, Eva; Albrecht, Reinhard; Coles, Murray; Martin, Jörg; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-09-13

    Repetitive proteins are thought to have arisen through the amplification of subdomain-sized peptides. Many of these originated in a non-repetitive context as cofactors of RNA-based replication and catalysis, and required the RNA to assume their active conformation. In search of the origins of one of the most widespread repeat protein families, the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), we identified several potential homologs of its repeated helical hairpin in non-repetitive proteins, including the putatively ancient ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), which only becomes structured in the context of the ribosome. We evaluated the ability of the RPS20 hairpin to form a TPR fold by amplification and obtained structures identical to natural TPRs for variants with 2-5 point mutations per repeat. The mutations were neutral in the parent organism, suggesting that they could have been sampled in the course of evolution. TPRs could thus have plausibly arisen by amplification from an ancestral helical hairpin.

  11. BIM(EL), an intrinsically disordered protein, is degraded by 20S proteasomes in the absence of poly-ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Ceri M; Tsvetkov, Peter; Johnson, Mark; Joyce, Claire L; Lamb, Christopher A; Bryant, Nia J; Komander, David; Shaul, Yosef; Cook, Simon J

    2011-03-15

    BIM-extra long (BIM(EL)), a pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein and part of the BCL-2 family, is degraded by the proteasome following activation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway. Although studies have demonstrated poly-ubiquitylation of BIM(EL) in cells, the nature of the ubiquitin chain linkage has not been defined. Using ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs) specific for defined ubiquitin chain linkages, we show that BIM(EL) undergoes K48-linked poly-ubiquitylation at either of two lysine residues. Surprisingly, BIM(EL)ΔKK, which lacks both lysine residues, was not poly-ubiquitylated but still underwent ERK1/2-driven, proteasome-dependent turnover. BIM has been proposed to be an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) and some IDPs can be degraded by uncapped 20S proteasomes in the absence of poly-ubiquitylation. We show that BIM(EL) is degraded by isolated 20S proteasomes but that this is prevented when BIM(EL) is bound to its pro-survival target protein MCL-1. Furthermore, knockdown of the proteasome cap component Rpn2 does not prevent BIM(EL) turnover in cells, and inhibition of the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP, which catalyses poly-Ub of BIM(EL), causes Cdc25A accumulation but does not inhibit BIM(EL) turnover. These results provide new insights into the regulation of BIM(EL) by defining a novel ubiquitin-independent pathway for the proteasome-dependent destruction of this highly toxic protein.

  12. Intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal domain of the Shaker voltage-activated K+ channel modulates its interaction with scaffold proteins

    PubMed Central

    Magidovich, Elhanan; Orr, Irit; Fass, Deborah; Abdu, Uri; Yifrach, Ofer

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of membrane-embedded voltage-activated potassium channels (Kv) with intracellular scaffold proteins, such as the postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) protein, is mediated by the channel C-terminal segment. This interaction underlies Kv channel clustering at unique membrane sites and is important for the proper assembly and functioning of the synapse. In the current study, we address the molecular mechanism underlying Kv/PSD-95 interaction. We provide experimental evidence, based on hydrodynamic and spectroscopic analyses, indicating that the isolated C-terminal segment of the archetypical Shaker Kv channel (ShB-C) is a random coil, suggesting that ShB-C belongs to the recently defined class of intrinsically disordered proteins. We show that isolated ShB-C is still able to bind its scaffold protein partner and support protein clustering in vivo, indicating that unfoldedness is compatible with ShB-C activity. Pulldown experiments involving C-terminal chains differing in flexibility or length further demonstrate that intrinsic disorder in the C-terminal segment of the Shaker channel modulates its interaction with the PSD-95 protein. Our results thus suggest that the C-terminal domain of the Shaker Kv channel behaves as an entropic chain and support a “fishing rod” molecular mechanism for Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins. The importance of intrinsically disordered protein segments to the complex processes of synapse assembly, maintenance, and function is discussed. PMID:17666528

  13. Origin of a folded repeat protein from an intrinsically disordered ancestor

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongbo; Sepulveda, Edgardo; Hartmann, Marcus D; Kogenaru, Manjunatha; Ursinus, Astrid; Sulz, Eva; Albrecht, Reinhard; Coles, Murray; Martin, Jörg; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive proteins are thought to have arisen through the amplification of subdomain-sized peptides. Many of these originated in a non-repetitive context as cofactors of RNA-based replication and catalysis, and required the RNA to assume their active conformation. In search of the origins of one of the most widespread repeat protein families, the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), we identified several potential homologs of its repeated helical hairpin in non-repetitive proteins, including the putatively ancient ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), which only becomes structured in the context of the ribosome. We evaluated the ability of the RPS20 hairpin to form a TPR fold by amplification and obtained structures identical to natural TPRs for variants with 2–5 point mutations per repeat. The mutations were neutral in the parent organism, suggesting that they could have been sampled in the course of evolution. TPRs could thus have plausibly arisen by amplification from an ancestral helical hairpin. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16761.001 PMID:27623012

  14. A J-modulated protonless NMR experiment characterizes the conformational ensemble of the intrinsically disordered protein WIP.

    PubMed

    Rozentur-Shkop, Eva; Goobes, Gil; Chill, Jordan H

    2016-12-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are multi-conformational polypeptides that lack a single stable three-dimensional structure. It has become increasingly clear that the versatile IDPs play key roles in a multitude of biological processes, and, given their flexible nature, NMR is a leading method to investigate IDP behavior on the molecular level. Here we present an IDP-tailored J-modulated experiment designed to monitor changes in the conformational ensemble characteristic of IDPs by accurately measuring backbone one- and two-bond J((15)N,(13)Cα) couplings. This concept was realized using a unidirectional (H)NCO (13)C-detected experiment suitable for poor spectral dispersion and optimized for maximum coverage of amino acid types. To demonstrate the utility of this approach we applied it to the disordered actin-binding N-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein (WIP), a ubiquitous key modulator of cytoskeletal changes in a range of biological systems. One- and two-bond J((15)N,(13)Cα) couplings were acquired for WIP residues 2-65 at various temperatures, and in denaturing and crowding environments. Under native conditions fitted J-couplings identified in the WIP conformational ensemble a propensity for extended conformation at residues 16-23 and 45-60, and a helical tendency at residues 28-42. These findings are consistent with a previous study of the based upon chemical shift and RDC data and confirm that the WIP(2-65) conformational ensemble is biased towards the structure assumed by this fragment in its actin-bound form. The effects of environmental changes upon this ensemble were readily apparent in the J-coupling data, which reflected a significant decrease in structural propensity at higher temperatures, in the presence of 8 M urea, and under the influence of a bacterial cell lysate. The latter suggests that crowding can cause protein unfolding through protein-protein interactions that stabilize the unfolded state. We conclude that J-couplings are

  15. Dissection of the interaction between the intrinsically disordered YAP protein and the transcription factor TEAD.

    PubMed

    Mesrouze, Yannick; Bokhovchuk, Fedir; Meyerhofer, Marco; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; Martin, Typhaine; Delaunay, Clara; Erdmann, Dirk; Schmelzle, Tobias; Chène, Patrick

    2017-04-21

    TEAD (TEA/ATTS domain) transcription factors are the most distal effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a coactivator protein which, upon binding to TEAD proteins, stimulates their transcriptional activity. Since the Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, designing inhibitors of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive therapeutic strategy for oncology. Understanding the molecular events that take place at the YAP:TEAD interface is therefore important not only to devise drug discovery approaches, but also to gain knowledge on TEAD regulation. In this report, combining single site-directed mutagenesis and double mutant analyses, we conduct a detailed analysis on the role of several residues located at the YAP:TEAD interface. Our results provide quantitative understanding of the interactions taking place at the YAP:TEAD interface and give insights into the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex and more particularly on the interaction between TEAD and the Ω-loop found in YAP.

  16. Dissection of the interaction between the intrinsically disordered YAP protein and the transcription factor TEAD

    PubMed Central

    Mesrouze, Yannick; Bokhovchuk, Fedir; Meyerhofer, Marco; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; Martin, Typhaine; Delaunay, Clara; Erdmann, Dirk; Schmelzle, Tobias; Chène, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    TEAD (TEA/ATTS domain) transcription factors are the most distal effectors of the Hippo pathway. YAP (Yes-associated protein) is a coactivator protein which, upon binding to TEAD proteins, stimulates their transcriptional activity. Since the Hippo pathway is deregulated in various cancers, designing inhibitors of the YAP:TEAD interaction is an attractive therapeutic strategy for oncology. Understanding the molecular events that take place at the YAP:TEAD interface is therefore important not only to devise drug discovery approaches, but also to gain knowledge on TEAD regulation. In this report, combining single site-directed mutagenesis and double mutant analyses, we conduct a detailed analysis on the role of several residues located at the YAP:TEAD interface. Our results provide quantitative understanding of the interactions taking place at the YAP:TEAD interface and give insights into the formation of the YAP:TEAD complex and more particularly on the interaction between TEAD and the Ω-loop found in YAP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25068.001 PMID:28430104

  17. Sequence Determinants of the Conformational Properties of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Prior to and upon Multisite Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erik W; Holehouse, Alex S; Grace, Christy R; Hughes, Alex; Pappu, Rohit V; Mittag, Tanja

    2016-11-30

    Many cell signaling events are coordinated by intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) that undergo multisite Serine/Threonine phosphorylation. The conformational properties of these IDRs prior to and following multisite phosphorylation are directly relevant to understanding their functions. Here, we present results from biophysical studies and molecular simulations that quantify the conformational properties of an 81-residue IDR from the S. cerevisiae transcription factor Ash1. We show that the unphosphorylated Ash1 IDR adopts coil-like conformations that are expanded and well-solvated. This result contradicts inferences regarding global compaction that are derived from heuristics based on amino acid compositions for IDRs with low proline contents. Upon phosphorylation at ten distinct sites, the global conformational properties of pAsh1 are indistinguishable from those of unphosphorylated Ash1. This insensitivity derives from compensatory changes to the pattern of local and long-range intrachain contacts. We show that the conformational properties of Ash1 and pAsh1 can be explained in terms of the linear sequence patterning of proline and charged residues vis-à-vis all other residues. The sequence features of the Ash1 IDR are shared by many other IDRs that undergo multisite phosphorylation. Accordingly, we propose that our findings might be generalizable to other IDRs involved in cell signaling.

  18. Quantitative analysis of multisite protein-ligand interactions by NMR: binding of intrinsically disordered p53 transactivation subdomains with the TAZ2 domain of CBP.

    PubMed

    Arai, Munehito; Ferreon, Josephine C; Wright, Peter E

    2012-02-29

    Determination of affinities and binding sites involved in protein-ligand interactions is essential for understanding molecular mechanisms in biological systems. Here we combine singular value decomposition and global analysis of NMR chemical shift perturbations caused by protein-protein interactions to determine the number and location of binding sites on the protein surface and to measure the binding affinities. Using this method we show that the isolated AD1 and AD2 binding motifs, derived from the intrinsically disordered N-terminal transactivation domain of the tumor suppressor p53, both interact with the TAZ2 domain of the transcriptional coactivator CBP at two binding sites. Simulations of titration curves and line shapes show that a primary dissociation constant as small as 1-10 nM can be accurately estimated by NMR titration methods, provided that the primary and secondary binding processes are coupled. Unexpectedly, the site of binding of AD2 on the hydrophobic surface of TAZ2 overlaps with the binding site for AD1, but AD2 binds TAZ2 more tightly. The results highlight the complexity of interactions between intrinsically disordered proteins and their targets. Furthermore, the association rate of AD2 to TAZ2 is estimated to be 1.7 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), approaching the diffusion-controlled limit and indicating that intrinsic disorder plus complementary electrostatics can significantly accelerate protein binding interactions. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  19. The neglected functions of intrinsically disordered proteins and the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Jaeken, Laurent

    2017-03-15

    The example of gelatine shows that extended proteins behave quite differently than globular ones: with water they form a gel. Historically the colloid view of protoplasm was discredited in favour of membrane-(pump)-theory (MPT), but unjustified. In his association-induction hypothesis Ling demonstrates that MPT is full of contradictions and that the colloid view has to be re-considered. In that case IDP's play a crucial role in this. What Ling calls the 'living state' consists of the unitary protoplasmic structure from which it was experimentally demonstrated that it can survive and keep Na(+) and K(+) concentrations without a delineating membrane. It consists of unfolded polypeptide chains whereby the repetitive backbone peptide groups orient and polarise many layers of water, in which Na(+) and other solutes have reduced solubility and whereby the polypeptide β- and ϒ-carboxyl-groups adsorb K(+). This 'associated' state is the resting state: a coherent high-energy low-entropy meta-stable state. It can be kept by adsorbed ATP (NTP) eventually for years without consumption of ATP as demonstrated by Clegg on Artemia embryo's. Stimuli can transform this state into a lower-energy higher-entropy action state with dissociation of ADP and Pi and newly synthesised ATP can reinstall it. Rest-to-action and action-to-rest were shown to be real phase-shifts. Ling's theory is a complete quantitative theory with corroborated equations for solute distribution, transport, cell potentials and osmotic behaviour and describing the cell's energy cycle. IDP's are involved in all this. The new view on IDP's leads to new insights on the origin of life.

  20. Tick receptor for outer surface protein A from Ixodes ricinus — the first intrinsically disordered protein involved in vector-microbe recognition

    PubMed Central

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Lewandowski, Dominik; Szpotkowski, Kamil; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The tick receptor for outer surface protein A (TROSPA) is the only identified factor involved in tick gut colonization by various Borrelia species. TROSPA is localized in the gut epithelium and can recognize and bind the outer surface bacterial protein OspA via an unknown mechanism. Based on earlier reports and our latest observations, we considered that TROSPA would be the first identified intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved in the interaction between a vector and a pathogenic microbe. To verify this hypothesis, we performed structural studies of a TROSPA mutant from Ixodes ricinus using both computational and experimental approaches. Irrespective of the method used, we observed that the secondary structure content of the TROSPA polypeptide chain is low. In addition, the collected SAXS data indicated that this protein is highly extended and exists in solution as a set of numerous conformers. These features are all commonly considered hallmarks of IDPs. Taking advantage of our SAXS data, we created structural models of TROSPA and proposed a putative mechanism for the TROSPA-OspA interaction. The disordered nature of TROSPA may explain the ability of a wide spectrum of Borrelia species to colonize the tick gut. PMID:27112540

  1. Tick receptor for outer surface protein A from Ixodes ricinus — the first intrinsically disordered protein involved in vector-microbe recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Lewandowski, Dominik; Szpotkowski, Kamil; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The tick receptor for outer surface protein A (TROSPA) is the only identified factor involved in tick gut colonization by various Borrelia species. TROSPA is localized in the gut epithelium and can recognize and bind the outer surface bacterial protein OspA via an unknown mechanism. Based on earlier reports and our latest observations, we considered that TROSPA would be the first identified intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) involved in the interaction between a vector and a pathogenic microbe. To verify this hypothesis, we performed structural studies of a TROSPA mutant from Ixodes ricinus using both computational and experimental approaches. Irrespective of the method used, we observed that the secondary structure content of the TROSPA polypeptide chain is low. In addition, the collected SAXS data indicated that this protein is highly extended and exists in solution as a set of numerous conformers. These features are all commonly considered hallmarks of IDPs. Taking advantage of our SAXS data, we created structural models of TROSPA and proposed a putative mechanism for the TROSPA-OspA interaction. The disordered nature of TROSPA may explain the ability of a wide spectrum of Borrelia species to colonize the tick gut.

  2. Intrinsically Disordered Side of the Zika Virus Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Rajanish; Kumar, Deepak; Sharma, Nitin; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, concepts of protein intrinsic disorder have been implicated in different biological processes. Recent studies have suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) provide structural plasticity and functional diversity to viral proteins that are involved in rapid replication and immune evasion in host cells. In case of Zika virus, the roles of protein intrinsic disorder in mechanisms of pathogenesis are not completely understood. In this study, we have analyzed the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in Zika virus proteome (strain MR 766). Our analyses revealed that Zika virus polyprotein is enriched with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) and this finding is consistent with previous reports on the involvement of IDPs in shell formation and virulence of the Flaviviridae family. We found abundant IDPRs in Capsid, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins that are involved in mature particle formation and replication. In our view, the intrinsic disorder-focused analysis of ZIKV proteins could be important for the development of disorder-based drugs. PMID:27867910

  3. The intrinsic disorder alphabet. III. Dual personality of serine

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are natural polypeptides consisting of 20 major amino acid residues, content and order of which in a given amino acid sequence defines the ability of a related protein to fold into unique functional state or to stay intrinsically disordered. Amino acid sequences code for both foldable (ordered) proteins/domains and for intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs), but these sequence codes are dramatically different. This difference starts with a very general property of the corresponding amino acid sequences, namely, their compositions. IDPs/IDPRs are enriched in specific disorder-promoting residues, whereas amino acid sequences of ordered proteins/domains typically contain more order-promoting residues. Therefore, the relative abundances of various amino acids in ordered and disordered proteins can be used to scale amino acids according to their disorder promoting potentials. This review continues a series of publications on the roles of different amino acids in defining the phenomenon of protein intrinsic disorder and represents serine, which is the third most disorder-promoting residue. Similar to previous publications, this review represents some physico-chemical properties of serine and the roles of this residue in structures and functions of ordered proteins, describes major posttranslational modifications tailored to serine, and finally gives an overview of roles of serine in structure and functions of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:28232888

  4. A New Family of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins: Structural Characterization of the Major Phasin PhaF from Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    PubMed Central

    Maestro, Beatriz; Galán, Beatriz; Alfonso, Carlos; Rivas, Germán; Prieto, Maria A.; Sanz, Jesús M.

    2013-01-01

    Phasins are intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoat4e (PHA)-associated proteins involved in the stabilization of these bacterial carbon storage granules. Despite its importance in PHA metabolism and regulation, only few reports have focused so far on the structure of these proteins. In this work we have investigated the structure and stability of the PhaF phasin from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a protein that is involved in PHA granule stabilization and distribution to daughter cells upon cell division. A structural, three-dimensional model of the protein was built from homology modeling procedures and consensus secondary structure predictions. The model predicts that PhaF is an elongated protein, with a long, amphipathic N-terminal helix with PHA binding capacity, followed by a short leucine zipper involved in protein oligomerization and a superhelical C-terminal domain wrapped around the chromosomal DNA. Hydrodynamic, spectroscopical and thermodynamic experiments validated the model and confirmed both that free PhaF is a tetramer in solution and that most part of the protein is intrinsically disordered in the absence of its ligands. The results lay a molecular basis for the explanation of the biological role of PhaF and, along with an exhaustive analysis of phasin sequence databases, suggest that intrinsic disorder and oligomerization through coiled-coils may be a widespread mechanism among these proteins. PMID:23457638

  5. Insights on Structure and Function of a Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Amaranthus cruentus: An Intrinsically Disordered Protein Involved in Protection against Desiccation, Oxidant Conditions, and Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo, Alma L.; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E.; de Luna-Valdez, Luis A.; Guevara-García, Angel A.; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Bojorquéz-Velázquez, Esaú; del Río-Portilla, Federico; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A.; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are part of a large protein family that protect other proteins from aggregation due to desiccation or osmotic stresses. Recently, the Amaranthus cruentus seed proteome was characterized by 2D-PAGE and one highly accumulated protein spot was identified as a LEA protein and was named AcLEA. In this work, AcLEA cDNA was cloned into an expression vector and the recombinant protein was purified and characterized. AcLEA encodes a 172 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 18.34 kDa and estimated pI of 8.58. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AcLEA is evolutionarily close to the LEA3 group. Structural characteristics were revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism methods. We have shown that recombinant AcLEA is an intrinsically disordered protein in solution even at high salinity and osmotic pressures, but it has a strong tendency to take a secondary structure, mainly folded as α-helix, when an inductive additive is present. Recombinant AcLEA function was evaluated using Escherichia coli as in vivo model showing the important protection role against desiccation, oxidant conditions, and osmotic stress. AcLEA recombinant protein was localized in cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and orthologs were detected in seeds of wild and domesticated amaranth species. Interestingly AcLEA was detected in leaves, stems, and roots but only in plants subjected to salt stress. This fact could indicate the important role of AcLEA protection during plant stress in all amaranth species studied. PMID:28439280

  6. Insights on Structure and Function of a Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Amaranthus cruentus: An Intrinsically Disordered Protein Involved in Protection against Desiccation, Oxidant Conditions, and Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Saucedo, Alma L; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; de Luna-Valdez, Luis A; Guevara-García, Angel A; Escobedo-Moratilla, Abraham; Bojorquéz-Velázquez, Esaú; Del Río-Portilla, Federico; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2017-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are part of a large protein family that protect other proteins from aggregation due to desiccation or osmotic stresses. Recently, the Amaranthus cruentus seed proteome was characterized by 2D-PAGE and one highly accumulated protein spot was identified as a LEA protein and was named AcLEA. In this work, AcLEA cDNA was cloned into an expression vector and the recombinant protein was purified and characterized. AcLEA encodes a 172 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 18.34 kDa and estimated pI of 8.58. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AcLEA is evolutionarily close to the LEA3 group. Structural characteristics were revealed by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism methods. We have shown that recombinant AcLEA is an intrinsically disordered protein in solution even at high salinity and osmotic pressures, but it has a strong tendency to take a secondary structure, mainly folded as α-helix, when an inductive additive is present. Recombinant AcLEA function was evaluated using Escherichia coli as in vivo model showing the important protection role against desiccation, oxidant conditions, and osmotic stress. AcLEA recombinant protein was localized in cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and orthologs were detected in seeds of wild and domesticated amaranth species. Interestingly AcLEA was detected in leaves, stems, and roots but only in plants subjected to salt stress. This fact could indicate the important role of AcLEA protection during plant stress in all amaranth species studied.

  7. A PagP fusion protein system for the expression of intrinsically disordered proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Peter M; Pan, Jonathan S; Sykes, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    PagP, a beta-barrel membrane protein found in Gram-negative bacteria, expresses robustly in inclusion bodies when its signal sequence is removed. We have developed a new fusion protein expression system based on PagP and demonstrated its utility in the expression of the unstructured N-terminal region of human cardiac troponin I (residues 1-71). A yield of 100mg fusion protein per liter M9 minimal media was obtained. The troponin I fragment was removed from PagP using cyanogen bromide cleavage at methionine residues followed by nickel affinity chromatography. We further demonstrate that optimal cleavage requires complete reduction of methionine residues prior to cyanogen bromide treatment, and this is effectively accomplished using potassium iodide under acidic conditions. The PagP-based fusion protein system is more effective at targeting proteins into inclusion bodies than a commercially available system that uses ketosteroid isomerase; it thus represents an important advance for producing large quantities of unfolded peptides or proteins in Escherichia coli.

  8. Intrinsic disorder in nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Reschly, Erica J; Ekins, Sean

    2008-10-01

    Many proteins possess intrinsic disorder (ID) and lack a rigid three-dimensional structure in at least part of their sequence. ID has been hypothesized to influence protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. We calculated ID for nearly 400 vertebrate and invertebrate members of the biomedically important nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily, including all 48 known human NHRs. The predictions correctly identified regions in 20 of the 23 NHRs suggested as disordered based on published X-ray and NMR structures. Of the four major NHR domains (N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, D-domain, and ligand-binding domain), we found ID to be highest in the D-domain, a region of NHRs critical in DNA recognition and heterodimerization, coactivator/corepressor interactions and protein-protein interactions. ID in the D-domain and LBD was significantly higher in "hub" human NHRs that have 10 or more downstream proteins in their interaction networks compared to "non-hub" NHRs that interact with fewer than 10 downstream proteins. ID in the D-domain and LBD was also higher in classic, ligand-activated NHRs than in orphan, ligand-independent NHRs in human. The correlation between ID in human and mouse NHRs was high. Less correlation was found for ID between mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrate NHRs. For some invertebrate species, particularly sea squirts ( Ciona), marked differences were observed in ID between invertebrate NHRs and their vertebrate orthologs. Our results indicate that variability of ID within NHRs, particularly in the D-domain and LBD, is likely an important evolutionary force in shaping protein-protein interactions and NHR function. This information enables further understanding of these therapeutic targets.

  9. INTRINSIC DISORDER IN NUCLEAR HORMONE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Reschly, Erica J.; Ekins, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Many proteins possess intrinsic disorder (ID) and lack a rigid three-dimensional structure in at least part of their sequence. ID has been hypothesized to influence protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. We calculated ID for nearly 400 vertebrate and invertebrate members of the biomedically important nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily, including all 48 known human NHRs. The predictions correctly identified regions in 20 of the 23 NHRs suggested as disordered based on published X-ray and NMR structures. Of the four major NHR domains (N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, D-domain, and ligand-binding domain), we found ID to be highest in the D-domain, a region of NHRs critical in DNA recognition and heterodimerization, coactivator/corepressor interactions and protein-protein interactions. ID in the D-domain and LBD was significantly higher in “hub” human NHRs that have 10 or more downstream proteins in their interaction networks compared to “non-hub” NHRs that interact with fewer than 10 downstream proteins. ID in the D-domain and LBD was also higher in classic, ligand-activated NHRs than in orphan, ligand-independent NHRs in human. The correlation between ID in human and mouse NHRs was high. Less correlation was found for ID between mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrate NHRs. For some invertebrate species, particularly sea squirts (Ciona), marked differences were observed in ID between invertebrate NHRs and their vertebrate orthologs. Our results indicate that variability of ID within NHRs, particularly in the D-domain and LBD, is likely an important evolutionary force in shaping protein-protein interactions and NHR function. This information enables further understanding of these therapeutic targets. PMID:18651760

  10. Paradoxes and wonders of intrinsic disorder: Complexity of simplicity

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT At first glance it may seem that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions (IDPRs) are simpler than ordered proteins and domains on multiple levels. However, such multilevel simplicity equips these proteins with the ability to have very complex behavior. PMID:28232895

  11. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  12. Biophysical characterization of the structural change of Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered protein, in the interaction with CK2α

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Yuyoung; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Song, Seung Soo; Cha, Sun-Shin; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140) is a nucleolar protein, more than 80% of which is disordered. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Nopp140 (residues 568–596) interacts with protein kinase CK2α, and inhibits the catalytic activity of CK2. Although the region of Nopp140 responsible for the interaction with CK2α was identified, the structural features and the effect of this interaction on the structure of Nopp140 have not been defined due to the difficulty of structural characterization of disordered protein. In this study, the disordered feature of Nopp140 and the effect of CK2α on the structure of Nopp140 were examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The interaction with CK2α was increased conformational rigidity of the CK2α-interacting region of Nopp140 (Nopp140C), suggesting that the disordered and flexible conformation of Nopp140C became more rigid conformation as it binds to CK2α. In addition, site specific spin labeling and EPR analysis confirmed that the residues 574–589 of Nopp140 are critical for binding to CK2α. Similar technical approaches can be applied to analyze the conformational changes in other IDPs during their interactions with binding partners. PMID:27297113

  13. Molecular Basis for Structural Heterogeneity of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein Bound to a Partner by Combined ESI-IM-MS and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urzo, Annalisa; Konijnenberg, Albert; Rossetti, Giulia; Habchi, Johnny; Li, Jinyu; Carloni, Paolo; Sobott, Frank; Longhi, Sonia; Grandori, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) form biologically active complexes that can retain a high degree of conformational disorder, escaping structural characterization by conventional approaches. An example is offered by the complex between the intrinsically disordered NTAIL domain and the phosphoprotein X domain (PXD) from measles virus (MeV). Here, distinct conformers of the complex are detected by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ion mobility (IM) techniques yielding estimates for the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) in solution and the average collision cross-section (CCS) in the gas phase. Computational modeling of the complex in solution, based on experimental constraints, provides atomic-resolution structural models featuring different levels of compactness. The resulting models indicate high structural heterogeneity. The intermolecular interactions are predominantly hydrophobic, not only in the ordered core of the complex, but also in the dynamic, disordered regions. Electrostatic interactions become involved in the more compact states. This system represents an illustrative example of a hydrophobic complex that could be directly detected in the gas phase by native mass spectrometry. This work represents the first attempt to modeling the entire NTAIL domain bound to PXD at atomic resolution.

  14. The case for intrinsically disordered proteins playing contributory roles in molecular recognition without a stable 3D structure

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2013-01-01

    The classical ‘lock-and-key’ and ‘induced-fit’ mechanisms for binding both originated in attempts to explain features of enzyme catalysis. For both of these mechanisms and for their recent refinements, enzyme catalysis requires exquisite spatial and electronic complementarity between the substrate and the catalyst. Thus, binding models derived from models originally based on catalysis will be highly biased towards mechanisms that utilize structural complementarity. If mere binding without catalysis is the endpoint, then the structural requirements for the interaction become much more relaxed. Recent observations on specific examples suggest that this relaxation can reach an extreme lack of specific 3D structure, leading to molecular recognition with biological consequences that depend not only upon structural and electrostatic complementarity between the binding partners but also upon kinetic, entropic, and generalized electrostatic effects. In addition to this discussion of binding without fixed structure, examples in which unstructured regions carry out important biological functions not involving molecular recognition will also be discussed. Finally, we discuss whether ‘intrinsically disordered protein’ (IDP) represents a useful new concept. PMID:23361308

  15. Intrinsic disorder in the partitioning protein KorB persists after co-operative complex formation with operator DNA and KorA

    PubMed Central

    Callow, Philip; Rajasekar, Karthik V.; Timmins, Peter; Patel, Trushar R.; Siligardi, Giuliano; Hussain, Rohanah; White, Scott A.; Thomas, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    The ParB protein, KorB, from the RK2 plasmid is required for DNA partitioning and transcriptional repression. It acts co-operatively with other proteins, including the repressor KorA. Like many multifunctional proteins, KorB contains regions of intrinsically disordered structure, existing in a large ensemble of interconverting conformations. Using NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism and small-angle neutron scattering, we studied KorB selectively within its binary complexes with KorA and DNA, and within the ternary KorA/KorB/DNA complex. The bound KorB protein remains disordered with a mobile C-terminal domain and no changes in the secondary structure, but increases in the radius of gyration on complex formation. Comparison of wild-type KorB with an N-terminal deletion mutant allows a model of the ensemble average distances between the domains when bound to DNA. We propose that the positive co-operativity between KorB, KorA and DNA results from conformational restriction of KorB on binding each partner, while maintaining disorder. PMID:28760886

  16. Intrinsic disorder in the partitioning protein KorB persists after co-operative complex formation with operator DNA and KorA.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Eva I; Callow, Philip; Rajasekar, Karthik V; Timmins, Peter; Patel, Trushar R; Siligardi, Giuliano; Hussain, Rohanah; White, Scott A; Thomas, Christopher M; Scott, David J

    2017-08-30

    The ParB protein, KorB, from the RK2 plasmid is required for DNA partitioning and transcriptional repression. It acts co-operatively with other proteins, including the repressor KorA. Like many multifunctional proteins, KorB contains regions of intrinsically disordered structure, existing in a large ensemble of interconverting conformations. Using NMR spectroscopy, circular dichroism and small-angle neutron scattering, we studied KorB selectively within its binary complexes with KorA and DNA, and within the ternary KorA/KorB/DNA complex. The bound KorB protein remains disordered with a mobile C-terminal domain and no changes in the secondary structure, but increases in the radius of gyration on complex formation. Comparison of wild-type KorB with an N-terminal deletion mutant allows a model of the ensemble average distances between the domains when bound to DNA. We propose that the positive co-operativity between KorB, KorA and DNA results from conformational restriction of KorB on binding each partner, while maintaining disorder. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. NMR based solvent exchange experiments to understand the conformational preference of intrinsically disordered proteins using FG-nucleoporin peptide as a model.

    PubMed

    Heisel, Kurt A; Krishnan, V V

    2014-01-01

    The conformational preference of a peptide with three phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats from the intrinsically disordered domain of nucleoporin 159 (nup159) from the yeast nucleopore complex is studied. Conformational states of this FG-peptide in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a non-native solvent, are first studied. A solvent exchange scheme is designed and performed to understand how the conformational preferences of the peptide are altered as the solvent shifts from DMSO to water. An ensemble of structures of a 19-residue peptide is determined based on (13)Cα, (1)Hα, and (1)HN chemical shifts and with inter-proton distances. An experimental model is then presented where chemical shifts and amide-proton temperature dependence is probed at changing DMSO to water ratios. These co-solvent experiments provide evidence of a conformational change as the fraction of water increases by the stark change in the behavior of amide protons under varied temperature. This investigation provides a NMR based experimental method in the field of intrinsically disordered proteins to realize conformational transitions from a non-native set of structures (in DMSO) to a native set of disordered conformers (in water). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genetic recombination is associated with intrinsic disorder in plant proteomes.

    PubMed

    Yruela, Inmaculada; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2013-11-09

    Intrinsically disordered proteins, found in all living organisms, are essential for basic cellular functions and complement the function of ordered proteins. It has been shown that protein disorder is linked to the G + C content of the genome. Furthermore, recent investigations have suggested that the evolutionary dynamics of the plant nucleus adds disordered segments to open reading frames alike, and these segments are not necessarily conserved among orthologous genes. In the present work the distribution of intrinsically disordered proteins along the chromosomes of several representative plants was analyzed. The reported results support a non-random distribution of disordered proteins along the chromosomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, two model eudicot and monocot plant species, respectively. In fact, for most chromosomes positive correlations between the frequency of disordered segments of 30+ amino acids and both recombination rates and G + C content were observed. These analyses demonstrate that the presence of disordered segments among plant proteins is associated with the rates of genetic recombination of their encoding genes. Altogether, these findings suggest that high recombination rates, as well as chromosomal rearrangements, could induce disordered segments in proteins during evolution.

  19. Role of Prion Disease-Linked Mutations in the Intrinsically Disordered N-Terminal Domain of the Prion Protein.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaojing; Casiraghi, Nicola; Rossetti, Giulia; Mohanty, Sandipan; Giachin, Gabriele; Legname, Giuseppe; Carloni, Paolo

    2013-11-12

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in mammals and other animal species. In humans, about 15% of these maladies are caused by pathogenic mutations (PMs) in the gene encoding for the prion protein (PrP(C)). Seven PMs are located in the naturally unfolded PrP(C) N-terminal domain, which constitutes about half of the protein. Intriguingly and in sharp contrast to other PMs clustered in the folded domain, N-terminal PMs barely affect the conversion to the pathogenic (scrapie, or PrP(Sc)) isoform of PrP(C). Here, we hypothesize that the neurotoxicity of these PMs arises from changes in structural determinants of the N-terminal domain, affecting the protein binding with its cellular partners and/or the cotranslational translocation during the PrP(C) biosynthesis. We test this idea by predicting the conformational ensemble of the wild-type (WT) and mutated mouse PrP(C) N-terminal domain, whose sequence is almost identical to that of the human one and for which the largest number of in vivo data is available. The conformational properties of the WT are consistent with those inferred experimentally. Importantly, the PMs turn out to affect in a subtle manner the intramolecular contacts in the putative N-terminal domain binding sites for Cu(2+) ions, sulphated glycosaminoglycans, and other known PrP(C) cellular partners. The PMs also alter the local structural features of the transmembrane domain and adjacent stop transfer effector, which act together to regulate the protein topology. These results corroborate the hypothesis that N-terminal PMs affect the PrP(C) binding to functional interactors and/or the translocation.

  20. The gene expression profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma by a network analysis approach shows a dominance of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) between hub nodes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sakshi; Colonna, Giovanni; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Bergantino, Francesca; Cammarota, Marcella; Castello, Giuseppe; Costantini, Susan

    2015-11-01

    We have analyzed the transcriptomic data from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after viral HCV infection at the various stages of the disease by means of a networking analysis using the publicly available E-MTAB-950 dataset. The data was compared with those obtained in our group from HepG2 cells, a cancer cell line that lacks the viral infection. By sequential pruning of data, and also taking into account the data from cells of healthy patients as blanks, we were able to obtain a distribution of hub genes for the various stages that characterize the disease and finally, we isolated a metabolic sub-net specific to HCC alone. The general picture is that the basic organization to energetically and metabolically sustain the cells in both the normal and diseased conditions is the same, but a complex cluster of sub-networks controlled by hub genes drives the HCC progression with high metabolic flexibility and plasticity. In particular, we have extracted a sub-net of genes strictly correlated to other hub genes of the network from HepG2 cells, but specific for the HCC and mainly devoted to: (i) control at chromatin levels of cell division; (ii) control of ergastoplasmatic stress through protein degradation and misfolding; (iii) control of the immune response also through an increase of mature T-cells in the thymus. This sub-net is characterized by 26 hub genes coding for intrinsically disordered proteins with a high ability to interact with numerous molecular partners. Moreover, we have also noted that periphery molecules, that is, with one or very few interactions (e.g., cytokines or post-translational enzymes), which do not have a central role in the clusters that make up the global metabolic network, essentially have roles as information transporters. The results evidence a strong presence of intrinsically disordered proteins with key roles as hubs in the sub-networks that characterize the various stages of the disease, conferring a structural plasticity to

  1. A maximum entropy approach to the study of residue-specific backbone angle distributions in α-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein

    PubMed Central

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B; Maltsev, Alexander S; Ying, Jinfa; Shen, Yang; Hummer, Gerhard; Bax, Ad

    2014-01-01

    α-Synuclein is an intrinsically disordered protein of 140 residues that switches to an α-helical conformation upon binding phospholipid membranes. We characterize its residue-specific backbone structure in free solution with a novel maximum entropy procedure that integrates an extensive set of NMR data. These data include intraresidue and sequential HN–Hα and HN–HN NOEs, values for 3JHNHα, 1JHαCα, 2JCαN, and 1JCαN, as well as chemical shifts of 15N, 13Cα, and 13C′ nuclei, which are sensitive to backbone torsion angles. Distributions of these torsion angles were identified that yield best agreement to the experimental data, while using an entropy term to minimize the deviation from statistical distributions seen in a large protein coil library. Results indicate that although at the individual residue level considerable deviations from the coil library distribution are seen, on average the fitted distributions agree fairly well with this library, yielding a moderate population (20–30%) of the PPII region and a somewhat higher population of the potentially aggregation-prone β region (20–40%) than seen in the database. A generally lower population of the αR region (10–20%) is found. Analysis of 1H–1H NOE data required consideration of the considerable backbone diffusion anisotropy of a disordered protein. PMID:24976112

  2. Intrinsically disordered enamel matrix protein ameloblastin forms ribbon-like supramolecular structures via an N-terminal segment encoded by exon 5.

    PubMed

    Wald, Tomas; Osickova, Adriana; Sulc, Miroslav; Benada, Oldrich; Semeradtova, Alena; Rezabkova, Lenka; Veverka, Vaclav; Bednarova, Lucie; Maly, Jan; Macek, Pavel; Sebo, Peter; Slaby, Ivan; Vondrasek, Jiri; Osicka, Radim

    2013-08-02

    Tooth enamel, the hardest tissue in the body, is formed by the evolutionarily highly conserved biomineralization process that is controlled by extracellular matrix proteins. The intrinsically disordered matrix protein ameloblastin (AMBN) is the most abundant nonamelogenin protein of the developing enamel and a key element for correct enamel formation. AMBN was suggested to be a cell adhesion molecule that regulates proliferation and differentiation of ameloblasts. Nevertheless, detailed structural and functional studies on AMBN have been substantially limited by the paucity of the purified nondegraded protein. With this study, we have developed a procedure for production of a highly purified form of recombinant human AMBN in quantities that allowed its structural characterization. Using size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron, and atomic force microscopy techniques, we show that AMBN self-associates into ribbon-like supramolecular structures with average widths and thicknesses of 18 and 0.34 nm, respectively. The AMBN ribbons exhibited lengths ranging from tens to hundreds of nm. Deletion analysis and NMR spectroscopy revealed that an N-terminal segment encoded by exon 5 comprises two short independently structured regions and plays a key role in self-assembly of AMBN.

  3. Novel circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in marine invertebrates reveal high sequence diversity and consistent predicted intrinsic disorder patterns within putative structural proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Karyna; Schenck, Ryan O.; Harbeitner, Rachel C.; Lawler, Stephanie N.; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomics has recently revealed the ubiquitous and diverse nature of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that encode a conserved replication initiator protein (Rep) in the marine environment. Although eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses were originally thought to only infect plants and vertebrates, recent studies have identified these viruses in a number of invertebrates. To further explore CRESS-DNA viruses in the marine environment, this study surveyed CRESS-DNA viruses in various marine invertebrate species. A total of 27 novel CRESS-DNA genomes, with Reps that share less than 60.1% identity with previously reported viruses, were recovered from 21 invertebrate species, mainly crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep revealed a novel clade of CRESS-DNA viruses that included approximately one third of the marine invertebrate associated viruses identified here and whose members may represent a novel family. Investigation of putative capsid proteins (Cap) encoded within the eukaryotic CRESS-DNA viral genomes from this study and those in GenBank demonstrated conserved patterns of predicted intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which can be used to complement similarity-based searches to identify divergent structural proteins within novel genomes. Overall, this study expands our knowledge of CRESS-DNA viruses associated with invertebrates and explores a new tool to evaluate divergent structural proteins encoded by these viruses. PMID:26217327

  4. Novel circular single-stranded DNA viruses identified in marine invertebrates reveal high sequence diversity and consistent predicted intrinsic disorder patterns within putative structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Karyna; Schenck, Ryan O; Harbeitner, Rachel C; Lawler, Stephanie N; Breitbart, Mya

    2015-01-01

    Viral metagenomics has recently revealed the ubiquitous and diverse nature of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that encode a conserved replication initiator protein (Rep) in the marine environment. Although eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses were originally thought to only infect plants and vertebrates, recent studies have identified these viruses in a number of invertebrates. To further explore CRESS-DNA viruses in the marine environment, this study surveyed CRESS-DNA viruses in various marine invertebrate species. A total of 27 novel CRESS-DNA genomes, with Reps that share less than 60.1% identity with previously reported viruses, were recovered from 21 invertebrate species, mainly crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep revealed a novel clade of CRESS-DNA viruses that included approximately one third of the marine invertebrate associated viruses identified here and whose members may represent a novel family. Investigation of putative capsid proteins (Cap) encoded within the eukaryotic CRESS-DNA viral genomes from this study and those in GenBank demonstrated conserved patterns of predicted intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which can be used to complement similarity-based searches to identify divergent structural proteins within novel genomes. Overall, this study expands our knowledge of CRESS-DNA viruses associated with invertebrates and explores a new tool to evaluate divergent structural proteins encoded by these viruses.

  5. Fairy “tails”: flexibility and function of intrinsically disordered extensions in the photosynthetic world

    PubMed Central

    Thieulin-Pardo, Gabriel; Avilan, Luisana; Kojadinovic, Mila; Gontero, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs), or protein fragments also called Intrinsically Disordered Regions (IDRs), display high flexibility as the result of their amino acid composition. They can adopt multiple roles. In globular proteins, IDRs are usually found as loops and linkers between secondary structure elements. However, not all disordered fragments are loops: some proteins bear an intrinsically disordered extension at their C- or N-terminus, and this flexibility can affect the protein as a whole. In this review, we focus on the disordered N- and C-terminal extensions of globular proteins from photosynthetic organisms. Using the examples of the A2B2-GAPDH and the α Rubisco activase isoform, we show that intrinsically disordered extensions can help regulate their “host” protein in response to changes in light, thereby participating in photosynthesis regulation. As IDPs are famous for their large number of protein partners, we used the examples of the NAC, bZIP, TCP, and GRAS transcription factor families to illustrate the fact that intrinsically disordered extremities can allow a protein to have an increased number of partners, which directly affects its regulation. Finally, for proteins from the cryptochrome light receptor family, we describe how a new role for the photolyase proteins may emerge by the addition of an intrinsically disordered extension, while still allowing the protein to absorb blue light. This review has highlighted the diverse repercussions of the disordered extension on the regulation and function of their host protein and outlined possible future research avenues. PMID:26042223

  6. Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January-February-March, 2014)

    PubMed Central

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the 5th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents a reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. We continue to use only 2 criteria for inclusion of a paper to this digest: The publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and the topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the first quarter of 2014; i.e., during the period of January, February, and March of 2014. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included papers a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232896

  7. Continuous wave W- and D-Band EPR spectroscopy offer “sweet-spots” for characterizing conformational changes and dynamics in intrinsically disordered proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Thomas M.; Liu, Zhanglong; Esquiaqui, Jackie M.; Pirman, Natasha L.; Milshteyn, Eugene; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • W- and D-Band line shapes are sensitive to motions in the 0.1–2 ns time regime. • These frequencies effectively report on conformational dynamics of IDPs. • W-band spectra reflecting helical formation in IA{sub 3} is experimentally demonstrated. - Abstract: Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing conformational sampling and dynamics in biological macromolecules. Here we demonstrate that nitroxide spectra collected at frequencies higher than X-band (∼9.5 GHz) have sensitivity to the timescale of motion sampled by highly dynamic intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The 68 amino acid protein IA{sub 3}, was spin-labeled at two distinct sites and a comparison of X-band, Q-band (35 GHz) and W-band (95 GHz) spectra are shown for this protein as it undergoes the helical transition chemically induced by tri-fluoroethanol. Experimental spectra at W-band showed pronounced line shape dispersion corresponding to a change in correlation time from ∼0.3 ns (unstructured) to ∼0.6 ns (α-helical) as indicated by comparison with simulations. Experimental and simulated spectra at X- and Q-bands showed minimal dispersion over this range, illustrating the utility of SDSL EPR at higher frequencies for characterizing structural transitions and dynamics in IDPs.

  8. The Roles of Intrinsic Disorder-Based Liquid-Liquid Phase Transitions in the "Dr. Jekyll-Mr. Hyde" Behavior of Proteins Involved in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-10-05

    Pathological developments leading to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are associated with misbehavior of several key proteins, such as SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1), TARDBP/TDP-43, FUS, C9orf72, and dipeptide repeat proteins generated as a result of the translation of the intronic hexanucleotide expansions in the C9orf72 gene, PFN1 (profilin 1), GLE1 (GLE1, RNA export mediator), PURA (purine rich element binding protein A), FLCN (folliculin), RBM45 (RNA binding motif protein 45), SS18L1/CREST, HNRNPA1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1), HNRNPA2B1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1), ATXN2 (ataxin 2), MAPT (microtubule associated protein tau), and TIA1 (TIA1 cytotoxic granule associated RNA binding protein). Although these proteins are structurally and functionally different and have rather different pathological functions, they all possess some levels of intrinsic disorder and are either directly engaged in or are at least related to the physiological liquid-liquid phase transitions (LLPTs) leading to the formation of various proteinaceous membrane-less organelles (PMLOs), both normal and pathological. This review describes the normal and pathological functions of these ALS- and FTLD-related proteins, describes their major structural properties, glances at their intrinsic disorder status, and analyzes the involvement of these proteins in the formation of normal and pathological PMLOs, with the ultimate goal of better understanding the roles of LLPTs and intrinsic disorder in the "Dr. Jekyll-Mr. Hyde" behavior of those proteins.

  9. Diverse functional manifestations of intrinsic structural disorder in molecular chaperones.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Denes; Tompa, Peter

    2012-10-01

    IDPs (intrinsically disordered proteins) represent a unique class of proteins which show diverse molecular mechanisms in key biological functions. The aim of the present mini-review is to summarize IDP chaperones that have increasingly been studied in the last few years, by focusing on the role of intrinsic disorder in their molecular mechanism. Disordered regions in both globular and disordered chaperones are often involved directly in chaperone action, either by modulating activity or through direct involvement in substrate identification and binding. They might also be responsible for the subcellular localization of the protein. In outlining the state of the art, we survey known IDP chaperones discussing the following points: (i) globular chaperones that have an experimentally proven functional disordered region(s), (ii) chaperones that are completely disordered along their entire length, and (iii) the possible mechanisms of action of disordered chaperones. Through all of these details, we chart out how far the field has progressed, only to emphasize the long road ahead before the chaperone function can be firmly established as part of the physiological mechanistic arsenal of the emerging group of IDPs.

  10. Why does the silica-binding protein "Si-tag" bind strongly to silica surfaces? Implications of conformational adaptation of the intrinsically disordered polypeptide to solid surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takeshi; Kuroda, Akio

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported that the bacterial 50S ribosomal protein L2 binds strongly to silica surfaces even in the presence of high salt concentrations, detergents, and denaturants such as 8 M urea. We designated L2 as Si-tag, a fusion tag for immobilizing functional proteins on silica materials. Here we discuss the remarkable properties of the Si-tag polypeptide in order to understand the mechanism underlying this binding. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the 60-aa N-terminal region and the 71-aa C-terminal region, both of which are rich in positively charged residues, lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions. This lack of a stable tertiary structure suggests that Si-tag belongs to a family of intrinsically disordered (ID) proteins that exist as dynamic ensembles of rapidly fluctuating structures in aqueous solution. Because of its inherent flexibility, Si-tag could form a large intermolecular interface and optimize its structure for surface interactions by conformational adaptation at the binding interface. Such conformational adaptation occurring concomitantly with binding is common to many ID proteins and is called "coupled folding and binding". Through this conformational adaptation, Si-tag could optimize the interactions between its positively charged side chains and ionized surface silanol groups and between its apolar side chains and hydrophobic surface siloxane sites. The cumulative contribution of these contacts would significantly strengthen the binding of Si-tag, resulting in strong, virtually irreversible binding. Our study suggests that flexible ID proteins have tremendous potential for connecting biomolecules to inorganic materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solid-state ¹³C NMR reveals annealing of raft-like membranes containing cholesterol by the intrinsically disordered protein α-Synuclein.

    PubMed

    Leftin, Avigdor; Job, Constantin; Beyer, Klaus; Brown, Michael F

    2013-08-23

    Misfolding and aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein α-Synuclein (αS) in Lewy body plaques are characteristic markers of late-stage Parkinson's disease. It is well established that membrane binding is initiated at the N-terminus of the protein and affects biasing of conformational ensembles of αS. However, little is understood about the effect of αS on the membrane lipid bilayer. One hypothesis is that intrinsically disordered αS alters the structural properties of the membrane, thereby stabilizing the bilayer against fusion. Here, we used two-dimensional (13)C separated local-field NMR to study interaction of the wild-type α-Synuclein (wt-αS) or its N-terminal (1-25) amino acid sequence (N-αS) with a cholesterol-enriched ternary membrane system. This lipid bilayer mimics cellular raft-like domains in the brain that are proposed to be involved in neuronal membrane fusion. The two-dimensional dipolar-recoupling pulse sequence DROSS (dipolar recoupling on-axis with scaling and shape preservation) was implemented to measure isotropic (13)C chemical shifts and (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings under magic-angle spinning. Site-specific changes in NMR chemical shifts and segmental order parameters indicate that both wt-αS and N-αS bind to the membrane interface and change lipid packing within raft-like membranes. Mean-torque modeling of (13)C-(1)H NMR order parameters shows that αS induces a remarkable thinning of the bilayer (≈6Å), accompanied by an increase in phospholipid cross-sectional area (≈10Å(2)). This perturbation is characterized as membrane annealing and entails structural remodeling of the raft-like liquid-ordered phase. We propose this process is implicated in regulation of synaptic membrane fusion that may be altered by aggregation of αS in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NMR reveals the intrinsically disordered domain 2 of NS5A protein as an allosteric regulator of the hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase NS5B.

    PubMed

    Bessa, Luiza M; Launay, Hélène; Dujardin, Marie; Cantrelle, François-Xavier; Lippens, Guy; Landrieu, Isabelle; Schneider, Robert; Hanoulle, Xavier

    2017-09-14

    Non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) is the RNAdependent RNA polymerase that catalyses replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome, and so is central for its life cycle. NS5B interacts with the intrinsically disordered domain 2 of NS5A (NS5A-D2), another essential multifunctional HCV protein that is required for RNA replication. As a result, these two proteins represent important targets for anti-HCV chemotherapies. Despite this importance and the existence of NS5B crystal structures, our understanding of the conformational and dynamic behaviour of NS5B in solution and its relationship with NS5A-D2 remain incomplete. To address these points, we report the first detailed NMR spectroscopic study of HCV NS5B lacking its membrane anchor (NS5BΔ21). Analysis of constructs with selective isotope labelling of the δ1 methyl groups of isoleucine side chains demonstrates that, in solution, NS5BΔ21 is highly dynamic, but predominantly adopts a closed conformation. Addition of NS5A-D2 leads to spectral changes indicative of binding to both allosteric thumb sites I and II of NS5BΔ21, and induces long range perturbations that affect the RNA-binding properties of the polymerase. We compared these modifications to the short- and long-range effects triggered in NS5BΔ21 upon binding of filibuvir, an allosteric inhibitor. We demonstrate that filibuvir-bound NS5BΔ21 is strongly impaired in the binding of both NS5A-D2 and RNA. NS5A-D2 induces conformational and functional perturbations in NS5B similar to those triggered by filibuvir. Thus, our work highlights NS5A-D2 as an allosteric regulator of the HCV polymerase and provides new insight into the dynamics of NS5B in solution. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Mechanism of the Interaction between the Intrinsically Disordered C-Terminus of the Pro-Apoptotic ARTS Protein and the Bir3 Domain of XIAP

    PubMed Central

    Reingewertz, Tali H.; Shalev, Deborah E.; Sukenik, Shahar; Blatt, Ofrah; Rotem-Bamberger, Shahar; Lebendiker, Mario; Larisch, Sarit; Friedler, Assaf

    2011-01-01

    ARTS (Sept4_i2) is a mitochondrial pro-apoptotic protein that functions as a tumor suppressor. Its expression is significantly reduced in leukemia and lymphoma patients. ARTS binds and inhibits XIAP (X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis protein) by interacting with its Bir3 domain. ARTS promotes degradation of XIAP through the proteasome pathway. By doing so, ARTS removes XIAP inhibition of caspases and enables apoptosis to proceed. ARTS contains 27 unique residues in its C-terminal domain (CTD, residues 248–274) which are important for XIAP binding. Here we characterized the molecular details of this interaction. Biophysical and computational methods were used to show that the ARTS CTD is intrinsically disordered under physiological conditions. Direct binding of ARTS CTD to Bir3 was demonstrated using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The Bir3 interacting region in ARTS CTD was mapped to ARTS residues 266–274, which are the nine C-terminal residues in the protein. Alanine scan of ARTS 266–274 showed the importance of several residues for Bir3 binding, with His268 and Cys273 contributing the most. Adding a reducing agent prevented binding to Bir3. A dimer of ARTS 266–274 formed by oxidation of the Cys residues into a disulfide bond bound with similar affinity and was probably required for the interaction with Bir3. The detailed analysis of the ARTS – Bir3 interaction provides the basis for setting it as a target for anti cancer drug design: It will enable the development of compounds that mimic ARTS CTD, remove IAPs inhibition of caspases, and thereby induce apoptosis. PMID:21949740

  14. Structural and functional insights into the regulation mechanism of CK2 by IP6 and the intrinsically disordered protein Nopp140.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Kyu; Son, Sang Hyeon; Jin, Bong-Suk; Na, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Youl; Kim, Kook-Han; Kim, Eunice Eunkyeong; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2013-11-26

    Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous kinase that can phosphorylate hundreds of cellular proteins and plays important roles in cell growth and development. Deregulation of CK2 is related to a variety of human cancers, and CK2 is regarded as a suppressor of apoptosis; therefore, it is a target of anticancer therapy. Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140), which is an intrinsically disordered protein, interacts with CK2 and inhibits the latter's catalytic activity in vitro. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of CK2 is recovered in the presence of d-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (IP6). IP6 is widely distributed in animal cells, but the molecular mechanisms that govern its cellular functions in animal cells have not been completely elucidated. In this study, the crystal structure of CK2 in complex with IP6 showed that the lysine-rich cluster of CK2 plays an important role in binding to IP6. The biochemical experiments revealed that a Nopp140 fragment (residues 568-596) and IP6 competitively bind to the catalytic subunit of CK2 (CK2α), and phospho-Ser574 of Nopp140 significantly enhances its interaction with CK2α. Substitutions of K74E, K76E, and K77E in CK2α significantly reduced the interactions of CK2α with both IP6 and the Nopp140-derived peptide. Our study gives an insight into the regulation of CK2. In particular, our work suggests that CK2 activity is inhibited by Nopp140 and reactivated by IP6 by competitive binding at the substrate recognition site of CK2.

  15. Structural and functional insights into the regulation mechanism of CK2 by IP6 and the intrinsically disordered protein Nopp140

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Kyu; Son, Sang Hyeon; Jin, Bong-Suk; Na, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Youl; Kim, Kook-Han; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous kinase that can phosphorylate hundreds of cellular proteins and plays important roles in cell growth and development. Deregulation of CK2 is related to a variety of human cancers, and CK2 is regarded as a suppressor of apoptosis; therefore, it is a target of anticancer therapy. Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140), which is an intrinsically disordered protein, interacts with CK2 and inhibits the latter’s catalytic activity in vitro. Interestingly, the catalytic activity of CK2 is recovered in the presence of d-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (IP6). IP6 is widely distributed in animal cells, but the molecular mechanisms that govern its cellular functions in animal cells have not been completely elucidated. In this study, the crystal structure of CK2 in complex with IP6 showed that the lysine-rich cluster of CK2 plays an important role in binding to IP6. The biochemical experiments revealed that a Nopp140 fragment (residues 568–596) and IP6 competitively bind to the catalytic subunit of CK2 (CK2α), and phospho-Ser574 of Nopp140 significantly enhances its interaction with CK2α. Substitutions of K74E, K76E, and K77E in CK2α significantly reduced the interactions of CK2α with both IP6 and the Nopp140-derived peptide. Our study gives an insight into the regulation of CK2. In particular, our work suggests that CK2 activity is inhibited by Nopp140 and reactivated by IP6 by competitive binding at the substrate recognition site of CK2. PMID:24218616

  16. Yersinia pestis Caf1 Protein: Effect of Sequence Polymorphism on Intrinsic Disorder Propensity, Serological Cross-Reactivity and Cross-Protectivity of Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Pavel Kh.; Platonov, Mikhail E.; Ablamunits, Vitaly G.; Kombarova, Tat’yana I.; Ivanov, Sergey A.; Kadnikova, Lidiya A.; Somov, Aleksey N.; Dentovskaya, Svetlana V.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia pestis Caf1 is a multifunctional protein responsible for antiphagocytic activity and is a key protective antigen. It is generally conserved between globally distributed Y. pestis strains, but Y. pestis subsp. microtus biovar caucasica strains circulating within populations of common voles in Georgia and Armenia were reported to carry a single substitution of alanine to serine. We investigated polymorphism of the Caf1 sequences among other Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains, which have a limited virulence in guinea pigs and in humans. Sequencing of caf1 genes from 119 Y. pestis strains belonging to different biovars within subsp. microtus showed that the Caf1 proteins exist in three isoforms, the global type Caf1NT1 (Ala48 Phe117), type Caf1NT2 (Ser48 Phe117) found in Transcaucasian-highland and Pre-Araks natural plague foci #4–7, and a novel Caf1NT3 type (Ala48 Val117) endemic in Dagestan-highland natural plague focus #39. Both minor types are the progenies of the global isoform. In this report, Caf1 polymorphism was analyzed by comparing predicted intrinsic disorder propensities and potential protein-protein interactivities of the three Caf1 isoforms. The analysis revealed that these properties of Caf1 protein are minimally affected by its polymorphism. All protein isoforms could be equally detected by an immunochromatography test for plague at the lowest protein concentration tested (1.0 ng/mL), which is the detection limit. When compared to the classic Caf1NT1 isoform, the endemic Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 had lower immunoreactivity in ELISA and lower indices of self- and cross-protection. Despite a visible reduction in cross-protection between all Caf1 isoforms, our data suggest that polymorphism in the caf1 gene may not allow the carriers of Caf1NT2 or Caf1NT3 variants escaping from the Caf1NT1-mediated immunity to plague in the case of a low-dose flea-borne infection. PMID:27606595

  17. Structure of Yeast Poly(A) Polymerase in Complex with a Peptide from Fip1, an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke,G.; Ezeokonkwo, C.; Balbo, P.; Stafford, W.; Moore, C.; Bohm, A.

    2008-01-01

    In yeast, the mRNA processing enzyme poly(A) polymerase is tethered to the much larger 3'-end processing complex via Fip1, a 36 kDa protein of unknown structure. We report the 2.6 Angstroms crystal structure of yeast poly(A) polymerase in complex with a peptide containing residues 80-105 of Fip1. The Fip1 peptide binds to the outside surface of the C-terminal domain of the polymerase. On the basis of this structure, we designed a mutant of the polymerase (V498Y, C485R) that is lethal to yeast. The mutant is unable to bind Fip1 but retains full polymerase activity. Fip1 is found in all eukaryotes and serves to connect poly(A) polymerase to pre-mRNA processing complexes in yeast, plants, and mammals. However, the Fip1 sequence is highly divergent, and residues on both Pap1 and Fip1 at the observed interaction surface are poorly conserved. Herein we demonstrate using analytical ultracentrifugation, circular dichroism, proteolytic studies, and other techniques that, in the absence of Pap1, Fip1 is largely, if not completely, unfolded. We speculate that flexibility may be important for Fip1's function as a molecular scaffold.

  18. Efficient Atomistic Simulation of Pathways and Calculation of Rate Constants for a Protein-Peptide Binding Process: Application to the MDM2 Protein and an Intrinsically Disordered p53 Peptide.

    PubMed

    Zwier, Matthew C; Pratt, Adam J; Adelman, Joshua L; Kaus, Joseph W; Zuckerman, Daniel M; Chong, Lillian T

    2016-09-01

    The characterization of protein binding processes - with all of the key conformational changes - has been a grand challenge in the field of biophysics. Here, we have used the weighted ensemble path sampling strategy to orchestrate molecular dynamics simulations, yielding atomistic views of protein-peptide binding pathways involving the MDM2 oncoprotein and an intrinsically disordered p53 peptide. A total of 182 independent, continuous binding pathways were generated, yielding a kon that is in good agreement with experiment. These pathways were generated in 15 days using 3500 cores of a supercomputer, substantially faster than would be possible with "brute force" simulations. Many of these pathways involve the anchoring of p53 residue F19 into the MDM2 binding cleft when forming the metastable encounter complex, indicating that F19 may be a kinetically important residue. Our study demonstrates that it is now practical to generate pathways and calculate rate constants for protein binding processes using atomistic simulation on typical computing resources.

  19. NMR contributions to structural dynamics studies of intrinsically disordered proteins☆

    PubMed Central

    Konrat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are characterized by substantial conformational plasticity. Given their inherent structural flexibility X-ray crystallography is not applicable to study these proteins. In contrast, NMR spectroscopy offers unique opportunities for structural and dynamic studies of IDPs. The past two decades have witnessed significant development of NMR spectroscopy that couples advances in spin physics and chemistry with a broad range of applications. This article will summarize key advances in basic physical-chemistry and NMR methodology, outline their limitations and envision future R&D directions. PMID:24656082

  20. Advantages of proteins being disordered

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhirong; Huang, Yongqi

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed great advances in our understanding of protein structure-function relationships in terms of the ubiquitous existence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). The structural disorder of IDPs/IDRs enables them to play essential functions that are complementary to those of ordered proteins. In addition, IDPs/IDRs are persistent in evolution. Therefore, they are expected to possess some advantages over ordered proteins. In this review, we summarize and survey nine possible advantages of IDPs/IDRs: economizing genome/protein resources, overcoming steric restrictions in binding, achieving high specificity with low affinity, increasing binding rate, facilitating posttranslational modifications, enabling flexible linkers, preventing aggregation, providing resistance to non-native conditions, and allowing compatibility with more available sequences. Some potential advantages of IDPs/IDRs are not well understood and require both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher. The connection with protein design is also briefly discussed. PMID:24532081

  1. Digested disorder, Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (October-November-December, 2013)

    PubMed Central

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This is the 4th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the fourth quarter of 2013; i.e. during the period of October, November, and December of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28293487

  2. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacement in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of biological molecules is investigated in neutron scattering experiments, in molecular dynamics simulations, and using analytical theory. Specifically, the mean square displacement (MSD), exp, of hydrogen in proteins is determined from measurements of the incoherent elastic neutron scattering intensity (ENSI). The MSD, exp, is usually obtained from the dependence of the ENSI on the scattering wave vector Q. The MSD increases with increasing temperature reaching large values at room temperature. Large MSD is often associated with and used as an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD, however, depends on the energy resolution of the neutron spectrometer employed. We present a method, a first attempt, to extract the intrinsic MSD of hydrogen in protein from measurements, one that is independent of the instrument resolution. The method consists of a model of the ENSI that contains (1) the intrinsic MSD, (2) the instrument resolution width and (3) a parameter describing the motional processes that contribute to the MSD. Several examples of intrinsic MSDs in proteins obtained from fitting to data in the existing literature will be presented.

  3. Resolving the ambiguity: Making sense of intrinsic disorder when PDB structures disagree.

    PubMed

    DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-01

    Missing regions in X-ray crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have played a foundational role in the study of intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs), especially in the development of in silico predictors of intrinsic disorder. However, a missing region is only a weak indication of intrinsic disorder, and this uncertainty is compounded by the presence of ambiguous regions, where more than one structure of the same protein sequence "disagrees" in terms of the presence or absence of missing residues. The question is this: are these ambiguous regions intrinsically disordered, or are they the result of static disorder that arises from experimental conditions, ensembles of structures, or domain wobbling? A novel way of looking at ambiguous regions in terms of the pattern between multiple PDB structures has been demonstrated. It was found that the propensity for intrinsic disorder increases as the level of ambiguity decreases. However, it is also shown that ambiguity is more likely to occur as the protein region is placed within different environmental conditions, and even the most ambiguous regions as a set display compositional bias that suggests flexibility. The results suggested that ambiguity is a natural result for many IDPRs crystallized under different conditions and that static disorder and wobbling domains are relatively rare. Instead, it is more likely that ambiguity arises because many of these regions were conditionally or partially disordered.

  4. Order and disorder in intermediate filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Micha; Avinery, Ram; Malka-Gibor, Eti; Laser-Azogui, Adi; Beck, Roy

    2015-09-14

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), important components of the cytoskeleton, provide a versatile, tunable network of self-assembled proteins. IF proteins contain three distinct domains: an α-helical structured rod domain, flanked by intrinsically disordered head and tail domains. Recent studies demonstrated the functional importance of the disordered domains, which differ in length and amino-acid sequence among the 70 different human IF genes. Here, we investigate the biophysical properties of the disordered domains, and review recent findings on the interactions between them. Our analysis highlights key components governing IF functional roles in the cytoskeleton, where the intrinsically disordered domains dictate protein-protein interactions, supramolecular assembly, and macro-scale order.

  5. A tonoplast intrinsic protein in Gardenia jasminoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and molecular studies proved that plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) subfamily of aquaporins play key functions in plant water homeostasis. Five specialized subgroups (TIP1-5) of TIPs have been found in higher plants, in which the TIP1 and TIP2 isoforms are the largest arbitrary groups. TIPs have high water-transport activity than PIPs, some TIPs can transport other small molecule such as urea, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide. In this work, the structure of the putative tonoplast aquaporin from Gardenia jasminoides (GjTIP) was analyzed. Its transcript level has increased during fruit maturation. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the protein belongs to TIP1 subfamily. A three-dimensional model structure of GjTIP was built based on crystal structure of an ammonia-permeable AtTIP2-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The model structure displayed as a homo-tetramer, each monomer has six trans-membrane and two half-membrane-spanning α helices. The data suggests that the GjTIP has tendency to be a mixed function aquaporin, might involve in water, urea and hydrogen peroxide transport, and the gating machanism founded in some AQPs involving pH and phosphorylation response have not been proved in GjTIP.

  6. The yeast Hsp70 homolog Ssb: a chaperone for general de novo protein folding and a nanny for specific intrinsically disordered protein domains.

    PubMed

    Hübscher, Volker; Mudholkar, Kaivalya; Rospert, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the heterotrimeric kinase SNF1 via phosphorylation of a specific residue within the α subunit is essential for the release from glucose repression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When glucose is available, SNF1 is maintained in the dephosphorylated, inactive state by the phosphatase Glc7-Reg1. Recent findings suggest that Bmh and Ssb combine their unique client-binding properties to interact with the regulatory region of the SNF1 α subunit and by that stabilize a conformation of SNF1, which is accessible for Glc7-Reg1-dependent dephosphorylation. Together, the 14-3-3 protein Bmh and the Hsp70 homolog Ssb comprise a novel chaperone module, which is required to maintain proper glucose repression in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

  7. Intrinsic disorder mediates cooperative signal transduction in STIM1.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yukio; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Ikegami, Takahisa; Dagliyan, Onur; Jin, Lin; Hall, Damien; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Namba, Keiichi; Akira, Shizuo; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Baba, Yoshihiro; Standley, Daron M

    2014-05-15

    Intrinsically disordered domains have been reported to play important roles in signal transduction networks by introducing cooperativity into protein-protein interactions. Unlike intrinsically disordered domains that become ordered upon binding, the EF-SAM domain in the stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1 is distinct in that it is ordered in the monomeric state and partially unfolded in its oligomeric state, with the population of the two states depending on the local Ca(2+) concentration. The oligomerization of STIM1, which triggers extracellular Ca(2+) influx, exhibits cooperativity with respect to the local endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) concentration. Although the physiological importance of the oligomerization reaction is well established, the mechanism of the observed cooperativity is not known. Here, we examine the response of the STIM1 EF-SAM domain to changes in Ca(2+) concentration using mathematical modeling based on in vitro experiments. We find that the EF-SAM domain partially unfolds and dimerizes cooperatively with respect to Ca(2+) concentration, with Hill coefficients and half-maximal activation concentrations very close to the values observed in vivo for STIM1 redistribution and extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Our mathematical model of the dimerization reaction agrees quantitatively with our analytical ultracentrifugation-based measurements and previously published free energies of unfolding. A simple interpretation of these results is that Ca(2+) loss effectively acts as a denaturant, enabling cooperative dimerization and robust signal transduction. We present a structural model of the Ca(2+)-unbound EF-SAM domain that is consistent with a wide range of evidence, including resistance to proteolytic cleavage of the putative dimerization portion.

  8. Exploiting protein intrinsic flexibility in drug design.

    PubMed

    Lukman, Suryani; Verma, Chandra S; Fuentes, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Molecular recognition in biological systems relies on the existence of specific attractive interactions between two partner molecules. Structure-based drug design seeks to identify and optimize such interactions between ligands and their protein targets. The approach followed in medicinal chemistry follows a combination of careful analysis of structural data together with experimental and/or theoretical studies on the system. This chapter focuses on the fact that a protein is not fully characterized by a single structure, but by an ensemble of states, some of them represent "hidden conformations" with cryptic binding sites. We highlight case studies where both experimental and computational methods have been used to mutually drive each other in an attempt to improve the success of the drug design approaches.Advances in both experimental techniques and computational methods have greatly improved our physico-chemical understanding of the functional mechanisms in biomolecules and opened a debate about the interplay between molecular structure and biomolecular function. The beautiful static pictures of protein structures may have led to neglecting the intrinsic protein flexibility, however we are entering a new era where more sophisticated methods are used to exploit this ability of macromolecules, and this will definitely lead to the inclusion of the notion in the pharmaceutical field of drug design.

  9. The lysine-rich motif of intrinsically disordered stress protein CDeT11-24 from Craterostigma plantagineum is responsible for phosphatidic acid binding and protection of enzymes from damaging effects caused by desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Röhrig, Horst

    2012-01-01

    The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)-like protein CDeT11-24 is one of the major desiccation-related phosphoproteins of the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. In this study, it was shown that CDeT11-24 is mostly intrinsically disordered and protects two different enzymes, citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, against damaging effects caused by desiccation. Lipid-binding assays revealed that CDeT11-24 is able to interact with phosphatidic acid, although electrostatic repulsion was expected due to the overall negative net charge of the protein under the tested physiological conditions. CDeT11-24 carries an N-terminal lysine-rich sequence, which is predicted to form an amphipathic α-helix. Analysis of the truncated CDeT11-24 protein identified this region to be responsible for both activities: enzyme protection and phosphatidic acid interaction. Possible functions of the CDeT11-24 protein are discussed in the context of desiccation tolerance. Abbreviations:ABAabscisic acid;CDcircular dichroism;CScitrate synthase;IDPintrinsically disordered protein;LDHlactate dehydrogenase;LEAlate embryogenesis abundant;PAphosphatidic acid;PCphosphatidylcholine;TFEtrifluoroethanol. PMID:22791833

  10. Functional Anthology of Intrinsic Disorder. II. Cellular Components, Domains, Technical Terms, Developmental Processes and Coding Sequence Diversities Correlated with Long Disordered Regions

    PubMed Central

    Vucetic, Slobodan; Xie, Hongbo; Iakoucheva, Lilia M.; Oldfield, Christopher J.; Dunker, A. Keith; Obradovic, Zoran; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2008-01-01

    Biologically active proteins without stable ordered structure (i.e., intrinsically disordered proteins) are attracting increased attention. Functional repertoires of ordered and disordered proteins are very different, and the ability to differentiate whether a given function is associated with intrinsic disorder or with a well-folded protein is crucial for modern protein science. However, there is a large gap between the number of proteins experimentally confirmed to be disordered and their actual number in nature. As a result, studies of functional properties of confirmed disordered proteins, while helpful in revealing the functional diversity of protein disorder, provide only a limited view. To overcome this problem, a bioinformatics approach for comprehensive study of functional roles of protein disorder was proposed in the first paper of this series (Xie H., Vucetic S., Iakoucheva L.M., Oldfield C.J., Dunker A.K., Obradovic Z., Uversky V.N. (2006) Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. I. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions. J. Proteome Res.). Applying this novel approach to Swiss-Prot sequences and functional keywords, we found over 238 and 302 keywords to be strongly positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with long intrinsically disordered regions. This paper describes ~90 Swiss-Prot keywords attributed to the cellular components, domains, technical terms, developmental processes and coding sequence diversities possessing strong positive and negative correlation with long disordered regions. PMID:17391015

  11. Major intrinsic proteins in biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Claus Hélix

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes define the structural and functional boundaries in living cells and their organelles. The integrity of the cell depends on its ability to separate inside from outside and yet at the same time allow massive transport of matter in and out the cell. Nature has elegantly met this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting-the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 10(9) molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other permeants such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and the metalloids antimonite, arsenite, silicic and boric acid depending on the effective restriction mechanism of the protein. The flux properties of MIPs thus lead to the question ifMIPs can be used in separation devices or as sensor devices based on, e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport

  12. PONDR-FIT: A Meta-Predictor of Intrinsically Disordered Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bin; Dunbrack, Roland L.; Williams, Robert W.; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    Protein intrinsic disorder is becoming increasingly recognized in proteomics research. While lacking structure, many regions of disorder have been associated with biological function. There are many different experimental methods for characterizing intrinsically disordered proteins and regions; nevertheless, the prediction of intrinsic disorder from amino acid sequence remains a useful strategy especially for many large-scale proteomics investigations. Here we introduced a consensus artificial neural network (ANN) prediction method, which was developed by combining the outputs of several individual disorder predictors. By eight-fold cross-validation, this meta-predictor, called PONDR-FIT, was found to improve the prediction accuracy over a range of 3 to 20% with an average of 11% compared to the single predictors, depending on the datasets being used. Analysis of the errors shows that the worst accuracy still occurs for short disordered regions with less than ten residues, as well as for the residues close to order/disorder boundaries. Increased understanding of the underlying mechanism by which such meta-predictors give improved predictions will likely promote the further development of protein disorder predictors. The access to PONDR-FIT is available at www.disprot.org. PMID:20100603

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of the durum wheat TdRL1, a member of the conserved Poaceae RSS1-like family that exhibits features of intrinsically disordered proteins and confers stress tolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Mahjoubi, Habib; Ebel, Chantal; Hanin, Moez

    2015-11-01

    Because of their fixed lifestyle, plants must acclimate to environmental changes by orchestrating several responses ranging from protective measures to growth control. Growth arrest is observed upon abiotic stress and can cause penalties to plant production. But, the molecular interface between stress perception and cell cycle control is poorly understood. The rice protein RSS1 is required at G1/S transition ensuring normal dividing activity of proliferative cells during salt stress. The role of RSS1 in meristem maintenance together with its flexible protein structure implies its key function as molecular integrator of stress signaling for cell cycle control. To study further the relevance of RSS1 and its related proteins in cereals, we isolated the durum wheat homolog, TdRL1, from Tunisian durum wheat varieties and extended our analyses to RSS1-like proteins from Poaceae. Our results show that the primary sequences of TdRL1 and the Graminae RSS1-like family members are highly conserved. In silico analyses predict that TdRL1 and other RSS1-like proteins share flexible 3-D structures and have features of intrinsically disordered/unstructured proteins (IDP). The disordered structure of TdRL1 is well illustrated by an electrophoretical mobility shift of the purified protein. Moreover, heterologous expression of TdRL1 in yeast improves its tolerance to salt and heat stresses strongly suggesting its involvement in abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms. Such finding adds new knowledge to our understanding of how IDPs may contribute as central molecular integrators of stress signaling into improving plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  14. Abundance and functional roles of intrinsic disorder in the antimicrobial peptides of the NK-lysin family.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Haitham A; Al-Maghrabi, Omar A; Ahmed, Ekram S; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-03-01

    NK-lysins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that participate in the innate immune response and also have several pivotal roles in various biological processes. Such multifunctionality is commonly found among intrinsically disordered proteins. However, NK-lysins have never been systematically analyzed for intrinsic disorder. To fill this gap, the amino acid sequences of NK-lysins from various species were collected from UniProt and used for the comprehensive computational analysis to evaluate the propensity of these proteins for intrinsic disorder and to investigate the potential roles of disordered regions in NK-lysin functions. We analyzed abundance and peculiarities of intrinsic disorder distribution in all-known NK-lysins and showed that many NK-lysins are expected to have substantial levels of intrinsic disorder. Curiously, high level of intrinsic disorder was also found even in two proteins with known 3D-strucutres (NK-lysin from pig and human granulysin). Many of the identified disordered regions can be involved in protein-protein interactions. In fact, NK-lysins are shown to contain three to eight molecular recognition features; i.e. short structure-prone segments which are located within the long disordered regions and have a potential to undergo a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to a partner. Furthermore, these disordered regions are expected to have several sites of various posttranslational modifications. Our study shows that NK-lysins, which are AMPs with a set of prominent roles in the innate immune response, are expected to abundantly possess intrinsically disordered regions that might be related to multifunctionality of these proteins in the signal transduction pathways controlling the host response to pathogenic agents.

  15. High-Density Single-Layer Coating of Gold Nanoparticles onto Multiple Substrates by Using an Intrinsically Disordered Protein of α-Synuclein for Nanoapplications.

    PubMed

    Bhak, Ghibom; Lee, Junghee; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Chung, Dong Young; Kang, Jin Hyoun; Oh, Soojung; Lee, Jungsup; Kang, Jin Soo; Yoo, Ji Mun; Yang, Jee Eun; Rhoo, Kun Yil; Park, Sunghak; Lee, Somin; Nam, Ki Tae; Jeon, Noo Li; Jang, Jyongsik; Hong, Byung Hee; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Myung-Han; Paik, Seung R

    2017-03-15

    Functional graffiti of nanoparticles onto target surface is an important issue in the development of nanodevices. A general strategy has been introduced here to decorate chemically diverse substrates with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the form of a close-packed single layer by using an omni-adhesive protein of α-synuclein (αS) as conjugated with the particles. Since the adsorption was highly sensitive to pH, the amino acid sequence of αS exposed from the conjugates and its conformationally disordered state capable of exhibiting structural plasticity are considered to be responsible for the single-layer coating over diverse surfaces. Merited by the simple solution-based adsorption procedure, the particles have been imprinted to various geometric shapes in 2-D and physically inaccessible surfaces of 3-D objects. The αS-encapsulated AuNPs to form a high-density single-layer coat has been employed in the development of nonvolatile memory, fule-cell, solar-cell, and cell-culture platform, where the outlying αS has played versatile roles such as a dielectric layer for charge retention, a sacrificial layer to expose AuNPs for chemical catalysis, a reaction center for silicification, and biointerface for cell attachment, respectively. Multiple utilizations of the αS-based hybrid NPs, therefore, could offer great versatility to fabricate a variety of NP-integrated advanced materials which would serve as an indispensable component for widespread applications of high-performance nanodevices.

  16. The IntFOLD server: an integrated web resource for protein fold recognition, 3D model quality assessment, intrinsic disorder prediction, domain prediction and ligand binding site prediction.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel B; Buenavista, Maria T; Tetchner, Stuart J; McGuffin, Liam J

    2011-07-01

    The IntFOLD server is a novel independent server that integrates several cutting edge methods for the prediction of structure and function from sequence. Our guiding principles behind the server development were as follows: (i) to provide a simple unified resource that makes our prediction software accessible to all and (ii) to produce integrated output for predictions that can be easily interpreted. The output for predictions is presented as a simple table that summarizes all results graphically via plots and annotated 3D models. The raw machine readable data files for each set of predictions are also provided for developers, which comply with the Critical Assessment of Methods for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) data standards. The server comprises an integrated suite of five novel methods: nFOLD4, for tertiary structure prediction; ModFOLD 3.0, for model quality assessment; DISOclust 2.0, for disorder prediction; DomFOLD 2.0 for domain prediction; and FunFOLD 1.0, for ligand binding site prediction. Predictions from the IntFOLD server were found to be competitive in several categories in the recent CASP9 experiment. The IntFOLD server is available at the following web site: http://www.reading.ac.uk/bioinf/IntFOLD/.

  17. The lysine-rich motif of intrinsically disordered stress protein CDeT11-24 from Craterostigma plantagineum is responsible for phosphatidic acid binding and protection of enzymes from damaging effects caused by desiccation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jan; Eriksson, Sylvia K; Harryson, Pia; Pierog, Steffen; Colby, Thomas; Bartels, Dorothea; Röhrig, Horst

    2012-08-01

    The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)-like protein CDeT11-24 is one of the major desiccation-related phosphoproteins of the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. In this study, it was shown that CDeT11-24 is mostly intrinsically disordered and protects two different enzymes, citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, against damaging effects caused by desiccation. Lipid-binding assays revealed that CDeT11-24 is able to interact with phosphatidic acid, although electrostatic repulsion was expected due to the overall negative net charge of the protein under the tested physiological conditions. CDeT11-24 carries an N-terminal lysine-rich sequence, which is predicted to form an amphipathic α-helix. Analysis of the truncated CDeT11-24 protein identified this region to be responsible for both activities: enzyme protection and phosphatidic acid interaction. Possible functions of the CDeT11-24 protein are discussed in the context of desiccation tolerance.

  18. TOP-IDP-scale: a new amino acid scale measuring propensity for intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    Campen, Andrew; Williams, Ryan M; Brown, Celeste J; Meng, Jingwei; Uversky, Vladimir N; Dunker, A Keith

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins carry out various biological functions while lacking ordered secondary and/or tertiary structure. In order to find general intrinsic properties of amino acid residues that are responsible for the absence of ordered structure in intrinsically disordered proteins we surveyed 517 amino acid scales. Each of these scales was taken as an independent attribute for the subsequent analysis. For a given attribute value X, which is averaged over a consecutive string of amino acids, and for a given data set having both ordered and disordered segments, the conditional probabilities P(s(o) | x) and P(s(d) | x) for order and disorder, respectively, can be determined for all possible values of X. Plots of the conditional probabilities P(s(o) | x) and P(s(o) | x) versus X give a pair of curves. The area between these two curves divided by the total area of the graph gives the area ratio value (ARV), which is proportional to the degree of separation of the two probability curves and, therefore, provides a measure of the given attribute's power to discriminate between order and disorder. As ARV falls between zero and one, larger ARV corresponds to the better discrimination between order and disorder. Starting from the scale with the highest ARV, we applied a simulated annealing procedure to search for alternative scale values and have managed to increase the ARV by more than 10%. The ranking of the amino acids in this new TOP-IDP scale is as follows (from order promoting to disorder promoting): W, F, Y, I, M, L, V, N, C, T, A, G, R, D, H, Q, K, S, E, P. A web-based server has been created to apply the TOP-IDP scale to predict intrinsically disordered proteins (http://www.disprot.org/dev/disindex.php).

  19. Computational approaches for evaluating the effect of sequence variations and the intrinsically disordered C-terminal region of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein on the interaction with tyrosine kinase Src.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Paula; Peñaranda, Natalia; Zamora, María Antonia; del Pilar Delgado, María; Bohorquez, Eliana; Castro, Harold; Barrios, Andrés Fernando González; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The Helicobacter pylori CagA protein was the first bacterial oncoprotein to be identified as important in the development of human malignancies such as gastric cancer. It is not clear how it is able to deregulate a set of cell control mechanisms to induce carcinogenesis following translocation into human gastric epithelial cells. It is likely, however, that structural variations in the CagA sequence alter its affinity with the host proteins inducing differences in the pathogenicity of different H. pylori strains. Using the recently elucidated N-terminal 3D structure of H. pylori CagA, information on the full cagA gene sequence, and intrinsically disordered protein structure predictions methods we evaluated the interaction of different CagA variants with the kinase Src. An automated docking followed by molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore CagA interaction modes with Src, one of its cellular partners. The computational approach let us establish that even in the presence of the same number and type of EPIYA motifs, CagA protein can reveal different spatial distributions. Based on the lowest affinity energy and higher number of interactions it was established that the principal forces governing the CagA-Src interaction are electrostatic. Results showed that EPIYA-D models presents higher affinity with some host proteins than EPIYA-C. Thus, we highlight the importance and advantage of the use of computational tools in combining chemical and biological data with bioinformatics for modeling and prediction purposes in some cases where experimental techniques present limitations.

  20. Intrinsic connectivity networks within cerebellum and beyond in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Amianto, F; D'Agata, F; Lavagnino, L; Caroppo, P; Abbate-Daga, G; Righi, D; Scarone, S; Bergui, M; Mortara, P; Fassino, S

    2013-10-01

    Cerebellum seems to have a role both in feeding behavior and emotion regulation; therefore, it is a region that warrants further neuroimaging studies in eating disorders, severe conditions that determine a significant impairment in the physical and psychological domain. The aim of this study was to examine the cerebellum intrinsic connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging resting state in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and healthy controls (CN). Resting state brain activity was decomposed into intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) using group spatial independent component analysis on the resting blood oxygenation level dependent time courses of 12 AN, 12 BN, and 10 CN. We extracted the cerebellar ICN and compared it between groups. Intrinsic connectivity within the cerebellar network showed some common alterations in eating disordered compared to healthy subjects (e.g., a greater connectivity with insulae, vermis, and paravermis and a lesser connectivity with parietal lobe); AN and BN patients were characterized by some peculiar alterations in connectivity patterns (e.g., greater connectivity with the insulae in AN compared to BN, greater connectivity with anterior cingulate cortex in BN compared to AN). Our data are consistent with the presence of different alterations in the cerebellar network in AN and BN patients that could be related to psychopathologic dimensions of eating disorders.

  1. Exon-phase symmetry and intrinsic structural disorder promote modular evolution in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Schad, Eva; Kalmar, Lajos; Tompa, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A key signature of module exchange in the genome is phase symmetry of exons, suggestive of exon shuffling events that occurred without disrupting translation reading frame. At the protein level, intrinsic structural disorder may be another key element because disordered regions often serve as functional elements that can be effectively integrated into a protein structure. Therefore, we asked whether exon-phase symmetry in the human genome and structural disorder in the human proteome are connected, signalling such evolutionary mechanisms in the assembly of multi-exon genes. We found an elevated level of structural disorder of regions encoded by symmetric exons and a preferred symmetry of exons encoding for mostly disordered regions (>70% predicted disorder). Alternatively spliced symmetric exons tend to correspond to the most disordered regions. The genes of mostly disordered proteins (>70% predicted disorder) tend to be assembled from symmetric exons, which often arise by internal tandem duplications. Preponderance of certain types of short motifs (e.g. SH3-binding motif) and domains (e.g. high-mobility group domains) suggests that certain disordered modules have been particularly effective in exon-shuffling events. Our observations suggest that structural disorder has facilitated modular assembly of complex genes in evolution of the human genome. PMID:23460204

  2. The intrinsically disordered protein LEA7 from Arabidopsis thaliana protects the isolated enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and enzymes in a soluble leaf proteome during freezing and drying.

    PubMed

    Popova, Antoaneta V; Rausch, Saskia; Hundertmark, Michaela; Gibon, Yves; Hincha, Dirk K

    2015-10-01

    The accumulation of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins in plants is associated with tolerance against stresses such as freezing and desiccation. Two main functions have been attributed to LEA proteins: membrane stabilization and enzyme protection. We have hypothesized previously that LEA7 from Arabidopsis thaliana may stabilize membranes because it interacts with liposomes in the dry state. Here we show that LEA7, contrary to this expectation, did not stabilize liposomes during drying and rehydration. Instead, it partially preserved the activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) during drying and freezing. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed no evidence of aggregation of LDH in the dry or rehydrated state under conditions that lead to complete loss of activity. To approximate the complex influence of intracellular conditions on the protective effects of a LEA protein in a convenient in-vitro assay, we measured the activity of two Arabidopsis enzymes (glucose-6-P dehydrogenase and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) in total soluble leaf protein extract (Arabidopsis soluble proteome, ASP) after drying and rehydration or freezing and thawing. LEA7 partially preserved the activity of both enzymes under these conditions, suggesting its role as an enzyme protectant in vivo. Further FTIR analyses indicated the partial reversibility of protein aggregation in the dry ASP during rehydration. Similarly, aggregation in the dry ASP was strongly reduced by LEA7. In addition, mixtures of LEA7 with sucrose or verbascose reduced aggregation more than the single additives, presumably through the effects of the protein on the H-bonding network of the sugar glasses.

  3. Effects of Crowding and Environment on the Evolution of Conformational Ensembles of the Multi-Stimuli-Responsive Intrinsically Disordered Protein, Rec1-Resilin: A Small-Angle Scattering Investigation.

    PubMed

    Balu, Rajkamal; Mata, Jitendra P; Knott, Robert; Elvin, Christopher M; Hill, Anita J; Choudhury, Namita R; Dutta, Naba K

    2016-07-14

    In this study, we explore the overall structural ensembles and transitions of a biomimetic, multi-stimuli-responsive, intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), Rec1-resilin. The structural transition of Rec1-resilin with change in molecular crowding and environment is evaluated using small-angle neutron scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. The quantitative analyses of the experimental scattering data using a combination of computational models allowed comprehensive description of the structural evolution, organization, and conformational ensembles of Rec1-resilin in response to the changes in concentration, pH, and temperature. Rec1-resilin in uncrowded solutions demonstrates the equilibrium intrinsic structure quality of an IDP with radius of gyration Rg ∼ 5 nm, and a scattering function for the triaxial ellipsoidal model best fit the experimental dataset. On crowding (increase in concentration >10 wt %), Rec1-resilin molecules exert intermolecular repulsive force of interaction, the Rg value reduces with a progressive increase in concentration, and molecular chains transform from a Gaussian coil to a fully swollen coil. It is also revealed that the structural organization of Rec1-resilin dynamically transforms from a rod (pH 2) to coil (pH 4.8) and to globular (pH 12) as a function of pH. The findings further support the temperature-triggered dual-phase-transition behavior of Rec1-resilin, exhibiting rod-shaped structural organization below the upper critical solution temperature (∼4 °C) and a large but compact structure above the lower critical solution temperature (∼75 °C). This work attempted to correlate unusual responsiveness of Rec1-resilin to the evolution of conformational ensembles.

  4. Protein conformational disorder and enzyme catalysis.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Cindy; Hilvert, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Though lacking a well-defined three-dimensional structure, intrinsically unstructured proteins are ubiquitous in nature. These molecules play crucial roles in many cellular processes, especially signaling and regulation. Surprisingly, even enzyme catalysis can tolerate substantial disorder. This observation contravenes conventional wisdom but is relevant to an understanding of how protein dynamics modulates enzyme function. This chapter reviews properties and characteristics of disordered proteins, emphasizing examples of enzymes that lack defined structures, and considers implications of structural disorder for catalytic efficiency and evolution.

  5. Transient helicity in intrinsically disordered Axin-1 studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Bomblies, Rainer; Luitz, Manuel Patrick; Scanu, Sandra; Madl, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Many natural proteins are, as a whole or in part, intrinsically disordered. Frequently, such intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) undergo a transition to a defined and often helical conformation upon binding to partner molecules. The intrinsic propensity of an IDR sequence to fold into a helical conformation already in the absence of a binding partner can have a decisive influence on the binding process and affinity. Using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we have investigated the tendency of regions of Axin-1, an intrinsically disordered scaffolding protein of the WNT signaling pathway, to form helices in segments interacting with binding partners. Secondary chemical shifts from NMR measurements show an increased helical population in these regions. Systematic application of MD advanced sampling approaches on peptide segments of Axin-1 reproduces the experimentally observed tendency and allows insights into the distribution of segment conformations and free energies of helix formation. The results, however, were found to dependent on the force field water model. Recent water models specifically designed for IDRs significantly reduce the predicted helical content and do not improve the agreement with experiment. PMID:28355271

  6. Intrinsic structural disorder and sequence features of the cell cycle inhibitor p57Kip2.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Joshua N; Lumb, Kevin J

    2002-01-01

    The cell cycle inhibitor p57Kip2 induces cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases. p57, although active as a cyclin A-CDK2 inhibitor, is largely unfolded or intrinsically disordered as shown by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra characteristic of an unfolded protein and a hydrodynamic radius consistent with an unfolded structure. In addition, the N-terminal domain of p57 is both functionally independent as a cyclin A-CDK2 inhibitor and unstructured, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectra indicative of unfolded proteins, a lack of 1H chemical shift dispersion and a hydrodynamic radius consistent with a highly unfolded structure. The amino acid compositions of full-length p57 and the excised QT domain of p57 exhibit significant deviations from the average composition of globular proteins that are consistent with the observed intrinsic disorder. However, the amino acid composition of the CDK inhibition domain of p57 does not exhibit such a striking deviation from the average values observed for proteins, implying that a general low level of hydrophobicity, rather than depletion or enrichment in specific amino acids, contributes to the intrinsic disorder of the excised p57 CDK inhibition domain.

  7. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21Cip1, p27Kip1 and p57Kip2. Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domain (KID). The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the KID and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, and its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. PMID:25463440

  8. Bridge over troubled proline: assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins using (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H experiments concomitantly with HNCO and i(HCA)CO(CA)NH.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Maarit; Piirainen, Henni; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Permi, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is by far the most versatile and information rich technique to study intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). While NMR is able to offer residue level information on structure and dynamics, assignment of chemical shift resonances in IDPs is not a straightforward process. Consequently, numerous pulse sequences and assignment protocols have been developed during past several years, targeted especially for the assignment of IDPs, including experiments that employ H(N), H(α) or (13)C detection combined with two to six indirectly detected dimensions. Here we propose two new HN-detection based pulse sequences, (HCA)CON(CAN)H and (HCA)N(CA)CO(N)H, that provide correlations with (1)H(N)(i - 1), (13)C'(i - 1) and (15)N(i), and (1)H(N)(i + 1), (13)C'(i) and (15)N(i) frequencies, respectively. Most importantly, they offer sequential links across the proline bridges and enable filling the single proline gaps during the assignment. We show that the novel experiments can efficiently complement the information available from existing HNCO and intraresidual i(HCA)CO(CA)NH pulse sequences and their concomitant usage enabled >95 % assignment of backbone resonances in cytoplasmic tail of adenosine receptor A2A in comparison to 73 % complete assignment using the HNCO/i(HCA)CO(CA)NH data alone.

  9. Human consensus interferons: Bridging the natural and artificial cytokines with intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    El-Baky, Nawal Abd; Uversky, Vladimir N; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2015-12-01

    The consensus interferons are artificially engineered proteins that combine most of the therapeutic features of natural human α-interferons and show high anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. Egyptian patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 show lower responses to interferon (IFN) therapy than the distributed worldwide patients infected with the other HCV genotypes. Numerous studies have reported that patients with hepatitis C who have not responded to a previous standard IFN-alpha therapy or those who relapsed following treatment cessation may benefit from retreatment with consensus IFN-α (cIFN-α). IFNs-α are shown here to have functionally important disordered regions. Furthermore, a strong correlation is established between the peculiarities of disorder profiles of these proteins and their known structural features. Intrinsic disorder profiles of existing cIFNs-α possess remarkable similarity to the consensus disorder profile calculated as averaged disorder predispositions of all human IFNs-α. If the peculiarities of disorder distribution within the protein sequence are related to protein functionality, then comparison of the disorder profiles of artificial cIFNs (query profiles) with the averaged disorder predisposition profile of human IFNs-α (target profile) can be used in the design of novel cIFNs. The goal here would be to achieve a close similarity between the query and target profiles by manipulating the cIFN sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic disorder in pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes: discovering and analyzing the unfoldomes of early-branching eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Amrita; Sullivan, William J; Radivojac, Predrag; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2008-04-01

    Parasitic protozoal infections have long been known to cause profound degrees of sickness and death in humans as well as animal populations. Despite the increase in the number of annotated genomes available for a large variety of protozoa, a great deal more has yet to be learned about them, from their fundamental physiology to mechanisms invoked during host-pathogen interactions. Most of these genomes share a common feature, namely a high prevalence of low complexity regions in their predicted proteins, which is believed to contribute to the uniqueness of the individual species within this diverse group of early-branching eukaryotes. In the case of Plasmodium species, which cause malaria, such regions have also been reported to hamper the identification of homologues, thus making functional genomics exceptionally challenging. One of the better accepted theories accounting for the high number of low complexity regions is the presence of intrinsic disorder in these microbes. In this study we compare the degree of disordered proteins that are predicted to be expressed in many such ancient eukaryotic cells. Our findings indicate an unusual bias in the amino acids comprising protozoal proteomes, and show that intrinsic disorder is remarkably abundant among their predicted proteins. Additionally, the intrinsically disordered regions tend to be considerably longer in the early-branching eukaryotes. An analysis of a Plasmodium falciparum interactome indicates that protein-protein interactions may be at least one function of the intrinsic disorder. This study provides a bioinfomatics basis for the discovery and analysis of unfoldomes (the complement of intrinsically disordered proteins in a given proteome) of early-branching eukaryotes. It also provides new insights into the evolution of intrinsic disorder in the context of adapting to a parasitic lifestyle and lays the foundation for further work on the subject.

  11. FOXP in Tetrapoda: Intrinsically Disordered Regions, Short Linear Motifs and their evolutionary significance.

    PubMed

    Viscardi, Lucas Henriques; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Paré, Pamela; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2017-03-02

    The FOXP subfamily is probably the most extensively characterized subfamily of the forkhead superfamily, playing important roles in development and homeostasis in vertebrates. Intrinsically disorder protein regions (IDRs) are protein segments that exhibit multiple physical interactions and play critical roles in various biological processes, including regulation and signaling. IDRs in proteins may play an important role in the evolvability of genetic systems. In this study, we analyzed 77 orthologous FOXP genes/proteins from Tetrapoda, regarding protein disorder content and evolutionary rate. We also predicted the number and type of short linear motifs (SLIMs) in the IDRs. Similar levels of protein disorder (approximately 70%) were found for FOXP1, FOXP2, and FOXP4. However, for FOXP3, which is shorter in length and has a more specific function, the disordered content was lower (30%). Mammals showed higher protein disorders for FOXP1 and FOXP4 than non-mammals. Specific analyses related to linear motifs in the four genes showed also a clear differentiation between FOXPs in mammals and non-mammals. We predicted for the first time the role of IDRs and SLIMs in the FOXP gene family associated with possible adaptive novelties within Tetrapoda. For instance, we found gain and loss of important phosphorylation sites in the Homo sapiens FOXP2 IDR regions, with possible implication for the evolution of human speech.

  12. FOXP in Tetrapoda: Intrinsically Disordered Regions, Short Linear Motifs and their evolutionary significance

    PubMed Central

    Viscardi, Lucas Henriques; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Paré, Pamela; Fagundes, Nelson Jurandi Rosa; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The FOXP subfamily is probably the most extensively characterized subfamily of the forkhead superfamily, playing important roles in development and homeostasis in vertebrates. Intrinsically disorder protein regions (IDRs) are protein segments that exhibit multiple physical interactions and play critical roles in various biological processes, including regulation and signaling. IDRs in proteins may play an important role in the evolvability of genetic systems. In this study, we analyzed 77 orthologous FOXP genes/proteins from Tetrapoda, regarding protein disorder content and evolutionary rate. We also predicted the number and type of short linear motifs (SLIMs) in the IDRs. Similar levels of protein disorder (approximately 70%) were found for FOXP1, FOXP2, and FOXP4. However, for FOXP3, which is shorter in length and has a more specific function, the disordered content was lower (30%). Mammals showed higher protein disorders for FOXP1 and FOXP4 than non-mammals. Specific analyses related to linear motifs in the four genes showed also a clear differentiation between FOXPs in mammals and non-mammals. We predicted for the first time the role of IDRs and SLIMs in the FOXP gene family associated with possible adaptive novelties within Tetrapoda. For instance, we found gain and loss of important phosphorylation sites in the Homo sapiens FOXP2 IDR regions, with possible implication for the evolution of human speech. PMID:28257525

  13. Order out of disorder: working cycle of an intrinsically unfolded chaperone.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Dana; Xu, Ying; Cremers, Claudia M; Ilbert, Marianne; Mittelman, Roni; Fitzgerald, Michael C; Jakob, Ursula

    2012-03-02

    The redox-regulated chaperone Hsp33 protects organisms against oxidative stress that leads to protein unfolding. Activation of Hsp33 is triggered by the oxidative unfolding of its own redox-sensor domain, making Hsp33 a member of a recently discovered class of chaperones that require partial unfolding for full chaperone activity. Here we address the long-standing question of how chaperones recognize client proteins. We show that Hsp33 uses its own intrinsically disordered regions to discriminate between unfolded and partially structured folding intermediates. Binding to secondary structure elements in client proteins stabilizes Hsp33's intrinsically disordered regions, and this stabilization appears to mediate Hsp33's high affinity for structured folding intermediates. Return to nonstress conditions reduces Hsp33's disulfide bonds, which then significantly destabilizes the bound client proteins and in doing so converts them into less-structured, folding-competent client proteins of ATP-dependent foldases. We propose a model in which energy-independent chaperones use internal order-to-disorder transitions to control substrate binding and release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An intrinsic mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover.

    PubMed

    Yang, Won Ho; Aziz, Peter V; Heithoff, Douglas M; Mahan, Michael J; Smith, Jeffrey W; Marth, Jamey D

    2015-11-03

    The composition and functions of the secreted proteome are controlled by the life spans of different proteins. However, unlike intracellular protein fate, intrinsic factors determining secreted protein aging and turnover have not been identified and characterized. Almost all secreted proteins are posttranslationally modified with the covalent attachment of N-glycans. We have discovered an intrinsic mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover linked to the stepwise elimination of saccharides attached to the termini of N-glycans. Endogenous glycosidases, including neuraminidase 1 (Neu1), neuraminidase 3 (Neu3), beta-galactosidase 1 (Glb1), and hexosaminidase B (HexB), possess hydrolytic activities that temporally remodel N-glycan structures, progressively exposing different saccharides with increased protein age. Subsequently, endocytic lectins with distinct binding specificities, including the Ashwell-Morell receptor, integrin αM, and macrophage mannose receptor, are engaged in N-glycan ligand recognition and the turnover of secreted proteins. Glycosidase inhibition and lectin deficiencies increased protein life spans and abundance, and the basal rate of N-glycan remodeling varied among distinct proteins, accounting for differences in their life spans. This intrinsic multifactorial mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover contributes to health and the outcomes of disease.

  15. An intrinsic mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Won Ho; Aziz, Peter V.; Heithoff, Douglas M.; Mahan, Michael J.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Marth, Jamey D.

    2015-01-01

    The composition and functions of the secreted proteome are controlled by the life spans of different proteins. However, unlike intracellular protein fate, intrinsic factors determining secreted protein aging and turnover have not been identified and characterized. Almost all secreted proteins are posttranslationally modified with the covalent attachment of N-glycans. We have discovered an intrinsic mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover linked to the stepwise elimination of saccharides attached to the termini of N-glycans. Endogenous glycosidases, including neuraminidase 1 (Neu1), neuraminidase 3 (Neu3), beta-galactosidase 1 (Glb1), and hexosaminidase B (HexB), possess hydrolytic activities that temporally remodel N-glycan structures, progressively exposing different saccharides with increased protein age. Subsequently, endocytic lectins with distinct binding specificities, including the Ashwell–Morell receptor, integrin αM, and macrophage mannose receptor, are engaged in N-glycan ligand recognition and the turnover of secreted proteins. Glycosidase inhibition and lectin deficiencies increased protein life spans and abundance, and the basal rate of N-glycan remodeling varied among distinct proteins, accounting for differences in their life spans. This intrinsic multifactorial mechanism of secreted protein aging and turnover contributes to health and the outcomes of disease. PMID:26489654

  16. Expression, fermentation and purification of a predicted intrinsically disordered region of the transcription factor, NFAT5.

    PubMed

    DuMond, Jenna F; He, Yi; Burg, Maurice B; Ferraris, Joan D

    2015-11-01

    Hypertonicity stimulates Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) nuclear localization and transactivating activity. Many transcription factors are known to contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) which become more structured with local environmental changes such as osmolality, temperature and tonicity. The transactivating domain of NFAT5 is predicted to be intrinsically disordered under normal tonicity, and under high NaCl, the activity of this domain is increased. To study the binding of co-regulatory proteins at IDRs a cDNA construct expressing the NFAT5 TAD was created and transformed into Escherichia coli cells. Transformed E. coli cells were mass produced by fermentation and extracted by cell lysis to release the NFAT5 TAD. The NFAT5 TAD was subsequently purified using a His-tag column, cation exchange chromatography as well as hydrophobic interaction chromatography and then characterized by mass spectrometry (MS). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of O-Linked Glycosylation on the Equilibrium Structural Ensemble of Intrinsically Disordered Polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-12-24

    Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications (PTMs), which provides a large proteome diversity. Previous work on glycosylation of globular proteins has revealed remarkable effects of glycosylation on protein function, altering the folding stability and structure and/or altering the protein surface which affects their binding characteristics. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of large proteins are also frequently glycosylated, yet how glycosylation affects their function remains to be elucidated. An important open question is, does glycosylation affect IDP structure or binding characteristics or both? In this work, we particularly address the structural effects of O-linked glycosylation by investigating glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of two different IDPs, tau174-183 and human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), by all-atom explicit solvent simulations. We simulate these IDPs in aqueous solution for O-linked glycosylated and unglycosylated forms by employing two modern all-atom force fields for which glycan parameters are also available. We find that O-linked glycosylation only has a modest effect on equilibrium structural ensembles of IDPs, for the cases studied here, which suggests that the functional role of glycosylation may be primarily exerted by modulation of the protein binding characteristics rather than structure.

  18. An intrinsically disordered linker plays a critical role in bacterial cell division.

    PubMed

    Buske, P J; Mittal, Anuradha; Pappu, Rohit V; Levin, Petra Anne

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, animals, fungi, and many single celled eukaryotes, division is initiated by the formation of a ring of cytoskeletal protein at the nascent division site. In bacteria, the tubulin-like GTPase FtsZ serves as the foundation for the cytokinetic ring. A conserved feature of FtsZ is an intrinsically disordered peptide known as the C-terminal linker. Chimeric experiments suggest the linker acts as a flexible boom allowing FtsZ to associate with the membrane through a conserved C-terminal domain and also modulates interactions both between FtsZ subunits and between FtsZ and modulatory proteins in the cytoplasm.

  19. The interplay of intrinsic disorder and macromolecular crowding on α-synuclein fibril formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Nobu C.; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2016-02-01

    α-synuclein (α-syn) is an intrinsically disordered protein which is considered to be one of the causes of Parkinson's disease. This protein forms amyloid fibrils when in a highly concentrated solution. The fibril formation of α-syn is induced not only by increases in α-syn concentration but also by macromolecular crowding. In order to investigate the coupled effect of the intrinsic disorder of α-syn and macromolecular crowding, we construct a lattice gas model of α-syn in contact with a crowding agent reservoir based on statistical mechanics. The main assumption is that α-syn can be expressed as coarse-grained particles with internal states coupled with effective volume; and disordered states are modeled by larger particles with larger internal entropy than other states. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, we can exactly calculate the number of conformations of crowding agents, and this enables us to prove that the original grand canonical ensemble with a crowding agent reservoir is mathematically equivalent to a canonical ensemble without crowding agents. In this expression, the effect of macromolecular crowding is absorbed in the internal entropy of disordered states; it is clearly shown that the crowding effect reduces the internal entropy. Based on Monte Carlo simulation, we provide scenarios of crowding-induced fibril formation. We also discuss the recent controversy over the existence of helically folded tetramers of α-syn, and suggest that macromolecular crowding is the key to resolving the controversy.

  20. Caulobacter PopZ forms an intrinsically disordered hub in organizing bacterial cell poles

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Joshua A.; Follett, Shelby E.; Wang, Haibi; Meadows, Christopher P.; Varga, Krisztina; Bowman, Grant R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite their relative simplicity, bacteria have complex anatomy at the subcellular level. At the cell poles of Caulobacter crescentus, a 177-amino acid (aa) protein called PopZ self-assembles into 3D polymeric superstructures. Remarkably, we find that this assemblage interacts directly with at least eight different proteins, which are involved in cell cycle regulation and chromosome segregation. The binding determinants within PopZ include 24 aa at the N terminus, a 32-aa region near the C-terminal homo-oligomeric assembly domain, and portions of an intervening linker region. Together, the N-terminal 133 aa of PopZ are sufficient for interacting with all binding partners, even in the absence of homo-oligomeric assembly. Structural analysis of this region revealed that it is intrinsically disordered, similar to p53 and other hub proteins that organize complex signaling networks in eukaryotic cells. Through live-cell photobleaching, we find rapid binding kinetics between PopZ and its partners, suggesting many pole-localized proteins become concentrated at cell poles through rapid cycles of binding and unbinding within the PopZ scaffold. We conclude that some bacteria, similar to their eukaryotic counterparts, use intrinsically disordered hub proteins for network assembly and subcellular organization. PMID:27791060

  1. Structural Characterization of an Intrinsically Unfolded Mini-HBX Protein from Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Cha, Eun-Ji; Lim, Ji-Eun; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Cho, Hyeseong; Han, Kyou-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus x protein (HBX) is expressed in HBV-infected liver cells and can interact with a wide range of cellular proteins. In order to understand such promiscuous behavior of HBX we expressed a truncated mini-HBX protein (named Tr-HBX) (residues 18–142) with 5 Cys→Ser mutations and characterized its structural features using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry, NMR spectroscopy as well as bioinformatics tools for predicting disorder in intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). The secondary structural content of Tr-HBX from CD data suggests that Tr-HBX is only partially folded. The protein disorder prediction by IUPred reveals that the unstructured region encompasses its N-terminal ∼30 residues of Tr-HBX. A two-dimensional 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectrum exhibits fewer number of resonances than expected, suggesting that Tr-HBX is a hybrid type IUP where its folded C-terminal half coexists with a disordered N-terminal region. Many IUPs are known to be capable of having promiscuous interactions with a multitude of target proteins. Therefore the intrinsically disordered nature of Tr-HBX revealed in this study provides a partial structural basis for the promiscuous structure-function behavior of HBX. PMID:22820921

  2. Structural characterization of an intrinsically unfolded mini-HBX protein from hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si-Hyung; Cha, Eun-Ji; Lim, Ji-Eun; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Cho, Hyeseong; Han, Kyou-Hoon

    2012-08-01

    The hepatitis B virus x protein (HBX) is expressed in HBV-infected liver cells and can interact with a wide range of cellular proteins. In order to understand such promiscuous behavior of HBX we expressed a truncated mini-HBX protein (named Tr-HBX) (residues 18-142) with 5 Cys → Ser mutations and characterized its structural features using circular dichroism (CD) spectropolarimetry, NMR spectroscopy as well as bioinformatics tools for predicting disorder in intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). The secondary structural content of Tr-HBX from CD data suggests that Tr-HBX is only partially folded. The protein disorder prediction by IUPred reveals that the unstructured region encompasses its N-terminal ~30 residues of Tr-HBX. A two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR spectrum exhibits fewer number of resonances than expected, suggesting that Tr-HBX is a hybrid type IUP where its folded C-terminal half coexists with a disordered N-terminal region. Many IUPs are known to be capable of having promiscuous interactions with a multitude of target proteins. Therefore the intrinsically disordered nature of Tr-HBX revealed in this study provides a partial structural basis for the promiscuous structure-function behavior of HBX.

  3. DNA search efficiency is modulated by charge composition and distribution in the intrinsically disordered tail.

    PubMed

    Vuzman, Dana; Levy, Yaakov

    2010-12-07

    Intrinsically disordered tails are common in DNA-binding proteins and can affect their search efficiency on nonspecific DNA by promoting the brachiation dynamics of intersegment transfer. During brachiation, the protein jumps between distant DNA regions via an intermediate state in which the tail and globular moieties are bound to different DNA segments. While the disordered tail must be long and positively charged to facilitate DNA search, the effect of its residue sequence on brachiation is unknown. We explored this issue using the NK-2 and Antp homeodomain transcription factors. We designed 566 NK-2 tail-variants and 55 Antp tail-variants having different net charges and positive charge distributions and studied their dynamics and DNA search efficiencies using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. More intersegment transfers occur when the tail is moderately positively charged and the positive charges are clustered together in the middle of the tail or towards its N terminus. The presence of a negatively charged residue does not significantly affect protein brachiation, although it is likely that the presence of many negatively charged residues will complicate the DNA search mechanism. A bioinformatic analysis of 1,384 wild-type homeodomains illustrates that the charge composition and distribution in their N-tail sequences are consistent with an optimal charge pattern to promote intersegment transfer. Our study thus indicates that the residue sequence of the disordered tails of DNA-binding proteins has unique characteristics that were evolutionarily selected to achieve optimized function and suggests that the sequence-structure-function paradigm known for structured proteins is valid for intrinsically disordered proteins as well.

  4. DNA search efficiency is modulated by charge composition and distribution in the intrinsically disordered tail

    PubMed Central

    Vuzman, Dana; Levy, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered tails are common in DNA-binding proteins and can affect their search efficiency on nonspecific DNA by promoting the brachiation dynamics of intersegment transfer. During brachiation, the protein jumps between distant DNA regions via an intermediate state in which the tail and globular moieties are bound to different DNA segments. While the disordered tail must be long and positively charged to facilitate DNA search, the effect of its residue sequence on brachiation is unknown. We explored this issue using the NK-2 and Antp homeodomain transcription factors. We designed 566 NK-2 tail-variants and 55 Antp tail-variants having different net charges and positive charge distributions and studied their dynamics and DNA search efficiencies using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. More intersegment transfers occur when the tail is moderately positively charged and the positive charges are clustered together in the middle of the tail or towards its N terminus. The presence of a negatively charged residue does not significantly affect protein brachiation, although it is likely that the presence of many negatively charged residues will complicate the DNA search mechanism. A bioinformatic analysis of 1,384 wild-type homeodomains illustrates that the charge composition and distribution in their N-tail sequences are consistent with an optimal charge pattern to promote intersegment transfer. Our study thus indicates that the residue sequence of the disordered tails of DNA-binding proteins has unique characteristics that were evolutionarily selected to achieve optimized function and suggests that the sequence-structure-function paradigm known for structured proteins is valid for intrinsically disordered proteins as well. PMID:21078959

  5. Untapped Potential of Disordered Proteins in Current Druggable Human Proteome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Wu, Zhonghua; Wang, Kui; Uversky, Vladimir N; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Current efforts in design and characterization of drugs often rely on the structure of their protein targets. However, a large fraction of proteins lack unique 3-D structures and exist as highly dynamic structural ensembles. These intrinsically disordered proteins are involved in pathogenesis of various human diseases and are highly abundant in eukaryotes. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the current druggable human proteome covering 12 drug classes and 18 major classes of drug targets we show a significant bias toward high structural coverage and low abundance of intrinsic disorder. We review reasons for this bias including widespread use of the structural information in various stages of drug development and characterization process and difficulty with attaining structures for the intrinsically disordered proteins. We also discuss future of intrinsically disordered proteins as drug targets. Given the overall high disorder content of the human proteome and current bias of the druggable human proteome toward structural proteins, it is inevitable that disordered proteins will have to raise up on the list of prospective drug targets. The protein disorder-assisted drug design can draw from current rational drug design techniques and would also need novel approaches that no longer rely on a unique protein structure.

  6. Mechanism of the intrinsic arginine finger in heterotrimeric G proteins.

    PubMed

    Mann, Daniel; Teuber, Christian; Tennigkeit, Stefan A; Schröter, Grit; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2016-12-13

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are crucial molecular switches that maintain a large number of physiological processes in cells. The signal is encoded into surface alterations of the Gα subunit that carries GTP in its active state and GDP in its inactive state. The ability of the Gα subunit to hydrolyze GTP is essential for signal termination. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerates this process. A key player in this catalyzed reaction is an arginine residue, Arg178 in Gαi1, which is already an intrinsic part of the catalytic center in Gα in contrast to small GTPases, at which the corresponding GTPase-activating protein (GAP) provides the arginine "finger." We applied time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy in combination with isotopic labeling and site-directed mutagenesis to reveal the molecular mechanism, especially of the role of Arg178 in the intrinsic Gαi1 mechanism and the RGS4-catalyzed mechanism. Complementary biomolecular simulations (molecular mechanics with molecular dynamics and coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) were performed. Our findings show that Arg178 is bound to γ-GTP for the intrinsic Gαi1 mechanism and pushed toward a bidentate α-γ-GTP coordination for the Gαi1·RGS4 mechanism. This movement induces a charge shift toward β-GTP, increases the planarity of γ-GTP, and thereby catalyzes the hydrolysis.

  7. Mechanism of the intrinsic arginine finger in heterotrimeric G proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Daniel; Teuber, Christian; Tennigkeit, Stefan A.; Schröter, Grit; Gerwert, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are crucial molecular switches that maintain a large number of physiological processes in cells. The signal is encoded into surface alterations of the Gα subunit that carries GTP in its active state and GDP in its inactive state. The ability of the Gα subunit to hydrolyze GTP is essential for signal termination. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerates this process. A key player in this catalyzed reaction is an arginine residue, Arg178 in Gαi1, which is already an intrinsic part of the catalytic center in Gα in contrast to small GTPases, at which the corresponding GTPase-activating protein (GAP) provides the arginine “finger.” We applied time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy in combination with isotopic labeling and site-directed mutagenesis to reveal the molecular mechanism, especially of the role of Arg178 in the intrinsic Gαi1 mechanism and the RGS4-catalyzed mechanism. Complementary biomolecular simulations (molecular mechanics with molecular dynamics and coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) were performed. Our findings show that Arg178 is bound to γ-GTP for the intrinsic Gαi1 mechanism and pushed toward a bidentate α-γ-GTP coordination for the Gαi1·RGS4 mechanism. This movement induces a charge shift toward β-GTP, increases the planarity of γ-GTP, and thereby catalyzes the hydrolysis. PMID:27911799

  8. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-18

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure-high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C-B-C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials.

  9. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure–high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C–B–C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials. PMID:26777140

  10. δ-Tonoplast intrinsic protein defines unique plant vacuole functions

    PubMed Central

    Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Fischer, Andreas M.; Grimes, Howard D.; Ryan, Clarence A.; Rogers, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Plant cell vacuoles may have either storage or degradative functions. Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are synthesized in response to wounding and to developmental switches that affect carbon and nitrogen sinks. Here we show that VSPs are stored in a unique type of vacuole that is derived from degradative central vacuoles coincident with insertion of a new tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP), δ-TIP, into their membranes. This finding demonstrates a tight coupling between the presence of δ-TIP and acquisition of a specialized storage function and indicates that TIP isoforms may determine vacuole identity. PMID:9789029

  11. The role of intrinsic disorder and dynamics in the assembly and function of the type II secretion system.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuang; Shevchik, Vladimir E; Shaw, Rosie; Pickersgill, Richard W; Garnett, James A

    2017-10-01

    Many Gram-negative commensal and pathogenic bacteria use a type II secretion system (T2SS) to transport proteins out of the cell. These exported proteins or substrates play a major role in toxin delivery, maintaining biofilms, replication in the host and subversion of host immune responses to infection. We review the current structural and functional work on this system and argue that intrinsically disordered regions and protein dynamics are central for assembly, exo-protein recognition, and secretion competence of the T2SS. The central role of intrinsic disorder-order transitions in these processes may be a particular feature of type II secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding the roles of intrinsic disorder in subunits of hemoglobin and the disease process of sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Reis; Amin, Narmin; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    One of the common genetic disorders is sickle cell anemia, in which 2 recessive alleles must meet to allow for destruction and alteration in the morphology of red blood cells. This usually leads to loss of proper binding of oxygen to hemoglobin and curved, sickle-shaped erythrocytes. The mutation causing this disease occurs in the 6(th) codon of the HBB gene encoding the hemoglobin subunit β (β-globin), a protein, serving as an integral part of the adult hemoglobin A (HbA), which is a heterotetramer of 2 α chains and 2 β chains that is responsible for binding to the oxygen in the blood. This mutation changes a charged glutamic acid to a hydrophobic valine residue and disrupts the tertiary structure and stability of the hemoglobin molecule. Since in the field of protein intrinsic disorder, charged and polar residues are typically considered as disorder promoting, in opposite to the order-promoting non-polar hydrophobic residues, in this study we attempted to answer a question if intrinsic disorder might have a role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell anemia. To this end, several disorder predictors were utilized to evaluate the presence of intrinsically disordered regions in all subunits of human hemoglobin: α, β, δ, ε, ζ, γ1, and γ2. Then, structural analysis was completed by using the SWISS-MODEL Repository to visualize the outputs of the disorder predictors. Finally, Uniprot STRING and D(2)P(2) were used to determine biochemical interactome and protein partners for each hemoglobin subunit along with analyzing their posttranslational modifications. All these properties were used to determine any differences between the 6 different types of subunits of hemoglobin and to correlate the mutation leading to sickle cell anemia with intrinsic disorder propensity.

  13. Looking at the carcinogenicity of human insulin analogues via the intrinsic disorder prism.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; Linjawi, Moustafa H; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-03-17

    Therapeutic insulin, in its native and biosynthetic forms as well as several currently available insulin analogues, continues to be the protein of most interest to researchers. From the time of its discovery to the development of modern insulin analogues, this important therapeutic protein has passed through several stages and product generations. Beside the well-known link between diabetes and cancer risk, the currently used therapeutic insulin analogues raised serious concerns due to their potential roles in cancer initiation and/or progression. It is possible that structural variations in some of the insulin analogues are responsible for the appearance of new oncogenic species with high binding affinity to the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor. The question we are trying to answer in this work is: are there any specific features of the distribution of intrinsic disorder propensity within the amino acid sequences of insulin analogues that may provide an explanation for the carcinogenicity of the altered insulin protein?

  14. The inverted free energy landscape of an intrinsically disordered peptide by simulations and experiments.

    PubMed

    Granata, Daniele; Baftizadeh, Fahimeh; Habchi, Johnny; Galvagnion, Celine; De Simone, Alfonso; Camilloni, Carlo; Laio, Alessandro; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-10-26

    The free energy landscape theory has been very successful in rationalizing the folding behaviour of globular proteins, as this representation provides intuitive information on the number of states involved in the folding process, their populations and pathways of interconversion. We extend here this formalism to the case of the Aβ40 peptide, a 40-residue intrinsically disordered protein fragment associated with Alzheimer's disease. By using an advanced sampling technique that enables free energy calculations to reach convergence also in the case of highly disordered states of proteins, we provide a precise structural characterization of the free energy landscape of this peptide. We find that such landscape has inverted features with respect to those typical of folded proteins. While the global free energy minimum consists of highly disordered structures, higher free energy regions correspond to a large variety of transiently structured conformations with secondary structure elements arranged in several different manners, and are not separated from each other by sizeable free energy barriers. From this peculiar structure of the free energy landscape we predict that this peptide should become more structured and not only more compact, with increasing temperatures, and we show that this is the case through a series of biophysical measurements.

  15. Protein amyloids develop an intrinsic fluorescence signature during aggregation†

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Fiona T. S.; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Kumita, Janet R.; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2017-01-01

    We report observations of an intrinsic fluorescence in the visible range, which develops during the aggregation of a range of polypeptides, including the disease-related human peptides amyloid-β(1–40) and (1–42), lysozyme and tau. Characteristic fluorescence properties such as the emission lifetime and spectra were determined experimentally. This intrinsic fluorescence is independent of the presence of aromatic side-chain residues within the polypeptide structure. Rather, it appears to result from electronic levels that become available when the polypeptide chain folds into a cross-β sheet scaffold similar to what has been reported to take place in crystals. We use these findings to quantify protein aggregation in vitro by fluorescence imaging in a label-free manner. PMID:23420088

  16. A multi-state coarse grained modeling approach for an intrinsically disordered peptide.

    PubMed

    Ramezanghorbani, Farhad; Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sayar, Mehmet

    2017-09-07

    Many proteins display a marginally stable tertiary structure, which can be altered via external stimuli. Since a majority of coarse grained (CG) models are aimed at structure prediction, their success for an intrinsically disordered peptide's conformational space with marginal stability and sensitivity to external stimuli cannot be taken for granted. In this study, by using the LKα14 peptide as a test system, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach for constructing a multi-state CG model, which can capture the conformational behavior of this peptide in three distinct environments with a unique set of interaction parameters. LKα14 is disordered in dilute solutions; however, it strictly adopts the α-helix conformation upon aggregation or when in contact with a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. Our bottom-up approach combines a generic base model, that is unbiased for any particular secondary structure, with nonbonded interactions which represent hydrogen bonds, electrostatics, and hydrophobic forces. We demonstrate that by using carefully designed all atom potential of mean force calculations from all three states of interest, one can get a balanced representation of the nonbonded interactions. Our CG model behaves intrinsically disordered in bulk water, folds into an α-helix in the presence of an interface or a neighboring peptide, and is stable as a tetrameric unit, successfully reproducing the all atom molecular dynamics simulations and experimental results.

  17. A multi-state coarse grained modeling approach for an intrinsically disordered peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezanghorbani, Farhad; Dalgicdir, Cahit; Sayar, Mehmet

    2017-09-01

    Many proteins display a marginally stable tertiary structure, which can be altered via external stimuli. Since a majority of coarse grained (CG) models are aimed at structure prediction, their success for an intrinsically disordered peptide's conformational space with marginal stability and sensitivity to external stimuli cannot be taken for granted. In this study, by using the LKα 14 peptide as a test system, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach for constructing a multi-state CG model, which can capture the conformational behavior of this peptide in three distinct environments with a unique set of interaction parameters. LKα 14 is disordered in dilute solutions; however, it strictly adopts the α -helix conformation upon aggregation or when in contact with a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface. Our bottom-up approach combines a generic base model, that is unbiased for any particular secondary structure, with nonbonded interactions which represent hydrogen bonds, electrostatics, and hydrophobic forces. We demonstrate that by using carefully designed all atom potential of mean force calculations from all three states of interest, one can get a balanced representation of the nonbonded interactions. Our CG model behaves intrinsically disordered in bulk water, folds into an α -helix in the presence of an interface or a neighboring peptide, and is stable as a tetrameric unit, successfully reproducing the all atom molecular dynamics simulations and experimental results.

  18. Structural characterization of Hsp12, the heat shock protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in aqueous solution where it is intrinsically disordered and in detergent micelles where it is locally α-helical.

    PubMed

    Singarapu, Kiran K; Tonelli, Marco; Chow, Darius C; Frederick, Ronnie O; Westler, William M; Markley, John L

    2011-12-16

    Hsp12 (heat shock protein 12) belongs to the small heat shock protein family, partially characterized as a stress response, stationary phase entry, late embryonic abundant-like protein located at the plasma membrane to protect membrane from desiccation. Here, we report the structural characterization of Hsp12 by NMR and biophysical techniques. The protein was labeled uniformly with nitrogen-15 and carbon-13 so that its conformation could be determined in detail both in aqueous solution and in two membrane-mimetic environments, SDS and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. Secondary structural elements determined from assigned chemical shifts indicated that Hsp12 is dynamically disordered in aqueous solution, whereas it gains four helical stretches in the presence of SDS micelles and a single helix in presence of DPC. These conclusions were reinforced by circular dichroism spectra of the protein in all three environments. The lack of long range interactions in NOESY spectra indicated that the helices present in SDS micelles do not pack together. R(1) and R(2), relaxation and heteronuclear NOE measurements showed that the protein is disordered in aqueous solution but becomes more ordered in presence of detergent micelles. NMR spectra collected in presence of paramagnetic spin relaxation agents (5DSA, 16DSA, and Gd(DTPA-BMA)) indicated that the amphipathic α-helices of Hsp12 in SDS micelles lie on the membrane surface. These observations are in agreement with studies suggesting that Hsp12 functions to protect the membrane from desiccation.

  19. Minute Time Scale Prolyl Isomerization Governs Antibody Recognition of an Intrinsically Disordered Immunodominant Epitope*

    PubMed Central

    Fassolari, Marisol; Chemes, Lucia B.; Gallo, Mariana; Smal, Clara; Sánchez, Ignacio E.; de Prat-Gay, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Conformational rearrangements in antibody·antigen recognition are essential events where kinetic discrimination of isomers expands the universe of combinations. We investigated the interaction mechanism of a monoclonal antibody, M1, raised against E7 from human papillomavirus, a prototypic viral oncoprotein and a model intrinsically disordered protein. The mapped 12-amino acid immunodominant epitope lies within a “hinge” region between the N-terminal intrinsically disordered and the C-terminal globular domains. Kinetic experiments show that despite being within an intrinsically disordered region, the hinge E7 epitope has at least two populations separated by a high energy barrier. Nuclear magnetic resonance traced the origin of this barrier to a very slow (t½ ∼4 min) trans-cis prolyl isomerization event involving changes in secondary structure. The less populated (10%) cis isomer is the binding-competent species, thus requiring the 90% of molecules in the trans configuration to isomerize before binding. The association rate for the cis isomer approaches 6 × 107 m−1 s−1, a ceiling for antigen-antibody interactions. Mutagenesis experiments showed that Pro-41 in E7Ep was required for both binding and isomerization. After a slow postbinding unimolecular rearrangement, a consolidated complex with KD = 1.2 × 10−7 m is reached. Our results suggest that presentation of this viral epitope by the antigen-presenting cells would have to be “locked” in the cis conformation, in opposition to the most populated trans isomer, in order to select the specific antibody clone that goes through affinity and kinetic maturation. PMID:23504368

  20. Conformational Dissection of a Viral Intrinsically Disordered Domain Involved in Cellular Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Sebastián; Salvay, Andres G.; Chemes, Lucía B.; de Prat-Gay, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder is abundant in viral genomes and provides conformational plasticity to its protein products. In order to gain insight into its structure-function relationships, we carried out a comprehensive analysis of structural propensities within the intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain from the human papillomavirus type-16 E7 oncoprotein (E7N). Two E7N segments located within the conserved CR1 and CR2 regions present transient α-helix structure. The helix in the CR1 region spans residues L8 to L13 and overlaps with the E2F mimic linear motif. The second helix, located within the highly acidic CR2 region, presents a pH-dependent structural transition. At neutral pH the helix spans residues P17 to N29, which include the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor LxCxE binding motif (residues 21–29), while the acidic CKII-PEST region spanning residues E33 to I38 populates polyproline type II (PII) structure. At pH 5.0, the CR2 helix propagates up to residue I38 at the expense of loss of PII due to charge neutralization of acidic residues. Using truncated forms of HPV-16 E7, we confirmed that pH-induced changes in α-helix content are governed by the intrinsically disordered E7N domain. Interestingly, while at both pH the region encompassing the LxCxE motif adopts α-helical structure, the isolated 21–29 fragment including this stretch is unable to populate an α-helix even at high TFE concentrations. Thus, the E7N domain can populate dynamic but discrete structural ensembles by sampling α-helix-coil-PII-ß-sheet structures. This high plasticity may modulate the exposure of linear binding motifs responsible for its multi-target binding properties, leading to interference with key cell signaling pathways and eventually to cellular transformation by the virus. PMID:24086265

  1. Native globular actin has a thermodynamically unstable quasi-stationary structure with elements of intrinsic disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Irina M; Povarova, Olga I; Uversky, Vladimir N; Turoverov, Konstantin K

    2016-02-01

    The native form of globular actin, G-actin, is formed in vivo as a result of complex post-translational folding processes that require ATP energy expenditure and are assisted by the 70 kDa heat shock protein, prefoldin and chaperonin containing TCP-1. G-actin is stabilized by the binding of one ATP molecule and one Ca(2+) ion (or Mg(2+) in vivo). Chemical denaturants, heating or Ca(2+) removal transform native actin (N) into 'inactivated actin' (I), a compact oligomer comprising 14-16 subunits. Viscogenic and crowding agents slow this process but do not stop it. The lack of calcium in the solution accelerates the spontaneous N → I transition. Thus, native G-actin has a kinetically stable (as a result of the high free energy barrier between the N and I states) but thermodynamically unstable structure, which, in the absence of Ca(2+) or other bivalent metal ions, spontaneously converts to the thermodynamically stable I state. It was noted that native actin has much in common with intrinsically disordered proteins: it has functionally important disordered regions; it is constantly in complex with one of its numerous partners; and it plays key roles in many cellular processes, in a manner similar to disordered hub proteins. By analyzing actin folding in vivo and unfolding in vitro, we advanced the hypothesis that proteins in a native state may have a thermodynamically unstable quasi-stationary structure. The kinetically stable native state of these proteins appears forcibly under the influence of intracellular folding machinery. The denaturation of such proteins is always irreversible because the inactivated state, for which the structure is determined by the amino acid sequence of a protein, comprises the thermodynamically stable state under physiological conditions.

  2. The intracellular distal tail of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is intrinsically disordered: implications for NHE1 trafficking.

    PubMed

    Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth; Bjerre, Gabriel; Kjaergaard, Magnus; Pedersen, Stine F; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2011-05-03

    Intrinsic disorder is important for protein regulation, yet its role in regulation of ion transport proteins is essentially uninvestigated. The ubiquitous plasma membrane carrier protein Na(+)/H(+) Exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) plays pivotal roles in cellular pH and volume homeostasis, and its dysfunction is implicated in several clinically important diseases. This study shows, for the first time for any carrier protein, that the distal part of the C-terminal intracellular tail (the cdt, residues V686-Q815) from human (h) NHE1 is intrinsically disordered. Further, we experimentally demonstrated the presence of a similar region of intrinsic disorder (ID) in NHE1 from the teleost fish Pleuronectes americanus (paNHE1), and bioinformatic analysis suggested ID to be conserved in the NHE1 family. The sequential variation in structure propensity as determined by NMR, but not the amplitude, was largely conserved between the h- and paNHE1cdt. This suggests that both proteins contain molecular recognition features (MoRFs), i.e., local, transiently formed structures within an ID region. The functional relevance of the most conserved MoRF was investigated by introducing a point mutation that significantly disrupted the putative binding feature. When this mutant NHE1 was expressed in full length NHE1 in AP1 cells, it exhibited impaired trafficking to the plasma membrane. This study demonstrated that the distal regulatory domain of NHE1 is intrinsically disordered yet contains conserved regions of transient structure. We suggest that normal NHE1 function depends on a protein recognition element within the ID region that may be linked to NHE1 trafficking via an acidic ER export motif.

  3. G protein-coupled receptors show unusual patterns of intrinsic unfolding.

    PubMed

    Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Prilusky, Jaime; Sussman, Joel L; Goldman, Adrian

    2005-02-01

    Intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs) or IUP-like regions often play key roles in controlling processes ranging from transcription to the cell cycle. In silico such proteins can be identified by their sequence properties; they have low hydrophobicity and high net charge. In this study, we applied the FoldIndex (http://bioportal.weizmann.ac.il/fldbin/findex) program to analyze human G protein-coupled receptors and compared them with membrane proteins of known structure and with IUPs. We show that human G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) extramembranous domains include long (>50 residues) disordered segments, unlike membrane proteins of known structure. The predicted disorder occurred primarily in the N-terminal, C-terminal and third intracellular domain regions: 55, 69 and 56% of the human GPCRs were disordered in these regions, respectively. This increased flexibility may therefore be critical for GPCR function. Surprisingly, however, the kinds of residues used in GPCR unstructured regions were different than in hitherto-identified IUPs. The GPCR third intracellular loop domains contain very high percentages of Arg, Lys and His residues, especially Arg, but the percentage of Glu, Asp and Pro is no higher than in folded proteins. We propose that this has structural and functional consequences.

  4. Iridovirus CARD Protein Inhibits Apoptosis through Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Wu, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Jen; Lin, Pei-Wen; Shih, Chueh-Ju; Lin, Fu-Pang; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Grouper iridovirus (GIV) belongs to the genus Ranavirus of the family Iridoviridae; the genomes of such viruses contain an anti-apoptotic caspase recruitment domain (CARD) gene. The GIV-CARD gene encodes a protein of 91 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10,505 Daltons, and shows high similarity to other viral CARD genes and human ICEBERG. In this study, we used Northern blot to demonstrate that GIV-CARD transcription begins at 4 h post-infection; furthermore, we report that its transcription is completely inhibited by cycloheximide but not by aphidicolin, indicating that GIV-CARD is an early gene. GIV-CARD-EGFP and GIV-CARD-FLAG recombinant proteins were observed to translocate from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, but no obvious nuclear localization sequence was observed within GIV-CARD. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of GIV-CARD in GK cells infected with GIV inhibited expression of GIV-CARD and five other viral genes during the early stages of infection, and also reduced GIV infection ability. Immunostaining was performed to show that apoptosis was effectively inhibited in cells expressing GIV-CARD. HeLa cells irradiated with UV or treated with anti-Fas antibody will undergo apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, respectively. However, over-expression of recombinant GIV-CARD protein in HeLa cells inhibited apoptosis induced by mitochondrial and death receptor signaling. Finally, we report that expression of GIV-CARD in HeLa cells significantly reduced the activities of caspase-8 and -9 following apoptosis triggered by anti-Fas antibody. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GIV-CARD inhibits apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

  5. Protein misfolding disorders and macroautophagy

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Fiona M; Moreau, Kevin; Rubinsztein, David C

    2011-01-01

    A large group of diseases, termed protein misfolding disorders, share the common feature of the accumulation of misfolded proteins. The possibility of a common mechanism underlying either the pathogenesis or therapy for these diseases is appealing. Thus, there is great interest in the role of protein degradation via autophagy in such conditions where the protein is found in the cytoplasm. Here we review the growing evidence supporting a role for autophagic dysregulation as a contributing factor to protein accumulation and cellular toxicity in certain protein misfolding disorders and discuss the available evidence that upregulation of autophagy may be a valuable therapeutic strategy. PMID:21087849

  6. Distance-dependent intrinsic fluorescence of proteins on aluminum nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbay, Nuriye; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Ray, Krishanu

    2012-03-01

    In the past several years we have demonstrated the metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) and the significant changes in the photophysical properties of fluorophores in the presence of metallic nanostructures and nanoparticles using ensemble spectroscopic studies. In the represented study, we explored the distance effect on intrinsic fluorescence of proteins adsorbed on our layer-by-layer assembled metallic nanostructures. The study is expected to provide more information on the importance of positioning the proteins at a particular distance for enhanced fluorescence from metallic structures. For the present study, we considered using easy and inexpensive LbL technique to provide welldefined distance from metallic surface. The explored proteins were adsorbed on different numbers of alternate layers of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). SA and BSA were electrostatically attached to the positively charged PAH layer. We obtained a maximum of ~11-fold and 9-fold increase in fluorescence intensity from SA and BSA, respectively. And also we observed ~3-fold decrease in BSA lifetime on metallic nanostructures than those on bare control quartz slides. This study reveals the distance dependence of protein fluorescence.

  7. NMR Relaxation Studies on the Hydrate Layer of Intrinsically Unstructured Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bokor, Mónika; Csizmók, Veronika; Kovács, Dénes; Bánki, Péter; Friedrich, Peter; Tompa, Peter; Tompa, Kálmán

    2005-01-01

    Intrinsically unstructured/disordered proteins (IUPs) exist in a disordered and largely solvent-exposed, still functional, structural state under physiological conditions. As their function is often directly linked with structural disorder, understanding their structure-function relationship in detail is a great challenge to structural biology. In particular, their hydration and residual structure, both closely linked with their mechanism of action, require close attention. Here we demonstrate that the hydration of IUPs can be adequately approached by a technique so far unexplored with respect to IUPs, solid-state NMR relaxation measurements. This technique provides quantitative information on various features of hydrate water bound to these proteins. By freezing nonhydrate (bulk) water out, we have been able to measure free induction decays pertaining to protons of bound water from which the amount of hydrate water, its activation energy, and correlation times could be calculated. Thus, for three IUPs, the first inhibitory domain of calpastatin, microtubule-associated protein 2c, and plant dehydrin early responsive to dehydration 10, we demonstrate that they bind a significantly larger amount of water than globular proteins, whereas their suboptimal hydration and relaxation parameters are correlated with their differing modes of function. The theoretical treatment and experimental approach presented in this article may have general utility in characterizing proteins that belong to this novel structural class. PMID:15613629

  8. Variable steroid receptor responses: Intrinsically disordered AF1 is the key

    PubMed Central

    Simons, S. Stoney; Kumar, Raj

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones, acting through their cognate receptor proteins, see widespread clinical applications due to their ability to alter the induction or repression of numerous genes. However, steroid usage is limited by the current inability to control off-target, or non-specific, side-effects. Recent results from three separate areas of research with glucocorticoid and other steroid receptors (cofactor-induced changes in receptor structure, the ability of ligands to alter remote regions of receptor structure, and how cofactor concentration affects both ligand potency and efficacy) indicate that a key element of receptor activity is the intrinsically disordered amino-terminal domain. These results are combined to construct a novel framework within which to logically pursue various approaches that could afford increased selectivity in steroid-based therapies. PMID:23792173

  9. Electrostatics and Intrinsic Disorder Drive Translocon Binding of the SRP Receptor FtsY

    PubMed Central

    Draycheva, Albena; Bornemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Integral membrane proteins in bacteria are co‐translationally targeted to the SecYEG translocon for membrane insertion via the signal recognition particle (SRP) pathway. The SRP receptor FtsY and its N‐terminal A domain, which is lacking in any structural model of FtsY, were studied using NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The A domain is mainly disordered and highly flexible; it binds to lipids via its N terminus and the C‐terminal membrane targeting sequence. The central A domain binds to the translocon non‐specifically and maintains disorder. Translocon targeting and binding of the A domain is driven by electrostatic interactions. The intrinsically disordered A domain tethers FtsY to the translocon, and because of its flexibility, allows the FtsY NG domain to scan a large area for binding to the NG domain of ribosome‐bound SRP, thereby promoting the formation of the quaternary transfer complex at the membrane. PMID:27346853

  10. Role of Electrostatic Interactions in Binding of Peptides and Intrinsically Disordered Proteins to Their Folded Targets: 2. The Model of Encounter Complex Involving the Double Mutant of the c-Crk N-SH3 Domain and Peptide Sos.

    PubMed

    Yuwen, Tairan; Xue, Yi; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R

    2016-03-29

    to its (loose) association with the protein. Note that spin relaxation data are indispensable in determining the dynamic status of the peptide. Such data can be properly modeled only on a basis of bona fide MD simulations, as shown in our study. We anticipate that in future the field will move away from the ensemble view of protein disorder and toward more sophisticated MD models. This will require further optimization of force fields, aimed specifically at disordered systems. Efforts in this direction have been recently initiated by several research groups; the empirical salt-bridge correction proposed in our work falls in the same category. MD models obtained with the help of suitably refined force fields and guided by experimental NMR data will provide a powerful insight into an intricate world of disordered biomolecules.

  11. Amyloid-like fibrils formed from intrinsically disordered caseins: physicochemical and nanomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-08-07

    Amyloid-like fibrils are studied because of their significance in understanding pathogenesis and creating functional materials. Amyloid-like fibrils have been studied by heating globular proteins at acidic conditions. In the present study, intrinsically disordered α-, β-, and κ-caseins were studied to form amyloid-like fibrils at pH 2.0 and 90 °C. No fibrils were observed for α-caseins, and acid hydrolysis was found to be the rate-limiting step of fibrillation of β- and κ-caseins. An increase of β-sheet structure was observed after fibrillation. Nanomechanic analysis of long amyloid-like fibrils using peak-force quantitative nanomechanical atomic force microscopy showed the lowest and highest Young's modulus for β-casein (2.35 ± 0.29 GPa) and κ-casein (4.14 ± 0.66 GPa), respectively. The dispersion with β-casein fibrils had a viscosity more than 10 and 5 times higher than those of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin, respectively, at 0.1 s(-1) at comparable concentrations. The current findings may assist not only the understanding of amyloid fibril formation but also the development of novel functional materials from disordered proteins.

  12. The intrinsically disordered RNR inhibitor Sml1 is a dynamic dimer

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, Jens; Liljedahl, Leena; Bárány-Wallje, Elsa; Sønderby, Pernille; Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Martinez-Yamout, Maria; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.; Poulsen, Flemming M.; Mäler, Lena; Gräslund, Astrid; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2009-01-01

    Sml1 is a small ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulatory protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that binds to and inhibits RNR activation. NMR studies of 15N-labeled Sml1 (104 residues), as well as of a truncated variant (residues 50-104), have allowed characterization of their molecular properties. Sml1 belongs to the class of intrinsically disordered proteins with high degree of dynamics and very little stable structures. Earlier suggestions for a dimeric structure of Sml1 were confirmed and from translation diffusion NMR measurements a dimerization dissociation constant of 0.1 mM at 4 °C could be determined. The hydrodynamic radius for the monomeric form of Sml1 was determined to be 23.4 Å corresponding to a protein size in between a globular protein and a coil. The dimer formation results in a hydrodynamic radius of 34.4 Å. The observed chemical shifts showed in agreement with previous studies two segments with transient helical structure, residues 4-20 and 60-86, and relaxation studies clearly showed restricted motion in these segments. A spin label attached to C14 showed long range interactions with residues 60-70 and 85-95, suggesting that the N-terminal domain folds onto the C-terminal domain. Importantly, protease degradation studies combined with mass-spectrometry indicated that the N-terminal domain is degraded before the C-terminal region and thus may serve as a protection against proteolysis of the functionally important C-terminal region. The dimer formation was not associated with significant induction of structure, but was found to provide further protection against proteolysis. We propose that this molecular shielding and protection of vital functional structures from degradation by functionally unimportant sites may be a general attribute of other natively disordered proteins. PMID:19086274

  13. Intrinsically Disordered Titin PEVK as a Molecular Velcro: Salt-Bridge Dynamics and Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey; Tsai, Wanxia; Wittebort, Richard; Wang, Kuan

    2009-03-01

    Titin is a giant modular protein (3-4 MDa) found in the muscle sarcomere, where the intrinsically disordered and elastic PEVK segment plays a major role in the passive tension of skeletal and heart tissues. We have proposed that salt-bridges play a central role in the elasticity of PEVK. The 50 kDa engineered PEVK polyprotein shows well-resolved NMR spectra at all concentrations. From long-range NOE's, we observed stable K to E salt-bridges. Simulated annealing with NMR restraints yielded a manifold of structures for an exon 172 trimer. Steered molecular dynamics simulations were done to study how the manifold of salt-bridges evolves during the stretching experiment. Repeated SMD simulations at slow velocity (0.0005 nm/ps) showed force spectra consistent with experimental AFM force spectra of the polyprotein. SMD shows that salt-bridges occur even at high degrees of stretch and that these short range interactions are in integral part of the mechanical properties of PEVK. We propose that the long-range, non-stereospecific nature of electrostatic interactions provide a facile mechanism to tether and untether the flexible chains, which in turn affect elasticity as well as control the accessibility of protein-protein interaction to these nanogel-like proteins.

  14. Structural and Functional Insights into the Cryoprotection of Membranes by the Intrinsically Disordered Dehydrins*

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Matthew W.; Boddington, Kelly F.; Warnica, Josephine M.; Atkinson, John; McKenna, Sarah; Madge, Jeffrey; Barker, Christine H.; Graether, Steffen P.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration can be due to desiccation caused by a lack of environmental water or to freezing caused by a lack of liquid water. Plants have evolved a large family of proteins called LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins, which include the intrinsically disordered dehydrin (dehydration protein) family, to combat these abiotic stresses. Although transcription and translation studies have shown a correlation between dehydration stress and the presence of dehydrins, the biochemical mechanisms have remained somewhat elusive. We examine here the effect and structure of a small model dehydrin (Vitis riparia K2) on the protection of membranes from freeze-thaw stress. This protein is able to bind to liposomes containing phosphatidic acid and protect the liposomes from fusing after freeze-thaw treatment. The presence of K2 did not measurably affect liposome surface accessibility or lipid mobility but did lower its membrane transition temperature by 3 °C. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a membrane model, we examined the NMR structure of K2 in the presence and absence of the micelle. Biochemical and NMR experiments show that the conserved, lysine-rich segments are involved in the binding of the dehydrin to a membrane, whereas the poorly conserved φ segments play no role in binding or protection. PMID:26370084

  15. Protein domain definition should allow for conditional disorder.

    PubMed

    Yegambaram, Kavestri; Bulloch, Esther M M; Kingston, Richard L

    2013-11-01

    Proteins are often classified in a binary fashion as either structured or disordered. However this approach has several deficits. Firstly, protein folding is always conditional on the physiochemical environment. A protein which is structured in some circumstances will be disordered in others. Secondly, it hides a fundamental asymmetry in behavior. While all structured proteins can be unfolded through a change in environment, not all disordered proteins have the capacity for folding. Failure to accommodate these complexities confuses the definition of both protein structural domains and intrinsically disordered regions. We illustrate these points with an experimental study of a family of small binding domains, drawn from the RNA polymerase of mumps virus and its closest relatives. Assessed at face value the domains fall on a structural continuum, with folded, partially folded, and near unstructured members. Yet the disorder present in the family is conditional, and these closely related polypeptides can access the same folded state under appropriate conditions. Any heuristic definition of the protein domain emphasizing conformational stability divides this domain family in two, in a way that makes no biological sense. Structural domains would be better defined by their ability to adopt a specific tertiary structure: a structure that may or may not be realized, dependent on the circumstances. This explicitly allows for the conditional nature of protein folding, and more clearly demarcates structural domains from intrinsically disordered regions that may function without folding.

  16. Intrinsically disordered caldesmon binds calmodulin via the “buttons on a string” mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Permyakov, Sergei E.; Permyakov, Eugene A.

    2015-01-01

    We show here that chicken gizzard caldesmon (CaD) and its C-terminal domain (residues 636–771, CaD136) are intrinsically disordered proteins. The computational and experimental analyses of the wild type CaD136 and series of its single tryptophan mutants (W674A, W707A, and W737A) and a double tryptophan mutant (W674A/W707A) suggested that although the interaction of CaD136 with calmodulin (CaM) can be driven by the non-specific electrostatic attraction between these oppositely charged molecules, the specificity of CaD136-CaM binding is likely to be determined by the specific packing of important CaD136 tryptophan residues at the CaD136-CaM interface. It is suggested that this interaction can be described as the “buttons on a charged string” model, where the electrostatic attraction between the intrinsically disordered CaD136 and the CaM is solidified in a “snapping buttons” manner by specific packing of the CaD136 “pliable buttons” (which are the short segments of fluctuating local structure condensed around the tryptophan residues) at the CaD136-CaM interface. Our data also show that all three “buttons” are important for binding, since mutation of any of the tryptophans affects CaD136-CaM binding and since CaD136 remains CaM-buttoned even when two of the three tryptophans are mutated to alanines. PMID:26417545

  17. How disordered is my protein and what is its disorder for? A guide through the "dark side" of the protein universe.

    PubMed

    Lieutaud, Philippe; Ferron, François; Uversky, Alexey V; Kurgan, Lukasz; Uversky, Vladimir N; Longhi, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    In the last 2 decades it has become increasingly evident that a large number of proteins are either fully or partially disordered. Intrinsically disordered proteins lack a stable 3D structure, are ubiquitous and fulfill essential biological functions. Their conformational heterogeneity is encoded in their amino acid sequences, thereby allowing intrinsically disordered proteins or regions to be recognized based on properties of these sequences. The identification of disordered regions facilitates the functional annotation of proteins and is instrumental for delineating boundaries of protein domains amenable to structural determination with X-ray crystallization. This article discusses a comprehensive selection of databases and methods currently employed to disseminate experimental and putative annotations of disorder, predict disorder and identify regions involved in induced folding. It also provides a set of detailed instructions that should be followed to perform computational analysis of disorder.

  18. Chemical perturbation of an intrinsically disordered region of TFIID distinguishes two modes of transcription initiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhengjian; Boskovic, Zarko; Hussain, Mahmud M; Hu, Wenxin; Inouye, Carla; Kim, Han-Je; Abole, A Katherine; Doud, Mary K; Lewis, Timothy A; Koehler, Angela N; Schreiber, Stuart L; Tjian, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins/regions (IDPs/IDRs) are proteins or peptide segments that fail to form stable 3-dimensional structures in the absence of partner proteins. They are abundant in eukaryotic proteomes and are often associated with human diseases, but their biological functions have been elusive to study. In this study, we report the identification of a tin(IV) oxochloride-derived cluster that binds an evolutionarily conserved IDR within the metazoan TFIID transcription complex. Binding arrests an isomerization of promoter-bound TFIID that is required for the engagement of Pol II during the first (de novo) round of transcription initiation. However, the specific chemical probe does not affect reinitiation, which requires the re-entry of Pol II, thus, mechanistically distinguishing these two modes of transcription initiation. This work also suggests a new avenue for targeting the elusive IDRs by harnessing certain features of metal-based complexes for mechanistic studies, and for the development of novel pharmaceutical interventions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07777.001 PMID:26314865

  19. Tryptogalinin Is a Tick Kunitz Serine Protease Inhibitor with a Unique Intrinsic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, James J.; Schwarz, Alexandra; Cabeza de Vaca, Israel; Calvo, Eric; Pedra, Joao H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background A salivary proteome-transcriptome project on the hard tick Ixodes scapularis revealed that Kunitz peptides are the most abundant salivary proteins. Ticks use Kunitz peptides (among other salivary proteins) to combat host defense mechanisms and to obtain a blood meal. Most of these Kunitz peptides, however, remain functionally uncharacterized, thus limiting our knowledge about their biochemical interactions. Results We discovered an unusual cysteine motif in a Kunitz peptide. This peptide inhibits several serine proteases with high affinity and was named tryptogalinin due to its high affinity for β-tryptase. Compared with other functionally described peptides from the Acari subclass, we showed that tryptogalinin is phylogenetically related to a Kunitz peptide from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, also reported to have a high affinity for β-tryptase. Using homology-based modeling (and other protein prediction programs) we were able to model and explain the multifaceted function of tryptogalinin. The N-terminus of the modeled tryptogalinin is detached from the rest of the peptide and exhibits intrinsic disorder allowing an increased flexibility for its high affinity with its inhibiting partners (i.e., serine proteases). Conclusions By incorporating experimental and computational methods our data not only describes the function of a Kunitz peptide from Ixodes scapularis, but also allows us to hypothesize about the molecular basis of this function at the atomic level. PMID:23658744

  20. Looking at the carcinogenicity of human insulin analogues via the intrinsic disorder prism

    PubMed Central

    Redwan, Elrashdy M.; Linjawi, Moustafa H.; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic insulin, in its native and biosynthetic forms as well as several currently available insulin analogues, continues to be the protein of most interest to researchers. From the time of its discovery to the development of modern insulin analogues, this important therapeutic protein has passed through several stages and product generations. Beside the well-known link between diabetes and cancer risk, the currently used therapeutic insulin analogues raised serious concerns due to their potential roles in cancer initiation and/or progression. It is possible that structural variations in some of the insulin analogues are responsible for the appearance of new oncogenic species with high binding affinity to the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) receptor. The question we are trying to answer in this work is: are there any specific features of the distribution of intrinsic disorder propensity within the amino acid sequences of insulin analogues that may provide an explanation for the carcinogenicity of the altered insulin protein? PMID:26983499

  1. To be disordered or not to be disordered: is that still a question for proteins in the cell?

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Kris; Lebrun, Pierre; Tompa, Peter

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that many proteins or regions of proteins lack a well-defined folded structure under native-like conditions. These are called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Whether this intrinsic disorder is also their main structural characteristic in living cells has been a matter of intense debate. The structural analysis of IDPs became an important challenge also because of their involvement in a plethora of human diseases, which made IDPs attractive targets for therapeutic development. Therefore, biophysical approaches are increasingly being employed to probe the structural and dynamical state of proteins, not only in isolation in a test tube, but also in a complex biological environment and even within intact cells. Here, we survey direct and indirect evidence that structural disorder is in fact the physiological state of many proteins in the proteome. The paradigmatic case of α-synuclein is used to illustrate the controversial nature of this topic.

  2. Intrinsic disorder drives N-terminal ubiquitination by Ube2w

    PubMed Central

    Vittal, Vinayak; Shi, Lei; Wenzel, Dawn M.; Scaglione, K. Matthew; Duncan, Emily D.; Basrur, Venkatesha; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S. J.; Baker, David; Paulson, Henry L.; Brzovic, Peter S.; Klevit, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitination of the αN-terminus of protein substrates has been reported sporadically over the past twenty years. However the identity of an enzyme responsible for this unique ubiquitin (Ub) modification has only recently been elucidated. We show the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Ube2w employs a novel mechanism to facilitate the specific ubiquitination of the α-amino group of its substrates that involves recognition of backbone atoms of intrinsically disordered N-termini. We present the NMR-based solution ensemble of full-length Ube2w that reveals a structural architecture unlike any other E2, in which its C-terminus is partly disordered and flexible to accommodate variable substrate N-termini. Flexibility of the substrate is critical for recognition by Ube2w and point mutations in, or removal of, the flexible C-terminus of Ube2w inhibits substrate binding and modification. Mechanistic insights reported here provide guiding principles for future efforts to define the N-terminal-Ubiquitome in cells. PMID:25436519

  3. A Large Intrinsically Disordered Region in SKIP and Its Disorder-Order Transition Induced by PPIL1 Binding Revealed by NMR*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingsheng; Zhang, Shaojie; Zhang, Jiahai; Huang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Chao; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Zhijun; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2010-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins or protein regions play an important role in fundamental biological processes. During spliceosome activation, a large structural rearrangement occurs. The Prp19 complex and related factors are involved in the catalytic activation of the spliceosome. Recent mass spectrometric analyses have shown that Ski interaction protein (SKIP) and peptidylprolyl isomerase-like protein 1 (PPIL1) are Prp19-related factors that constitute the spliceosome B, B*, and C complexes. Here, we report that a highly flexible region of SKIP (SKIPN, residues 59–129) is intrinsically disordered. Upon binding to PPIL1, SKIPN undergoes a disorder-order transition. A highly conserved fragment of SKIP (residues 59–79) called the PPIL1-binding fragment (PBF) was sufficient to bind PPIL1. The structure of PBF·PPIL1 complex, solved by NMR, shows that PBF exhibits an ordered structure and interacts with PPIL1 through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Three subfragments in the PBF (residues 59–67, 68–73, and 74–79) show hook-like backbone structure, and interactions between these subfragments are necessary for PBF·PPIL1 complex formation. PPIL1 is a cyclophilin family protein. It is recruited by SKIP into the spliceosome by a region other than the peptidylprolyl isomerase active site. This enables the active site of PPIL1 to remain open in the complex and still function as a peptidylprolyl cis/trans-isomerase or molecular chaperon to facilitate the folding of other proteins in the spliceosomes. The large disordered region in SKIP provides an interaction platform. Its disorder-order transition, induced by PPIL1 binding, may adapt the requirement for a large structural rearrangement occurred in the activation of spliceosome. PMID:20007319

  4. The Argonaute-binding platform of NRPE1 evolves through modulation of intrinsically disordered repeats.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Joshua T; Beilstein, Mark A; Mosher, Rebecca A

    2016-12-01

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins are important effectors in RNA silencing pathways, but they must interact with other machinery to trigger silencing. Ago hooks have emerged as a conserved motif responsible for interaction with Ago proteins, but little is known about the sequence surrounding Ago hooks that must restrict or enable interaction with specific Argonautes. Here we investigated the evolutionary dynamics of an Ago-binding platform in NRPE1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase V. We compared NRPE1 sequences from > 50 species, including dense sampling of two plant lineages. This study demonstrates that the Ago-binding platform of NRPE1 retains Ago hooks, intrinsic disorder, and repetitive character while being highly labile at the sequence level. We reveal that loss of sequence conservation is the result of relaxed selection and frequent expansions and contractions of tandem repeat arrays. These factors allow a complete restructuring of the Ago-binding platform over 50-60 million yr. This evolutionary pattern is also detected in a second Ago-binding platform, suggesting it is a general mechanism. The presence of labile repeat arrays in all analyzed NRPE1 Ago-binding platforms indicates that selection maintains repetitive character, potentially to retain the ability to rapidly restructure the Ago-binding platform.

  5. Single molecule study of the intrinsically disordered FG-repeat nucleoporin 153.

    PubMed

    Milles, Sigrid; Lemke, Edward A

    2011-10-05

    Nucleoporins (Nups), which are intrinsically disordered, form a selectivity filter inside the nuclear pore complex, taking a central role in the vital nucleocytoplasmic transport mechanism. These Nups display a complex and nonrandom amino-acid architecture of phenylalanine glycine (FG)-repeat clusters and intra-FG linkers. How such heterogeneous sequence composition relates to function and could give rise to a transport mechanism is still unclear. Here we describe a combined chemical biology and single-molecule fluorescence approach to study the large human Nup153 FG-domain. In order to obtain insights into the properties of this domain beyond the average behavior, we probed the end-to-end distance (R(E)) of several ∼50-residues long FG-repeat clusters in the context of the whole protein domain. Despite the sequence heterogeneity of these FG-clusters, we detected a reoccurring and consistent compaction from a relaxed coil behavior under denaturing conditions (R(E)/R(E,RC) = 0.99 ± 0.15 with R(E,RC) corresponding to ideal relaxed coil behavior) to a collapsed state under native conditions (R(E)/R(E,RC) = 0.79 ± 0.09). We then analyzed the properties of this protein on the supramolecular level, and determined that this human FG-domain was in fact able to form a hydrogel with physiological permeability barrier properties. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disordered proteins and network disorder in network descriptions of protein structure, dynamics and function: hypotheses and a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Peter; Sandhu, Kuljeet Singh; Hazai, Eszter; Hoksza, Zsolt; Kiss, Huba J M; Miozzo, Federico; Veres, Dániel V; Piazza, Francesco; Nussinov, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    During the last decade, network approaches became a powerful tool to describe protein structure and dynamics. Here we review the links between disordered proteins and the associated networks, and describe the consequences of local, mesoscopic and global network disorder on changes in protein structure and dynamics. We introduce a new classification of protein networks into 'cumulus-type', i.e., those similar to puffy (white) clouds, and 'stratus-type', i.e., those similar to flat, dense (dark) low-lying clouds, and relate these network types to protein disorder dynamics and to differences in energy transmission processes. In the first class, there is limited overlap between the modules, which implies higher rigidity of the individual units; there the conformational changes can be described by an 'energy transfer' mechanism. In the second class, the topology presents a compact structure with significant overlap between the modules; there the conformational changes can be described by 'multi-trajectories'; that is, multiple highly populated pathways. We further propose that disordered protein regions evolved to help other protein segments reach 'rarely visited' but functionally-related states. We also show the role of disorder in 'spatial games' of amino acids; highlight the effects of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) on cellular networks and list some possible studies linking protein disorder and protein structure networks. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers

  7. Intrinsic randomness of transport coefficient in subdiffusion with static disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma

    2011-03-01

    Fluctuations in the time-averaged mean-square displacement for random walks on hypercubic lattices with static disorder are investigated. It is analytically shown that the diffusion coefficient becomes a random variable as a manifestation of weak ergodicity breaking. For two- and higher- dimensional systems, the distribution function of the diffusion coefficient is found to be the Mittag-Leffler distribution, which is the same as for the continuous-time random walk, whereas for one-dimensional systems a different distribution (a modified Mittag-Leffler distribution) arises. We also present a comparison of these two distributions in terms of an ergodicity-breaking parameter and show that the modified Mittag-Leffler distribution has a larger deviation from ergodicity. Some remarks on similarities between these results and observations in biological experiments are presented.

  8. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  9. An intrinsic mechanism controls reactivation of neural stem cells by spindle matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Koe, Chwee Tat; Tay, Su Ting; Tan, Angie Lay Keng; Zhang, Shenli; Zhang, Yingjie; Tan, Patrick; Sung, Wing-Kin; Wang, Hongyan

    2017-07-25

    The switch between quiescence and proliferation is central for neurogenesis and its alteration is linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as microcephaly. However, intrinsic mechanisms that reactivate Drosophila larval neural stem cells (NSCs) to exit from quiescence are not well established. Here we show that the spindle matrix complex containing Chromator (Chro) functions as a key intrinsic regulator of NSC reactivation downstream of extrinsic insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling. Chro also prevents NSCs from ire-entering quiescence at later stages. NSC-specific in vivo profiling has dentified many downstream targets of Chro, including a temporal transcription factor Grainy head (Grh) and a neural stem cell quiescence-inducing factor Prospero (Pros). We show that spindle matrix proteins promote the expression of Grh and repress that of Pros in NSCs to govern their reactivation. Our data demonstrate that nuclear Chro critically regulates gene expression in NSCs at the transition from quiescence to proliferation.The spindle matrix proteins, including Chro, are known to regulate mitotic spindle assembly in the cytoplasm. Here the authors show that in Drosophila larval brain, Chro promotes neural stem cell (NSC) reactivation and prevents activated NSCs from entering quiescence, and that Chro carries out such a role by regulating the expression of key transcription factors in the nucleus.

  10. Dynamics of GCN4 Facilitate DNA Interaction: A Model-Free Analysis of an Intrinsically Disordered Region

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michelle L.; Byrd, R. Andrew; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are known to play important roles in regulatory and signaling pathways. A critical aspect of these functions is the ability of IDP/IDRs to form highly specific complexes with target molecules. However, elucidation of the contributions of conformational dynamics to function has been limited by challenges associated with structural heterogeneity of IDP/IDRs. Using NMR spin relaxation parameters (15N R1, 15N R2, and {1H}-15N heteronuclear NOE) collected at four static magnetic fields ranging from 14.1 to 21.1 T, we have analyzed the backbone dynamics of the basic leucine-zipper (bZip) domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor GCN4, whose DNA binding domain is intrinsically disordered in the absence of DNA substrate. We demonstrate that the extended Model-free analysis can be applied to proteins with IDRs such as apo GCN4 and that these results significantly extend previous NMR studies of GCN4 dynamics performed using a single static magnetic field of 11.74 T [Bracken, et al. (1999) J. Mol. Biol., 285, 2133–2146] and correlate well with molecular dynamics simulations [Robustelli, et al. (2013) J. Chem. Theory Comput., 9, 5190–5200]. In contrast to the earlier work, data at multiple static fields allows the time scales of internal dynamics of GCN4 to be reliably quantified. Large amplitude dynamic fluctuations in the DNA-binding region have correlation times (τs ≈ 1.4–2.5 ns) consistent with a two-step mechanism in which partially ordered bZip conformations of GCN4 form initial encounter complexes with DNA and then rapidly rearrange to the high affinity state with fully formed basic region recognition helices. PMID:26661739

  11. Intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins on the cell division of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Norihito; Umeda, Akiko; Kadota, Yoshu; Kira, Mizuki; Okazaki, Ami; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori divides in the human stomach resulting in persistent infections and causing various disorders. Bacterial cell division is precisely coordinated by many molecules, including FtsZ and Min proteins. However, the role of Min proteins in H. pylori division is poorly understood. We investigated the functional characteristics of Min proteins in wild-type HPK5 and five HPK5-derivative mutants using morphological and genetic approaches. All mutants showed a filamentous shape. However, the bacterial cell growth and viability of three single-gene mutants (minC, minD, minE) were similar to that of the wild-type. The coccoid form number was lowest in the minE-disruptant, indicating that MinE contributes to the coccoid form conversion during the stationary phase. Immunofluorescence microscopic observations showed that FtsZ was dispersedly distributed throughout the bacterial cell irrespective of nucleoid position in only minD-disruptants, indicating that MinD is involved in the nucleoid occlusion system. A chase assay demonstrated that MinC loss suppressed FtsZ-degradation, indicating that FtsZ degrades in a MinC-dependent manner. Molecular interactions between FtsZ and Min proteins were confirmed by immunoprecipitation (IP)-western blotting (WB), suggesting the functional cooperation of these molecules during bacterial cell division. This study describes the intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins and provides new insights into H. pylori cell division.

  12. Protein dynamics and conformational disorder in molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Tanja; Kay, Lewis E; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2010-01-01

    Recognition requires protein flexibility because it facilitates conformational rearrangements and induced-fit mechanisms upon target binding. Intrinsic disorder is an extreme on the continuous spectrum of possible protein dynamics and its role in recognition may seem counterintuitive. However, conformational disorder is widely found in many eukaryotic regulatory proteins involved in processes such as signal transduction and transcription. Disordered protein regions may in fact confer advantages over folded proteins in binding. Rapidly interconverting and diverse conformers may create mean electrostatic fields instead of presenting discrete charges. The resultant "polyelectrostatic" interactions allow for the utilization of post-translational modifications as a means to change the net charge and thereby modify the electrostatic interaction of a disordered region. Plasticity of disordered protein states enables steric advantages over folded proteins and allows for unique binding configurations. Disorder may also have evolutionary advantages, as it facilitates alternative splicing, domain shuffling and protein modularity. As proteins exist in a continuous spectrum of disorder, so do their complexes. Indeed, disordered regions in complexes may control the degree of motion between domains, mask binding sites, be targets of post-translational modifications, permit overlapping binding motifs, and enable transient binding of different binding partners, making them excellent candidates for signal integrators and explaining their prevalence in eukaryotic signaling pathways. "Dynamic" complexes arise if more than two transient protein interfaces are involved in complex formation of two binding partners in a dynamic equilibrium. "Disordered" complexes, in contrast, do not involve significant ordering of interacting protein segments but rely exclusively on transient contacts. The nature of these interactions is not well understood yet but advancements in the structural

  13. The twilight zone between protein order and disorder.

    PubMed

    Szilágyi, A; Györffy, D; Závodszky, P

    2008-08-01

    The amino acid composition of intrinsically disordered proteins and protein segments characteristically differs from that of ordered proteins. This observation forms the basis of several disorder prediction methods. These, however, usually perform worse for smaller proteins (or segments) than for larger ones. We show that the regions of amino acid composition space corresponding to ordered and disordered proteins overlap with each other, and the extent of the overlap (the "twilight zone") is larger for short than for long chains. To explain this finding, we used two-dimensional lattice model proteins containing hydrophobic, polar, and charged monomers and revealed the relation among chain length, amino acid composition, and disorder. Because the number of chain configurations exponentially grows with chain length, a larger fraction of longer chains can reach a low-energy, ordered state than do shorter chains. The amount of information carried by the amino acid composition about whether a protein or segment is (dis)ordered grows with increasing chain length. Smaller proteins rely more on specific interactions for stability, which limits the possible accuracy of disorder prediction methods. For proteins in the "twilight zone", size can determine order, as illustrated by the example of two-state homodimers.

  14. SPA: Short peptide analyzer of intrinsic disorder status of short peptides

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bin; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lu, Hua; Dunker, A. Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    Disorder prediction for short peptides is important and difficult. All modern predictors have to be optimized on a preselected dataset prior to prediction. In the succeeding prediction process, the predictor works on a query sequence or its short segment. For implementing the prediction smoothly and obtaining sound prediction results, a specific length of the sequence or segment is usually required. The need of the preselected dataset in the optimization process and the length limitation in the prediction process restrict predictors’ performance. To minimize the influence of these limitations, we developed a method for the prediction of intrinsic disorder in short peptides based on large dataset sampling and statistics. As evident from the data analysis, this method provides more reliable prediction of the intrinsic disorder status of short peptides. PMID:20497238

  15. Simulations of disordered proteins and systems with conformational heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Levine, Zachary A; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2017-04-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and protein regions can facilitate a wide variety of complex physiological processes such as binding, signaling, and formation of membraneless organelles. They can however also play pathological roles by aggregating into cytotoxic oligomers and fibrils. Characterizing the structure and function of disordered proteins is an onerous task, primarily because these proteins adopt transient structures, which are difficult to capture in experiments. Simulations have emerged as a powerful tool for interpreting and augmenting experimental measurements of IDPs. In this review we focus on computer simulations of disordered protein structures, functions, assemblies, and emerging questions that, taken together, give an overview of the field as it exists today. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The fragmented self: imbalance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-networks in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Aleman, André

    2016-08-01

    Self-disturbances are among the core features of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. The basic structure of the self could depend on the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing. We discuss studies on self-related processing in psychotic disorders that provide converging evidence for disrupted communication between neural networks subserving the so-called intrinsic self and extrinsic self. This disruption might be mainly caused by impaired integrity of key brain hubs. The intrinsic self has been associated with cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing, autobiographical memory, and emotional evaluation. Additionally, we highlight central aspects of the extrinsic self in its interaction with the environment using sensorimotor networks, including self-experience in sensation and actions. A deficient relationship between these self-aspects because of disrupted between-network interactions offers a framework to explain core clinical features of psychotic disorders. In particular, we show how relative isolation and reduced modularity of networks subserving intrinsic and extrinsic self-processing might trigger the emergence of hallucinations and delusions, and why patients with psychosis typically have difficulties with self-other relationships and do not recognise mental problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactions of Yeast Dynein with Dynein Light Chain and Dynactin: GENERAL IMPLICATIONS FOR INTRINSICALLY DISORDERED DUPLEX SCAFFOLDS IN MULTIPROTEIN ASSEMBLIES.

    PubMed

    Jie, Jing; Löhr, Frank; Barbar, Elisar

    2015-09-25

    Intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) duplexes composed of two IDP chains cross-linked by bivalent partner proteins form scaffolds for assembly of multiprotein complexes. The N-terminal domain of dynein intermediate chain (N-IC) is one such IDP that forms a bivalent scaffold with multiple dynein light chains including LC8, a hub protein that promotes duplex formation of diverse IDP partners. N-IC also binds a subunit of the dynein regulator, dynactin. Here we characterize interactions of a yeast ortholog of N-IC (N-Pac11) with yeast LC8 (Dyn2) or with the intermediate chain-binding subunit of yeast dynactin (Nip100). Residue level changes in Pac11 structure are monitored by NMR spectroscopy, and binding energetics are monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). N-Pac11 is monomeric and primarily disordered except for a single α-helix (SAH) at the N terminus and a short nascent helix, LH, flanked by the two Dyn2 recognition motifs. Upon binding Dyn2, the only Pac11 residues making direct protein-protein interactions are in and immediately flanking the recognition motifs. Dyn2 binding also orders LH residues of Pac11. Upon binding Nip100, only Pac11 SAH residues make direct protein-protein interactions, but LH residues at a distant sequence position and L1 residues in an adjacent linker are also ordered. The long distance, ligand-dependent ordering of residues reveals new elements of dynamic structure within IDP linker regions.

  18. Disorder transitions and conformational diversity cooperatively modulate biological function in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zea, Diego Javier; Monzon, Alexander Miguel; Gonzalez, Claudia; Fornasari, María Silvina; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Structural differences between conformers sustain protein biological function. Here, we studied in a large dataset of 745 intrinsically disordered proteins, how ordered‐disordered transitions modulate structural differences between conformers as derived from crystallographic data. We found that almost 50% of the proteins studied show no transitions and have low conformational diversity while the rest show transitions and a higher conformational diversity. In this last subset, 60% of the proteins become more ordered after ligand binding, while 40% more disordered. As protein conformational diversity is inherently connected with protein function our analysis suggests differences in structure‐function relationships related to order‐disorder transitions. PMID:27038125

  19. Identifying Similar Patterns of Structural Flexibility in Proteins by Disorder Prediction and Dynamic Programming

    PubMed Central

    Petrovich, Aidan; Borne, Adam; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Xue, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods are prevailing in identifying protein intrinsic disorder. The results from predictors are often given as per-residue disorder scores. The scores describe the disorder propensity of amino acids of a protein and can be further represented as a disorder curve. Many proteins share similar patterns in their disorder curves. The similar patterns are often associated with similar functions and evolutionary origins. Therefore, finding and characterizing specific patterns of disorder curves provides a unique and attractive perspective of studying the function of intrinsically disordered proteins. In this study, we developed a new computational tool named IDalign using dynamic programming. This tool is able to identify similar patterns among disorder curves, as well as to present the distribution of intrinsic disorder in query proteins. The disorder-based information generated by IDalign is significantly different from the information retrieved from classical sequence alignments. This tool can also be used to infer functions of disordered regions and disordered proteins. The web server of IDalign is available at (http://labs.cas.usf.edu/bioinfo/service.html). PMID:26086829

  20. Prediction of protein disorder on amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Anoosha, P; Sakthivel, R; Gromiha, M Michael

    2015-12-15

    Intrinsically disordered regions of proteins are known to have many functional roles in cell signaling and regulatory pathways. The altered expression of these proteins due to mutations is associated with various diseases. Currently, most of the available methods focus on predicting the disordered proteins or the disordered regions in a protein. On the other hand, methods developed for predicting protein disorder on mutation showed a poor performance with a maximum accuracy of 70%. Hence, in this work, we have developed a novel method to classify the disorder-related amino acid substitutions using amino acid properties, substitution matrices, and the effect of neighboring residues that showed an accuracy of 90.0% with a sensitivity and specificity of 94.9 and 80.6%, respectively, in 10-fold cross-validation. The method was evaluated with a test set of 20% data using 10 iterations, which showed an average accuracy of 88.9%. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed the features responsible for the better performance of our method and observed that neighboring residues play an important role in defining the disorder of a given residue in a protein sequence. We have developed a prediction server to identify disorder-related mutations, and it is available at http://www.iitm.ac.in/bioinfo/DIM_Pred/. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intrinsic fluorescence of protein in turbid media using empirical relation based on Monte Carlo lookup table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, Gnanatheepam; Udayakumar, Kanniyappan; Aruna, Prakasarao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence of Protein has been widely used in diagnostic oncology for characterizing cellular metabolism. However, the intensity of fluorescence emission is affected due to the absorbers and scatterers in tissue, which may lead to error in estimating exact protein content in tissue. Extraction of intrinsic fluorescence from measured fluorescence has been achieved by different methods. Among them, Monte Carlo based method yields the highest accuracy for extracting intrinsic fluorescence. In this work, we have attempted to generate a lookup table for Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence emission by protein. Furthermore, we fitted the generated lookup table using an empirical relation. The empirical relation between measured and intrinsic fluorescence is validated using tissue phantom experiments. The proposed relation can be used for estimating intrinsic fluorescence of protein for real-time diagnostic applications and thereby improving the clinical interpretation of fluorescence spectroscopic data.

  2. Restless 'rest': intrinsic sensory hyperactivity and disinhibition in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Kevin; Ding, Mingzhou; Bernat, Edward; Schmidt, Norman B; Li, Wen

    2017-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by exaggerated threat response, and theoretical accounts to date have focused on impaired threat processing and dysregulated prefrontal-cortex-amygdala circuitry. Nevertheless, evidence is accruing for broad, threat-neutral sensory hyperactivity in post-traumatic stress disorder. As low-level, sensory processing impacts higher-order operations, such sensory anomalies can contribute to widespread dysfunctions, presenting an additional aetiological mechanism for post-traumatic stress disorder. To elucidate a sensory pathology of post-traumatic stress disorder, we examined intrinsic visual cortical activity (based on posterior alpha oscillations) and bottom-up sensory-driven causal connectivity (Granger causality in the alpha band) during a resting state (eyes open) and a passive, serial picture viewing state. Compared to patients with generalized anxiety disorder (n = 24) and healthy control subjects (n = 20), patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 25) demonstrated intrinsic sensory hyperactivity (suppressed posterior alpha power, source-localized to the visual cortex-cuneus and precuneus) and bottom-up inhibition deficits (reduced posterior→frontal Granger causality). As sensory input increased from resting to passive picture viewing, patients with post-traumatic stress disorder failed to demonstrate alpha adaptation, highlighting a rigid, set mode of sensory hyperactivity. Interestingly, patients with post-traumatic stress disorder also showed heightened frontal processing (augmented frontal gamma power, source-localized to the superior frontal gyrus and dorsal cingulate cortex), accompanied by attenuated top-down inhibition (reduced frontal→posterior causality). Importantly, not only did suppressed alpha power and bottom-up causality correlate with heightened frontal gamma power, they also correlated with increased severity of sensory and executive dysfunctions (i.e. hypervigilance and impulse control

  3. Three reasons protein disorder analysis makes more sense in the light of collagen.

    PubMed

    Smithers, Ben; Oates, Matt E; Tompa, Peter; Gough, Julian

    2016-05-01

    We have identified that the collagen helix has the potential to be disruptive to analyses of intrinsically disordered proteins. The collagen helix is an extended fibrous structure that is both promiscuous and repetitive. Whilst its sequence is predicted to be disordered, this type of protein structure is not typically considered as intrinsic disorder. Here, we show that collagen-encoding proteins skew the distribution of exon lengths in genes. We find that previous results, demonstrating that exons encoding disordered regions are more likely to be symmetric, are due to the abundance of the collagen helix. Other related results, showing increased levels of alternative splicing in disorder-encoding exons, still hold after considering collagen-containing proteins. Aside from analyses of exons, we find that the set of proteins that contain collagen significantly alters the amino acid composition of regions predicted as disordered. We conclude that research in this area should be conducted in the light of the collagen helix.

  4. Wide-line NMR and DSC studies on intrinsically disordered p53 transactivation domain and its helically pre-structured segment

    PubMed Central

    Tompa, Peter; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Bokor, Mónika; Kamasa, Pawel; Tantos, Ágnes; Fritz, Beáta; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Lee, Chewook; Verebélyi, Tamás; Tompa, Kálmán

    2016-01-01

    Wide-line 1H NMR intensity and differential scanning calorimetry measurements were carried out on the intrinsically disordered 73-residue full transactivation domain (TAD) of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and two peptides: one a wild type p53 TAD peptide with a helix pre-structuring property, and a mutant peptide with a disabled helix-forming propensity. Measurements were carried out in order to characterize their water and ion binding characteristics. By quantifying the number of hydrate water molecules, we provide a microscopic description for the interactions of water with a wild-type p53 TAD and two p53 TAD peptides. The results provide direct evidence that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and a less structured peptide not only have a higher hydration capacity than globular proteins, but are also able to bind a larger amount of charged solute ions. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 497-501] PMID:27418282

  5. Influence of disorder on magnetic properties and intrinsic anomalous hall effect in epitaxial Co2FeAl film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, K. K.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Wu, Y.; Zhao, J. H.; Jiang, Y.

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of disorder on magnetic properties and intrinsic anomalous Hall effects in epitaxial single crystalline full Heusler alloy Co2FeAl. The magnetic properties in both ordered and disordered films are proved by X ray absorption spectroscopy and X ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements. Using a proper scaling, we have extracted the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) of the films. The intrinsic AHC in the as deposited films is thickness dependent, but in the annealed ones the value is nearly constant, which is ascribed to modified the Fermi surface due to disordering.

  6. Polybivalency and disordered proteins in ordering macromolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Barbar, Elisar; Nyarko, Afua

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are prevalent in macromolecular assemblies and are thought to mediate protein recognition in complex regulatory processes and signaling pathways. The formation of a polybivalent scaffold is a key process by which IDPs drive early steps in macromolecular assemblies. Three intrinsically disordered proteins, IC, Swallow and Nup159, are core components, respectively, of cytoplasmic dynein, bicoid mRNA localization apparatus, and nuclear pore complexes. In all three systems, the hub protein LC8 recognizes on the IDP, short linear motifs that are fully disordered in the apo form, but adopt a β-strand when bound to LC8. The IDP/LC8 complex forms a bivalent scaffold primed to bind additional bivalent ligands. Scaffold formation also promotes self-association and/or higher order organization of the IDP components at a site distant from LC8 binding. Rigorous thermodynamic analyses imply that association of additional bivalent ligands is driven by entropic effects where the first binding event is weak but subsequent binding of additional ligands occurs with higher affinity. Here, we review specific examples of macromolecular assemblies in which polybivalency of aligned IDP duplexes not only enhances binding affinity and results in formation of a stable complex but also compensates unfavorable steric and enthalpic interactions. We propose that polybivalent scaffold assembly involving IDPs and LC8-like proteins is a general process in the cell biology of a class of multi-protein structures that are stable yet fine-tuned for diverse cellular requirements.

  7. Expanding the proteome: disordered and alternatively folded proteins.

    PubMed

    Dyson, H Jane

    2011-11-01

    Proteins provide much of the scaffolding for life, as well as undertaking a variety of essential catalytic reactions. These characteristic functions have led us to presuppose that proteins are in general functional only when well structured and correctly folded. As we begin to explore the repertoire of possible protein sequences inherent in the human and other genomes, two stark facts that belie this supposition become clear: firstly, the number of apparent open reading frames in the human genome is significantly smaller than appears to be necessary to code for all of the diverse proteins in higher organisms, and secondly that a significant proportion of the protein sequences that would be coded by the genome would not be expected to form stable three-dimensional (3D) structures. Clearly the genome must include coding for a multitude of alternative forms of proteins, some of which may be partly or fully disordered or incompletely structured in their functional states. At the same time as this likelihood was recognized, experimental studies also began to uncover examples of important protein molecules and domains that were incompletely structured or completely disordered in solution, yet remained perfectly functional. In the ensuing years, we have seen an explosion of experimental and genome-annotation studies that have mapped the extent of the intrinsic disorder phenomenon and explored the possible biological rationales for its widespread occurrence. Answers to the question 'why would a particular domain need to be unstructured?' are as varied as the systems where such domains are found. This review provides a survey of recent new directions in this field, and includes an evaluation of the role not only of intrinsically disordered proteins but also of partially structured and highly dynamic members of the disorder-order continuum.

  8. Expanding the proteome: disordered and alternatively-folded proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, H. Jane

    2011-01-01

    Proteins provide much of the scaffolding for life, as well as undertaking a variety of essential catalytic reactions. These characteristic functions have led us to presuppose that proteins are in general functional only when well-structured and correctly folded. As we begin to explore the repertoire of possible protein sequences inherent in the human and other genomes, two stark facts that belie this supposition become clear: firstly, the number of apparent open reading frames in the human genome is significantly smaller than appears to be necessary to code for all of the diverse proteins in higher organisms, and secondly that a significant proportion of the protein sequences that would be coded by the genome would not be expected to form stable three-dimensional structures. Clearly the genome must include coding for a multitude of alternative forms of proteins, some of which may be partly or fully disordered or incompletely structured in their functional states. At the same time as this likelihood was recognized, experimental studies also began to uncover examples of important protein molecules and domains that were incompletely structured or completely disordered in solution, yet remained perfectly functional. In the ensuing years, we have seen an explosion of experimental and genome-annotation studies that have mapped the extent of the intrinsic disorder phenomenon and explored the possible biological rationales for its widespread occurrence. Answers to the question “why would a particular domain need to be unstructured?” are as varied as the systems where such domains are found. This review provides a survey of recent new directions in this field, and includes an evaluation of the role not only of intrinsically disordered proteins but of partially structured and highly dynamic members of the disorder-order continuum. PMID:21729349

  9. Identification of new intrinsic proteins in Arabidopsis plasma membrane proteome.

    PubMed

    Marmagne, Anne; Rouet, Marie-Aude; Ferro, Myriam; Rolland, Norbert; Alcon, Carine; Joyard, Jacques; Garin, Jérome; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Ephritikhine, Geneviève

    2004-07-01

    Identification and characterization of anion channel genes in plants represent a goal for a better understanding of their central role in cell signaling, osmoregulation, nutrition, and metabolism. Though channel activities have been well characterized in plasma membrane by electrophysiology, the corresponding molecular entities are little documented. Indeed, the hydrophobic protein equipment of plant plasma membrane still remains largely unknown, though several proteomic approaches have been reported. To identify new putative transport systems, we developed a new proteomic strategy based on mass spectrometry analyses of a plasma membrane fraction enriched in hydrophobic proteins. We produced from Arabidopsis cell suspensions a highly purified plasma membrane fraction and characterized it in detail by immunological and enzymatic tests. Using complementary methods for the extraction of hydrophobic proteins and mass spectrometry analyses on mono-dimensional gels, about 100 proteins have been identified, 95% of which had never been found in previous proteomic studies. The inventory of the plasma membrane proteome generated by this approach contains numerous plasma membrane integral proteins, one-third displaying at least four transmembrane segments. The plasma membrane localization was confirmed for several proteins, therefore validating such proteomic strategy. An in silico analysis shows a correlation between the putative functions of the identified proteins and the expected roles for plasma membrane in transport, signaling, cellular traffic, and metabolism. This analysis also reveals 10 proteins that display structural properties compatible with transport functions and will constitute interesting targets for further functional studies.

  10. Intrinsic brain connectivity predicts impulse control disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Alessandro; De Micco, Rosa; Giordano, Alfonso; di Nardo, Federica; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Siciliano, Mattia; De Stefano, Manuela; Russo, Antonio; Esposito, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2017-09-26

    Impulse control disorders can be triggered by dopamine replacement therapies in patients with PD. Using resting-state functional MRI, we investigated the intrinsic brain network connectivity at baseline in a cohort of drug-naive PD patients who successively developed impulse control disorders over a 36-month follow-up period compared with patients who did not. Baseline 3-Tesla MRI images of 30 drug-naive PD patients and 20 matched healthy controls were analyzed. The impulse control disorders' presence and severity at follow-up were assessed by the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Single-subject and group-level independent component analysis was used to investigate functional connectivity differences within the major resting-state networks. We also compared internetwork connectivity between patients. Finally, a multivariate Cox regression model was used to investigate baseline predictors of impulse control disorder development. At baseline, decreased connectivity in the default-mode and right central executive networks and increased connectivity in the salience network were detected in PD patients with impulse control disorders at follow-up compared with those without. Increased default-mode/central executive internetwork connectivity was significantly associated with impulse control disorders development (P < 0.05). Our findings demonstrated that abnormal brain connectivity in the three large-scale networks characterizes drug-naive PD patients who will eventually develop impulse control disorders while on dopaminergic treatment. We hypothesize that these divergent cognitive and limbic network connectivity changes could represent a potential biomarker and an additional risk factor for the emergence of impulse control disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Amygdala-based intrinsic functional connectivity and anxiety disorders in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Toazza, Rudineia; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Molle, Roberta Dalle; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Reis, Roberta Sena; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Esper, Nathalia Bianchini; Aguzzoli, Cristiano; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2016-11-30

    Anxiety disorders (AD) are the most prevalent group of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults. Nevertheless, the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders is still poorly understood. This study investigated differences in the functional connectivity of intrinsic amygdala-based networks of participants with and without AD. Resting state fMRI data were obtained from 18 participants with an AD and 19 healthy comparison individuals. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using standardized structured interviews. The comparison between groups was carried out using functional connectivity maps from six seed regions defined using probabilistic maps bilaterally within the amygdala (basolateral, superficial and centromedial amygdala). We found significant between-group differences in five clusters, which showed aberrant functional connectivity with the left basolateral amygdala: right precentral gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and right superior frontal gyrus in subjects with AD as compared with the comparison subjects. For the comparison subjects, the correlations between the amygdala and the five clusters were either non-significant, or negative. The present study suggests there is an intrinsic disruption in the communication between left basolateral amygdala and a network of brain regions involved with emotion regulation, and with the default mode network in adolescents and young adults with anxiety disorders.

  12. Physical Motif Clustering within Intrinsically Disordered Nucleoporin Sequences Reveals Universal Functional Features

    PubMed Central

    Ando, David; Colvin, Michael; Rexach, Michael; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Bioinformatics of disordered proteins is especially challenging given high mutation rates for homologous proteins and that functionality may not be strongly related to sequence. Here we have performed a novel bioinformatic analysis, based on the spatial clustering of physically relevant features such as binding motifs and charges within disordered proteins, on thousands of Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) FG motif containing proteins (FG nups). The biophysical mechanism by which FG nups regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport has remained elusive. Our analysis revealed a set of highly conserved spatial features in the sequence structure of individual FG nups, such as the separation, localization, and ordering of FG motifs and charged residues along the protein chain. These functionally conserved features provide insight into the particular biophysical mechanisms responsible for regulation of nucleocytoplasmic traffic in the NPC, strongly constraining current models. Additionally this method allows us to identify potentially functionally analogous disordered proteins across distantly related species. PMID:24066078

  13. Polycation-π interactions are a driving force for molecular recognition by an intrinsically disordered oncoprotein family.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianhui; Ng, Sheung Chun; Tompa, Peter; Lee, Kevin A W; Chan, Hue Sun

    2013-01-01

    Molecular recognition by intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) commonly involves specific localized contacts and target-induced disorder to order transitions. However, some IDPs remain disordered in the bound state, a phenomenon coined "fuzziness", often characterized by IDP polyvalency, sequence-insensitivity and a dynamic ensemble of disordered bound-state conformations. Besides the above general features, specific biophysical models for fuzzy interactions are mostly lacking. The transcriptional activation domain of the Ewing's Sarcoma oncoprotein family (EAD) is an IDP that exhibits many features of fuzziness, with multiple EAD aromatic side chains driving molecular recognition. Considering the prevalent role of cation-π interactions at various protein-protein interfaces, we hypothesized that EAD-target binding involves polycation- π contacts between a disordered EAD and basic residues on the target. Herein we evaluated the polycation-π hypothesis via functional and theoretical interrogation of EAD variants. The experimental effects of a range of EAD sequence variations, including aromatic number, aromatic density and charge perturbations, all support the cation-π model. Moreover, the activity trends observed are well captured by a coarse-grained EAD chain model and a corresponding analytical model based on interaction between EAD aromatics and surface cations of a generic globular target. EAD-target binding, in the context of pathological Ewing's Sarcoma oncoproteins, is thus seen to be driven by a balance between EAD conformational entropy and favorable EAD-target cation-π contacts. Such a highly versatile mode of molecular recognition offers a general conceptual framework for promiscuous target recognition by polyvalent IDPs.

  14. Balanced Protein–Water Interactions Improve Properties of Disordered Proteins and Non-Specific Protein Association

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some frequently encountered deficiencies in all-atom molecular simulations, such as nonspecific protein–protein interactions being too strong, and unfolded or disordered states being too collapsed, suggest that proteins are insufficiently well solvated in simulations using current state-of-the-art force fields. To address these issues, we make the simplest possible change, by modifying the short-range protein–water pair interactions, and leaving all the water–water and protein–protein parameters unchanged. We find that a modest strengthening of protein–water interactions is sufficient to recover the correct dimensions of intrinsically disordered or unfolded proteins, as determined by direct comparison with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) data. The modification also results in more realistic protein-protein affinities, and average solvation free energies of model compounds which are more consistent with experiment. Most importantly, we show that this scaling is small enough not to affect adversely the stability of the folded state, with only a modest effect on the stability of model peptides forming α-helix and β-sheet structures. The proposed adjustment opens the way to more accurate atomistic simulations of proteins, particularly for intrinsically disordered proteins, protein–protein association, and crowded cellular environments. PMID:25400522

  15. SilE is an intrinsically disordered periplasmic “molecular sponge” involved in bacterial silver resistance

    PubMed Central

    Asiani, Karishma R.; Williams, Huw; Bird, Louise; Jenner, Matthew; Searle, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Ag+ resistance was initially found on the Salmonella enetrica serovar Typhimurium multi‐resistance plasmid pMG101 from burns patients in 1975. The putative model of Ag+ resistance, encoded by the sil operon from pMG101, involves export of Ag+ via an ATPase (SilP), an effluxer complex (SilCFBA) and a periplasmic chaperon of Ag+ (SilE). SilE is predicted to be intrinsically disordered. We tested this hypothesis using structural and biophysical studies and show that SilE is an intrinsically disordered protein in its free apo‐form but folds to a compact structure upon optimal binding to six Ag+ ions in its holo‐form. Sequence analyses and site‐directed mutagenesis established the importance of histidine and methionine containing motifs for Ag+‐binding, and identified a nucleation core that initiates Ag+‐mediated folding of SilE. We conclude that SilE is a molecular sponge for absorbing metal ions. PMID:27085056

  16. The α-Helical Structure of Prodomains Promotes Translocation of Intrinsically Disordered Neuropeptide Hormones into the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Dirndorfer, Daniela; Seidel, Ralf P.; Nimrod, Guy; Miesbauer, Margit; Ben-Tal, Nir; Engelhard, Martin; Zimmermann, Richard; Winklhofer, Konstanze F.; Tatzelt, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Different neuropeptide hormones, which are either too small to adopt a stable conformation or are predicted to be intrinsically disordered, are synthesized as larger precursors containing a prodomain in addition to an N-terminal signal peptide. We analyzed the biogenesis of three unstructured neuropeptide hormones and observed that translocation of these precursors into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is critically dependent on the presence of the prodomain. The hormone domains could be deleted from the precursors without interfering with ER import and secretion, whereas constructs lacking the prodomain remained in the cytosol. Domain-swapping experiments revealed that the activity of the prodomains to promote productive ER import resides in their ability to adopt an α-helical structure. Removal of the prodomain from the precursor did not interfere with co-translational targeting of the nascent chain to the Sec61 translocon but with its subsequent productive translocation into the ER lumen. Our study reveals a novel function of prodomains to enable import of small or intrinsically disordered secretory proteins into the ER based on their ability to adopt an α-helical conformation. PMID:23532840

  17. Multiscaled exploration of coupled folding and binding of an intrinsically disordered molecular recognition element in measles virus nucleoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Chu, Xiakun; Longhi, Sonia; Roche, Philippe; Han, Wei; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Numerous relatively short regions within intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) serve as molecular recognition elements (MoREs). They fold into ordered structures upon binding to their partner molecules. Currently, there is still a lack of in-depth understanding of how coupled binding and folding occurs in MoREs. Here, we quantified the unbound ensembles of the α-MoRE within the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein. We developed a multiscaled approach by combining a physics-based and an atomic hybrid model to decipher the mechanism by which the α-MoRE interacts with the X domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein. Our multiscaled approach led to remarkable qualitative and quantitative agreements between the theoretical predictions and experimental results (e.g., chemical shifts). We found that the free α-MoRE rapidly interconverts between multiple discrete partially helical conformations and the unfolded state, in accordance with the experimental observations. We quantified the underlying global folding–binding landscape. This leads to a synergistic mechanism in which the recognition event proceeds via (minor) conformational selection, followed by (major) induced folding. We also provided evidence that the α-MoRE is a compact molten globule-like IDP and behaves as a downhill folder in the induced folding process. We further provided a theoretical explanation for the inherent connections between “downhill folding,” “molten globule,” and “intrinsic disorder” in IDP-related systems. Particularly, we proposed that binding and unbinding of IDPs proceed in a stepwise way through a “kinetic divide-and-conquer” strategy that confers them high specificity without high affinity. PMID:24043820

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic negative regulators of nuclear protein transport processes

    PubMed Central

    Sekimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear–cytoplasmic protein transport is a critical process in cellular events. The identification of transport signals (nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signal) and their receptors has facilitated our understanding of this expanding field. Nuclear transport must be appropriately regulated to deliver proteins through the nuclear pore when their functions are required in the nucleus, and to export them into the cytoplasm when they are not needed in the nucleus. Altered nuclear transport processes have been observed in stressed cells, which would change gene expressions. Some viruses interfere with nuclear transport in host cells to evade immune defense. Moreover, certain transport factors negatively regulate nuclear protein transport in cells. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of nuclear–cytoplasmic trafficking not only provides important information about cellular processes, but also is of use for developing specific inhibitors for transport pathways. PMID:22672474

  19. Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Christine; Ronan, Lisa; Feng, Yue; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Brammer, Michael; Fletcher, Paul C.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Williams, Steve; Loth, Eva; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bailey, A. J.; Baron-Cohen, S.; Bolton, P. F.; Bullmore, E. T.; Carrington, S.; Chakrabarti, B.; Daly, E. M.; Deoni, S. C.; Ecker, C.; Happe, F.; Henty, J.; Jezzard, P.; Johnston, P.; Jones, D. K.; Lai, M. C.; Lombardo, M. V.; Madden, A.; Mullins, D.; Murphy, C. M.; Murphy, D. G.; Pasco, G.; Sadek, S.; Spain, D.; Steward, R.; Suckling, J.; Wheelwright, S.; Williams, S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of “cortical separation distances” to assess the global and local intrinsic “wiring costs” of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly observed in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical “connectivity” in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms. PMID:23878213

  20. Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Christine; Ronan, Lisa; Feng, Yue; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Ginestet, Cedric E; Brammer, Michael; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Williams, Steve; Loth, Eva; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-08-06

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of "cortical separation distances" to assess the global and local intrinsic "wiring costs" of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly observed in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical "connectivity" in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms.

  1. Intrinsic protein flexibility in regulation of cell proliferation: advantages for signaling and opportunities for novel therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Follis, Ariele Viacava; Galea, Charles A; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that intrinsically disordered (or unstructured) proteins (IDPs, or IUPs) are found in organisms from all kingdoms of life. In eukaryotes, IDPs are highly abundant and perform a wide range of biological functions, including regulation and signaling. Despite increased interest in understanding the structural biology of IDPs, questions remain regarding the mechanisms through which disordered proteins perform their biological function(s). In other words, what are the relationships between disorder and function for IDPs? Several excellent reviews have recently been published that discuss the structural properties of IDPs.1-3 Here, we discuss two IDP systems which illustrate features of dynamic complexes. In the first section, we discuss two IDPs, p21 and p27, which regulate the mammalian cell division cycle by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). In the second section, we discuss recent results from Follis, Hammoudeh, Metallo and coworkers demonstrating that the IDP Myc can be bound and inhibited by small molecules through formation of dynamic complexes. Previous studies have shown that polypeptide segments of p21 and p27 are partially folded in isolation and fold further upon binding their biological targets. Interestingly, some portions of p27 which bind to and inhibit Cdk2/cyclin A remain flexible in the bound complex. This residual flexibility allows otherwise buried tyrosine residues within p27 to be phosphorylated by nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). Tyrosine phosphorylation relieves kinase inhibition, triggering Cdk2-mediated phosphorylation of a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus of p27. This, in turn, marks p27 for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, unleashing full Cdk2 activity which drives cell cycle progression. p27, thus, constitutes a conduit for transmission of proliferative signals via posttranslational modifications. Importantly, activation of the p27 signaling conduit by oncogenic NRTKs

  2. Subclassifying disordered proteins by the CH-CDF plot method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Oldfield, Christopher; Meng, Jingwei; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N; Romero, Pedro; Dunker, A Keith

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are associated with a wide range of functions. We suggest that sequence-based subtypes, which we call flavors, may provide the basis for different biological functions. The problem is to find a method that separates IDPs into different flavor / function groups. Here we discuss one approach, the (Charge-Hydropathy) versus (Cumulative Distribution Function) plot or CH-CDF plot, which is based the combined use of the CH and CDF disorder predictors. These two predictors are based on significantly different inputs and methods. This CH-CDF plot partitions all proteins into 4 groups: structured, mixed, disordered, and rare. Studies of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries and homologous show different structural biases for each group classified by the CH-CDF plot. The mixed class has more order-promoting residues and more ordered regions than the disordered class. To test whether this partition accomplishes any functional separation, we performed gene ontology (GO) term analysis on each class. Some functions are indeed found to be related to subtypes of disorder: the disordered class is highly active in mitosis-related processes among others. Meanwhile, the mixed class is highly associated with signaling pathways, where having both ordered and disordered regions could possibly be important.

  3. Sequence Polymorphism and Intrinsic Structural Disorder as Related to Pathobiological Performance of the Helicobacter pylori CagA Oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2017-04-13

    CagA, an oncogenic virulence factor produced by Helicobacter pylori, is causally associated with the development of gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Upon delivery into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion, CagA interacts with a number of host proteins through the intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail, which contains two repeatable protein-binding motifs, the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motif and the CagA multimerization (CM) motif. The EPIYA motif, upon phosphorylation by host kinases, binds and deregulates Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), a bona fide oncoprotein, inducing pro-oncogenic mitogenic signaling and abnormal cell morphology. Through the CM motif, CagA inhibits the kinase activity of polarity regulator partitioning-defective 1b (PAR1b), causing junctional and polarity defects while inducing actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. The magnitude of the pathobiological action of individual CagA has been linked to the tandem repeat polymorphisms of these two binding motifs, yet the molecular mechanisms by which they affect disease outcome remain unclear. Recent studies using quantitative techniques have provided new insights into how the sequence polymorphisms in the structurally disordered C-terminal region determine the degree of pro-oncogenic action of CagA in the gastric epithelium.

  4. Protein disorder in plants: a view from the chloroplast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The intrinsically unstructured state of some proteins, observed in all living organisms, is essential for basic cellular functions. In this field the available information from plants is limited but it has been reached a point where these proteins can be comprehensively classified on the basis of disorder, function and evolution. Results Our analysis of plant genomes confirms that nuclear-encoded proteins follow the same trend than other multi-cellular eukaryotes; however, chloroplast- and mitochondria- encoded proteins conserve the patterns of Archaea and Bacteria, in agreement with their phylogenetic origin. Based on current knowledge about gene transference from the chloroplast to the nucleus, we report a strong correlation between the rate of disorder of transferred and nuclear-encoded proteins, even for polypeptides that play functional roles back in the chloroplast. We further investigate this trend by reviewing the set of chloroplast ribosomal proteins, one of the most representative transferred gene clusters, finding that the ribosomal large subunit, assembled from a majority of nuclear-encoded proteins, is clearly more unstructured than the small one, which integrates mostly plastid-encoded proteins. Conclusions Our observations suggest that the evolutionary dynamics of the plant nucleus adds disordered segments to genes alike, regardless of their origin, with the notable exception of proteins currently encoded in both genomes, probably due to functional constraints. PMID:22970728

  5. Protein disorder in plants: a view from the chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Yruela, Inmaculada; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno

    2012-09-13

    The intrinsically unstructured state of some proteins, observed in all living organisms, is essential for basic cellular functions. In this field the available information from plants is limited but it has been reached a point where these proteins can be comprehensively classified on the basis of disorder, function and evolution. Our analysis of plant genomes confirms that nuclear-encoded proteins follow the same trend than other multi-cellular eukaryotes; however, chloroplast- and mitochondria- encoded proteins conserve the patterns of Archaea and Bacteria, in agreement with their phylogenetic origin. Based on current knowledge about gene transference from the chloroplast to the nucleus, we report a strong correlation between the rate of disorder of transferred and nuclear-encoded proteins, even for polypeptides that play functional roles back in the chloroplast. We further investigate this trend by reviewing the set of chloroplast ribosomal proteins, one of the most representative transferred gene clusters, finding that the ribosomal large subunit, assembled from a majority of nuclear-encoded proteins, is clearly more unstructured than the small one, which integrates mostly plastid-encoded proteins. Our observations suggest that the evolutionary dynamics of the plant nucleus adds disordered segments to genes alike, regardless of their origin, with the notable exception of proteins currently encoded in both genomes, probably due to functional constraints.

  6. Intrinsic fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectral features of cottonseed protein fractions and the effects of denaturants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To better understand the functional and physicochemical properties of cottonseed protein, we investigated the intrinsic fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectral features of cottonseed protein isolate (CSPI) and sequentially extracted water (CSPw) and alkali (CSPa) protein fractions, an...

  7. Comparison of intrinsic dynamics of cytochrome p450 proteins using normal mode analysis