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Sample records for intrinsically safe laboratory

  1. 46 CFR 111.105-11 - Intrinsically safe systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intrinsically safe systems. 111.105-11 Section 111.105-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC..., partitioned by a grounded metal barrier from other non-intrinsically safe electric cables, or a shielded...

  2. An intrinsically safe mechanism for physically coupling humans with robots.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Gerald; Patel, Harshil; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2013-06-01

    Robots are increasingly used in tasks that include physical interaction with humans. Examples can be found in the area of rehabilitation robotics, power augmentation robots, as well as assistive and orthotic devices. However, current methods of physically coupling humans with robots fail to provide intrinsic safety, adaptation and efficiency, which limit the application of wearable robotics only to laboratory and controlled environments. In this paper we present the design and verification of a novel mechanism for physically coupling humans and robots. The device is intrinsically safe, since it is based on passive, non-electric features that are not prone to malfunctions. The device is capable of transmitting forces and torques in all directions between the human user and the robot. Moreover, its re-configurable nature allows for easy and consistent adjustment of the decoupling force. The latter makes the mechanism applicable to a wide range of human-robot coupling applications, ranging from low-force rehabilitation-therapy scenarios to high-force augmentation cases.

  3. Integral Battery Power Limiting Circuit for Intrinsically Safe Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Bradley M.; Blalock, Norman N.

    2010-01-01

    A circuit topology has been designed to guarantee the output of intrinsically safe power for the operation of electrical devices in a hazardous environment. This design uses a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) as a switch to connect and disconnect power to a load. A test current is provided through a separate path to the load for monitoring by a comparator against a preset threshold level. The circuit is configured so that the test current will detect a fault in the load and open the switch before the main current can respond. The main current passes through the switch and then an inductor. When a fault occurs in the load, the current through the inductor cannot change immediately, but the voltage drops immediately to safe levels. The comparator detects this drop and opens the switch before the current in the inductor has a chance to respond. This circuit protects both the current and voltage from exceeding safe levels. Typically, this type of protection is accomplished by a fuse or a circuit breaker, but in order for a fuse or a circuit breaker to blow or trip, the current must exceed the safe levels momentarily, which may be just enough time to ignite anything in a hazardous environment. To prevent this from happening, a fuse is typically current-limited by the addition of the resistor to keep the current within safe levels while the fuse reacts. The use of a resistor is acceptable for non-battery applications where the wasted energy and voltage drop across the resistor can be tolerated. The use of the switch and inductor minimizes the wasted energy. For example, a circuit runs from a 3.6-V battery that must be current-limited to 200 mA. If the circuit normally draws 10 mA, then an 18-ohm resistor would drop 180 mV during normal operation, while a typical switch (0.02 ohm) and inductor (0.97 ohm) would only drop 9.9 mV. From a power standpoint, the current-limiting resistor protection circuit wastes about 18 times more power than the

  4. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered... Construction and Design Requirements § 18.44 Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. (a) Battery-powered equipment shall use battery assemblies approved under Part 7 of this chapter, or battery...

  5. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. 18.44 Section 18.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND...

  6. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. 18.44 Section 18.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND...

  7. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. 18.44 Section 18.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND...

  8. 30 CFR 18.44 - Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-intrinsically safe battery-powered equipment. 18.44 Section 18.44 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND...

  9. The WISE (Waste-free, Intrinsically Safe, and Efficient) Nuclear Plant Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Slessarev, Igor; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Berthou, V.

    2002-07-01

    A new concept WISE (Waste-free, Intrinsically Safe, and Efficient) for a 'clean' nuclear plant is proposed. WISE does not perturb the radiological equilibrium minimizing TRU and LLFP wastes. WISE is based on mobile fuel systems and on a feed-and-bleed fuel cycle strategy. Irradiated fuel together with fission products always remains inside of WISE core. This implies no release of waste until fuel reserves are available. After the fuel reserves are exhausted, an on-line reprocessing technology can be applied in order to minimize waste. (authors)

  10. Design and Performance Analysis of an Intrinsically Safe Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Jin, Baoquan

    2016-06-13

    In flammable or explosive environments, an ultrasonic sensor for distance measurement poses an important engineering safety challenge, because the driving circuit uses an intermediate frequency transformer as an impedance transformation element, in which the produced heat or spark is available for ignition. In this paper, an intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging sensor is designed and implemented. The waterproof piezoelectric transducer with integrated transceiver is chosen as an energy transducing element. Then a novel transducer driving circuit is designed based on an impedance matching method considering safety spark parameters to replace an intermediate frequency transformer. Then, an energy limiting circuit is developed to achieve dual levels of over-voltage and over-current protection. The detail calculation and evaluation are executed and the electrical characteristics are analyzed to verify the intrinsic safety of the driving circuit. Finally, an experimental platform of the ultrasonic ranging sensor system is constructed, which involves short-circuit protection. Experimental results show that the proposed ultrasonic ranging sensor is excellent in both ranging performance and intrinsic safety.

  11. Design and Performance Analysis of an Intrinsically Safe Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Jin, Baoquan

    2016-01-01

    In flammable or explosive environments, an ultrasonic sensor for distance measurement poses an important engineering safety challenge, because the driving circuit uses an intermediate frequency transformer as an impedance transformation element, in which the produced heat or spark is available for ignition. In this paper, an intrinsically safe ultrasonic ranging sensor is designed and implemented. The waterproof piezoelectric transducer with integrated transceiver is chosen as an energy transducing element. Then a novel transducer driving circuit is designed based on an impedance matching method considering safety spark parameters to replace an intermediate frequency transformer. Then, an energy limiting circuit is developed to achieve dual levels of over-voltage and over-current protection. The detail calculation and evaluation are executed and the electrical characteristics are analyzed to verify the intrinsic safety of the driving circuit. Finally, an experimental platform of the ultrasonic ranging sensor system is constructed, which involves short-circuit protection. Experimental results show that the proposed ultrasonic ranging sensor is excellent in both ranging performance and intrinsic safety. PMID:27304958

  12. Design and implementation of an intrinsically safe liquid-level sensor using coaxial cable.

    PubMed

    Jin, Baoquan; Liu, Xin; Bai, Qing; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu

    2015-05-28

    Real-time detection of liquid level in complex environments has always been a knotty issue. In this paper, an intrinsically safe liquid-level sensor system for flammable and explosive environments is designed and implemented. The poly vinyl chloride (PVC) coaxial cable is chosen as the sensing element and the measuring mechanism is analyzed. Then, the capacitance-to-voltage conversion circuit is designed and the expected output signal is achieved by adopting parameter optimization. Furthermore, the experimental platform of the liquid-level sensor system is constructed, which involves the entire process of measuring, converting, filtering, processing, visualizing and communicating. Additionally, the system is designed with characteristics of intrinsic safety by limiting the energy of the circuit to avoid or restrain the thermal effects and sparks. Finally, the approach of the piecewise linearization is adopted in order to improve the measuring accuracy by matching the appropriate calibration points. The test results demonstrate that over the measurement range of 1.0 m, the maximum nonlinearity error is 0.8% full-scale span (FSS), the maximum repeatability error is 0.5% FSS, and the maximum hysteresis error is reduced from 0.7% FSS to 0.5% FSS by applying software compensation algorithms.

  13. Design and Implementation of an Intrinsically Safe Liquid-Level Sensor Using Coaxial Cable

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Baoquan; Liu, Xin; Bai, Qing; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time detection of liquid level in complex environments has always been a knotty issue. In this paper, an intrinsically safe liquid-level sensor system for flammable and explosive environments is designed and implemented. The poly vinyl chloride (PVC) coaxial cable is chosen as the sensing element and the measuring mechanism is analyzed. Then, the capacitance-to-voltage conversion circuit is designed and the expected output signal is achieved by adopting parameter optimization. Furthermore, the experimental platform of the liquid-level sensor system is constructed, which involves the entire process of measuring, converting, filtering, processing, visualizing and communicating. Additionally, the system is designed with characteristics of intrinsic safety by limiting the energy of the circuit to avoid or restrain the thermal effects and sparks. Finally, the approach of the piecewise linearization is adopted in order to improve the measuring accuracy by matching the appropriate calibration points. The test results demonstrate that over the measurement range of 1.0 m, the maximum nonlinearity error is 0.8% full-scale span (FSS), the maximum repeatability error is 0.5% FSS, and the maximum hysteresis error is reduced from 0.7% FSS to 0.5% FSS by applying software compensation algorithms. PMID:26029949

  14. Safe use of wire rope at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, L.

    1982-08-01

    The safety of wire-rope cables used in hoists and cranes for heavy equipment handling at the Sandia National Laboratories, one experience with cable failure, and the inspection and servicing procedures used as safety precautions when dealing with wire rope are discussed. (LCL)

  15. Safe Reduction of Blood Volume in the Blood Gas Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Phillip R; Markewitz, Boaz A

    2016-11-01

    Phlebotomy is a significant cause of iatrogenic anemia in the critical care environment. It is estimated that one-third of all transfusions of packed red blood cells in intensive care units (ICU) result from phlebotomy. The aims of this study were to determine if utilizing the 1mL blood gas syringe for an adult population would impact the rate at which specimens were acceptable for testing and result reporting based on lab specimen rejection criteria; and to compare blood utilization between the 2 different syringes. This study was conducted in 1 of the adult ICUs at the University of Utah Hospital. Over a baseline period a standard adult 3 mL blood gas syringe was utilized. Subsequently the standard adult syringe was replaced by a 1 mL syringe produced by the same manufacturer with the same heparin concentration. The change to the 1 mL syringe had no effect on specimen integrity in regards to laboratory's ability to process the specimen. With use of the 1 mL syringe there was a 60% reduction in the volume of blood drawn compared with the baseline period. Standardizing the 1 mL syringe for Blood Gas Laboratory tests will reduce patient blood loss without appreciably affecting specimen rejection relative to current rates. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Study of an intrinsically safe infrastructure for training and research on nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripani, Marco; Frambati, Stefano; Mansani, Luigi; Bruzzone, Maurizio; Reale, Marco; Monti, Stefano; Ciotti, Marco; Barbagallo, Massimo; Colonna, Nicola; Celentano, Andrea; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ricco, Giovanni; Saracco, Paolo; Viberti, Carlo Maria; Frasciello, Oscar; Boccaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Juan; Lombardi, Augusto; Maggiore, Mario; Piazza, Leandro A. C.; Prete, Gianfranco; Alba, Rosa; Calabretta, Luciano; Cosentino, Gianluigi; Del Zoppo, Antonio; Di Pietro, Alessia; Figuera, Pierpaolo; Finocchiaro, Paolo; Maiolino, Cettina; Santonocito, Domenico; Schillaci, Maria; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Sisti, Monica; Kostyukov, Alexander; Cammi, Antonio; Bortot, Sara; Lorenzi, Stefano; Ricotti, Marco; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Lomonaco, Guglielmo; Rebora, Alessandro; Alloni, Daniele; Borio di Tigliole, Andrea; Cagnazzo, Marcella; Cremonesi, Riccardo; Magrotti, Giovanni; Manera, Sergio; Panza, Fabio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Within European Partitioning & Transmutation research programs, infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental reactor physics and engineering parameters of future fast-neutron-based reactors are very important, being some of these features not available in present zero-power prototypes. This presentation will illustrate the conceptual design of an Accelerator-Driven System with high safety standards, but ample flexibility for measurements. The design assumes as base option a 70 MeV, 0.75 mA proton cyclotron, as the one which will be installed at the INFN National Laboratory in Legnaro, Italy and a Beryllium target, with Helium gas as core coolant. Safety is guaranteed by limiting the thermal power to 200 kW, with a neutron multiplication coefficient around 0.94, loading the core with fuel containing Uranium enriched at 20% inserted in a solid-lead diffuser. The small decay heat can be passively removed by thermal radiation from the vessel. Such a system could be used to study, among others, some specific aspects of neutron diffusion in lead, beam-core coupling, target cooling and could serve as a training facility.

  17. Effective, Safe, and Inexpensive Microscale Ultrasonic Setup for Teaching and Research Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana, Angel M.; Grima, Pedro M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a homemade, safe, effective, and inexpensive reactor vessel for ultrasonic horns with applications in microscale experiments in teaching and research laboratories. The reactor vessel is designed for an ultrasonic probe that allows reactions to be run at the microscale level at a wide range of temperatures and under inert atmosphere.…

  18. Effective, Safe, and Inexpensive Microscale Ultrasonic Setup for Teaching and Research Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana, Angel M.; Grima, Pedro M.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a homemade, safe, effective, and inexpensive reactor vessel for ultrasonic horns with applications in microscale experiments in teaching and research laboratories. The reactor vessel is designed for an ultrasonic probe that allows reactions to be run at the microscale level at a wide range of temperatures and under inert atmosphere.…

  19. Plan for Safe Laser Beam Propagation from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, K. E.; Roberts, W. T.; Garkanian, V.; Battle, F.; Leblanc, R.; Hemmati, H.; Robles, P.

    2002-10-01

    JPL is building a state-of-the-art Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to perform research and development of laser beam propagation and signal detection technologies to meet NASA's future needs for high-bandwidth communications from Earth-orbiting and deep-space probes. Laser beam propagation between ground and space is regulated by several government agencies -- regulation that is significant when propagating high-brightness, Q-switched laser beams that will be used for uplinking commands to deep-space probes and as an acquisition, pointing, and tracking beacon for downlink optical communication. To ensure safe laser operation and beam propagation from the OCTL, JPL has identified a four-tier safety system. The safety system starts with safe beam propagation within the OCTL, extends to safe beam propagation through the air and into space, and is designed to meet the requirements of State (California Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and Federal agencies (Federal Aviation Administration and the U.S. Space Command's Laser Clearinghouse).

  20. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — General description of the system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansani, L.; Bruzzone, M.; Frambati, S.; Reale, M.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of research on generation-IV reactors, it is very important to have infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental parameters in dynamics and kinetics of future fast-neutron reactors. Among various options pursued by international groups, Italy focused on lead-cooled reactors, which guarantee minimal neutron slowdown and capture and efficient cooling. In this paper it is described the design of a the low-power prototype generator, LEADS, that could be used within research facilities such as the National Laboratory of Legnaro of the INFN. The LEADS has a high safety standard in order to be used as a training facility, but it has also a good flexibility so as to allow a wide range of measurements and experiments. A high safety standard is achieved by limiting the reactor power to less than few hundred kW and the neutron multiplication factor k eff to less than 0.95 (a limiting value for spent fuel pool), by using a pure-uranium fuel (no plutonium) and by using solid lead as a diffuser. The proposed core is therefore intrinsically subcritical and has to be driven by an external neutron source generated by a proton beam impinging in a target. Preliminary simulations, performed with the MCNPX code indicated, for a 0.75mA continuous proton beam current at 70MeV proton energy, a reactor power of about 190kW when using a beryllium converter. The enriched-uranium fuel elements are immersed in a solid-lead matrix and contained within a steel vessel. The system is cooled by helium gas, which is transparent to neutrons and does not undergo activation. The gas is pumped by a compressor through specific holes at the entrance of the active volume with a temperature which varies according to the operating conditions and a pressure of about 1.1MPa. The hot gas coming out of the vessel is cooled by an external helium-water heat exchanger. The beryllium converter is cooled by its dedicated helium gas cooling system. After shutdown, the decay is

  1. Methods for the Safe Storage, Handling, and Disposal of Pyrophoric Liquids and Solids in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Quigley, David; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Simmons, Fred; Freshwater, David; Bigger, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel.12 Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior to performing the experimental task. The purpose of this article is three fold: 1) to provide guidelines and general safety precautions to avoid accidents, 2) describe proper techniques on how to successfully handle, store, and dispose of pyrophoric liquids and solids, and 3) illustrate best practices for working with this class of reactants in a laboratory environment.

  2. The importance of implementing safe sharps practices in the laboratory setting in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Carli, Gabriella; Abiteboul, Dominique; Puro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare workers are at risk of sharps injuries and subsequent infection from more than 40 bloodborne pathogens or species. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) together account for the vast majority of cases. The Directive 2010/32/EU "Prevention from sharp injuries in the hospital and healthcare sector", issued to protect workers from these risks, requires an integrated approach to prevention including awareness-raising, education, training, elimination of unnecessary needles, safe procedures for sharps use and disposal, banning of recapping, vaccination, use of personal protective equipment, provision of safety-engineered devices, and appropriate surveillance, monitoring, response and follow-up. As laboratories represent a high-risk setting both in the preanalytical and analytical phase, we reviewed accidents and prevention in this setting in the light of the new legislation. Phlebotomy is the procedure carrying the highest risk of exposure and infection, involved in 30-50% of HIV and HCV cases detected in nationwide systems following accidental blood exposures implemented since the 1990s in Italy and France. In laboratories, problems in the management of sharps containers, recapping, needle disassembly by hand and blood transfer from syringes into tubes were observed and accounted for two-thirds of injuries. These accidents could be reduced through education and monitoring of behaviours, and introduction of medical devices incorporating safety-engineered protection mechanisms with appropriate training. Laboratory staff should be immunized against HBV, and know policies and procedures for the post-exposure management and prophylaxis. The management commitment to safety is crucial to ensure the necessary support to these changes.

  3. A Multidisciplinary Housestaff-Led Initiative to Safely Reduce Daily Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Iams, Wade; Heck, Josh; Kapp, Meghan; Leverenz, David; Vella, Michael; Szentirmai, Eszter; Valerio-Navarrete, Irene; Theobald, Cecelia; Goggins, Kathryn; Flemmons, Kevin; Sponsler, Kelly; Penrod, Cody; Kleinholz, Patricia; Brady, Donald; Kripalani, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Provision of high-value care is a milestone in physician training. The authors evaluated the effect of a housestaff-led initiative on laboratory testing rates. Vanderbilt University Medical Center's Choosing Wisely steering committee, led by housestaff with faculty advisors, sought to reduce unnecessary daily basic metabolic panel (BMP) and complete blood count (CBC) testing on inpatient general medicine and surgical services. Intervention services received a didactic session followed by regular data feedback with goal rates and peer comparison. Testing rates during January 1, 2013-February 9, 2015, were compared on intervention services and control services using a difference-in-differences analysis and an interrupted time-series analysis with segmented linear regression. Compared with concurrent controls, the mean number of BMP tests per patient day decreased by an additional 0.23 (95% CI 0.17-0.29) on medical housestaff and 0.15 (95% CI 0.09-0.21) on hospitalist intervention services. Daily CBC tests decreased by an additional 0.28 (95% CI 0.23-0.33) on medical housestaff, 0.08 (95% CI 0.03-0.13) on hospitalist, and 0.12 (95% CI 0.05-0.20) on surgical housestaff intervention services. Patients with lab-free days (0 labs ordered in 24 hours) increased by an additional 4.1 percentage points (95% CI 2.1-6.1) on medical housestaff and 9.7 percentage points (95% CI 6.6-12.8) on hospitalist intervention services. There were no adverse changes in length of stay or intensive care unit transfer, in-hospital mortality, or 30-day readmission rates. A housestaff-led intervention utilizing education and data feedback with goal setting and peer comparison resulted in safe, significant reductions in daily laboratory testing rates.

  4. METHODS FOR THE SAFE STORAGE, HANDLING, AND DISPOSAL OF PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS IN THE LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F.; Kuntamukkula, M.; Alnajjar, M.; Quigley, D.; Freshwater, D.; Bigger, S.

    2010-02-02

    Pyrophoric reagents represent an important class of reactants because they can participate in many different types of reactions. They are very useful in organic synthesis and in industrial applications. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) define Pyrophorics as substances that will self-ignite in air at temperatures of 130 F (54.4 C) or less. However, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) uses criteria different from the auto-ignition temperature criterion. The DOT defines a pyrophoric material as a liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within five minutes after coming in contact with air when tested according to the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria. The Environmental Protection Agency has adopted the DOT definition. Regardless of which definition is used, oxidation of the pyrophoric reagents by oxygen or exothermic reactions with moisture in the air (resulting in the generation of a flammable gas such as hydrogen) is so rapid that ignition occurs spontaneously. Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel. Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior

  5. Intrinsic vs Laboratory Frame Description of the Deformed Nucleus 48Cr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caurier, E.; Egido, J. L.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Poves, A.; Retamosa, J.; Robledo, L. M.; Zuker, A. P.

    1995-09-01

    The collective yrast band of the nucleus 48Cr is studied using the spherical shell model and the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method. Both approaches produce basically the same axially symmetric intrinsic state up to the-accurately reproduced-observed backbending. Agreement between both calculations extends to most observables. The only significant discrepancy comes from the static moments of inertia and can be attributed to the need of a more refined treatment of pairing correlations in the HFB calculation.

  6. Laboratory-acquired skin infections in a clinical microbiologist: Is wearing only gloves really safe?

    PubMed

    Duman, Yucel; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Otlu, Baris; Tekerekoglu, Mehmet Sait

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory-acquired infection is one of the leading occupational health hazards. On a laboratory worker's hands, carbuncles occurred. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from pus samples of the carbuncles, with the same pulsed field gel electrophoresis band pattern with one of the recently studied strains in the laboratory. Incorrect or inadequate application of infection control measures may result in pathogen acquisition from the clinical samples, and wearing only gloves is not sufficient for the biosafety of laboratory workers in clinical diagnostic laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A safe, free and efficient way to control Nasonia vitripennis, a common pest in forensic entomology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, D; Hedouin, V

    2014-12-01

    Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a parasitoid of necrophagous blowflies. Its presence in a forensic entomology laboratory can be extremely damaging to samples and can compromise the PMI estimation. We describe for the first time a simple, safe and efficient trap to control N. vitripennis infestations. Adhesive tape is placed horizontally on windows to create an obstacle. Wasps go underneath until they reach the adhesive side of the tape and become stuck by their wings. This method is highly selective, costless and has been successfully used in our laboratory for years.

  8. Field metabolomics and laboratory assessments of anaerobic intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons at a petroleum‐contaminated site

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Victoria A.; Brubaker, Gaylen R.; Zenker, Matthew J.; Prince, Roger C.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Da Silva, Marcio L.B.; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Field metabolomics and laboratory assays were used to assess the in situ anaerobic attenuation of hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer underlying a former refinery. Benzene, ethylbenzene, 2‐methylnaphthalene, 1,2,4‐ and 1,3,5‐trimethylbenzene were targeted as contaminants of greatest regulatory concern (COC) whose intrinsic remediation has been previously reported. Metabolite profiles associated with anaerobic hydrocarbon decay revealed the microbial utilization of alkylbenzenes, including the trimethylbenzene COC, PAHs and several n‐alkanes in the contaminated portions of the aquifer. Anaerobic biodegradation experiments designed to mimic in situ conditions showed no loss of exogenously amended COC; however, a substantive rate of endogenous electron acceptor reduction was measured (55 ± 8 µM SO4 day−1). An assessment of hydrocarbon loss in laboratory experiments relative to a conserved internal marker revealed that non‐COC hydrocarbons were being metabolized. Purge and trap analysis of laboratory assays showed a substantial loss of toluene, m‐ and o‐xylene, as well as several alkanes (C6–C12). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that benzene is persistent under the prevailing site anaerobic conditions. We could find no in situ benzene intermediates (phenol or benzoate), the parent molecule proved recalcitrant in laboratory assays and low copy numbers of Desulfobacterium were found, a genus previously implicated in anaerobic benzene biodegradation. This study also showed that there was a reasonable correlation between field and laboratory findings, although with notable exception. Thus, while the intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation was clearly evident at the site, non‐COC hydrocarbons were preferentially metabolized, even though there was ample literature precedence for the biodegradation of the target molecules. PMID:21261914

  9. A Simple, Safe, and Inexpensive Laboratory Exercise in the Guided Inquiry Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that illustrates stoichiometry, limiting reagents, and proportionality. Highlights the safety and low cost factors of this exercise. Outlines procedures for the students. (ML)

  10. A Simple, Safe, and Inexpensive Laboratory Exercise in the Guided Inquiry Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moura, John M.; Marcello, Joseph A.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that illustrates stoichiometry, limiting reagents, and proportionality. Highlights the safety and low cost factors of this exercise. Outlines procedures for the students. (ML)

  11. Field and laboratory evidence for intrinsic biodegradation of vinyl chloride contamination in a Fe(III)-reducing aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Wilson, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in anaerobic aquifers previously has not been considered feasible, due, in large part, to 1) the production of vinyl chloride during microbial reductive dechlorination of higher chlorinated contaminants and 2) the apparent poor biodegradability of vinyl chloride under anaerobic conditions. In this study, a combination of field geochemical analyses and laboratory radiotracer ([1,2-14C] vinyl chloride) experiments was utilized to assess the potential for intrinsic biodegradation of vinyl chloride contamination in an Fe(III)-reducing, anaerobic aquifer. Microcosm experiments conducted under Fe(III)-reducing conditions with material from the Fe(III)-reducing, chlorinated-ethene contaminated aquifer demonstrated significant oxidation of [1,2-14C] vinyl chloride to 14CO2 with no detectable production of ethene or other reductive dehalogenation products. Rates of degradation derived from the microcosm experiments (0.9-1.3% d-1) were consistent with field-estimated rates (0.03-0.2% d-1) of apparent vinyl chloride degradation. Field estimates of apparent vinyl chloride biodegradation were calculated using two distinct approaches; 1) a solute dispersion model and 2) a mass balance assessment. These findings demonstrate that degradation under Fe(III) reducing conditions can be an environmentally significant mechanism for intrinsic bioremediation of vinyl chloride in anaerobic ground-water systems.

  12. Intrinsically safe moisture blending system

    DOEpatents

    Hallman Jr., Russell L.; Vanatta, Paul D.

    2012-09-11

    A system for providing an adjustable blend of fluids to an application process is disclosed. The system uses a source of a first fluid flowing through at least one tube that is permeable to a second fluid and that is disposed in a source of the second fluid to provide the adjustable blend. The temperature of the second fluid is not regulated, and at least one calibration curve is used to predict the volumetric mixture ratio of the second fluid with the first fluid from the permeable tube. The system typically includes a differential pressure valve and a backpressure control valve to set the flow rate through the system.

  13. SafePort (trademark) - Transitioning Novel Environmental Sensors from Laboratory to the Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-29

    from 10s of seconds to milliseconds • Cells seeded on extracellular matrix coated interdigitated electrodes • Temporal evolution of impedance is... Interdigitated Electrodes Extracellular Matrix +Cells in Media BUILDING STRONG® Summary  The SafePort™ hardware platform with heavy metal and perchlorate...reagent mixture and/or electrode configuration BUILDING STRONG® Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Analysis c u r r e n t ( μ A ) P o t e n t i a l ( V

  14. [Medical microbiology laboratories in Dutch hospitals: essential for safe patient care].

    PubMed

    Bonten, M J M

    2008-12-06

    The Netherlands Health Care Inspectorate investigated the quality of medical microbiology laboratories in Dutch hospitals. By and large the laboratories fulfilled the requirements for appropriate care, although some processes were unsatisfactory and some were insufficiently formalised. In the Netherlands, laboratories for medical microbiology are integrated within hospitals and medical microbiologists are responsible for the diagnostic processes as well as for co-treatment of patients, infection prevention and research. This integrated model contrasts to the more industrialised model in many other countries, where such laboratories are physically distinct from hospitals with a strong focus on diagnostics. The Inspectorate also concludes that the current position of medical microbiology in Dutch hospitals is necessary for patient safety and that outsourcing of these facilities is considered unacceptable.

  15. Projectile Activity for the Laboratory: A Safe and Inexpensive Approach to Several Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple laboratory activity for introductory-level physics students which involves rolling balls down pipes and analysing their subsequent flight trajectories. Using balls of equal size but different mass allows students to confront their misconceptions of a mass dependence of the exit speed of the balls from the pipes. The concepts of…

  16. Projectile Activity for the Laboratory: A Safe and Inexpensive Approach to Several Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple laboratory activity for introductory-level physics students which involves rolling balls down pipes and analysing their subsequent flight trajectories. Using balls of equal size but different mass allows students to confront their misconceptions of a mass dependence of the exit speed of the balls from the pipes. The concepts of…

  17. Placement of the radiochemical processing plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory into a safe standby condition

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, D.W.; Bopp, C.D.; Farmer, A.J.; Johnson, J.K.; Miller, C.H.; Powers, B.A.; Collins, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive upgrade, cleanup, and decontamination efforts are being conducted for appropriate areas in the Radiochemical Processing Plant (RPP) with the goal of achieving ''safe standby'' condition by the end of FY 1989. The ventilation system must maintain containment; thus, it is being upgraded via demolition and replacement of marginally adequate ductwork, fans, and control systems. Areas that are being decontaminated and stripped of various services (e.g., piping, ductwork, and process tanks) include hot cells, makeup rooms, and pipe tunnels. Operating equipment that is being decontaminated includes glove boxes and hoods. Replacement of the ventilation system and removal of equipment from pipe tunnels, cells, and makeup rooms are accomplished by contact labor by workers using proper attire, safety rules, and shielding. Removal of contaminated ductwork and piping is conducted with containment enclosures that are strategically located at breakpoints, and methods of separation are chosen to conform with health physics requirements. The methods of cutting contaminated piping and ductwork include portable reciprocating saws, pipe cutters, burning, and plasma torch. Specially designed containment enclosures will be used to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination while maintaining adequate ventilation. 6 figs.

  18. Development of a safe ground to space laser propagation system for the optical communications telescope laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Janet P.

    2003-01-01

    Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.

  19. Development of a safe ground to space laser propagation system for the optical communications telescope laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Janet P.

    2003-01-01

    Furthering pursuits in high bandwidth communications to future NASA deep space and neat-Earth probes, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is building the Optical communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California. This R&D optical antenna will be used to develop optical communication strategies for future optical ground stations. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Yet laser beam propagation from the ground to space is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ISHA) that is responsible for protecting workforce personnel; the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft; and the Laser Clearinghouse of Space Command responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL and future autonomously operated ground stations comply with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL is developing a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. At Tier 0, laser operators will meet OSHA safety standards for protection and access to the high power lasers area will be restricted and interlocked. Tier 1, the area defined from the telescope dome out to a range of 3.4-km, will utilize long wave infrared camera sensors to alert operators of at risk aircraft in the FAA controlled airspace. Tier 2, defined to extend from 3.4-km out to the aircraft service ceiling in FAA airspace, will detect at risk aircraft by radar. Lastly, beam propagation into space, defined as Tier 3, will require coordination with the Laser Clearinghouse. A detailed description of the four tiers is presented along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.

  20. Efficient inactivation of Burkholderia pseudomallei or Francisella tularensis in infected cells for safe removal from biosafety level 3 containment laboratories.

    PubMed

    Emery, Felicia D; Stabenow, Jennifer M; Miller, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Working with infectious agents that require BSL-3 level containment agents offers many challenges for researchers. BSL-3 containment laboratories are usually not equipped with expensive specialty equipment that is needed for studies such as flow cytometric analysis, microscopy, and proteomic analyses. Therefore, for most researchers that are working with BSL-3 level infectious agents, removal of samples from BSL-3 laboratories for these types of studies is necessary, and methods for complete and dependable inactivation of the samples are required. In this report, we have carried out a thorough characterization of the effectiveness of paraformaldehyde fixation for inactivation of cell samples infected with the intracellular bacterial agents Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Francisella tularensis (Ft), both of which are Tier 1 select agent pathogens that require BSL-3 containment. We have demonstrated that cells infected with these pathogens are completely inactivated via 5-min treatment with 4% paraformaldehyde. Moreover, a 15-min treatment with 2% paraformaldehyde completely sterilized both Bp- and Ft-infected cells. These studies also revealed that Bp is significantly more sensitive to paraformaldehyde treatment than Ft. Our findings have clearly demonstrated that a 15-min treatment of Bp- or Ft-infected cells with 4% paraformaldehyde solution will allow for safe removal of the cell samples from BSL-3 laboratories for downstream studies. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-10-16

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30-50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture.

  2. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30–50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture. PMID:26470644

  3. Are fish fed with cyanobacteria safe, nutritious and delicious? A laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hualei; Zhou, Wenshan; Zhang, Yulei; Qiao, Qin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms, which produce cyclic heptapeptide toxins known as microcystins, are worldwide environmental problems. On the other hand, the cyanobacteria protein (30-50%) has been recommended as substitute protein for aquaculture. The present laboratory study verified the feasibility of cyanobacteria protein substitution and risk assessment. Goldfish were fed diets supplemented lyophilised cyanobacteria powder for 16 weeks with the various doses: 0% (control), 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Low doses (10% and 20%) promoted growth whereas high doses (30% and 40%) inhibited growth. In cyanobacteria treated fish, the proximate composition of ash, crude fat content and crude protein content decreased in 16 weeks; the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content significantly increased; the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, collagen content and muscle pH significantly decreased; cooking loss percents increased significantly. Muscle fiber diameter and myofibril length were negatively correlation. Additionally, flavour compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and carnosine) changed significantly in the treated fish, and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol increased significantly. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of microcystins in muscle was close to or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable daily intake (TDI), representing a great health risk. Cyanobacterie is not feasible for protein sources use in aquaculture.

  4. Efficient Inactivation of Burkholderia pseudomallei or Francisella tularensis in infected Cells for Safe Removal from Biosafety Level 3 Containment Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Felicia D.; Stabenow, Jennifer M.; Miller, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Working with infectious agents that require BSL-3 level containment agents offers many challenges for researchers. BSL-3 containment laboratories are usually not equipped with expensive specialty equipment that is needed for studies such as flow cytometric analysis, microscopy, and proteomic analyses. Therefore, for most researchers that are working with BSL-3 level infectious agents, removal of samples from BSL-3 labs for these types of studies is necessary, and methods for complete and dependable inactivation of the samples are required. In this report we have done a thorough characterization of the effectiveness of paraformaldehyde fixation for inactivation of cell samples infected with the intracellular bacterial agents Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Francisella tularensis (Ft), both of which are Tier 1 select agent pathogens that require BSL-3 containment. We have demonstrated that cells infected with these pathogens are completely inactivated via 5-minute treatment with 4% paraformaldehyde. Moreover, a 15-minute treatment with 2% paraformaldehyde completely sterilized both Bp- and Ft-infected cells. These studies also revealed that Bp is significantly more sensitive to paraformaldehyde treatment than Ft. Our findings have clearly demonstrated that a 15-minute treatment of Bp- or Ft-infected cells with 4% paraformaldehyde solution will allow for safe removal of the cell samples from BSL-3 labs for downstream studies. PMID:24449562

  5. Guidelines for safe work practices in human and animal medical diagnostic laboratories. Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel.

    PubMed

    Miller, J Michael; Astles, Rex; Baszler, Timothy; Chapin, Kimberle; Carey, Roberta; Garcia, Lynne; Gray, Larry; Larone, Davise; Pentella, Michael; Pollock, Anne; Shapiro, Daniel S; Weirich, Elizabeth; Wiedbrauk, Danny

    2012-01-06

    Prevention of injuries and occupational infections in U.S. laboratories has been a concern for many years. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine. In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories. The members of this panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly. These guidelines promote a culture of safety and include recommendations that supplement BMBL-5 by addressing the unique needs of the diagnostic laboratory. They are not requirements but recommendations that represent current science and sound judgment that can foster a safe working environment for all laboratorians. Throughout these guidelines, quality laboratory science is reinforced by a common-sense approach to biosafety in day-to-day activities. Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. All functions of the human and animal diagnostic laboratory--microbiology, chemistry, hematology, and pathology with autopsy and necropsy guidance--are addressed. A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments. Recommendations for all laboratories include use of Class IIA2 biological safety cabinets that are inspected annually; frequent hand washing; use of appropriate disinfectants, including 1:10 dilutions of household bleach; dependence on risk assessments for many activities

  6. Safe Schools, Safe Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Julie E.; Pickett, Dean; Pulliam, Janet L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; St. Germaine, Anne-Marie; Underwood, Julie; Worona, Jay

    Schools must work together with agencies, groups, and individuals to eliminate the forces leading children to violence. Chapter 1, "School Safety: Working Together to Keep Schools Safe," stresses the importance of community collaboration in violence prevention. Effective prevention requires sharing information about students, consistent…

  7. Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers are studying the potential for Li-ion-battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment approved as permissible for use in underground coal mines. Researchers used a plastic wedge to induce internal short circuits for thermal runaway susceptibility evaluation purposes, which proved to be a more severe test than the flat plate method for selected Li-ion cells. Researchers conducted cell crush tests within a 20-L chamber filled with 6.5% CH4–air to simulate the mining hazard. Results indicate that LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells pose a CH4 explosion hazard from a cell internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 Systems 26650 LiFePO4 cells were safer than the LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells at a conservative statistical significance level. PMID:26166911

  8. Towards intrinsically safe light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hannerz, K

    1983-07-01

    Most of the present impediments to the rational use of the nuclear option have their roots in the reactor safety issue. The approach taken to satisfy the escalating safety concerns has resulted in excessively complex and expensive plant designs but has failed to create public confidence. This paper describes a new approach based on the principle of Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS). With the PIUS principle, ultimate safety is obtained by guaranteeing core integrity under all credible conditions. This is accomplished on the basis of the laws of gravity and thermohydraulics alone, interacting with the heat extraction process in an intact or damaged primary circuit, without recourse to engineered safety systems that may fail or dependence on error-prone human intervention. Application of the PIUS principle to the pressurized water reactor involves a substantial redesign of the reactor and primary system but builds on established PWR technology where long-term operation is needed for verification.

  9. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

  10. New technique: Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-10-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories.

  11. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  12. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  13. [Comparative study of some clinical and laboratory indicators in a group of patients using wells as source of drinking water and a control group using safe water].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, D A

    2011-01-01

    In time, well water, as a source of drinking and coking water, with physical-chemical, bacteriological, and biological indicators suggestive of alteration in water potability, determines complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders. Sixty individuals residing in a rural community were divided into 2 groups: study group -30 subjects using well water, and control group--30 subjects using safe water. For the study group the selection criteria were: age, sex, use of well water as drinking and cooking water, history suggestive of chronic poisoning (pregnancy course, birth weight, susceptibility to infectious agents, and current chronic diseases). In the study group, gestosis, prematurity, and altered body mass index are more frequent as compared to the subjects in the control group. The identified laboratory changes indicate moderate anemia, hepatic cytolysis, dyslipidemia, presence of nitrites in urine, and positive urine cultures. Long-term use of water with mineral constituents in excess, absent, or inadequate, the direct biological and chemical water pollution, or most frequently the indirect pollution through the soil determine, in time, complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders.

  14. Safe Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Though most art materials are safe for children (and labelled accordingly), parents and teachers should follow recommended safety guidelines, such as those presented in this article, when choosing, using, and storing children's art materials. (SM)

  15. Safe Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  16. Safe environments.

    PubMed

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  17. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Intrinsically safe circuits and/or components will be subjected to tests consisting of making and breaking the intrinsically safe circuit under conditions judged to simulate the most hazardous probable faults or... method of making and breaking the circuit may be varied to meet a particular condition. (3) Those...

  18. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Intrinsically safe circuits and/or components will be subjected to tests consisting of making and breaking the intrinsically safe circuit under conditions judged to simulate the most hazardous probable faults or... method of making and breaking the circuit may be varied to meet a particular condition. (3) Those...

  19. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Intrinsically safe circuits and/or components will be subjected to tests consisting of making and breaking the intrinsically safe circuit under conditions judged to simulate the most hazardous probable faults or... method of making and breaking the circuit may be varied to meet a particular condition. (3) Those...

  20. 30 CFR 18.68 - Tests for intrinsic safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Intrinsically safe circuits and/or components will be subjected to tests consisting of making and breaking the intrinsically safe circuit under conditions judged to simulate the most hazardous probable faults or... method of making and breaking the circuit may be varied to meet a particular condition. (3) Those...

  1. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  2. Chemoinformatics for rational discovery of safe antibacterial drugs: simultaneous predictions of biological activity against streptococci and toxicological profiles in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Kleandrova, Valeria V; Cordeiro, M N D S

    2013-05-15

    Streptococci are a group of Gram-positive bacteria which are responsible for causing many diverse diseases in humans and other animals worldwide. The high prevalence of resistance of these bacteria to current antibacterial drugs is an alarming problem for the scientific community. The battle against streptococci by using antimicrobial chemotherapies will depend on the design of new chemicals with high inhibitory activity, having also as low toxicity as possible. Multi-target approaches based on quantitative-structure activity relationships (mt-QSAR) have played a very important role, providing a better knowledge about the molecular patterns related with the appearance of different pharmacological profiles including antimicrobial activity. Until now, almost all mt-QSAR models have considered the study of biological activity or toxicity separately. In the present study, we develop by the first time, a unified multitasking (mtk) QSAR model for the simultaneous prediction of anti-streptococci activity and toxic effects against biological models like Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. The mtk-QSAR model was created by using artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis for the classification of compounds as positive (high biological activity and/or low toxicity) or negative (otherwise) under diverse sets of experimental conditions. Our mtk-QSAR model, correctly classified more than 97% of the cases in the whole database (more than 11,500 cases), serving as a promising tool for the virtual screening of potent and safe anti-streptococci drugs.

  3. Approaching Suspicious Substances Safely

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A mineral identification tool that was developed for NASA's Mars Rover Technology Development program is now serving as a powerful tool for U.S. law enforcement agencies and military personnel to identify suspicious liquid and solid substances. The tool can measure unknown substances through glass and plastic packaging materials with the RamanProbe(TradeMark) focused fiber-optic probe. The probe length can be extended up to 200 meters to enable users to analyze potentially dangerous substances at a safe distance. In many cases, the spectrometer and personnel are kept in a safe zone while the probe is positioned next to the sample being analyzed. Being able to identify chemicals in remote locations also saves users time and labor, since otherwise the samples would need to be collected, transported, and prepared prior to measurement in the laboratory.

  4. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Safe Baby Products: Bathtubs Choosing Safe Baby Products: Changing Tables Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Choosing Safe ...

  5. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Using Medications Safely Pharmacists in hospitals and health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely ...

  6. SafePort Proposal - Henry Laboratory 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-14

    analyzing ionic pollutants in water were developed and characterized. Different device materials were tested with cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) being...Once learning we were not able to make glass microchips, we focused on comparing the performance of PDMS, PMMA, PC, and COC (cyclic olefin copolymer ...MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT ÄO|3\\U<$ÄJO?- 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Microfluidic devices for

  7. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2010-04-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  8. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2007-07-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  9. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2008-08-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  10. The environmentally safe battery

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Brown, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    There are three aspects to an environmentally safe battery. The first deals with the manufacturing process, the second with the use of environmentally friendly materials, and the third with the disposal and/or recycling of spent units. In this paper, several ongoing programs at Sandia National Laboratories that relate to the environmentally conscious manufacturing of batteries, are discussed. The solvent substitution/elimination program is a two-pronged effort, aimed at identifying new solvents which are compatible with the environment, while at the same time developing dry process cleaning technology. The joining program is evaluating new solvents for flux removal as well as the development of fluxless soldering processes. In the area of welding, new cleaning processes are under study. Chemical microsensors are under development that are capable of identifying and quantifying single chemical species. These sensors have been used to monitor and improve processes using toxic/hazardous solvents. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  11. Intrinsic Tamper Indicating Device (TID) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Intrinsic Tamper Indicating Device (TID) Program has recently been developed in conjunction with the regular LANL TID Program to assist groups who perform measurements using sealed sources or store difficult-to-measure items. The program was then expanded to include other types of sealed sources and items processed for long-term storage in the Nuclear Material Packaging and Repackaging Program. The Intrinsic TID Program encompasses both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and Nuclear Material (NM) items that have intrinsic characteristics that would immediately indicate tampering upon visual inspection. Items determined to be intrinsically sealed do not need to be sealed with authorized tamper indicating devices. Under the program, an identified intrinsic item receives the same safeguards credits as other tamper-sealed items already in the TID Program. The major benefits of the Intrinsic TID Program include reducing verification measurements on intrinsically identified inventory items and reducing exposure to operators working in highly irradiated environments. Intrinsic TIDs should be combined with other safeguards requirements, and items should have defensible measurements as well as visual inspections. Several groups at LANL are already implementing the program and providing feedback so that we can tailor it to better meet the customers` needs.

  12. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Choosing Safe Baby Products KidsHealth > For Parents > Choosing Safe Baby Products Print A A A Even though babies are small and seem uncomplicated, there's nothing small ...

  13. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  14. Safe Kids Worldwide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Sleep 5 tips to create safer sleeping environment. Learn More About Us Mission Programs Public Policy Research Safe Kids Near You Join Our Team Staying Safe Safety by Age Safety by Risk Safety Issues Get Your Car Seat Checked Safety Tips Safety ...

  15. Profibus features intrinsic safety, interoperability

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.

    1996-11-01

    The newest member of the Profibus (process fieldbus) family of interoperable field-bus protocols is {open_quotes}PA{close_quotes}, an intrinsically safe (IS) standard released more than a year ago. IS and non-IS plants using PA for process chemicals, energy production, and food manufacturing are coming online. PA was developed by vendor and user members of the Profibus standards community to meet the needs of customers in the process industries. PA complies with IEC 1158-2, which, among non-IS capabilities, specifies a low-speed, intrinsically safe fieldbus for automating explosive chemical manufacturing. PA thus provides all H1, or {open_quotes}hunk{close_quotes} 1, IS and non-IS services. Importantly, it also provides all H2, or {open_quotes}hunk{close_quotes} 2, services. As the newest segment of the site-proven system of fieldbus protocols, Profibus-PA defines by example the concepts of interoperability and interchangeability. It is a field instrument network that automatically interoperates with a large installed base of fieldbus nodes. As low-speed networks, PA and its competitor, Foundation fieldbus H1 comply with the same standard. They do the same job; auxiliary power to the application, with a data rate of 31.25 kbit/sec. Similarities include a function-block-based architecture and a device description language (DDL). They use the same physical layer for digital data transfer. A casual observer would find PA and H1 virtually the same. The key differences are in the protocol implementations. Although PA and H1 could be wired together, the messages delivered by one would make no sense to the other. At least not yet. PA protocols are capable of both IS and non-IS operations. This opens the door to a wide range of interoperable process-manufacturing requirements. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    PubMed

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  17. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  18. "Safe Schools within Safe Communities: A Regional Summit in the Heartland." Policy Briefs Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huertas, Aurelio, Jr.; Sullivan, Carol

    This report documents the proceedings of a regional policy seminar hosted by the Iowa Department of Education with support from the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL) and the Midwest Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities (MRC). The seminar, "Safe Schools Within Safe Communities," was held on September 19-20,…

  19. Intrinsic Nilpotent Approximation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RD-A1II58 265 INTRINSIC NILPOTENT APPROXIMATION(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST 1/2 OF TECH CAMBRIDGE LAB FOR INFORMATION AND, DECISION UMCLRSSI SYSTEMS C...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Intrinsic Nilpotent Approximation Technical Report 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER LIDS-R-1482 7. AUTHOR(.) S...certain infinite-dimensional filtered Lie algebras L by (finite-dimensional) graded nilpotent Lie algebras or g . where x E M, (x,,Z) E T*M/O. It

  20. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  1. Safe sex or safe love: competing discourses?

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D; Gifford, S; Moore, S

    1998-02-01

    The way in which sex may be constructed as safe through its relationship with 'love' is the concern of this study. Interviews with 112 heterosexual women and men from discos and bars in Melbourne, Australia, catering to single adults revealed the pervasive construction of sex within the discourses of 'love' and 'romance'. The relationship of these discourses to unsafe practices is discussed and the article presents an analysis of the normative function of the sex-as-love/sex-as-desire opposition in terms of safe sex and HIV/AIDS prevention. We conclude that health messages which emphasize that 'sex is unsafe' may be counterproductive. We illustrate how women and some men construct casual sex as a strategy for obtaining the possibility of 'love'. For these women and men, 'safe sex' as 'unprotected sex' is viewed as a strategy for maximizing the possibility that the casual encounter will result in a longer term relationship. On the other hand, 'unsafe sex' as 'unprotected sex' is viewed as a strategy that is more likely to interrupt the construction of romance in the causal encounter thus risking the possibility of love as the desired outcome.

  2. SafePatch

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.; Elko, S.

    2000-10-01

    Authenticating and upgrading system software plays a critical role in information security, yet practical tools for assessing and installing software are lacking in today's marketplace. The SafePatch tool provides the mechanism of performing automated analysis, notification, distribution, and installation of security patches and related software to network-based computer systems in a vendor-independent fashion. SafePatch assists in the authentication of software by comparing the system's objects with the patch's objects. SafePatch will monitor vendor's sites to determine when new patches are released and will upgrade system software on target systems automatically. This paper describes the design of SafePatch, motivations behind the project and the advantages of SafePatch over existing tools.

  3. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    PubMed

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wetting: Intrinsically robust hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-04-01

    Ceramic surfaces can be rendered hydrophobic by using polymeric modifiers, but these are not robust to harsh environments. A known family of rare-earth oxide ceramics is now found to exhibit intrinsic hydrophobicity, even after exposure to high temperatures and abrasive wear.

  5. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  6. Evaluating Intrinsic Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    1984-01-01

    A social learning model focusing on intrinsic outcomes of vocational programs is proposed. It would assess technical skills and knowledge, communication skills and literacy, and personal skills and attitudes. Instruments should be devised to measure characteristics of the learning setting, learner involved activities, and nature of consequences of…

  7. [Intrinsic cardiac ganglia].

    PubMed

    Birand, Ahmet

    2008-12-01

    Heart has been considered as the source and the seat of emotions, passion and love. But from the dawn of XIXth century, scientists have emphasized that the heart, though life depends on its ceaseless activity, is merely a electromechanical pump, pumping oxygenated blood. Nowadays, we all know that heart pumps blood commensurate with the needs of the body and this unending toil, and its regulation depends on the intrinsic properties of the myocardium, Frank-Starling Law and neurohumoral contribution. It has been understood, though not clearly enough, that these time-tensions may cause structural or functional cardiac impairments and arrhythmias are related to the autonomic nervous system. Less well known and less taken in account in daily cardiology practice is the fact that heart has an intrinsic cardiac nervous system, or "heart brain" consisting of complex ganglia, intrinsic cardiac ganglia containing afferent (receiving), local circuit (interneurons) and efferent (transmitting) sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. This review enlightens structural and functional aspects of intrinsic cardiac ganglia as the very first step in the regulation of cardiac function. This issue is important for targets of pharmacological treatment and techniques of cardiac surgery interventions as repair of septal defects, valvular interventions and congenital corrections.

  8. Competition and Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Kailas Nath

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of competition, motivation, and performance among 60 adolescents in India. Finds that direct competition with another person led to higher levels of immediate performance. Also finds that indirect competition against a pre-set standard resulted in greater intrinsic motivation. (CFR)

  9. Evaluating Intrinsic Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    1984-01-01

    A social learning model focusing on intrinsic outcomes of vocational programs is proposed. It would assess technical skills and knowledge, communication skills and literacy, and personal skills and attitudes. Instruments should be devised to measure characteristics of the learning setting, learner involved activities, and nature of consequences of…

  10. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period May, 2015 to May 31, 2015 Submitted: 15 June 2015...15 JUN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-05-2015 to 31-05-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Progress Report – ONR Safe Surgery

  11. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-20

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Jan 1, 2014 to Jan 31, 2014 Submitted: 20 February...control number. 1. REPORT DATE FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-01-2015 to 00-01-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer...Progress Report – ONR Safe Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is

  12. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-19

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Dec1, 2014 to Dec 31, 2014 Submitted: 19 February...control number. 1. REPORT DATE FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-2014 to 00-12-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a...Progress Report – ONR Safe Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is

  13. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Feb 1, 2014 to Feb 28, 2014 Submitted: 15 March 2015...DATE MAR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-02-2014 to 28-02-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...COVERED 01-02-2014 to 28-02-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  14. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  15. Navigating Ski Slopes Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162902.html Navigating Ski Slopes Safely National Ski Areas Association offers advice on ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many people head for the slopes at the first sign of snow, but it's ...

  16. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, David

    1981-01-01

    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  17. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... means taking a trip. To be sure that you can stay healthy on your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you always carry a list of all the medicines ...

  18. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias

    2010-08-24

    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  19. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  20. Guide for preparing Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, T.K.; Patrician, D.E.; Lucas, H.; Ware, R.A.; Wright, D.A.; Izzo, J.

    1981-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' Safe Operating Procedures (SOP) are written for activities that involve the use of explosives, dangerous chemicals, radioactive materials, hazardous systems, and for certain types of operational facilities that present hazards. This guide states SOP requirements for Sandia Livermore in detail and gives a format for writing an SOP.

  1. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period June 1, 2015 to June 30, 2015 Submitted: 15 July...DATE JUL 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-06-2015 to 30-06-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction on

  2. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period July 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 Submitted: 15 Aug 2015...DATE 15 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2015 to 31-07-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction

  3. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Mar 1, 2014 to Mar 31, 2014 Submitted: 15 May 2015...15 MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-03-2014 to 31-03-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction on

  4. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period Mar 1, 2014 to Mar 31, 2014 Submitted: 15 April 2015...DATE 15 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction

  5. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  6. Safe Surgery Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-15

    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period July 1, 2014 to July 31, 2014 Submitted: 15 August...DATE 15 AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2014 to 31-07-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 1 July 2014 to 31 July 2014 Unclassified 15 August 2014 Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained

  7. Safe Handling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 Compugraphic Corporation was experiencing an unacceptable failure rate on microelectronic chips. Company engineers suspected that static electricity was causing the trouble because some electronic components are highly susceptible to damage by electrostatic charge. From a NASA Tech Brief, they learned that Rockwell International had prepared a report on safe handling practices for electronic components. NASA provided a Technical Support Package detailing 50 safe handling procedures affecting workers, work areas, equipment and packaging materials. Where poor practices were discovered, re-education of employees and other corrective measures were undertaken.

  8. Safe Manual Jettison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Jay

    2008-01-01

    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  9. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  10. Safe Entry, Easy Exit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    After violent episodes too numerous to list and too terrible to forget, schools and universities have been focused for several years on enhancing security in their facilities. Doors are among the most critical points of concern for school personnel responsible for keeping buildings safe. Education institutions want doors that let the right people…

  11. Keeping Campuses Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Describes how colleges and universities are using technology, as well as traditional methods, to keep campuses safe and reduce crime. Topics include using free pizza in a successful contest to teach students about campus safety, installing security cameras, using access-control cards, providing adequate lighting, and creating a bicycle patrol…

  12. Safe Halloween Thrills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuersten, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Two PTAs sponsored events that capitalized on Halloween themes, engaged their communities in fall celebrations, and were safe, wholesome, and fun. With help from local volunteers, one school turned its gymnasium into a 19th-century British town with a fall/Halloween theme. Another PTA hosted a carnival, Spooktacular, that involved community…

  13. A Safe Haven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupinacci, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Presents four key steps in planning for school security and creating a safe, secure environment for students: deterring the possibility of crime; detecting when something potentially troublesome has occurred; delaying criminals in order to give law enforcement officials the additional time needed to catch them; and recovering and continuing the…

  14. The safe home project.

    PubMed

    Arphorn, Sara; Jiraniratisai, Sopaphan; Rungtakul, Rungsri; Phutta, Nikom

    2011-12-01

    The Thai Health Promotion Foundation supported the Improvement of Quality of Life of Informal Workers project in Ban Luang District, Amphur Photaram, Ratchaburi Province. There were many informal workers in Ban Luang District. Sweet-crispy fish producers in Ban Luang were the largest group among the sweet-crispy fish producers in Thailand. This project was aimed at improving living and working conditions of informal workers, with a focus on the sweet-crispy fish group. Good practices of improved living and working conditions were used to help informal workers build safe, healthy and productive work environments. These informal workers often worked in substandard conditions and were exposed to various hazards in the working area. These hazards included risk of exposure to hot work environment, ergonomics-related injuries, chemical hazards, electrical hazards etc. Ergonomics problems were commonly in the sweet-crispy fish group. Unnatural postures such as prolonged sitting were performed dominantly. One hundred and fifty informal workers participated in this project. Occupational health volunteers were selected to encourage occupational health and safety in four groups of informal workers in 2009. The occupational health volunteers trained in 2008 were farmers, beauty salon workers and doll makers. The occupational health and safety knowledge is extended to a new informal worker group: sweet-crispy fish producer, in 2009. The occupational health and safety training for sweet-crispy fish group is conducted by occupational health volunteers. The occupational health volunteers increased their skills and knowledge assist in to make safe home and safe community through participatory oriented training. The improvement of living and working condition is conducted by using a modified WISH, Work Improvement for Safe Home, checklist. The plans of improvement were recorded. The informal workers showed improvement mostly on material handling and storage. The safe uses and safe

  15. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  16. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium. PMID:25999294

  17. Lab Magic and Liability: Learning to 'Drive Safely' in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C.

    1982-01-01

    Provides tips for stimulating interest in high school chemistry while imprinting safe laboratory practice. Suggests safe alternatives to potentially dangerous "magic show" and other chemical reactions. Also suggests that safety education be a prerequisite for certification of secondary school chemistry teachers. (Author/JN)

  18. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  19. Gaussian Intrinsic Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mišta, Ladislav; Tatham, Richard

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a cryptographically motivated quantifier of entanglement in bipartite Gaussian systems called Gaussian intrinsic entanglement (GIE). The GIE is defined as the optimized mutual information of a Gaussian distribution of outcomes of measurements on parts of a system, conditioned on the outcomes of a measurement on a purifying subsystem. We show that GIE vanishes only on separable states and exhibits monotonicity under Gaussian local trace-preserving operations and classical communication. In the two-mode case, we compute GIE for all pure states as well as for several important classes of symmetric and asymmetric mixed states. Surprisingly, in all of these cases, GIE is equal to Gaussian Rényi-2 entanglement. As GIE is operationally associated with the secret-key agreement protocol and can be computed for several important classes of states, it offers a compromise between computable and physically meaningful entanglement quantifiers.

  20. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  1. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  2. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  3. "Same Room, Safe Place": The Need for Professional Safe Sleep Unity Grows at the Expense of Families.

    PubMed

    Keene Woods, Nikki

    2016-09-22

    There are many different professional stances on safe sleep and then there is the reality of caring for a newborn. There is a debate among professionals regarding safe sleep recommendations. The continum of recommendations vary from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Safe Sleep Guidelines to the bed-sharing recommendations from the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Laboratory. The lack of consistent and uniform safe sleep recommendations from health professionals has been confusing for families but has more recently raised a real professional ethical dilemma. Despite years of focused safe sleep community education and interventions, sleep-related infant deaths are on the rise in many communities. This commentary calls for a united safe sleep message from all health professionals to improve health for mothers and infants most at-risk, "Same Room, Safe Place."

  4. Flame Tests Performed Safely: A Safe and Effective Alternative to the Traditional Flame Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogancay, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The trend toward inquiry-based learning is providing today's students with a more enriching education. When implementing inquiry it is important to recognize the great number of safety concerns that accompany this paradigm shift. Fortunately, with some consideration, teachers can shape students' laboratory experiments into safe and valuable…

  5. Flame Tests Performed Safely: A Safe and Effective Alternative to the Traditional Flame Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogancay, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    The trend toward inquiry-based learning is providing today's students with a more enriching education. When implementing inquiry it is important to recognize the great number of safety concerns that accompany this paradigm shift. Fortunately, with some consideration, teachers can shape students' laboratory experiments into safe and valuable…

  6. Qutrit teleportation under intrinsic decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarpour, Mojtaba; Naderi, Negar

    2016-08-01

    We study qutrit teleportation and its fidelity in the presence and absence of intrinsic decoherence through a qutrit channel. The channel consists of a Heisenberg chain with xyz interaction model and the intrinsic decoherence is implemented through the Milburn model. It is shown that while the fidelity diminishes due to intrinsic decoherence, it may be enhanced if the channel is initially in an entangled state. It is also observed that, for stronger intrinsic decoherence, the initial entanglement of the channel is more effective in enhancing of fidelity.

  7. Intrinsically mixed states: an appreciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetsche, Laura

    An "intrinsically mixed" state is a mixed state of a system that is (in a sense to be elaborated) 'orthogonal' to every pure state of that system. Although the presence of such states in the quantum theories of infinite systems is well known to those who work with such theories, intrinsically mixed states are virtually unheralded in the philosophical literature. Rob Clifton was thoroughly familiar with intrinsically mixed states. I aim here to introduce them to a wider audience-and to encourage that audience to cultivate their acquaintance by suggesting that intrinsically mixed states undermine assumptions framing standard discussions of the quantum measurement problem.

  8. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Keeping food safe.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2011-11-01

    Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines.

  10. Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-10-01

    We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.

  11. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. the second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  12. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-01-01

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat.

  13. Intrinsically irreversible heat engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-12-25

    A class of heat engines based on an intrinsically irreversible heat transfer process is disclosed. In a typical embodiment the engine comprises a compressible fluid that is cyclically compressed and expanded while at the same time being driven in reciprocal motion by a positive displacement drive means. A second thermodynamic medium is maintained in imperfect thermal contact with the fluid and bears a broken thermodynamic symmetry with respect to the fluid. The second thermodynamic medium is a structure adapted to have a low fluid flow impedance with respect to the compressible fluid, and which is further adapted to be in only moderate thermal contact with the fluid. In operation, thermal energy is pumped along the second medium due to a phase lag between the cyclical heating and cooling of the fluid and the resulting heat conduction between the fluid and the medium. In a preferred embodiment the engine comprises an acoustical drive and a housing containing a gas which is driven at a resonant frequency so as to be maintained in a standing wave. Operation of the engine at acoustic frequencies improves the power density and coefficient of performance. The second thermodynamic medium can be coupled to suitable heat exchangers to utilize the engine as a simple refrigeration device having no mechanical moving parts. Alternatively, the engine is reversible in function so as to be utilizable as a prime mover by coupling it to suitable sources and sinks of heat. 11 figs.

  14. Intrinsic Friction Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, Daniel; Overney, Rene

    2008-03-01

    A novel scanning probe methodology based on lateral force microscopy is presented wherein kinetic friction measurements, obtained as a function of velocity for various temperatures, are used to deduce apparent Arrhenius-type activation energies for surface and subsurface molecular mobilities. Depending on the coupling strength (cooperativity) between molecular mobilities involved the dissipation energy can carry a significant entropic energy contribution, accounting for the majority of the apparent Arrhenius activation energy. The intrinsic friction methodology also provides a means of directly separating enthalpic energy contributions from entropic ones by employing absolute rate theory. As such, the degree of cooperativity in the system is readily apparent. This methodology is illustrated with nanoscale tribological experiments on two systems, (1) monodisperse, atactic polystyrene and (2) self assembling molecular glassy chromophores. In polystyrene, dissipation was found to be a discrete function of loading, where the γ-relaxation (phenyl group rotation) was recovered for ultra low loads and the β-relaxation (local backbone translation) for higher loads in the same temperature range, indicating sensitivity to surface and subsurface mobilities. For self assembling glassy chromophores, the degree of intermolecular cooperativity was deduced using the methodology, resulting in an increased understanding of the interactions between self assembling molecules.

  15. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  16. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penders, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  17. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Ranjdoost, Farhad; Asgharian, Parina; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials), were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health. PMID:28101454

  18. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    PubMed

    Hamishehkar, Hadi; Ranjdoost, Farhad; Asgharian, Parina; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Sanaie, Sarvin

    2016-12-01

    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar search and assessed reference lists of the included studies which were published from 1993 through 2015. The studies, with an emphasis on RCTs (randomized controlled clinical trials), were reviewed. As some vitamins such as fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E), and also some of the water-soluble vitamins like folic acid may cause adverse events and some like vitamin C is widely taken assuming that it has so many benefits and no harm, we included relevant studies with negative or undesired results regarding the effect of these vitamins on health. Our recommendation is that taking high-dose supplements of vitamins A, E, D, C, and folic acid is not always effective for prevention of disease, and it can even be harmful to the health.

  19. Safe Science: Be Protected!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2006-01-01

    More science laboratories are being built because of larger enrollments in academics and schools. There is an increase in hands-on/process science effected by the renewed interest in and priority of science education. New science curricula like Biotechnology and Advanced college type program courses are being introduced with the use of exotic…

  20. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  1. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  2. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The intrinsic resistance of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gang, Zhang; Jie, Feng

    2016-10-20

    Antibiotic resistance is often considered to be a trait acquired by previously susceptible bacteria, on the basis of which can be attributed to the horizontal acquisition of new genes or the occurrence of spontaneous mutation. In addition to acquired resistance, bacteria have a trait of intrinsic resistance to different classes of antibiotics. An intrinsic resistance gene is involved in intrinsic resistance, and its presence in bacterial strains is independent of previous antibiotic exposure and is not caused by horizontal gene transfer. Recently, interest in intrinsic resistance genes has increased, because these gene products not only may provide attractive therapeutic targets for development of novel drugs that rejuvenate the activity of existing antibiotics, and but also might predict future emergence of resistant pathogens if they become mobilized. In the present review, we summarize the conventional examples of intrinsic resistance, including the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or lack of drug targets. We also demonstrate that transferases and enzymes involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes confer intrinsic resistance in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. We present as well information on the cryptic intrinsic resistance genes that do not confer resistance to their native hosts but are capable of conferring resistance when their expression levels are increased and the activation of the cryptic genes. Finally, we discuss that intrinsic genes could be the origin of acquired resistance, especially in the genus Acinetobacter.

  4. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smart About Social Media How to Safely Give Ibuprofen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Ibuprofen ... without getting a doctor's approval first. What Is Ibuprofen Also Called? Ibuprofen is the generic name for ...

  5. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Safely Give Ibuprofen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Ibuprofen ... without getting a doctor's approval first. What Is Ibuprofen Also Called? Ibuprofen is the generic name for ...

  6. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  7. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smart About Social Media How to Safely Give Acetaminophen KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Safely Give Acetaminophen ... without getting a doctor's OK first. What Is Acetaminophen Also Called? Acetaminophen is the generic name of ...

  8. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  9. A Safe and Welcoming Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the theme of safe and comforting places for children, and how libraries can help provide safe havens for children. Presents a survey of safe places in selected works of children's literature. Includes a sampler of creative activities focusing on the theme, and a list of resources (books and videotapes). (AEF)

  10. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  11. Technologies for safe births.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The basic elements of a safe birth are proper prenatal care, adequate preparation of the mother, health worker, and site, awareness of the progress of labor and safe delivery, recognition of danger signs, and appropriate follow-up care. Technologies are differentiated by determining 1) the needs of rural birth attendants, 2) the nature of delivery kits, 3) proper cleanliness of the hands and equipment, and appropriate use of 5) disinfecting equipment, 6) drugs and medications, 7) the vertical position, 8) specialized instruments, and 9) records and support materials. Alternatives for measuring time are indicated. Customized kits available from UNICEF are described; some of the problems with these kits are reported. The logistics, referral procedures, and training and supervision needed for appropriate program managements are discussed. Adapting technologies to the local environment requires assessing the practices of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), the provision of kits (cost, ease of use and maintenance, replacement, durability, availability), the training required for proper use of equipment, the logistics of kit use, side effects of technologies, community attitudes, and evaluation. The advantages and disadvantages of including or not including particular supplies in the kit are discussed, i.e., the container for boiling water would either be a local pot or the aluminum carrying case. In lieu of a fingernail brush, a twig may be used for nail cleaning. Hand washing where water shortages exist might entail using a tin with a hole plugged with a stick to let water trickle as needed. Antiseptic solutions such a Dettol or Savlon can be used where a severe shortage exists. Basic equipment includes: soap and water, a container for boiling, other sterile containers, a protective cover of delivery area, towels, swabs, an optional apron, cord ties, a cutting instrument, gauze, a receiving blanket, records, and a carrying case.

  12. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  13. Recent progress on intrinsic charm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, T. J.

    2017-03-01

    Over the past ˜10 years, the topic of the nucleon's nonperturbative or intrinsic charm (IC) content has enjoyed something of a renaissance, largely motivated by theoretical developments involving quark modelers and PDF-fitters. In this talk I will briefly describe the importance of intrinsic charm to various issues in high-energy phenomenology, and survey recent progress in constraining its overall normalization and contribution to the momentum sum rule of the nucleon. I end with the conclusion that progress on the side of calculation has now placed the onus on experiment to unambiguously resolve the proton's intrinsic charm component.

  14. MRI endoscopy using intrinsically localized probes

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Shashank; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is traditionally performed with fixed externally applied gradient magnetic fields and is hence intrinsically locked to the laboratory frame of reference (FoR). Here a method for high-resolution MRI that employs active, catheter-based, tiny internal probes that utilize the spatial properties of the probe itself for localization is proposed and demonstrated at 3 T. Because these properties are intrinsic to the probe, they move with it, transforming MRI from the laboratory FoR to the FoR of the device itself, analogous to an endoscope. The “MRI endoscope” can utilize loop coils and loopless antennas with modified sensitivity, in combination with adiabatic excitation by the device itself, to restrict the MRI sensitivity to a disk-shaped plane a few mm thick. Excitation with the MRI endoscope limits the eddy currents induced in the sample to an excited volume whose size is orders of magnitude below that excited by a conventional body MRI coil. Heat testing shows maximum local temperature increases of <1 °C during MRI, within regulatory guidelines. The method is demonstrated in a kiwifruit, in intact porcine and rabbit aortas, and in an atherosclerotic human iliac artery specimen, with in-plane resolution as small as 80 μm and 1.5–5 mm slice thickness. PMID:19378751

  15. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  16. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  17. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  18. Intrinsic magnetization of antiferromagnetic textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveten, Erlend G.; Müller, Tristan; Linder, Jacob; Brataas, Arne

    2016-03-01

    Antiferromagnets (AFMs) exhibit intrinsic magnetization when the order parameter spatially varies. This intrinsic spin is present even at equilibrium and can be interpreted as a twisting of the homogeneous AFM into a state with a finite spin. Because magnetic moments couple directly to external magnetic fields, the intrinsic magnetization can alter the dynamics of antiferromagnetic textures under such influence. Starting from the discrete Heisenberg model, we derive the continuum limit of the free energy of AFMs in the exchange approximation and explicitly rederive that the spatial variation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter is associated with an intrinsic magnetization density. We calculate the magnetization profile of a domain wall and discuss how the intrinsic magnetization reacts to external forces. We show conclusively, both analytically and numerically, that a spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field can move and control the position of domain walls in AFMs. By comparing our model to a commonly used alternative parametrization procedure for the continuum fields, we show that the physical interpretations of these fields depend critically on the choice of parametrization procedure for the discrete-to-continuous transition. This can explain why a significant amount of recent studies of the dynamics of AFMs, including effective models that describe the motion of antiferromagnetic domain walls, have neglected the intrinsic spin of the textured order parameter.

  19. Safe roundabouts for cyclists.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Søren Underlien

    2016-09-13

    May roundabouts be safer for cyclists than intersections? How are safe roundabouts designed? This paper tries to answer these questions on the basis of a before-after safety study of conversions of intersections to 255 single-lane roundabouts in Denmark. The before-after study accounts for long-term accident and injury trends and regression-to-the-mean effects. In order to relate safety effects for cyclists of various roundabout design features it is crucial to split the converted sites by speed limit, because safety effects for both cyclists and other road users of converting intersections to roundabouts depend heavily on speed limits on roads entering the converted sites. If speed limits are 70km/h or higher then converting intersections to roundabouts have resulted in bicycle safety improvements in Denmark. Results show that diameter and height of central islands and type of bicycle facilities at single-lane roundabouts have considerable impacts on cyclists' safety. Central island diameters of 20-40m are safer for cyclists than smaller or larger roundabouts. A central island, which middle is elevated 2m or more above the circulating lane, is safer for cyclists than single-lane roundabouts with lower central islands. Single-lane roundabouts with separate cycle paths, where cyclists must yield to motorists entering or exiting the roundabout, are safer than roundabouts with cycle lanes. Single-lane roundabouts are safer for cyclists than intersections regardless of speed limits when these roundabouts have high central islands and/or separate cycle paths.

  20. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Semba, Kentaro

    2006-09-01

    The use of radioisotopes to label specific molecules in a defined way has greatly furthered the discovery and dissection of biochemical pathways. The development of methods to synthesize such tagged biological compounds inexpensively on an industrial scale has enabled them to be used routinely in laboratory protocols, including many detailed in this manual. Although most of these protocols involve the use of only microcurie amounts of radioactivity, some (particularly those describing the metabolic labeling of proteins or nucleic acids within cells) require amounts on the order of millicuries. In all cases where radioisotopes are used, depending on the quantity and nature of the isotope, certain precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of the scientist. It is essential to use good safety practices and proper protection to handle radioactive substances. This unit discusses handling, storage, and disposal of the isotopes most frequently used in biological research.

  1. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Semba, Kentaro

    2006-06-01

    The use of radioisotopes to label specific molecules in a defined way has greatly furthered the discovery and dissection of biochemical pathways. The development of methods to synthesize such tagged biological compounds inexpensively on an industrial scale has enabled them to be used routinely in laboratory protocols, including many detailed in this manual. Although most of these protocols involve the use of only microcurie amounts of radioactivity, some (particularly those describing the metabolic labeling of proteins or nucleic acids within cells) require amounts on the order of millicuries. In all cases where radioisotopes are used, depending on the quantity and nature of the isotope, certain precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of the scientist. It is essential to use good safety practices and proper protection to handle radioactive substances. This unit discusses handling, storage, and disposal of the isotopes most frequently used in biological research.

  2. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  3. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  4. Intrinsic rotation in tokamaks: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Self-consistent equations for intrinsic rotation in tokamaks with small poloidal magnetic field Bp compared to the total magnetic field B are derived. The model gives the momentum redistribution due to turbulence, collisional transport and energy injection. Intrinsic rotation is determined by the balance between the momentum redistribution and the turbulent diffusion and convection. Two different turbulence regimes are considered: turbulence with characteristic perpendicular lengths of the order of the ion gyroradius, ρi, and turbulence with characteristic lengths of the order of the poloidal gyroradius, (B/Bp)ρi. Intrinsic rotation driven by gyroradius scale turbulence is mainly due to the effect of neoclassical corrections and of finite orbit widths on turbulent momentum transport, whereas for the intrinsic rotation driven by poloidal gyroradius scale turbulence, the slow variation of turbulence characteristics in the radial and poloidal directions and the turbulent particle acceleration can be become as important as the neoclassical and finite orbit width effects. The magnetic drift is shown to be indispensable for the intrinsic rotation driven by the slow variation of turbulence characteristics and the turbulent particle acceleration. The equations are written in a form conducive to implementation in a flux tube code, and the effect of the radial variation of the turbulence is included in a novel way that does not require a global gyrokinetic formalism.

  5. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Intrinsic Biomarkers for Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy of intrinsic biomarkers for non-melanoma skin cancer . Cecil S. Joseph1*, Anna N. Yaroslavsky2, Munir Al-Arashi2,Thomas...offer a safe, non-invasive medical imaging modality for detecting different types of human cancers . The aim of this study was to identify intrinsic...biomarkers for non-melanoma skin cancer and their absorption frequencies. Knowledge of these frequencies is a prerequisite for the optimal development of

  6. More than a Safe Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  7. Adventure Programming: Keeping It Safe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spacht, Roger J.; Hirsch, Jude

    1995-01-01

    Addresses issues related to administration of adventure programs, including liability, hiring well-trained staff, conducting safe activities, supervising safe adventure programs, maintaining appropriate facilities and equipment, keeping accurate records, posting information about potentially unsafe sites and activities, carrying adequate insurance…

  8. More than a Safe Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  9. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  10. Intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, J.; Hofler, T.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-07-01

    Certain thermoacoustic effects are described which form the basis for a heat engine that is intrinsically irreversible in the sense that it requires thermal lags for its operation. After discussing several acoustical heating and cooling effects, including the behavior of a new structure called a ''thermoacoustic couple,'' we discuss structures that can be placed in acoustically resonant tubes to produce both substantial heat pumping effects and, for restricted heat inputs, large temperature differences. The results are analyzed quantitatively using a second-order thermoacoustic theory based on the work of Rott. The qualities of the acoustic engine are generalized to describe a class of intrinsically irreversible heat engines of which the present acoustic engine is a special case. Finally the results of analysis of several idealized intrinsically irreversible engines are presented. These suggest that the efficiency of such engines may be determined primarily by geometry or configuration rather than by temperature.

  11. Ulnar intrinsic anatomy and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dell, Paul C; Sforzo, Christopher R

    2005-01-01

    Normal hand function is a balance between the extrinsic and intrinsic musculature. Although individually the intrinsics are small muscles in diameter, collectively they represent a large muscle that contributes approximately 50% of grip strength. Dysfunction of the intrinsics consequently leads to impaired grip and pinch strength as well recognized deformities. Low ulnar nerve palsy preserves ulnar innervated extrinsics resulting in sensory loss, digital clawing, thumb deformity, abduction of the small finger, and asynchronous finger motion. High ulnar nerve palsy is characterized by the above plus paralysis of the ulnar profundi and the flexor carpi ulnaris. Understanding the normal anatomy allows the clinician to identify the site of the lesion and plan appropriate surgical intervention. This article revisits the classic work of Richard J. Smith on ulnar nerve palsy with contemporary perspective.

  12. Intrinsic Response of Graphene Vapor Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ye; Dan, Yaping; Kybert, Nicholas; Johnson, Charlie

    2009-03-01

    Ye Lu^1, Yaping Dan^1, Nicholas J. Kybert^2, A. T. Charlie Johnson^1, ^1University of Pennsylvania, USA ^2 University of Warwick, UK.Graphene is a purely two-dimensional material that has extremely favorable chemical sensor properties. It is known, however, that conventional nanolithographic processing typically leaves a resist residue on the graphene surface, whose impact on the sensor characteristics of the system has not yet been determined. Here we show that the contamination layer both degrades the electronic properties of the graphene and masks graphene's intrinsic sensor responses. The contamination layer chemically dopes the graphene, enhances carrier scattering, and acts as an absorbent layer that concentrates analyte molecules at the graphene surface, thereby enhancing the sensor response. We demonstrate a cleaning process that verifiably removes the contamination on the device structure and allows the intrinsic chemical responses of graphene to be measured. Additionally, methods of functionalizing clean graphene device as high quality chemical vapor sensor are explored. Funding: JSTO DTRA and the Army Research Office Grant #W911NF-06-1-0462, NSF-NSEC/NBIC DMR-0425780, REU program of the Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (N.J.K.).

  13. Individual Patterns in Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hom, Harry L., Jr.; Maxwell, Frederick R.

    The effects of extrinsic reward on students' intrinsic interest was investigated using a single-subject design in a behavior disorders classroom. Baseline measures of the interest level of five children (ages 9-11 years) were collected for academic and non-academic tasks. Assessment was then made of each subject's response hierarchy or level of…

  14. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  16. Intrinsic Rewards in School Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Larson, Reed

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter deals with the intrinsic motivation that the systemic structure of a school provides for opportunities for both prosocial and antisocial behavior. On the basis of previous research, the authors propose that the state of enjoyment occurs when a person is…

  17. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting onto other food. · To maintain quality when freezing meat and poultry in its original package, wrap ... from spoiling or becoming dangerous to eat. Because freezing keeps food safe indefinitely, recommended storage times are ...

  18. How Safe Is Your Job?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocera, Joseph; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Five articles address the realities of coping with downsizing: "Living with Layoffs" (Nocera); "How Safe Is Your Job?" (Lieber); "Career Makeover" (Robinson); "Ma Bell's Orphans" (O'Reilly); and "Where Are They Now?" (Martin). (SK)

  19. Safely Use Rodent Bait Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rat and mouse poison products, if misused, can potentially harm you, your children, or your pets. Always read the product label and follow all directions. Choose safe rodenticide products, store pesticides properly, and use bait stations appropriately.

  20. Antibiotics and Pregnancy: What's Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take antibiotics during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M. ... 2014 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/antibiotics-and-pregnancy/ ...

  1. Intrinsic randomness and intrinsic irreversibility in classical dynamical systems

    PubMed Central

    Courbage, M.; Prigogine, I.

    1983-01-01

    We continue our previous work on dynamic “intrinsically random” systems for which we can derive dissipative Markov processes through a one-to-one change of representation. For these systems, the unitary group of evolution can be transformed in this way into two distinct Markov processes leading to equilibrium for either t→ + ∞ or t→ - ∞. To lift the degeneracy, we first formulate the second principle as a selection rule that is meaningful in intrinsically random systems. For these systems, this excludes a set of unrealizable states. As a result of this exclusion, permitted initial conditions correspond to a set of states that is not invariant through velocity inversion. In this way, the time-reversal symmetry of dynamics is broken and these systems acquire a new feature we may call “intrinsic irreversibility.” The set of admitted initial conditions can be characterized by an entropy displaying the amount of information necessary for their preparation. The initial conditions selected by the second law correspond to a finite amount of information, while the initial conditions that are rejected correspond to an infinite amount of information and are therefore “impossible.” We believe that our formulation permits a microscopic formulation of the second law of thermodynamics for well-defined classes of dynamical systems. PMID:16578774

  2. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansani, L.; Monti, S.; Ricco, G.; Ricotti, M.

    2014-04-01

    In this short paper the motivations for the development of fast spectrum lead-cooled reactors are briefly summarized. In particular the importance of subcritical research reactors, like the one described in this Focus Point, for the investigation of various scientifical and technological aspects and the training of students, is discussed.

  3. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Core design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viberti, C. M.; Ricco, G.

    2014-04-01

    The core of a subcritical, low-power research reactor in a lead matrix has been designed using the MCNPX code. The main parameters, like geometry, material composition in the fuel assembly and reflector size, have been optimized for a k eff ˜ 0.95 and a thermal power around 200 Kw. A 70 Mev, 1 mA proton beam incident on a beryllium target has been assumed as neutron source and the corresponding thermal power distribution and neutron fluxes in the reactor have been simulated.

  4. Quasar redshifts: the intrinsic component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Peter M.

    2016-09-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  5. The alphabet of intrinsic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The ability of a protein to fold into unique functional state or to stay intrinsically disordered is encoded in its amino acid sequence. Both ordered and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are natural polypeptides that use the same arsenal of 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues as their major building blocks. The exceptional structural plasticity of IDPs, their capability to exist as heterogeneous structural ensembles and their wide array of important disorder-based biological functions that complements functional repertoire of ordered proteins are all rooted within the peculiar differential usage of these building blocks by ordered proteins and IDPs. In fact, some residues (so-called disorder-promoting residues) are noticeably more common in IDPs than in sequences of ordered proteins, which, in their turn, are enriched in several order-promoting residues. Furthermore, residues can be arranged according to their “disorder promoting potencies,” which are evaluated based on the relative abundances of various amino acids in ordered and disordered proteins. This review continues a series of publications on the roles of different amino acids in defining the phenomenon of protein intrinsic disorder and concerns glutamic acid, which is the second most disorder-promoting residue. PMID:28516010

  6. Supporting the Development of Intrinsic Motivation in the Middle School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oginsky, Terri

    This study took place in a sixth grade math class at Webber Middle School in Saginaw, Michigan. A literature review indicated that a classroom that students perceive as safe, supportive of their autonomy, and of their learning increases intrinsic motivation. With this in mind, the author created a study, which would look for connections between…

  7. On Not Using Intrinsic Justification in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill; Leeman, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Questions the theoretical justification for the standard of intrinsic justification. Challenges the applicability of phenomenological constructs to academic debate, demonstrates that "essences" cannot be readily located in debate resolutions, and illustrates that proponents of intrinsic justification have not adequately operationalized…

  8. Safe Finger Tourniquet--Ideas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2016-03-01

    Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result.

  9. Petroleum Jelly: Safe for a Dry Nose?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe for a dry nose? I've put petroleum jelly on the inside of my nose for years ... safe? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Petroleum jelly is generally safe to use. Rarely, however, inhaling ...

  10. Knowledge for practice: challenges in culturally safe nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Aboriginal people currently remain the most vulnerable and sickest population within Australian society and therefore are frequent users of the Australian health system. In this paper I will discuss the importance of the role of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal nurses in diminishing the negative ramifications of perceived racism that can be felt by patients. This exemplar will explore an example of perceived racism through the eyes of an Aboriginal nurse. Intrinsic to this exemplar is the role Aboriginal nurses can play as experienced, culturally safe clinicians and educators to their peers; and facilitators of the patient's ability to adequately access and consent to care.

  11. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  12. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  13. Nuclear Filtering of Intrinsic Charm

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2010-11-12

    Nuclei are transparent for a heavy intrinsic charm (IC) component of the beam hadrons, what leads to an enhanced nuclear dependence of open charm production at large Feynman x{sub F}. Indeed, such an effect is supported by data from the SELEX experiment published recently [1]. Our calculations reproduce well the data, providing strong support for the presence of IC in hadrons in amount less than 1%. Moreover, we performed an analysis of nuclear effects in J/{Psi} production and found at large x{sub F} a similar, albeit weaker effect, which does not contradict data.

  14. Equivalent intrinsic blur in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Levi, D M; Klein, S A

    1990-01-01

    We used Gaussian blurred stimuli to explore the effect of blur on three tasks: (i) 2-line resolution; (ii) line detection; and (iii) spatial interval discrimination, in observers with amblyopia due to anisometropia, strabismus, or both. The results of our experiments can be summarized as follows. (i) 2-Line resolution: in normal foveal vision, thresholds for unblurred stimuli are approx. 0.5 min arc in the fovea. When the standard deviation (sigma) of the stimulus blur is less than 0.5 min, it has little effect upon 2-line resolution; however, thresholds are degraded when the stimulus blur, sigma, exceeds 0.5 min. We operationally define this transition point, as the equivalent intrinsic blur, or Bi. When the stimulus blur, sigma, is greater than Bi, then the resolution threshold is approximately equal to sigma. In all of the amblyopic eyes, 2-line resolution thresholds for unblurred stimuli were elevated, and the equivalent intrinsic blur was much larger. When the stimulus blur exceeds the equivalent intrinsic blur, resolution thresholds were similar in amblyopic and nonamblyopic eyes. (ii) Line detection: in both normal and amblyopic eyes, when the stimulus blur, sigma, is less than Bi, then the line detection threshold is approximately inversely proportional to sigma; i.e. (it obeys Ricco's law). When sigma is greater than Bi, the equivalent intrinsic blur, then the detection threshold is approximately a fixed contrast. All of the amblyopic eyes showed markedly elevated thresholds for detecting thin lines, but normal or near normal thresholds for detecting very blurred lines. Consequently, Ricco's diameter is larger in amblyopic than in normal eyes. (iii) Spatial interval discrimination: thresholds are proportional to the separation of the lines (i.e. Weber's law). At the optimal separation, spatial interval discrimination thresholds represent a "hyperacuity" (i.e. they are smaller than the resolution threshold). For unblurred lines, the optimal separation is

  15. Planning Safe Routes to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleyard, Bruce S.

    2003-01-01

    Describes "Safe Routes to School" efforts in the United States and other countries to make walking and biking to school the transportation of choice. Offers a plan of action for formulating and carrying out such a program and information on funding sources. (EV)

  16. Baby Sling: Is It Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Is it safe to hold a baby in a baby sling? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. A baby sling — a one-shouldered baby ... sling's weight minimum before placing your newborn in it. Keep your baby's airways unobstructed. Make sure your ...

  17. How Safe Are Our Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younghusband, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a study she conducted in Newfoundland to determine the level of abuse and/or violence experienced by teachers, the nature of that abuse/violence, its personal impact, and whether Newfoundland teachers feel safe in their workplaces. The experiences presented are those of a focus group of eight teachers,…

  18. Legal Issues Surrounding Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Reed B.

    This handbook provides an overview of legal issues pertaining to the safety of public schools. Following the introduction, chapter 2 describes the governance model and philosophy on which American education is based. Court decisions and federal and state legislation that mandate the right to a safe school are discussed in chapter 3. The fourth…

  19. 99 Tips for Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This pamphlet highlights 99 tips for maintaining safe schools. Areas of interest include: alarm systems and control of access, vandalism, parent education, transportation, school design, personnel training, and graffiti. The majority of the pointers deal with maintaining and implementing various forms of electronic surveillance and strategies for…

  20. How Safe Are Our Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Matthew J.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are basically safe places for children. School violence and disruption, although in decline through the mid- to late 1990s, remains a concern. National surveys that inform research, policy, and practice have been designed for different purposes and can present conflicting findings. Common standards of risk and harm that could advance…

  1. Developing a Safe Cycling Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Amy Backus

    1983-01-01

    A cycling course can take advantage of students' interests, teach safe cycling, and give students a fuller appreciation of a lifetime sport. Suggestions for planning and scheduling a cycling course, covering safety procedures, and considering other elements necessary for a successful course are given. (PP)

  2. Safe use of hazardous chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lunn, George; Lawler, Gretchen

    2002-05-01

    This appendix presents useful basic information, including common abbreviations, useful measurements and data, characteristics of amino acids and nucleic acids, information on radioactivity and the safe use of radioisotopes and other hazardous chemicals, conversions for centrifuges and rotors, characteristics of common detergents, and common conversion factors.

  3. Planning and Designing Safe Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidler, Todd

    2006-01-01

    Those who manage physical education, athletic, and recreation programs have a number of legal duties that they are expected to carry out. Among these are an obligation to take reasonable precautions to ensure safe programs and facilities for all participants, spectators, and staff. Physical education and sports facilities that are poorly planned,…

  4. Making Cyberspace Safe for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Joyce; McLaughlin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Despite the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Act's supposed protections, most web sites still collect personal information and post no privacy statements. Internet-filtering software packages are described and suggestions given for creating a safe environment, dismantling "cookies," informing parents and teachers, and checking…

  5. Legal Issues Surrounding Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Reed B.

    This handbook provides an overview of legal issues pertaining to the safety of public schools. Following the introduction, chapter 2 describes the governance model and philosophy on which American education is based. Court decisions and federal and state legislation that mandate the right to a safe school are discussed in chapter 3. The fourth…

  6. How Safe Are Our Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Matthew J.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are basically safe places for children. School violence and disruption, although in decline through the mid- to late 1990s, remains a concern. National surveys that inform research, policy, and practice have been designed for different purposes and can present conflicting findings. Common standards of risk and harm that could advance…

  7. Intrinsic Photoprotective Mechanisms in Chlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Kotkowiak, Michał; Dudkowiak, Alina; Fiedor, Leszek

    2017-08-21

    Photosynthetic energy conversion competes with the formation of chlorophyll triplet states and the generation of reactive oxygen species. These may, especially under high light stress, damage the photosynthetic apparatus. Many sophisticated photoprotective mechanisms have evolved to secure a harmless flow of excitation energy through the photosynthetic complexes. Time-resolved laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy was used to compare the properties of the T1 states of pheophytin a and its metallocomplexes. The lowest quantum yield of the T1 state is always observed in the Mg complex, which also shows the least efficient energy transfer to O2 . Axial coordination to the central Mg further lowers the yield of both T1 and singlet oxygen. These results reveal the existence of intrinsic photoprotective mechanisms in chlorophylls, embedded in their molecular design, which substantially suppress the formation of triplet states and the efficiency of energy transfer to O2 , each by 20-25 %. Such intrinsic photoprotective effects must have created a large evolutionary advantage for the Mg complexes during their evolution as the principal photoactive cofactors of photosynthetic proteins. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Intrinsically disordered proteins and intrinsically disordered protein regions.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions fail to form a stable structure, yet they exhibit biological activities. Their mobile flexibility and structural instability are encoded by their amino acid sequences. They recognize proteins, nucleic acids, and other types of partners; they accelerate interactions and chemical reactions between bound partners; and they help accommodate posttranslational modifications, alternative splicing, protein fusions, and insertions or deletions. Overall, IDP-associated biological activities complement those of structured proteins. Recently, there has been an explosion of studies on IDP regions and their functions, yet the discovery and investigation of these proteins have a long, mostly ignored history. Along with recent discoveries, we present several early examples and the mechanisms by which IDPs contribute to function, which we hope will encourage comprehensive discussion of IDPs and IDP regions in biochemistry textbooks. Finally, we propose future directions for IDP research.

  9. Practical Tips for the Safe Handling of Micro-organisms in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, G.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines safe laboratory procedures for the handling of micro-organisms including aseptic technique, manipulation of cultures, and treatment of contaminated equipment. Identifies the principal hazard as the microbial aerosol, explains its possible effects, and describes the appropriate precautions. (GS)

  10. Practical Tips for the Safe Handling of Micro-organisms in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, G.

    1974-01-01

    Outlines safe laboratory procedures for the handling of micro-organisms including aseptic technique, manipulation of cultures, and treatment of contaminated equipment. Identifies the principal hazard as the microbial aerosol, explains its possible effects, and describes the appropriate precautions. (GS)

  11. Laboratory Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, D.D.

    1999-10-08

    Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

  12. Intrinsic Wavelength Shifts in Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravins, D.; Lindegren, L.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Madsen, S.

    2004-12-01

    Wavelengths of stellar spectral lines do not have the precise values `naively' expected from laboratory wavelengths merely Doppler-shifted by stellar radial motion. Slight displacements may originate as convective shifts (correlated velocity and brightness patterns in the photosphere), as gravitational redshifts, or perhaps be induced by wave motions. Intrinsic lineshifts thus reveal stellar surface structure, while possible periodic changes (during a stellar activity cycle, say) need to be segregated from variability induced by orbiting exoplanets. Absolute lineshifts can now be studied also in some stars other than the Sun, thanks to astrometric determinations of stellar radial motion. Comparisons between spectroscopic apparent radial velocities and astrometrically determined radial motions reveal greater spectral blueshifts in F-type stars than in the Sun (as theoretically expected from their more vigorous convection), further increasing in A-type stars (possibly due to atmospheric shockwaves). Solar spectral atlases, and high-resolution spectra (from UVES on ESO VLT) of a dozen solar-type stars are being surveyed for `unblended' photospheric lines of most atomic species with accurate laboratory wavelengths available. One aim is to understand the ultimate information content of stellar spectra, and in what detail it will be feasible to verify models of stellar atmospheric hydrodynamics. These may predict line asymmetries (bisectors) and shifts for widely different classes of lines, but there will not result any comparison with observations if such lines do not exist in real spectra. An expected near-future development in stellar physics is spatially resolved spectroscopy across stellar disks, enabled by optical interferometry and adaptive optics on very large telescopes. Stellar surface structure manifests itself in the center-to-limb wavelength changes along a stellar diameter, and their spatially resolved time variability, diagnostics which already now can be

  13. Remarks on asymptotically safe inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tye, S.-H. Henry; Xu, Jiajun

    2010-12-01

    We comment on Weinberg’s interesting analysis of asymptotically safe inflation [S. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 81, 083535 (2010).10.1103/PhysRevD.81.083535]. We find that even if the gravity theory exhibits an ultraviolet fixed point, the energy scale during inflation is way too low to drive the theory close to the fixed point value. We choose the specific renormalization group flow away from the fixed point towards the infrared region that reproduces the Newton’s constant and today’s cosmological constant. We follow this renormalization group flow path to scales below the Planck scale to study the stability of the inflationary scenario. Again, we find that some fine-tuning is necessary to get enough e folds of inflation in the asymptotically safe inflationary scenario.

  14. Safe motherhood in refugee settings.

    PubMed

    Sachs, L

    1997-05-01

    The complications of pregnancy and delivery is one of the major causes of death and disease among refugee women of childbearing age. While it is difficult to obtain accurate statistics on the number of pregnant refugees worldwide, an estimated 25% of such women are pregnant at any given time. The dislocation, inadequate shelter, minimal food rations, poor sanitation, and physical danger typical of refugee life make safe motherhood almost impossible. In such situations, fertility rates tend to be extremely high, with refugee women having very large numbers of children in response to pressure on them from leaders to rebuild the population, improvements in child survival rates, and the absence of fertility-regulating information and services. Closely spaced pregnancies are thus common. The two field operations manuals created out of the 1995 Inter-Agency Symposium on Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations recommend making safe motherhood a high priority during both the emergency and stabilization phases in refugee situations.

  15. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe-haven locking device

    DOEpatents

    Williams, J.V.

    1984-04-26

    Disclosed is a locking device for eliminating external control of a secured space formed by fixed and movable barriers. The locking device uses externally and internally controlled locksets and a movable strike, operable from the secured side of the movable barrier, to selectively engage either lockset. A disengagement device, for preventing forces from being applied to the lock bolts is also disclosed. In this manner, a secured space can be controlled from the secured side as a safe-haven. 4 figures.

  17. Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Chart / Safe Minimum Internal Temperature Chart Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  18. Safe and Principled Language Interoperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    existing interfaces offer a trade-off between safety and efficiency of interlanguage communication. The commu- nicating programs may reside in...system can be satisfied by compiling them using a different model for a subset of the language, and using an interlanguage protocol to communicate with...requirements in these situ- ations. To provide the basis for a safe and efficient interlanguage operation, in this paper we describe a novel type-based

  19. Safe administration of blood components.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katy

    The transfusion process has many stages, each involving different members of staff in different locations. This gives rise to a significant potential for errors. Nurses are involved in many of these stages and therefore require knowledge, skills and competence in the process to ensure the safety of patients. This third article in our five-part series on blood transfusion discusses the safe administration of blood components and the key principles to which nurses must adhere.

  20. Genomic Insights into Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Danielle H.; Tsoli, Maria; Ziegler, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a highly aggressive pediatric brainstem tumor with a peak incidence in middle childhood and a median survival of less than 1 year. The dismal prognosis associated with DIPG has been exacerbated by the failure of over 250 clinical trials to meaningfully improve survival compared with radiotherapy, the current standard of care. The traditional practice to not biopsy DIPG led to a scarcity in available tissue samples for laboratory analysis that till recently hindered therapeutic advances. Over the past few years, the acquisition of patient derived tumor samples through biopsy and autopsy protocols has led to distinct breakthroughs in the identification of key oncogenic drivers implicated in DIPG development. Aberrations have been discovered in critical genetic drivers including histone H3, ACVR1, TP53, PDGFRA, and Myc. Mutations, previously not identified in other malignancies, highlight DIPG as a distinct biological entity. Identification of novel markers has already greatly influenced the direction of preclinical investigations and offers the exciting possibility of establishing biologically targeted therapies. This review will outline the current knowledge of the genomic landscape related to DIPG, overview preclinical investigations, and reflect how biological advances have influenced the focus of clinical trials toward targeted therapies. PMID:28401062

  1. Safe motherhood for women refugees.

    PubMed

    O'heir, J

    1999-01-01

    A UN refugee agency supported a review that aims to strengthen safe motherhood services for women refugees in northwest Tanzania. The review, which utilized the safe motherhood needs assessment of WHO as a guide, found that antenatal care as well as labor and delivery services were both available and accessible to women in the refugee camps. However, certain aspects of care could be improved by introducing a shorter schedule of visits. Limiting the use of unqualified care providers was also suggested since this practice increases the risk of disability and death. Furthermore, most of the camps tended to neglect postnatal care, and none of them had written guidelines for care of the mother and newborn. However, draft guidelines were formulated as the review progressed. Up-to-date technical information was also given to staff members to maintain quality care. This review of safe motherhood services demonstrates that it is possible to provide good quality services for children and mothers even in difficult situations. Such services do not require enormous financial resources, neither do they require sophisticated technology and highly specialized staff.

  2. Intrinsic optimization using stochastic nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Brian; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Behin-Aein, Behtash; Datta, Supriyo

    2017-03-01

    This paper draws attention to a hardware system which can be engineered so that its intrinsic physics is described by the generalized Ising model and can encode the solution to many important NP-hard problems as its ground state. The basic constituents are stochastic nanomagnets which switch randomly between the ±1 Ising states and can be monitored continuously with standard electronics. Their mutual interactions can be short or long range, and their strengths can be reconfigured as needed to solve specific problems and to anneal the system at room temperature. The natural laws of statistical mechanics guide the network of stochastic nanomagnets at GHz speeds through the collective states with an emphasis on the low energy states that represent optimal solutions. As proof-of-concept, we present simulation results for standard NP-complete examples including a 16-city traveling salesman problem using experimentally benchmarked models for spin-transfer torque driven stochastic nanomagnets.

  3. Intrinsic optimization using stochastic nanomagnets

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Brian; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Behin-Aein, Behtash; Datta, Supriyo

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws attention to a hardware system which can be engineered so that its intrinsic physics is described by the generalized Ising model and can encode the solution to many important NP-hard problems as its ground state. The basic constituents are stochastic nanomagnets which switch randomly between the ±1 Ising states and can be monitored continuously with standard electronics. Their mutual interactions can be short or long range, and their strengths can be reconfigured as needed to solve specific problems and to anneal the system at room temperature. The natural laws of statistical mechanics guide the network of stochastic nanomagnets at GHz speeds through the collective states with an emphasis on the low energy states that represent optimal solutions. As proof-of-concept, we present simulation results for standard NP-complete examples including a 16-city traveling salesman problem using experimentally benchmarked models for spin-transfer torque driven stochastic nanomagnets. PMID:28295053

  4. Intrinsic plasmarons in warm graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Daqing; Chen, Shuyue; Zhang, Shengli; Ma, Ning

    2017-10-01

    Based on a self-consistent method, we predict theoretically that there exist intrinsic plasmarons in graphene at nonzero temperature, with a well defined mode, as shown by the result of Landau damping. We find that there are sharp differences between the discussed system and the QCD/QED system. Firstly, the thermal mass is proportional to α_g3/4T but not αg T . Secondly, at 0c , the fermion channel and plasmaron channel are nearly degenerate, and furthermore the energy difference between fermion and plasmaron becomes larger and larger with increasing q in the region q>qc . Thirdly, the fermion behaves as a ‘relativistic particle’ with nonzero mass, and the plasmaron exhibits an abnormal dispersion at moderate momentum.

  5. Exploration of horizontal intrinsic spin resonances with two partial Siberian snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Huang, H.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A. U.; Mackay, W. W.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Takano, J.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2007-04-01

    Two partial Siberian snakes were used to avoid all the spin imperfection and vertical intrinsic resonances in the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, the horizontal betatron motion can cause polarization loss resulting from the nonvertical stable spin direction in the presence of two partial snakes. This type of resonance, called a horizontal intrinsic spin resonance, was observed and systematically studied in the AGS. A simplified analytic model and numerical simulation have been developed to compare with experimental data. Properties of the horizontal intrinsic resonance are discussed.

  6. The Intrinsic Demographics of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Mao, Peiyuan; Brandt, Timothy D.

    2017-08-01

    Blazar surveys over the past three decades have revealed a range of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), with large systematic differences depending on survey wavelength. This means blazar samples suffer from strong selection effects. To date there has been no agreement on how to infer intrinsic population demographics from these samples, with a key issue being whether blazar jet power is related to the shape of the spectral energy distribution. We investigate this issue using Monte Carlo simulations of BL Lac and flat-spectrum radio quasar populations. We rule out the hypothesis that the SED shape is not linked to luminosity, as the simulated samples in that case disagree strongly with observed surveys. This means that the low-power blazars found primarily in X-ray surveys must be more common than the high-power blazars found primarily in radio surveys. Given an intrinsic correlation between luminosity and SED shape, our simulations predict distributions of flux, redshift, luminosity, and spectral index consistent with existing surveys. We also show that the observed evolution of X-ray-selected blazars, as measured through the average V/Vmax ratio, appears to be negative even when the underlying evolution is actually mildly positive. The apparent negative evolution of X-ray bright BL Lacs is a selection effect caused by redshifting a steeply falling UV-to-X-ray spectrum out of the X-ray band. As this conclusion would suggest, our simulations also show that the deeper the X-ray flux limit and/or the lower the frequency of the synchrotron peak in the SED, the less negative the apparent evolution.

  7. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  8. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  9. Back to the Definitions Themselves: The Pragmatics of Intrinsic Justification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahm, Kenneth

    Such terms as "intrinsic justification,""intrinsicness," and "intrinsicality" are increasingly being heard in academic debate circles. Intrinsic justification consists of an argument which focuses evaluation of a resolutional term on the term's definitional contours. Essential qualities are defining characteristics…

  10. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Robert A.; Beshay, Manal

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  11. Design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sherohman, J.W.; Roberts, D.H.; Levine, B.H.

    1982-05-05

    The design of the Target Fabrication Tritium Laboratory for deuterium-tritium fuel processing for laser fusion targets has been accomplished with the intent of providing redundant safeguard systems. The design of the tritium laboratory is based on a combination of tritium handling techniques that are currently used by experienced laboratories. A description of the laboratory in terms of its interrelated processing systems is presented to provide an understanding of the design features for safe operation.

  12. Buying into conservation: intrinsic versus instrumental value.

    PubMed

    Justus, James; Colyvan, Mark; Regan, Helen; Maguire, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Many conservation biologists believe the best ethical basis for conserving natural entities is their claimed intrinsic value, not their instrumental value for humans. But there is significant confusion about what intrinsic value is and how it could govern conservation decision making. After examining what intrinsic value is supposed to be, we argue that it cannot guide the decision making conservation requires. An adequate ethical basis for conservation must do this, and instrumental value does it best.

  13. Safe and Efficient Persistent Heaps.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    Safe and Efficient Persistent Heaps Scott M. Nettles December 1995 CMU-CS-95-225 KSS© 1 «S’S SO- 1 -""-«« -’ i , School of Computer...under grant F33615-93- 1 -1330. The US Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes, notwithstanding any...Contents I Design and Implementation 1 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Safety 4 1.1.1 Transactions 5 1.1.2 Garbage Collection 6 1.1.3 Orthogonal

  14. Making processing fail-safe

    SciTech Connect

    Freiburghouse, R.

    1982-05-01

    The author describes the Stratus/32 multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant system for commercial applications which supports on-line transaction processing, batch processing, word processing and interactive program development. It uses a combination of hardware and software that provides continuous processing of user programs during computer failure without checkpoint/restart programming at the user or system level. Central to the system's fail-safe operation are processing modules, each of which has redundant logic and communication paths, logic and CPU boards and main and disk memory. Twin components operate in parallel with each other; when one fails, its partner carries on.

  15. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  16. Transport of Intrinsic Plutonium Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Tarimala, S.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Actinide contaminants were introduced to the subsurface environment as a result of nuclear weapons development and testing, as well as for nuclear power generation and related research activities for defense and civilian applications. Even though most actinide species were believed to be fairly immobile once in the subsurface, recent studies have shown the transport of actinides kilometers away from their disposal sites. For example, the treated liquid wastes released into Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory were predicted to travel less than a few meters; however, plutonium and americium have been detected 3.4 km away from the waste outfall. A colloid-facilitated mechanism has been suggested to account for this unexpected transport of these radioactive wastes. Clays, oxides, organic matters, and actinide hydroxides have all been proposed as the possible mobile phase. Pu ions associated with natural colloids are often referred to as pseudo-Pu colloids, in contrast with the intrinsic Pu colloids that consist of Pu oxides. Significant efforts have been made to investigate the role of pseudo-Pu colloids, while few studies have evaluated the environmental behavior of the intrinsic Pu colloids. Given the fact that Pu (IV) has extremely low solubility product constant, it can be inferred that the transport of Pu in the intrinsic form is highly likely at suitable environmental conditions. This study investigates the transport of intrinsic Pu colloids in a saturated alluvium material packed in a cylindrical column (2.5-cm Dia. x 30-cm high) and compares the results to previous data on the transport of pseudo Pu colloids in the same material. A procedure to prepare a stable intrinsic Pu colloid suspension that produced consistent and reproducible electrokinetic and stability data was developed. Electrokinetic properties and aggregation stability were characterized. The Pu colloids, together with trillium as a conservative tracer, were injected into the

  17. SafeNet: a methodology for integrating general-purpose unsafe devices in safe-robot rehabilitation systems.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Federico; Pedrocchi, Nicola; Malosio, Matteo; Molinari Tosatti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Robot-assisted neurorehabilitation often involves networked systems of sensors ("sensory rooms") and powerful devices in physical interaction with weak users. Safety is unquestionably a primary concern. Some lightweight robot platforms and devices designed on purpose include safety properties using redundant sensors or intrinsic safety design (e.g. compliance and backdrivability, limited exchange of energy). Nonetheless, the entire "sensory room" shall be required to be fail-safe and safely monitored as a system at large. Yet, sensor capabilities and control algorithms used in functional therapies require, in general, frequent updates or re-configurations, making a safety-grade release of such devices hardly sustainable in cost-effectiveness and development time. As such, promising integrated platforms for human-in-the-loop therapies could not find clinical application and manufacturing support because of lacking in the maintenance of global fail-safe properties. Under the general context of cross-machinery safety standards, the paper presents a methodology called SafeNet for helping in extending the safety rate of Human Robot Interaction (HRI) systems using unsafe components, including sensors and controllers. SafeNet considers, in fact, the robotic system as a device at large and applies the principles of functional safety (as in ISO 13489-1) through a set of architectural procedures and implementation rules. The enabled capability of monitoring a network of unsafe devices through redundant computational nodes, allows the usage of any custom sensors and algorithms, usually planned and assembled at therapy planning-time rather than at platform design-time. A case study is presented with an actual implementation of the proposed methodology. A specific architectural solution is applied to an example of robot-assisted upper-limb rehabilitation with online motion tracking.

  18. Modeling heterogeneous responsiveness of intrinsic apoptosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables multicellular organisms to maintain homeostasis and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the organism’s survival. Dependent on the type of stimulus, apoptosis can be propagated by extrinsic pathway or intrinsic pathway. The comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism of apoptotic signaling allows for development of mathematical models, aiming to elucidate dynamical and systems properties of apoptotic signaling networks. There have been extensive efforts in modeling deterministic apoptosis network accounting for average behavior of a population of cells. Cellular networks, however, are inherently stochastic and significant cell-to-cell variability in apoptosis response has been observed at single cell level. Results To address the inevitable randomness in the intrinsic apoptosis mechanism, we develop a theoretical and computational modeling framework of intrinsic apoptosis pathway at single-cell level, accounting for both deterministic and stochastic behavior. Our deterministic model, adapted from the well-accepted Fussenegger model, shows that an additional positive feedback between the executioner caspase and the initiator caspase plays a fundamental role in yielding the desired property of bistability. We then examine the impact of intrinsic fluctuations of biochemical reactions, viewed as intrinsic noise, and natural variation of protein concentrations, viewed as extrinsic noise, on behavior of the intrinsic apoptosis network. Histograms of the steady-state output at varying input levels show that the intrinsic noise could elicit a wider region of bistability over that of the deterministic model. However, the system stochasticity due to intrinsic fluctuations, such as the noise of steady-state response and the randomness of response delay, shows that the intrinsic noise in general is insufficient to produce significant cell-to-cell variations at physiologically relevant level of

  19. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Do, Michael Tri Hoang; Yau, King-Wai

    2010-10-01

    Life on earth is subject to alternating cycles of day and night imposed by the rotation of the earth. Consequently, living things have evolved photodetective systems to synchronize their physiology and behavior with the external light-dark cycle. This form of photodetection is unlike the familiar "image vision," in that the basic information is light or darkness over time, independent of spatial patterns. "Nonimage" vision is probably far more ancient than image vision and is widespread in living species. For mammals, it has long been assumed that the photoreceptors for nonimage vision are also the textbook rods and cones. However, recent years have witnessed the discovery of a small population of retinal ganglion cells in the mammalian eye that express a unique visual pigment called melanopsin. These ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive and drive a variety of nonimage visual functions. In addition to being photoreceptors themselves, they also constitute the major conduit for rod and cone signals to the brain for nonimage visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Here we review what is known about these novel mammalian photoreceptors.

  20. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  1. Geochemical indicators of intrinsic bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, R.C.; Gomez, C.A.; Becker, M.T.

    1995-03-01

    A detailed field investigation has been completed at a gasoline-contaminated aquifer near Rocky Point, NC, to examine possible indicators of intrinsic bioremediation and identify factors that may significantly influence the rae and extent of bioremediation. The dissolved plume of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in ground water is naturally degrading. Toluene and o-xylene are most rapidly degraded followed by m-, p-xylene, and benzene. Ethylbenzene appears to degrade very slowly under anaerobic conditions present in the center of the plume. The rate and extent of biodegradation appears to be strongly influenced by the type and quantity of electron acceptors present in the aquifer. At the upgradient edge of the plume, nitrate, ferric iron, and oxygen are used as terminal electron acceptors during hydrocarbon biodegradation. The equivalent of 40 to 50 mg/l of hydrocarbon is degraded based on the increase in dissolved CO{sub 2} relative to background ground water. Immediately downgradient of the source area, sulfate and iron are the dominant electron acceptors. Toluene and o-xylene are rapidly removed in this region. Once the available oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate are consumed, biodegradation is limited and appears to be controlled by mixing and aerobic biodegradation at the plume fringes.

  2. Safe Landings in Extreme Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tom; Ortiz, Gary; Steltzner, Adam

    2000-01-01

    Following the failure of the Mars Polar Lander and the re-evaluation of the Mars Sample Return mission status, a Safe Landing Tiger team was established on January 7, 2000. The charter of the team was to re-evaluate large scale (1000-2000 Kg) Mars lander designs with the principal objective being the assurance of safe landing in hazardous terrain. The tiger team developed a number of concepts, two of the most notable and promising concepts, are both based on a Mobile Lander paradigm. Unlike the Pathfinder and Surveyor class landers, this paradigm groups all of the landed equipment into one of two categories: (1) EDL only equipment (i.e., not used after touchdown) and (2) multi-use equipment, those used during and or after touchdown. The objective is to maximize the use of all equipment being brought to the surface by placing the bulk of the avionics and mechanical systems onto a much larger 'rover' and leaving only the bare essentials on a 'dead-on-arrival' landing system. All of the hardware that the surface roving mission needs is enlisted into performing the EDL tasks. Any EDL specific avionics not used after touchdown are placed on the landing system.

  3. Midwifery education for safe motherhood.

    PubMed

    O'Heir, J M

    1997-09-01

    A series of new safe motherhood midwifery education modules was evaluated in nursing and midwifery education institutions, regional training centers, acute care hospitals, and community settings in Ethiopia, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique, and Nepal in 1995. The series was developed by the World Health Organization's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Program. A total of 36 teachers, 82 midwives or nurse-midwives, and 60 post-basic midwifery students were enrolled in a 2-week clinical skills course and an 8-day training in module use. In subsequent questionnaires and focus group discussions, participants indicated the modules were understandable, relevant, easy to use, and of high quality and the guidelines for assessing competence were adequate. Difficulties encountered included insufficient recommended time frames for some of the sessions, a limited availability of clinical cases for teaching the specific skills in the modules, difficulties obtaining data for a community profile, and a lack of resources to support application of skills learned. Participants indicated they would benefit from having copies of the technical material used in the modules for reference after the course. Overall, these findings indicate the modules have the potential to strengthen the education of midwives in developing countries and thereby to make motherhood safer. Weak health system infrastructures, including regulatory measures, represent the major obstacle to successful program application.

  4. Preheating in an asymptotically safe quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Ole; Moghaddam, Hossein Bazrafshan; Brandenberger, Robert

    2016-10-01

    We consider reheating in a class of asymptotically safe quantum field theories recently studied in [D. F. Litim and F. Sannino, Asymptotic safety guaranteed, J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2014) 178; D. F. Litim, M. Mojaza, and F. Sannino, Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories, J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 081]. These theories allow for an inflationary phase in the very early universe. Inflation ends with a period of reheating. Since the models contain many scalar fields which are intrinsically coupled to the inflaton there is the possibility of parametric resonance instability in the production of these fields, and the danger that the induced curvature fluctuations will become too large. Here we show that the parametric instability indeed arises, and that hence the energy transfer from the inflaton condensate to fluctuating fields is rapid. Demanding that the curvature fluctuations induced by the parametrically amplified entropy modes do not exceed the upper observational bounds puts a lower bound on the number of fields which the model followed in [D. F. Litim and F. Sannino, Asymptotic safety guaranteed, J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2014) 178; D. F. Litim, M. Mojaza, and F. Sannino, Vacuum stability of asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories, J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 081] must contain. This bound also depends on the total number of e -foldings of the inflationary phase.

  5. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  6. Development of Intrinsically Photoluminescent and Photostable Polylactones

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Li; Weng, Hong; Mason, Ralph P.; Tang, Liping; Nguyen, Kytai T.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    A method of introducing intrinsically photoluminescent properties to biodegradable polymer was introduced, exemplified by the synthesis of intrinsically photoluminescent polylactones that enable non-invasively monitoring and tracking material degradation in vivo in real-time and the formation of theranostic nanoparticles for cancer imaging and drug delivery. PMID:24668888

  7. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Internet Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  8. Taking Medicines Safely: At Your Doctor's Office

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely At Your Doctor's Office Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Download ... Articles Medicines: Use Them Safely / At Your Doctor's Office / Ask Your Pharmacist / Now, It's Your Turn: How ...

  9. Intrinsic decoherence in isolated quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yang-Le; Deng, Dong-Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.

    2017-01-01

    We study the intrinsic, disorder-induced decoherence of an isolated quantum system under its own dynamics. Specifically, we investigate the characteristic time scale (i.e., the decoherence time) associated with an interacting many-body system losing the memory of its initial state. To characterize the erasure of the initial state memory, we define a time scale, the intrinsic decoherence time, by thresholding the gradual decay of the disorder-averaged return probability. We demonstrate the system-size independence of the intrinsic decoherence time in different models, and we study its dependence on the disorder strength. We find that the intrinsic decoherence time increases monotonically as the disorder strength increases in accordance with the relaxation of locally measurable quantities. We investigate several interacting spin (e.g., Ising and Heisenberg) and fermion (e.g., Anderson and Aubry-André) models to obtain the intrinsic decoherence time as a function of disorder and interaction strength.

  10. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosiak, John

    2009-01-01

    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  11. How safe is Bubble Soccer?

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-12-01

    Traumatic neurologic injury in contact sports is a rare but serious consequence for its players. These injuries are most commonly associated with high-impact collisions, for example in football, but are found in a wide variety of sports. In an attempt to minimize these injuries, sports are trying to increase safety by adding protection for participants. Most recently is the seemingly 'safe' sport of Bubble Soccer, which attempts to protect its players with inflatable plastic bubbles. We report a case of a 16-year-old male sustaining a cervical spine burst fracture with incomplete spinal cord injury while playing Bubble Soccer. To our knowledge, this is the first serious neurological injury reported in the sport.

  12. Safe handling of large animals.

    PubMed

    Grandin, T

    1999-01-01

    The major causes of accidents with cattle, horses, and other grazing animals are: panic due to fear, male dominance aggression, or the maternal aggression of a mother protecting her newborn. Danger is inherent when handling large animals. Understanding their behavior patterns improves safety, but working with animals will never be completely safe. Calm, quiet handling and non-slip flooring are beneficial. Rough handling and excessive use of electric prods increase chances of injury to both people and animals, because fearful animals may jump, kick, or rear. Training animals to voluntarily cooperate with veterinary procedures reduces stress and improves safety. Grazing animals have a herd instinct, and a lone, isolated animal can become agitated. Providing a companion animal helps keep an animal calm.

  13. Is periconceptional opioid use safe?

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Felix; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Question A patient in my practice who takes buprenorphine for chronic pain would like to conceive. Is it safe for her to continue taking her medication? Answer The literature regarding periconceptional opioid use is conflicted as to whether opioids pose an elevated risk of birth defects. Confounding factors such as socioeconomic status, stress, and alcohol consumption might play a role. The first trimester of pregnancy is the critical period of development for many organ systems in the embryo. A chemical or environmental insult is more likely to produce major congenital malformations such as neural tube defects or mental retardation if it occurs within this window. Medical practitioners should judiciously consider a risk-benefit analysis before making their decisions. PMID:26167561

  14. Safe motherhood: the FIGO initiative.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, G; Thomas, B

    2003-09-01

    Over the last twenty years the international community-realizing that the tragedy of women dying during pregnancy and in childbirth could no longer be tolerated-launched a series of initiatives aimed at making safe motherhood a cornerstone of health services in all countries. Making pregnancy and delivery safe events is particularly complex, as it involves infrastructural and logistic, as well as technical, issues. Women die because they have no access to skilled personnel during pregnancy and at the time of delivery and because--if an emergency situation arises--they cannot reach a facility where emergency obstetric services are available. FIGO, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology-as the only global organization representing the Obstetricians of the world-decided some time ago that it could not limit its activities to proposing technical guidelines and debating scientific issues. It had to move into the field and, through its affiliated societies, help change the ability of the multitude of women in the developing world to obtain skilled attendance at birth. In 1997, plans were made to launch activities in five areas where maternal mortality was particularly high: Central America (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador), Ethiopia, Mozambique, Pakistan, and Uganda. Five member societies from the developed world (the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada, the Italian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of the United Kingdom; and the Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology) agreed to provide support to their counterparts in these five selected areas. The project is now in its final stage. Results are, by and large, positive, demonstrating that, by motivating health professionals in the field and for a relatively modest financial outlay, more efficient use of existing services could be made in a sustainable

  15. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  16. A case study of the intrinsic bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Raterman, K.T.; Fisher, J.B.; Corgan, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil and groundwater at two gas production sites in the Denver Basin operated by Amoco Production Co. These sites have been closely monitored since July 1993 to determine whether intrinsic aerobic or anaerobic bioremediation of hydrocarbons occurs at a sufficient rate and to an adequate endpoint to support a no-intervention decision. Groundwater monitoring and analysis of soil cores suggest that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at these sites by multiple pathways including aerobic oxidation, Fe{sup 3+} reduction, and sulfate reduction. In laboratory experiments the addition of gas condensate hydrocarbons to saturated soil from the gas production site stimulated sulfate reduction under anaerobic and oxygen-limiting conditions, and nitrate and Fe{sup 3+} reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions, compared to biotic controls that lacked hydrocarbon and sterile controls. The sulfate reduction corresponded to a reduction in the amount of toluene relative to other hydrocarbons. These results confirmed that subsurface soils at the gas production site have the potential for intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons.

  17. Enabling the On-line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side effect of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant, This paper concerns the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations, The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  18. Enabling the On-Line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side fleet of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant. This paper concern the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations. The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  19. Intrinsic mineral labeling of edible plants: methods and uses

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The fate of minerals can be conveniently studied through intrinsic labeling techniques. The mineral of interest is biologically incorporated into the food in a form that can be distinguished analytically from the natural form of the element. Radiolabels have traditionally been used to study such problems as the uptake of minerals by plants, the gross and subcellular mineral distribution in plant tissues, the form and associations of the deposited mineral, and the bioavailability of minerals to animals and humans. The use of stable (nonradioactive) isotopes as a label offers the potential of safely studying bioavailability of minerals from individual foods in human population groups of all ages using foods processed in normal food handling and processing facilities. 114 references.

  20. Safe Configuration of TLS Connections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-16

    TLSAnalyzer during a Red Team exercise, while Section VII describes future work and Section VIII concludes the paper. II. RELATED WORK This paper...in this paper was evaluated as part of a Red Team Exercise [34] performed by an independent US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Red Team to...specifically were found to be useful during development and red team evaluation, there are a number of ways they can be extended to provide enhanced

  1. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  3. Safe nuclear power for the Third World

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Lyon, C.F.; Redick, J.R. )

    1989-11-01

    It is clear that using nuclear power for the generation of electricity is one way of reducing the emissions of CO{sub 2} and other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Equally clear is the fact that the reduction can be magnified by converting domestic, commercial, and industrial power-consuming activities from the direct use of fossil fuel sources to electrical energy. A major area for future progress in limiting CO{sub 2} emissions is in the Third World, where population growth and expectations for a higher social and economic standard of living portend vast increases in future energy use. A number of problems come to mind as one contemplates the widespread expansion of nuclear energy use into the Third World. The authors propose a method involving the marriage of two currently evolving concepts by which nuclear electrical generation can be expanded throughout the world in a manner that will address these problems. The idea is to form multinational independent electric generating companies, or nuclear electric companies (NECs), that would design, build, operate, and service a standardized fleet of nuclear power plants. The plants would be of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design, now under development at Argonne National Laboratory, and, in particular, a commercial conceptualization of the IFR sponsored by General Electric Company, the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM).

  4. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  5. Safe teleradiology: information assurance as project planning methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.; Alaoui, Adil; Nguyen, Dan; Lindisch, David

    2003-05-01

    This project demonstrates use of OCTAVE, an information security risk assessment method, as an approach to the safe design and planning of a teleradiology system. By adopting this approach to project planning, we intended to provide evidence that including information security as an intrinsic component of project planning improves information assurance and that using information assurance as a planning tool produces and improves the general system management plan. Several considerations justify this approach to planning a safe teleradiology system. First, because OCTAVE was designed as a method for retrospectively assessing and proposing enhancements for the security of existing information management systems, it should function well as a guide to prospectively designing and deploying a secure information system such as teleradiology. Second, because OCTAVE provides assessment and planning tools for use primarily by interdisciplinary teams from user organizations, not consultants, it should enhance the ability of such teams at the local level to plan safe information systems. Third, from the perspective of sociological theory, OCTAVE explicitly attempts to enhance organizational conditions identified as necessary to safely manage complex technologies. Approaching information system design from the perspective of information security risk management proactively integrates health information assurance into a project"s core. This contrasts with typical approaches that perceive "security" as a secondary attribute to be "added" after designing the system and with approaches that identify information assurance only with security devices and user training. The perspective of health information assurance embraces so many dimensions of a computerized health information system"s design that one may successfully deploy a method for retrospectively assessing information security risk as a prospective planning tool. From a sociological perspective, this approach enhances the

  6. Intrinsic structure in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, N.

    2015-10-01

    Saturn's rings are the most prominent in our Solar system and one example of granular matter in space. Dominated by tides and inelastic collisions the system is highly flattened being almost 300000km wide while only tens of meters thick. Individual particles are composed of primarily water ice and range from microns to few tens of meters in size. Apparent patterns comprise ringlets, gaps, kinematic wakes, propellers, bending waves, and the winding spiral arms of density waves. These large-scale structures are perturbations foremost created by external as well as embedded moons. Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft currently in orbit around Saturn show these structures in unprecedented detail. But high-resolution measurements reveal the presence of small-scale structures throughout the system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), overstable waves (100-300m), subkm structure at the A and B ring edges, "straw" and "ropy" structures (1-3km), and the C ring "ghosts". Most of these had not been anticipated and are found in perturbed regions, driven by resonances with external moons, where the system undergoes periodic phases of compression and relaxation that correlate with the presence of structure. High velocity dispersion and the presence of large clumps imply structure formation on time scales as short as one orbit (about 10 hours). The presence of these intrinsic structures is seemingly the response to varying local conditions such as internal density, optical depth, underlying particle size distribution, granular temperature, and distance from the central planet. Their abundance provides evidence for an active and dynamic ring system where aggregation and fragmentation are ongoing on orbital timescales. Thus a kinetic description of the rings may be more appropriate than the fluid one. I will present Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) occultations, Voyager 1 and 2 Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and high

  7. Laboratory Microcomputing

    PubMed Central

    York, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputers will play a major role in the laboratory, not only in the calculation and interpretation of clinical test data, but also will have an increasing place of importance in the management of laboratory resources in the face of the transition from revenue generating to the cost center era. We will give you a glimpse of what can be accomplished with the management data already collected by many laboratories today when the data are processed into meaningful reports.

  8. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  9. Analysis of the SAFE-30 resistance-heated test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Duyn, Lee B.; Poston, David I.; Reid, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    The Heatpipe Power System (HPS) is one possible system that could produce near-term, low-cost space fission power. One of the main ways that it achieves these goals is by designing the system for inexpensive testing. Nuclear testing is often a long and expensive process. The HPS utilizes electrical resistance heaters to simulate the nuclear heat, which if done correctly can reduce development time and cost. The purpose of the SAFE-30 testing is to verify core thermal performance and to evaluate the usefulness of this type of resistance heated testing. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) is a derivative of the HPS designed for producing electricity in space. A 30 kWt SAFE model was built by Los Alamos National Laboratory and recently tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The SAFE-30 had 12 heatpipes and 48 electrical heaters to simulate the nuclear fuel. The SAFE-30 tests that were done were regulated and monitored using approximately 84 thermocouples. The heaters were controlled using variable current and voltage, which made it possible to obtain a specific input power. Attaching water-jacket calorimeters to the heatpipes made it feasible to obtain the power output from the core using simple heat transfer calculations. These actual temperatures and power values were then compared to a computational model that uses nuclear data and thermal properties. Near the completion of testing, a Stirling engine was attached to the core heatpipes to verify thermal coupling and produce electricity. This paper describes how the tests were conducted and what pieces of hardware were used to model potential environments. It also explains the results of the tests as well as the different conditions that they were tested under. Finally, it analyzes the overall data for the successful tests and confirms it to be comparable to the theoretical thermal calculations done by the computer code. .

  10. Fire-safe polymers and polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiqing

    The intrinsic relationships between polymer structure, composition and fire behavior have been explored to develop new fire-safe polymeric materials. Different experimental techniques, especially three milligram-scale methods---pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and pyrolysis GC/MS---have been combined to fully characterize the thermal decomposition and flammability of polymers and polymer composites. Thermal stability, mass loss rate, char yield and properties of decomposition volatiles were found to be the most important parameters in determining polymer flammability. Most polymers decompose by either an unzipping or a random chain scission mechanism with an endothermic decomposition of 100--900 J/g. Aromatic or heteroaromatic rings, conjugated double or triple bonds and heteroatoms such as halogens, N, O, S, P and Si are the basic structural units for fire-resistant polymers. The flammability of polymers can also be successfully estimated by combining pyrolysis GC/MS results or chemical structures with TGA results. The thermal decomposition and flammability of two groups of inherently fire-resistant polymers---poly(hydroxyamide) (PHA) and its derivatives, and bisphenol C (BPC II) polyarylates---have been systematically studied. PHA and most of its derivatives have extremely low heat release rates and very high char yields upon combustion. PHA and its halogen derivatives can completely cyclize into quasi-polybenzoxazole (PBO) structures at low temperatures. However, the methoxy and phosphate derivatives show a very different behavior during decomposition and combustion. Molecular modeling shows that the formation of an enol intermediate is the rate-determining step in the thermal cyclization of PHA. BPC II-polyarylate is another extremely flame-resistant polymer. It can be used as an efficient flame-retardant agent in copolymers and blends. From PCFC results, the total heat of combustion of these copolymers or blends

  11. Safe testing nuclear rockets economically

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S. D.; Travis, B. J.; Zerkle, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the RoverMERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

  12. What is a safe lift?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp.

  13. SAFE Testing Nuclear Rockets Economically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Steven D.; Travis, Bryan; Zerkle, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies over the past few decades have recognized the need for advanced propulsion to explore the solar system. As early as the 1960s, Werner Von Braun and others recognized the need for a nuclear rocket for sending humans to Mars. The great distances, the intense radiation levels, and the physiological response to zero-gravity all supported the concept of using a nuclear rocket to decrease mission time. These same needs have been recognized in later studies, especially in the Space Exploration Initiative in 1989. One of the key questions that has arisen in later studies, however, is the ability to test a nuclear rocket engine in the current societal environment. Unlike the Rover/NERVA programs in the 1960s, the rocket exhaust can no longer be vented to the open atmosphere. As a consequence, previous studies have examined the feasibility of building a large-scale version of the Nuclear Furnace Scrubber that was demonstrated in 1971. We have investigated an alternative that would deposit the rocket exhaust along with any entrained fission products directly into the ground. The Subsurface Active Filtering of Exhaust, or SAFE, concept would allow variable sized engines to be tested for long times at a modest expense. A system overview, results of preliminary calculations, and cost estimates of proof of concept demonstrations are presented. The results indicate that a nuclear rocket could be tested at the Nevada Test Site for under $20 M.

  14. Staying Safe While Consuming Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Donna Elise; Griffin, Melinda; Boekeloo, Bradley; Lake, Kristin; Bellows, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Objective In this qualitative study, the authors examined how students attempt to minimize harm to themselves and others when drinking. Participants The authors recruited freshmen at a large, mid-Atlantic US public university during the fall semester of 2005 to participate in 8 focus groups. Methods The moderator’s guide was developed through an iterative process that included input from experts and pilot testing. The researchers audiotaped focus group conversations, transcribed them, and subjected them to an interrater reliability check. Analysis was based on the framework of Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model and a phenomenological approach. Results College students have a repertoire of coping strategies they use in an attempt to safeguard themselves and their friends from harm when drinking. Strategies encompass planning a safe context for drinking, using safety measures to minimize harm when drinking, and taking care of someone who has consumed too much alcohol. Conclusions A harm-reduction focus that acknowledges and builds on existing protective strategies may be a promising avenue for alcohol interventions. PMID:18089505

  15. The Inversion Potential of Ammonia: An Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate Calculation for Student Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Ramachandran, B. R.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    A report is presented to describe how students can be empowered to construct the full, double minimum inversion potential for ammonia by performing intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. This work can be associated with the third year physical chemistry lecture laboratory or an upper level course in computational chemistry.

  16. The Inversion Potential of Ammonia: An Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate Calculation for Student Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Ramachandran, B. R.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    A report is presented to describe how students can be empowered to construct the full, double minimum inversion potential for ammonia by performing intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. This work can be associated with the third year physical chemistry lecture laboratory or an upper level course in computational chemistry.

  17. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discuss the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EHW) as the complexity of the circuit grows. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, ngen, based on L, the length of the programming string. We show that the processing time of the computer becomes negligible for intrinsic EHW since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation, suggesting there is room for use of more complex evolutionary algorithms m intrinsic EHW. F i y , we review the state of the practice and discuss the notion of a system design approach for intrinsic EHW.

  18. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Brian L; Rice, Louis B

    2012-08-15

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options.

  19. Recovering intrinsic fluorescence by Monte Carlo modeling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred; Hendriks, Benno H W

    2013-02-01

    We present a novel way to recover intrinsic fluorescence in turbid media based on Monte Carlo generated look-up tables and making use of a diffuse reflectance measurement taken at the same location. The method has been validated on various phantoms with known intrinsic fluorescence and is benchmarked against photon-migration methods. This new method combines more flexibility in the probe design with fast reconstruction and showed similar reconstruction accuracy as found in other reconstruction methods.

  20. Emerging principles of intrinsic hippocampal organization.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D G

    1993-04-01

    The hippocampal formation has a unique and highly distributed network of intrinsic connections. What are the principles of organization that govern information flow through this system? The notion that information processing in the hippocampal formation is segregated in autonomous chips or lamellae appears to be inconsistent with the extremely divergent nature of many of the intrinsic connections. Recent neuroanatomical data suggest, however, that information may be segregated in other ways as it negotiates the links from one hippocampal region to the next.

  1. Refining the intrinsic chimera flap: a review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Agarwal, Shailesh; Adler, Neta; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2009-10-01

    Reconstruction of complex tissue deficiencies in which each missing component is in a different spatial relationship to each other can be particularly challenging, especially in patients with limited recipient vessels. The chimera flap design is uniquely suited to reconstruct these deformities. Chimera flaps have been previously defined in many ways with 2 main categories: prefabricated or intrinsic. Herein we attempt to clarify the definition of a true intrinsic chimeric flap and provide examples of how these constructs provide a method for reconstruction of complex defects. The versatility of the intrinsic chimera flap and its procurement from 7 different vascular systems is described. A clarification of the definition of a true intrinsic chimera flap is described. In addition, construction of flaps from the lateral femoral circumflex, deep circumflex iliac, inferior gluteal, peroneal, subscapular, thoracodorsal, and radial arterial systems is described to showcase the versatility of these chimera flaps. A true intrinsic chimera flap must consist of more than a single tissue type. Each of the tissue components receives its blood flow from separate vascular branches or perforators that are connected to a single vascular source. These vascular branches must be of appropriate length to allow for insetting with 3-dimensional spatial freedom. There are a multitude of sites from which true intrinsic chimera flaps may be harvested.

  2. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective ‘titanic’. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the ‘Seven C's’. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. PMID:22738396

  4. Safe prescribing: a titanic challenge.

    PubMed

    Routledge, Philip A

    2012-10-01

    The challenge to achieve safe prescribing merits the adjective 'titanic'. The organisational and human errors leading to poor prescribing (e.g. underprescribing, overprescribing, misprescribing or medication errors) have parallels in the organisational and human errors that led to the loss of the Titanic 100 years ago this year. Prescribing can be adversely affected by communication failures, critical conditions, complacency, corner cutting, callowness and a lack of courage of conviction, all of which were also factors leading to the Titanic tragedy. These issues need to be addressed by a commitment to excellence, the final component of the 'Seven C's'. Optimal prescribing is dependent upon close communication and collaborative working between highly trained health professionals, whose role is to ensure maximum clinical effectiveness, whilst also protecting their patients from avoidable harm. Since humans are prone to error, and the environments in which they work are imperfect, it is not surprising that medication errors are common, occurring more often during the prescribing stage than during dispensing or administration. A commitment to excellence in prescribing includes a continued focus on lifelong learning (including interprofessional learning) in pharmacology and therapeutics. This should be accompanied by improvements in the clinical working environment of prescribers, and the encouragement of a strong safety culture (including reporting of adverse incidents as well as suspected adverse drug reactions whenever appropriate). Finally, members of the clinical team must be prepared to challenge each other, when necessary, to ensure that prescribing combines the highest likelihood of benefit with the lowest potential for harm. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. An Overview of Pharmaceutical Excipients: Safe or Not Safe?

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Cátia G; Duarte, Dinah; Reis, Catarina P

    2016-07-01

    A medicine consists of 2 fundamental parts: the active pharmaceutical ingredient and the excipient. Most, if not all, medicines could not be made without the use of excipients. In the early times, the safety of excipients was overlooked and no specific safety tests were generally conducted. This fact has been changed over times and is currently being recognized that the excipient's toxicity is not negligible, because its direct interaction with the active pharmaceutical ingredient or between other excipients may occur, leading to a potential change in the relationship between effectiveness and toxicity. This review is intended to address the general status of the pharmaceutical excipients and to describe the safety assessment. As a summary, this review suggests the interest of simplifying the formulations as much as possible and the interest of reducing the number of excipients necessary to strictly meet the required functions. The risk/benefit ratio of an excipient should be always evaluated on the basis of not only its production and quality but also of its safety. Further research according to Good Manufacturing Practices, Guiding Principles in Toxicology Assessment, Good Laboratory Practices, and Good Distribution Practices requirements are needed and are fundamental for health safety, contributing to a comprehensive picture of this matter.

  6. Intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Yang, Z

    2005-02-18

    A generalized definition of intrinsic and extrinsic transport coefficients is introduced. We show that transport coefficients from the intrinsic origin are solely determined by local electronic structure, and thus the intrinsic spin Hall effect is not a transport phenomenon. The intrinsic spin Hall current is always accompanied by an equal but opposite intrinsic orbital angular momentum Hall current. We prove that the intrinsic spin Hall effect does not induce a spin accumulation at the edge of the sample or near the interface.

  7. The Effects of a Transition to Minimalist Shoe Running on Intrinsic Foot Muscle Size.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Myrer, J W; Mitchell, U H; Hunter, I; Ridge, S T

    2016-02-01

    A proposed benefit of minimalist shoe running is an increase in intrinsic foot muscle strength. This study examined change in intrinsic foot muscle size in runners transitioning to Vibram FiveFingers™ minimalist shoes compared to a control group running in traditional running shoes. We compare pre-transition size between runners who developed bone marrow edema to those who did not. 37 runners were randomly assigned to the Vibram FiveFingers™ group (n=18) or control group (n=19). Runners' bone marrow edema and intrinsic foot muscle size were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks. Total running volume was maintained by all runners. A significant increase in abductor hallucis cross-sectional area of 10.6% occurred in the Vibram FiveFingers™ group compared to the control group (p=0.01). There was no significant change in any of the other muscles examined (p>0.05). 8 of the Vibram FiveFingers™ runners, and 1 control runner developed bone marrow edema. Those who developed bone marrow edema, primarily women, had significantly smaller size in all assessed muscles (p≤0.05). Size of intrinsic foot muscles appears to be important in safely transitioning to minimalist shoe running. Perhaps intrinsic foot muscle strengthening may benefit runners wanting to transition to minimalist shoes.

  8. Laboratory accreditation.

    PubMed

    Bradway, D E; Siegelman, F L

    1994-09-01

    An investigation of alleged data fraud at a pesticide analytical laboratory led EPA to take a closer look at the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection program. There was special focus on changes which might be made in the program to enhance the chances of detecting fraud in regulated studies. To this end, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) requested EPA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) to examine the GLP program. Several reports were issued by the OIG, including the recommendation that a laboratory accreditation program be adopted. EPA has been examining ways to implement the OIG's recommendations, including (1) laboratory accreditation consisting of three components: document submission and assessment, site visit and assessment, and proficiency assessment; and (2) mandatory registration of all facilities participating in GLP-regulated studies, based on document submission and assessment. These two alternatives are compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.

  9. [Educated donor--safe patient].

    PubMed

    Szymczyk-Nuzka, Małgorzata

    2011-03-01

    The safety of transfusion is still improving and very important is raising of education among donors. The important element is also awareness of the possibility of withdrawing themselves from the donation process when they know that their blood isn't suitable for recipients. The aim of this study was checked of donor's knowledge about the risk of transfusion transmitted infections. The 581 regular donors (86.2% men, mean age 32 years) who answered of questions about tests which are performed in donation, and about their knowledge of transmission infections by transfusions. Donors gave blood average four times a year, for 11 years. Over 85% of respondents believed that blood is safe. More than half of donors knew that during donation can be detected anemia, syphilis, jaundice, but 50% believed that the hepatitis viruses can be detected after one week after infection. More than 80% of donors knew about the possibility of detecting of HIV infection, but 11% written that HIV can be detected after one day after infection. Approximately 50% of donors believed that can be detected diabetes during donation, and more than 12% of them--that can be detected thyropathy and cancer. The 30% of blood donors didn't know what tests were performed in the blood donations. Donors (80%) knew about the risk groups. Donors (50%) knew correct temporary disqualification periods after surgery and tattoo also, but 17% of them indicated a shorter period of disqualification. 43% of donors shortened the time after gastroscopy. Over 30% of donors didn't know about risks of infection in case of contact with alien blood. A lot of donors (63.3%) knew about the possibility of withdrawing themselves from the donation and 43.5% of them knew about this rule. The donor doesn't need to know the details of detection of infections in blood, but donor need to know that he should be aware that even a few months is needed to obtain a reliable result, which translates into transfusion safety. For this purpose

  10. Microcosm procedure for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities, using laboratory microcosms as test subjects. The safe level is considered to be the maximum exposure that causes no persistent, ecologically significant changes in the ecosystem. In experiments completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, microcosm-derived estimates of safe exposure levels were confirmed using outdoor artificial ponds, which suggests that the microcosm procedure can be an efficient and economical means of determining safe levels for shallow-water communities. Details of microcosm construction, techniques for monitoring ecological variables in microcosms, and an experimental design for determining safe exposure levels are provided here. The microcosms are assembled by transferring components of natural ecosystems to 80-litre aquaria in a controlled laboratory environment. The communities that develop in these systems are typically dominated by common, cosmopolitan littoral species of macrophytes, algae, and invertebrates. Methods are described for measuring changes in water chemistry, phytoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and ecosystem production and respiration. By monitoring these variables over a gradient of pollutant exposure levels, the safe level can be determined accurately and precisely. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo

    2017-10-06

    Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.

  12. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ∼10 cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  13. Intrinsic-extrinsic factors in sport motivation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Darhl M

    2002-10-01

    Participants were 83 students (36 men and 47 women). 10 intrinsic-extrinsic factors involved in sport motivation were obtained. The factors were generated from items obtained from the participants rather than items from the experimenter. This was done to avoid the possible influence of preconceptions on the part of the experimenter regarding what the final dimensions may be. Obtained motivational factors were Social Reinforcement, Fringe Benefits, Fame and Fortune, External Forces, Proving Oneself, Social Benefits, Mental Enrichment, Expression of Self, Sense of Accomplishment, and Self-enhancement. Each factor was referred to an intrinsic-extrinsic dimension to describe its relative position on that dimension. The order of the factors as listed indicates increasing intrinsic motivation. i.e., the first four factors were rated in the extrinsic range, whereas the remaining six were rated to be in the intrinsic range. Next, the participants rated the extent to which each of the various factors was involved in their decision to participate in sport activities. The pattern of use of the motivational factors was the same for both sexes except that men indicated greater use of the Fringe Benefits factor. Overall, the more intrinsic a sport motivation factor was rated, the more likely it was to be rated as a factor in actual sport participation.

  14. Safe Schools: The Threat from within?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Donn

    2011-01-01

    Safe school policies in many urban schools in Ontario have featured security guards, electronic surveillance, student identification tags, discipline, and zero tolerance. In 2000, the Ontario Ministry of Education passed the Safe Schools Act, which set out a list of offences that could trigger expulsion, suspension, and other disciplinary…

  15. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  16. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  17. Safe Schools: The Threat from within?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Donn

    2011-01-01

    Safe school policies in many urban schools in Ontario have featured security guards, electronic surveillance, student identification tags, discipline, and zero tolerance. In 2000, the Ontario Ministry of Education passed the Safe Schools Act, which set out a list of offences that could trigger expulsion, suspension, and other disciplinary…

  18. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Glenda A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  19. Improved water does not mean safe water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  20. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  1. Beth Reis and the Safe Schools Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2007-01-01

    This article chronicles the formation and organization of the Safe Schools Coalition (SCC) through the experiences of Beth Reis, co-founder and co-Chair. The article suggests ways in which the SCC can serve as a model for both collective and individual work in promoting safe schools.

  2. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  3. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  4. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  5. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  6. Safe Gene Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Safe Gene Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Massimo Trucco, M.D...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Gene Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes New Advanced Technology to Improve Prediction and Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...scientific skepticism, the prospect of gene therapy -based treatments remains intriguing and the use of human stem cell research carries with it enor- mous

  7. Review of "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; Barnett, Steven; Welner, Kevin G.

    2010-01-01

    The research summary "Successful, Safe, and Healthy Students" presents the research background for the Obama administration's proposals for comprehensive, community-wide services in high-poverty neighborhoods, extended learning time, family engagement and safe schools. While these policies have broad and common-sense appeal, the research…

  8. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  9. Fluorescent rare earth solutions as intrinsic wavelength standards for protein fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Anderle, Heinz; Weber, Alfred

    2017-02-01

    Trivalent Gd, Tm, and Dy solutions can be used as intrinsic excitation and emission standards to validate the UV and violet-blue wavelength accuracy of a spectrofluorimeter. Europium extends the range into the red. To attain sufficient sensitivity, these luminescent rare earth ions require deuterated reagents or carbonate complexation, which allow the use of ordinary water and thus preparation in virtually any laboratory. Such solutions are particularly valuable as system suitability standards (SST) for protein fluorescence spectroscopy to detect red shifts of the intrinsic fluorescence maximum in stability and storage studies.

  10. Blinding trachoma: prevention with the safe strategy.

    PubMed

    West, Sheila K

    2003-11-01

    Trachoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, differentially affects the poorest communities, which may have the least access to resources. With the establishment of the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020) goal, the World Health Organization has set an ambitious target for country programs. The currently recommended surgery for trichiasis/entropion, antibiotics for active disease, facial cleanliness, and environmental change to reduce transmission (SAFE) strategy targets all key elements believed to be necessary for a short- and long-term intervention program. This report reviews the need for a multi-faceted strategy, and the evidence supporting the elements of SAFE. Concerns about the implementation are discussed. Additional research is suggested that will enhance the implementation of the SAFE strategy. In the current climate of significant political and social momentum for trachoma control, the SAFE strategy is a safe bet to accomplish the elimination of blinding trachoma.

  11. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  12. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  13. Structure and intrinsic disorder in protein autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Travis; Nassar, Roy; Cumberworth, Alexander; Wong, Eric T C; Woollard, Geoffrey; Gsponer, Jörg

    2013-03-05

    Autoinhibition plays a significant role in the regulation of many proteins. By analyzing autoinhibited proteins, we demonstrate that these proteins are enriched in intrinsic disorder because of the properties of their inhibitory modules (IMs). A comparison of autoinhibited proteins with structured and intrinsically disordered IMs revealed that in the latter group (1) multiple phosphorylation sites are highly abundant; (2) splice variants occur in greater number than in their structured cousins; and (3) activation is often associated with changes in secondary structure in the IM. Analyses of families of autoinhibited proteins revealed that the levels of disorder in IMs can vary significantly throughout homologous proteins, whereas residues located at the interfaces between the IMs and inhibited domains are conserved. Our findings suggest that intrinsically disordered IMs provide advantages over structured ones that are likely to be exploited in the fine-tuning of the equilibrium between active and inactive states of autoinhibited proteins.

  14. Cell intrinsic control of axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Fernando M; Bonni, Azad; Sousa, Mónica M

    2014-01-01

    Although neurons execute a cell intrinsic program of axonal growth during development, following the establishment of connections, the developmental growth capacity declines. Besides environmental challenges, this switch largely accounts for the failure of adult central nervous system (CNS) axons to regenerate. Here, we discuss the cell intrinsic control of axon regeneration, including not only the regulation of transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms, but also the modulation of local protein translation, retrograde and anterograde axonal transport, and microtubule dynamics. We further explore the causes underlying the failure of CNS neurons to mount a vigorous regenerative response, and the paradigms demonstrating the activation of cell intrinsic axon growth programs. Finally, we present potential mechanisms to support axon regeneration, as these may represent future therapeutic approaches to promote recovery following CNS injury and disease. PMID:24531721

  15. Breast cancer stem cells and intrinsic subtypes: controversies rage on.

    PubMed

    Nakshatri, Harikrishna; Srour, Edward F; Badve, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity is a well-documented phenomenon in breast cancer; one of the explanations for this phenomenon is the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the capacity to differentiate along divergent pathways. These CSCs undergo asymmetric and symmetric division resulting in both expansion of the stem cell pool and the production of morphologically and functionally distinct differentiated daughter cells. Breast cancer cells that express the cell surface molecule CD44 but lack the expression of CD24 have been described as CSCs. Breast cancer cells expressing elevated levels of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) are also described as CSCs with ALDH1+/CD44+/CD24- subpopulation displaying highest tumorigenic potential in NOD/SCID models. The CSC hypothesis for tumor heterogeneity raises three important questions. First, in unrelated gene expression studies, breast cancers have been classified to five intrinsic subtypes; luminal type A, luminal type B, basal type, ErbB2/HER2-positive and normal-like. Therefore, do these intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer have distinct CSCs of their own or are ALDH1+ or CD44+/CD24- cells common CSCs for all intrinsic subtypes? Secondly, do ALDH1+ or CD44+/CD24- CSCs originate from normal cells of same phenotype or can differentiated cancer cells acquire ALDH1 or CD44+/CD24- status due to mutagenic events? Third, do ALDH1+, ALDH1-, CD44+/CD24- and non-CD44+/CD24- cancer cells differ in their ability to metastasize and respond to chemotherapy? In this review, we present our views on these questions based on studies conducted by several laboratories including ours and present evidence for a strong association of CD44+/CD24- phenotype with basal-like or mesenchymal-like cancer cells.

  16. Does tantalum exhibit any intrinsic antimicrobial or antibiofilm properties?

    PubMed

    Harrison, P L; Harrison, T; Stockley, I; Smith, T J

    2017-09-01

    Tantalum (Ta) trabecular metal components are increasingly used to reconstruct major bone defects in revision arthroplasty surgery. It is known that some metals such as silver have antibacterial properties. Recent reports have raised the question regarding whether Ta components are protective against infection in revision surgery. This laboratory study aimed to establish whether Ta has intrinsic antibacterial properties against planktonic bacteria, or the ability to inhibit biofilm formation. Equal-sized pieces of Ta and titanium (Ti) acetabular components were sterilised and incubated with a low dose inoculum of either Staphylococcus (S.) aureus or S. epidermidis for 24 hours. After serial dilution, colony forming units (cfu) were quantified on Mueller-Hinton agar plates. In order to establish whether biofilms formed to a greater extent on one material than the other, these Ta and Ti pieces were then washed twice, sonicated and washed again to remove loosely adhered planktonic bacteria. They were then re-incubated for 24 hours prior to quantifying the number of cfu. All experiments were performed in triplicate. More than 1x10(8) cfu/ml were observed in both the Ta and Ti experiments. After washing and sonication, more than 2x10(7) cfu/ml were observed for both Ta and Ti groups. The results were the same for both S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Compared with Ti controls, Ta did not demonstrate any intrinsic antibacterial activity or ability to inhibit biofilm formation. Hence, intrinsic antimicrobial properties of Ta do not account for the previously observed reduction in the frequency of subsequent infections when Ta was used in revision procedures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1153-6. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Intrinsic Disorder in the Human Spliceosomal Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Korneta, Iga; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2012-01-01

    The spliceosome is a molecular machine that performs the excision of introns from eukaryotic pre-mRNAs. This macromolecular complex comprises in human cells five RNAs and over one hundred proteins. In recent years, many spliceosomal proteins have been found to exhibit intrinsic disorder, that is to lack stable native three-dimensional structure in solution. Building on the previous body of proteomic, structural and functional data, we have carried out a systematic bioinformatics analysis of intrinsic disorder in the proteome of the human spliceosome. We discovered that almost a half of the combined sequence of proteins abundant in the spliceosome is predicted to be intrinsically disordered, at least when the individual proteins are considered in isolation. The distribution of intrinsic order and disorder throughout the spliceosome is uneven, and is related to the various functions performed by the intrinsic disorder of the spliceosomal proteins in the complex. In particular, proteins involved in the secondary functions of the spliceosome, such as mRNA recognition, intron/exon definition and spliceosomal assembly and dynamics, are more disordered than proteins directly involved in assisting splicing catalysis. Conserved disordered regions in spliceosomal proteins are evolutionarily younger and less widespread than ordered domains of essential spliceosomal proteins at the core of the spliceosome, suggesting that disordered regions were added to a preexistent ordered functional core. Finally, the spliceosomal proteome contains a much higher amount of intrinsic disorder predicted to lack secondary structure than the proteome of the ribosome, another large RNP machine. This result agrees with the currently recognized different functions of proteins in these two complexes. PMID:22912569

  18. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1988-08-01

    Use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process. The fact that this function has to be estimated from data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the bootstrap in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as their kriging variance, provide a reasonable picture of variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  19. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.

    1987-01-01

    The use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process, and the fact that this function has to be estimated from the data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the ''bootstrap'' in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as of their ''kriging variance,'' provide a reasonable picture of the variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  20. Intrinsic Probability of a Multifractal Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Iwao

    1991-12-01

    It is shown that a self-similar measure isotropically distributed in a d-dimensional set should have its own intermittency exponents equivalent to its own generalized dimensions (in the sense of Hentschel and Procaccia), and that the intermittency exponents are completely designated by an intrinsic probability which governs the spatial distribution of the measure. Based on this, it is proven that the intrinsic probability uniquely determines the spatial distribution of the scaling index α of the measure as well as the so-called f-α spectrum of the multifractal set.

  1. Intrinsic plasticity: an emerging player in addiction.

    PubMed

    Kourrich, Saïd; Calu, Donna J; Bonci, Antonello

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, leads to plastic changes in the activity of brain circuits, and a prevailing view is that these changes play a part in drug addiction. Notably, there has been intense focus on drug-induced changes in synaptic excitability and much less attention on intrinsic excitability factors (that is, excitability factors that are remote from the synapse). Accumulating evidence now suggests that intrinsic factors such as K+ channels are not only altered by cocaine but may also contribute to the shaping of the addiction phenotype.

  2. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  3. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  4. Learning and Aging Related Changes in Intrinsic Neuronal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Oh, M. Matthew; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2010-01-01

    A goal of many laboratories that study aging is to find a key cellular change(s) that can be manipulated and restored to a young-like state, and thus, reverse the age-related cognitive deficits. We have chosen to focus our efforts on the alteration of intrinsic excitability (as reflected by the postburst afterhyperpolarization, AHP) during the learning process in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We have consistently found that the postburst AHP is significantly reduced in hippocampal pyramidal neurons from young adults that have successfully learned a hippocampus-dependent task. In the context of aging, the baseline intrinsic excitability of hippocampal neurons is decreased and therefore cognitive learning is impaired. In aging animals that are able to learn, neuron changes in excitability similar to those seen in young neurons during learning occur. Our challenge, then, is to understand how and why excitability changes occur in neurons from aging brains and cause age-associated learning impairments. After understanding the changes, we should be able to formulate strategies for reversing them, thus making old neurons function more as they did when they were young. Such a reversal should rescue the age-related cognitive deficits. PMID:20552042

  5. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy

    2015-04-01

    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  6. Risk Propensity and Safe Medication Administration.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Kelly

    2015-09-01

    To examine the relationship between risk propensity and safe medication administration, while also providing additional evidence of validity and reliability on the Safe Administration of Medication (SAM) Scale. A convenience sample of nursing students from a private Midwest university in the United States was invited to participate in the study. Fourth-year nursing students completed 2 instruments: revised Domain-Specific Risk-Taking and Risk Perception (DOSPERT) Scale, which measures risk propensity, and the SAM Scale, which measures knowledge and performance of safe medication administration. Second-year nursing students completed the SAM Scale; their scores were used to provide evidence of construct validity. This study demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between personal risk taking in the area of health/safety and safe medication administration in nursing students. No statistically significant relationship was found between risk perception and safe medication administration. In addition, the study provided evidence of the validity and reliability of the SAM Scale. This study is among the first to demonstrate a relationship between risk propensity and safe medication administration. Further research into personal risk taking, risk perception and its impact on patient safety, specifically safe medication administration, is needed.

  7. Intrinsic fluctuations and driven response of insect swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Rui; Puckett, James G.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    2015-03-01

    Much of our understanding of collective behaviour in social animals comes from passive observations of animal groups. To understand the group dynamics fully, however, we must also characterize the response of animal aggregations to disturbances. Using three-dimensional particle tracking, we study both the intrinsic fluctuations of laboratory swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius and the response of the swarms to controlled external perturbations: the amplitude-modulated sound of male midge wingbeats. Although these perturbations have an insignificant effect on the behavior of individuals, we find that they can have a strong impact on the collective movement. Intriguingly, the response of the swarm is similar reminiscent to of that of a passive equilibrium system to an external driving force, with microscopic fluctuations underlying combining to produce a macroscopic linear response over a wide range of driving frequencies.

  8. Transient Approximation of SAFE-100 Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Reid, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have designed several heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, ranging in power from 15 kWt to 800 kWt, for both surface power systems and nuclear electric propulsion systems. The Safe, Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) is now being developed in a collaborative effort between LANL and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC). NASA is responsible for fabrication and testing of non-nuclear, electrically heated modules in the Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at MSFC. In-core heat pipes must be properly thawed as the reactor power starts. Computational models have been developed to assess the expected operation of a specific heat pipe design during start-up, steady state operation, and shutdown. While computationally intensive codes provide complete, detailed analyses of heat pipe thaw, a relatively simple. concise routine can also be applied to approximate the response of a heat pipe to changes in the evaporator heat transfer rate during start-up and power transients (e.g., modification of reactor power level) with reasonably accurate results. This paper describes a simplified model of heat pipe start-up that extends previous work and compares the results to experimental measurements for a SAFE-100 type heat pipe design.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the first major goals of the microbiology laboratory is to isolate or detect clinically significant microorganisms from an affected site and, if more than one type of microorganism is present, to isolate them in approximately the same ratio as occurs in vivo. Whether an isolate is “clinically...

  10. Language Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    An educational survey of British language teachers concerning the use of the language laboratory focuses primarily on function, facilities, and performance specifications. Read in conjunction with two other reports published by the Ministry of Technology, this study is meant to help teachers, architects, and administrators develop language…

  11. Safe Use of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    This is a viewgraph presentation that is a course for teaching the safe use of hydrogen. The objectives of the course are 1. To familiarize the student with H2 safety properties 2. To enable the identification, evaluations and addressing of H2 system hazards 3. To teach: a. Safe practices for, b. Design, c. Materials selection, d. H2 system operation, e. Physical principles and empirical observations on which these safe practices are based, f. How to respond to emergency situations involving H2, g How to visualize safety concepts through in-class exercises, h. Identify numerous parameters important to H2 safety.

  12. Sex Differences, Positive Feedback and Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    The paper presents two experiments which test the "change in feelings of competence and self-determination" proposition of cognitive evaluation theory. This proposition states that when a person receives feedback about his performance on an intrinsically motivated activity this information will affect his sense of competence and…

  13. Advancing polymers of intrinsic microporosity by mechanochemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pengfei; Jiang, Xueguang; Wan, Shun; ...

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a fast (15 min) and solvent-free mechanochemical approach to construct polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) with high molecular mass and low polydispersity by solid grinding. The enhanced reaction efficiency results from the instantaneous frictional heating and continuous exposure of active sites within those solid reactants.

  14. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  15. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…

  16. Frequent Major Changing: Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKillop, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty undergraduates participated in individual, semi-structured interviews concerning their decisions to change majors. We found three common extrinsic and three intrinsic factors related to their decisions. Extrinsic factors included parents who were supportive but not meaningfully directive, lack of familial external guidance, and lack of…

  17. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  18. The Intrinsic Connectome of the Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Philipp, Konstanze; Kettlitz, Richard; Fuellen, Georg; Wree, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The connectomes of nervous systems or parts there of are becoming important subjects of study as the amount of connectivity data increases. Because most tract-tracing studies are performed on the rat, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the amygdala connectome of this species resulting in a meta-study. The data were imported into the neuroVIISAS system, where regions of the connectome are organized in a controlled ontology and network analysis can be performed. A weighted digraph represents the bilateral intrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala) and extrinsic (connections of regions of the amygdala to non-amygdaloid regions) connectome of the amygdala. Its structure as well as its local and global network parameters depend on the arrangement of neuronal entities in the ontology. The intrinsic amygdala connectome is a small-world and scale-free network. The anterior cortical nucleus (72 in- and out-going edges), the posterior nucleus (45), and the anterior basomedial nucleus (44) are the nuclear regions that posses most in- and outdegrees. The posterior nucleus turns out to be the most important nucleus of the intrinsic amygdala network since its Shapley rate is minimal. Within the intrinsic amygdala, regions were determined that are essential for network integrity. These regions are important for behavioral (processing of emotions and motivation) and functional (memory) performances of the amygdala as reported in other studies. PMID:23248583

  19. Intrinsic Location Parameter of a Diffusion Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-18

    intrins�que du filtre de Kalman , discut�e dans un autre article. Nous pr�sentons ici une simulation num�rique dÕune EDS non lin�aire, qui montre la pr...the construction of an intrinsic nonlinear analog to the Kalman Fil- ter. We present here a numerical simulation of a nonlinear SDE, showing how well

  20. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  1. Electroneutral intrinsic point defects in cadmium chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Kharif, Ya.L.; Kudryashov, N.I.; Strunilina, T.A.

    1987-12-01

    Low-mobility electrically neutral intrinsic point defects were observed in cadmium chalcogenides. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is proportional to the cadmium vapor pressure to the 1/3 power at a constant temperature, and a mechanism for the formation of these defects were proposed.

  2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  3. Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Anna A; Chopra, Ian; O'Neill, Alex J

    2007-12-01

    Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus was associated with expression of a novobiocin-resistant form of the drug target protein (GyrB). Site-directed mutagenesis established that resistance depends upon the presence of two specific amino acid residues in GyrB: a glycine at position 85 and a lysine at position 140.

  4. Simple intrinsic defects in InAs :

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  6. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  7. Visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated cortical ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yuste, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The cortical microcircuit is built with recurrent excitatory connections, and it has long been suggested that the purpose of this design is to enable intrinsically driven reverberating activity. To understand the dynamics of neocortical intrinsic activity better, we performed two-photon calcium imaging of populations of neurons from the primary visual cortex of awake mice during visual stimulation and spontaneous activity. In both conditions, cortical activity is dominated by coactive groups of neurons, forming ensembles whose activation cannot be explained by the independent firing properties of their contributing neurons, considered in isolation. Moreover, individual neurons flexibly join multiple ensembles, vastly expanding the encoding potential of the circuit. Intriguingly, the same coactive ensembles can repeat spontaneously and in response to visual stimuli, indicating that stimulus-evoked responses arise from activating these intrinsic building blocks. Although the spatial properties of stimulus-driven and spontaneous ensembles are similar, spontaneous ensembles are active at random intervals, whereas visually evoked ensembles are time-locked to stimuli. We conclude that neuronal ensembles, built by the coactivation of flexible groups of neurons, are emergent functional units of cortical activity and propose that visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated ensembles to represent visual attributes. PMID:25201983

  8. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…

  9. Visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated cortical ensembles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jae-eun Kang; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yuste, Rafael

    2014-09-23

    The cortical microcircuit is built with recurrent excitatory connections, and it has long been suggested that the purpose of this design is to enable intrinsically driven reverberating activity. To understand the dynamics of neocortical intrinsic activity better, we performed two-photon calcium imaging of populations of neurons from the primary visual cortex of awake mice during visual stimulation and spontaneous activity. In both conditions, cortical activity is dominated by coactive groups of neurons, forming ensembles whose activation cannot be explained by the independent firing properties of their contributing neurons, considered in isolation. Moreover, individual neurons flexibly join multiple ensembles, vastly expanding the encoding potential of the circuit. Intriguingly, the same coactive ensembles can repeat spontaneously and in response to visual stimuli, indicating that stimulus-evoked responses arise from activating these intrinsic building blocks. Although the spatial properties of stimulus-driven and spontaneous ensembles are similar, spontaneous ensembles are active at random intervals, whereas visually evoked ensembles are time-locked to stimuli. We conclude that neuronal ensembles, built by the coactivation of flexible groups of neurons, are emergent functional units of cortical activity and propose that visual stimuli recruit intrinsically generated ensembles to represent visual attributes.

  10. High School Vocational Education: An Intrinsic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two perspectives on the nature of vocational education: (1) that benefits are "extrinsic," that is, rewards are deferred until after graduation; and (2) that benefits are "intrinsic," that is, vocational education serves to promote full human development by exposing the learner to significant in-class experiences. (DR)

  11. Frustration-induced protein intrinsic disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Katsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Macoto

    2013-03-01

    Spontaneous folding into a specific native structure is the most important property of protein to perform their biological functions within organisms. Spontaneous folding is understood on the basis of an energy landscape picture based on the minimum frustration principle. Therefore, frustration seemingly only leads to protein functional disorder. However, frustration has recently been suggested to have a function in allosteric regulation. Functional frustration has the possibility to be a key to our deeper understanding of protein function. To explore another functional frustration, we theoretically examined structural frustration, which is designed to induce intrinsic disorder of a protein and its function through the coupled folding and binding. We extended the Wako-Saitô-Muñoz-Eaton model to take into account a frustration effect. With the model, we analyzed the binding part of neuron-restrictive silencer factor and showed that designed structural frustration in it induces intrinsic disorder. Furthermore, we showed that the folding and the binding are cooperative in interacting with a target protein. The cooperativity enables an intrinsically disordered protein to exhibit a sharp switch-like folding response to binding chemical potential change. Through this switch-like response, the structural frustration may contribute to the regulation function of interprotein interaction of the intrinsically disordered protein.

  12. High School Vocational Education: An Intrinsic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two perspectives on the nature of vocational education: (1) that benefits are "extrinsic," that is, rewards are deferred until after graduation; and (2) that benefits are "intrinsic," that is, vocational education serves to promote full human development by exposing the learner to significant in-class experiences. (DR)

  13. Effects of Reinforcemnt Programs on Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sushinsky, Leonard W.

    Attribution Theory has led to predictions that the use of material reward may impair intrinsic motivation in the rewarded activity (decreased play effects). A review of the pertinent literature reveals, however, (a) that attribution research has failed to reliably demonstrate that decreased play effects occur in minimal-trial studies (b) that for…

  14. Intrinsic rotation in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrassie, J. S.; Rice, J. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Solomon, W. M.

    2007-05-15

    In the absence of any auxiliary torque input, the DIII-D plasma consists of nonzero toroidal angular momentum, in other words, it rotates. This effect is commonly observed in tokamaks, being referred to as intrinsic rotation. Measurements of intrinsic rotation profiles have been made in DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] H-mode discharges, with both Ohmic heating (OH) and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in which there is no auxiliary torque. Recently, the H-mode data set has been extended with the newly configured DIII-D simultaneous co- and counter-directed neutral beam injection (NBI) capability resulting in control of the local torque deposition, where co and counter refer to the direction relative to the toroidal plasma current. Understanding intrinsic rotation is important for projection toward burning plasma performance where any NBI torque will be relatively small. The toroidal velocity is recognizably important regarding issues of stability and confinement. In DIII-D ECH H-modes the rotation profile is hollow, co-directed at large minor radius and depressed, or actually counter-directed, nearer the magnetic axis. This profile varies with the ECH power deposition profile to some extent. In contrast, OH H-modes have a relatively flat co-directed rotation profile. There is a scaling of the DIII-D intrinsic toroidal velocity with W/I{sub p}, as seen in intrinsic rotation in Alcator C-Mod [J. Rice, Nucl. Fusion 39, 1175 (1999)], where W is the total plasma thermal energy and I{sub p} is the magnitude of the toroidal plasma current. This common scaling resulted in a dimensionless similarity experiment between DIII-D and Alcator C-Mod on intrinsic rotation, obtaining a single spatial point match in the toroidal velocity normalized to the ion thermal velocity. The balanced NBI capability in DIII-D is a useful tool to push scaling studies to higher values of the plasma normalized energy, notwithstanding the details of torque deposition for co-NBI versus

  15. Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics (LEP) performs experimental and theoretical research on the heliosphere, the interstellar medium, and the magnetospheres and upper atmospheres of the planets, including Earth. LEP space scientists investigate the structure and dynamics of the magnetospheres of the planets including Earth. Their research programs encompass the magnetic fields intrinsic to many planetary bodies as well as their charged-particle environments and plasma-wave emissions. The LEP also conducts research into the nature of planetary ionospheres and their coupling to both the upper atmospheres and their magnetospheres. Finally, the LEP carries out a broad-based research program in heliospheric physics covering the origins of the solar wind, its propagation outward through the solar system all the way to its termination where it encounters the local interstellar medium. Special emphasis is placed on the study of solar coronal mass ejections (CME's), shock waves, and the structure and properties of the fast and slow solar wind. LEP planetary scientists study the chemistry and physics of planetary stratospheres and tropospheres and of solar system bodies including meteorites, asteroids, comets, and planets. The LEP conducts a focused program in astronomy, particularly in the infrared and in short as well as very long radio wavelengths. We also perform an extensive program of laboratory research, including spectroscopy and physical chemistry related to astronomical objects. The Laboratory proposes, develops, fabricates, and integrates experiments on Earth-orbiting, planetary, and heliospheric spacecraft to measure the characteristics of planetary atmospheres and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic fields and plasmas in space. We design and develop spectrometric instrumentation for continuum and spectral line observations in the x-ray, gamma-ray, infrared, and radio regimes; these are flown on spacecraft to study

  16. Modified pipe extension safely releases chain binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haw, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Pipe, cut partly in half lengthwise, and cupped and notched at one end, safely releases tension in chain binders that cinch tiedown chains around truck loads. Device prevents binder-handle from being thrown violently during release.

  17. General Advice on Safe Medication Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us General Advice on Safe Medication Use Visit our new website for consumers The ... answers--it's your life and your health! Unfortunately, medication errors happen. They happen in hospitals, in pharmacies, ...

  18. Using over-the-counter medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000882.htm Using over-the-counter medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... need to know about OTC drugs. About OTC Medicines You can buy OTC medicines without a prescription ...

  19. Taking Medicines Safely: Ask Your Pharmacist

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Ask Your Pharmacist Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... brand name medicine. What About Over-The-Counter Medicines? Be careful when taking an OTC drug. For ...

  20. Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Ensuring Safe Use of Contact Lens Solution Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... back to top Dos and Don'ts for Contact Lens Wearers DO: Always wash your hands before ...

  1. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat pregnancy constipation? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M.D. Stool softeners are generally considered safe ... easier to pass. These products are unlikely to harm a developing baby because their active ingredient is ...

  2. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... considered to be soft drinks. back to top It May Be Tap Water Some bottled water also ...

  3. Expedition 25 Crew Lands Safely in Kazakhstan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 25 Soyuz Commander Fyodor Yurchikhin, NASA International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock and NASA Flight Engineer Shannon Walker landed safely on the steppe of Kazakhstan on Nov. 2...

  4. Aspirin during Pregnancy: Is It Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/expert-answers/aspirin-during-pregnancy/ ...

  5. Antidepressants During Pregnancy Safe for Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166353.html Antidepressants During Pregnancy Safe for Baby: Study It finds ... News) -- Expectant mothers, if you're taking an antidepressant it won't make your newborn cranky or ...

  6. How Can I Lose Weight Safely?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Extracurricular Activities Choosing the Right Sport ...

  7. Pregnancy and Fish: What's Safe to Eat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... large, predatory fish such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel and tilefish — can contain high levels of mercury. ... Salmon Anchovies Herring Sardines Trout Atlantic and Pacific mackerel Other safe choices include shrimp, Pollock, tilapia, cod, ...

  8. Intrinsic Foot Muscle Activation During Specific Exercises: A T2 Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Thomas M; Feger, Mark A; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsic foot muscles maintain the medial longitudinal arch and aid in force distribution and postural control during gait. Impaired intrinsic foot-muscle function has been linked to various foot conditions. Several rehabilitative exercises have been proposed to improve it; however, literature that identifies which individual muscles are activated during specific intrinsic foot-muscle exercises is lacking. To describe changes in activation of the intrinsic plantar foot muscles after 4 exercises as measured with T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Eight healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate cross-country and track athletes (5 men and 3 women: age = 20 ± 0.93 years, height = 180.98 ± 10.84 cm, mass = 70.91 ± 7.82 kg). Participants underwent T2 MRI before and after each exercise. They completed 1 set of 40 repetitions of each exercise (short-foot exercise, toes spread out, first-toe extension, second- to fifth-toes extension). Percentage increases in muscle activation of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi, quadratus plantae, flexor digiti minimi, adductor hallucis oblique, flexor hallucis brevis, and interossei and lumbricals (analyzed together) after each exercise were assessed using T2 MRI. All muscles showed increased activation after all exercises. The mean percentage increase in activation ranged from 16.7% to 34.9% for the short-foot exercise, 17.3% to 35.2% for toes spread out, 13.1% to 18.1% for first-toe extension, and 8.9% to 22.5% for second- to fifth-toes extension. All increases in activation had associated 95% confidence intervals that did not cross zero. Each of the 4 exercises was associated with increased activation in all of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles evaluated. These results may have clinical implications for the prescription of specific exercises to target individual intrinsic foot muscles.

  9. Building safe computer-controlled systems.

    PubMed

    Leveson, N G

    1984-10-01

    Software safety becomes an issue when life-critical systems are built with computers as important components. In order to make these systems safe, software developers have concentrated on making them ultrareliable. Unfortunately, this will not necessarily make them safe. This paper discusses why reliability enhancement techniques are not adequate to ensure safety and describes what needs to be done to protect life and property in these systems.

  10. Ethylene oxide sterilisation--is it safe?

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, E H; Jackson, J M; Owen, G R

    1979-01-01

    Tests show that ethylene oxide penetrates and can sterilise long narrow tubes in a hospital ethylene oxide steriliser. Residual ethylene oxide levels in plastic tubing after sterilisation have been estimated. Although initially the levels were very high, storage for four days at room temperature reduced them to a safe level. If adequate controls of the sterilising process and storage are carried out, sterilisation by ethylene oxide is considered to be safe for new plastics and clean equipment. Images Figure PMID:512032

  11. Safe surgical technique for associated acetabular fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Associated acetabular fractures are challenging injuries to manage. The complex surgical approaches and the technical difficulty in achieving anatomical reduction imply that the learning curve to achieve high-quality care of patients with such challenging injuries is extremely steep. This first article in the Journal’s “Safe Surgical Technique” section presents the standard surgical care, in conjunction with intraoperative tips and tricks, for the safe management of all subgroups of associated acetabular fractures. PMID:23414782

  12. Lunar laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  13. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  14. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  15. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  16. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  17. Laboratory accreditation

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1998-08-01

    Accreditation can offer many benefits to a testing or calibration laboratory, including increased marketability of services, reduced number of outside assessments, and improved quality of services. Compared to ISO 9000 registration, the accreditation process includes a review of the entire quality system, but in addition a review of testing or calibration procedures by a technical expert and participation in proficiency testing in the areas of accreditation. Within the DOE, several facilities have recently become accredited in the area of calibration, including Sandia National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, AlliedSignal FM and T; Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., and Pacific Northwest National Lab. At the national level, a new non-profit organization was recently formed called the National Cooperation for Laboratory Accreditation (NACLA). The goal of NACLA is to develop procedures, following national and international requirements, for the recognition of competent accreditation bodies in the US. NACLA is a voluntary partnership between the public and private sectors with the goal of a test or calibration performed once and accepted world wide. The NACLA accreditation body recognition process is based on the requirements of ISO Guide 25 and Guide 58. A membership drive will begin some time this fall to solicit organizational members and an election of a permanent NACLA Board of Directors will follow later this year or early 1999.

  18. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-06-21

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  19. Safe haven laws as crime control theater.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K; Griffin, Timothy

    2010-07-01

    This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of crime control theater, a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially socially constructed "solutions" to socially constructed crime "problems." The analysis will apply the principles of crime control theater to safe haven laws. Specifically, the term crime control theater applies to laws that are reactionary responses to perceived criminal threats and are often widely supported as a way to address the crime in question. Such laws are attractive because they appeal to mythic narratives (i.e., saving an innocent child from a predator); however they are likely ineffective due to the complexity of the crime. These laws can have deleterious effects when policymakers make false claims of success and stunt public discourse (e.g., drawing attention away from more frequent and preventable crimes). This analysis applies these criteria to safe haven laws to determine whether such laws can be classified as crime control theater. Many qualities inherent to crime control theater are present in safe haven laws. For example, the laws are highly publicized, their intentions lack moral ambiguity, rare cases of success legitimize law enforcement and other agencies, and they appeal to the public sense of responsibility in preventing crime. Yet the goal of saving infant lives may be unattainable. These qualities make the effectiveness of the laws questionable and suggest they may be counterproductive. This analysis determined that safe haven laws are socially constructed solutions to the socially constructed problem of child abandonment. Safe haven laws are appropriately classified as crime control theater. It is imperative that further research be conducted to examine the effectiveness and collateral effects of safe haven laws

  20. Microbial ecology laboratory procedures manual NASA/MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1990-01-01

    An essential part of the efficient operation of any microbiology laboratory involved in sample analysis is a standard procedures manual. The purpose of this manual is to provide concise and well defined instructions on routine technical procedures involving sample analysis and methods for monitoring and maintaining quality control within the laboratory. Of equal importance is the safe operation of the laboratory. This manual outlines detailed procedures to be followed in the microbial ecology laboratory to assure safety, analytical control, and validity of results.

  1. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — A zero-power experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloni, D.; Borio di Tigliole, A.; Cagnazzo, M.; Magrotti, G.; Manera, S.; Panza, F.; Prata, M.; Salvini, A.; Cammi, A.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Previtali, E.; Sisti, M.

    2014-04-01

    The study of subcritical reactors needs some test to correctly evaluate many parameters that must be introduced in a reactor model. The Sub-critical Multiplication installation at the University of Pavia was used to measure neutron fluxes and multiplication factors that will be modelled with a MCNP Monte Carlo numerical simulation. The comparison between the measurements and the simulations were very promising demonstrating that also in a sub-critical system the Monte Carlo model could be very helpful in describing the reactor characteristics. Using all the collected data from measurements and simulations, it was possible to determine the k eff of the reactor plant with a reasonable accuracy. The ratio between the fast and the thermal component of the neutron fluxes was also determined.

  2. Investigation of safe-life fail-safe criteria for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects of a safe-life design approach and a fail-safe design approach on the space shuttle booster vehicle structure, and to recommend any changes to the structural design criteria. Two configurations of the booster vehicle were considered, one incorporating a delta wing (B-9U configuration) and the other a swept wing (B-16B configuration). Several major structural components of the booster were studied to determine the fatigue life, safe-life, and fail-safe capabilities of the baseline design. Each component was investigated to determine the practicability of applying a safe-life or fail-safe design philosophy, the changes such design approaches might require, and the impact of these changes on weight, cost, development plans, and performance.

  3. SAFE-R and SAFE-D: computer codes for the analysis of failure data. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Shultis, J.K.; Eckhoff, N.D.; Johnson, D.E.; Milliken, G.A.

    1981-12-01

    This user's manual presents a detailed description of two FORTRAN computer codes for analyzing component failure data. The first code SAFE-R is used to analyze data giving the number of observed failures in specified component operation times, while the second code SAFE-D is to be applied to failure data giving the number of failures observed in specified numbers of component demands. The theory behind the many analyses performed by these codes is summarized in a companion report NUREG/CR-2374 'Use of Non-Conjugate Prior Distributions in Compound Failure Models.' A description of the overall program structure and detailed use of the many program commands is presented here. A sample input is given along with the resulting output.

  4. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  5. Cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Puram, Sidharth V; Bonni, Azad

    2013-12-01

    The proper formation and morphogenesis of dendrites is fundamental to the establishment of neural circuits in the brain. Following cell cycle exit and migration, neurons undergo organized stages of dendrite morphogenesis, which include dendritic arbor growth and elaboration followed by retraction and pruning. Although these developmental stages were characterized over a century ago, molecular regulators of dendrite morphogenesis have only recently been defined. In particular, studies in Drosophila and mammalian neurons have identified numerous cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite morphogenesis that include transcriptional regulators, cytoskeletal and motor proteins, secretory and endocytic pathways, cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligases, and components of other signaling cascades. Here, we review cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite patterning and discuss how the characterization of such crucial regulators advances our understanding of normal brain development and pathogenesis of diverse cognitive disorders.

  6. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeri; Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  7. Intrinsic microwave dielectric loss of lanthanum aluminate.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Koji; Minemura, Tetsuro; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Utsumi, Wataru; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Breeze, Jonathan; Alford, Neil McN

    2010-10-01

    The intrinsic dielectric properties of LaAlO₃ were investigated to understand the microwave properties of several materials containing LaAlO₃. In this study, LaAlO₃ single crystals were prepared by the Czochralski method. The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties and neutron inelastic scattering of the single crystals were measured. From these data, the intrinsic dielectric properties were evaluated and it was found that the dielectric loss of the LaAlO₃ includes two types of dielectric loss. One is a phonon absorption-related loss and the other is a component of the loss arising from Debye- type orientation polarization. The latter affects the room temperature dielectric loss in materials containing LaAlO₃. The present study suggests that avoiding this polarization loss is an important goal in decreasing the total dielectric loss.

  8. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeri Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-21

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  9. Intrinsic conformal symmetries in Szekeres models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.

    2017-06-01

    We show that Spatially Inhomogeneous (SI) and Irrotational dust models admit a six-dimensional algebra of Intrinsic Conformal Vector Fields (ICVFs) Xα satisfying pacp bdℒ Xαpcd = 2ϕ(Xα)pab, where pab is the associated metric of the two-dimensional distribution 𝒳 normal to the fluid velocity ua and the radial unit space-like vector field xa. The Intrinsic Conformal (IC) algebra is determined for each of the curvature value 𝜖 that characterizes the structure of the screen space 𝒳. In addition the conformal flatness of the hypersurfaces u = 0 indicates the existence of a ten-dimensional algebra of ICVFs of the three-dimensional metric hab. We illustrate this expectation and propose a method to derive them by giving explicitly the seven proper ICVFs of the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model which represents the simplest subclass within the Szekeres family.

  10. Effect of intrinsic curvature on semiflexible polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Singh, Kulveer; Sain, Anirban

    2009-11-01

    Recently many important biopolymers have been found to possess intrinsic curvature. Tubulin protofilaments in animal cells, FtsZ filaments in bacteria and double stranded DNA are examples. We examine how intrinsic curvature influences the conformational statistics of such polymers. We give exact results for the tangent-tangent spatial correlation function C(r)=⟨t̂(s).t̂(s+r)⟩ , both in two and three dimensions. Contrary to expectation, C(r) does not show any oscillatory behavior, rather decays exponentially and the effective persistence length has strong length dependence for short polymers. We also compute the distribution function P(R) of the end to end distance R and show how curved chains can be distinguished from wormlike chains using loop formation probability.

  11. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxy Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, Jairo

    The knowledge of the intrinsic three-dimensional (3D) structure of galaxy components provides crucial information about the physical processes driving their formation and evolution. In this paper I discuss the main developments and results in the quest to better understand the 3D shape of galaxy bulges. I start by establishing the basic geometrical description of the problem. Our understanding of the intrinsic shape of elliptical galaxies and galaxy discs is then presented in a historical context, in order to place the role that the 3D structure of bulges play in the broader picture of galaxy evolution. Our current view on the 3D shape of the Milky Way bulge and future prospects in the field are also depicted.

  12. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  13. INTRINSIC BISPECTRA OF COSMIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.

    2011-06-01

    Forthcoming data sets from the Planck experiment and others are in a position to probe the cosmic microwave background (CMB) non-Gaussianity with higher accuracy than has yet been possible, and potentially open a new window into the physics of the very early universe. However, a signal need not necessarily be inflationary in origin, and possible contaminants should be examined in detail. One such is provided by early universe magnetic fields, which can be produced by a variety of models including during an inflationary phase, at phase transitions, or seeded by cosmic defects. Should such fields have been extant in the early universe, they would provide a natural source of CMB non-Gaussianity. Knowledge of the CMB angular bispectrum requires the complete Fourier-space (or 'intrinsic') bispectrum. In this paper, I consider in detail the intrinsic bispectra of an early-universe magnetic field for a range of power-law magnetic spectra.

  14. Direct measurement of intrinsic atomic scale magnetostriction.

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, M P; Pascarelli, S; Grössinger, R; Turtelli, R Sato; Bormio-Nunes, C; Pettifer, R F

    2008-10-03

    Using differential x-ray absorption spectroscopy (DiffXAS) we have measured and quantified the intrinsic, atomic-scale magnetostriction of Fe81Ga19. By exploiting the chemical selectivity of DiffXAS, the Fe and Ga local environments have been assessed individually. The enhanced magnetostriction induced by the addition of Ga to Fe was found to originate from the Ga environment, where lambda;{gamma,2}( approximately (3/2)lambda_{100}) is 390+/-40 ppm. In this environment, 001 Ga-Ga pair defects were found to exist, which mediate the magnetostriction by inducing large strains in the surrounding Ga-Fe bonds. For the first time, intrinsic, chemically selective magnetostrictive strain has been measured and quantified at the atomic level, allowing true comparison with theory.

  15. Intrinsically Radiolabeled Nanoparticles: An Emerging Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shreya; Ehlerding, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    Although chelator-based radiolabeling techniques have been used for decades, concerns about the complexity of coordination chemistry, possible altering of pharmacokinetics of carriers, and potential detachment of radioisotopes during imaging have driven the need for developing a simple yet better technique for future radiolabeling. Here, the emerging concept of intrinsically radiolabeled nanoparticles, which could be synthesized using methods such as hot-plus-cold precursors, specific trapping, cation exchange, and proton beam activation, is introduced. Representative examples of using these multifunctional nanoparticles for multimodality molecular imaging are highlighted together with current challenges and future research directions. Although still in the early stages, design and synthesis of intrinsically radiolabeled nanoparticles has shown attractive potential to offer easier, faster, and more specific radiolabeling possibilities for the next generation of molecular imaging. PMID:24978934

  16. Intrinsic two-dimensional features as textons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, E.; Zetzsche, C.; Rentschler, I.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest that intrinsic two-dimensional (i2D) features, computationally defined as the outputs of nonlinear operators that model the activity of end-stopped neurons, play a role in preattentive texture discrimination. We first show that for discriminable textures with identical power spectra the predictions of traditional models depend on the type of nonlinearity and fail for energy measures. We then argue that the concept of intrinsic dimensionality, and the existence of end-stopped neurons, can help us to understand the role of the nonlinearities. Furthermore, we show examples in which models without strong i2D selectivity fail to predict the correct ranking order of perceptual segregation. Our arguments regarding the importance of i2D features resemble the arguments of Julesz and co-workers regarding textons such as terminators and crossings. However, we provide a computational framework that identifies textons with the outputs of nonlinear operators that are selective to i2D features.

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Webster, H L

    1983-01-01

    The demonstration of abnormally high concentrations of electrolytes in eccrine sweat is still the only practical laboratory procedure available for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Properly performed, the sweat test is very reliable, but there are many published reports that all of the methods in current use frequently generate incorrect diagnoses. Analysis of potential for error in sweat test methods shows that of the three essential phases involved, stimulation, collection, and analysis, the major cause of intrinsic inaccuracy occurs in the collection process. In this case the problem is due to condensate formation, which leads to the subsequent analysis of nonrepresentative sweat. Human error is also an important cause of false results and is a direct function of the number of critical manual operations involved in the technic. This review provides a critical examination of sweat test methods, identifying problem areas and suggesting ways to improve procedures in the interests of clinically reliable laboratory data in support of diagnosis.

  18. The intrinsic damping of the fractional oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofighi, Ali

    2003-11-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the time rate of change of the potential energy, the kinetic energy and the total energy of a fractional oscillator in terms of the products of Mittag-Leffler functions. We propose a definition for the intrinsic damping force of this oscillator. We obtain a general expression for this damping force. An expression for this damping force in the asymptotic limit ( ωt→0) is also obtained.

  19. Intrinsic interfacial phenomena in manganite heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C A F; Walker, F J; Ahn, C H; Ismail-Beigi, S

    2015-04-01

    We review recent advances in our understanding of interfacial phenomena that emerge when dissimilar materials are brought together at atomically sharp and coherent interfaces. In particular, we focus on phenomena that are intrinsic to the interface and review recent work carried out on perovskite manganites interfaces, a class of complex oxides whose rich electronic properties have proven to be a useful playground for the discovery and prediction of novel phenomena.

  20. Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Chopin

    2016-07-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development is presented. Paradigm shift from full spacetime covariance to spatial diffeomorphism invariance yields a nonvanishing Hamiltonian, a resolution of the ‘problem of time’ and gauge-invariant temporal ordering in an ever expanding universe. Einstein’s general relativity is a particular realization of a wider class of theories; and the framework prompts natural extensions and improvements with the consequent dominance of Cotton-York potential at early times when the universe was small.

  1. Intrinsic spin dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valín-Rodríguez, Manuel

    2005-12-01

    We investigate the characteristic spin dynamics corresponding to semiconductor quantum dots within the multiband envelope function approximation (EFA). By numerically solving an 8 × 8 k·p Hamiltonian we treat systems based on different III-V semiconductor materials. It is shown that, even in the absence of an applied magnetic field, these systems show intrinsic spin dynamics governed by intraband and interband transitions leading to characteristic spin frequencies ranging from THz to optical frequencies.

  2. Design Space Issues for Intrinsic Evolvable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Gwaltney, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of increased programming time for intrinsic evolvable hardware (EM) as the complexity of the circuit grows. As the circuit becomes more complex, then more components will be required and a longer programming string, L, is required. We develop equations for the size of the population, n, and the number of generations required for the population to converge, based on L. Our analytical results show that even though the design search space grows as 2L (assuming a binary programming string), the number of circuit evaluations, n*ngen, only grows as O(Lg3), or slightly less than O(L). This makes evolvable techniques a good tool for exploring large design spaces. The major hurdle for intrinsic EHW is evaluation time for each possible circuit. The evaluation time involves downloading the bit string to the device, updating the device configuration, measuring the output and then transferring the output data to the control processor. Each of these steps must be done for each member of the population. The processing time of the computer becomes negligible since the selection/crossover/mutation steps are only done once per generation. Evaluation time presently limits intrinsic evolvable hardware techniques to designing only small or medium-sized circuits. To evolve large or complicated circuits, several researchers have proposed using hierarchical design or reuse techniques where submodules are combined together to form complex circuits. However, these practical approaches limit the search space of available designs and preclude utilizing parasitic coupling or other effects within the programmable device. The practical approaches also raise the issue of why intrinsic EHW techniques do not easily apply to large design spaces, since the analytical results show only an O(L) complexity growth.

  3. Intrinsic excitations in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P.C.

    1985-01-15

    A procedure is outlined for predicting the bandhead energies of the two-particle (intrinsic) states of odd-odd deformed nuclei based on a quantitative evaluation of the zero range n-p residual interaction energy. We present our results for 250Bk, where many such levels are experimentally known, and for 236Np and 246Am, where the information is very scarce and that too uncertain, to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  4. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    PubMed

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Intrinsic determinants of optic nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui-lin; Cho, Kin-sang; Guo, Chen-ying; Chew, Justin; Chen, Dong-feng; Yang, Liu

    2013-07-01

    To review the functions of these intracellular signals in their regulation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon regeneration. Relevant articles published in English or Chinese from 1970 to present were selected from PubMed. Searches were made using the terms "intrinsic determinants, axon regeneration, RGC, optic nerve regeneration, and central nervous system axon regeneration." Articles studying the mechanisms controlling RGC and central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration were reviewed. Articles focusing on the intrinsic determinants of axon regeneration were selected. Like other CNS neurons of mammals, RGCs undergo a developmental loss in their ability to grow axons as they mature, which is a critical contributing factor to the failure of nerve regeneration and repair after injury. This growth failure can be attributed, at least in part, by the induction of molecular programs preventing cellular overgrowth and termination of axonal growth upon maturation. Key intracellular signals and transcription factors, including B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2, cyclic adenine monophosphate, mammalian target of rapamycin, and Krüppel-like transcription factors, have been identified to play central roles in this process. Intense effort and substantial progress have been made to identify the various intrinsic growth pathways that regulate RGC axon regeneration. More work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of and the interrelationship between the actions of these factors and to successfully achieve regeneration and repair of the severed RGC axons.

  6. Inhibitory control of intrinsic hippocampal oscillations?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Yacov; Dürr, Roland

    2003-08-22

    An oscillatory mode of activity is a basic operational mode of the hippocampus. Such activity involves the concurrent expression of several rhythmic processes, of which theta (4-15 Hz) and gamma (20-80 Hz) oscillations are prominent and considered to be important for cognitive processing. In an experimental model that preserves the intrinsic network oscillator, exhibiting the dependency on cholinergic inputs and consequent expression of concurrent theta and gamma oscillations, we investigate the intrinsic mechanisms underlying such integrated hippocampal network responses. This experimental framework is used here to examine the currently prevailing dogma, that interneurons control hippocampal oscillations. The spontaneous response of individual pyramidal cells (in areas CA3 and CA1) and interneurons (area CA3), during oscillatory activity, was monitored intracellularly. Particular attention was given to the initiation of interneuron discharge during oscillations, to the impact of the synaptic output of discharging interneurons on the oscillatory activity, and to the time at which interneurons discharge in relation to the oscillatory cycles. Analysis of the spontaneous patterns of activity in individual interneurons and their outcome, during the oscillatory activity, revealed that interneuron activity is incompatible with initiating, pacing or determining the oscillatory frequencies, although contributing to the apparent rhythmic patterns. Moreover, our results show that non-interneuronal members of the network control interneuron activity. We therefore suggest that the activity of the excitatory cells, i.e., principle cells, is critical toward the initiation, pacing and synchronization of intrinsic hippocampal network oscillations.

  7. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacement in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of biological molecules is investigated in neutron scattering experiments, in molecular dynamics simulations, and using analytical theory. Specifically, the mean square displacement (MSD), exp, of hydrogen in proteins is determined from measurements of the incoherent elastic neutron scattering intensity (ENSI). The MSD, exp, is usually obtained from the dependence of the ENSI on the scattering wave vector Q. The MSD increases with increasing temperature reaching large values at room temperature. Large MSD is often associated with and used as an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD, however, depends on the energy resolution of the neutron spectrometer employed. We present a method, a first attempt, to extract the intrinsic MSD of hydrogen in protein from measurements, one that is independent of the instrument resolution. The method consists of a model of the ENSI that contains (1) the intrinsic MSD, (2) the instrument resolution width and (3) a parameter describing the motional processes that contribute to the MSD. Several examples of intrinsic MSDs in proteins obtained from fitting to data in the existing literature will be presented.

  8. Intermediate intrinsic diversity enhances neural population coding.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Shreejoy J; Padmanabhan, Krishnan; Gerkin, Richard C; Urban, Nathaniel N

    2013-05-14

    Cell-to-cell variability in molecular, genetic, and physiological features is increasingly recognized as a critical feature of complex biological systems, including the brain. Although such variability has potential advantages in robustness and reliability, how and why biological circuits assemble heterogeneous cells into functional groups is poorly understood. Here, we develop analytic approaches toward answering how neuron-level variation in intrinsic biophysical properties of olfactory bulb mitral cells influences population coding of fluctuating stimuli. We capture the intrinsic diversity of recorded populations of neurons through a statistical approach based on generalized linear models. These models are flexible enough to predict the diverse responses of individual neurons yet provide a common reference frame for comparing one neuron to the next. We then use Bayesian stimulus decoding to ask how effectively different populations of mitral cells, varying in their diversity, encode a common stimulus. We show that a key advantage provided by physiological levels of intrinsic diversity is more efficient and more robust encoding of stimuli by the population as a whole. However, we find that the populations that best encode stimulus features are not simply the most heterogeneous, but those that balance diversity with the benefits of neural similarity.

  9. Intermediate intrinsic diversity enhances neural population coding

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Shreejoy J.; Padmanabhan, Krishnan; Gerkin, Richard C.; Urban, Nathaniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell variability in molecular, genetic, and physiological features is increasingly recognized as a critical feature of complex biological systems, including the brain. Although such variability has potential advantages in robustness and reliability, how and why biological circuits assemble heterogeneous cells into functional groups is poorly understood. Here, we develop analytic approaches toward answering how neuron-level variation in intrinsic biophysical properties of olfactory bulb mitral cells influences population coding of fluctuating stimuli. We capture the intrinsic diversity of recorded populations of neurons through a statistical approach based on generalized linear models. These models are flexible enough to predict the diverse responses of individual neurons yet provide a common reference frame for comparing one neuron to the next. We then use Bayesian stimulus decoding to ask how effectively different populations of mitral cells, varying in their diversity, encode a common stimulus. We show that a key advantage provided by physiological levels of intrinsic diversity is more efficient and more robust encoding of stimuli by the population as a whole. However, we find that the populations that best encode stimulus features are not simply the most heterogeneous, but those that balance diversity with the benefits of neural similarity. PMID:23630284

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic effects on image memorability.

    PubMed

    Bylinskii, Zoya; Isola, Phillip; Bainbridge, Constance; Torralba, Antonio; Oliva, Aude

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have identified that images carry the attribute of memorability, a predictive value of whether a novel image will be later remembered or forgotten. Here we investigate the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect image memorability. First, we find that intrinsic differences in memorability exist at a finer-grained scale than previously documented. Second, we test two extrinsic factors: image context and observer behavior. Building on prior findings that images that are distinct with respect to their context are better remembered, we propose an information-theoretic model of image distinctiveness. Our model can automatically predict how changes in context change the memorability of natural images. In addition to context, we study a second extrinsic factor: where an observer looks while memorizing an image. It turns out that eye movements provide additional information that can predict whether or not an image will be remembered, on a trial-by-trial basis. Together, by considering both intrinsic and extrinsic effects on memorability, we arrive at a more complete and fine-grained model of image memorability than previously available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safe sex self-efficacy and safe sex practice in a Southern United States College

    PubMed Central

    Addoh, Ovuokerie; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between safe sex self-efficacy and safe-sex practice in a Southern college setting. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between safe sex self-efficacy in four domains (mechanics, partner disapproval, assertiveness, intoxicants) and safe sex practice (outcome variable). Results: For every 1-unit increase in the composite condom use self-efficacy score, there was an 8% increase in the odds of being beyond the median safe-sex practice score (odds ration [OR]: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.15). Additionally, for every 1-unit increase in intoxicants self-efficacy score, there was a 31% increase in the odds of being beyond the median safe-sex practice score (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08-1.58). Conclusion: A greater degree of safe-sex self-efficacy is associated with increased odds of safe-sex practice. These findings are informative for the development of targeted approaches to foster safe-sex behavior in Southern US colleges. PMID:28326287

  12. Safe sex self-efficacy and safe sex practice in a Southern United States College.

    PubMed

    Addoh, Ovuokerie; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between safe sex self-efficacy and safe-sex practice in a Southern college setting. Methods: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between safe sex self-efficacy in four domains (mechanics, partner disapproval, assertiveness, intoxicants) and safe sex practice (outcome variable). Results: For every 1-unit increase in the composite condom use self-efficacy score, there was an 8% increase in the odds of being beyond the median safe-sex practice score (odds ration [OR]: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.15). Additionally, for every 1-unit increase in intoxicants self-efficacy score, there was a 31% increase in the odds of being beyond the median safe-sex practice score (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08-1.58). Conclusion: A greater degree of safe-sex self-efficacy is associated with increased odds of safe-sex practice. These findings are informative for the development of targeted approaches to foster safe-sex behavior in Southern US colleges.

  13. Monitoring Moving Queries inside a Safe Region

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalidi, Haidar; Taniar, David; Alamri, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    With mobile moving range queries, there is a need to recalculate the relevant surrounding objects of interest whenever the query moves. Therefore, monitoring the moving query is very costly. The safe region is one method that has been proposed to minimise the communication and computation cost of continuously monitoring a moving range query. Inside the safe region the set of objects of interest to the query do not change; thus there is no need to update the query while it is inside its safe region. However, when the query leaves its safe region the mobile device has to reevaluate the query, necessitating communication with the server. Knowing when and where the mobile device will leave a safe region is widely known as a difficult problem. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method to monitor the position of the query over time using a linear function based on the direction of the query obtained by periodic monitoring of its position. Periodic monitoring ensures that the query is aware of its location all the time. This method reduces the costs associated with communications in client-server architecture. Computational results show that our method is successful in handling moving query patterns. PMID:24696652

  14. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Sladyk, K

    1990-03-01

    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  15. Multiple Linear Least-Squares Fits with a Common Intercept: Determination of the Intrinsic Viscosity of Macromolecules in Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Martínez, M. C.; Díaz Baños, F. G.; Ortega Retuerta, A.; García de La Torre, J.

    2003-09-01

    A procedure, based on the least-squares principle for simultaneously fitting two or more linear data sets with a common intercept, is described. Expressions are derived to calculate the common intercept and the slopes. The procedure is applied to several laboratory experiments. Particularly, this procedure is employed in the measurement of the intrinsic viscosity, which expresses the concentration dependence of the viscosity of a dilute polymer solution. The intrinsic viscosity is determined by extrapolation to zero concentration of a polymer quantity that involves the solution viscosity and concentration. The extrapolation can be done by two procedures, associated with the names of Huggins and Kraemer, both yielding the intrinsic viscosity as the common intercept. A numerical procedure, implemented with the computer program VISFIT was devised. This procedure is employed for the data analysis in the determination of intrinsic viscosities.

  16. Virtual Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  17. Safety in the Science Laboratory, A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Floyd T.

    The bulletin was prepared as a general guide to encourage the use of safe practices in science laboratories in Florida schools. The guide begins with an outline of recommended emergency procedures. Chapter I discusses the importance of safety in the science program. Chapter II discusses handling and storage of equipment, and designing laboratory…

  18. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department o...

  19. Safety in the Science Laboratory, A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Floyd T.

    The bulletin was prepared as a general guide to encourage the use of safe practices in science laboratories in Florida schools. The guide begins with an outline of recommended emergency procedures. Chapter I discusses the importance of safety in the science program. Chapter II discusses handling and storage of equipment, and designing laboratory…

  20. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department o...

  1. Operating Experience of the Tritium Laboratory at CRL

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, C.L.; McCrimmon, K.D.

    2005-07-15

    The Chalk River Laboratories Tritium Laboratory has been operating safely and reliably for over 20 years. Safe operations are achieved through proper management, supervision, training and using approved operating procedures and techniques. Reliability is achieved through appropriate equipment selection, routine equipment surveillance testing and routine preventative maintenance. This paper summarizes the laboratory's standard operating protocols and formal compliance programs followed to ensure safe operations. The paper will also review the general set-up of the laboratory and will focus on the experience gained with the operation of various types of equipment such as tritium monitors, tritium analyzers, pumps, purification systems and other systems used in the laboratory during its 20 years of operation.

  2. Equivalent intrinsic blur in spatial vision.

    PubMed

    Levi, D M; Klein, S A

    1990-01-01

    We used Gaussian blurred stimuli to explore the effect of blur on three tasks: (i) 2-line "resolution"; (ii) line detection; and (iii) spatial interval discrimination, in both central and peripheral vision. The results of our experiments can be summarized as follows. (i) 2-Line "resolution": thresholds for pairs of unblurred, low contrast, stimuli are approx. 0.5 min arc in the fovea. When the stimulus blur is small, it has little effect upon 2-line "resolution"; however, when the stimulus blur, sigma, exceeds 0.5 min, thresholds are degraded. We operationally define this transition point as the equivalent intrinsic blur or Bi. When the standard deviation of the stimulus blur, sigma, is greater than Bi, then the "resolution" threshold is approximately equal to sigma. Both the unblurred "resolution" threshold, and the equivalent intrinsic blur, Bi, vary with eccentricity in a manner consistent with the variation of cone separation within the central 10 deg. When the stimulus blur exceeds the equivalent intrinsic blur, "resolution" in the periphery is the same as in the fovea. (ii) Line detection: when the standard deviation of the stimulus blur, sigma, is less than Bi, then the line detection threshold is approximately inversely proportional to sigma (it is approximately TdBi/sigma) i.e. it obeys Ricco's law. When the standard deviation of the stimulus blur, sigma, is greater than Bi, then the "resolution" threshold is approximately equal to sigma and the detection threshold is approximately a fixed contrast (to be referred to as Td). According to (i) and (ii), the equivalent intrinsic blur, Bi, plays a dual role in determining both the "resolution" threshold and the detection threshold, Bi corresponds to the "Ricco's diameter" for spatial summation in a detection task, and it also corresponds to the "resolution" threshold for thin lines. This connection between detection and "resolution" is somewhat surprising. (iii) Spatial interval discrimination: thresholds are

  3. Safe motherhood program evaluation: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Milne, Lesley; Scotland, Graham; Tagiyeva-Milne, Nargiz; Hussein, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Debate on the evaluation of safe motherhood programs has mainly focused on the outcome or process measure to be used. Less attention is paid to the application of different approaches to evaluation. This article reviews current theories of evaluation and provides examples of the extent to which these theories have been applied in the actual practice of evaluation. Most evaluations use multiple methods and approaches, but the rationale and intention behind these choices are often not made explicit. Factors are identified that need to be taken into consideration when planning and conducting safe motherhood program evaluations. Safe motherhood programs are complex interventions, requiring evaluation by different theoretical approaches and multiple methods. Awareness of these approaches will allow health professionals to plan for evaluation and to use evaluation findings more effectively. If cognizant of the different approaches to evaluation, evaluation frameworks can be developed to improve assessment of the effectiveness of these programs.

  4. Making programmable BMS safe and reliable

    SciTech Connect

    Cusimano, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Burner management systems ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and prevent explosions. This article describes how programmable control systems can be every bit as safe and reliable as hardwired or standard programmable logic controller-based designs. High-pressure boilers are required by regulatory agencies and insurance companies alike to be equipped with a burner management system (BMS) to ensure safe admission of fuel to the furnace and to prevent explosions. These systems work in parallel with, but independently of, the combustion and feedwater control systems that start up, monitor, and shut down burners and furnaces. Safety and reliability are the fundamental requirements of a BMS. Programmable control system for BMS applications are now available that incorporate high safety and reliability into traditional microprocessor-based designs. With one of these control systems, a qualified systems engineer applying relevant standards, such as the National Fire Protection Assn (NFPA) 85 series, can design and implement a superior BMS.

  5. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  6. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  7. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  8. Ions interacting in solution: Moving from intrinsic to collective properties

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, Timothy T.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2016-06-01

    A crucial determinant of Hofmeister effects is the direct interaction of ions in solution with the charged groups on the surface of larger particles. Understanding ion–ion interactions in solution is therefore a necessary first step to explaining Hofmeister effects. Here, we advocate an approach to modeling these types of properties where state of the art Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (AIMD) simulation of ions in solution is used to establish benchmark values for the intrinsic properties of ions in solution such as solvation structures and ion–ion Potentials of Mean Force (PMFs). This information can then be combined with or used to parametrize and improve reduced models, which use approximations such as the continuum solvent model.(CSM) These reduced models can then be used to calculate collective and concentration dependent properties of electrolyte solution and so make accurate predictions about complex systems of relevance for direct applications. We provide an example of this approach using AIMD calculations of the sodium chloride dimer to calculate osmotic coefficients of all 20 alkali halide electrolytes. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. TD and CJM were supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. MDB was supported by MS$^{3}$ (Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales) Initiative, a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  10. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus KidsHealth > For Kids > Staying Safe in the ... to ride safely without a booster! Get in the Back Here's another important safety rule: Sit in ...

  11. What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like?

    MedlinePlus

    ... social media links What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like? Page Content You can reduce your ... following ways. Printable versions of this safe sleep environment information are available below: What does a safe ...

  12. Camera Image Transformation and Registration for Safe Spacecraft Landing and Hazard Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Brandon M.

    2005-01-01

    Inherent geographical hazards of Martian terrain may impede a safe landing for science exploration spacecraft. Surface visualization software for hazard detection and avoidance may accordingly be applied in vehicles such as the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) to induce an autonomous and intelligent descent upon entering the planetary atmosphere. The focus of this project is to develop an image transformation algorithm for coordinate system matching between consecutive frames of terrain imagery taken throughout descent. The methodology involves integrating computer vision and graphics techniques, including affine transformation and projective geometry of an object, with the intrinsic parameters governing spacecraft dynamic motion and camera calibration.

  13. Laboratory investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ray W.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies related to cometary grains and the nuclei of comets can be broken down into three areas which relate to understanding the spectral properties, the formation mechanisms, and the evolution of grains and nuclei: (1) Spectral studies to be used in the interpretation of cometary spectra; (2) Sample preparation experiments which may shed light on the physical nature and history of cometary grains and nuclei by exploring the effects on grain emissivities resulting from the ways in which the samples are created; and (3) Grain processing experiments which should provide insight on the interaction of cometary grains with the environment in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus as the comet travels from the Oort cloud through perihelion, and perhaps even suggestions regarding the relationship between interstellar grains and cometary matter. A summary is presented with a different view of lab experiments than is found in the literature, concentrating on measurement techniques and sample preparations especially relevant to cometary dust.

  14. Importance and challenges of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrinsic foot muscle weakness has been implicated in a range of foot deformities and disorders. However, to establish a relationship between intrinsic muscle weakness and foot pathology, an objective measure of intrinsic muscle strength is needed. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the anatomy and role of intrinsic foot muscles, implications of intrinsic weakness and evaluate the different methods used to measure intrinsic foot muscle strength. Method Literature was sourced from database searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library, PEDro and CINAHL up to June 2012. Results There is no widely accepted method of measuring intrinsic foot muscle strength. Methods to estimate toe flexor muscle strength include the paper grip test, plantar pressure, toe dynamometry, and the intrinsic positive test. Hand-held dynamometry has excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and limits toe curling, which is an action hypothesised to activate extrinsic toe flexor muscles. However, it is unclear whether any method can actually isolate intrinsic muscle strength. Also most methods measure only toe flexor strength and other actions such as toe extension and abduction have not been adequately assessed. Indirect methods to investigate intrinsic muscle structure and performance include CT, ultrasonography, MRI, EMG, and muscle biopsy. Indirect methods often discriminate between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, but lack the ability to measure muscle force. Conclusions There are many challenges to accurately measure intrinsic muscle strength in isolation. Most studies have measured toe flexor strength as a surrogate measure of intrinsic muscle strength. Hand-held dynamometry appears to be a promising method of estimating intrinsic muscle strength. However, the contribution of extrinsic muscles cannot be excluded from toe flexor strength measurement. Future research should clarify the relative contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles

  15. Safe Schools/Safe Communities: A Directory of Resources for Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This document contains a directory of resources available in Pennsylvania to help achieve the goal of safe schools. Following a copy of the Safe Schools Act of 1993, nine sections list agencies that provide services and products under the headings of: conflict resolution/mediation, gangs, suicide, crisis response, family violence, diversity,…

  16. Lessons Learned from Safe Kids/Safe Streets. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Roberta; Gragg, Frances; Schultz, Dana; Eisen, Karla

    2006-01-01

    This bulletin reports results from an evaluation of six sites of the Safe Kids/Safe Streets (SK/SS) program, which applies a comprehensive, collaborative approach to the child maltreatment field. The bulletin provides insights into collaboration building, systems reform, service options, and other strategies. Among the findings were that the SK/SS…

  17. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Sun Safe Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrick, Joseph; Roger, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a spacecraft designed and built at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD, was launched on June 18, 2009 from Cape Canaveral. It is currently in orbit about the Moon taking detailed science measurements and providing a highly accurate mapping of the suface in preparation for the future return of astronauts to a permanent moon base. Onboard the spacecraft is a complex set of algorithms designed by the attitude control engineers at GSFC to control the pointig for all operational events, including anomalies that require the spacecraft to be put into a well known attitude configuration for a sufficiently long duration to allow for the investigation and correction of the anomaly. GSFC level requirements state that each spacecraft s control system design must include a configuration for this pointing and lso be able to maintain a thermally safe and power positive attitude. This stable control algorithm for anomalous events is commonly referred to as the safe mode and consists of control logic thatwill put the spacecraft in this safe configuration defined by the spacecraft s hardware, power and environment capabilities and limitations. The LRO Sun Safe mode consists of a coarse sun-pointing set of algorithms that puts the spacecraft into this thermally safe and power positive attitude and can be achieved wihin a required amount of time from any initial attitude, provided that the system momentum is within the momentum capability of the reaction wheels. On LRO the Sun Safe mode makes use of coarse sun sensors (CSS), an inertial reference unit (IRU) and reaction wheels (RW) to slew the spacecraft to a solar inertial pointing. The CSS and reaction wheels have some level of redundancy because of their numbers. However, the IRU is a single-point-failure piece of hardware. Without the rate information provided by the IRU, the Sun Safe control algorithms could not

  18. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  19. Personalizing Sample Databases with Facebook Information to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzo, Asier; Ardaiz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo, María Teresa; Sanz de Acedo, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is fundamental for students to achieve successful and complete learning. Motivation can be extrinsic, i.e., driven by external rewards, or intrinsic, i.e., driven by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation is the most effective and must be inspired by the task at hand. Here, a novel strategy is presented to increase intrinsic motivation…

  20. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  1. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  2. Going Online to Save Data Safely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbourough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of saving data safely. Suggestions include making backup copies of all important computer documents; frequently hitting the Ctrl-S keys to save current documents to the hard disk; periodically save a backup copy to a floppy disk; periodically saving a copy through the Internet to an offsite backup disk; and…

  3. Submarine 'safe to escape' studies in man.

    PubMed

    Jurd, K M; Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Blogg, S L; Stansfield, M R D; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The Royal Navy requires reliable advice on the safe limits of escape from a distressed submarine (DISSUB). Flooding in a DISSUB may cause a rise in ambient pressure, increasing the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) and decreasing the maximum depth from which it is safe to escape. The aim of this study was to investigate the pressure/depth limits to escape following saturation at raised ambient pressure. Exposure to saturation pressures up to 1.6 bar (a) (160 kPa) (n = 38); escapes from depths down to 120 meters of sea water (msw) (n = 254) and a combination of saturation followed by escape (n = 90) was carried out in the QinetiQ Submarine Escape Simulator, Alverstoke, United Kingdom. Doppler ultrasound monitoring was used to judge the severity of decompression stress. The trials confirmed the previously untested advice, in the Guardbook, that if a DISSUB was lying at a depth of 90 msw, then it was safe to escape when the pressure in the DISSUB was 1.5 bar (a), but also indicated that this advice may be overly conservative. This study demonstrated that the upper DISSUB saturation pressure limit to safe escape from 90 msw was 1.6 bar (a), resulting in two cases of DCS.

  4. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  5. Are Our Schools Safe? AEL Policy Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceperley, Patricia; Simon, Karen

    Because of continued concern about school violence, this policy brief examines the trends in school violence in the context of social violence, describes efforts to make schools safe, and reports efforts to curb violence in the four-state Appalachian region (Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia). Perceptions of the extent of school…

  6. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  7. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The...

  8. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The...

  9. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The...

  10. The Pesticide Problem: Is Any Amount Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of integrated pest management to foster a safe school environment free from pesticides. This effective, environmentally sound system minimizes human exposure and reduces the toxicity of materials used to control pests. Parents, teachers, and students can educate themselves to improve school pest control practices. (SM)

  11. Hitting the Road: Safe Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labriola, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of school administrators' taking an active role in selecting motor coach carriers for their school trips. School administrators must be able to prove due diligence in selecting safe motor carriers. If not, they risk significant liability exposure for neglecting this critical responsibility. The article…

  12. Bike Maintenance Makes for a Safe Ride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Parents and children need to learn about bicycle maintenance and safety to keep bicycles fit and safe. The article presents a checklist of important bicycle equipment safety items and makes suggestions about how parents and children can learn more about bicycle safety and maintenance. (SM)

  13. Challenges and Suggestions for Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Looks at challenges to safe schools and offers eight suggestions for ensuring the safety of students and educators. Notes that school violence includes unacceptable social behavior ranging from aggression that threatens or harms others to bullying, threats, sexual harassment, gang violence, extortion, and other forms of intimidation. (SG)

  14. Education in Safe and Unsafe Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Recent student demands within the academy for "safe space" have aroused concern about the constraints they might impose on free speech and academic freedom. There are as many kinds of safety as there are threats to the things that human beings might care about. That is why we need to be very clear about the specific threats of which the…

  15. Is Your Child's School Really Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, James

    2002-01-01

    Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…

  16. EnviroSafe Finding of Violation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document outlines the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reissuing an enclosed Finding of Violation (FOV) to Enviro-Safe Refrigerants, Inc. (you). We find that you have violated the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7413(a) (the CAA).

  17. 'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Aitken, Robert J.

    2016-12-01

    In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken -- two of the original authors -- look at where we have come, and where we still need to go.

  18. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOEpatents

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  19. Campaign Safe & Sober. Youth & Generation X Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This packet contains information on safe and sober driving for members of Generation X. The packet includes information on "Buckle Up America! Week 1998," which was designed to encourage everyone on the road to use seat belts and child safety seats and to use them properly. It also offers a safety city brochure and multiple program…

  20. Safe Schools for the Roller Coaster Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inlay, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.

  1. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice...

  2. Safe Schools: A Best Practices Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners International, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Every day in America more than 50 million children go to neighborhood public schools. Parents send them off with every hope they will be safe while there. And yet, as has been the case in too many cities, violence shatters that hope. The Council of Educational Facilities Planners International (CEFPI) seeks to lead in the effort to bolster schools…

  3. Travelling Safely on Ice: Algonquin Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Provides safety considerations for snowshoe travel on iced waterways such as those of Algonquin Park (Ontario). Addresses what season is safe for waterway travel, how to determine the strength of the ice, reasonable travel time per day, what to do if you fall through the ice, and appropriate sites for winter camping. (LP)

  4. A Safe School's Top 10 Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy; Lewis, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An environment of safety in the school seldom comes down to any one particular component or plan; it is a combination of strategies and ideas that makes a school safe and secure for everyone. In this article, the authors provide practical information to educators who are already working to capacity in terms of time allocation and monetary…

  5. Safe Schools for the Roller Coaster Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inlay, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.

  6. Fail-safe bidirectional valve driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, H.

    1974-01-01

    Cross-coupled diodes are added to commonly used bidirectional valve driver circuit to protect circuit and power supply. Circuit may be used in systems requiring fail-safe bidirectional valve operation, particularly in chemical- and petroleum-processing control systems and computer-controlled hydraulic or pneumatic systems.

  7. Project SAFE: Simulating Alternative Futures in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debenham, Jerry Dean

    Simulating Alternative Futures in Education (SAFE) is a simulation game dealing with the future of education from 1975 to 2024 and beyond. It is computerized on an APL direct-interaction system and can be played at any location over telephone lines. It takes approximately 1.8 hours of computer time to play, with 5 to 9 hours of preparation, and…

  8. The Food-Safe Schools Action Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "The Food-Safe School Needs Assessment and Planning Guide" is a tool that can help schools assess their food safety policies, procedures, and programs and develop plans for improvement. This tool includes a simple, straightforward questionnaire, score card, and planning guide that give administrators, school staff, families, and students a chance…

  9. Safe Schools: What the Southeast Is Doing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SERVE Policy Brief, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Virtually no school is safe from violence. FBI statistics, which show that juvenile crimes actually peaked during the mid-1970s, are at odds with the public perception that crime rates among young people are at an all-time high. The FBI acknowledges, however, that the crimes committed by young people tend to be more serious than in the past, and…

  10. Safe Sex in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fact that gay and bisexual male college students know about safe sex practices, they are often not using them, according to a recent survey. The study of about 20,500 blood samples on 35 college and university campuses shows a high rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, with men 22 times as likely as women to test…

  11. Classrooms as Safe Places To Be Wrong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankey, Derek

    This paper contends that classrooms should be safe places for students and their teachers to be wrong, suggesting that this concept should provide the mainspring for educational reform in Hong Kong and in other places in the world. It notes that education in Hong Kong is harsh and has a tendency to label students; for the majority of students,…

  12. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  13. Bike Maintenance Makes for a Safe Ride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Parents and children need to learn about bicycle maintenance and safety to keep bicycles fit and safe. The article presents a checklist of important bicycle equipment safety items and makes suggestions about how parents and children can learn more about bicycle safety and maintenance. (SM)

  14. A safe operating space for humanity

    Treesearch

    Johan Rockström; Will Steffen; Kevin Noone; Asa Persson; F. Stuart Chapin; Eric F. Lambin; Timothy M. Lenton; Marten Scheffer; Carl Folke; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Björn Nykvist; Cynthia A. de Wit; Terry Hughes; Sander van der Leeuw; Henning Rodhe; Sverker Sörlin; Peter K. Snyder; Robert Costanza; Uno Svedin; Malin Falkenmark; Louise Karlberg; Robert W. Corell; Victoria J. Fabry; James Hansen; Brian Walker; Diana Liverman; Katherine Richardson; Paul Crutzen; Jonathan A. Foley

    2009-01-01

    To meet the challenge of maintaining the Holocene state, we propose a framework based on 'planetary boundaries'. These boundaries define the safe operating space for humanity with respect to the Earth system and are associated with the planet's biophysical subsystems or processes. Although Earth's complex systems sometimes respond smoothly to...

  15. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  16. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  17. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after notice... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S...

  18. Safe Schools: Hearing Past the Hype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Michael F.; Michela, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Creating a safe, secure learning environment has long been a high priority for high-school principals. Today's principals battle numerous federal and state laws, mandated zero-tolerance policies, and police involvement that remove them as key decision-makers. Security measures must be comprehensive, cooperative, and consistent. (MLH)

  19. Exploring Safely: A Guide for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Terry; Texley, Juliana

    It is very important to provide a safe learning environment for students while engaging them in investigative and observational hands-on science activities. This teacher's guide provides information on safety rules and regulations in a narrative style while discussing both self-contained classroom teachers and science specialists in the elementary…

  20. Safe Disposal of Highly Reactive Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1994-01-01

    Provides specific procedures for the disposal of a variety of highly reactive chemicals and reports the results of a study of their safe disposal. Disposal of some problematic sulfur-containing compounds are included. Procedures are based on a combination of literature review and author development. (LZ)

  1. Exploring Safely: A Guide for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Terry; Texley, Juliana

    It is very important to provide a safe learning environment for students while engaging them in investigative and observational hands-on science activities. This teacher's guide provides information on safety rules and regulations in a narrative style while discussing both self-contained classroom teachers and science specialists in the elementary…

  2. DEVELOPING A SAFE SOURCE OF CASTOR OIL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop with significant industrial value. However, the production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S albumins in its seed. We are thus investigating the possibility of developing a safe source...

  3. Guiding patients to safe weight loss.

    PubMed

    Fruh, Sharon M; Mulekar, Madhuri S; Dierking, Jennifer

    2013-10-10

    Many patients have questions about diets, and those adhering to specific diets need patient-tailored monitoring. Nurse practitioners are often called upon to advise, prescribe, and monitor specific weight-reduction and weight-control diets. This article provides guidelines for safe weight reduction and a review of some popular diets.

  4. Going Online to Save Data Safely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsbourough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of saving data safely. Suggestions include making backup copies of all important computer documents; frequently hitting the Ctrl-S keys to save current documents to the hard disk; periodically save a backup copy to a floppy disk; periodically saving a copy through the Internet to an offsite backup disk; and…

  5. The Pesticide Problem: Is Any Amount Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the use of integrated pest management to foster a safe school environment free from pesticides. This effective, environmentally sound system minimizes human exposure and reduces the toxicity of materials used to control pests. Parents, teachers, and students can educate themselves to improve school pest control practices. (SM)

  6. Is Your Child's School Really Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, James

    2002-01-01

    Presents a brief quiz for parents to see if their child's school building is taking basic steps to ensure a safe learning environment (e.g., Is the building locked? Are strict guidelines in place when students participate in field trips? Is adult supervision always maintained on playgrounds?). Suggested action plans are included. A sidebar offers…

  7. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The air...

  8. 49 CFR 230.70 - Safe condition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and... of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that: (1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service; (2) The air...

  9. Safe Disposal of Highly Reactive Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, George; Sansone, Eric B.

    1994-01-01

    Provides specific procedures for the disposal of a variety of highly reactive chemicals and reports the results of a study of their safe disposal. Disposal of some problematic sulfur-containing compounds are included. Procedures are based on a combination of literature review and author development. (LZ)

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang; Bülow, Hannes E

    2015-01-01

    The complex, branched morphology of dendrites is a cardinal feature of neurons and has been used as a criterion for cell type identification since the beginning of neurobiology. Regulated dendritic outgrowth and branching during development form the basis of receptive fields for neurons and are essential for the wiring of the nervous system. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis have been an intensely studied area. In this review, we summarize the major experimental systems that have contributed to our understandings of dendritic development as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that instruct the neurons to form cell type-specific dendritic arbors.

  11. Intrinsically disordered proteins and multicellular organisms.

    PubMed

    Dunker, A Keith; Bondos, Sarah E; Huang, Fei; Oldfield, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and IDP regions lack stable tertiary structure yet carry out numerous biological functions, especially those associated with signaling, transcription regulation, DNA condensation, cell division, and cellular differentiation. Both post-translational modifications (PTMs) and alternative splicing (AS) expand the functional repertoire of IDPs. Here we propose that an "IDP-based developmental toolkit," which is comprised of IDP regions, PTMs, especially multiple PTMs, within these IDP regions, and AS events within segments of pre-mRNA that code for these same IDP regions, allows functional diversification and environmental responsiveness for molecules that direct the development of complex metazoans.

  12. Metacognitive mastery and intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in intrinsic motivation (IM) have been linked to poorer outcome in schizophrenia, but its proximal mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined whether metacognitive mastery, or the capacity to use knowledge of self, others, and context to identify and cope with psychological difficulties, predicted levels of IM for 6 months among 75 participants with prolonged schizophrenia. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that high metacognitive mastery predicted consistently higher levels of IM; however, intermediate and low mastery did not produce unique IM profiles. The findings suggest that metacognitive mastery may have an important role in IM over time and could be a meaningful treatment target.

  13. Ambipolar quantum dots in intrinsic silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, A. C. Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Podd, G.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2014-10-13

    We electrically measure intrinsic silicon quantum dots with electrostatically defined tunnel barriers. The presence of both p- and n-type ohmic contacts enables the accumulation of either electrons or holes. Thus, we are able to study both transport regimes within the same device. We investigate the effect of the tunnel barriers and the electrostatically defined quantum dots. There is greater localisation of charge states under the tunnel barriers in the case of hole conduction, leading to higher charge noise in the p-type regime.

  14. Intrinsic Differences between Oral and Skin Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; Chung, Allison Yen; Chen, Lin; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles. PMID:25198578

  15. An Innovative Multimedia Approach to Laboratory Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. B.; Constant, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for teaching safe laboratory practices has been developed for materials science laboratories at Iowa State university. Students are required to complete a computerized safety tutorial and pass an exam before working in the laboratory. The safety tutorial includes sections on chemical, electrical, radiation, and high temperature safety. The tutorial makes use of a variety of interactions, including 'assembly' interactions where a student is asked to drag and drop items with the mouse (either labels or pictures) to an appropriate place on the screen (sometimes in a specific order). This is extremely useful for demonstrating safe lab practices and disaster scenarios. Built into the software is a record tracking scheme so that a professor can access a file that records which students have completed the tutorial and their scores on the exam. This paper will describe the development and assessment of the safety tutorials.

  16. An Innovative Multimedia Approach to Laboratory Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. B.; Constant, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for teaching safe laboratory practices has been developed for materials science laboratories at Iowa State university. Students are required to complete a computerized safety tutorial and pass an exam before working in the laboratory. The safety tutorial includes sections on chemical, electrical, radiation, and high temperature safety. The tutorial makes use of a variety of interactions, including 'assembly' interactions where a student is asked to drag and drop items with the mouse (either labels or pictures) to an appropriate place on the screen (sometimes in a specific order). This is extremely useful for demonstrating safe lab practices and disaster scenarios. Built into the software is a record tracking scheme so that a professor can access a file that records which students have completed the tutorial and their scores on the exam. This paper will describe the development and assessment of the safety tutorials.

  17. Health and safety in medical laboratories*

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a large increase in the number of persons employed in medical laboratories in the last 25 years. These workers are exposed to a variety of infective agents in the course of their work, the most important being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella typhi, Brucella spp., and serum hepatitis virus. Chemical and physical hazards include toxic chemicals, lacerations, skin disease, and possibly cancer. Current knowledge of safe working practice in laboratories leaves much to be desired and there is an urgent need for both internationally agreed codes of safe practice and the development of guidelines for the medical surveillance of laboratory workers. The World Health Organization is developing such guidelines in an attempt to protect the health of workers employed in the investigation of ill health in others. PMID:6979421

  18. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi-Chung; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  19. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    This guide recommends procedures for safe handling and disposal of hazardous substances, along with broad recommendations for developing comprehensive laboratory safety programs. Although specific information is provided, general principles which can be adapted to activities in any laboratory are emphasized. Section 1 focuses on procedures for…

  20. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1981-01-01

    A National Research Council report has recommended practices for safe handling and disposal of hazardous chemicals in laboratories. They are a practical alternative to detailed regulations on individual chemicals. Topics discussed include physical hazards, chemical hazards, chronic hazards, laboratory ventalation, protective equipment,…